WorldWideScience

Sample records for product size distribution

  1. Production, depreciation and the size distribution of firms

    Ma, Qi; Chen, Yongwang; Tong, Hui; Di, Zengru

    2008-05-01

    Many empirical researches indicate that firm size distributions in different industries or countries exhibit some similar characters. Among them the fact that many firm size distributions obey power-law especially for the upper end has been mostly discussed. Here we present an agent-based model to describe the evolution of manufacturing firms. Some basic economic behaviors are taken into account, which are production with decreasing marginal returns, preferential allocation of investments, and stochastic depreciation. The model gives a steady size distribution of firms which obey power-law. The effect of parameters on the power exponent is analyzed. The theoretical results are given based on both the Fokker-Planck equation and the Kesten process. They are well consistent with the numerical results.

  2. The smallest crater production size-frequency distribution on Mars

    Werner, Stephanie C.; Popova, Olga P.; Quantin, Cathy; Hartmann, William K.

    2015-04-01

    We selected areas on Mars that are mapped as very young, where we anticipate minimal surface modification since crater formation. By comparing shapes of the size-frequency distribution (SFD) of craters, measured with HiRISE and other image data in several such areas, we attempt to determine the least altered SFD, and thus identify the shape of the pristine, or "production" distribution (PSFD) at meter- and decameter-scale crater sizes on the surface of Mars. We identify several effects, dependent on factors such as surface materials, layered target materials, surface elevation, and the somewhat stochastic meteorite breakup mechanics, which may cause modest variations in the shape of the observed distributions at meter scales from one place to another on Mars, and suggest that surface modification on Mars, especially aeolian deposition modifies the crater record in very short time-scales. Better understanding of the PSFD shape not only allows more accurate crater chronometry of Mars, but also places limits on losses of weak bolides during passage through the atmosphere of Mars. We estimate the PSFD of Martian craters (including the effects of atmospheric loss of weak meteoroids, for craters down to diameter D ~ 2m) and will propose a new polynomial description for the smallest crater range currently covered by modern imagery.

  3. Optimal Length Transportation Hypothesis to Model Proteasome Product Size Distribution

    Zaikin, Alexey; Kurths, Juergen

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses translocation features of the 20S proteasome in order to explain typical proteasome length distributions. We assume that the protein transport depends significantly on the fragment length with some optimal length which is transported most efficiently. By means of a simple one-channel model, we show that this hypothesis can explain both the one- and the three-peak length distributions found in experiments. A possible mechanism of such translocation is provided by so-called...

  4. Firm size and productivity. Evidence from the electricity distribution industry in Brazil

    Tovar, Beatriz [Departmento de Analisis Economico Aplicado y EIT, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Javier Ramos-Real, Francisco [Departamento de Analisis Economico, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Campus de Guajara, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife, Espana (Spain); De Almeida, Edmar Fagundes [IE-UFRJ (Instituto de Economia-Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro) (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    In this paper we apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm size on productivity development in electricity distribution. We use a sample of seventeen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005 and decompose productivity into technical efficiency, scale efficiency and technical change. Moreover, a further step is to decompose the technical change measurement into several components. The results indicate that firm size is important for industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry. (author)

  5. Firm size and productivity. Evidence from the electricity distribution industry in Brazil

    In this paper we apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm size on productivity development in electricity distribution. We use a sample of seventeen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005 and decompose productivity into technical efficiency, scale efficiency and technical change. Moreover, a further step is to decompose the technical change measurement into several components. The results indicate that firm size is important for industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry. (author)

  6. Firm size and productivity. Evidence from the electricity distribution industry in Brazil

    In this paper we apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm size on productivity development in electricity distribution. We use a sample of seventeen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005 and decompose productivity into technical efficiency, scale efficiency and technical change. Moreover, a further step is to decompose the technical change measurement into several components. The results indicate that firm size is important for industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry. - Research Highlights: ?We apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm's size on productivity development in electricity distribution using a sample of eighteen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005. ?Productivity is decomposed into technical efficiency, scale-efficiency and technical change. ?Firm size is important for the industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry.

  7. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING

    During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 microm) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 micro

  8. The detection and measurement of the electrical mobility size distributions associated with radon decay products

    The potential risk of lung cancer has evoked interest in the properties of radon decay products. There are two forms of this progeny: either attached to ambient aerosols, or still in the status of ions/molecules/small clusters. This ''unattached'' activity would give a higher dose per unit of airborne activity than the ''attached'' progeny that are rather poorly deposited. In this thesis, a system for determining unattached radon decay products electrical mobility size distribution by measuring their electrical mobilities was developed, based on the fact that about 88% of 218Po atoms have unit charge at the end of their recoil after decay from 222Rn, while the remainder are neutral. Essential part of the setup is the radon-aerosol chamber with the Circular Electrical Mobility Spectrometer (CEMS) inside. CEMS is used for sampling and classifying the charged radioactive clusters produced in the chamber. An alpha- sensitive plastic, CR-39 disk, is placed in CEMS as an inlaid disk electrode and the alpha particle detector. CEMS showed good performance in fine inactive particles' classification. If it also works well for radon decay products, it can offer a convenient size distribution measurement for radioactive ultrafine particles. However, the experiments did not obtain an acceptable resolution. Suggestions are made for solving this problem

  9. Phenology of particle size distributions and primary productivity in the North Pacific subtropical gyre (Station ALOHA)

    White, Angelicque E.; Letelier, Ricardo M.; Whitmire, Amanda L.; Barone, Benedetto; Bidigare, Robert R.; Church, Matthew J.; Karl, David M.

    2015-11-01

    The particle size distribution (PSD) is a critical aspect of the oceanic ecosystem. Local variability in the PSD can be indicative of shifts in microbial community structure and reveal patterns in cell growth and loss. The PSD also plays a central role in particle export by influencing settling speed. Satellite-based models of primary productivity (PP) often rely on aspects of photophysiology that are directly related to community size structure. In an effort to better understand how variability in particle size relates to PP in an oligotrophic ecosystem, we collected laser diffraction-based depth profiles of the PSD and pigment-based classifications of phytoplankton functional types (PFTs) on an approximately monthly basis at the Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station ALOHA, in the North Pacific subtropical gyre. We found a relatively stable PSD in the upper water column. However, clear seasonality is apparent in the vertical distribution of distinct particle size classes. Neither laser diffraction-based estimations of relative particle size nor pigment-based PFTs was found to be significantly related to the rate of 14C-based PP in the light-saturated upper euphotic zone. This finding indicates that satellite retrievals of particle size, based on particle scattering or ocean color would not improve parameterizations of present-day bio-optical PP models for this region. However, at depths of 100-125 m where irradiance exerts strong control on PP, we do observe a significant linear relationship between PP and the estimated carbon content of 2-20 μm particles.

  10. Measuring nanoparticles size distribution in food and consumer products: a review.

    Calzolai, L; Gilliland, D; Rossi, F

    2012-08-01

    Nanoparticles are already used in several consumer products including food, food packaging and cosmetics, and their detection and measurement in food represent a particularly difficult challenge. In order to fill the void in the official definition of what constitutes a nanomaterial, the European Commission published in October 2011 its recommendation on the definition of 'nanomaterial'. This will have an impact in many different areas of legislation, such as the European Cosmetic Products Regulation, where the current definitions of nanomaterial will come under discussion regarding how they should be adapted in light of this new definition. This new definition calls for the measurement of the number-based particle size distribution in the 1-100 nm size range of all the primary particles present in the sample independently of whether they are in a free, unbound state or as part of an aggregate/agglomerate. This definition does present great technical challenges for those who must develop valid and compatible measuring methods. This review will give an overview of the current state of the art, focusing particularly on the suitability of the most used techniques for the size measurement of nanoparticles when addressing this new definition of nanomaterials. The problems to be overcome in measuring nanoparticles in food and consumer products will be illustrated with some practical examples. Finally, a possible way forward (based on the combination of different measuring techniques) for solving this challenging analytical problem is illustrated. PMID:22725833

  11. Optimization of Comminution Circuit Throughput and Product Size Distribution by Simulation and Control

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; T. Weldum; D. Larsen; R. Mariani; J. Pletka

    2005-07-01

    The goal of this project was to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process were used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced could be minimized. The goal was to save energy by reducing the amount of material that was ground below the target size, while simultaneously reducing the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that were too fine to be useful. Extensive plant sampling and mathematical modeling of the grinding circuits was carried out to determine how to correct this problem. The approaches taken included (1) Modeling of the circuit to determine process bottlenecks that restrict flowrates in one area while forcing other parts of the circuit to overgrind the material; (2) Modeling of hydrocyclones to determine the mechanisms responsible for retaining fine, high-density particles in the circuit until they are overground, and improving existing models to accurately account for this behavior; and (3) Evaluation of the potential of advanced technologies to improve comminution efficiency and produce sharper product size distributions with less overgrinding. The mathematical models were used to simulate novel circuits for minimizing overgrinding and increasing throughput, and it is estimated that a single plant grinding 15 million tons of ore per year saves up to 82.5 million kWhr/year, or 8.6 x 10{sup 11} BTU/year. Implementation of this technology in the midwestern iron ore industry, which grinds an estimated 150 million tons of ore annually to produce over 50 million tons of iron ore concentrate, would save an estimated 1 x 10{sup 13} BTU/year.

  12. Assisted spray pyrolysis production and characterisation of ZnO nanoparticles with narrow size distribution

    Turner, S., E-mail: Stuart.turner@ua.ac.b [University of Antwerp, EMAT (Belgium); Tavernier, S. M. F. [Karel de Grote University College, Department of Applied Engineering and Technology (Belgium); Huyberechts, G. [Umicore Group R and D (Belgium); Biermans, E.; Bals, S. [University of Antwerp, EMAT (Belgium); Batenburg, K. J. [University of Antwerp, Vision Lab (Belgium); Tendeloo, G. Van [University of Antwerp, EMAT (Belgium)

    2010-02-15

    Nano-sized ZnO particles with a narrow size distribution and high crystallinity were prepared from aqueous solutions with high concentrations of Zn{sup 2+} containing salts and citric acid in a conventional spray pyrolysis setup. Structure, morphology and size of the produced material were compared to ZnO material produced by simple spray pyrolysis of zinc nitrates in the same experimental setup. Using transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography it has been shown that citric acid-assisted spray pyrolysed material is made up of micron sized secondary particles comprising a shell of lightly agglomerated, monocrystalline primary ZnO nanoparticles with sizes in the 20-30 nm range, separable by a simple ultrasonic treatment step.

  13. Investigation of pore size and energy distributions by statistical physics formalism applied to agriculture products

    Aouaini, Fatma; Knani, Salah; Yahia, Manel Ben; Bahloul, Neila; Ben Lamine, Abdelmottaleb; Kechaou, Nabil

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present a new investigation that allows determining the pore size distribution (PSD) in a porous medium. This PSD is achieved by using the desorption isotherms of four varieties of olive leaves. This is by the means of statistical physics formalism and Kelvin's law. The results are compared with those obtained with scanning electron microscopy. The effect of temperature on the distribution function of pores has been studied. The influence of each parameter on the PSD is interpreted. A similar function of adsorption energy distribution, AED, is deduced from the PSD.

  14. Indoor/outdoor radon decay products associated aerosol particle-size distributions and their relation to total number concentrations

    The activity size distributions of indoor and outdoor radioactive aerosol associated with short-lived radon decay products were observed at Nagoya, Japan, for some periods from 2010 to 2012, following the indoor observation by Mostafa et al. [Mostafa, A. M. A., Tamaki, K., Moriizumi, J., Yamazawa, H. and Iida, T. The weather dependence of particle size distribution of indoor radioactive aerosol associated with radon decay products. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 146(1-3), 19-22 (2011)]. The tendency of smaller indoor activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) after rainfalls showed in the previous study was not consistently obtained, while the consistent tendency of less indoor radioactive particles with diameters in the accumulation mode was observed again after rainfalls. The indoor aerosols showed activity size distributions similar to the outdoor ones. Non-radioactive aerosol particle concentrations measured with a laser particle counter suggested a somewhat liner relationship with AMAD. (authors)

  15. Controlling factors on productivity and size abundance distribution of phytoplankton in Patagonian fjords

    Cuevas, L. A.; Iriarte, J. L.; Gonzalez, H.; Silva, N.; Vargas, C.

    2012-12-01

    Temperature and resource availability has been suggested to play an important role controlling phytoplankton size structure and productivity. Here we used five independent research cruisers covering the entire Patagonian fjords (41.5-56.0 degress latitude South) to conduct a comparative analysis between zones and to determine the importance of the controlling factors. For the entire Patagonian area phytoplankton size structure seems independent from temperature, but varies with total phytoplankton biomass and productivity. Microphytoplankton contribute with more than 80% in high productivity waters (chlorophyll-a higher than 5 ?g L-1) and picophytoplankton dominates when chlorophyll-a is lower than 1 ?g L-1. In addition, NO3:Si(OH)4 ratio control phytoplankton size structure, where a large decrease in Si(OH)4 from north to south Patagonia (from 20 to 0.1 mM average, respectively) seems to be a major factor of control. Major and prolonged effects expected in fjord areas, such as anthropogenic eutrophication and global warning, may modify the observed relationships leading to important changes in the phytoplankton community and its ecological role.

  16. A first-principles model for prediction of product dose uniformity based on drug substance particle size distribution.

    Hilden, Jon; Schrad, Mark; Kuehne-Willmore, Jennifer; Sloan, Jessica

    2012-07-01

    The unit dose uniformity (UDU) of low-dose drug products can be affected by active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) particle size. UDU relative standard deviation increases as the fraction of large API particles increases and/or as the unit dose decreases. Control of API particle size has traditionally been based on the empirical relationship of d(90) and/or d(50) statistics to drug product uniformity. Several articles have been written that have identified a theoretical relationship between these particle size statistics, dose, and the probability of meeting US Pharmacopeial UDU testing criteria (Huang CY, Ku S. 2010. Int J Pharm 383:70-80; Rohrs B, Amidon G, Meury R, Secreast P, King H, Skoug C. 2006. J Pharm Sci 95(5):1049-1059; Huang CY, Ku S. 2010. J Pharm Sci 99:4351-4362; Yalkowsky SH, Bolton S. 1990. Pharm Res 7(9):962-966). However, these theoretical relationships assume a fixed shape for the API particle size distribution (PSD, i.e., lognormal) and do not account for changes in the distribution shape. A more rigorous method for predicting the effect of a given PSD on UDU is to evaluate the contribution of individual particle size bins on UDU variability. The latter approach is taken in this work, and the derivation reveals that the individual contribution of particles size bins can be expressed completely in terms of a single-particle-size statistic, D[6,3]. D[6,3] is therefore a valid predictor of UDU, regardless of the shape of the PSD (e.g., multimodal) and can form the basis of a particle size control strategy for low-dose drug products. PMID:22504845

  17. Intercomparison exercise of measurement techniques for radon, radon decay products and their particles size distributions at NIRS

    An intercomparison exercise of radon, radon decay products and particle size distribution was carried out using the radon/aerosol chamber at National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 2002. Nine institutions participated in this exercise. Radon concentrations were first compared using a domestic ionization chamber, which was regarded as the primary standard equipment in Japan. Subsequently, several types of passive radon detectors were placed in the radon/aerosol chamber and their readings were compared with each other. Radon decay products concentrations were also intercompared, though the number of participants was small. After injection of Carnauba wax aerosols with the evaporation-condensation method, the particle size distribution of radon progeny was compared with three different sampling techniques: graded screen array, diffusion battery and cascade impactor. The present paper describes an overview of the experiment and the present status of correspondence on radon devices. (author)

  18. Size distribution and concentration of non-adsorbed radon decay products and the concentration of thoron and its decay products in indoor air

    More knowledge was gained by this study about the non-adsorbed share of short-lived radon and thoron decay products, about the sources and concentrations of thoron in residential buildings and about the size distribution of the non-adsorbed share of short-lived radon decay products. The results gained were taken to improve the calculation of dose conversion factors important for assessing the general population's radiation exposure to radon and thoron decay products. This also produces a better understanding of the mechanisms governing the physical behaviour of radioactive noble gases and their decay products. (orig./HP)

  19. Aerosol Size Distributions In Auckland.

    Coulson, G.; Olivares, G.; Talbot, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2016), s. 23-28. E-ISSN 1836-5876 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : aerosol size distribution * particle number concentration * roadside Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  20. Body size distribution of the dinosaurs.

    O'Gorman, Eoin J; Hone, David W E

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of species body size is critically important for determining resource use within a group or clade. It is widely known that non-avian dinosaurs were the largest creatures to roam the Earth. There is, however, little understanding of how maximum species body size was distributed among the dinosaurs. Do they share a similar distribution to modern day vertebrate groups in spite of their large size, or did they exhibit fundamentally different distributions due to unique evolutionary pressures and adaptations? Here, we address this question by comparing the distribution of maximum species body size for dinosaurs to an extensive set of extant and extinct vertebrate groups. We also examine the body size distribution of dinosaurs by various sub-groups, time periods and formations. We find that dinosaurs exhibit a strong skew towards larger species, in direct contrast to modern day vertebrates. This pattern is not solely an artefact of bias in the fossil record, as demonstrated by contrasting distributions in two major extinct groups and supports the hypothesis that dinosaurs exhibited a fundamentally different life history strategy to other terrestrial vertebrates. A disparity in the size distribution of the herbivorous Ornithischia and Sauropodomorpha and the largely carnivorous Theropoda suggests that this pattern may have been a product of a divergence in evolutionary strategies: herbivorous dinosaurs rapidly evolved large size to escape predation by carnivores and maximise digestive efficiency; carnivores had sufficient resources among juvenile dinosaurs and non-dinosaurian prey to achieve optimal success at smaller body size. PMID:23284818

  1. Experimental determination of size distributions: analyzing proper sample sizes

    Buffo, A.; Alopaeus, V.

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of various particle size distributions is a crucial aspect for many applications in the process industry. Size distribution is often related to the final product quality, as in crystallization or polymerization. In other cases it is related to the correct evaluation of heat and mass transfer, as well as reaction rates, depending on the interfacial area between the different phases or to the assessment of yield stresses of polycrystalline metals/alloys samples. The experimental determination of such distributions often involves laborious sampling procedures and the statistical significance of the outcome is rarely investigated. In this work, we propose a novel rigorous tool, based on inferential statistics, to determine the number of samples needed to obtain reliable measurements of size distribution, according to specific requirements defined a priori. Such methodology can be adopted regardless of the measurement technique used.

  2. Particle-size distribution of fission products in airborne dust collected at Tsukuba from April to June 1986

    The radioactivity released by the reactor accident at Chernobyl was detected in surface air at Tsukuba, Japan. Gamma-spectrometry of airborne dust collected using aerodynamic separation showed higher concentrations of radionuclides in fine particles. The particle-size distribution of radionuclides changed with time. (author)

  3. The Influences of Annealing Temperature and Time on Precipitate Size Distribution of Zircaloy -4 Plate as A Rolling Product

    Annealing of zircaloy-4 plate obtained from hot rolling of ingot at varied temperature and time has been carried out. The annealing process has been performed in a furnace in argon atmosphere. Metallographic examination has been done to observe the precipitate formed. The experiments have shown that at the relatively low temperature (7400C);the distribution of precipitate size is not homogeneous. It is considered that the annealing process has still been in the recovery stage. When the temperature increases, the precipitate tends to be in homogeneous distribution. At 8500C, the longer annealing time elapses, the coarser precipitate size will be, while the homogeneity appears after 10 hours annealing time (>3 hours), the homogeneity of precipitate size is formed more frequently. In this paper, the degree of precipitation, W(t), has reached 99.63% in the performed condition that is at temperature of 7400C for 30 minutes annealing time also discussed

  4. Evaluation of the degree of mixing of combinations of dry syrup, powder, and fine granule products in consideration of particle size distribution using near infrared spectrometry.

    Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Toyofumi; Matsumoto, Mika; Ohtani, Michiteru; Hayano, Shuichi; Fukami, Toshiro; Tomono, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    We used near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to evaluate the degree of mixing of blended dry syrup (DS) products whose particle sizes are not specified in the Revised 16th Edition of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia, and also evaluated the degree of mixing when powder products or fine granule products were added to DS products. The data obtained were used to investigate the relationship between the particle size distributions of the products studied and the degree of mixing. We found that the particle size distribution characteristics of the 15 DS products studied can be broadly classified into 5 types. Combinations of frequently prescribed products were selected to represent 4 of the 5 particle size distribution types and were blended with a mortar and pestle. The coefficient of variation (CV) decreased as the percent mass of Asverin Dry Syrup 2% (Asverin-DS) increased in blends of Periactin Powder 1% (Periactin) and Asverin-DS, indicating an improved degree of mixing (uniformity). In contrast, in blends of Periactin and Mucodyne DS 33.3%, mixing a combination at a 1:1 mass ratio 40 times resulted in a CV of 20%. Other mixing frequencies and mass ratios resulted in a CV by 50% to 70%, indicating a very poor degree of mixing (poor uniformity). These results suggest that when combining different DSs, or a DS with a powder or fine granule product, the blending obtained with a mortar and pestle improves as the particle size distributions of the components approach each other and as the ranges of the distributions narrow. PMID:22689400

  5. Size distribution of unattached and aerosol-attached short-lived radon decay products: some results of intercomparison measurements

    Within the framework of radiation protection programmes supported by the CEC, the US-DOE, and the Australian Government, intercomparison measurements were performed in a house with elevated radon concentrations in Northern Bavaria (Germany) in October 1991. Besides the research aspects of aerosol sciences, the purpose of this joint measurement was to compare dose conversion factors calculated from the results obtained by these three laboratories. In low ventilated rooms with moderate aerosol particle concentrations (Z = 4000-8000 cm-3) about 40% of the 218Po activity is associated with clusters, narrow in shape (σg) g) > 1.2, fraction = 10%) of the 'unattached' part of the 218Po distribution with a median diameter of 3-4 nm. The averaged (3 days) derived effective dose conversion factors (HE-DCF) from the 218Po values - measured by the three groups -differ less than 30%. However, the daily averaged values sometimes differ by a factor of 2. In general, it does not appear to make much difference to the derived conversion factors if the ultrafine mode (< 10 nm) is unimodal or bimodal. The median diameters of the aerosol-attached fraction of the short-lived radon decay products ranged between 200 and 350 nm, depending on the different methods used by the three laboratories. However, these fairly large differences have only little influence on dose conversion factor calculations. This joint exercise clearly showed that accurate particle size measurements in the diameter range 10-100 nm (nucleus mode), which requires combining impactors and diffusion battery techniques, is a difficult task, not fully solved as yet. (author)

  6. Steam gasification of almond shells in a fluidised bed reactor: the influence of temperature and particle size on product yield and distribution

    Rapagna, Sergio; Latif, Ajmal [Universita di L`Aquila (Italy). Dip. di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali

    1997-09-01

    The steam gasification of ground almond shells has been carried out in a continuous, bench scale, fluidised bed reactor in order to evaluate the effects of particle size and operating temperature on the product yield and distribution. The mean particle size was varied from nearly 300{mu}m to over 1 mm and the bed temperature from 600 to 800{sup o}C. The results reveal that for smaller particle sizes differences in product yield and distribution practically disappear as the higher temperature bound is approached, whereas for particles above 1 mm in diameter the yield continues to increase over the entire temperature range, never reaching that attained by the smaller particle systems. This behaviour is indicative of the increasing significance of extra-and/or intra-particle heat transfer limitations with increasing particle size. (author)

  7. Grain size distribution in seeded large grain size UO2

    A large grain size fuel is seen as desirable for the reduction of fission gas release. Conventional techniques to obtain a large grained UO2 include the use of dopants, elevated temperatures, oxidising atmospheres (with or without dopants) and greatly increased cycle times. Although each approach may, ultimately, result in a large grain size fuel, manufacturing considerations may outweigh performance benefits. Similarly performance benefits of doped material, in terms of an improved fission gas retention, may also not be realisable. Seeding is a novel technique for obtaining a large grain sized UO2 in which preferential growth of introduced seed crystals results in a large grain microstructure. By selecting the appropriate size and concentration of seeds, a large grain size fuel is obtained using conventional plant and standard processing cycles. Such grain sizes could only be achieved in a similar time in undoped material by sintering at 2000 deg. C. Additionally, as the seed crystals comprise UO2 there can be no implications, for fuel chemistry, of adopting the approach. Grain size distributions are presented on seeded material sintered in production furnaces for one and two conventional cycles. These show that a fully recrystallised microstructure, comprising a large grain size, can be obtained after one process cycle. Where the seed size is larger and the quantity of nuclei is correspondingly reduced, the time to achieve full recrystallisation is longer, necessitating a second pass through the sintering furnace. However the grain size that could potentially be achieved in these circumstances is larger. (author)

  8. Cluster size distributions in equilibrium

    Hendriks, E. M.

    1984-12-01

    Equilibrium size distributions for finite system containing M monomers in a volume V undergoing coagulation (polymerization)/fragmentation, are determined for coagulation rate K ij and fragmentation rate F ij , corresponding to the process A i + A j ⇄ A i+j (here A k denotes a cluster containing k monomeric units). It is shown that microscopic detailed balance implies F ij / K ij = λa i a j / a i+j , where λ and a k are arbitrary. The mean and most probable size distribution c k = λρ -1 a k e -μk coincide in the thermodynamic limit M, V→∞, ρ= M/V fixed. Ifa_k ˜ e^{μ _c k} k^{ - δ } (k to infty ), 2solgel) phase transition at a well defined value of q = λ ρ -1, with critical exponents γ = δ and σ = δ-2. The gel fraction exponent β assumes its classical value unity, probably due to the neglect of spatial fluctuations. Finally it is indicated how the theory can in principle be extended to account for isomerism and cyclization.

  9. Activity size distribution of some natural radionuclides

    In this study, the results concerning the activity size distribution of the long-lived (210Pb) radon decay product aerosols and the thoron decay product aerosols (212Pb) and (7Be) of the outdoor atmosphere are presented. Also, the mass size distribution of the aerosol particles is determined. The low-pressure Berner cascade impactor Model 20/0.015 was used as a sampling device. The activity size distribution of these radionuclides was determined by one log-normal distribution (accumulation mode) whereas the mass size distribution was by two log-normal distributions (accumulation and coarse mode). The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 212Pb was found to be 305 nm with a geometric standard deviation (?g) of 2.41. The specific air activity concentration of 212Pb was found to be 0.14 0.012 Bq m-3. An AMAD of 210Pb of 610 nm with ?g of 1.8 was determined, whereas that of 550 nm with sg of 1.97 was determined for 7Be. The specific air activity concentration of 210Pb and 7Be was found to be 0.00162.5x10-4 and 0.00348 4x10-4 Bq m-3, respectively. Using a dosimetric model, the total deposition fraction as well as the total equivalent dose has been evaluated considering the observed parameters of the activity size distribution of 212Pb. At a total deposition fraction of ?21 %, the total equivalent dose was found to be 0.41 ?Sv. (authors)

  10. MD simulations to evaluate the influence of applied normal stress or deformation on defect production rate and size distribution of clusters in cascade process for pure Cu

    The stress influence on the defect production rate and size distribution of defect clusters in cascades was evaluated by molecular dynamics method. Stress was applied by exerting uni-axial, hydrostatic and isometric strain into the cell. For the uni-axial case, strain was varied between -1% and 1%. Defect production rate in cascade increased significantly under uni-axial tensile stress, and even under uni-axial compressive one. The largest increase of defect production rate was observed under isometric strain, and not so much under hydrostatic one. These results indicate that deformation anisotropy is a key factor to increase defect production rate. It was also found that larger defect clusters were formed under the strain condition in which defect production rate is higher.

  11. Body Size Distribution of the Dinosaurs

    O’Gorman, Eoin J.; Hone, David W.E

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of species body size is critically important for determining resource use within a group or clade. It is widely known that non-avian dinosaurs were the largest creatures to roam the Earth. There is, however, little understanding of how maximum species body size was distributed among the dinosaurs. Do they share a similar distribution to modern day vertebrate groups in spite of their large size, or did they exhibit fundamentally different distributions due to unique evolutiona...

  12. Comparative physical-chemical characterization of encapsulated lipid-based isotretinoin products assessed by particle size distribution and thermal behavior analyses

    Guimaraes, Carla Aiolfi, E-mail: carlaaiolfi@usp.br [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Menaa, Farid [Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg 97080 (Germany); Fluorotronics, Inc., 1425 Russ Bvld, San Diego Technology Incubator, San Diego, CA 92101 (United States); Menaa, Bouzid, E-mail: bouzid.menaa@gmail.com [Fluorotronics, Inc., 1425 Russ Bvld, San Diego Technology Incubator, San Diego, CA 92101 (United States); Quenca-Guillen, Joyce S. [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Matos, Jivaldo do Rosario [Department of Fundamental Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Mercuri, Lucildes Pita [Department of Exact and Earth Sciences, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Diadema, SP 09972-270 (Brazil); Braz, Andre Borges [Department of Engineering of Mines and Oil, Polytechnical School, University of Sao Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Rossetti, Fabia Cristina [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP 14015-120 (Brazil); Kedor-Hackmann, Erika Rosa Maria; Santoro, Maria Ines Rocha Miritello [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil)

    2010-06-10

    Isotretinoin is the drug of choice for the management of severe recalcitrant nodular acne. Nevertheless, some of its physical-chemical properties are still poorly known. Hence, the aim of our study consisted to comparatively evaluate the particle size distribution (PSD) and characterize the thermal behavior of the three encapsulated isotretinoin products in oil suspension (one reference and two generics) commercialized in Brazil. Here, we show that the PSD, estimated by laser diffraction and by polarized light microscopy, differed between the generics and the reference product. However, the thermal behavior of the three products, determined by thermogravimetry (TGA), differential thermal (DTA) analyses and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), displayed no significant changes and were more thermostable than the isotretinoin standard used as internal control. Thus, our study suggests that PSD analyses in isotretinoin lipid-based formulations should be routinely performed in order to improve their quality and bioavailability.

  13. Comparative physical-chemical characterization of encapsulated lipid-based isotretinoin products assessed by particle size distribution and thermal behavior analyses

    Isotretinoin is the drug of choice for the management of severe recalcitrant nodular acne. Nevertheless, some of its physical-chemical properties are still poorly known. Hence, the aim of our study consisted to comparatively evaluate the particle size distribution (PSD) and characterize the thermal behavior of the three encapsulated isotretinoin products in oil suspension (one reference and two generics) commercialized in Brazil. Here, we show that the PSD, estimated by laser diffraction and by polarized light microscopy, differed between the generics and the reference product. However, the thermal behavior of the three products, determined by thermogravimetry (TGA), differential thermal (DTA) analyses and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), displayed no significant changes and were more thermostable than the isotretinoin standard used as internal control. Thus, our study suggests that PSD analyses in isotretinoin lipid-based formulations should be routinely performed in order to improve their quality and bioavailability.

  14. Measurements of size distributions of radon progeny for improved quantification of the lung cancer risk emanating from exposure to radon decay products

    A major issue in radiation protection is to protect the population from the harmful effects of exposure to radon and radon progeny. Quantification of the lung cancer risk emanating from exposure to radon decay products in residential and working environments poses problems, as epidemiologic studies yield information deviating from the results obtained by the indirect method of assessment based on dosimetric respiratory tract models. One important task of the publication here was to characterize the various exposure conditions and to quantify uncertainties that may result from application of the ''dose conversion convention''. A special aerosol spectrometer was therefore designed and built in order to measure the size distributions of the short-lived radon decay products in the range between 0.5 nm and 10 000 nm. The aerosol spectrometer consists of a three-step diffusion battery with wire nets, an 11-step BERNER impactor, and a detector system with twelve large-surface proportional detectors. From the measured size distributions, dose conversion coefficients, E/Peq, were calculated using the PC software RADEP; the RADEP program was developed by BIRCHALL and JAMES and is based on the respiratory tract model of the ICRP. The E/Peq coefficients indicate the effective dose E per unit exposure Peq to radon decay products. (orig./CB)

  15. Production Mechanism, Number Concentration, Size Distribution, Chemical Composition, and Optical Properties of Sea Spray Aerosols Workshop, Summer 2012

    Meskhidze, Nicholas [NCSU

    2013-10-21

    The objective of this workshop was to address the most urgent open science questions for improved quantification of sea spray aerosol-radiation-climate interactions. Sea spray emission and its influence on global climate remains one of the most uncertain components of the aerosol-radiation-climate problem, but has received less attention than other aerosol processes (e.g. production of terrestrial secondary organic aerosols). Thus, the special emphasis was placed on the production flux of sea spray aerosol particles, their number concentration and chemical composition and properties.

  16. Modeling particle size distributions by the Weibull distribution function

    A method is proposed for modeling two- and three-dimensional particle size distributions using the Weibull distribution function. Experimental results show that, for tungsten particles in liquid phase sintered W-14Ni-6Fe, the experimental cumulative section size distributions were well fit by the Weibull probability function, which can also be used to compute the corresponding relative frequency distributions. Modeling the two-dimensional section size distributions facilitates the use of the Saltykov or other methods for unfolding three-dimensional (3-D) size distributions with minimal irregularities. Fitting the unfolded cumulative 3-D particle size distribution with the Weibull function enables computation of the statistical distribution parameters from the parameters of the fit Weibull function

  17. Aggregate size distributions in hydrophobic flocculation

    Chairoj Rattanakawin

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of aggregate (floc size distributions resulting from hydrophobic flocculation has been investigated using a laser light scattering technique. By measuring floc size distributions it is possible to distinguish clearly among floc formation, growth and breakage. Hydrophobic flocculation of hematite suspensions with sodium oleate under a variety of agitating conditions produces uni-modal size distributions. The size distribution of the primary particles is shifted to larger floc sizes when the dispersed suspension is coagulated by pH adjustment. By adding sodium oleate to the pre-coagulated suspension, the distribution progresses further to the larger size. However, prolonged agitation degrades the formed flocs, regressing the distribution to the smaller size. Median floc size derived from the distribution is also used as performance criterion. The median floc size increases rapidly at the initial stage of the flocculation, and decreases with the extended agitation time and intensity. Relatively weak flocs are produced which may be due to the low dosage of sodium oleate used in this flocculation study. It is suggested that further investigation should focus on optimum reagent dosage and non-polar oil addition to strengthen these weak flocs.

  18. Universality of rain event size distributions

    Peters, O; Corral, A; Neelin, J D; Holloway, C E

    2010-01-01

    We compare rain event size distributions derived from measurements in climatically different regions, which we find to be well approximated by power laws of similar exponents over broad ranges. Differences can be seen in the large-scale cutoffs of the distributions. Event duration distributions suggest that the scale-free aspects are related to the absence of characteristic scales in the meteorological mesoscale.

  19. Universality of rain event size distributions

    We compare rain event size distributions derived from measurements in climatically different regions, which we find to be well approximated by power laws of similar exponents over broad ranges. Differences can be seen in the large-scale cutoffs of the distributions. Event duration distributions suggest that the scale-free aspects are related to the absence of characteristic scales in the meteorological mesoscale

  20. Aggregate size distributions in sweep flocculation

    Chairoj Rattanakawin

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of aggregate size distributions resulting from sweep flocculation has been investigated using laser light scattering technique. By measuring the (volume distributions of floc size, it is possible to distinguish clearly among floc formation, growth and breakage. Sweep flocculation of stable kaolin suspensions with ferric chloride under conditions of the rapid/slow mixing protocol produces uni-modal size distributions. The size distribution is shifted to larger floc size especially during the rapid mixing step. The variation of the distributions is also shown in the plot of cumulative percent finer against floc size. From this plot, the distributions maintain the same S-shape curves over the range of the mixing intensities/times studied. A parallel shift of the curves indicates that self-preserving size distribution occurred in this flocculation. It is suggested that some parameters from mathematical functions derived from the curves could be used to construct a model and predict the flocculating performance. These parameters will be useful for a water treatment process selection, design criteria, and process control strategies. Thus the use of these parameters should be employed in any further study.

  1. Domain Size Distribution in Segregating Binary Superfluids

    Takeuchi, Hiromitsu

    2016-05-01

    Domain size distribution in phase separating binary Bose-Einstein condensates is studied theoretically by numerically solving the Gross-Pitaevskii equations at zero temperature. We show that the size distribution in the domain patterns arising from the dynamic instability obeys a power law in a scaling regime according to the dynamic scaling analysis based on the percolation theory. The scaling behavior is kept during the relaxation dynamics until the characteristic domain size becomes comparable to the linear size of the system, consistent with the dynamic scaling hypothesis of the phase-ordering kinetics. Our numerical experiments indicate the existence of a different scaling regime in the size distribution function, which can be caused by the so-called coreless vortices.

  2. The exponential age distribution and the Pareto firm size distribution

    Coad, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Recent work drawing on data for large and small firms has shown a Pareto distribution of firm size. We mix a Gibrat-type growth process among incumbents with an exponential distribution of firms age, to obtain the empirical Pareto distribution.

  3. ANWR progress report number FY83-7: Population size, productivity and distribution of muskoxen in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska Series

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior Data on population size and productivity of muskoxen Ovibos moschatus Ln the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge were collected during surveys in April and October...

  4. Elemental Distribution in Depth as Well as Their Fractionation Related to Particle Size, in Phosphogypsum from Phosphoric Acid Production (Huelva, SW Spain)

    In this work, we assessed uranium and some toxic elements distribution according to particle sizes in phosphogypsum cores, in order to improve the knowledge behavior of radioactive (238U and 234U) and toxic elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ag, Zr, Pb, Y, and Sr) Elemental concentration was measured in two phosphogypsum cores, which were separated in three depth intervals. Every sample also was divided in three particle size fractions. Results show that most of elements are not distributed homogeneously in phosphogypsum cores. The differences in distribution of elements suggest that there are fluxes of elements. On the other hand a high fractionation of elements was observed, where most of those were concentrated in fine particles in comparison with coarse and medium particle sizes. The main consequence of that most of these elements are concentrated in the fine fraction (particles <20 μm), is that make them easily mobilized by leaching and/or erosion. (author)

  5. New-particle formation, growth and climate-relevant particle production in Egbert, Canada: analysis from 1 year of size-distribution observations

    Pierce, J. R.; Westervelt, D. M.; Atwood, S.A.; Barnes, E.A.; Leaitch, W.R.

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol particle nucleation, or new-particle formation, is the dominant contributor to particle number in the atmosphere. However, these particles must grow through condensation of low-volatility vapors without coagulating with the larger, preexisting particles in order to reach climate-relevant sizes (diameters larger than 50–100 nm), where the particles may affect clouds and radiation. In this paper, we use 1 year of size-distribution measurements from Egbert, Ontario, Ca...

  6. New-particle formation, growth and climate-relevant particle production in Egbert, Canada: analysis from one year of size-distribution observations

    Pierce, J. R.; Westervelt, D. M.; Atwood, S.A.; Barnes, E.A.; Leaitch, W.R.

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol particle nucleation, or new-particle formation, is the dominant contributor to particle number in the atmosphere. However, these particles must grow through condensation of low-volatility vapors without coagulating with the larger, pre-existing particles in order to reach climate-relevant sizes (diameters larger than 50–100 nm), where the particles may affect clouds and radiation. In this paper, we use one year of size-distribution...

  7. Fluctuations and intermittency in fragment size distributions

    The intermittency signal on the size frequency of fragments found in various fragmenting systems is reconsidered. This signal extracted from a factorial moment analysis was interpreted as a genuine intermittency. The conclusion is that the signal found in earlier works and interpreted as an intermittency behaviour results from both the power law of the mean size fragment distribution and from the finite width of the multiplicity distribution. Any partition of integers exhibiting these two features will provide a similar signal. (author). 38 refs., 9 figs

  8. Submicron aerosols at thirteen diversified sites in China: size distribution, new particle formation and corresponding contribution to cloud condensation nuclei production

    Peng, J. F.; Hu, M.; Wang, Z. B.; Huang, X. F.; Kumar, P.; Wu, Z. J.; Guo, S.; Yue, D. L.; Shang, D. J.; Zheng, Z.; He, L. Y.

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the particle number size distributions in diversified atmospheric environments is important in order to design mitigation strategies related to submicron particles and their effects on regional air quality, haze and human health. In this study, we conducted 15 different field measurement campaigns between 2007 and 2011 at 13 individual sites in China, including five urban sites, four regional sites, three coastal/background sites and one ship cruise measurement along eastern coastline of China. Size resolved particles were measured in the 15-600 nm size range. The median particle number concentrations (PNCs) were found to vary in the range of 1.1-2.2 × 104 cm-3 at urban sites, 0.8-1.5 × 104 cm-3 at regional sites, 0.4-0.6 × 104 cm-3 at coastal/background sites, and 0.5 × 104 cm-3 during cruise measurement. Peak diameters at each of these sites varied greatly from 24 to 115 nm. Particles in the 15-25 nm (nucleation mode), 25-100 nm (Aitken mode) and 100-600 nm (accumulation mode) range showed different characteristics at each sites, indicating the features of primary emissions and secondary formation in these diversified atmospheric environments. Diurnal variations show a build-up of accumulation mode particles belt at regional sites, suggesting the contribution of regional secondary aerosol pollution. Frequencies of new particle formation (NPF) events were much higher at urban and regional sites than at coastal sites and during cruise measurement. The average growth rates (GRs) of nucleation mode particles were 8.0-10.9 nm h-1 at urban sites, 7.4-13.6 nm h-1 at regional sites and 2.8-7.5 nm h-1 at coastal sites and during cruise measurement. The high gaseous precursors and strong oxidation at urban and regional sites not only favored the formation of particles, but also accelerated the growth rate of the nucleation mode particles. No significant difference in condensation sink (CS) during NPF days were observed among different site types, suggesting that the NPF events in background areas were more influenced by the pollutant transport. In addition, average contributions of NPF events to potential cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) at 0.2% super-saturation in the afternoon of all sampling days were calculated as 11% and 6% at urban sites and regional sites, respectively. On the other hand, NPF events at coastal sites and during cruise measurement had little impact on potential production of CCN. This study provides a large data set of particle size distribution in diversified atmosphere of China, improving our general understanding of emission, secondary formation, new particle formation and corresponding CCN activity of submicron aerosols in Chinese environments.

  9. Submicron aerosols at thirteen diversified sites in China: size distribution, new particle formation and corresponding contribution to cloud condensation nuclei production

    J. F. Peng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the particle number size distributions in diversified atmospheric environments is important in order to design mitigation strategies related to submicron particles and their effect on regional air quality, haze and human health. In this study, we conducted 15 different field measurement campaigns, each one-month long, between 2007 and 2011 at 13 individual sites in China. These were 5 urban sites, 4 regional sites, 3 coastal/background sites and one ship cruise measurement along eastern coastline of China. Size resolved particles were measured in the 15–600 nm size range. The median particle number concentrations (PNC were found to vary in the range of 1.1–2.2 × 104 cm−3 at urban sites, 0.8–1.5 × 104 cm−3 at regional sites, 0.4–0.6 × 104 cm−3 at coastal/background sites, and 0.5 × 104 cm−3 during cruise measurements. Peak diameters at each of these sites varied greatly from 24 nm to 115 nm. Particles in the 15–25 nm (nucleation mode, 25–100 nm (Aitken mode and 100–600 nm (accumulation mode range showed different characteristics at each of the studied sites, indicating the features of primary emissions and secondary formation in these diversified atmospheric environments. Diurnal variations show a build-up of accumulation mode particles belt at regional sites, suggesting the contribution of regional secondary aerosol pollution. Frequencies of new particle formation (NPF events were much higher at urban and regional sites than at coastal sites and cruise measurement. The average growth rates (GRs of nucleation mode particles were 8.0–10.9 nm h−1 at urban sites, 7.4–13.6 nm h−1 at regional sites and 2.8–7.5 nm h−1 at both coastal and cruise measurement sites. The high gaseous precursors and strong oxidation at urban and regional sites not only favored the formation of particles, but also accelerated the growth rate of the nucleation mode particles. No significant difference in condensation sink (CS during NPF days were observed among different site types, suggesting that the NPF events in background area were more influenced by the pollutant transport. In addition, average contributions of NPF events to potential cloud condensation nuclei (CCN at 0.2% super-saturation in the afternoon of all sampling days were calculated as 11% and 6% at urban sites and regional sites, respectively. On the other hand, NPF events at coastal and cruise measurement sites had little impact on potential production of CCN. This study provides a large dataset of aerosol size distribution in diversified atmosphere of China, improving our general understanding of emission, secondary formation, new particles formation and corresponding CCN activity of submicron aerosols in Chinese environments.

  10. Raindrop Size Distribution Measurements in Tropical Cyclones

    Tokay, Ali; Bashor, Paul G.; Habib, Emad; Kasparis, Takis

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of the raindrop size distribution in seven tropical cyclones have been studied through impact-type disdrometer measurements at three different sites during the 2004-06 Atlantic hurricane seasons. One of the cyclones has been observed at two different sites. High concentrations of small and/or midsize drops were observed in the presence or absence of large drops. Even in the presence of large drops, the maximum drop diameter rarely exceeded 4 mm. These characteristics of raindrop size distribution were observed in all stages of tropical cyclones, unless the storm was in the extratropical stage where the tropical cyclone and a midlatitude frontal system had merged. The presence of relatively high concentrations of large drops in extratropical cyclones resembled the size distribution in continental thunderstorms. The integral rain parameters of drop concentration, liquid water content, and rain rate at fixed reflectivity were therefore lower in extratropical cyclones than in tropical cyclones. In tropical cyclones, at a disdrometercalculated reflectivity of 40 dBZ, the number concentration was 700 plus or minus 100 drops m(sup -3), while the liquid water content and rain rate were 0.90 plus or minus 0.05 g m(sup -3) and 18.5 plus or minus 0.5 mm h(sup -1), respectively. The mean mass diameter, on the other hand, was 1.67 plus or minus 0.3 mm. The comparison of raindrop size distributions between Atlantic tropical cyclones and storms that occurred in the central tropical Pacific island of Roi-Namur revealed that the number density is slightly shifted toward smaller drops, resulting in higher-integral rain parameters and lower mean mass and maximum drop diameters at the latter site. Considering parameterization of the raindrop size distribution in tropical cyclones, characteristics of the normalized gamma distribution parameters were examined with respect to reflectivity. The mean mass diameter increased rapidly with reflectivity, while the normalized intercept parameter had an increasing trend with reflectivity. The shape parameter, on the other hand, decreased in a reflectivity range from 10 to 20 dBZ and remained steady at higher reflectivities. Considering the repeatability of the characteristics of the raindrop size distribution, a second impact disdrometer that was located 5.3 km away from the primary site in Wallops Island, Virginia, had similar size spectra in selected tropical cyclones.

  11. Distribution of droplet sizes for seed solution

    In open cycle MHD power generation, power is generated by passing seeded hot combustion products of a fossil fuel through a magnetic field. Seeding is done with a salt which is readily ionizable, preferably in the form of an aqueous solution, such as potassium carbonate, potassium sulphate, etc. Methods of atomization and the theoretical drop size calculations are presented. Basic parameters necessary for droplet size determination and their measurement are also described. (K.B.)

  12. Activity Size Distributions of Natural Radioactive Aerosols in Outdoor Air

    Activity size distributions of short lived radon and thoron decay products, long lived radon decay product lead-210 and cosmogenic beryllium-7 in atmospheric aerosol particles were measured using a five-stage high volume cascade impactor. The activity concentrations were measured by gamma spectrometry. The significant difference between the activity median aerodynamic diameters of the short and long-lived radon progeny seems to indicate that, after generation, the primary activity size distribution change to greater particle diameters mainly caused by the coagulation with existing non-active aerosol particles during their residence time in the atmosphere. (author)

  13. Indoor aerosol size distributions in a gymnasium.

    Castro, Amaya; Calvo, Ana I; Alves, Célia; Alonso-Blanco, Elisabeth; Coz, Esther; Marques, Liliana; Nunes, Teresa; Fernández-Guisuraga, Jose Manuel; Fraile, Roberto

    2015-08-15

    In this study, an indoor/outdoor monitoring program was carried out in a gymnasium at the University of Leon, Spain. The main goal was a characterization of aerosol size distributions in a university gymnasium under different conditions and sports activities (with and without magnesia alba) and the study of the mass fraction deposited in each of the parts of the respiratory tract. The aerosol particles were measured in 31 discrete channels (size ranges) using a laser spectrometer probe. Aerosol size distributions were studied under different conditions: i) before sports activities, ii) activities without using magnesia alba, iii) activities using magnesia alba, iv) cleaning procedures, and v) outdoors. The aerosol refractive index and density indoors were estimated from the aerosol composition: 1.577-0.003i and 2.055 g cm(-3), respectively. Using the estimated density, the mass concentration was calculated, and the evolution of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 for different activities was assessed. The quality of the air in the gymnasium was strongly influenced by the use of magnesia alba (MgCO3) and the number of gymnasts who were training. Due to the climbing chalk and the constant process of resuspension, average PM10 concentrations of over 440 μg m(-3) were reached. The maximum daily concentrations ranged from 500 to 900 μg m(-3). Particle size determines the place in the respiratory tract where the deposition occurs. For this reason, the inhalable, thoracic, tracheobronchial and respirable fractions were assessed for healthy adults and high risk people, according to international standards. The estimations show that, for healthy adults, up to 300 μg m(-3) can be retained by the trachea and bronchi, and 130 μg m(-3) may reach the alveolar region. The different physical activities and the attendance rates in the sports facility have a significant influence on the concentration and size distributions observed. PMID:25897726

  14. Barchan dune's size distribution induced by collisions

    Dur'an, O; Herrmann, H J

    2007-01-01

    Large dune fields can overrun for instance infrastructures lying in the way of their motion. Unidirectional wind fields and low sand availability give rise to single barchan dunes moving in the direction of wind. They can interact by directly exchanging their sand through collisions. This kind of interaction play a crucial role in the evolution of barchan dune fields, for instance in the selection of a characteristic dune size. Simulations of dune collisions with lateral offset are studied systematically and described by general phenomenological rules. Moreover, simulations with a simplified model without sand flux considering only collisions show that the sizes of sand dunes in such a scenario follow a Gaussian distribution with a well defined characteristic size.

  15. Number size distribution, mass concentration, and particle composition of PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 in bag filling areas of carbon black production.

    Kuhlbusch, T A J; Neumann, S; Fissan, H

    2004-10-01

    Number size characteristics and PM10 mass concentrations of particles emitted during the packaging of various kinds of carbon blacks were measured continuously in the bag filling areas of three carbon black plants and concurrently at ambient comparison sites. PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 dust fractions were also determined in the bag filling areas. The filter samples were then analyzed for elemental and organic carbon. Comparisons of the measured number size distributions and mass concentrations during bag filling activities with those measured parallel at the ambient site and with those determined during nonworking periods in the work area enabled the characterization of emitted particles. PM10 mass concentrations were consistently elevated (up to a factor of 20 compared to ambient concentrations) during working periods in the bag filling area. Detailed analysis revealed that the carbon black particles released by bag filling activities had a size distribution starting at approximately 400 nm aerodynamic diameter (dae) with modes around 1 microm dae and > 8 microm dae. Ultrafine particles (< 100 nm dae), detected in the bag filling areas, were most likely attributed to noncarbon black sources such as forklift and gas heater emissions. PMID:15631057

  16. Product Distributions for Distributed Optimization. Chapter 1

    Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    With connections to bounded rational game theory, information theory and statistical mechanics, Product Distribution (PD) theory provides a new framework for performing distributed optimization. Furthermore, PD theory extends and formalizes Collective Intelligence, thus connecting distributed optimization to distributed Reinforcement Learning (FU). This paper provides an overview of PD theory and details an algorithm for performing optimization derived from it. The approach is demonstrated on two unconstrained optimization problems, one with discrete variables and one with continuous variables. To highlight the connections between PD theory and distributed FU, the results are compared with those obtained using distributed reinforcement learning inspired optimization approaches. The inter-relationship of the techniques is discussed.

  17. Physical Causes of Drop Size Distribution Variability

    Zawadzki, I.

    Drop size distributions are measured at ground by instruments (disdrometers) that mostly sample one drop at a time or at best, a small number of drops simultaneously. To obtain a representative sample a time window of the observations is required. This introduces a spurious variability due to the differential fall speed of drops coupled with a highly variable field of precipitation in rapid displacement respect to the dis- drometer. A filter has been studied to minimize this spurious variability as well as instrumental uncertainty. The use of filtered data allows to see case to case differences in DSDs that are hidden in the large scatter in the raw data. These differences can be associated to physical processes revealed by a vertically pointing radar such as the de- gree of aggregation, riming, etc. Numerical modeling of particle size evolution using the quasi-stochastic growth equation serves as guide for the understanding of these processes.

  18. Measurement of nonvolatile particle number size distribution

    Gkatzelis, G. I.; Papanastasiou, D. K.; Florou, K.; Kaltsonoudis, C.; Louvaris, E.; Pandis, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental methodology was developed to measure the nonvolatile particle number concentration using a thermodenuder (TD). The TD was coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, measuring the chemical composition and mass size distribution of the submicrometer aerosol and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) that provided the number size distribution of the aerosol in the range from 10 to 500 nm. The method was evaluated with a set of smog chamber experiments and achieved almost complete evaporation (> 98 %) of secondary organic as well as freshly nucleated particles, using a TD temperature of 400 C and a centerline residence time of 15 s. This experimental approach was applied in a winter field campaign in Athens and provided a direct measurement of number concentration and size distribution for particles emitted from major pollution sources. During periods in which the contribution of biomass burning sources was dominant, more than 80 % of particle number concentration remained after passing through the thermodenuder, suggesting that nearly all biomass burning particles had a nonvolatile core. These remaining particles consisted mostly of black carbon (60 % mass contribution) and organic aerosol (OA; 40 %). Organics that had not evaporated through the TD were mostly biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) as determined from AMS source apportionment analysis. For periods during which traffic contribution was dominant 50-60 % of the particles had a nonvolatile core while the rest evaporated at 400 C. The remaining particle mass consisted mostly of black carbon with an 80 % contribution, while OA was responsible for another 15-20 %. Organics were mostly hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and OOA. These results suggest that even at 400 C some fraction of the OA does not evaporate from particles emitted from common combustion processes, such as biomass burning and car engines, indicating that a fraction of this type of OA is of extremely low volatility.

  19. Templated formation of giant polymer vesicles with controlled size distributions

    Howse, Jonathan R.; Jones, Richard A. L.; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Ducker, Robert E.; Leggett, Graham J.; Ryan, Anthony J.

    2009-06-01

    Unilamellar polymer vesicles are formed when a block copolymer self-assembles to form a single bilayer structure, with a hydrophobic core and hydrophilic surfaces, and the resulting membrane folds over and rearranges by connecting its edges to enclose a space. The physics of self-assembly tightly specifies the wall thickness of the resulting vesicle, but, both for polymer vesicles and phospholipids, no mechanism strongly selects for the overall size, so the size distribution of vesicles tends to be very polydisperse. We report a method for the production of controlled size distributions of micrometre-sized (that is, giant) vesicles combining the `top-down' control of micrometre-sized features (vesicle diameter) by photolithography and dewetting with the `bottom-up' control of nanometre-sized features (membrane thickness) by molecular self-assembly. It enables the spontaneous creation of unilamellar vesicles with a narrow size distribution that could find applications in drug and gene delivery, nano- and micro-reactors, substrates for macromolecular crystallography and model systems for studies of membrane function.

  20. Bipartite producer consumer networks and the size distribution of firms

    Dahui, Wang; Li, Zhou; Zengru, Di

    2006-05-01

    A bipartite producer-consumer network is constructed to describe the industrial structure. The edges from consumer to producer represent the choices of the consumer for the final products and the degree of producer can represent its market share. So the size distribution of firms can be characterized by producer's degree distribution. The probability for a producer receiving a new consumption is determined by its competency described by initial attractiveness and the self-reinforcing mechanism in the competition described by preferential attachment. The cases with constant total consumption and with growing market are studied. The following results are obtained: (1) Without market growth and a uniform initial attractiveness a, the final distribution of firm sizes is Gamma distribution for a>1 and is exponential for a=1. If afirms obeys the power-law. The exponent is affected by the market growth and the initial attractiveness of the firms.

  1. Refinement of size distributions for primary crystallizations

    The microstructure developed in primary crystallizations is studied under realistic conditions. The primary crystallization of an amorphous alloy is modeled by considering the thermodynamics of a metastable phase transition and the kinetics of nucleation and crystal growth under isothermal annealing. A realistic growth rate, including an interface controlled growth at the beginning of the growth of each single grain and diffusion controlled growth process with soft impingement afterwards is considered. The reduction in the nucleation rate due to the compositional change in the remaining amorphous matrix is also taken into account. The microstructures developed during the transformation are obtained by using the Populational KJMA method, from the above thermodynamic and kinetic factors. Experimental data of transformed fraction, grain density, average grain size, grain size distribution and other related parameters obtained from annealed metallic glasses are modeled. The authors will focus on the nanocrystallization of a FINEMET alloy. In particular, they will analyze the isothermal nanocrystalline precipitation of an α-Fe(Si) phase, with a DO3 defective in Si superstructure, in a FINEMET material of composition Fe73.5Si17.5Cu1Nb3B5

  2. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

    2009-09-25

    PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 µm) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 µm), known as the “small mode”. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment of ice cloud optical properties formulated in terms of PSD parameters in combination with remote measurements of thermal radiances to characterize the small mode. This is possible since the absorption efficiency (Qabs) of small mode crystals is larger at 12 µm wavelength relative to 11 µm wavelength due to the process of wave resonance or photon tunneling more active at 12 µm. This makes the 12/11 µm absorption optical depth ratio (or equivalently the 12/11 µm Qabs ratio) a means for detecting the relative concentration of small ice particles in cirrus. Using this principle, this project tested and developed PSD schemes that can help characterize cirrus clouds at each of the three ARM sites: SGP, NSA and TWP. This was the main effort of this project. These PSD schemes and ice sedimentation velocities predicted from them have been used to test the new cirrus microphysics parameterization in the GCM known as the Community Climate Systems Model (CCSM) as part of an ongoing collaboration with NCAR. Regarding the second problem, we developed and did preliminary testing on a passive thermal method for retrieving the total water path (TWP) of Arctic mixed phase clouds where TWPs are often in the range of 20 to 130 g m-2 (difficult for microwave radiometers to accurately measure). We also developed a new radar method for retrieving the cloud ice water content (IWC), which can be vertically integrated to yield the ice water path (IWP). These techniques were combined to determine the IWP and liquid water path (LWP) in Arctic clouds, and hence the fraction of ice and liquid water. We have tested this approach using a case study from the ARM field campaign called M-PACE (Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment). This research led to a new satellite remote sensing method that appears promising for detecting low levels of liquid water in high clouds typically between -20 and -36 oC. We hope to develop this method in future research.

  3. Aged Boreal Biomass Burning Size Distributions from Bortas 2011

    Pierce, J. R.; Sakamoto, K.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Taylor, J.; Duck, T.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass-burning aerosols contribute to aerosol radiative forcing on the climate system. The magnitude of this effect is partially determined by aerosol size distributions, which are strong functions of source fire characteristics (e.g. fuel type, MCE) and in-plume microphysical processing. The uncertainties in biomass-burning emission number size-distributions in climate model inventories lead to uncertainties in the CCN concentrations and forcing estimates derived from these models. The BORTAS-B measurement campaign was designed to sample boreal biomass-burning outflow over Eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Using these BORTAS-B data, we implement plume criteria to isolate the characteristic size-distribution of aged biomass-burning emissions (aged ~ 1.5 - 2 days) from boreal wildfires in Northwestern Ontario. The composite median size-distribution yields a single dominant accumulation mode with Dpm = 232 nm, σ = 1.7, which are comparable to literature values of other aged plumes of a similar type. The organic aerosol enhancement ratios (ΔOA/ΔCO) along the path of Flight b622 show values of 0.08-0.18 μg m-3 ppbv-1 with no significant trend with distance from the source. This lack of enhancement ratio increase/decrease with distance suggests no detectable net OA production/evaporation within the aged plume over the sampling period. A Lagrangian microphysical model was used to determine an estimate of the freshly emitted size distribution and flux corresponding to the BORTAS-B aged size-distributions. The model was restricted to coagulation and dilution processes only based on the insignificant net OA production/evaporation derived from the ΔOA/ΔCO enhancement ratios. Depending on the, we estimate that the fresh-plume median diameter was in the range of 59-94 nm with modal widths in the range of 1.7-2.8. Thus, the size of the freshly emitted particles is somewhat unconstrained due to the uncertainties in the plume dilution rates.

  4. Aged boreal biomass burning aerosol size distributions from BORTAS 2011

    Sakamoto, K. M.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Taylor, J. W.; Duck, T. J.; Pierce, J. R.

    2014-09-01

    Biomass-burning aerosols contribute to aerosol radiative forcing on the climate system. The magnitude of this effect is partially determined by aerosol size distributions, which are functions of source fire characteristics (e.g. fuel type, MCE) and in-plume microphysical processing. The uncertainties in biomass-burning emission number size-distributions in climate model inventories lead to uncertainties in the CCN concentrations and forcing estimates derived from these models. The BORTAS-B measurement campaign was designed to sample boreal biomass-burning outflow over Eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Using these BORTAS-B data, we implement plume criteria to isolate the characteristic size-distribution of aged biomass-burning emissions (aged ∼1-2 days) from boreal wildfires in Northwestern Ontario. The composite median size-distribution yields a single dominant accumulation mode with Dpm = 230 nm (number-median diameter), σ = 1.7, which are comparable to literature values of other aged plumes of a similar type. The organic aerosol enhancement ratios (ΔOA / ΔCO) along the path of Flight b622 show values of 0.05-0.18 μg m-3 ppbv-1 with no significant trend with distance from the source. This lack of enhancement ratio increase/decrease with distance suggests no detectable net OA production/evaporation within the aged plume over the sampling period. A Lagrangian microphysical model was used to determine an estimate of the freshly emitted size distribution corresponding to the BORTAS-B aged size-distributions. The model was restricted to coagulation and dilution processes based on the insignificant net OA production/evaporation derived from the ΔOA / ΔCO enhancement ratios. We estimate that the fresh-plume median diameter was in the range of 59-94 nm with modal widths in the range of 1.7-2.8 (the ranges are due to uncertainty in the entrainment rate). Thus, the size of the freshly emitted particles is relatively unconstrained due to the uncertainties in the plume dilution rates.

  5. Aerosol size distribution of the radon progeny in outdoor air

    The activity size distribution of the short-lived radon decay products in ambient air was measured continuously over several weeks. Two different measurement techniques were used: A direct measurement with a low-pressure on-line alpha cascade impactor (OLACI) and an indirect determination based on measurement with a differential mobility analyser (5-200 nm) and a laser aerosol spectrometer (100-5000 nm). In parallel, the meteorological parameters like temperature, rainfall intensity and wind velocity were registered. The measured activity size distribution of the radon progeny can be approximated by a sum of three log-normal distributions. The greatest activity fraction was adsorbed on aerosol particles in the accumulation size range (100-1000 nm) with activity median diameters (AMDa) and geometric standard deviations (σga) values of 250-450 nm, and 1.5-3.0, respectively. The influence of the weather conditions on the activity of the accumulation particles was not significant. In contrast to the results of measurements in houses, a small but significant fraction of the radon progeny (average value: 2%) was attached to coarse particles (>1000 nm). This fraction varied between 0 and 10%. The direct measurements with the OLACI yielded a higher activity fraction (20-40%) in the nucleation size range (<100 nm) compared to the values evaluated from the number size distribution measurement (indirect measurement). This fraction depends on the number concentration of the atmospheric aerosol in this size range. A diurnal variation of the particle number concentration and of the activity fraction for the nucleation particles was found. In the case of lower particle concentrations (diameters <50 nm) in air during the night no nucleation mode was registered using the indirect measurement technique

  6. Dual Distribution and Differentiated Products

    Philippe Cyrenne

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops an approach to analyzing the equilibrium in markets where firms selling differentiated products can choose dual distribution to sell their products. Dual distribution involves a firm selling its product both through company owned stores and through independently operated franchises. In choosing the proportion of company owned versus franchise stores, in equilibrium, the firms have no incentive to alter this ratio given the proportions chosen by rival firms. The approach ta...

  7. Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution in bituminous coals

    Sakurovs, Richard [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell [ORNL; Blach, Tomasz P [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The porosity and pore size distribution of coals determine many of their properties, from gas release to their behavior on carbonization, and yet most methods of determining pore size distribution can only examine a restricted size range. Even then, only accessible pores can be investigated with these methods. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) are increasingly used to characterize the size distribution of all of the pores non-destructively. Here we have used USANS/SANS to examine 24 well-characterized bituminous and subbituminous coals: three from the eastern US, two from Poland, one from New Zealand and the rest from the Sydney and Bowen Basins in Eastern Australia, and determined the relationships of the scattering intensity corresponding to different pore sizes with other coal properties. The range of pore radii examinable with these techniques is 2.5 nm to 7 {micro}m. We confirm that there is a wide range of pore sizes in coal. The pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range 250 nm to 7 {micro}m and 5 to 10 nm, but weakly in intermediate regions. The results suggest that different mechanisms control coal porosity on different scales. Contrast-matching USANS and SANS were also used to determine the size distribution of the fraction of the pores in these coals that are inaccessible to deuterated methane, CD{sub 4}, at ambient temperature. In some coals most of the small ({approx} 10 nm) pores were found to be inaccessible to CD{sub 4} on the time scale of the measurement ({approx} 30 min - 16 h). This inaccessibility suggests that in these coals a considerable fraction of inherent methane may be trapped for extended periods of time, thus reducing the effectiveness of methane release from (or sorption by) these coals. Although the number of small pores was less in higher rank coals, the fraction of total pores that was inaccessible was not rank dependent. In the Australian coals, at the 10 nm to 50 nm size scales the pores in inertinites appeared to be completely accessible to CD{sub 4}, whereas the pores in the vitrinite were about 75% inaccessible. Unlike the results for total porosity that showed no regional effects on relationships between porosity and coal properties, clear regional differences in the relationships between fraction of closed porosity and coal properties were found. The 10 to 50 nm-sized pores of inertinites of the US and Polish coals examined appeared less accessible to methane than those of the inertinites of Australian coals. This difference in pore accessibility in inertinites may explain why empirical relationships between fluidity and coking properties developed using Carboniferous coals do not apply to Australian coals.

  8. Size distribution of airborne dust in Labrador iron mines.

    Knight, G; Moore, E; Smith, C W

    1987-02-01

    The size distribution of the total airborne dust and its components approximates a straight line on a plot of log mass undersize against log aerodynamic size. The quartz component distribution has a reasonably constant slope, is close to the distributions found in other mines and mills, and follows the normal breakage laws. The results for the iron component suggest that the top size present is similar to that of quartz and that the slope is also similar. The slopes for total dust by weight are not as steep as for quartz and suggest a bimodal distribution consisting of a coarser mineral fraction mixed with a finer fraction from other sources, such as combustion products, that are often found. The slopes for manganese are sometimes much less than for iron or quartz and suggest that manganese is associated with a more crushable rock. The one finding of chromium suggests that it is associated mostly with very fine particles and, therefore, may have been dispersed as fume from an operation such as welding. PMID:3565269

  9. Binary nucleation kinetics. I. Self-consistent size distribution

    Using the principle of detailed balance, we derive a new self-consistency requirement, termed the kinetic product rule, relating the evaporation coefficients and equilibrium cluster distribution for a binary system. We use this result to demonstrate and resolve an inconsistency for an idealized Kelvin model of nucleation in a simple binary mixture. We next examine several common forms for the equilibrium distribution of binary clusters based on the capillarity approximation and ideal vapor behavior. We point out fundamental deficiencies for each expression. We also show that each distribution yields evaporation coefficients that formally satisfy the new kinetic product rule but are physically unsatisfactory because they depend on the monomer vapor concentrations. We then propose a new form of the binary distribution function that is free of the deficiencies of the previous functions except for its reliance on the capillarity approximation. This new self-consistent classical (SCC) size distribution for binary clusters has the following properties: It satisfies the law of mass action; it reduces to an SCC unary distribution for clusters of a single component; and it produces physically acceptable evaporation rate coefficients that also satisfy the new kinetic product rule. Since it is possible to construct other examples of similarly well-behaved distributions, our result is not unique in this respect, but it does give reasonable predictions. As an illustration, we calculate binary nucleation rates and vapor activities for the ethanol--hexanol system at 260 K using the new SCC distribution and compare them to experimental results. The theoretical rates are uniformly higher than the experimental values over the entire vapor composition range. Although the predicted activities are lower, we find good agreement between the measured and theoretical slope of the critical vapor activity curve at a constant nucleation rate of 107 cm-3 s-2

  10. The Size Distribution of Bovine Casein Micelles: A Review

    Holt, C.

    1985-01-01

    This review considers the average size and size distribution of bovine casein micelles as measured by electron microscopy, light scattering and controlled pore glass chromatography, and the origin and biological function of the size distribution. Recent work by electron microscopy has given average sizes in reasonable agreement with measurements on the same milk sample by light scattering . It is suggested that natural variations in averaqe micelle size and overestimation of micelle radii ...

  11. Large-size monodisperse latexes as a commercial space product

    Kornfeld, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    Proposed spacelab production of large-size (2-40 micron diameter) monodispersed latexes is discussed. Explanations are given for the present lack of monodisperse particles in this size range. The four main topics discussed are: (1) the potential uses of these large particle size latexes, (2) why it is necessary for the particles to have a very narrow size distribution, (3) why large amounts of these monodisperse latexes are needed, and (4) why it is necessary to go to microgravity to prepare these latexes.

  12. Accounting for dust aerosol size distribution in radiative transfer

    Li, Jiangnan; Min, Qilong; Peng, Yiran; Sun, Zhian; Zhao, Jian-Qi

    2015-07-01

    The impact of size distribution of mineral dust aerosol on radiative transfer was investigated using the Aerosol Robotic Network-retrieved aerosol size distributions. Three methods for determining the aerosol optical properties using size distributions were discussed. The first is referred to as a bin method in which the aerosol optical properties are determined for each bin of the size distribution. The second is named as an assembly mean method in which the aerosol optical properties are determined with an integration of the aerosol optical parameters over the observed size distribution. The third is a normal parameterization method based on an assumed size distribution. The bin method was used to generate the benchmark results in the radiation calculations against the methods of the assembly mean, and parameterizations based on two size distribution functions, namely, lognormal and gamma were examined. It is seen that the assembly mean method can produce aerosol radiative forcing with accuracy of better than 1%. The accuracies of the parameterizations based on lognormal and gamma size distributions are about 25% and 5%, respectively. Both the lognormal and gamma size distributions can be determined by two parameters, the effective radius and effective variance. The better results from the gamma size distribution can be explained by a third parameter of skewness which is found to be useful for judging how close the assumed distribution is to the observation result. The parameterizations based on the two assumed size distributions are also evaluated in a climate model. The results show that the reflected solar fluxes over the desert areas determined by the scheme based on the gamma size distribution are about 1 W m-2 less than those from the scheme based on the lognormal size distribution, bringing the model results closer to the observations.

  13. The Distribution of Bubble Sizes During Reionization

    Lin, Yin; Furlanetto, Steven R; Sutter, P M

    2015-01-01

    A key physical quantity during reionization is the size of HII regions. Previous studies found a characteristic bubble size which increases rapidly during reionization, with apparent agreement between simulations and analytic excursion set theory. Using four different methods, we critically examine this claim. In particular, we introduce the use of the watershed algorithm -- widely used for void finding in galaxy surveys -- which we show to be an unbiased method with the lowest dispersion and best performance on Monte-Carlo realizations of a known bubble size PDF. We find that a friends-of-friends algorithm declares most of the ionized volume to be occupied by a network of volume-filling regions connected by narrow tunnels. For methods tuned to detect those volume-filling regions, previous apparent agreement between simulations and theory is spurious, and due to a failure to correctly account for the window function of measurement schemes. The discrepancy is already obvious from visual inspection. Instead, HI...

  14. Fooling functions of halfspaces under product distributions

    Gopalan, P; Wu, Y; Zuckerman, D

    2010-01-01

    We construct pseudorandom generators that fool functions of halfspaces (threshold functions) under a very broad class of product distributions. This class includes not only familiar cases such as the uniform distribution on the discrete cube, the uniform distribution on the solid cube, and the multivariate Gaussian distribution, but also includes any product of discrete distributions with probabilities bounded away from 0. Our first main result shows that a recent pseudorandom generator construction of Meka and Zuckerman [MZ09], when suitably modifed, can fool arbitrary functions of d halfspaces under product distributions where each coordinate has bounded fourth moment. To eps-fool any size-s, depth-d decision tree of halfspaces, our pseudorandom generator uses seed length O((d log(ds/eps)+log n) log(ds/eps)). For monotone functions of d halfspaces, the seed length can be improved to O((d log(d/eps)+log n) log(d/eps)). We get better bounds for larger eps; for example, to 1/polylog(n)-fool all monotone functi...

  15. How dense can one pack spheres of arbitrary size distribution?

    Reis, S. D. S.; Arajo, N. A. M.; Andrade, J. S., Jr.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first systematic algorithm to estimate the maximum packing density of spheres when the grain sizes are drawn from an arbitrary size distribution. With an Apollonian filling rule, we implement our technique for disks in 2d and spheres in 3d. As expected, the densest packing is achieved with power-law size distributions. We also test the method on homogeneous and on empirical real distributions, and we propose a scheme to obtain experimentally accessible distributions of grain sizes with low porosity. Our method should be helpful in the development of ultra-strong ceramics and high-performance concrete.

  16. How dense can one pack spheres of arbitrary size distribution?

    Reis, Saulo D S; Andrade, José S; Herrmann, Hans J

    2011-01-01

    We present the first systematic algorithm to estimate the maximum packing density of spheres when the grain sizes are drawn from an arbitrary size distribution. With an Apollonian filling rule, we implement our technique for disks in 2d and spheres in 3d. As expected, the densest packing is achieved with power-law size distributions. We also test the method on homogeneous and on empirical real distributions, and we propose a scheme to obtain experimentally accessible distributions of grain sizes with low porosity. Our method should be helpful in the development of ultra-strong ceramics and high performance concrete.

  17. The Size Distribution of Casein Micelles in Camel Milk

    Farah, Z.; Ruegg, M. W.

    1989-01-01

    The size distribution of casein micelles in camel milk has been determined by electron microscopy. Individual and pooled samples were cryo-fixed by rapid freezing and freeze-fractured. Electron micrographs of the freeze-fracture replica revealed a relatively broad size distribution, with an average micelle dimeter around 280 nm in the volume distribution curve. The distribution was significantly broader than that of the particles of cow's or human milk and showed a greater number of large ...

  18. Distributed size estimation of dynamic anonymous networks

    Terelius, Håkan; Varagnolo, Damiano; Johansson, Karl Henrik

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the size of dynamic anonymous networks, motivated by network maintenance. The proposed algorithm is based on max-consensus information exchange protocols, and extends a previous algorithm for static anonymous networks. A regularization term is accounting for a-priori assumptions on the smoothness of the estimate, and we specifically consider quadratic regularization terms since they lead to closed-form solutions and intuitive design laws. We derive an exp...

  19. Bimodal Size-distribution of Bainite Plates

    Hase, K.; Garca Mateo, Carlos; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    2006-01-01

    There are two well-known phenomena associated with the bainite reaction, which have been exploited in the present work to enhance the mechanical behaviour of steel. Firstly, the bainite plate size decreases as the transformation temperature is reduced. Secondly, it is bad to have large regions of untransformed austenite in the microstructure; this is because they can transform, under the influence of external stress, into corresponding large regions of untempered, brittle martensite. By ad...

  20. The size distribution of inhabited planets

    Simpson, Fergus

    2016-02-01

    Earth-like planets are expected to provide the greatest opportunity for the detection of life beyond the Solar system. However, our planet cannot be considered a fair sample, especially if intelligent life exists elsewhere. Just as a person's country of origin is a biased sample among countries, so too their planet of origin may be a biased sample among planets. The magnitude of this effect can be substantial: over 98 per cent of the world's population live in a country larger than the median. In the context of a simple model where the mean population density is invariant to planet size, we infer that a given inhabited planet (such as our nearest neighbour) has a radius r planets hosting advanced life, but also for those which harbour primitive life forms. Further, inferences may be drawn for any variable which influences population size. For example, since population density is widely observed to decline with increasing body mass, we conclude that most intelligent species are expected to exceed 300 kg.

  1. Evaluation of droplet size distributions using univariate and multivariate approaches

    Gauno, M.H.; Larsen, C.C.; Vilhelmsen, T.; Sonnergaard, Jørn; Wittendorff, J.; Rantanen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutically relevant material characteristics are often analyzed based on univariate descriptors instead of utilizing the whole information available in the full distribution. One example is droplet size distribution, which is often described by the median droplet size and the width of the d...

  2. Re-examination of the size distribution of firms

    Kaizoji, T; Iyetomi, H; Kaizoji, Taisei; Ikeda, Yuichi; Iyetomi, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we address the question of the size distribution of firms. To this aim, we use the Bloomberg database comprising firms around the world within the years 1995-2003, and analyze the data of the sales and the total assets of the consolidation base of the Japanese and the US companies, and make a comparison of the size distributions between the Japanese companies and the US companies. We find that (i) the size distribution of the US firms is approximately log-normal, in agreement with Gibrat's observation \\cite{Gibrat}, and in contrast (ii) the size distribution of the Japanese firms is clearly not log-normal, and the upper tail of the size distribution follows the Pareto law. It agree with the predictions of the Simon model \\cite{Simon}.

  3. Distributions of region size and GDP and their relation

    Sen, Hu; Chunxia, Yang; Xueshuai, Zhu; Zhilai, Zheng; Ya, Cao

    2015-07-01

    We first analyze the distribution of metropolitan (city) size, the distribution of metropolitan (city) GDP and the relation of both distributions. It is found that (1) the tails of distributions of size and GDP both obey Pareto Law with the Pareto exponent 1; (2) compared with Pareto exponent in GDP, Pareto exponent in size is bigger. Then an agent model is built to study the underlying formation mechanism of distributions of region size and GDP. Our model presents the mechanism how economic factors flow between regions to reproduce the tail behavior and the difference between the Pareto exponents of size and those of GDP. At last, the simulated results agree with the real empirical well.

  4. Thresholded Power Law Size Distributions of Instabilities in Astrophysics

    Aschwanden, Markus J.

    2015-01-01

    Power law-like size distributions are ubiquitous in astrophysical instabilities. There are at least four natural effects that cause deviations from ideal power law size distributions, which we model here in a generalized way: (1) a physical threshold of an instability; (2) incomplete sampling of the smallest events below a threshold $x_0$; (3) contamination by an event-unrelated background $x_b$; and (4) truncation effects at the largest events due to a finite system size. These effects can b...

  5. BESIII production with distributed computing

    Zhang, X. M.; Yan, T.; Zhao, X. H.; Ma, Z. T.; Yan, X. F.; Lin, T.; Deng, Z. Y.; Li, W. D.; Belov, S.; Pelevanyuk, I.; Zhemchugov, A.; Cai, H.

    2015-12-01

    Distributed computing is necessary nowadays for high energy physics experiments to organize heterogeneous computing resources all over the world to process enormous amounts of data. The BESIII experiment in China, has established its own distributed computing system, based on DIRAC, as a supplement to local clusters, collecting cluster, grid, desktop and cloud resources from collaborating member institutes around the world. The system consists of workload management and data management to deal with the BESIII Monte Carlo production workflow in a distributed environment. A dataset-based data transfer system has been developed to support data movements among sites. File and metadata management tools and a job submission frontend have been developed to provide a virtual layer for BESIII physicists to use distributed resources. Moreover, the paper shows the experience to cope with lack of grid experience and low manpower among the BESIII community.

  6. Intercomparison of 15 aerodynamic particle size spectrometers (APS 3321): uncertainties in particle sizing and number size distribution

    Pfeifer, Sascha; Müller, Thomas; Weinhold, Kay; Zikova, Nadezda; Martins dos Santos, Sebastiao; Marinoni, Angela; Bischof, Oliver F.; Kykal, Carsten; Ries, Ludwig; Meinhardt, Frank; Aalto, Pasi; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Wiedensohler, Alfred

    2016-04-01

    Aerodynamic particle size spectrometers are a well-established method to measure number size distributions of coarse mode particles in the atmosphere. Quality assurance is essential for atmospheric observational aerosol networks to obtain comparable results with known uncertainties. In a laboratory study within the framework of ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research Infrastructure Network), 15 aerodynamic particle size spectrometers (APS model 3321, TSI Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) were compared with a focus on flow rates, particle sizing, and the unit-to-unit variability of the particle number size distribution. Flow rate deviations were relatively small (within a few percent), while the sizing accuracy was found to be within 10 % compared to polystyrene latex (PSL) reference particles. The unit-to-unit variability in terms of the particle number size distribution during this study was within 10 % to 20 % for particles in the range of 0.9 up to 3 µm, which is acceptable for atmospheric measurements. For particles smaller than that, the variability increased up to 60 %, probably caused by differences in the counting efficiencies of individual units. Number size distribution data for particles smaller than 0.9 µm in aerodynamic diameter should only be used with caution. For particles larger than 3 µm, the unit-to-unit variability increased as well. A possible reason is an insufficient sizing accuracy in combination with a steeply sloping particle number size distribution and the increasing uncertainty due to decreasing counting. Particularly this uncertainty of the particle number size distribution must be considered if higher moments of the size distribution such as the particle volume or mass are calculated, which require the conversion of the aerodynamic diameter measured to a volume equivalent diameter. In order to perform a quantitative quality assurance, a traceable reference method for the particle number concentration in the size range 0.5-3 µm is needed.

  7. Intercomparison of 15 aerodynamic particle size spectrometers (APS 3321): uncertainties in particle sizing and number size distribution

    Pfeifer, S.; Mller, T.; Weinhold, K.; Zikova, N.; Santos, S.; Marinoni, A.; Bischof, O. F.; Kykal, C.; Ries, L.; Meinhardt, F.; Aalto, P.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2015-11-01

    Aerodynamic particle size spectrometers are a well-established method to measure number size distributions of coarse mode particles in the atmosphere. Quality assurance is essential for atmospheric observational aerosol networks to obtain comparable results with known uncertainties. In a laboratory study within the framework of ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research Infrastructure Network), 15 aerodynamic particle size spectrometers (APS model 3321, TSI Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) were compared with a focus on flow rates accuracy, particle sizing, and unit-to-unit variability of the particle number size distribution. Flow rate deviations were relatively small (within a few percent), while the sizing accuracy was found to be within 10 % compared to polystyrene latex (PSL) reference particles. The unit-to-unit variability in terms of the particle number size distribution during this study was within 10-20 % for particles in the range of 0.9 up to 3 ?m, which is acceptable for atmospheric measurements. For particles smaller than that, the variability increased up to 60 %, probably caused by differences in the counting efficiencies of individual units. Number size distribution data for particles smaller than 0.9 ?m in aerodynamic diameter should be only used with caution. For particles larger than 3 ?m, the unit-to-unit variability increased as well. A possible reason is an insufficient sizing accuracy in combination with a steeply sloping particle number size distribution and the increasing uncertainty due to decreasing counting. This uncertainty of the particle number size distribution has especially to be considered if higher moments of the size distribution such as the particle volume or mass are calculated, which require the conversion of the aerodynamic diameter measured to a volume equivalent diameter. In order to perform a quantitative quality assurance, a traceable reference method for the particle number concentration in the size range 0.5-3 ?m is needed.

  8. Application of a laser particle size analyser to estimating paricle size distribution in suspended sediment

    The studies were undertaken in 1998 on phosphorus concentration in river sediment versus sediment grain size distribution as a part of research on water quality and outflow from small agricultural watershed, carried out by the Department of Hydraulic Structures, Agricultural University of Warsaw. Laser particle size analyser was applied to measure suspended sediment size distribution. Sampling procedure, principles of analysis and the results were described

  9. Size distribution of natural radioactive aerosols in an underground building

    The size distribution of natural radioactive aerosols is a very important factor for evaluating the exposure dose contributed by radon. In order to measure the size distribution, a cascade impactor was employed for sampling in an underground building. The results of 4-time measurements at 58 places show that the sizes of natural radioactive aerosols are lognormal distribution, and the AMAD is between 0.087 and 0.427 μm with an average of 0.194 μm. The AMADs ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 μm cover 85% of all data. (authors)

  10. Pore-size-distribution of cationic polyacrylamide hydrogels

    Kremer, M.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The pore size distribution of a AAm/MAPTAC (acrylamide copolymerized with (3-methacrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) hydrogel was investigated using Kuga's mixed-solute-exclusion method, taking into account the wall effect. A Brownian-motion model is also used. Results show the feasibility of determining pore-size distribution of porous materials using the mixed-solute-exclusion method in conjunction with solution of the Fredholm equation; good agreement was obtained with experiment, even for bimodal pore structures. However, different pore size distributions were calculated for the two different probe-solutes (Dextran and poly(ethylene glycol/oxide)). Future work is outlined. 32 figs, 25 refs.

  11. Pore-size-distribution of cationic polyacrylamide hydrogels. Progress report

    Kremer, M.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The pore size distribution of a AAm/MAPTAC (acrylamide copolymerized with (3-methacrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) hydrogel was investigated using Kuga`s mixed-solute-exclusion method, taking into account the wall effect. A Brownian-motion model is also used. Results show the feasibility of determining pore-size distribution of porous materials using the mixed-solute-exclusion method in conjunction with solution of the Fredholm equation; good agreement was obtained with experiment, even for bimodal pore structures. However, different pore size distributions were calculated for the two different probe-solutes (Dextran and poly(ethylene glycol/oxide)). Future work is outlined. 32 figs, 25 refs.

  12. Experimental study of particle size distribution in suspension polymerization

    Particle size distribution is an important characteristic in suspension polymerization. Special condition must satisfy for achievement of an appropriate particle size distribution This condition is studied for some systems. In this work the effect of parameters affecting the suspension polymerization system of styrene was studied and then the approximate optimum range was determined to obtain narrow particle size distribution mainly in the range of 200 to 400 microns. The studied parameters are: position of impeller, impeller type, impeller speed, baffles, stabilizer concentration, initiator concentration and divinylbenzene concentration as cross-linking agent

  13. What We Can Learn From Supernova Remnant Size Distributions

    Elwood, Benjamin; Murphy, Jeremiah; Diaz, Mariangelly

    2016-01-01

    Previous literature regarding size distributions of supernova remnants generally discuss a uniform distribution for the radius, occasionally considering a Gaussian alternative. We indeed show that these distributions are consistent with log-normal, which can be considered a natural consequence of the Central Limit Theorem and Sedov expansion. Modeling explosion energy, remnant age, and ambient density as independent, random distributions, we show, using simple Monte Carlo simulations, that the size distribution is indistinguishable from log-normal when the SNR sample size is of order three hundred. This implies that these SNR distributions provide only information on the mean and variance, yielding additional information only when the sample size grows large. We then proceed to Bayesian statistical inference to characterize the information provided by the size distributions. In particular, we use the mean and variance of sizes and explosion energies to subsequently estimate the mean and variance of the ambient medium surrounding SNR progenitors. This in turn allows us to characterize potential bias in studies involving samples of supernova remnants.

  14. Methods of assessing grain-size distribution during grain growth

    Tweed, Cherry J.; Hansen, Niels; Ralph, Brian

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers methods of obtaining grain-size distributions and ways of describing them. In order to collect statistically useful amounts of data, an automatic image analyzer is used, and the resulting data are subjected to a series of tests that evaluate the differences between two related...... distributions (before and after grain growth). The distributions are measured from two-dimensional sections, and both the data and the corresponding true three-dimensional grain-size distributions (obtained by stereological analysis) are collected. The techniques described here are illustrated by reference to...

  15. INITIAL PLANETESIMAL SIZES AND THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SMALL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    The Kuiper Belt is a remnant from the early solar system and its size distribution contains many important constraints that can be used to test models of planet formation and collisional evolution. We show, by comparing observations with theoretical models, that the observed Kuiper Belt size distribution is well matched by coagulation models, which start with an initial planetesimal population with radii of about 1 km, and subsequent collisional evolution. We find that the observed size distribution above R ∼ 30 km is primordial, i.e., it has not been modified by collisional evolution over the age of the solar system, and that the size distribution below R ∼ 30 km has been modified by collisions and that its slope is well matched by collisional evolution models that use published strength laws. We investigate in detail the resulting size distribution of bodies ranging from 0.01 km to 30 km and find that its slope changes several times as a function of radius before approaching the expected value for an equilibrium collisional cascade of material strength dominated bodies for R ∼< 0.1 km. Compared to a single power-law size distribution that would span the whole range from 0.01 km to 30 km, we find in general a strong deficit of bodies around R ∼ 10 km and a strong excess of bodies around 2 km in radius. This deficit and excess of bodies are caused by the planetesimal size distribution left over from the runaway growth phase, which left most of the initial mass in small planetesimals while only a small fraction of the total mass is converted into large protoplanets. This excess mass in small planetesimals leaves a permanent signature in the size distribution of small bodies that is not erased after 4.5 Gyr of collisional evolution. Observations of the small Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) size distribution can therefore test if large KBOs grew as a result of runaway growth and constrained the initial planetesimal sizes. We find that results from recent KBO occultation surveys and the observed KBO size distribution can be best matched by an initial planetesimal population that contained about equal mass per logarithmic mass bin in bodies ranging from 0.4 km to 4 km in radius. We further find that we cannot match the observed KBO size distribution if most of the planetesimal mass was contained in bodies that were 10 km in radius or larger simply because their resulting size distribution cannot be sufficiently depleted over 4.5 Gyr to match observations

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of general compartment size distributions

    Oezarslan, Evren; Koay, Cheng Guan; Basser, Peter J [Section on Tissue Biophysics and Biomimetics, NICHD, National Institutes of Health, 13 South Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Shemesh, Noam; Cohen, Yoram, E-mail: evren@helix.nih.gov [School of Chemistry, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Ramat Aviv (Israel)

    2011-01-15

    The influence of molecular diffusion on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal can be exploited to estimate compartment size distributions in heterogeneous specimens. Theoretical relationships between the NMR signal intensity at long diffusion times and the moments of a general distribution of isolated pores with characteristic shapes (planar, cylindrical or spherical) are established. A numerical method based on expressing a general diffusion-attenuated NMR signal profile in a series of complete orthogonal basis functions is introduced and subsequently used to estimate the moments of the compartment size distribution. The results on simulated and real data obtained from controlled water-filled microcapillaries demonstrate the power of the approach to create contrast based not only on the mean of the compartment size but also on its variance. The technique can be used to address a variety of problems such as characterizing distributions of droplet sizes in emulsions and of apparent axon diameters in nerve fascicles.

  17. Size distribution measurements and chemical analysis of aerosol components

    Pakkanen, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    The principal aims of this work were to improve the existing methods for size distribution measurements and to draw conclusions about atmospheric and in-stack aerosol chemistry and physics by utilizing size distributions of various aerosol components measured. A sample dissolution with dilute nitric acid in an ultrasonic bath and subsequent graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric analysis was found to result in low blank values and good recoveries for several elements in atmospheric fine particle size fractions below 2 {mu}m of equivalent aerodynamic particle diameter (EAD). Furthermore, it turned out that a substantial amount of analyses associated with insoluble material could be recovered since suspensions were formed. The size distribution measurements of in-stack combustion aerosols indicated two modal size distributions for most components measured. The existence of the fine particle mode suggests that a substantial fraction of such elements with two modal size distributions may vaporize and nucleate during the combustion process. In southern Norway, size distributions of atmospheric aerosol components usually exhibited one or two fine particle modes and one or two coarse particle modes. Atmospheric relative humidity values higher than 80% resulted in significant increase of the mass median diameters of the droplet mode. Important local and/or regional sources of As, Br, I, K, Mn, Pb, Sb, Si and Zn were found to exist in southern Norway. The existence of these sources was reflected in the corresponding size distributions determined, and was utilized in the development of a source identification method based on size distribution data. On the Finnish south coast, atmospheric coarse particle nitrate was found to be formed mostly through an atmospheric reaction of nitric acid with existing coarse particle sea salt but reactions and/or adsorption of nitric acid with soil derived particles also occurred. Chloride was depleted when acidic species reacted with atmospheric sea salt particles. The chloride loss was found to decrease with increasing particle size suggesting that surface reaction mechanisms were important. Overall, the results obtained in this work describe the present methods used in all steps of accurate size distribution measurements of aerosol components and demonstrate the usefulness and possibilities of size distribution measurements in various scientific studies. (orig.)

  18. Elemental mass size distribution of the Debrecen urban aerosol

    Complete text of publication follows. Size distribution is one of the basic properties of atmospheric aerosol. It is closely related to the origin, chemical composition and age of the aerosol particles, and it influences the optical properties, environmental effects and health impact of aerosol. As part of the ongoing aerosol research in the Group of Ion Beam Applications of the Atomki, elemental mass size distribution of urban aerosol were determined using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analytical technique. Aerosol sampling campaigns were carried out with 9-stage PIXE International cascade impactors, which separates the aerosol into 10 size fractions in the 0.05-30 ?m range. Five 48-hours long samplings were done in the garden of the Atomki, in April and in October, 2007. Both campaigns included weekend and working day samplings. Basically two different kinds of particles could be identified according to the size distribution. In the size distribution of Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Ba, Ti, Mn and Co one dominant peak can be found around the 3 m aerodynamic diameter size range, as it is shown on Figure 1. These are the elements of predominantly natural origin. Elements like S, Cl, K, Zn, Pb and Br appears with high frequency in the 0.25-0.5 mm size range as presented in Figure 2. These elements are originated mainly from anthropogenic sources. However sometimes in the size distribution of these elements a 2nd, smaller peak appears at the 2-4 ?m size ranges, indicating different sources. Differences were found between the size distribution of the spring and autumn samples. In the case of elements of soil origin the size distribution was shifted towards smaller diameters during October, and a 2nd peak appeared around 0.5 ?m. A possible explanation to this phenomenon can be the different meteorological conditions. No differences were found between the weekend and working days in the size distribution, however the concentration values were smaller during the weekend than the other days. The elemental mass size distribution provides information about the origin and sources of aerosol particles, and with emphasis on the PM2.5, serves as an input parameter for the determination of lung deposition probabilities by stochastic lung model calculation. This calculation together with short-term time variation enables us to give a more precise health impact of the urban aerosol

  19. City size distributions as a consequence of the growth process

    Duranton, Gilles

    2002-01-01

    The size distribution of cities in many countries follows some broadly regular patterns. Any good theory of city size distributions should (i) be able to account for this regularity, but also (ii) rely on a plausible economic mechanism and (iii) be consistent with other fundamental features of cities like the existence of agglomeration economies and crowding costs. Unlike the previous literature, the model proposed here satisfies these three requirements. It views small innovation-driven tech...

  20. Global anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions

    Paasonen, P.; K. Kupiainen; Klimont, Z.; Visschedijk, A.; Denier Van Der Gon, H; Amann, M

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol particle number concentrations and size distributions affect our climate by determining the formation of cloud droplets and thus altering the cloud reflective properties. The aerosol-cloud interactions are one of the main uncertainties in estimating the future climate change. One of the weaknesses in current climate modelling is the description of number emissions and size distributions of particles. Here, we present the first global results of implementing particle number emission fa...

  1. A multivariate rank test for comparing mass size distributions

    Lombard, F.

    2012-04-01

    Particle size analyses of a raw material are commonplace in the mineral processing industry. Knowledge of particle size distributions is crucial in planning milling operations to enable an optimum degree of liberation of valuable mineral phases, to minimize plant losses due to an excess of oversize or undersize material or to attain a size distribution that fits a contractual specification. The problem addressed in the present paper is how to test the equality of two or more underlying size distributions. A distinguishing feature of these size distributions is that they are not based on counts of individual particles. Rather, they are mass size distributions giving the fractions of the total mass of a sampled material lying in each of a number of size intervals. As such, the data are compositional in nature, using the terminology of Aitchison [1] that is, multivariate vectors the components of which add to 100%. In the literature, various versions of Hotelling\\'s T 2 have been used to compare matched pairs of such compositional data. In this paper, we propose a robust test procedure based on ranks as a competitor to Hotelling\\'s T 2. In contrast to the latter statistic, the power of the rank test is not unduly affected by the presence of outliers or of zeros among the data. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  2. Zero emission distributed hydrogen production

    The need for distributed production facilities has become a critical issue in developing a hydrogen infrastructure. Hydrogen generation using processes that make effective use of what would normally be considered waste streams or process inefficiencies can have more favorable economics than stand-alone technologies. Currently, natural gas is distributed to industrial and residential customers through a network of pipelines. High pressure main lines move gas to the vicinity of consumers where the pressure is reduced for local, low pressure distribution. Often, the practice is to use an isenthalpic expansion which results in a cooling of the gas stream. Some of the natural gas is burned to preheat the fuel so that the temperature after the expansion is near ambient. This results in the destruction of exergy in the high pressure gas stream and produces CO2 in the process. If, instead, a turbo-expander is used to reduce the stream pressure, work can be recovered using a generator and hydrogen can be produced via electrolysis. This method of hydrogen production is free of green-house gas emissions, makes use of existing gas distribution facilities, and uses exergy that would otherwise be destroyed. Pressure reduction using the work producing process (turbo-expander) is accompanied by a large drop in temperature, on the average of 70 K. The local gas distributor requires the gas temperature to be raised again to near 8oC to prevent damage to valve assemblies. The required heating power after expansion can be on the order of megawatts (site dependent.) Supplying the heat can be seen as a cost if energy is taken from the system to reheat the fuel; however, the low temperature stream may also be considered an asset if the cooling power can be used for a local process. This analysis is the second stage of a study to examine the technical and economic feasibility of using pressure let-down sites as hydrogen production facilities. This paper describes a proposed demonstration hydrogen production and fueling station near Victoria, BC. The station would demonstrate the viability of the proposed process to generate hydrogen while increasing the performance of the natural gas distribution system. The station could provide the ability to fuel vehicles as part of the Victoria node of the hydrogen highway project to be implemented for the 2010 Winter Olympic games. (author)

  3. Measurement of aggregates' size distribution by angular light scattering

    A novel method is introduced for in situ determination of the size distribution of submicronic fractal aggregate particles by unique measurement of angular scattering of light. This method relies on the dependence of a new defined function Rg? on the polydispersity of the aggregates' size distribution. The function Rg? is then interpreted by the use of iso-level charts to determine the parameters of the log-normal soot size distribution. The main advantage of this method is its independence of the particle optical properties and primary sphere diameter. Moreover, except for the knowledge of fractal dimension, this method does not require any additional measurement. It is validated on monodisperse particles selected by a differential mobility analyzer and polydisperse soot from ethylene diffusion flame whose size distribution is independently determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy. Finally, the size distribution of soot generated by a commercial apparatus is measured by the proposed method and the comparison to that given by a commercial granulometer shows a good agreement. -- Highlights: ? A novel method is introduced for in situ measurement of aggregates size distribution. ? Only measurements of scattered light at three angles are required. ? Neither the refractive index nor the primary sphere diameter is necessary. ? The method is validated experimentally on monodisperse and polydisperse particles

  4. Measurements of size distributions of radon progeny for improved quantification of the lung cancer risk emanating from exposure to radon decay products; Messungen der Groessenverteilungen von Radon-Folgeprodukten zur Verbesserung der Quantifizierung des durch Radonexposition verursachten Lungenkrebsrisikos

    Haninger, T.

    1997-12-31

    A major issue in radiation protection is to protect the population from the harmful effects of exposure to radon and radon progeny. Quantification of the lung cancer risk emanating from exposure to radon decay products in residential and working environments poses problems, as epidemiologic studies yield information deviating from the results obtained by the indirect method of assessment based on dosimetric respiratory tract models. One important task of the publication here was to characterize the various exposure conditions and to quantify uncertainties that may result from application of the ``dose conversion convention``. A special aerosol spectrometer was therefore designed and built in order to measure the size distributions of the short-lived radon decay products in the range between 0.5 nm and 10 000 nm. The aerosol spectrometer consists of a three-step diffusion battery with wire nets, an 11-step BERNER impactor, and a detector system with twelve large-surface proportional detectors. From the measured size distributions, dose conversion coefficients, E/P{sup eq}, were calculated using the PC software RADEP; the RADEP program was developed by BIRCHALL and JAMES and is based on the respiratory tract model of the ICRP. The E/P{sup eq} coefficients indicate the effective dose E per unit exposure P{sup eq} to radon decay products. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Eines der groessten Probleme des Strahlenschutzes ist der Schutz der Bevoelkerung vor einer Strahlenexposition durch Radon und seine Folgeprodukte. Die Quantifizierung des Lungenkrebsrisikos, das durch Radonexpositionen in Wohnungen und an Arbeitsplaetzen verursacht wird, ist ein grosses Problem, weil epidemiologische Studien ein anderes Ergebnis liefern, als die indirekte Methode der Abschaetzung mit dosimetrischen Atemtrakt-Modellen. Eine wichtige Aufgabe der vorliegenden Arbeit war es, unterschiedliche Expositionsbedingungen zu charakterisieren und die Unsicherheiten zu quantifizieren, die sich aus der Anwendung der `Dosiskonversionskonvention` ergeben koennen. Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde daher ein spezielles Aerosolspektrometer konzipiert und aufgebaut, mit dem es moeglich ist, die Groessenverteilungen der kurzlebigen Radon-Folgeprodukte im Bereich zwischen 0,5 nm und 10 000 nm zu messen. Das Aerosolspektrometer besteht aus einer dreistufigen Diffusionsbatterie mit Drahtnetzen, einem elfstufigen BERNER-Impaktor und einem Detektorsystem mit zwoelf grossflaechigen Proportionaldetektoren. Aus den gemessenen Groessenverteilungen wurden Dosiskonversionskoeffizienten E/P{sub eq} mit dem PC-Programm RADEP berechnet; RADEP wurde von BIRCHALL und JAMES entwickelt [BIR 94] und beruht auf dem Atemtrakt-Modell der ICRP. Mit E/P{sub eq} wird die effektive Dosis E pro Einheit der Exposition P{sub eq} durch Radon-Folgeprodukte bezeichnet. (orig./MG)

  5. Grain size distributions of volcanic particles by CAMSIZER

    Lo Castro, Maria Deborah; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italia; Andronico, Daniele; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italia

    2009-01-01

    Grain size distribution is a key parameter in physical volcanology to describe and characterize tephra fall deposits. Walker (1973) used grain size parameters to propose a classification scheme of explosive volcanic eruptions. More recently, the role of grain size populations of eruptive mixtures at the vent has been widely considered a crucial input parameter for the application of numerical models simulating both plume and tephra dispersal (e.g. Cioni et al., 2003; Andronico et al., 2008; S...

  6. Cascade sizes in a branching process with Gamma distributed generations

    Burridge, James

    2013-01-01

    We derive an exact expression for the probability density function of the cascade size (total progeny) in a continuous state branching process when the generations are Gamma distributed. The distribution has application in the modelling of cascade processes such as landslides and electrical network failures.

  7. Bipartite Producer-Consumer Networks and the Size Distribution of Firms

    Dahui, W; Zengru, D; Dahui, Wang; Li, Zhou; Zengru, Di

    2005-01-01

    A bipartite producer-consumer network is constructed to describe the industrial structure. The edges from consumer to producer represent the choices of the consumer for the final products and the degree of producer can represent its market share. So the size distribution of firms can be characterized by producer's degree distribution. The probability for a producer receiving a new consumption is determined by its competency described by initial attractiveness and the self-reinforcing mechanism in the competition described by preferential attachment. The cases with constant total consumption and with growing market are studied. The following results are obtained: 1, Without market growth and a uniform initial attractiveness $a$, the final distribution of firm sizes is Gamma distribution for $a>1$ and is exponential for $a=1$. If $a<1$, the distribution is power in small size and exponential in upper tail; 2, For a growing market, the size distribution of firms obeys the power law. The exponent is affected b...

  8. Distribution Of Natural Radioactivity On Soil Size Particles

    This report presents a distribution of natural radioactivity on different soil size particles, taken from one soil profile. On the results shows a range from 52% to 66% of natural radioisotopes such as 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K concentrated on the soil particles below 40 micrometers in diameter size. The remained of natural radioisotopes were distributed on a soil particles with higher diameter size. The study is available for soil sample collected to natural radioactive analyze by gamma and alpha spectrometer methods. (author)

  9. Influence of particle size distributions on magnetorheological fluid performances

    Chiriac, H; Stoian, G, E-mail: hchiriac@phys-iasi.r [National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics, 47 Mangeron Boulevard, Iasi (Romania)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the influence that size distributions of the magnetic particles might have on the magnetorheological fluid performances. In our study, several size distributions have been tailored first by sieving a micrometric Fe powder in order to obtain narrow distribution powders and then by recomposing the new size distributions (different from Gaussian). We used spherical Fe particles (mesh -325) commercially available. The powder was sieved by means of a sieve shaker using a series of sieves with the following mesh size: 20, 32, 40, 50, 63, 80 micrometers. All magnetic powders were characterized through Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) measurements, particle size analysis and also Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images were taken. Magnetorheological (MR) fluids based on the resulted magnetic powders were prepared and studied by means of a rheometer with a magnetorheological module. The MR fluids were measured in magnetic field and in zero magnetic field as well. As we noticed in our previous experiments particles size distribution can also influence the MR fluids performances.

  10. Particle size and shape distributions of hammer milled pine

    Westover, Tyler Lott [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Matthews, Austin Colter [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Williams, Christopher Luke [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ryan, John Chadron Benjamin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Particle size and shape distributions impact particle heating rates and diffusion of volatized gases out of particles during fast pyrolysis conversion, and consequently must be modeled accurately in order for computational pyrolysis models to produce reliable results for bulk solid materials. For this milestone, lodge pole pine chips were ground using a Thomas-Wiley #4 mill using two screen sizes in order to produce two representative materials that are suitable for fast pyrolysis. For the first material, a 6 mm screen was employed in the mill and for the second material, a 3 mm screen was employed in the mill. Both materials were subjected to RoTap sieve analysis, and the distributions of the particle sizes and shapes were determined using digital image analysis. The results of the physical analysis will be fed into computational pyrolysis simulations to create models of materials with realistic particle size and shape distributions. This milestone was met on schedule.

  11. The seasonal evolution of sea ice floe size distribution

    Perovich, Donald K.; Jones, Kathleen F.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover undergoes large changes over an annual cycle. In winter and spring, the ice cover consists of large, snow-covered plate-like ice floes, with very little open water. By the end of summer, the snow cover is gone and the large floes have broken into a complex mosaic of smaller, rounded floes surrounded by a lace of open water. This evolution strongly affects the distribution and fate of the solar radiation deposited in the ice-ocean system and consequently the heat budget of the ice cover. In particular, increased floe perimeter can result in enhanced lateral melting. We attempt to quantify the floe evolution process through the concept of a floe size distribution that is modified by lateral melting and floe breaking. A time series of aerial photographic surveys made during the SHEBA field experiment is analyzed to determine evolution of the floe size distribution from spring through summer. Based on earlier studies, we assume the floe size cumulative distribution could be represented by a power law D-α, where D is the floe diameter. The exponent α as well as the number density of floes Ntot are estimated from measurements of total ice area and perimeter. As summer progressed, there was an increase in α as the size distribution shifted toward smaller floes and the number of floes increased. Lateral melting causes the distribution to deviate from a power law for small floe sizes.

  12. The evolution and distribution of species body size

    Clauset, Aaron; 10.1126/science.1157534

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of species body size within taxonomic groups exhibits a heavy right-tail extending over many orders of magnitude, where most species are significantly larger than the smallest species. We provide a simple model of cladogenetic diffusion over evolutionary time that omits explicit mechanisms for inter-specific competition and other microevolutionary processes yet fully explains the shape of this distribution. We estimate the model's parameters from fossil data and find that it robustly reproduces the distribution of 4002 mammal species from the late Quaternary. The observed fit suggests that the asymmetric distribution arises from a fundamental tradeoff between the short-term selective advantages (Cope's rule) and long-term selective risks of increased species body size, in the presence of a taxon-specific lower limit on body size.

  13. Johnson SB as general functional form for raindrop size distribution

    Cugerone, Katia; De Michele, Carlo

    2015-08-01

    Drop size distribution represents the statistical synthesis of rainfall dynamics at particle size scale. Gamma and Lognormal distributions have been widely used in the literature to approximate the drop diameter variability, contrarily to the natural upper boundary of the variable, with almost always site-specific studies and without the support of statistical goodness-of-fit tests. In this work, we present an extensive statistical investigation of raindrop size distribution based on eight data sets, well distributed on the Earth's surface, which have been analyzed by using skewness-kurtosis plane, AIC and BIC indices and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Here for the first time, the Johnson SB is proposed as general functional form to describe the drop diameter variability specifically at 1 min time scale. Additional analyses demonstrate that the model is well suitable even for larger time intervals (?1 min).

  14. Density, chemistry, and size distribution of interplanetary dust

    Brownlee, D. E.; Horz, F.; Hartung, J. B.; Gault, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Depth/diameter ratios measured for 98 craters in lunar glass targets reveal a broad distribution with a single strong peaking between 0.55 and 0.8. The measured values indicate a mean meteoroid density greater than 1 g/cu cm and probably less than 4 g/cu cm. Microprobe analyses show that typical glass pit liners on silicate targets contain only approximately 0.1% or less of meteoritic material. The size-frequency distribution of meteoroids was analyzed for a fractured glass surface of 60095, and a very steep size distribution of submicron meteoroids is indicated. As in the case of 15205, a dip at approximately 5 micron in the size-frequency distribution is detected.

  15. Estimation of Particle Size Distribution and Aspect Ratio of Non-Spherical Particles From Chord Length Distribution

    Agimelen, Okpeafoh S; Vasile, Massimiliano; Nordon, Alison; Haley, Ian; Mulholland, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Information about size and shape of particles produced in various manufacturing processes is very important for process and product development because design of downstream processes as well as final product properties strongly depend on these geometrical particle attributes. However, recovery of particle size and shape information in situ during crystallisation processes has been a major challenge. The focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) provides the chord length distribution (CLD) of a population of particles in a suspension flowing close to the sensor window. Recovery of size and shape information from the CLD requires a model relating particle size and shape to its CLD as well as solving the corresponding inverse problem. This paper presents a comprehensive algorithm which produces estimates of particle size distribution and particle aspect ratio from measured CLD data. While the algorithm searches for a global best solution to the inverse problem without requiring further a priori information on ...

  16. Recurrent frequency-size distribution of characteristic events

    S. G. Abaimov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Statistical frequency-size (frequency-magnitude properties of earthquake occurrence play an important role in seismic hazard assessments. The behavior of earthquakes is represented by two different statistics: interoccurrent behavior in a region and recurrent behavior at a given point on a fault (or at a given fault. The interoccurrent frequency-size behavior has been investigated by many authors and generally obeys the power-law Gutenberg-Richter distribution to a good approximation. It is expected that the recurrent frequency-size behavior should obey different statistics. However, this problem has received little attention because historic earthquake sequences do not contain enough events to reconstruct the necessary statistics. To overcome this lack of data, this paper investigates the recurrent frequency-size behavior for several problems. First, the sequences of creep events on a creeping section of the San Andreas fault are investigated. The applicability of the Brownian passage-time, lognormal, and Weibull distributions to the recurrent frequency-size statistics of slip events is tested and the Weibull distribution is found to be the best-fit distribution. To verify this result the behaviors of numerical slider-block and sand-pile models are investigated and the Weibull distribution is confirmed as the applicable distribution for these models as well. Exponents β of the best-fit Weibull distributions for the observed creep event sequences and for the slider-block model are found to have similar values ranging from 1.6 to 2.2 with the corresponding aperiodicities CV of the applied distribution ranging from 0.47 to 0.64. We also note similarities between recurrent time-interval statistics and recurrent frequency-size statistics.

  17. Ionization cluster size distribution for alpha particles: Experiment, modelling

    The paper presents data for measured ionization cluster size distributions by alpha particles in tissue equivalent media and comparison with the simulated data for liquid water. The experiments were carried out with a beam of 4.6 MeV alpha particles performed in a setup called the JET Counter. The theoretically derived cluster size distributions for alphas particles were obtained using the K-means algorithm. The simulation was carried out by Monte Carlo track structure calculations using cross sections for liquid water. The first moments of cluster size distributions, derived from K-means algorithm as a function of diameter of cluster centroid, were compared with the corresponding moments derived from the experiments for nitrogen and propane targets. It was found that the ratio of the first moments for water to gas targets correlates well with the corresponding ratio of the mean free paths for primary ionization by alpha particles in the two media. It is shown that the cluster size distributions for alpha particles in water, obtained from K-means algorithm, are in agreement with the corresponding distributions measured experimentally in nitrogen or propane gas targets of nano-meter sizes. (authors)

  18. Can vesicle size distributions predict eruption intensity during volcanic activity?

    A. LaRue

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied three-dimensional (3-D vesicle size distributions by X-ray microtomography in scoria collected during the relatively quiescent Phase II of the 2010 eruption at Eyjafjallajkull volcano, Iceland. Our goal was to compare the vesicle size distributions (VSDs measured in these samples with those found in Stromboli volcano, Italy. Stromboli was chosen because its VSDs are well-characterized and show a correlation with eruption intensity: typical Strombolian activity produces VSDs with power-law exponents near 1, whereas larger and more energetic Vulcanian-type explosions and Plinian eruptions produce VSDs with power-law exponents near 1.5. The hypothesis to be tested was whether or not the samples studied in this work would contain VSDs similar to normal Strombolian products, display higher power-law exponents, or be described by exponential functions. Before making this comparison we tested the hypothesis that the phreatomagmatic nature of the Eyjafjallajkull eruption might have a significant effect on the VSDs. We performed 1 atm bubble-growth experiments in which the samples were inundated with water and compared them to similar, control, experiments without water inundation. No significant differences between the VSDs of the two sets of experiments were found, and the hypothesis is not supported by the experimental evidence; therefore, VSDs of magmatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions can be directly compared. The Phase II Eyjafjallajkull VSDs are described by power law exponents of ~ 0.8, typical of normal Strombolian eruptions. The comparable VSDs and behavior of Phase II of the Eyjafjallajkull 2010 eruption to Stromboli are interpreted to be a reflection of similar conduit systems in both volcanoes that are being constantly fed by the ascent of deep magma that mixes with resident magma at shallow depths. Such behavior implies that continued activity during Phase II of the Eyjafjallajkull eruption could be expected and would have been predicted, had our VSDs been measured in real time during the eruption. However, the products studied show no peculiar feature that could herald renewed eruption intensity observed in the following Phase III of the eruption.

  19. Demographic growth and the distribution of language sizes

    Zanette, Damian H

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that the present log-normal distribution of language sizes is, to a large extent, a consequence of demographic dynamics within the population of speakers of each language. A two-parameter stochastic multiplicative process is proposed as a model for the population dynamics of individual languages, and applied over a period spanning the last ten centuries. The model disregards language birth and death. A straightforward fitting of the two parameters, which statistically characterize the population growth rate, predicts a distribution of language sizes in excellent agreement with empirical data. Numerical simulations, and the study of the size distribution within language families, validate the assumptions at the basis of the model.

  20. Spatial and seasonal variation in Saharan dust grain size distribution

    Friese, Carmen; Stuut, Jan-Berend; van der Does, Michelle; Fischer, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    In order to interpret the grain size distribution of aeolian deposits in sediment core records with respect to paleoenvironmental conditions it is necessary to understand the transport and deposition of "modern" dust. The particle size of aeolian deposits is influenced by many parameters such as the source-to-sink distance, altitude at which the particles have been transported, wind strength and other environmental conditions in the sources of the dust. Here we present grain-size distributions of Saharan dust that was collected in two marine sediment traps, which are situated off Cape Blanc, 100 km and 400 km offshore the Mauritanian coast. In the traps, dust is collected that is sinking through the water column to the ocean floor in 3600 m and 1300 m water depth. The temporal resolution of the traps is 2-3 weeks and we focus on a time period of 3 years (2003-2006). The grain size data shows a seasonal trend with generally coarser modal grain sizes during the summer months. Coarse modal grain sizes can be attributed to rain or dust events. During the winter months the modal grain sizes exhibit a very good correlation (R=0,8 to 0,9) with the strength of the trade winds at 1000 mb and 900 mb. The modal grain sizes are generally coarser at the mooring site closer to the coast due to a shorter source-to-sink distance.

  1. Porosity, pore size distribution and in situ strength of concrete

    In this study, in situ strength of concrete was determined through compression test of cores drilled out from laboratory cast beams. The apparent porosity and pore size distribution of the same concrete were determined through mercury intrusion porosimetry, performed on small-drilled cores. The normal-strength concrete mixes used in the experimental investigation were designed to exhibit a wide variation in their strengths. To ensure further variation in porosity, pore size distribution and strength, two modes of compaction, two varieties of coarse aggregates, different levels of age, curing period and exposure condition of concrete were also introduced in experimental scheme. With the data so generated, an appraisal of the most frequently referred relationships involving strength, porosity and pore size of cement-based materials was carried out. Finally, a new empirical model relating the in situ strength of concrete with porosity, pore size characteristics, cement content, aggregate type, exposure conditions, etc., is presented

  2. Rank-Size Distribution of Notes in Harmonic Music: Hierarchic Shuffling of Distributions

    Del Río, Manuel Beltrán; Cocho, Germinal

    We trace the rank size distribution of notes in harmonic music, which on previous works we suggested was much better represented by the Two-parameter, first class Beta distribution than the customary power law, to the ranked mixing of distributions dictated by the harmonic and instrumental nature of the piece. The same representation is shown to arise in other fields by the same type of ranked shuffling of distributions. We include the codon content of intergenic DNA sequences and the ranked distribution of sizes of trees in a determined area as examples. We show that the fittings proposed increase their accuracy with the number of distributions that are mixed and ranked.

  3. Casein Micelles: Size Distribution in Milks from Individual Cows

    Kruif, C.G. de; Huppertz, T.

    2012-01-01

    The size distribution and protein composition of casein micelles in the milk of Holstein-Friesian cows was determined as a function of stage and number of lactations. Protein composition did not vary significantly between the milks of different cows or as a function of lactation stage. Differences in the size and polydispersity of the casein micelles were observed between the milks of different cows, but not as a function of stage of milking or stage of lactation and not even over successive ...

  4. Size distributions of member asteroids in seven Hirayama families

    The size distributions of asteroids in the seven Hirayama families are studied for newly assigned member asteroids in the diameter range of about 10 to 100 km. The size distributions for the different families are expressed by the power-law functions with distinctly different power-law indices. The power-law indices for families with small mean orbital inclinations are about 2.5 to 3.0. On the other hand, the power-law indices for families with large mean orbital inclinations are significantly smaller than 2.5. This indicates that the smaller asteroids were removed preferentially from these families after their formation. It is thought that the smaller asteroids left behind the families were dispersed into the main belt. It is consistent with the fact that the power-law index for the size distribution of asteroids with diameters smaller than 25 km in the main belt is larger than the power-law indices for the size distributions of asteroids in the families. This segregation due to the asteroid size can be caused by a drag force caused by the ambient matter deposited on the invariable place of the solar system during the early evolutionary stage. (author)

  5. Correction of bubble size distributions from transmission electron microscopy observations

    Observations by transmission electron microscopy of a high density of gas bubbles in a metal matrix yield a distorted size distribution due to bubble overlap and bubble escape from the surface. A model is described that reconstructs 3-dimensional bubble size distributions from 2-dimensional projections on taking these effects into account. Mathematically, the reconstruction is an ill-posed inverse problem, which is solved by regularization technique. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations support the validity of our model. (au) 1 tab., 32 ills., 32 refs

  6. Estimation of Nanoparticle Size Distributions by Image Analysis

    Fisker, Rune; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge of the nanoparticle size distribution is important for the interpretation of experimental results in many studies of nanoparticle properties. An automated method is needed for accurate and robust estimation of particle size distribution from nanoparticle images with thousands of particles....... In this paper, we present an automated image analysis technique based on a deformable ellipse model that can perform this task. Results of using this technique are shown for both nearly spherical particles and more irregularly shaped particles. The technique proves to be a very useful tool for...

  7. Enzymatic production of specifically distributed hyaluronan oligosaccharides.

    Yuan, Panhong; Lv, Mengxian; Jin, Peng; Wang, Miao; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Kang, Zhen

    2015-09-20

    High-molecular-mass hyaluronan (HA) was controllably depolymerized in pure aqueous solution with recombinant leech hyaluronidase (HAase). The HAase concentration per unit HA and hydrolysis time played important roles in molecular mass distribution. By modulating the concentrations of HAase and controlling the hydrolysis time, any molar-mass-defined HA oligomers could be efficiently and specifically produced on a large scale (40 g/L), such as HA oligosaccharides with weight-average molar mass of 4000, 10,000, and 30,000Da and end hydrolysates containing only HA6 and HA4. High performance liquid chromatography-size exclusion chromatography, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, capillary zone electrophoresis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry confirmed low polydispersity of the produced molar-mass-defined HA oligosaccharides. Therefore, large-scale production of defined HA oligosaccharides with narrow molecular mass distribution will significantly promote progress in related research and its potential applications. PMID:26050905

  8. Thresholded Power law Size Distributions of Instabilities in Astrophysics

    Aschwanden, Markus J.

    2015-11-01

    Power-law-like size distributions are ubiquitous in astrophysical instabilities. There are at least four natural effects that cause deviations from ideal power law size distributions, which we model here in a generalized way: (1) a physical threshold of an instability; (2) incomplete sampling of the smallest events below a threshold x0; (3) contamination by an event-unrelated background xb; and (4) truncation effects at the largest events due to a finite system size. These effects can be modeled in the simplest terms with a “thresholded power law” distribution function (also called generalized Pareto [type II] or Lomax distribution), N(x){dx}\\propto {(x+{x}0)}-a{dx}, where x0 > 0 is positive for a threshold effect, while x0 critical threshold x0. We apply the thresholded power law distribution function to terrestrial, solar (HXRBS, BATSE, RHESSI), and stellar flare (Kepler) data sets. We find that the thresholded power law model provides an adequate fit to most of the observed data. Major advantages of this model are the automated choice of the power law fitting range, diagnostics of background contamination, physical instability thresholds, instrumental detection thresholds, and finite system size limits. When testing self-organized criticality models that predict ideal power laws, we suggest including these natural truncation effects.

  9. Size-Dependency of Income Distributions and Its Implications

    Zhang, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the size-dependency of income distributions, i.e. the income distribution curves change with the population of a country systematically. By using the generalized Lotka-Volterra model to fit the empirical income data in the United States during 1996-2007, we found an important parameter $\\lambda$ can scale with a $\\beta$ power of the size (population) of U.S. in that year. We pointed out that the size-dependency of the income distributions, which is a very important property but seldom addressed by previous studies, has two non-trivial implications: (1) the allometric growth pattern, i.e. the power law relationship between population and GDP in different years, which can be mathematically derived from the size-dependent income distributions and also supported by the empirical data; (2) the connection with the anomalous scaling for the probability density function in critical phenomena since the re-scaled form of the income distributions has the exactly same mathematical expression for the...

  10. Size Evolution and Stochastic Models: Explaining Ostracod Size through Probabilistic Distributions

    Krawczyk, M.; Decker, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2014-12-01

    The biovolume of animals has functioned as an important benchmark for measuring evolution throughout geologic time. In our project, we examined the observed average body size of ostracods over time in order to understand the mechanism of size evolution in these marine organisms. The body size of ostracods has varied since the beginning of the Ordovician, where the first true ostracods appeared. We created a stochastic branching model to create possible evolutionary trees of ostracod size. Using stratigraphic ranges for ostracods compiled from over 750 genera in the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, we calculated overall speciation and extinction rates for our model. At each timestep in our model, new lineages can evolve or existing lineages can become extinct. Newly evolved lineages are assigned sizes based on their parent genera. We parameterized our model to generate neutral and directional changes in ostracod size to compare with the observed data. New sizes were chosen via a normal distribution, and the neutral model selected new sizes differentials centered on zero, allowing for an equal chance of larger or smaller ostracods at each speciation. Conversely, the directional model centered the distribution on a negative value, giving a larger chance of smaller ostracods. Our data strongly suggests that the overall direction of ostracod evolution has been following a model that directionally pushes mean ostracod size down, shying away from a neutral model. Our model was able to match the magnitude of size decrease. Our models had a constant linear decrease while the actual data had a much more rapid initial rate followed by a constant size. The nuance of the observed trends ultimately suggests a more complex method of size evolution. In conclusion, probabilistic methods can provide valuable insight into possible evolutionary mechanisms determining size evolution in ostracods.

  11. The evolution and distribution of species body size

    Clauset, Aaron; Erwin, Douglas H

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of species body size within taxonomic groups exhibits a heavy right-tail extending over many orders of magnitude, where most species are significantly larger than the smallest species. We provide a simple model of cladogenetic diffusion over evolutionary time that omits explicit mechanisms for inter-specific competition and other microevolutionary processes yet fully explains the shape of this distribution. We estimate the model's parameters from fossil data and find that it ...

  12. The degree distribution of fixed act-size collaboration networks

    Qinggui Zhao; Xiangxing Kong; Zhenting Hou

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate a special evolving model of collaboration net-works, where the act-size is fixed. Based on the first-passage probability of Markov chain theory, this paper provides a rigorous proof for the existence of a limiting degree distribution of this model and proves that the degree distribution obeys the power-law form with the exponent adjustable between 2 and 3.

  13. Dust Particle Size Distributions during Spring in Yinchuan, China

    Jiangfeng Shao; Jiandong Mao

    2016-01-01

    Dust particle size distributions in Yinchuan, China, were measured during March and April 2014, using APS-3321 sampler. The distributions were measured under different dust conditions (background, floating dust, blowing dust, and dust storm) and statistical analyses were performed. The results showed that, under different dust conditions, the instantaneous number concentrations of dust particles differed widely. For example, during blowing sand and dust storm conditions, instantaneous dust pa...

  14. Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 Dust Size and Velocity Distributions

    Hahn, Joseph M.; Rettig, Terrence W.

    2000-01-01

    Pre-impact observations of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (S-L9) obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope are examined, and a model of an active, dust-producing comet is fitted to images of fragments G, H, K, and L. The model assumes steady isotropic dust emission from each fragment's sunlit hemisphere. Best-fit results indicate that the dominant light-scatterers in these fragments' comae were relatively large dust grains of radii 10 micrometers < R < 3 mm. The fragments' dust size distributions were rather flat in comparison to other comets, dN(R) proportional to R(sup -2.3 +/- 0.1), and the dust ejection speeds were approximately 0.5-1.5 m/s. The S-L9 fragments themselves were not detected directly, and upper limits on their radii are 1.0-1.5 km assuming an albedo a = 0.04. However, these fragments' vigorous production of dust, which ranges from 6 to 22 kg/s, places a lower limit of approximately 100 m on their radii at the moment of tidal breakup. Any fragments smaller than this limit, yet experiencing similar mass loss rates, would have dissipated prior to impact. Such bodies would fail to leave an impact scar at Jupiter's atmosphere, as was realized by fragments F, J, P(sub 1), P(sub 2), T, and U.

  15. Aggregation dynamics explain vegetation patch-size distributions.

    Irvine, M A; Bull, J C; Keeling, M J

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation patch-size distributions have been an intense area of study for theoreticians and applied ecologists alike in recent years. Of particular interest is the seemingly ubiquitous nature of power-law patch-size distributions emerging in a number of diverse ecosystems. The leading explanation of the emergence of these power-laws is due to local facilitative mechanisms. There is also a common transition from power law to exponential distribution when a system is under global pressure, such as grazing or lack of rainfall. These phenomena require a simple mechanistic explanation. Here, we study vegetation patches from a spatially implicit, patch dynamic viewpoint. We show that under minimal assumptions a power-law patch-size distribution appears as a natural consequence of aggregation. A linear death term also leads to an exponential term in the distribution for any non-zero death rate. This work shows the origin of the breakdown of the power-law under increasing pressure and shows that in general, we expect to observe a power law with an exponential cutoff (rather than pure power laws). The estimated parameters of this distribution also provide insight into the underlying ecological mechanisms of aggregation and death. PMID:26742959

  16. Size distributions of metal nanoparticles in polyelectrolyte gels

    Svergun, D. I.; Shtykova, E. V.; Dembo, A. T.; Bronstein, L. M.; Platonova, O. A.; Yakunin, A. N.; Valetsky, P. M.; Khokhlov, A. R.

    1998-12-01

    Small-angle x-ray scattering is used to study size distributions of noble metal nanoparticles embedded in polyelectrolyte hydrogels with oppositely charged surfactants. A procedure is proposed to subtract matrix scattering and to extract pure scattering due to the nanoparticles allowing to evaluate their size distribution functions by means of a regularization technique. Two kinds of collapsed gel-surfactant complexes were studied: a complex of a cationic gel of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) with an anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (PDADMACl/SDS), and that of an anionic gel of poly(methacrylic acid) with a cationic surfactant cetylpyridinium chloride (PMA/CPC). Addition of a gold compound (HAuCl4ṡ3H2O) to the PDADMACl/SDS system forms the metal compound clusters and leads to a partial distortion of the gel structure. After subsequent reduction of the gold compound with sodium borohydride (NaBH4) ordering in the gel disappears and gold nanoparticles are formed. Their size distribution includes a fraction of small particles with approximately the same size as the compound clusters before reduction and a fraction of larger particles with the radii up to 40 nm. For the collapsed PDADMACl/SDS gels, aging does not change the size distribution profile; for the noncollapsed PDADMACl gels without surfactant, metal particles are found to grow with time. This suggests that the aggregation of metal colloids is prevented by the ordering in the collapsed gel-surfactant complex. The addition of HAuCl4ṡ3H2O and the subsequent reduction of the metal ions in the PMA/CPC system does not distort the gel structure as the degree of incorporation of AuCl4- ions is very low. Particle sizes in the PMA/CPC system are found to be somewhat larger than those in the PDADMACl/SDS system. The PDADMACl/SDS gels loaded with the PtCl4 compound were also studied to analyze the influence of the reducing agent type on the particle size distribution distributions. Fast reduction with NaBH4 yielded mostly small particles with the radii around 2 nm grown from the compound clusters similar to those observed for the gold-loaded gels. In contrast, slow reduction with N2H4ṡH2O was found to produce larger nanoparticles and the size distribution function shows a major fraction of the particles with the radii up to 30 nm.

  17. A Merging Algorithm for Aerosol Size Distribution from Multiple Instruments

    Ondráček, Jakub; Ždímal, Vladimír; Smolík, Jiří; Lazaridis, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 199, 1-4 (2009), s. 219-233. ISSN 0049-6979 Grant ostatní: MTKD(XE) CT-2004-513849 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : aerosols * merging particle size distribution * multilognormal model Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.676, year: 2009

  18. Modeling of Microporosity Size Distribution in Aluminum Alloy A356

    Yao, Lu; Cockcroft, Steve; Zhu, Jindong; Reilly, Carl

    2011-12-01

    Porosity is one of the most common defects to degrade the mechanical properties of aluminum alloys. Prediction of pore size, therefore, is critical to optimize the quality of castings. Moreover, to the design engineer, knowledge of the inherent pore population in a casting is essential to avoid potential fatigue failure of the component. In this work, the size distribution of the porosity was modeled based on the assumptions that the hydrogen pores are nucleated heterogeneously and that the nucleation site distribution is a Gaussian function of hydrogen supersaturation in the melt. The pore growth is simulated as a hydrogen-diffusion-controlled process, which is driven by the hydrogen concentration gradient at the pore liquid interface. Directionally solidified A356 (Al-7Si-0.3Mg) alloy castings were used to evaluate the predictive capability of the proposed model. The cast pore volume fraction and size distributions were measured using X-ray microtomography (XMT). Comparison of the experimental and simulation results showed that good agreement could be obtained in terms of both porosity fraction and size distribution. The model can effectively evaluate the effect of hydrogen content, heterogeneous pore nucleation population, cooling conditions, and degassing time on microporosity formation.

  19. Soil signature simulation of complex mixtures and particle size distributions

    Carson, Tyler; Bachmann, Charles M.; Salvaggio, Carl

    2015-09-01

    Soil reflectance signatures were modeled using the digital imaging and remote sensing image generation model and Blender three-dimensional (3-D) graphic design software. Using these tools, the geometry, radiometry, and chemistry of quartz and magnetite were exploited to model the presence of particle size and porosity effects in the visible and the shortwave infrared spectrum. Using the physics engines within the Blender 3-D graphic design software, physical representations of granular soil scenes were created. Each scene characterized a specific particle distribution and density. Chemical and optical properties of pure quartz and magnetite were assigned to particles in the scene based on particle size. This work presents a model to describe an observed phase-angle dependence of beach sand density. Bidirectional reflectance signatures were simulated for targets of varying size distribution and density. This model provides validation for a phenomenological trade space between density and particle size distribution in complex, heterogeneous soil mixtures. It also confirms the suggestion that directional reflectance signatures can be defined by intimate mixtures that depend on pore spacing. The study demonstrated that by combining realistic target geometry and spectral measurements of pure quartz and magnetite, effects of soil particle size and density could be modeled without functional data fitting or rigorous analysis of material dynamics. This research does not use traditional function-based models for simulation. The combination of realistic geometry, physically viable particle structure, and first-principles ray-tracing enables the ability to represent signature changes that have been observed in experimental observations.

  20. Collisional processes and size distribution in spatially extended debris discs

    Thebault, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    We present a new multi-annulus code for the study of collisionally evolving extended debris discs. We first aim to confirm results obtained for a single-annulus system, namely that the size distribution in "real" debris discs always departs from the theoretical collisional equilibrium $dN\\proptoR^{-3.5}dR$ power law, especially in the crucial size range of observable particles (<1cm), where it displays a characteristic wavy pattern. We also aim at studying how debris discs density distributions, scattered light luminosity profiles, and SEDs are affected by the coupled effect of collisions and radial mixing due to radiation pressure affected small grains. The size distribution evolution is modeled from micron-sized grains to 50km-sized bodies. The model takes into account the crucial influence of radiation pressure-affected small grains. We consider the collisional evolution of a fiducial a=120AU radius disc with an initial surface density in $\\Sigma(a)\\propto a^{\\alpha}$. We show that the system's radial e...

  1. Simulation of crack size distributions - a study on how to recover distributions from incomplete data

    Simulated crack size distributions are taken as an example to study the goodness of the fit of a distribution function to incomplete data. Special topics are whether the original parameters and distribution functions may be recovered, which are the appropriate methods of curve fitting and how the results are influenced by a lower bound. (orig.)

  2. Size distribution and structure of Barchan dune fields

    O. Durán

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Barchans are isolated mobile dunes often organized in large dune fields. Dune fields seem to present a characteristic dune size and spacing, which suggests a cooperative behavior based on dune interaction. In Duran et al. (2009, we propose that the redistribution of sand by collisions between dunes is a key element for the stability and size selection of barchan dune fields. This approach was based on a mean-field model ignoring the spatial distribution of dune fields. Here, we present a simplified dune field model that includes the spatial evolution of individual dunes as well as their interaction through sand exchange and binary collisions. As a result, the dune field evolves towards a steady state that depends on the boundary conditions. Comparing our results with measurements of Moroccan dune fields, we find that the simulated fields have the same dune size distribution as in real fields but fail to reproduce their homogeneity along the wind direction.

  3. Size distribution and structure of Barchan dune fields

    Duran, O.; Schwmmle, Veit; Lind, P. G.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2011-01-01

    Barchans are isolated mobile dunes often organized in large dune fields. Dune fields seem to present a characteristic dune size and spacing, which suggests a co-operative behavior based on dune interaction. In Duran et al. (2009), we propose that the redistribution of sand by collisions between...... dunes is a key element for the stability and size selection of barchan dune fields. This approach was based on a mean-field model ignoring the spatial distribution of dune fields. Here, we present a simplified dune field model that includes the spatial evolution of individual dunes as well as their...... interaction through sand exchange and binary collisions. As a result, the dune field evolves towards a steady state that depends on the boundary conditions. Comparing our results with measurements of Moroccan dune fields, we find that the simulated fields have the same dune size distribution as in real fields...

  4. Thoron progeny size distribution in monazite storage facility.

    Rogozina, Marina; Zhukovsky, Michael; Ekidin, Aleksey; Vasyanovich, Maksim

    2014-11-01

    Field experiments in the atmosphere of monazite warehouses with a high content of (220)Rn progeny concentration were conducted. Size distribution of aerosol particles was measured with the combined use of diffusion battery with varied capture elements and cascade impactor. Four (212)Pb aerosol modes were detected-three in the ultrafine region (aerosol median thermodynamic diameters ?0.3, 1 and 5 nm) and one with an aerosol median aerodynamic diameter of 500 nm. The activity fraction of aerosol particles with the size <10 nm is nearly 20-25 %. The dose conversion factor for EEC???Rn exposure, obtained on the basis of the aerosol size distribution and existing research data on lung absorption types of (212)Pb aerosols, is close to 180 nSv per Bq h m(-3). PMID:25004938

  5. Growing axons analysis by using Granulometric Size Distribution

    Neurite growth (neuritogenesis) in vitro is a common methodology in the field of developmental neurobiology. Morphological analyses of growing neurites are usually difficult because their thinness and low contrast usually prevent to observe clearly their shape, number, length and spatial orientation. This paper presents the use of the granulometric size distribution in order to automatically obtain information about the shape, size and spatial orientation of growing axons in tissue cultures. The results here presented show that the granulometric size distribution results in a very useful morphological tool since it allows the automatic detection of growing axons and the precise characterization of a relevant parameter indicative of the axonal growth spatial orientation such as the quantification of the angle of deviation of the growing direction. The developed algorithms automatically quantify this orientation by facilitating the analysis of these images, which is important given the large number of images that need to be processed for this type of study.

  6. Thresholded Power Law Size Distributions of Instabilities in Astrophysics

    Aschwanden, Markus J

    2015-01-01

    Power law-like size distributions are ubiquitous in astrophysical instabilities. There are at least four natural effects that cause deviations from ideal power law size distributions, which we model here in a generalized way: (1) a physical threshold of an instability; (2) incomplete sampling of the smallest events below a threshold $x_0$; (3) contamination by an event-unrelated background $x_b$; and (4) truncation effects at the largest events due to a finite system size. These effects can be modeled in simplest terms with a "thresholded power law" distribution function (also called generalized Pareto [type II] or Lomax distribution), $N(x) dx \\propto (x+x_0)^{-a} dx$, where $x_0 > 0$ is positive for a threshold effect, while $x_0 < 0$ is negative for background contamination. We analytically derive the functional shape of this thresholded power law distribution function from an exponential-growth evolution model, which produces avalanches only when a disturbance exceeds a critical threshold $x_0$. We app...

  7. CHANGES IN DISTRIBUTION OF STEEL PRODUCTS

    Beata Œlusarczyk

    2009-01-01

    Steel industry is one of the most globalized branch, globalization has had the influence on iron ore supply, steel production and distribution as well. In last years, steel products distribution process has changed significantly, because of rising competitiveness due to common world market influence and main global players actions. The paper presents changes in steel products distribution in Poland focusing on main steel producers activity in distribution as well as distributors response on n...

  8. Fooling functions of halfspaces under product distributions

    Gopalan, P.; O'Donnell, R.; Wu, Y.; Zuckerman, D.

    2010-01-01

    We construct pseudorandom generators that fool functions of halfspaces (threshold functions) under a very broad class of product distributions. This class includes not only familiar cases such as the uniform distribution on the discrete cube, the uniform distribution on the solid cube, and the multivariate Gaussian distribution, but also includes any product of discrete distributions with probabilities bounded away from 0. Our first main result shows that a recent pseudorandom generator const...

  9. Influence of Particle Size Distribution on Micromechanical Properties of thin Nanoparticulate Coatings

    Barth, Nina; Schilde, Carsten; Kwade, Arno

    In this study the production of thin nanoparticulate coatings on solid stainless-steel substrates using dip-coating was investigated. Defined particle sizes and particle size distributions of Al2O3-nanoparticles were adjusted by stirred media milling using various operating parameters. Using nanoindentation the influence of particle size and width of the particle size distribution on the mechanical properties was investigated. In particular the establishment of nanoindentation routines for particulate thin films in contrast to hard coatings is discussed. Nanoindentation appears to be an efficient method for analysing mechanical properties of said thin coatings. It will be shown, that the influence of the substrate can be neglected for small indent depth while the coating's surface roughness influences the employed routine of the nanoindentation. The effect of the median particle size and the width of the particle size distribution on the coating structure and the micromechanical coating properties will be discussed. As a result, the maximum indentation force decreases with decreasing particle size but rises again once the nanoparticles reach very small sizes. A change in the width of the particle size distribution influences the micromechanical properties and coating structure as well.

  10. Permeability & Grain Size Distribution of Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Rocks

    Yang, X.; Chen, J.; Ma, S.

    2010-12-01

    Permeability and grain size distribution of fault rocks from two outcrops of Wenchuan earthquake fault zone were measured. The results show that the permeability (at 40MPa) varies obviously across the fault zone, from 10-13 m2 -10-15 m2 for fractured and shattered breccias, ~ 10-17 m2 for crushed breccias to 10-18 m2 - fluid flowing. Fluids cycle along fault zone easily if breccias are not cemented. Two methods, sieve weighting and laser analyzer, were combined to analyze the grain size distribution of the fault rocks. The measurements indicate that the slope of log(N) ~ log(d) changes at a critical diameter dc with 1 - 2 mm, which corresponds to grinding limit of rocks and may represent a change from grinding process to attrition one. The fractal dimension (D), calculated based on the grains with size larger than dc, of gouges is higher than 3.0 with the fresh gouges having the highest value (? 3.4), of crushed breccias ranges from 2.56 to 2.99, and of fractured and shattered breccias has the lowest value, about 2.63 in average. However, the fractal dimension matching smaller grains (> 2 mm) becomes much lower, ranging from 1.7 to 2.2. It is expected that the estimation of surface fracture energy associated with faulting is less than that we thought if the grain size distribution is considered.

  11. The distribution of the true ratio between component size and overall size of double quasar sources

    Fokker, A. D.

    1984-08-01

    From the distribution of the ratio ? = component angular diameter/apparent overall angular size, as determined for quasars that have a double structure, the true distribution of the ratio ? = d/D (where d is the component diameter and D the overall dimension of the system) can be derived under the assumption of isotropy of the directions of source axis. The ?-distribution as derived by Nottale (1982) from published data on the structure of quasar doubles is used. It turns out that the quantity ? varies by a factor of the order of 3. The mean value of 1/? is found to be 7.1.

  12. Product Quality, Advertising Intensity and Market Size

    Bing Han; Hayley Chouinard

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model of product differentiation in which firms strategically compete in product quality and advertising intensity. Consumers face a trade-off between higher quality goods and price. Increased competition may lead to higher or lower quality products. Consumers always benefit from more competition as a reduction in price offsets reduced quality.

  13. Radon progeny size distribution in and around closed uranium mine

    The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has uranium mines in Japan in order to develop the technique of uranium exploration. The JNC has already finished developing the exploration. But, the waste rocks from exploration activities have been left at mine sites. Radiation monitoring around the mine sites has been carried out, because the JNC has to maintain the waste rocks safety according to the Mine Safety Law. Radon is one of the most important radioactivity for the monitoring. Radon progeny attaches with ambient aerosol particles immediately after it is decayed from radon. Therefore, there are attached and unattached fractions of radon progeny in air. Radon progeny size distribution of attached fraction is affected by ambient aerosol and it is one of the important factors for dose estimation due radon progeny in air. While a size distribution of unattached fraction is not so much affected by surrounding condition, but the ratio of unattached fraction to total radon progeny is an important factor for dose estimation. Therefore the measurements of the size distribution of attached fraction and the ratio of unattached fraction were carried out, on and around the mine sites. The measurement of size distribution is based on a diffusion battery method which is often used to measure aerosol size distribution. Screen-type diffusion battery is used for our measurement because the equipment could be designed to make it portable. A screen means a kind of mesh made of stainless steel. Screen-type diffusion battery consists of stack of the screens. The size distribution is calculated from the penetration curve be an iterative calculation based on response matrix of the set of diffusion battery. The measurement of ratio of unattached fraction is based on a screen mesh method. The unattached fraction can be caught by a screen mesh and it is obtained from the radioactivity on the mesh. According to the obtained results, the radon progeny size distribution in a mine site at Katamo in Tottori prefecture is smaller than the results around the site and in control area, while the unattached fraction in the mine site is greater than the results of other place. The measuring place in the mine site is located in front of a temporarily closed mining tunnel where the radon and radon progeny concentration are higher than the concentrations at other places in and around the site (Ito et al. 1998). The place is surrounded by many trees and far from living area where much ambient aerosol is released from many kinds of sources. While other places are surrounded by relatively spacious environment and are close to living area. This difference in condition around the measuring location may affect the results of size distribution. Some models for dose estimation due to radon progeny are recommended in several reports. Although each model has a different dependence on the particle size and unattached fraction, the obtained dose conversion factor for the measurement results in the mine site is evaluated to be twice to four times as long as the factors for other places. However, this influence to radiation monitoring is insignificant because the estimated concentration of radon progeny is low enough to the limit to set up a radiation controlled area by law (Ito et al. 1998). (J.P.N)

  14. Bimodal Size Distribution of Gold Nanoparticles under Picosecond Laser Pulses.

    Inasawa, Susumu; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Yamaguchi, Yukio

    2005-05-19

    The evolution of size distributions of gold nanoparticles under pulsed laser irradiation (Nd:YAG, lambda = 355 nm, pulse width 30 ps) was carefully observed by transmission electron microscopy. Interestingly, the initial monomodal size distribution of gold nanoparticles turned into a bimodal one, with two peaks in the number of particles, one at 6 nm and the other at 16-24 nm. The sizes for small particles depended very little on the irradiated laser energy. This change is attributed to laser-induced size reduction of the initial gold nanoparticles followed by the formation of small particles. In our analysis, we extracted a characteristic value for the size-reduction rate per one pulse and revealed that laser-induced size reduction of gold nanoparticles occurred even below the boiling point. When laser energy is insufficient for the boiling of particles, formation of gold vapor around liquid gold drops is thought to cause the phenomenon. With enough laser energy for the boiling, the formation of gold vapor around and inside liquid gold drops is responsible for the phenomenon. We also observed particles with gold strings after one pulse irradiation with a laser energy of 43 mJ cm(-2) pulse(-1), which is sufficient energy for the boiling. It is considered that such particles with gold strings are formed by the projection of gaseous gold from liquid gold drops with some volume of liquid gold around the bubble. On the basis of comparison with previous work, picosecond laser pulses are thought to be the most efficient way to cause laser-induced size reduction of gold nanoparticles. PMID:16852127

  15. Development of sample size allocation program using hypergeometric distribution

    The objective of this research is the development of sample allocation program using hypergeometric distribution with objected-oriented method. When IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency) performs inspection, it simply applies a standard binomial distribution which describes sampling with replacement instead of a hypergeometric distribution which describes sampling without replacement in sample allocation to up to three verification methods. The objective of the IAEA inspection is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material, therefore game theory is applied to its sampling plan. It is necessary to use hypergeometric distribution directly or approximate distribution to secure statistical accuracy. Improved binomial approximation developed by Mr. J. L. Jaech and correctly applied binomial approximation are more closer to hypergeometric distribution in sample size calculation than the simply applied binomial approximation of the IAEA. Object-oriented programs of 1. sample approximate-allocation with correctly applied standard binomial approximation, 2. sample approximate-allocation with improved binomial approximation, and 3. sample approximate-allocation with hypergeometric distribution were developed with Visual C++ and corresponding programs were developed with EXCEL(using Visual Basic for Application). 8 tabs., 15 refs. (Author)

  16. Asteroid collisions: Target size effects and resultant velocity distributions

    Ryan, Eileen V.

    1993-01-01

    To study the dynamic fragmentation of rock to simulate asteroid collisions, we use a 2-D, continuum damage numerical hydrocode which models two-body impacts. This hydrocode monitors stress wave propagation and interaction within the target body, and includes a physical model for the formation and growth of cracks in rock. With this algorithm we have successfully reproduced fragment size distributions and mean ejecta speeds from laboratory impact experiments using basalt, and weak and strong mortar as target materials. Using the hydrocode, we have determined that the energy needed to fracture a body has a much stronger dependence on target size than predicted from most scaling theories. In addition, velocity distributions obtained indicate that mean ejecta speeds resulting from large-body collisions do not exceed escape velocities.

  17. Aerosol size distribution in the Schwartzwalder uranium mine.

    Liu, Xianan; Doerges, John E; Volckens, John; Johnson, Thomas E

    2014-02-01

    Few published data are available to describe the size distribution of aerosols within the uranium mining environment. Activity size distribution of the radon progeny attached aerosols was measured at the Schwartzwalder uranium mine (Jefferson County, Colorado, USA) using the diffusion battery method in the summer of 1970. The measurements from five of eight sites in the mine were analyzed. The average activity median diameter was approximately 55.3 nm and ranged from 34.2 to 72.7 nm. The average geometric standard deviation was approximately 2.90. The geometric standard deviation computed from the samples collected during the evening (Sites 3 and 6) was significantly smaller than from samples collected in the daytime (Sites 5, 7, and 8). The results of Site 7 showed the greatest the geometric standard deviation, a significantly higher radon concentration and a low equilibrium condition. PMID:24378559

  18. The size-frequency distribution of elliptical impact craters

    Collins, G. S.; Elbeshausen, D.; Davison, T. M.; Robbins, S. J.; Hynek, B. M.

    2011-10-01

    Impact craters are elliptical in planform if the impactor's trajectory is below a threshold angle of incidence. Laboratory experiments and 3D numerical simulations demonstrate that this threshold angle decreases as the ratio of crater size to impactor size increases. According to impact cratering scaling laws, this implies that elliptical craters occur at steeper impact angles as crater size or target strength increases. Using a standard size-frequency distribution for asteroids impacting the terrestrial planets we estimate the fraction of elliptical craters as a function of crater size on the Moon, Mars, Earth, Venus and Mercury. In general, the expected fraction of elliptical craters is ~ 2-4% for craters between 5 and 100-km in diameter, consistent with the observed population of elliptical craters on Mars. At larger crater sizes both our model and observations suggest a dramatic increase in the fraction of elliptical craters with increasing crater diameter. The observed fraction of elliptical craters larger than 100-km diameter is significantly greater than our model predictions, which may suggest that there is an additional source of large elliptical craters other than oblique impact.

  19. Coarse and fine root plants affect pore size distributions differently

    Bodner, G; Leitner, D.; Kaul, H.-P.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Small scale root-pore interactions require validation of their impact on effective hydraulic processes at the field scale. Our objective was to develop an interpretative framework linking root effects on macroscopic pore parameters with knowledge at the rhizosphere scale. Methods A field experiment with twelve species from different families was conducted. Parameters of Kosugi’s pore size distribution (PSD) model were determined inversely from tension infiltrometer data. Measured root tr...

  20. Size distribution of airborne particles in animal houses

    Lai, T.L.H.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Cambra-López, M.; Huynh, T.T.T.; Parmentier, H. K.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    The concentration and size distribution of airborne particles were measured inside and outside typical animal houses such as broilers, broiler breeders (both floor housing with litter); layers (floor housing system and aviary housing system); turkeys (floor housing with litter), pigs: fattening pigs (traditional houses, low emission houses with dry feed, and low emission houses with wet feed), piglets, sows (individual and group housing); cattle (cubicle house), and mink (cages). Using an aer...

  1. Global abundance and size distribution of streams and rivers

    Downing, J. A.; Cole, J J; Duarte, C. M.; Middelburg, J.J.; Melack, J. M.; Prairie, Y.T.; Kortelainen, P; Striegl, R. G.; McDowell, W.H.; Tranvik, L. J.

    2012-01-01

    To better integrate lotic ecosystems into global cycles and budgets, we provide approximations of the size-distribution and areal extent of streams and rivers. One approach we used was to employ stream network theory combined with data on stream width. We also used detailed stream networks on 2 continents to estimate the fraction of continental area occupied by streams worldwide and corrected remote sensing stream inventories for unresolved small streams. Our estimates of global f...

  2. The animal species–body size distribution of Marion Island

    Gaston, Kevin J.; Chown, Steven L.; Mercer, Richard D.

    2001-01-01

    Body size is one of the most significant features of animals. Not only is it correlated with many life history and ecological traits, but it also may influence the abundance of species within, and their membership of, assemblages. Understanding of the latter processes is frequently based on a comparison of model outcomes with the frequency of species of different body mass within natural assemblages. Consequently, the form of these frequency distributions has been ...

  3. Onset of Oil Mobilization and Cluster Size Distribution

    Ruecker, Maja; Armstrong, Ryan; Georgiadis, Apostolos; Ott, Holger; Berg, Steffen; Leu, Leon; Wolf, Martin; Khan, Faisal; Enzmann, Frieder; Kersten, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The onset of oil mobilization during imbibition has been imaged under dynamic flow conditions where the visco-capillary balance is maintained by using fast synchrotron-based X-ray computed micro tomography. Oil mobilization under unsteady-state displacement has been studied for sintered glass, sandstone and carbonate rock which show distinctly different behaviour. For sintered glass, in agreement with a previous study under static conditions [Georgiadis et al., Phys.Rev.E 033002, 2013], the cluster size distribution is power-law like only over limited. Also the saturation stays rather constant during the low-rate imbibitions because the visco-capillary balance did not exceed 1, i.e. the macroscopic capillary number remains smaller than 1 which is not sufficient for oil mobilization [Armstrong et al., GeoPhys.Res.Lett. 41, 1-6. 2014]. The carbonate rock shows a power-law like cluster size distribution over the whole range. It is not fully clear whether this behaviour is caused by a more complex pore morphology in carbonates with a broader pore size distribution overlapping with heterogeneity length scales which creates an apparent larger range scale-free behaviour. The sandstone rock shows the most interesting behaviour as during imbibitions a significant amount of oil is mobilized during the imbibitions process. The fast tomography now allows to follow this process step by step providing detailed spatially resolved information on the pore scale and also the statistical relevance. The observations can be summarized that during imbibition oil is mobilized by the biggest (percolating) cluster breaking successively apart into fragments and in particular intermediate size clusters grow in size and increase in frequency.

  4. Raindrop Size Distribution Observation for GPM/DPR algorithm development

    Nakagawa, Katsuhiro; Hanado, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Masanori; Nakamura, Kenji; Kaneko, Yuki; Kawamura, Seiji; Iwai, Hironori; Minda, Haruya; Oki, Riko

    2013-04-01

    In order to evaluate and improve the accuracy of rainfall intensity from space-borne radars (TRMM/PR and GPM/DPR), it is important to estimate the rain attenuation, namely the k-Z relationship (k is the specific attenuation, Z is the radar reflectivity) correctly. National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) developed the mobile precipitation observation system for the dual Ka-band radar field campaign for GPM/DPR algorithm development. The precipitation measurement instruments are installed on the roof of container. The installed instruments for raindrop size distribution (DSD) measurements are 2-dimensional Video disdtrometer (2DVD), Joss-type disdrometer, and Laser Optical disdrometr (Parsival). 2DVD and Persival can measure not only raindrop size distribution but also ice and snow size distribution. Observations using the mobile precipitation observation system were performed in Okinawa Island, in Tsukuba, over the slope of Mt. Fuji, in Nagaoka, and in Sapporo Japan. Using these observed DSD data in the different provinces, the characteristics of DSD itself are analyzed and the k-Z relationship is estimated for evaluation and improvement of the TRMM/PR and GPM/DPR algorithm.

  5. Size distribution of radon daughter particles in uranium mine atmospheres

    An investigation of the particle size distribution and other properties of radon daughters in uranium mines was reported earlier but only summaries of the data were presented. This report consists mainly of tables of detailed measurements that were omitted in the original article. The tabulated data include the size distributions, uncombined fractions and ratios of radon daughters as well as the working levels, radon concentrations, condensation nuclei concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity. The measurements were made in 27 locations in four large underground mines in New Mexico during typical mining operations. The size distributions of the radon daughters were log normal. The activity median diameters ranged from 0.09 μm to 0.3 μm with a mean of 0.17 μm. Geometric standard deviations were from 1.3 to 4 with a mean of 2.7. Uncombined fractions expressed in accordance with the ICRP definition ranged from 0.004 to 0.16 with a mean of 0.04

  6. The Measurement of Size Distribution of Indoor Natural Radioactive Aerosols by Imaging Plate Technique

    Iida, Takao; Rahman, Naureen Mahbub; Matsui, Akihiro; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Moriizumi, Jun

    2008-08-01

    The indoor radioactive aerosols of radon decay products are considered as a main radioactive contaminant in human environment. In this study, the particle size distribution was measured with low pressure cascade impactor and imaging plate. The temporal and spatial variations of indoor radioactive aerosols were measured at eight indoor sites of Nagoya, Japan. Effective doses were assessed using ICRP 66 and UNSCEAR 2000 approaches.

  7. Universal functional form of 1-minute raindrop size distribution?

    Cugerone, Katia; De Michele, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall remains one of the poorly quantified phenomena of the hydrological cycle, despite its fundamental role. No universal laws describing the rainfall behavior are available in literature. This is probably due to the continuous description of rainfall, which is a discrete phenomenon, made by drops. From the statistical point of view, the rainfall variability at particle size scale, is described by the drop size distribution (DSD). With this term, it is generally indicated as the concentration of raindrops per unit volume and diameter, as the probability density function of drop diameter at the ground, according to the specific problem of interest. Raindrops represent the water exchange, under liquid form, between atmosphere and earth surface, and the number of drops and their size have impacts in a wide range of hydrologic, meteorologic, and ecologic phenomena. DSD is used, for example, to measure the multiwavelength rain attenuation for terrestrial and satellite systems, it is an important input for the evaluation of the below cloud scavenging coefficient of the aerosol by precipitation, and is of primary importance to make estimates of rainfall rate through radars. In literature, many distributions have been used to this aim (Gamma and Lognormal above all), without statistical supports and with site-specific studies. Here, we present an extensive investigation of raindrop size distribution based on 18 datasets, consisting in 1-minute disdrometer data, sampled using Joss-Waldvogel or Thies instrument in different locations on Earth's surface. The aim is to understand if an universal functional form of 1-minute drop diameter variability exists. The study consists of three main steps: analysis of the high order moments, selection of the model through the AIC index and test of the model with the use of goodness-of-fit tests.

  8. Cluster Size Optimization in Gaussian Distributed Wireless Sensor Networks

    Vinay Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To deal with sensor network limitations such as limited energy and short range communication, sensor nodes are grouped into mostly non overlapping subsets called clusters. Choosing optimal number of clusters provides benefits such that limited resources can be utilized more efficiently and network lifetime is improved. Many of the existing researches provided the cluster size optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs, in which nodes are uniformly and randomly placed in the sensing field (e.g. controllable WSN. Deployment of sensor nodes affects the energy consumption of WSNs along with individual nodes because the distance between nodes and Base Station (BS is different due to different node position; consequently nodes have different energy loss. The energy efficient way of sensor deployment in sensing field is controlled node deployment with uniform distribution. However this procedure for node deployment may not be practically possible for some applications like, in large WSNs, locations of the sensing field may not be physically accessible because of geographical constraints. In this paper, we provide an analytical framework for the cluster size optimization of WSNs that follow Gaussian node deployment. This type of node deployment reduces energy hole problem, provides enhanced intrusion detection capability and support realistic applications. We have provided expression for optimal number of clusters using circular sensing model of nodes for square sensing field with consideration of boundary effect. We have also compared the cluster size optimization for uniform and Gaussian distributed sensor network.

  9. Building predictive models of soil particle-size distribution

    Alessandro Samuel-Rosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to build predictive models (PMs of soil particle-size distribution (psd in a region with complex geology and a young and unstable land-surface? The main objective of this study was to answer this question. A set of 339 soil samples from a small slope catchment in Southern Brazil was used to build PMs of psd in the surface soil layer. Multiple linear regression models were constructed using terrain attributes (elevation, slope, catchment area, convergence index, and topographic wetness index. The PMs explained more than half of the data variance. This performance is similar to (or even better than that of the conventional soil mapping approach. For some size fractions, the PM performance can reach 70 %. Largest uncertainties were observed in geologically more complex areas. Therefore, significant improvements in the predictions can only be achieved if accurate geological data is made available. Meanwhile, PMs built on terrain attributes are efficient in predicting the particle-size distribution (psd of soils in regions of complex geology.

  10. Grain-size distribution of volcaniclastic rocks 2: Characterizing grain size and hydraulic sorting

    Jutzeler, Martin; McPhie, Jocelyn; Allen, Sharon R.; Proussevitch, A. A.

    2015-08-01

    Quantification of the grain size distribution of sediments allows interpretation of processes of transport and deposition. Jutzeler et al. (2012) developed a technique to determine grain size distribution of consolidated clastic rocks using functional stereology, allowing direct comparison between unconsolidated sediments and rocks. Here, we develop this technique to characterize hydraulic sorting and infer transport and deposition processes. We compare computed grain size and sorting of volcaniclastic rocks with field-based characteristics of volcaniclastic facies for which transport and depositional mechanisms have been inferred. We studied pumice-rich, subaqueous facies of volcaniclastic rocks from the Oligocene Ohanapecosh Formation (Ancestral Cascades, Washington, USA), Pliocene Dogashima Formation (Izu Peninsula, Honshu, Japan), Miocene Manukau Subgroup (Northland, New Zealand) and the Quaternary Sierra La Primavera caldera (Jalisco State, Mexico). These sequences differ in bed thickness, grading and abundance of matrix. We propose to evaluate grain size and sorting of volcaniclastic deposits by values of their modes, matrix proportion (rolling. These hydraulic sorting ratios can be applied to any type of clastic rocks, and indifferently on consolidated and unconsolidated samples.

  11. SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS OF SOLAR FLARES AND SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    We suggest that the flatter size distribution of solar energetic proton (SEP) events relative to that of flare soft X-ray (SXR) events is primarily due to the fact that SEP flares are an energetic subset of all flares. Flares associated with gradual SEP events are characteristically accompanied by fast (≥1000 km s–1) coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that drive coronal/interplanetary shock waves. For the 1996-2005 interval, the slopes (α values) of power-law size distributions of the peak 1-8 Å fluxes of SXR flares associated with (a) >10 MeV SEP events (with peak fluxes ≥1 pr cm–2 s–1 sr–1) and (b) fast CMEs were ∼1.3-1.4 compared to ∼1.2 for the peak proton fluxes of >10 MeV SEP events and ∼2 for the peak 1-8 Å fluxes of all SXR flares. The difference of ∼0.15 between the slopes of the distributions of SEP events and SEP SXR flares is consistent with the observed variation of SEP event peak flux with SXR peak flux.

  12. Population and Size Distribution of Small Jovian Trojan Asteroids

    Jewitt, D C; Luu, J X

    2000-01-01

    We present a study of Jovian Trojan objects detected serendipitously during the course of a sky survey conducted at the University of Hawaii 2.2-meter telescope. We used a 8192 x 8192 pixel charge-coupled device (CCD) mosaic to observe 20 deg^2 at locations spread over the L4 Lagrangian swarm and reached a limiting magnitude V = 22.5 mag (50% of maximum detection efficiency). Ninety-three Jovian Trojans were detected with radii 2 - 20 km (assumed albedo 0.04). Their differential magnitude distribution has a slope of 0.40 +/- 0.05 corresponding to a power law size distribution index 3.0 +/- 0.3 (1-sigma). The total number of L4 Trojans with radii > 1 km is of order 1.6 x 10^5 and their combined mass (dominated by the largest objects) is ~ 10^{-4} M_{Earth}. The bias-corrected mean inclination is 13.7 +/- 0.5 deg. We also discuss the size and spatial distribution of the L4 swarm.

  13. Particle size distributions of radioactive aerosols measured in workplaces

    A survey of published values of Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter (AMAD) measured in working environments was conducted to assist in the selection of a realistic default AMAD for occupational exposures. Results were compiled from 52 publications covering a wide variety of industries and workplaces. Reported values of AMAD from all studies ranged from 0.12 μm to 25 μm, and most were well fitted by a log-normal distribution with a median value of 4.4 μm. This supports the choice of a 5 μm default AMAD, as a realistic rounded value for occupational exposures, by the ICRP Task Group on Human Respiratory Tract Models for Radiological Protection and its acceptance by ICRP. Both the nuclear power and nuclear fuel handling industries gave median values of approximately 4 μm. Uranium mills gave a median value of 6.8 μm with AMADs frequently greater than 10 μm. High temperature and arc saw cutting operations generated submicron particles and occasionally, biomodal log-normal particle size distributions. It is concluded that in view of the wide range of AMADs found in the surveyed literature, greater emphasis should be placed on air sampling to characterise aerosol particle size distributions for individual work practices, especially as doses estimated with the new 5 μm default AMAD will not always be conservative. (author)

  14. Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus

    Russell, M.L.; Goth-Goldstein, R.; Apte, M.G.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for HRV and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine a detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 1000-fold. To measure the size distribution of HRV aerosols, volunteers with a head cold spent two hours in a ventilated research chamber. Airborne particles from the chamber were collected using an Andersen Six-Stage Cascade Impactor. Each stage of the impactor was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for HRV. For the first two volunteers with confirmed HRV infection, but with mild symptoms, we were unable to detect HRV on any stage of the impactor.

  15. Measurement of non-volatile particle number size distribution

    Gkatzelis, G. I.; Papanastasiou, D. K.; Florou, K.; Kaltsonoudis, C.; Louvaris, E.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-06-01

    An experimental methodology was developed to measure the non-volatile particle number concentration using a thermodenuder (TD). The TD was coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, measuring the chemical composition and mass size distribution of the submicrometer aerosol and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) that provided the number size distribution of the aerosol in the range from 10 to 500 nm. The method was evaluated with a set of smog chamber experiments and achieved almost complete evaporation (> 98 %) of secondary organic as well as freshly nucleated particles, using a TD temperature of 400 C and a centerline residence time of 15 s. This experimental approach was applied in a winter field campaign in Athens and provided a direct measurement of number concentration and size distribution for particles emitted from major pollution sources. During periods in which the contribution of biomass burning sources was dominant, more than 80 % of particle number concentration remained after passing through the thermodenuder, suggesting that nearly all biomass burning particles had a non-volatile core. These remaining particles consisted mostly of black carbon (60 % mass contribution) and organic aerosol, OA (40 %). Organics that had not evaporated through the TD were mostly biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) as determined from AMS source apportionment analysis. For periods during which traffic contribution was dominant 50-60 % of the particles had a non-volatile core while the rest evaporated at 400 C. The remaining particle mass consisted mostly of black carbon (BC) with an 80 % contribution, while OA was responsible for another 15-20 %. Organics were mostly hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and OOA. These results suggest that even at 400 C some fraction of the OA does not evaporate from particles emitted from common combustion processes, such as biomass burning and car engines, indicating that a fraction of this type of OA is of extremely low volatility.

  16. Outbreak size distributions in epidemics with multiple stages

    Multiple-type branching processes that model the spread of infectious diseases are investigated. In these stochastic processes, the disease goes through multiple stages before it eventually disappears. We mostly focus on the critical multistage susceptible–infected–recovered (SIR) infection process. In the infinite-population limit, we compute the outbreak size distributions and show that asymptotic results apply to more general multiple-type critical branching processes. Finally, using heuristic arguments and simulations, we establish scaling laws for a multistage SIR model in a finite population. (paper)

  17. Analysis of scale-invariant slab avalanche size distributions

    Faillettaz, J.; Louchet, F.; Grasso, J.-R.; Daudon, D.

    2003-04-01

    Scale invariance of snow avalanche sizes was reported for the first time in 2001 by Louchet et al. at the EGS conference, using both acoustic emission duration, and the surface of the crown step left at the top of the starting zone, where the former parameter characterises the size of the total avalanche flow, and the latter that of the starting zone. The present paper focuses on parameters of the second type, that are more directly related to precise release mechanisms, vz. the crown crack length L, the crown crack or slab depth H, the crown step surface HxL, the volume HxL^2 of the snow involved in the starting zone, and LxH^2 which is a measure of the stress concentration at the basal crack tip at failure. The analysis is performed on two data sets, from la Grande Plagne (GP) and Tignes (T) ski resorts. For both catalogs, cumulative distributions of L, H, HxL, HxL^2 and LxH^2 are shown to be roughly linear in a log-log plot. i.e. consistent with so-called scale invariant (or power law) distributions for both triggered and natural avalanches. Plateaus are observed at small sizes, and roll-offs at large sizes. The power law exponents for each of these quantities are roughly independent of the ski resort (GP or T) they come from. In contrast, exponents for natural events are significantly smaller than those for artificial ones. We analyse the possible reasons for the scale invariance of these quantities, for the possible "universality" of the exponents corresponding to a given triggering mode, and for the difference in exponents between triggered and natural events. The physical meaning of the observed roll-offs and plateaus is also discussed. The power law distributions analysed here provide the occurrence probability of an avalanche of a given (starting) volume in a given time period on a given area. A possible use of this type of distributions for snow avalanche hazard assessment is contemplated, as it is for earthquakes or rockfalls.

  18. Fluctuating fitness shapes the clone size distribution of immune repertoires

    Desponds, Jonathan; Walczak, Aleksandra M

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive immune system relies on the diversity of receptors expressed on the surface of B and T-cells to protect the organism from a vast amount of pathogenic threats. The proliferation and degradation dynamics of different cell types (B cells, T cells, naive, memory) is governed by a variety of antigenic and environmental signals, yet the observed clone sizes follow a universal power law distribution. Guided by this reproducibility we propose effective models of somatic evolution where cell fate depends on an effective fitness. This fitness is determined by growth factors acting either on clones of cells with the same receptor responding to specific antigens, or directly on single cells with no regards for clones. We identify fluctuations in the fitness acting specifically on clones as the essential ingredient leading to the observed distributions. Combining our models with experiments we characterize the scale of fluctuations in antigenic environments and we provide tools to identify the relevant growth...

  19. Empirical Reference Distributions for Networks of Different Size

    Smith, Anna; Browning, Christopher R

    2015-01-01

    Network analysis has become an increasingly prevalent research tool across a vast range of scientific fields. Here, we focus on the particular issue of comparing network statistics, i.e. graph-level measures of network structural features, across multiple networks that differ in size. Although "normalized" versions of some network statistics exist, we demonstrate via simulation why direct comparison of raw and normalized statistics is often inappropriate. We examine a recent suggestion to normalize network statistics relative to Erdos-Renyi random graphs and demonstrate via simulation how this is an improvement over direct comparison, but still sometimes problematic. We propose a new adjustment method based on a reference distribution constructed as a mixture model of random graphs which reflect the dependence structure exhibited in the observed networks. We show that using simple Bernoulli models as mixture components in this reference distribution can provide adjusted network statistics that are relatively ...

  20. Mass size distributions of elemental aerosols in industrial area.

    Moustafa, Mona; Mohamed, Amer; Ahmed, Abdel-Rahman; Nazmy, Hyam

    2015-11-01

    Outdoor aerosol particles were characterized in industrial area of Samalut city (El-minia/Egypt) using low pressure Berner cascade impactor as an aerosol sampler. The impactor operates at 1.7 m(3)/h flow rate. Seven elements were investigated including Ca, Ba, Fe, K, Cu, Mn and Pb using atomic absorption technique. The mean mass concentrations of the elements ranged from 0.42 ng/m(3) (for Ba) to 89.62 ng/m(3) (for Fe). The mass size distributions of the investigated elements were bi-modal log normal distribution corresponding to the accumulation and coarse modes. The enrichment factors of elements indicate that Ca, Ba, Fe, K, Cu and Mn are mainly emitted into the atmosphere from soil sources while Pb is mostly due to anthropogenic sources. PMID:26644919

  1. Top pair production distributions at the Tevatron

    Takeuchi Yuji

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available At the Tevatron, the top quark is mainly produced in pairs through the strong interaction and decays before forming hadrons. Thus the kinematical distributions at top pair production possess rich information on the tt¯$tar t$ production vertex including polarizations of top and anti-top quarks. In this article, recent measurements on top quark pair production distributions at Tevatron (CDF and DO are presented.

  2. Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries

    Pendse, H.P.

    1992-10-01

    In this paper we present a novel measurement technique for monitoring particle size distributions of industrial colloidal slurries based on ultrasonic spectroscopy and mathematical deconvolution. An on-line sensor prototype has been developed and tested extensively in laboratory and production settings using mineral pigment slurries. Evaluation to date shows that the sensor is capable of providing particle size distributions, without any assumptions regarding their functional form, over diameters ranging from 0.1 to 100 micrometers in slurries with particle concentrations of 10 to 50 volume percents. The newly developed on-line sensor allows one to obtain particle size distributions of commonly encountered inorganic pigment slurries under industrial processing conditions without dilution.

  3. Particle Size Distributions Obtained Through Unfolding 2D Sections: Towards Accurate Distributions of Nebular Solids in the Allende Meteorite

    Christoffersen, P. A.; Simon, Justin I.; Ross, D. K.; Friedrich, J. M.; Cuzzi, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    Size distributions of nebular solids in chondrites suggest an efficient sorting of these early forming objects within the protoplanetary disk. The effect of this sorting has been documented by investigations of modal abundances of CAIs (e.g., [1-4]) and chondrules (e.g., [5-8]). Evidence for aerodynamic sorting in the disk is largely qualitative, and needs to be carefully assessed. It may be a way of concentrating these materials into planetesimal-mass clumps, perhaps 100 fs of ka after they formed. A key parameter is size/density distributions of particles (i.e., chondrules, CAIs, and metal grains), and in particular, whether the radius-density product (rxp) is a better metric for defining the distribution than r alone [9]. There is no consensus between r versus rxp based models. Here we report our initial tests and preliminary results, which when expanded will be used to test the accuracy of current dynamical disk models.

  4. Distributed Project Management for New Product Development

    Alfred E. Thal; Jr, Adedeji Badiru; Rupy Sawhney

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an integrative distributed project management approach for product development. The core of the integrative model is the Triple C model of project management, which presents a systematic structure for Communication, Cooperation, and Coordination across product development functions. The achievement of lower product development cycles requires strategic implementation of project management techniques. The level of communication, cooperation, and coordination required for ef...

  5. Size Distribution of Main-Belt Asteroids with High Inclination

    Terai, Tsuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the size distribution of high-inclination main-belt asteroids (MBAs) to explore asteroid collisional evolution under hypervelocity collisions of around 10 km/s. We performed a wide-field survey for high-inclination sub-km MBAs using the 8.2-m Subaru Telescope with the Subaru Prime Focus Camera (Suprime-Cam). Suprime-Cam archival data were also used. A total of 616 MBA candidates were detected in an area of 9.0 deg^2 with a limiting magnitude of 24.0 mag in the SDSS r filter. Most of candidate diameters were estimated to be smaller than 1 km. We found a scarcity of sub-km MBAs with high inclination. Cumulative size distributions (CSDs) were constructed using Subaru data and published asteroid catalogs. The power-law indexes of the CSDs were 2.17 +/- 0.02 for low-inclination ( 15 deg) MBAs in the 0.7-50 km diameter range. The high-inclination MBAs had a shallower CSD. We also found that the CSD of S-like MBAs had a small slope with high inclination, whereas the slope did not vary with inclinatio...

  6. The Superbubble Size Distribution in the Interstellar Medium of Galaxies

    Oey, M S

    1997-01-01

    We use the standard, adiabatic shell evolution to predict the size distribution N(R) for populations of OB superbubbles in a uniform ISM. We derive N(R) for simple cases of superbubble creation rate and mechanical luminosity function (MLF). For R R_e it is dominated by growing objects. We also briefly investigate N(R) resulting from momentum-conserving shell evolution. We predict a peak in N(R) corresponding to individual SNRs. To estimate the MLF, we also examine evolutionary effects on the HII region luminosity function (HII LF), finding that for nebular luminosity fading as a power law in time, there is a minimum observed slope for the HII LFs. Comparison with the largely complete HI hole catalog for the SMC shows surprising agreement in the predicted and observed slope of N(R), suggesting that no other fundamental process is needed to explain the size distribution of shells in the SMC. Further comparison with largely incomplete HI data for M31, M33, and Holmberg II is also encouraging. We present expressi...

  7. Throughfall Drop Size Distribution in relation to Leaf Canopy State

    Hudson, S.; Nanko, K.; Levia, D. F., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The partitioning of incident precipitation by a forest canopy into throughfall and stemflow varies as a function of meteorological conditions, tree species, leaf morphology and surface roughness. Little work quantified the throughfall drop size signature of precipitation events relative to changes in leaf canopy state of deciduous forests. This is the first study to compare throughfall drop size distributions in the presence and absence of foliage. To quantify individual throughfall drops, a laser disdrometer gauge was deployed below an observed drip point under a Liriodendron tulipifera L. (yellow poplar) tree, in northeastern Maryland, USA. More than 750,000 individual throughfall droplets have been counted and measured from precipitation events generating more than 5 mm gross rainfall over a period of 12 months. Throughfall during leafless events had significantly larger maximum drop diameters (6.74mm leafless, 5.55mm leafed) and median volume diameter of drops (5.44mm leafless, 3.31mm leafed) than throughfall generated when leaves were present. Statistical techniques have demonstrated the substantial influence of canopy state over the drop size spectra. Principal component analysis and factor analysis both resulted in canopy state loading positively with increases in maximum drop diameter while loading negatively with air temperature. Boosted regression trees analysis corroborated these findings. Our findings correspond with the physical conditions of a leafless canopy, and illustrated the greater extent of surface adhesion of intercepted water films on woody surfaces as opposed to foliar surfaces, thereby underscoring the importance of canopy state on throughfall inputs.

  8. Estimation of Weibull parameters from parameters of initial distribution of flaw size

    The distribution of the largest flaw size is derived from the initial distribution of flaw size based on extreme value statistics, and also the distribution of fracture origin size is given by transforming Weibull distribution by fracture mechanical relation. These two distributions are equivalent under uniaxial loading. By using this relation, their parameters are related each other and Weibull parameters are estimated from the parameters of the initial distribution of flaw size and the number of links.

  9. Particle-size distribution in soils of West Antarctica

    Abakumov, E. V.

    2010-03-01

    The particle-size distribution in soils sampled near Russian polar stations in West Antarctica has been studied. It is shown that the soils of the Subantarctic zone (the Bellingshausen Station on King George Island) are characterized by a higher content of silt and clay in the fine earth fraction and by a higher content of the fine earth fraction in comparison with the soils of the proper Antarctic tundra barrens near the Lenin-gradskaya Station and the Antarctic cold desert near the Russkaya Station. In the latter soils, the content of rock fragments is higher than that in the soils of the Antarctic tundra barrens. In the soils of the tundra barrens, a considerable accumulation of fine earth may take place in large cavities (hollows) on the stony bedrock surface. Desert pavements are formed in both types of Antarctic landscapes.

  10. Determination of pore size distributions of porous chromatographic adsorbents by inverse size-exclusion chromatography.

    Yao, Yan; Lenhoff, Abraham M

    2004-05-28

    The macroscopic properties of porous chromatographic adsorbents are directly influenced by the pore structure, with the pore size distribution (PSD) playing a major role beyond simply the mean pore size. Inverse size-exclusion chromatography (ISEC), a widely used chromatographic method for determining the PSD of porous media, provides more relevant information on liquid chromatographic materials in situ than traditional methods, such as gas sorption and mercury intrusion. The fundamentals and applications of ISEC in the characterization of the pore structure are reviewed. The description of the probe solutes and the pore space, as well as theoretical models for deriving the PSD from solute partitioning behavior, are discussed. Precautions to ensure integrity of the experiments are also outlined, including accounting for probe polydispersity and minimization of solute-adsorbent interactions. The results that emerge are necessarily model-dependent, but ISEC nonetheless represents a powerful and non-destructive source of quantitative pore structure information that can help to elucidate chromatographic performance observations covering both retention and rate aspects. PMID:15214670

  11. Optimization of bridging agents size distribution for drilling operations

    Waldmann, Alex; Andrade, Alex Rodrigues de; Pires Junior, Idvard Jose; Martins, Andre Leibsohn [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: awaldmann@petrobras.com.br; andradear.gorceix@petrobras.com.br; idvard.gorceix@petrobras.com.br; aleibsohn@petrobras.com.br

    2008-07-01

    The conventional drilling technique is based on positive hydrostatic pressure against well walls to prevent inflows of native fluids into the well. Such inflows can cause security problems for the team well and to probe. As the differential pressure of the well to reservoir is always positive, the filtrate of the fluid tends to invade the reservoir rock. Minimize the invasion of drilling fluid is a relevant theme in the oil wells drilling operations. In the design of drilling fluid, a common practice in the industry is the addition of bridging agents in the composition of the fluid to form a cake of low permeability at well walls and hence restrict the invasive process. The choice of drilling fluid requires the optimization of the concentration, shape and size distribution of particles. The ability of the fluid to prevent the invasion is usually evaluated in laboratory tests through filtration in porous media consolidated. This paper presents a description of the methods available in the literature for optimization of the formulation of bridging agents to drill-in fluids, predicting the pore throat from data psychotherapy, and a sensitivity analysis of the main operational parameters. The analysis is based on experimental results of the impact of the size distribution and concentration of bridging agents in the filtration process of drill-in fluids through porous media submitted to various different differential of pressure. The final objective is to develop a software for use of PETROBRAS, which may relate different types and concentrations of bridging agents with the properties of the reservoir to minimize the invasion. (author)

  12. Stochastic species distributions are driven by organism size.

    Soininen, Janne; Korhonen, Jenni J; Luoto, Miska

    2013-03-01

    The strengths of environmental drivers and biotic interactions are expected to show large variability across organism groups. We tested two ideas related to the degree of ecological determinism vs. stochasticity using a large data set comprising bacterio-, phyto-, and zooplankton. We expected that (1) there are predictable, size-driven differences in the degree to which planktonic taxa respond to different drivers such as water chemistry, biotic interactions, and climatic variables; and (2) species distribution models show lowest predictive performance for the smallest taxa due to the stochastic distributions of microbes. Generalized linear models (GLMs), generalized additive models (GAMs), and generalized boosted methods (GBMs) were constructed for 84 species to model their occurrence as a function of eight predictors. Predictive performance was measured as the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operating characteristic plot and true skill statistic (TSS) using independent model evaluation data. We found that the model performances were typically remarkably low for all planktonic groups. The proportion of satisfactory models (AUC > 0.7) was lowest for bacteria (11.1% of the models), followed by phyto- (24.2%) and zooplankton (38.1%). The occurrences of taxa within all planktonic groups were related to climatic variables to a certain degree, but bacteria showed the strongest associations with the climatic variables. Moreover, zooplankton occurrences were more related to biotic variables than the occurrences of smaller taxa, while phytoplankton occurrences were more related to water chemistry. We conclude that the occurrences of planktonic taxa are highly unpredictable and that stochasticity in occurrences is negatively related to the organism size perhaps due to efficient dispersal and fast population dynamics among the smallest taxa. PMID:23687892

  13. Aerosol size distribution in precipitation events in Len, Spain

    Castro, Amaya; Alonso-Blanco, Elisabeth; Gonzlez-Colino, Miguel; Calvo, Ana I.; Fernndez-Raga, Mara; Fraile, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Precipitation and continuous particle number size distributions have been measured using a passive cavity aerosol spectrometer probe PCASP-X, in an urban environment: the city of Len, Spain. Five rain events have been analyzed in detail, none of which registered very intense precipitation, ranging from 2.5 mm to 14.7 mm, with a maximum rain intensity of 5.6 mm/h. The study focuses on the influence of precipitation in aerosol size distributions before, during and after a rain event. Washout effects have been observed during rain events with intensities of over 3.2 1.5 mm/h, resulting in a decrease of 20% in the number of particles detected, the decrease affecting large and small particles alike. However, if the rain intensity is about 0.6 mm/h or lower, the result is a considerable increase in the number of aerosols measured up to 89% more with an increase in the number of particles smaller than 1.3 m and a decrease in the number of particles larger than 1.3 m. It may be the case that during very weak rain intensity the probe does not discriminate adequately between aerosols and small precipitating droplets or the extremely small droplets that remain in suspension in the atmosphere. In consequence, it will be argued that measurements taken during very weak rain events (with an intensity of less than 0.6 mm/h), such as drizzle or dense fog, should be treated separately or not be considered. The performance of the accumulation and coarse modes has also been studied, as well as the count median diameters (CMDs) before, during and after the rain event.

  14. Flow distribution in adjacent subchannels of unequal size

    This report describes an experimental and analytic investigation of the single phase flow distribution in subchannel geometries. It was intended as an investigation of fundamental transport mechanisms and therefore concentrated on simple geometries with two interconnected subchannels. The experimental phase consisted of detailed measuremnts of the fluid velocity in a geometry representing two communicating subchannels of different sizes. These measurements were made at three axial locations along the test section. The size of one of the subchannels was varied to give subchannel area ratios of 1.0, 0.68, 0.50 and 0.32. Two Reynolds numbers (108000 and 180000) were investigated. Axial pressure gradient data for all of these cases was also taken. The analytic phase concentrated on applying a three dimensional finite difference fluid flow code to subchannel geomtries. The code was applied to the cases studied in the experiment as well as other investigator's results. It used the two equation K-ε turbulence model. The performance of this model was assessed. Unique features of the subchannel flows were identified and discussed. Conclusions regarding the transport mechanisms involved and the ability of a multidimensional code to predict the flow fields reliably were presented

  15. Concentrations and size distributions on Antarctic stratospheric aerosols

    Particle Measuring Systems laser particle spectrometer (ASAS-X and FSSP) probes were used to measure aerosol particle concentrations and size distributions during 11 out of 12 ER-2 flights between Punta Arenas (53 degree S) and Antarctica (up to 72 degree S) from August 17 to September 22, 1987. The time resolution was 10 s, corresponding to a spatial resolution of 2 km. The data were divided into two size classes (0.05-0.25 and 0.53-5.5 μm radius) to separate the small particle from the coarse particle populations. Results show that the small particle concentrations are typical for a background aerosol during volcanic quiescence. This concentration is generally constant along a flight track; in only one instance did the authors measure a depletion of small particles during a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) encounter, suggesting a nucleation of type I PSC particles on background aerosols. Temporary increases of the coarse particle concentrations indicated the presence of tenuous polar stratospheric clouds that were encountered most frequently at the southernmost portion of a flight track and when the aircraft descended to lower altitudes. During particle events, particle modes were found at 0.6 μm radius, corresponding to type I PSCs, and occasionally, a second mode at 2.0 μm radius, corresponding to type II PSCs

  16. Airborne Measurements of Aerosol Size Distributions During PACDEX

    Rogers, D. C.; Gandrud, B.; Campos, T.; Kok, G.; Stith, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Pacific Dust Experiment (PACDEX) is an airborne project that attempts to characterize the indirect aerosol effect by tracing plumes of dust and pollution across the Pacific Ocean. This project occurred during April-May 2007 and used the NSF/NCAR HIAPER research aircraft. When a period of strong generation of dust particles and pollution was detected by ground-based and satellite sensors, then the aircraft was launched from Colorado to Alaska, Hawaii, and Japan. Its mission was to intercept and track these plumes from Asia, across the Pacific Ocean, and ultimately to the edges of North America. For more description, see the abstract by Stith and Ramanathan (this conference) and other companion papers on PACDEX. The HIAPER aircraft carried a wide variety of sensors for measuring aerosols, cloud particles, trace gases, and radiation. Sampling was made in several weather regimes, including clean "background" air, dust and pollution plumes, and regions with cloud systems. Altitude ranges extended from 100 m above the ocean to 13.4 km. This paper reports on aerosol measurements made with a new Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS), a Radial Differential Mobility Analyzer (RDMA), a water-based CN counter, and a Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP). These cover the size range 10 nm to 10 um diameter. In clear air, dust was detected with the UHSAS and CDP. Polluted air was identified with high concentrations of carbon monoxide, ozone, and CN. Aerosol size distributions will be presented, along with data to define the context of weather regimes.

  17. Body Size Diversity and Frequency Distributions of Neotropical Cichlid Fishes (Cichliformes: Cichlidae: Cichlinae)

    Steele, Sarah E.; Lpez-Fernndez, Hernn

    2014-01-01

    Body size is an important correlate of life history, ecology and distribution of species. Despite this, very little is known about body size evolution in fishes, particularly freshwater fishes of the Neotropics where species and body size diversity are relatively high. Phylogenetic history and body size data were used to explore body size frequency distributions in Neotropical cichlids, a broadly distributed and ecologically diverse group of fishes that is highly representative of body size d...

  18. Sample size for estimating average productive traits of pigeon pea

    Giovani Facco

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to determine the sample size, in terms of number of plants, needed to estimate the average values of productive traits of the pigeon pea and to determine whether the sample size needed varies between traits and between crop years. Separate uniformity trials were conducted in 2011/2012 and 2012/2013. In each trial, 360 plants were demarcated, and the fresh and dry masses of roots, stems, and leaves and of shoots and the total plant were evaluated during blossoming for 10 productive traits. Descriptive statistics were calculated, normality and randomness were checked, and the sample size was calculated. There was variability in the sample size between the productive traits and crop years of the pigeon pea culture. To estimate the averages of the productive traits with a 20% maximum estimation error and 95% confidence level, 70 plants are sufficient.

  19. ANALYTICAL MODEL FOR MARS CRATER-SIZE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION

    W. Bruckman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a theoretical and analytical curve that reproduces essential features of the frequency distributions vs. diameter of the 42,000 impact craters contained in Barlow's Mars Catalog. The model is derived using reasonable simple assumptions that allow us to relate the present craters population with the craters population at each particular epoch. The model takes into consideration the reduction of the number of craters as a function of time caused by their erosion and obliteration, and this provides a simple and natural explanation for the presence of di erent slopes in the empirical log-log plot of number of craters (N vs. diameter (D. A mean life for martians craters as a function of diameter is deduced, and it is shown that this result is consistent with the corresponding determination of craters mean life based on Earth data. Arguments are given to suggest that this consistency follows from the fact that a crater mean life is proportional to its volumen. It also follows that in the absence of erosions and obliterations, when craters are preserved, we would have N / 1=D4:3, which is a striking conclusion, since the exponent 4:3 is larger than previously thought. Such an exponent implies a similar slope in the extrapolated impactors size-frequency distribution.

  20. Event-based total suspended sediment particle size distribution model

    Thompson, Jennifer; Sattar, Ahmed M. A.; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Warner, Richard C.

    2016-05-01

    One of the most challenging modelling tasks in hydrology is prediction of the total suspended sediment particle size distribution (TSS-PSD) in stormwater runoff generated from exposed soil surfaces at active construction sites and surface mining operations. The main objective of this study is to employ gene expression programming (GEP) and artificial neural networks (ANN) to develop a new model with the ability to more accurately predict the TSS-PSD by taking advantage of both event-specific and site-specific factors in the model. To compile the data for this study, laboratory scale experiments using rainfall simulators were conducted on fourteen different soils to obtain TSS-PSD. This data is supplemented with field data from three construction sites in Ontario over a period of two years to capture the effect of transport and deposition within the site. The combined data sets provide a wide range of key overlooked site-specific and storm event-specific factors. Both parent soil and TSS-PSD in runoff are quantified by fitting each to a lognormal distribution. Compared to existing regression models, the developed model more accurately predicted the TSS-PSD using a more comprehensive list of key model input parameters. Employment of the new model will increase the efficiency of deployment of required best management practices, designed based on TSS-PSD, to minimize potential adverse effects of construction site runoff on aquatic life in the receiving watercourses.

  1. Using radial NMR profiles to characterize pore size distributions

    Deriche, Rachid; Treilhard, John

    2012-02-01

    Extracting information about axon diameter distributions in the brain is a challenging task which provides useful information for medical purposes; for example, the ability to characterize and monitor axon diameters would be useful in diagnosing and investigating diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)1 or autism.2 Three families of operators are defined by Ozarslan,3 whose action upon an NMR attenuation signal extracts the moments of the pore size distribution of the ensemble under consideration; also a numerical method is proposed to continuously reconstruct a discretely sampled attenuation profile using the eigenfunctions of the simple harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian: the SHORE basis. The work presented here extends Ozarlan's method to other bases that can offer a better description of attenuation signal behaviour; in particular, we propose the use of the radial Spherical Polar Fourier (SPF) basis. Testing is performed to contrast the efficacy of the radial SPF basis and SHORE basis in practical attenuation signal reconstruction. The robustness of the method to additive noise is tested and analysed. We demonstrate that a low-order attenuation signal reconstruction outperforms a higher-order reconstruction in subsequent moment estimation under noisy conditions. We propose the simulated annealing algorithm for basis function scale parameter estimation. Finally, analytic expressions are derived and presented for the action of the operators on the radial SPF basis (obviating the need for numerical integration, thus avoiding a spectrum of possible sources of error).

  2. Colony size-frequency distribution of pocilloporid juvenile corals along a natural environmental gradient in the Red Sea

    Lozano-Cortes, Diego

    2015-10-29

    Coral colony size-frequency distributions can be used to assess population responses to local environmental conditions and disturbances. In this study, we surveyed juvenile pocilloporids, herbivorous fish densities, and algal cover in the central and southern Saudi Arabian Red Sea. We sampled nine reefs with different disturbance histories along a north–south natural gradient of physicochemical conditions (higher salinity and wider temperature fluctuations in the north, and higher turbidity and productivity in the south). Since coral populations with negatively skewed size-frequency distributions have been associated with unfavorable environmental conditions, we expected to find more negative distributions in the southern Red Sea, where corals are potentially experiencing suboptimal conditions. Although juvenile coral and parrotfish densities differed significantly between the two regions, mean colony size and size-frequency distributions did not. Results suggest that pocilloporid colony size-frequency distribution may not be an accurate indicator of differences in biological or oceanographic conditions in the Red Sea.

  3. Productivity, size and exporting dynamics of firms: Evidence for Mexico

    Cardoso-Vargas, Carlos Enrique

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between size and productivity on the export dynamics of a developing country like Mexico. The theoretical framework that guides the empirical evaluation is based on a simple model inspired by Melitz (2003). The results suggest that differences in size and productivity of firms indicate who will be able to internationalize and which markets can sell. According to estimates there are other feasible locations to replace the neighboring market of North America...

  4. Influence of Milling Process of Roasted Cocoa Beans on Size Distribution Change of Cocoa Cotyledon

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available One of important steps in secondarycocoa process is deshelling cocoa beans roasted. The aim of deshelling is to enrich cotyledon cocoa surface area which affects to reduce energy and processing time with good quality of the chocolate product. The objective of this research is to study the influence of milling process on physical characteristic change of cocoa beans roasted such as size distribution change, geometrical diameter average, uniformity index, fineness modulus, and average dimension of cotyledoncocoa roasted. The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested deshelling of roasted cocoa beans which will be used in this research. Before deshelling process, C grade bulk cocoa beans has been roasted up to 2.5—3% water contents. The result showed that optimal milling process by rotary cutter type milling unit has good size distribution change, geometrical diameter average, uniformity index, fineness modulus, and average dimension on 500 rpm rotary speed and 2.8 m/s air flow. On optimal process condition, 74.5% of cocoa cotyledon roasted has diameter size between 2.0—4.75 mm, 2.116 mm average of geometrical diameter, 0.864 mm average dimension, 3.052 fineness modulus, and 80% as crude size particel-20% as temperate size particel on uniformity index. Therefore, more than 80% of cocoa cotyledon roasted has diameter size between 2.0—4.75 mm with 700—900 rpm rotary cutter speed. Average of geometric diameter was 1.65—2.19 mm, and the dimension average was 0.69—0.89 mm. Uniformity index was crude size particle up to 80—90%, and in temperate size particle10—20%. Fineness modulus value was 2.73—3.09. Key words: cocoa, milling, size distribution, roasted beans.

  5. Carbon-based phytoplankton size classes retrieved via ocean color estimates of the particle size distribution

    Kostadinov, Tihomir S.; Milutinović, Svetlana; Marinov, Irina; Cabré, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Owing to their important roles in biogeochemical cycles, phytoplankton functional types (PFTs) have been the aim of an increasing number of ocean color algorithms. Yet, none of the existing methods are based on phytoplankton carbon (C) biomass, which is a fundamental biogeochemical and ecological variable and the "unit of accounting" in Earth system models. We present a novel bio-optical algorithm to retrieve size-partitioned phytoplankton carbon from ocean color satellite data. The algorithm is based on existing methods to estimate particle volume from a power-law particle size distribution (PSD). Volume is converted to carbon concentrations using a compilation of allometric relationships. We quantify absolute and fractional biomass in three PFTs based on size - picophytoplankton (0.5-2 µm in diameter), nanophytoplankton (2-20 µm) and microphytoplankton (20-50 µm). The mean spatial distributions of total phytoplankton C biomass and individual PFTs, derived from global SeaWiFS monthly ocean color data, are consistent with current understanding of oceanic ecosystems, i.e., oligotrophic regions are characterized by low biomass and dominance of picoplankton, whereas eutrophic regions have high biomass to which nanoplankton and microplankton contribute relatively larger fractions. Global climatological, spatially integrated phytoplankton carbon biomass standing stock estimates using our PSD-based approach yield ˜ 0.25 Gt of C, consistent with analogous estimates from two other ocean color algorithms and several state-of-the-art Earth system models. Satisfactory in situ closure observed between PSD and POC measurements lends support to the theoretical basis of the PSD-based algorithm. Uncertainty budget analyses indicate that absolute carbon concentration uncertainties are driven by the PSD parameter No which determines particle number concentration to first order, while uncertainties in PFTs' fractional contributions to total C biomass are mostly due to the allometric coefficients. The C algorithm presented here, which is not empirically constrained a priori, partitions biomass in size classes and introduces improvement over the assumptions of the other approaches. However, the range of phytoplankton C biomass spatial variability globally is larger than estimated by any other models considered here, which suggests an empirical correction to the No parameter is needed, based on PSD validation statistics. These corrected absolute carbon biomass concentrations validate well against in situ POC observations.

  6. Mathematical modeling of polystyrene particle size distribution produced by suspension polymerization

    Machado R.A.F.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle size distribution (PSD of polystyrene particles produced by suspension polymerization is of fundamental importance in determining suspension stability and product quality attributes. Within a population balance framework, a model is proposed for suspension polymerization reactors to describe the evolution of the PSD. The model includes description of breakage and coalescence rates in terms of reaction kinetics and rheology of the dispersed phase. The model is validated with experimental data of styrene suspension polymerization.

  7. Influence of Milling Process of Roasted Cocoa Beans on Size Distribution Change of Cocoa Cotyledon

    Sukrisno Widyotomo; Sri Mulato; Edi Suharyanto

    2007-01-01

    One of important steps in secondarycocoa process is deshelling cocoa beans roasted. The aim of deshelling is to enrich cotyledon cocoa surface area which affects to reduce energy and processing time with good quality of the chocolate product. The objective of this research is to study the influence of milling process on physical characteristic change of cocoa beans roasted such as size distribution change, geometrical diameter average, uniformity index, fineness modulus, and average dimension...

  8. Income Distribution, Product Quality, and International Trade

    Fajgelbaum, Pablo; Gene M Grossman; Helpman, Elhanan

    2011-01-01

    We develop a framework for studying trade in vertically and horizontally differentiated products. In our model, consumers with heterogeneous incomes and tastes purchase a homogeneous good as well as making a discrete choice of quality and variety of a differentiated product. The distribution of preferences in the population generates a nested logit demand structure. These demands are such that the fraction of consumers who buy a higher-quality product rises with income. We use the model to st...

  9. Aged boreal biomass-burning aerosol size distributions from BORTAS 2011

    Sakamoto, K. M.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Taylor, J. W.; Duck, T. J.; Pierce, J. R.

    2015-02-01

    Biomass-burning aerosols contribute to aerosol radiative forcing on the climate system. The magnitude of this effect is partially determined by aerosol size distributions, which are functions of source fire characteristics (e.g. fuel type, MCE) and in-plume microphysical processing. The uncertainties in biomass-burning emission number-size distributions in climate model inventories lead to uncertainties in the CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) concentrations and forcing estimates derived from these models. The BORTAS-B (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellite) measurement campaign was designed to sample boreal biomass-burning outflow over eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Using these BORTAS-B data, we implement plume criteria to isolate the characteristic size distribution of aged biomass-burning emissions (aged ~ 1-2 days) from boreal wildfires in northwestern Ontario. The composite median size distribution yields a single dominant accumulation mode with Dpm = 230 nm (number-median diameter) and σ = 1.5, which are comparable to literature values of other aged plumes of a similar type. The organic aerosol enhancement ratios (ΔOA / ΔCO) along the path of Flight b622 show values of 0.09-0.17 μg m-3 ppbv-1 (parts per billion by volume) with no significant trend with distance from the source. This lack of enhancement ratio increase/decrease with distance suggests no detectable net OA (organic aerosol) production/evaporation within the aged plume over the sampling period (plume age: 1-2 days), though it does not preclude OA production/loss at earlier stages. A Lagrangian microphysical model was used to determine an estimate of the freshly emitted size distribution corresponding to the BORTAS-B aged size distributions. The model was restricted to coagulation and dilution processes based on the insignificant net OA production/evaporation derived from the ΔOA / ΔCO enhancement ratios. We estimate that the young-plume median diameter was in the range of 59-94 nm with modal widths in the range of 1.7-2.8 (the ranges are due to uncertainty in the entrainment rate). Thus, the size of the freshly emitted particles is relatively unconstrained due to the uncertainties in the plume dilution rates.

  10. Modelling the evolution of 210Pb and 210Po size distributions in the atmosphere

    The study of radon (222Rn and 220Rn) decay products in the atmosphere is important for estimating air ionization, assessing the inhalation doses to humans and for understanding atmospheric transport processes. The decay products 218Po, 214Pb (T1/2 < 1 hour), 212Pb (T1/2 ∼ 10.6 hrs) are short lived and 210Po (T1/2 ∼ 13 days), 210Pb (T1/2 ∼ 22 years) are long lived. Within a short time after their formation, the decay product atom combine with air constituents to form molecular clusters which then get attached to existing aerosol particles. The activity size distributions of the short-lived components in the atmosphere show two major modes, namely fine and coarse modes. The long-lived components predominantly occur in the coarse mode. Several studies have been carried out on the decay product activity distributions to estimate their atmospheric residence times. An important aspect that has received little attention is the upward size evolution of the decay products due to the persistent coagulation of the coarse mode particles. The present study aims at the development of first principle model for progeny attachment dynamics to a coagulating aerosol, which will provide insight in understanding the evolution of activity size distribution. A theoretical model is formulated by considering the processes such a constant formation of background aerosols, attachment of progeny atoms to the aerosol, coagulation, physical decay, and deposition. A set of integro-differential equations for attached and unattached fractions are formulated and are solved by a comprehensive numerical approach. Comparative studies of the activity size distributions, the degree of mixing of radioactivity within particles are carried out for short-lived and long lived species. The results are in agreement with the observations which show that the mode of the activity size distribution strongly depends on the effective life time of the progeny species in the atmosphere. The size dependence of activity per particle also show interesting behaviour with respect to the life times of the species. (author)

  11. Development of a hydrocyclone product size soft-sensor

    Smith, V.C. [MINTEK, Randburg, Johannesburg (South Africa); Swartz, C.L.E. [Univ. of Cape Town, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa)

    1999-07-01

    A technique is presented whereby the particle size of the hydrocyclone overflow product can be predicted by means of a mathematical model. The model uses hydrocyclone feed flowrate and density as well as hydrocyclone overflow density to calculate the required particle size. Various modelling techniques are investigated. Simple linear models are compared to neural network models. Special attention is given to the identification of significant model inputs. Simple linear and more complex neural network models, both utilising an extra model input, cyclone overflow density are identified. Error detection and analysis are explored, resulting in a robust soft-sensor, capable of predicting hydrocyclone product size accurately in the plant environment. (author)

  12. Development of a hydrocyclone product size soft-sensor

    A technique is presented whereby the particle size of the hydrocyclone overflow product can be predicted by means of a mathematical model. The model uses hydrocyclone feed flowrate and density as well as hydrocyclone overflow density to calculate the required particle size. Various modelling techniques are investigated. Simple linear models are compared to neural network models. Special attention is given to the identification of significant model inputs. Simple linear and more complex neural network models, both utilising an extra model input, cyclone overflow density are identified. Error detection and analysis are explored, resulting in a robust soft-sensor, capable of predicting hydrocyclone product size accurately in the plant environment. (author)

  13. Rain drop size distribution over the Tibetan Plateau

    Porcù, Federico; D'Adderio, Leo Pio; Prodi, Franco; Caracciolo, Clelia

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade, interest in measuring and studying rain drop size distribution (DSD) has grown due to applications in cloud physics, in calibration of space-borne and ground-based microwave active precipitation sensors and in soil science and agriculture. Such studies are of particular interest over remote areas, where knowledge of clouds and precipitation processes is lacking while the need for remote sensing based precipitation estimates is growing in global water cycle and climate trend studies. Disdrometric data over the Tibetan Plateau were collected during the 2010 monsoon season using the Pludix disdrometer, a vertically pointing, continuous wave, X-band, low power radar. Three experimental sites were set up at altitudes greater than 3300 m a.s.l., and a total number of 37 rain events were measured at two of the three sites. The analysis focuses on 2-min and 5-min DSD data for selected convective and stratiform events and the results are discussed in comparison with previous studies performed at lower altitudes. The time evolution of DSDs shows a regular behavior with respect to rain intensity: they change concavity and show a breakup signature in cases of the highest rain rates. Collisional breakup takes place for relatively lower rain rates, compared to the low-altitude measurements, and the size of the largest drops is also relatively smaller. An overall rainfall characteristic evaluation is also performed on the whole data set, deriving DSD integral parameters in order to compute a relationship between reflectivity and rain rate, resulting in A = 214 (A = 247) and b = 1.25 (b = 1.15) for convective (stratiform) precipitation.

  14. Aerosol size distribution seasonal characteristics measured in Tiksi, Russian Arctic

    Asmi, E.; Kondratyev, V.; Brus, D.; Laurila, T.; Lihavainen, H.; Backman, J.; Vakkari, V.; Aurela, M.; Hatakka, J.; Viisanen, Y.; Uttal, T.; Ivakhov, V.; Makshtas, A.

    2016-02-01

    Four years of continuous aerosol number size distribution measurements from the Arctic Climate Observatory in Tiksi, Russia, are analyzed. Tiksi is located in a region where in situ information on aerosol particle properties has not been previously available. Particle size distributions were measured with a differential mobility particle sizer (in the diameter range of 7-500 nm) and with an aerodynamic particle sizer (in the diameter range of 0.5-10 μm). Source region effects on particle modal features and number, and mass concentrations are presented for different seasons. The monthly median total aerosol number concentration in Tiksi ranges from 184 cm-3 in November to 724 cm-3 in July, with a local maximum in March of 481 cm-3. The total mass concentration has a distinct maximum in February-March of 1.72-2.38 μg m-3 and two minimums in June (0.42 μg m-3) and in September-October (0.36-0.57 μg m-3). These seasonal cycles in number and mass concentrations are related to isolated processes and phenomena such as Arctic haze in early spring, which increases accumulation and coarse-mode numbers, and secondary particle formation in spring and summer, which affects the nucleation and Aitken mode particle concentrations. Secondary particle formation was frequently observed in Tiksi and was shown to be slightly more common in marine, in comparison to continental, air flows. Particle formation rates were the highest in spring, while the particle growth rates peaked in summer. These results suggest two different origins for secondary particles, anthropogenic pollution being the important source in spring and biogenic emissions being significant in summer. The impact of temperature-dependent natural emissions on aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei numbers was significant: the increase in both the particle mass and the CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) number with temperature was found to be higher than in any previous study done over the boreal forest region. In addition to the precursor emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds, the frequent Siberian forest fires, although far away, are suggested to play a role in Arctic aerosol composition during the warmest months. Five fire events were isolated based on clustering analysis, and the particle mass and cloud condensation nuclei number were shown to be somewhat affected by these events. In addition, during calm and cold months, aerosol concentrations were occasionally increased by local aerosol sources in trapping inversions. These results provide valuable information on interannual cycles and sources of Arctic aerosols.

  15. ESTIMATING SOIL PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION FOR SICILIAN SOILS

    Vincenzo Bagarello

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The soil particle-size distribution (PSD is commonly used for soil classification and for estimating soil behavior. An accurate mathematical representation of the PSD is required to estimate soil hydraulic properties and to compare texture measurements from different classification systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of the Haverkamp and Parlange (HP and Fredlund et al. (F PSD models to fit 243 measured PSDs from a wide range of 38 005_Bagarello(547_33 18-11-2009 11:55 Pagina 38 soil textures in Sicily and to test the effect of the number of measured particle diameters on the fitting of the theoretical PSD. For each soil textural class, the best fitting performance, established using three statistical indices (MXE, ME, RMSE, was obtained for the F model with three fitting parameters. In particular, this model performed better in the fine-textured soils than the coarse-textured ones but a good performance (i.e., RMSE < 0.03 was detected for the majority of the investigated soil textural classes, i.e. clay, silty-clay, silty-clay-loam, silt-loam, clay-loam, loamy-sand, and loam classes. Decreasing the number of measured data pairs from 14 to eight determined a worse fitting of the theoretical distribution to the measured one. It was concluded that the F model with three fitting parameters has a wide applicability for Sicilian soils and that the comparison of different PSD investigations can be affected by the number of measured data pairs.

  16. Particle size distribution models, their characteristics and fitting capability

    Bayat, Hossein; Rastgo, Mostafa; Mansouri Zadeh, Moharram; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-10-01

    Many attempts have been made to characterize particle size distribution (PSD) curves using different mathematical models, which are primarily used as a basis for estimating soil hydraulic properties. The principle step in using soil PSD to predict soil hydraulic properties is determining an accurate and continuous curve for PSD. So far, the characteristics of the PSD models, their fitting accuracy, and the effects of their parameters on the shape and position of PSD curves have not been investigated. In this study all developed PSD models, their characteristics, behavior of their parameters, and their fitting capability to the UNSODA database soil samples were investigated. Results showed that beerkan estimation of soil transfer (BEST), two and three parameter Weibull, Rosin and Rammler (1 and 2), unimodal and bimodal Fredlund, and van Genuchten models were flexible over the entire range of soil PSD. Correspondingly, the BEST, two and three parameter Weibull, Rosin and Rammler (1 and 2), hyperbolic and offset renormalized log-normal models possessed a high fitting capability over the entire range of PSD. The few parameters of the BEST, Rosin and Rammler (1 and 2), and two parameter Weibull models provides ease of use in soil physics and mechanics research. Thus, they are seemingly fit with acceptable accuracy in predicting the PSD curve. Although the fractal models have physical and mathematical basis, they do not have the adequate flexibility to contribute a description of the PSD curve. Different aspects of the PSD models should be considered in selecting a model to describe a soil PSD.

  17. Hybrid Organization of Production and Distribution

    Claude Menard

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the central role of arrangements called hybrids in the organization of production and distribution in market economies. Several forms are taken into account, such as subcontracting, supply-chain systems, distribution networks, franchising, partnerships, alliances, or cooperatives. It is argued that under the apparent heterogeneity of these forms are shared characteristics qualifying them as specific institutional structures of production. The paper stresses that beyond their relevance for economists wishing to understand the coexistence of alternative modes of governance in market economies, hybrid arrangements provide unique opportunities for theoretical investigation on the nature of inter-firm coordination.

  18. Nano to micro particle size distribution measurement in the fluid by interactive force apparatus for fine particle processing.

    Fujita, Toyohisa; Dodbiba, Gjergj; Okaya, Katsunori; Matsuo, Seiji; Wang, Li Pang; Onda, Kana; Otsuki, Akira

    2013-12-01

    The direct measurement of fine particles size distribution of dispersions or coagulations in liquid is important for water purification, fine particles separation for recycling and mineral processing, as well as the new material production. The nano to micro particle size is usually measured by light scattering method; however, it is difficult to measure at high concentration of suspension. Here, a novel dynamical method by using the interactive force measurement between particles in liquid under electric field is used for measuring distribution of fine particle. Three types of nano to submicron particles, that is well-dispersed nano particles, coagulated nano particles and settled submicron particles, have been measured by interactive force measurement method. The particle size distributions are compered with the size distributions of dried particles measured by TEM or SEM. The well-dispersed nano particle size distribution by interactive force measurement is influenced by the nano size surfactant micelles. The size distribution of coagulated nano particles in water is larger than the result by TEM. On the other hand, the submicron nickel particle size distribution is similar with the one analyzed by SEM. PMID:24266212

  19. Ceramic Membrane Fabrication from Industrial Waste: Effect of Particle Size Distribution on the Porosity

    I. Norliza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial waste from sanitary company is chosen in this study as a precursor to fabricate ceramic membrane. It has been reported that enormous rejects being generated every year by this company. A preliminary characterization of this industrial waste shows the presence of quartz mineral, which is one of the main and suitable elements for the formation of ceramic products. Extrusion method was applied in fabricating tubular type ceramic membrane. In this present study, the effect of three different particle size distribution of the powder waste on the porosity is presented. The characterization of the porosity was performed in order to gain the insights in preparing ceramic membrane with good permeability. Results show that almost 40% porosity is able to be obtained using higher particle size distribution. However, further improvements in working conditions should be optimized in order to have a ceramic membrane with good physical properties.

  20. Characterization of Nanocrystal Size Distribution using Raman Spectroscopy with a Multi-particle Phonon Confinement Model.

    Doğan, İlker; van de Sanden, Mauritius C M

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of the size distribution of nanocrystals is a critical requirement for the processing and optimization of their size-dependent properties. The common techniques used for the size analysis are transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). These techniques, however, are not suitable for analyzing the nanocrystal size distribution in a fast, non-destructive and a reliable manner at the same time. Our aim in this work is to demonstrate that size distribution of semiconductor nanocrystals that are subject to size-dependent phonon confinement effects, can be quantitatively estimated in a non-destructive, fast and reliable manner using Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, mixed size distributions can be separately probed, and their respective volumetric ratios can be estimated using this technique. In order to analyze the size distribution, we have formulized an analytical expression of one-particle PCM and projected it onto a generic distribution function that will represent the size distribution of analyzed nanocrystal. As a model experiment, we have analyzed the size distribution of free-standing silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs) with multi-modal size distributions. The estimated size distributions are in excellent agreement with TEM and PL results, revealing the reliability of our model. PMID:26327524

  1. The sources and size distributions of aliphatic and carbonyl carbon in Los Angeles aerosol

    Pickle, Todd; Allen, David T.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    Size distributions of aerosol phase aliphatic and carbonyl groups were measured during the Southern California Air Quality Study. Samples were collected using a low pressure impactor equipped with ZnSe disks and the aerosol samples were analyzed directly using infrared (i.r.) spectroscopy. For the carbonyl absorbance, the ambient samples showed maxima in the 0.12-0.26 ?m and the 0.5-1.0 ?m size fractions. For the aliphatic carbon absorbance, the ambient samples generally showed maxima in the 0.076-0.12 ?m size fraction. Factors contributing to these two absorbances were examined using principal component analysis. The results indicate that the carbonyl absorbance can be almost entirely attributed to products of atmospheric reactions and the aliphatic absorbances in particles smaller than 0.12 ?m is correlated with automotive emissions.

  2. Fractal bird nest distribution produces scale-free colony sizes

    Jovani, Roger; Tella, José Luis

    2007-01-01

    The spatial distribution of organisms often differs across scales. For instance, colonial bird populations could be described, from large to small scale, as scattered clumps of otherwise regularly distributed breeding pairs. We analysed the distribution of nests of a large colonial population of white storks (Ciconia ciconia) and found a fractal pattern in each of the 4 study years. Moreover, we found that the often- observed, long-tailed frequency distribution of ...

  3. Estimation of size distribution of primary particles after evaporation or urane(IV) oxide

    Studying the behaviour of urane oxide aerossoles in a closed system the size distribution of the particles resulting from evaporation of UO2 was also investigated. They were precipitated on formfar coated specimen supports grids and photographed with an electron microscope. For the estimation of the size distribution the projected diameter was used. The results show that the size distribution of the primary particles corresponds to a logarithmic normal distribution. (author)

  4. Activity size distribution of the short-lived and long-lived radionuclides in outdoor air

    There are a number of radioactive isotopes of different elements in the atmosphere near ground level. Most of them are decay products from the 238U- and 232Th-chains with the highest activity concentration of the short-lived 222Rn-(radon)(1-100 Bq/m3) and 220Rn-(thoron) (0.01-1 Bq/m3) decay products. The long-lived radon decay products (210Pb/210Po) have concentrations between 1-5x10-4 Bq/m3. In contrast to these nuclides the amount of the activity concentration of 7Be (1-7x10-3 Bq/m3)is produced by interaction of the cosmic rays with atmospheric gases. Most of these airborne radionuclides are adsorbed on the surface of aerosol particles and form radioactive aerosol. Therefore the behaviour of the airborne radionuclides is determined by the behaviour of the aerosol particles in the atmosphere. Besides the generation rate the activity concentration of the radionuclides in air is influenced by their transport in the atmosphere and by the radioactive decay. In addition, for the longer-lived radionuclides (half-live >1 d) the removal processes (dry deposition, wet deposition) from the atmosphere have an influence on the activity concentration and the coagulation process will significantly change the activity size distribution of the original radioactive aerosol. The activity size distribution of the radioactive aerosol is the dominant parameter for the behaviour of the radionuclides in the environment. The removal processes from the atmosphere, the deposition rate on ground and vegetation and the deposition probability in the lung during inhalation depend on the particle size. In this paper the measurement results of the activity size distribution of the short-lived (218Po, 214Po) and the long-lived (210Pb, 210Po) radon and thoron (212Pb, 212Po) decay products and 7Be are summarised, obtained from measurements over a longer period in outdoor air during the last years. Especially, the aim was to find out the differences between the size distributions of these radionuclides. Therefore it was important to use measurement techniques, which made it possible, to register simultaneously almost all of these radionuclides during one measurement run over a longer time period

  5. Environmental pesticide distribution in horticultural and floricultural periurban production units.

    Querejeta, Giselle A; Ramos, Laura M; Flores, Andrea P; Hughes, Enrique A; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M

    2012-04-01

    The environmental pesticide distribution on non-target systems (soil, drift and agricultural plastics) during the application step at small periurban production units, was studied in open field and greenhouses, for different crops (tomato, lettuce, broccoli, strawberry and flowers) using different pesticides (endosulfan, procymidone, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin). In all cases, soil was the most exposed non-target system. For greenhouses, a general pesticide distribution was found of approximately 2/3 for crop, 1/4 for soil and 1/20 for plastic, of the total amount applied. In horticultural open fields, although the distribution was very dependent on the crop size and type, soil was also the most exposed non-target subsystem. Pesticide drift seems not to be significant in these production units, whilst pesticide accumulation on agricultural plastics reached up to 45% of the total applied, for polyethylene mulching in strawberry fields. PMID:22285036

  6. Drop Size Distribution - Based Separation of Stratiform and Convective Rain

    Thurai, Merhala; Gatlin, Patrick; Williams, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    For applications in hydrology and meteorology, it is often desirable to separate regions of stratiform and convective rain from meteorological radar observations, both from ground-based polarimetric radars and from space-based dual frequency radars. In a previous study by Bringi et al. (2009), dual frequency profiler and dual polarization radar (C-POL) observations in Darwin, Australia, had shown that stratiform and convective rain could be separated in the log10(Nw) versus Do domain, where Do is the mean volume diameter and Nw is the scaling parameter which is proportional to the ratio of water content to the mass weighted mean diameter. Note, Nw and Do are two of the main drop size distribution (DSD) parameters. In a later study, Thurai et al (2010) confirmed that both the dual-frequency profiler based stratiform-convective rain separation and the C-POL radar based separation were consistent with each other. In this paper, we test this separation method using DSD measurements from a ground based 2D video disdrometer (2DVD), along with simultaneous observations from a collocated, vertically-pointing, X-band profiling radar (XPR). The measurements were made in Huntsville, Alabama. One-minute DSDs from 2DVD are used as input to an appropriate gamma fitting procedure to determine Nw and Do. The fitted parameters - after averaging over 3-minutes - are plotted against each other and compared with a predefined separation line. An index is used to determine how far the points lie from the separation line (as described in Thurai et al. 2010). Negative index values indicate stratiform rain and positive index indicate convective rain, and, moreover, points which lie somewhat close to the separation line are considered 'mixed' or 'transition' type precipitation. The XPR observations are used to evaluate/test the 2DVD data-based classification. A 'bright-band' detection algorithm was used to classify each vertical reflectivity profile as either stratiform or convective, depending on whether or not a clearly-defined melting layer is present at an expected height, and if present, maximum reflectivity within the melting layer as well as the corresponding height are determined. We will present results of quantitative comparisons between the XPR observations-based classifications and the simultaneous 2DVD data-based classifications. Time series comparisons will be presented for thirteen events in Huntsville.

  7. The anomalies of the properties of nanomaterials related to the distribution of the grain sizes

    Glinchuk, M D

    2004-01-01

    We have performed the calculations of the size effect in the temperature dependence of BaTiO3 nanograin ceramics specific heat and dielectric permittivity. We took into account the distribution of the grain sizes, that exists in any real nanomaterial. This distribution lead to the distribution of the temperatures of the size driven transition from ferroelectric to paraelectric phase because of relation between the temperature and the sizes. We calculated the transition temperature distribution function on the basis of the sizes distribution function. This function allowed to calculate the temperature dependence of any physical quantity in a nanomaterial. As an examples we calculated specific heat and dielectric permittivity in nanograin ferroelectric ceramics. The results demonstrate the strong influence of the size distribution on the observed properties and especially on extracted from experiment values of critical size and temperature. We carried out the comparison of the theory with the measured specific ...

  8. Averages of Euler products, distribution of singular series and the ubiquity of Poisson distribution

    Kowalski, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    We discuss in some detail the general problem of computing averages of convergent Euler products, and apply this to examples arising from singular series for the $k$-tuple conjecture and more general problems of polynomial representation of primes. We show that the singular series for the $k$-tuple conjecture have a limiting distribution when taken over $k$-tuples with (distinct) entries of growing size, and observe that its moments have a curious symmetry property. We also give conditional a...

  9. Size distribution in ultraphytoplankton: a comparative analysis of counting methods.

    Pitta, P; Karakassis, I

    2005-03-01

    Water samples taken at three depth layers from the offshore oligotrophic Cretan Sea were analyzed for ultraphytoplankton size fractionation using different methods: (a) sequential filtration on filters of pore size 5, 1 and 0.2 microm, (b) separate filtration using filters 5 and 0.2 microm as well as 1 and 0.2 microm and (c) direct filtration on 0.2 microm filters after staining of the samples with DAPI. Total abundance of photosynthetic organisms as well as the abundance of different groups such as flagellates and cyanobacteria measured by means of sizing after DAPI staining were significantly higher than those obtained by the other methods. This indicates that although there were no significant differences between the estimates provided by the separate and sequential filtration, both these methods underestimated total abundance by at least 25-50%. The estimates for the size fractions were also found to range from relatively imprecise to completely unreliable depending on the group and the size range. Although size fractionation through direct observation after staining largely depends on the expertise of the observer, this study suggests that it may provide more informative estimates than the other two methods. Although it is difficult to generalize the results of this study in a global context, the paper provides strong indications on the limitations of the sequential and separate methods for size fractionation of photosynthetic organisms and implies that their results are likely to be less accurate than is presently believed. PMID:15869179

  10. Production and Distribution of NASA MODIS Remote Sensing Products

    Wolfe, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on-board NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites make key measurements for understanding the Earth's terrestrial ecosystems. Global time-series of terrestrial geophysical parameters have been produced from MODIS/Terra for over 7 years and for MODIS/Aqua for more than 4 1/2 years. These well calibrated instruments, a team of scientists and a large data production, archive and distribution systems have allowed for the development of a new suite of high quality product variables at spatial resolutions as fine as 250m in support of global change research and natural resource applications. This talk describes the MODIS Science team's products, with a focus on the terrestrial (land) products, the data processing approach and the process for monitoring and improving the product quality. The original MODIS science team was formed in 1989. The team's primary role is the development and implementation of the geophysical algorithms. In addition, the team provided feedback on the design and pre-launch testing of the instrument and helped guide the development of the data processing system. The key challenges the science team dealt with before launch were the development of algorithms for a new instrument and provide guidance of the large and complex multi-discipline processing system. Land, Ocean and Atmosphere discipline teams drove the processing system requirements, particularly in the area of the processing loads and volumes needed to daily produce geophysical maps of the Earth at resolutions as fine as 250 m. The processing system had to handle a large number of data products, large data volumes and processing loads, and complex processing requirements. Prior to MODIS, daily global maps from heritage instruments, such as Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), were not produced at resolutions finer than 5 km. The processing solution evolved into a combination of processing the lower level (Level 1) products and the higher level discipline specific Land and Atmosphere products in the MODIS Science Investigator Lead Processing System (SIPS), the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS), and archive and distribution of the Land products to the user community by two of NASA s EOS Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs). Recently, a part of MODAPS, the Level 1 and Atmosphere Archive and Distribution System (LAADS), took over the role of archiving and distributing the Level 1 and Atmosphere products to the user community.

  11. A Program for Partitioning Shifted Truncated Lognormal Distributions into Size-Class Bins

    Attanasi, E.D.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, oil and gas accumulation-size frequency distributions have become a standard way to characterize undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources that have been postulated by geologic assessments. The preparation of such distributions requires the assessment geologists to explicitly choose parameters for the probability distribution for the sizes of undiscovered accumulations. The purpose of this report is to present a computational scheme for obtaining a binned size frequency distribution of undiscovered accumulations when the undiscovered accumulation size distribution is shifted truncated lognormal.

  12. Pyroprocessing Product and Waste Estimation with Storage Sizing

    A dynamic material flow model was built to estimate annual product and waste generation in the pyroprocessing. Dynamic material flow is analyzed for evaluation of buffer size to accommodate various kinds of WIP in the integrated pyroprocessing. The discrete event simulations contribute to find out the optimal buffer size enough to accommodate WIP generated. These results are needed to design pyroprocessing facility as well as to establish a management plan of final product and waste. As one of promising spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing options, pyroprocessing is facing many issues to solve in terms of technical and economic feasibilities. More reasonable evaluation to support those feasibilities can come from estimation of product and waste generated in pyroprocessing

  13. Test of methods for retrospective activity size distribution determination from filter samples

    Determining the activity size distribution of radioactive aerosol particles requires sophisticated and heavy equipment, which makes measurements at large number of sites difficult and expensive. Therefore three methods for a retrospective determination of size distributions from aerosol filter samples in the laboratory were tested for their applicability. Extraction into a carrier liquid with subsequent nebulisation showed size distributions with a slight but correctable bias towards larger diameters compared with the original size distribution. Yields in the order of magnitude of 1% could be achieved. Sonication-assisted extraction into a carrier liquid caused a coagulation mode to appear in the size distribution. Sonication-assisted extraction into the air did not show acceptable results due to small yields. The method of extraction into a carrier liquid without sonication was applied to aerosol samples from Chernobyl in order to calculate inhalation dose coefficients for 137Cs based on the individual size distribution. The effective dose coefficient is about half of that calculated with a default reference size distribution. - Highlights: • Activity size distributions can be recovered after aerosol sampling on filters. • Extraction into a carrier liquid and subsequent nebulisation is appropriate. • This facilitates the determination of activity size distributions for individuals. • Size distributions from this method can be used for individual dose coefficients. • Dose coefficients were calculated for the workers at the new Chernobyl shelter

  14. A generalized statistical model for the size distribution of wealth

    In a recent paper in this journal (Clementi et al 2009 J. Stat. Mech. P02037), we proposed a new, physically motivated, distribution function for modeling individual incomes, having its roots in the framework of the ?-generalized statistical mechanics. The performance of the ?-generalized distribution was checked against real data on personal income for the United States in 2003. In this paper we extend our previous model so as to be able to account for the distribution of wealth. Probabilistic functions and inequality measures of this generalized model for wealth distribution are obtained in closed form. In order to check the validity of the proposed model, we analyze the US household wealth distributions from 1984 to 2009 and conclude an excellent agreement with the data that is superior to any other model already known in the literature. (paper)

  15. A generalized statistical model for the size distribution of wealth

    Clementi, F.; Gallegati, M.; Kaniadakis, G.

    2012-12-01

    In a recent paper in this journal (Clementi et al 2009 J. Stat. Mech. P02037), we proposed a new, physically motivated, distribution function for modeling individual incomes, having its roots in the framework of the ?-generalized statistical mechanics. The performance of the ?-generalized distribution was checked against real data on personal income for the United States in 2003. In this paper we extend our previous model so as to be able to account for the distribution of wealth. Probabilistic functions and inequality measures of this generalized model for wealth distribution are obtained in closed form. In order to check the validity of the proposed model, we analyze the US household wealth distributions from 1984 to 2009 and conclude an excellent agreement with the data that is superior to any other model already known in the literature.

  16. Inference for the limiting cluster size distribution of extreme values

    Robert, Christian Y.

    2009-01-01

    Any limiting point process for the time normalized exceedances of high levels by a stationary sequence is necessarily compound Poisson under appropriate long range dependence conditions. Typically exceedances appear in clusters. The underlying Poisson points represent the cluster positions and the multiplicities correspond to the cluster sizes. In the present paper we introduce estimators of the limiting cluster size probabilities, which are constructed through a recursive algorithm. We deriv...

  17. Efficient Production-Distribution System Design

    Samir Elhedhli; Jean-Louis Goffin

    2005-01-01

    The production-distribution system design is an integral part of the general supply chain design. This paper proposes a novel solution methodology for this problem that is based on Lagrangean relaxation, interior-point methods, and branch and bound. Unlike classical approaches, Lagrangean relaxation is applied in a two-level hierarchy, branch and bound is based on a Lagrangean lower bound and column generation (branch and price), while interior-point methods are used within a cutting-plane co...

  18. Self-similar drop-size distributions produced by breakup in chaotic flows

    Deformation and breakup of immiscible fluids in deterministic chaotic flows is governed by self-similar distributions of stretching histories and stretching rates and produces populations of droplets of widely distributed sizes. Scaling reveals that distributions of drop sizes collapse into two self-similar families; each family exhibits a different shape, presumably due to changes in the breakup mechanism

  19. Quantitative analysis of crystal/grain sizes and their distributions in 2D and 3D

    Berger, Alfons; Herwegh, Marco; Schwarz, Jens-Oliver; Putlitz, Benita

    2011-01-01

    We review methods to estimate the average crystal (grain) size and the crystal (grain) size distribution in solid rocks. Average grain sizes often provide the base for stress estimates or rheological calculations requiring the quantification of grain sizes in a rock’s microstructure. The primary...... root) to calculate statistical parameters as the mean, median, mode or the skewness of a crystal size distribution. The finally calculated average grain sizes have to be compatible between the different grain size estimation approaches in order to be properly applied, for example, in paleo...... other, although the primary calculations were obtained in different ways. In order to present an average grain size, we propose to use the area-weighted and volume-weighted mean in the case of unimodal grain size distributions, respectively, for 2D and 3D measurements. The shape of the crystal size...

  20. Quantitative analysis of crystal/grain sizes and their distributions in 2D and 3D

    Berger, Alfons; Herwegh, Marco; Schwarz, Jens-Oliver; Putlitz, Benita

    2011-01-01

    We review methods to estimate the average crystal (grain) size and the crystal (grain) size distribution in solid rocks. Average grain sizes often provide the base for stress estimates or rheological calculations requiring the quantification of grain sizes in a rocks microstructure. The primary...... root) to calculate statistical parameters as the mean, median, mode or the skewness of a crystal size distribution. The finally calculated average grain sizes have to be compatible between the different grain size estimation approaches in order to be properly applied, for example, in paleo...... other, although the primary calculations were obtained in different ways. In order to present an average grain size, we propose to use the area-weighted and volume-weighted mean in the case of unimodal grain size distributions, respectively, for 2D and 3D measurements. The shape of the crystal size...

  1. Quantitative analysis of bimodal grain size distributions in WC-Co hard materials

    A special method was implemented to quantify the bimodal character of the 3D grain size distribution in WC-Co sintered materials. The method deals with SEM images of materials sections. Grains are separated on binary images by an automatic algorithm. The intercept length distributions are measured. Data are then fitted with a model population of trigonal prisms with constant shape. Two kinds of grain size distributions are considered for the model: a unimodal (lognormal) distribution or a bimodal (bi-lognormal) size distribution. The method is applied to different WC-Co grades, and the bimodal character of the distribution is discussed. (author)

  2. Size distribution of rare earth elements in coal ash

    Scott, Clinton T.; Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Adams, Monique; Holland, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are utilized in various applications that are vital to the automotive, petrochemical, medical, and information technology industries. As world demand for REEs increases, critical shortages are expected. Due to the retention of REEs during coal combustion, coal fly ash is increasingly considered a potential resource. Previous studies have demonstrated that coal fly ash is variably enriched in REEs relative to feed coal (e.g, Seredin and Dai, 2012) and that enrichment increases with decreasing size fractions (Blissett et al., 2014). In order to further explore the REE resource potential of coal ash, and determine the partitioning behavior of REE as a function of grain size, we studied whole coal and fly ash size-fractions collected from three U.S commercial-scale coal-fired generating stations burning Appalachian or Powder River Basin coal. Whole fly ash was separated into , 5 um, to 5 to 10 um and 10 to 100 um particle size fractions by mechanical shaking using trace-metal clean procedures. In these samples REE enrichments in whole fly ash ranges 5.6 to 18.5 times that of feedcoals. Partitioning results for size separates relative to whole coal and whole fly ash will also be reported. 

  3. Vaccine production, distribution, access, and uptake.

    Smith, Jon; Lipsitch, Marc; Almond, Jeffrey W

    2011-07-30

    For human vaccines to be available on a global scale, complex production methods, meticulous quality control, and reliable distribution channels are needed to ensure that the products are potent and effective at the point of use. The technologies used to manufacture different types of vaccines can strongly affect vaccine cost, ease of industrial scale-up, stability, and, ultimately, worldwide availability. The complexity of manufacturing is compounded by the need for different formulations in different countries and age-groups. Reliable vaccine production in appropriate quantities and at affordable prices is the cornerstone of developing global vaccination policies. However, to ensure optimum access and uptake, strong partnerships are needed between private manufacturers, regulatory authorities, and national and international public health services. For vaccines whose supply is insufficient to meet demand, prioritisation of target groups can increase the effect of these vaccines. In this report, we draw from our experience of vaccine development and focus on influenza vaccines as an example to consider production, distribution, access, and other factors that affect vaccine uptake and population-level effectiveness. PMID:21664680

  4. Vesicle sizing: Number distributions by dynamic light scattering

    Hallett, F. R.; Watton, J.; Krygsman, P.

    1991-01-01

    A procedure is described which optimizes nonnegative least squares and exponential sampling fitting methods for analysis of dynamic light scattering (DLS) data from aqueous suspensions of vesicle/liposome systems. This approach utilizes a Rayleigh-Gans-Debye form factor for a coated sphere and yields number distributions which can be compared directly to distributions obtained by freeze-fracture electron microscopy (EM). Excellent agreement between the DLS and EM results are obtained for vesi...

  5. The Distribution of the Size of Price Changes

    Alberto Cavallo; Roberto Rigobon

    2011-01-01

    Different theories of price stickiness have distinct implications on the number of modes in the distribution of price changes. We formally test for the number of modes in the price change distribution of 36 supermarkets, spanning 22 countries and 5 continents. We present results for three modality tests: the two best-known tests in the statistical literature, Hartigan's Dip and Silverman's Bandwidth, and a test designed in this paper, called the Proportional Mass test (PM). Three main results...

  6. Placement and Sizing of DG Using PSO&HBMO Algorithms in Radial Distribution Networks

    M. A.Taghikhani; M.Afzalan

    2012-01-01

    Optimal placement and sizing of DG in distribution network is an optimization problem with continuous and discrete variables. Many researchers have used evolutionary methods for finding the optimal DG placement and sizing. This paper proposes a hybrid algorithm PSO&HBMO for optimal placement and sizing of distributed generation (DG) in radial distri-bution system to minimize the total power loss and improve the voltage profile. The proposed method is tested on a standard 13 bus radial distrib...

  7. The dune size distribution and scaling relations of barchan dune fields

    Durn, O.; Schwmmle, V.; P. G. Lind; Herrmann, H. J.

    2007-01-01

    Barchan dunes emerge as a collective phenomena involving the generation of thousands of them in so called barchan dune fields. By measuring the size and position of dunes in Moroccan barchan dune fields, we find that these dunes tend to distribute uniformly in space and follow an unique size distribution function. We introduce an analytical mean-field approach to show that this empirical size distribution emerges from the interplay of dune collisions and sand flux balance, the two simplest me...

  8. Radioactivity size distributions of ambient aerosols in Helsinki, Finland during May 1986 after Chernobyl accident

    Ambient aerosol size distributions oof 131I, 103Ru, 132Te and 137Cs radionuclides were measured in Helsinki, Finland during May 7 - 14, 1986. Radioactivity size distributions were unimodal. Geometric mean diameter of 131I was in the size range 0.33 - 0.57 μm a.e.d.. Other isotopes had geometric mean diameters in the size range 0.65 - 0.93 μm a.e.d.. (author)

  9. Size-fractionated characterization and quantification of nanoparticle release rates from a consumer spray product containing engineered nanoparticles

    Hagendorfer, Harald; Lorenz, Christiane; Kaegi, Ralf; Sinnet, Brian; Gehrig, Robert; Goetz, Natalie V.; Scheringer, Martin; Ludwig, Christian; Ulrich, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This study describes methods developed for reliable quantification of size- and element-specific release of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) from consumer spray products. A modified glove box setup was designed to allow controlled spray experiments in a particle-minimized environment. Time dependence of the particle size distribution in a size range of 10-500 nm and ENP release rates were studied using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). In parallel, the aerosol was transferred to a size...

  10. The limit distribution of the maximum increment of a random walk with regularly varying jump size distribution

    Mikosch, Thomas; 10.3150/10-BEJ255

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the asymptotic distribution of the maximum increment of a random walk with a regularly varying jump size distribution. This problem is motivated by a long-standing problem on change point detection for epidemic alternatives. It turns out that the limit distribution of the maximum increment of the random walk is one of the classical extreme value distributions, the Fr\\'{e}chet distribution. We prove the results in the general framework of point processes and for jump sizes taking values in a separable Banach space.

  11. Depth and size effects on cosmogenic nuclide production in meteorites

    Englert, P.

    1985-01-01

    The galactic cosmic particle radiation (GCR) can cause changes in condensed extraterrestrial matter in different ways. It can lose energy via ionization processes of induced nuclear reactions which lead to a wide variety of stable and radioactive cosmogenic nuclides. Heavy particles incur radiation damage in minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. Light particles predominantly tend to induce nuclear reactions, causing the development of a secondary particle cascade of neutrons, protons, pions and gamma-rays and the production of cosmogenic nuclides. Such processes are described by various models, which predict the depth and size dependent production of cosmogenic nuclides.

  12. The limit distribution of the maximum increment of a random walk with regularly varying jump size distribution

    Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Rackauskas, Alfredas

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the asymptotic distribution of the maximum increment of a random walk with a regularly varying jump size distribution. This problem is motivated by a long-standing problem on change point detection for epidemic alternatives. It turns out that the limit distribution of ...

  13. The Number and the Size Distribution of Firms in Sweden and Other European Countries

    Johansson, Dan

    1997-01-01

    This study investigates changes in the number and the size distribution of firms in Sweden in the period 1968-1993. The number and the size distribution of Swedish firms are compared to the number and the size distribution of firms in eleven European countries. A decrease in the number of enterprises in the Swedish manufacturing industry is observed in all size classes and intermediate-sized (10-199 employees/firm) firms declined the most. Large differences are found in the number of firms be...

  14. Distributed Monte Carlo production for D0

    Snow, Joel; /Langston U.

    2010-01-01

    The D0 collaboration uses a variety of resources on four continents to pursue a strategy of flexibility and automation in the generation of simulation data. This strategy provides a resilient and opportunistic system which ensures an adequate and timely supply of simulation data to support D0's physics analyses. A mixture of facilities, dedicated and opportunistic, specialized and generic, large and small, grid job enabled and not, are used to provide a production system that has adapted to newly developing technologies. This strategy has increased the event production rate by a factor of seven and the data production rate by a factor of ten in the last three years despite diminishing manpower. Common to all production facilities is the SAM (Sequential Access to Metadata) data-grid. Job submission to the grid uses SAMGrid middleware which may forward jobs to the OSG, the WLCG, or native SAMGrid sites. The distributed computing and data handling system used by D0 will be described and the results of MC production since the deployment of grid technologies will be presented.

  15. Simulation of the measure of the microparticle size distribution in two dimensions

    Different size distributions of plane figures were generated in a computer as a simply connected network. These size distributions were measured by the Saltykov method for two dimensions. The comparison between the generated and measured distributions showed that the Saltkov method tends to measure larger scattering than the real one and to move the maximum of the real distribution to larger diameters. These erros were determined by means of the ratio of the perimeter of the figures per unit area directly measured and the perimeter calculated from the size distribution obtained by using the SaltyKov method. (Author)

  16. Size distribution of particle systems analyzed with organic photodetectors

    Sentis, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    As part of a consortium between academic and industry, this PhD work investigates the interest and capabilities of organic photo-sensors (OPS) for the optical characterization of suspensions and two-phase flows. The principle of new optical particle sizing instruments is proposed to characterize particle systems confined in a cylinder glass (standard configuration for Process Analytical Technologies). To evaluate and optimize the performance of these systems, a Monte-Carlo model has been specifically developed. This model accounts for the numerous parameters of the system: laser beam profile, mirrors, lenses, sample cell, particle medium properties (concentration, mean & standard deviation, refractive indices), OPS shape and positions, etc. Light scattering by particles is treated either by using Lorenz-Mie theory, Debye, or a hybrid model (that takes into account the geometrical and physical contributions). For diluted media (single scattering), particle size analysis is based on the inversion of scatter...

  17. Global production management in newspaper production and distribution : coordination of products, processes and resources

    Stenberg, Johan

    1997-01-01

    This thesis covers an introduction to the present conditions for newspaper publishing, definitions and analyses of the processes of newspaper production and distribution, expected future developments with respect to products and production processes, and finally, conclusions regarding the need for global coordination of products, production and distribution. Primarily, the conditions in the Nordic countries have been analysed. Particular attention has been drawn to Swedish morning newspapers ...

  18. Body size distributions of the pale grass blue butterfly in Japan: Size rules and the status of the Fukushima population

    Taira, Wataru; Iwasaki, Mayo; Otaki, Joji M.

    2015-07-01

    The body size of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, has been used as an environmental indicator of radioactive pollution caused by the Fukushima nuclear accident. However, geographical and temporal size distributions in Japan and temperature effects on size have not been established in this species. Here, we examined the geographical, temporal, and temperature-dependent changes of the forewing size of Z. maha argia in Japan. Butterflies collected in 2012 and 2013 from multiple prefectures throughout Japan demonstrated an inverse relationship of latitude and forewing size, which is the reverse of Bergmann’s cline. The Fukushima population was significantly larger than the Aomori and Miyagi populations and exhibited no difference from most of the other prefectural populations. When monitored at a single geographic locality every other month, forewing sizes were the largest in April and the smallest in August. Rearing larvae at a constant temperature demonstrated that forewing size followed the temperature-size rule. Therefore, the converse Bergmann’s rule and the temperature-size rule coexist in this multivoltine species. Our study establishes this species as a useful environmental indicator and supports the idea that the size reduction observed only in Fukushima Prefecture in 2011 was caused by the environmental stress of radioactive pollution.

  19. Flow distribution in the accelerator-production-of-tritium target

    Achieving nearly uniform flow distributions in the accelerator production of tritium (APT) target structures is an important design objective. Manifold effects tend to cause a nonuniform distribution in flow systems of this type, although nearly even distribution can be achieved. A program of hydraulic experiments is underway to provide a database for validation of calculational methodologies that may be used for analyzing this problem and to evaluate the approach with the most promise for achieving a nearly even flow distribution. Data from the initial three tests are compared to predictions made using four calculational methods. The data show that optimizing the ratio of the supply-to-return-manifold areas can produce an almost even flow distribution in the APT ladder assemblies. The calculations compare well with the data for ratios of the supply-to-return-manifold areas spanning the optimum value. Thus, the results to date show that a nearly uniform flow distribution can be achieved by carefully sizing the supply and return manifolds and that the calculational methods available are adequate for predicting the distributions through a range of conditions

  20. Size distribution of retrovirally marked lineages matches prediction from population measurements of cell cycle behavior

    Cai, Li; Hayes, Nancy L.; Takahashi, Takao; Caviness, Verne S Jr; Nowakowski, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    Mechanisms that regulate neuron production in the developing mouse neocortex were examined by using a retroviral lineage marking method to determine the sizes of the lineages remaining in the proliferating population of the ventricular zone during the period of neuron production. The distribution of clade sizes obtained experimentally in four different injection-survival paradigms (E11-E13, E11-E14, E11-E15, and E12-E15) from a total of over 500 labeled lineages was compared with that obtained from three models in which the average behavior of the proliferating population [i.e., the proportion of cells remaining in the proliferative population (P) vs. that exiting the proliferative population (Q)] was quantitatively related to lineage size distribution. In model 1, different proportions of asymmetric, symmetric terminal, and symmetric nonterminal cell divisions coexisted during the entire developmental period. In model 2, the developmental period was divided into two epochs: During the first, asymmetric and symmetric nonterminal cell divisions occurred, but, during the second, asymmetric and symmetric terminal cell divisions occurred. In model 3, the shifts in P and Q are accounted for by changes in the proportions of the two types of symmetric cell divisions without the inclusion of any asymmetric cell divisions. The results obtained from the retroviral experiments were well accounted for by model 1 but not by model 2 or 3. These findings demonstrate that: 1) asymmetric and both types of symmetric cell divisions coexist during the entire period of neurogenesis in the mouse, 2) neuron production is regulated in the proliferative population by the independent decisions of the two daughter cells to reenter S phase, and 3) neurons are produced by both asymmetric and symmetric terminal cell divisions. In addition, the findings mean that cell death and/or tangential movements of cells in the proliferative population occur at only a low rate and that there are no proliferating lineages "reserved" to make particular laminae or cell types. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Extracting magnetic cluster size and its distributions in advanced perpendicular recording media with shrinking grain size using small angle x-ray scattering

    Mehta, Virat; Ikeda, Yoshihiro; Takano, Ken; Terris, Bruce D.; Hellwig, Olav [San Jose Research Center, HGST a Western Digital company, 3403 Yerba Buena Rd., San Jose, California 95135 (United States); Wang, Tianhan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94035 (United States); Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Science (SIMES), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Wu, Benny; Graves, Catherine [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Science (SIMES), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94035 (United States); Dürr, Hermann A.; Scherz, Andreas; Stöhr, Jo [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Science (SIMES), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    We analyze the magnetic cluster size (MCS) and magnetic cluster size distribution (MCSD) in a variety of perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) media designs using resonant small angle x-ray scattering at the Co L{sub 3} absorption edge. The different PMR media flavors considered here vary in grain size between 7.5 and 9.5 nm as well as in lateral inter-granular exchange strength, which is controlled via the segregant amount. While for high inter-granular exchange, the MCS increases rapidly for grain sizes below 8.5 nm, we show that for increased amount of segregant with less exchange the MCS remains relatively small, even for grain sizes of 7.5 and 8 nm. However, the MCSD still increases sharply when shrinking grains from 8 to 7.5 nm. We show evidence that recording performance such as signal-to-noise-ratio on the spin stand correlates well with the product of magnetic cluster size and magnetic cluster size distribution.

  2. Extracting magnetic cluster size and its distributions in advanced perpendicular recording media with shrinking grain size using small angle x-ray scattering

    Mehta, Virat; Wang, Tianhan; Ikeda, Yoshihiro; Takano, Ken; Terris, Bruce D.; Wu, Benny; Graves, Catherine; Drr, Hermann A.; Scherz, Andreas; Sthr, Jo; Hellwig, Olav

    2015-05-01

    We analyze the magnetic cluster size (MCS) and magnetic cluster size distribution (MCSD) in a variety of perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) media designs using resonant small angle x-ray scattering at the Co L3 absorption edge. The different PMR media flavors considered here vary in grain size between 7.5 and 9.5 nm as well as in lateral inter-granular exchange strength, which is controlled via the segregant amount. While for high inter-granular exchange, the MCS increases rapidly for grain sizes below 8.5 nm, we show that for increased amount of segregant with less exchange the MCS remains relatively small, even for grain sizes of 7.5 and 8 nm. However, the MCSD still increases sharply when shrinking grains from 8 to 7.5 nm. We show evidence that recording performance such as signal-to-noise-ratio on the spin stand correlates well with the product of magnetic cluster size and magnetic cluster size distribution.

  3. Extracting magnetic cluster size and its distributions in advanced perpendicular recording media with shrinking grain size using small angle x-ray scattering

    We analyze the magnetic cluster size (MCS) and magnetic cluster size distribution (MCSD) in a variety of perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) media designs using resonant small angle x-ray scattering at the Co L3 absorption edge. The different PMR media flavors considered here vary in grain size between 7.5 and 9.5?nm as well as in lateral inter-granular exchange strength, which is controlled via the segregant amount. While for high inter-granular exchange, the MCS increases rapidly for grain sizes below 8.5?nm, we show that for increased amount of segregant with less exchange the MCS remains relatively small, even for grain sizes of 7.5 and 8?nm. However, the MCSD still increases sharply when shrinking grains from 8 to 7.5?nm. We show evidence that recording performance such as signal-to-noise-ratio on the spin stand correlates well with the product of magnetic cluster size and magnetic cluster size distribution

  4. Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations

    Kostadinov, T. S.; Siegel, D. A.; Maritorena, S.

    2009-09-01

    The particle size distribution (PSD) provides important information about pelagic ocean ecosystem structure and function. Knowledge of the PSD and its changes in time can be used to assess the contributions made by phytoplankton functional groups to primary production, particle sinking, and carbon sequestration by the ocean. However, few field measurements of the PSD have been made in the pelagic ocean, and little is known about its space-time variation. Here, a novel bio-optical algorithm is introduced to retrieve the parameters of a power law particle size spectrum from satellite ocean color observations. First, the particle backscattering coefficient spectrum, bbp(λ), is retrieved from monthly Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) normalized water-leaving radiance observations following Loisel et al. (2006). Mie modeling is then used to estimate the parameters of a power law PSD (the PSD slope and the particle differential number concentration for a given reference diameter) as a function of the particulate backscattering spectrum. Algorithm uncertainties are greater when bbp(λ) slopes are low, which occurs in high-productivity areas. Satellite-based retrievals of PSD parameters are reasonably consistent with available field observations. As an example, the algorithm was applied to monthly SeaWiFS global imagery from August 2007. Global spatial distributions show subtropical oligotrophic gyres characterized by higher PSD slopes and smaller particle number concentrations, as compared with coastal and other high-productivity areas. Partitioning particle number and volume concentrations into picophytoplankton-, nanophytoplankton-, and microphytoplankton-sized classes indicates that the abundance of picoplankton-sized particles is roughly constant spatially and that they dominate the particle volume concentrations in oligotrophic regions. On the other hand, abundances of microplankton-sized particles vary over many orders of magnitude, and they contribute to volume concentration only in the highest-productivity areas. These results are consistent with current understanding of particle dynamics of pelagic ecosystems and provide new tools for biogeochemical modeling and assessment of the global ocean ecosystem.

  5. The impact of fuel particle size distribution on neutron transport in stochastic media

    This paper presents a study of the particle size distribution impact on neutron transport in three-dimensional stochastic media. An eigenvalue problem is simulated in a cylindrical container consisting of fissile fuel particles with five different size distributions: constant, uniform, power, exponential and Gaussian. We construct 15 cases by altering the fissile particle volume packing fraction and its optical thickness, but keeping the mean chord length of the spherical fuel particle the same at different size distributions. The tallied effective multiplication factor (keff) and flux distribution along axial and radial directions are compared between different size distributions. At low packing fraction and low optical thickness, the size distribution has a significant impact on radiation transport in stochastic media, which can cause as high as ?270 pcm difference in keff value and ?2.6% relative error difference in peak flux. As the packing fraction and optical thickness increase, the impact gradually dissipates. (authors)

  6. Effects of fuel particle size distributions on neutron transport in stochastic media

    Highlights: Effects of fuel particle size distributions on neutron transport are evaluated. Neutron channeling is identified as the fundamental reason for the effects. The effects are noticeable at low packing and low optical thickness systems. Unit cells of realistic reactor designs are studied for different size particles. Fuel particle size distribution effects are not negligible in realistic designs. - Abstract: This paper presents a study of the fuel particle size distribution effects on neutron transport in three-dimensional stochastic media. Particle fuel is used in gas-cooled nuclear reactor designs and innovative light water reactor designs loaded with accident tolerant fuel. Due to the design requirements and fuel fabrication limits, the size of fuel particles may not be perfectly constant but instead follows a certain distribution. This brings a fundamental question to the radiation transport computation community: how does the fuel particle size distribution affect the neutron transport in particle fuel systems? To answer this question, size distribution effects and their physical interpretations are investigated by performing a series of neutron transport simulations at different fuel particle size distributions. An eigenvalue problem is simulated in a cylindrical container consisting of fissile fuel particles with five different size distributions: constant, uniform, power, exponential and Gaussian. A total of 15 parametric cases are constructed by altering the fissile particle volume packing fraction and its optical thickness, but keeping the mean chord length of the spherical fuel particle the same at different size distributions. The tallied effective multiplication factor (keff) and the spatial distribution of fission power density along axial and radial directions are compared between different size distributions. At low packing fraction and low optical thickness, the size distribution shows a noticeable effect on neutron transport. As high as 1.00% relative difference in keff and ?1.50% relative difference in peak fission power density are observed. As the packing fraction and optical thickness increase, the effect gradually dissipates. Neutron channeling between fuel particles is identified as the effect most responsible for the different neutronic results. Different size distributions result in the difference in the average number of fuel particles and their average size. As a result, different degrees of neutron channeling are produced. The size effect in realistic reactor unit cells is also studied and, from the predicted values of infinite multiplication factors, it is concluded that the fuel particle size distribution effects are not negligible

  7. Systematic Procedure for Generating Operational Policies to Achieve Target Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) in Batch Cooling Crystallization

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist; Gani, Rafiqul

    Batch cooling crystallization is one of the important unit operations involving separation of solid-liquid phases. Usually the most common crystal product qualities are directly related to the crystal size distribution (CSD). However the main difficulty in batch crystallization is to obtain a uni...

  8. Intercomparison of 15 Aerodynamic Particle Size Spectrometers (APS 3321): Uncertainties in Particle Sizing and Number Size Distribution.

    Pfeifer, S.; Müller, T.; Weinhold, K.; Zíková, Naděžda; dos Santos, S.M.; Marinoni, A.; Bischof, O.F.; Kykal, C.; Ries, L.; Meinhardt, F.; Aalto, P.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2016), s. 1545-1551. ISSN 1867-1381 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 262254 - ACTRIS Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : counting efficiency * aerodynamic particle size spectrometers * laboratory study Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.929, year: 2014

  9. First-principle derivation of static avalanche-size distribution

    Doussal, Pierre le; Wiese, Kay Joerg

    2011-01-01

    We study the energy minimization problem for an elastic interface in a random potential plus a quadratic well. As the position of the well is varied, the ground state undergoes jumps, called shocks or static avalanches. We introduce an efficient and systematic method to compute the statistics of avalanche sizes and manifold displacements. The tree-level calculation, i.e. mean-field limit, is obtained by solving a saddle-point equation. Graphically, it can be interpreted as a the sum of all tr...

  10. Labor Productivity Distribution with Negative Temperature

    Iyetomi, H.

    Exhaustive financial data of firms in Japan enables us to shed light on how the labor productivity, defined here as value added produced by one worker in a year, is diverse across firms and workers. Statistical equilibrium theory reinforced with the concept of negative temperature turns out to be useful to explain the empirical facts on a major part of the distribution of workers over labor productivity states, where particle and single-particle energy are replaced by worker and labor productivity, respectively. The zero-temperature state in the negative temperature regime corresponds to the optimized state for the current mainstream economics, where all workers are allocated to a state of the highest productivity. Significant difference in temperature is observed between the manufacturing and nonmanufacturing sectors. The negative temperature in the nonmanufacturing sector is three times lower than that in the manufacturing sector, indicating that the former may suffer from a much wider demand gap. In contrast, the two sectors are almost in equilibrium with respect to exchange of workers.

  11. Optimizing the grain size distribution for talc-magnesite ore flotation

    Škvarla Jiøí

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Flotation is the only separation method with an universal utilization. Along with the separation of particulate valuable or hazardous components from primary and seconadry mineral raw materials, it is of usage in biotechnologies and water cleaning. The success of the flotation separation crucially depends on the particle size distribution or composition of the ore charge entering the process. The paper deals with the problem of flotation treatment of talc-magnesite ore. The main components of the ore, i.e. talc and magnesite are appreciably different in their grindability and floatability. For such a type of raw material, grinding of the charge plays a very important role in the process. The (unwanted influence of ultrafine particles on the course of the flotation process is well known. On the other hand, in order to liberate and subsequently to selectively separate both the components, a maximum particle size has to be respected.An influence of artificial samples of selected particle size fractions on the flotation efficiency has been studied experimentally by the quantitative evaluation of flotation products. The flotation experiments on the samples provided an information not obtainable from traditional flotation tests. An adverse effect of the size fraction 0 – 0.04 mm was revealed, decreasing the flotation selectivity appreciably. These results are of theoretical and practical importance.

  12. Determination of Size Distributions in Nanocrystalline Powders by TEM, XRD and SAXS

    Jensen, Henrik; Pedersen, Jørgen Houe; Jørgensen, Jens Erik; Skov Pedersen, Jan; Joensen, Karsten Dan; Brummerstedt Iversen, Steen; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2006-01-01

    Crystallite size distributions and particle size distributions were determined by TEM, XRD, and SAXS for three commercially available TiO2 samples and one homemade. The theoretical Guinier Model was fitted to the experimental data and compared to analytical expressions. Modeling of the XRD spectr...

  13. A model study of the size and composition distribution of aerosols in an aircraft exhaust

    Sorokin, A.A. [SRC `ECOLEN`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    A two-dimensional, axisymmetric flow field model which includes water and sulphate aerosol formation represented by moments of the size and composition distribution function is used to calculate the effect of radial turbulent jet mixing on the aerosol size distribution and mean modal composition. (author) 6 refs.

  14. Tail asymptotics for the queue size distribution in an M/G/1 retrial queue

    Kim, Jerim; Kim, Bara; Ko, Sung-Seok

    2007-01-01

    We consider an M/G/1 retrial queue, where the service time distribution has a finite exponential moment. We show that the tail of the queue size distribution is asymptotically given by a geometric function multiplied by a power function. The result is obtained by investigating analytic properties of probability generating functions for the queue size and the server state.

  15. MORTALITY RATES FROM SIZE DISTRIBUTION: THE APPLICATION OF A CONSERVATION LAW

    A population model explicitly describing the dynamics of an arbitrary population size distribution is presented. One consequence of the model is an equation for the exact shape of the size distribution of a stationary or steady-state population. The shape is expressed as a functi...

  16. Cluster size distribution in the autocatalytic growth model

    Jȩdrak, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    We generalize the model of transition-metal nanocluster growth in aqueous solution, proposed recently [Phys. Rev. E \\textbf{87}, 022132 (2013)]. In order to model time evolution of the system, kinetic equations describing time dependence of the rate of chemical reactions are combined with Smoluchowski coagulation equation. In the absence of coagulation and fragmentation processes, the model equations are solved in two steps. First, for any injective functional dependence of the autocatalytic reaction rate constant on the cluster size, we obtain explicit analytical form of the $i$-mer concentration, $\\xi_{i}$, as a function of $\\xi_{1}$. This result allows us to reduce considerably the number of time-evolution equations. In the simplest situation, the remaining single kinetic equation for $\\xi_{1}(t)$ is solved in quadratures. In a general case, we obtain small system of time-evolution equations, which, although rarely analytically tractable, can be relatively easily solved by using numerical methods.

  17. Size-fractionated production and bioavailability of dissolved organic matter

    Knudsen-Leerbeck, Helle; Bronk, Deborah A.; Markager, Stiig

    Production and bioavailability of dissolved organic matter was quantified on a time scale of two days from size fractions ranging from bacteria to zooplankton in the York River, Virginia. The goal was to find the main contributor to DOM. Batch incubation experiments were labeled with N15-ammonium...... mainly in the phytoplankton size fraction, which on average contributed 62 % of total particulate nitrogen and 61 % of total particulate carbon. Up to 5 ± 0.4 μmol dissolved organic nitrogen L-1 and 33 ± 6.2 μmol dissolved organic carbon L-1 was produced during the incubation. Bioavailability of...... phytoplankton produced dissolved organic carbon was 12 ± 1 % and higher than in the presence of bacteria, microzooplankton, or copepods (7 ± 3 %). The pattern for bioavailability of dissolved organic nitrogen was less clear and ranged from 4 – 7 %. This study revealed that phytoplankton was the main contributor...

  18. Dust Grain Size Distributions and Extinction in the Milky Way, LMC, and SMC

    Weingartner, J C; Weingartner, Joseph C.

    2001-01-01

    We construct size distributions for carbonaceous and silicate grain populations in different regions of the Milky Way, LMC, and SMC. The size distributions include sufficient very small carbonaceous grains (including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules) to account for the observed infrared and microwave emission from the diffuse interstellar medium. Our distributions reproduce the observed extinction of starlight, which varies depending upon the interstellar environment through which the light travels. As shown by Cardelli, Clayton & Mathis in 1989, these variations can be roughly parameterized by the ratio of visual extinction to reddening, R_V. We adopt a fairly simple functional form for the size distribution, characterized by several parameters. We tabulate these parameters for various combinations of values for R_V and b_C, the C abundance in very small grains. We also find size distributions for the line of sight to HD 210121, and for sightlines in the LMC and SMC. For several size distributio...

  19. Seasonal Variability of the Black Carbon Size Distribution in the Atmospheric Aerosol

    Kozlov, V. S.; Shmargunov, V. P.; Panchenko, M. V.; Chernov, D. G.; Kozlov, A. S.; Malyshkin, S. B.

    2016-04-01

    Round-the-clock measurements of the black carbon size distribution in the submicron near-ground aerosol of Western Siberia performed in 2014 by the diffusion method developed by the authors are analyzed. It is revealed that the tendency for decreasing the volume median diameter and the amplitude of distribution of the black carbon is traced in the seasonal dynamics of the average monthly black carbon particle size distribution (approximated by a single-mode lognormal function) during winter-to-summer season transition. The shape of the black carbon size distributions is in agreement with measurements by other well-known methods in different geographic regions.

  20. Size distribution of aerosol particles produced during mining and processing uranium ore.

    Mala, Helena; Tomasek, Ladislav; Rulik, Petr; Beckova, Vera; Hulka, Jiri

    2016-06-01

    The aerosol particle size distributions of uranium and its daughter products were studied and determined in the area of the Rožná mine, which is the last active uranium mine in the Czech Republic. A total of 13 samples were collected using cascade impactors from three sites that had the highest expected levels of dust, namely, the forefield, the end of the ore chute and an area close to workers at the crushing plant. The characteristics of most size distributions were very similar; they were moderately bimodal, with a boundary approximately 0.5 μm between the modes. The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) were obtained from the distributions beyond 0.39 μm, whereas the sizes of particles below 0.39 μm were not differentiated. Most AMAD and GSD values in the samples ranged between 3.5 and 10.5 μm and between 2.8 and 5.0, respectively. The geometric means of the AMADs and GSDs from all of the underground sampling sites were 4.2 μm and 4.4, respectively, and the geometric means of the AMADs and GSDs for the crushing plant samplings were 9.8 μm and 3.3, respectively. The weighted arithmetic mean of the AMADs was 4.9 μm, with a standard error of 0.7 μm, according to the numbers of workers at the workplaces. The activity proportion of the radon progeny to (226)Ra in the aerosol was 0.61. PMID:27032340

  1. Techniques for measuring particle size distribution of particulate matter emitted from animal feeding operations

    Wang-Li, Lingjuan; Cao, Zihan; Buser, Michael; Whitelock, Derek; Parnell, Calvin B.; Zhang, Yuanhui

    2013-02-01

    While various techniques for measuring particle size distributions (PSD) of particulate matter (PM) exist, there is no a single agreed upon standard or reference method for PM with different characteristics. This study investigated differences in the PSD measurements by four PSD analyzers: LS13 320 multi-wave length laser diffraction particle size analyzer, LS230 laser diffraction particle size analyzer, LA-300 laser scattering particle size analyzer, and Coulter Counter Multisizer3 (CCM3). Simultaneously collected total suspended particulate (TSP) samples in a commercial egg production house were analyzed by the four analyzers for PSDs. In addition, four types of testing powders (limestone, starch, No.3 micro aluminum, and No.5 micro aluminum) were also analyzed by these four PSD analyzers. The results suggest when comparing measured mass median diameters (MMDs) and geometric standard deviations (GSD) of the PSDs, the laser diffraction method (LS13 320, LS230 and LA-300) provided larger MMDs and broader distributions (GSDs) than the electrical sensing zone method (CCM3) for all samples. When comparing mass fractions of PM10 and PM2.5 between the measured values and the lognormal fitting values derived from the measured MMDs and GSDs, lognormal fitting method produced reasonably accurate PM10 mass fraction estimations (within 5%), but it failed to produce accurate PM2.5 mass fraction estimations. The measured PM2.5 mass fractions significantly differed from the lognormal fitting PM2.5 fractions and the mean differences reached as high as 95%. It is strongly recommended that when reporting a PSD of certain PM samples, in addition to MMD and GSD, the mass fractions of PM10 and PM2.5 should also be reported.

  2. First-principles derivation of static avalanche-size distributions

    Le Doussal, Pierre; Wiese, Kay Jrg

    2012-06-01

    We study the energy minimization problem for an elastic interface in a random potential plus a quadratic well. As the position of the well is varied, the ground state undergoes jumps, called shocks or static avalanches. We introduce an efficient and systematic method to compute the statistics of avalanche sizes and manifold displacements. The tree-level calculation, i.e., mean-field limit, is obtained by solving a saddle-point equation. Graphically, it can be interpreted as the sum of all tree graphs. The 1-loop corrections are computed using results from the functional renormalization group. At the upper critical dimension the shock statistics is described by the Brownian force model (BFM), the static version of the so-called Alessandro-Beatrice-Bertotti-Montorsi (ABBM) model in the nonequilibrium context of depinning. This model can itself be treated exactly in any dimension and its shock statistics is that of a Lvy process. Contact is made with classical results in probability theory on the Burgers equation with Brownian initial conditions. In particular we obtain a functional extension of an evolution equation introduced by Carraro and Duchon, which recursively constructs the tree diagrams in the field theory.

  3. Estimating Functions of Distributions Defined over Spaces of Unknown Size

    David H. Wolpert

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider Bayesian estimation of information-theoretic quantities from data, using a Dirichlet prior. Acknowledging the uncertainty of the event space size m and the Dirichlet prior’s concentration parameter c, we treat both as random variables set by a hyperprior. We show that the associated hyperprior, P(c, m, obeys a simple “Irrelevance of Unseen Variables” (IUV desideratum iff P(c, m = P(cP(m. Thus, requiring IUV greatly reduces the number of degrees of freedom of the hyperprior. Some information-theoretic quantities can be expressed multiple ways, in terms of different event spaces, e.g., mutual information. With all hyperpriors (implicitly used in earlier work, different choices of this event space lead to different posterior expected values of these information-theoretic quantities. We show that there is no such dependence on the choice of event space for a hyperprior that obeys IUV. We also derive a result that allows us to exploit IUV to greatly simplify calculations, like the posterior expected mutual information or posterior expected multi-information. We also use computer experiments to favorably compare an IUV-based estimator of entropy to three alternative methods in common use. We end by discussing how seemingly innocuous changes to the formalization of an estimation problem can substantially affect the resultant estimates of posterior expectations.

  4. Effects of dust size distribution on instability of obliquely propagating waves in a magnetized dusty plasma

    In the present paper, the obliquely propagating solitary waves are investigated in a magnetized dusty plasma considering vortexlike ion distribution and dust size distribution. A plane solitary traveling-wave solution propagating at an arbitrary angle to the magnetic field is considered. The growth rate caused by small perturbations of any direction to a solitary traveling waves is studied. The effects of the dust size distribution and perturbations on the growth rate are discussed in detail.

  5. Magnetic pattern at supergranulation scale: the Void Size Distribution

    Berrilli, Francesco; Del Moro, Dario

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale magnetic pattern of the quiet sun is dominated by the magnetic network. This network, created by photospheric magnetic fields swept into convective downflows, delineates the boundaries of large scale cells of overturning plasma and exhibits voids in magnetic organization. Such voids include internetwork fields, a mixed-polarity sparse field that populate the inner part of network cells. To single out voids and to quantify their intrinsic pattern a fast circle packing based algorithm is applied to 511 SOHO/MDI high resolution magnetograms acquired during the outstanding solar activity minimum between 23 and 24 cycles. The computed Void Distribution Function shows a quasi-exponential decay behavior in the range 10-60 Mm. The lack of distinct flow scales in such a range corroborates the hypothesis of multi-scale motion flows at the solar surface. In addition to the quasi-exponential decay we have found that the voids reveal departure from a simple exponential decay around 35 Mm.

  6. Methods for determining particle size distribution and growth rates between 1 and 3 nm using the Particle Size Magnifier

    Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Kontkanen, Jenni; Kangasluoma, Juha; Franchin, Alessandro; Wimmer, Daniela; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Junninen, Heikki; Petäjä, Tuukka; Sipilä, Mikko; Mikkilä, Jyri; Vanhanen, Joonas; Worsnop, Douglas R; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-01-01

    The most important parameters describing the atmospheric new particle formation process are the particle formation and growth rates. These together determine the amount of cloud condensation nuclei attributed to secondary particle formation. Due to difficulties in detecting small neutral particles, it has previously not been possible to derive these directly from measurements in the size range below about 3 nm. The Airmodus Particle Size Magnifier has been used at the SMEAR II station in Hyytiälä, southern Finland, and during nucleation experiments in the CLOUD chamber at CERN for measuring particles as small as about 1 nm in mobility diameter. We developed several methods to determine the particle size distribution and growth rates in the size range of 1–3 nm from these data sets. Here we introduce the appearance-time method for calculating initial growth rates. The validity of the method was tested by simulations with the Ion-UHMA aerosol dynamic model.

  7. The Pareto-positive stable distribution: A new descriptive model for city size data

    Sarabia, Jos Mara; Prieto, Faustino

    2009-10-01

    The Pareto-positive stable (PPS) distribution is introduced as a new model for describing city size data in a country. The PPS distribution provides a flexible model for fitting the entire range of a set of city size data, where zero and unimodality are possible, and the classical Pareto and Zipf distributions are included as a particular case. Expressions for the shape, moments and other descriptive probabilistic measures are given. Estimation methods are discussed and a simple graphical method for studying the adequacy of the data to model is given. Finally, we consider city size data for Spain for several different years. The new distribution is compared with three classical models: Pareto, lognormal and Tsallis distributions. In all the data sets considered, the PPS distribution outperforms the fits of these three previous distributions.

  8. ON THE COAGULATION AND SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF PRESSURE CONFINED CORES

    Observations of the Pipe Nebula have led to the discovery of dense starless cores. The mass of most cores is too small for their self-gravity to hold them together. Instead, they are thought to be pressure confined. The observed dense cores' mass function (CMF) matches well with the initial mass function of stars in young clusters. Similar CMFs are observed in other star forming regions such as the Aquila Nebula, albeit with some dispersion. The shape of these CMF provides important clues to the competing physical processes which lead to star formation and its feedback on the interstellar media. In this paper, we investigate the dynamical origin of the mass function of starless cores which are confined by a warm, less dense medium. In order to follow the evolution of the CMF, we construct a numerical method to consider the coagulation between the cold cores and their ablation due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability induced by their relative motion through the warm medium. We are able to reproduce the observed CMF among the starless cores in the Pipe Nebula. Our results indicate that in environment similar to the Pipe Nebula: (1) before the onset of their gravitational collapse, the mass distribution of the progenitor cores is similar to that of the young stars, (2) the observed CMF is a robust consequence of dynamical equilibrium between the coagulation and ablation of cores, and (3) a break in the slope of the CMF is due to the enhancement of collisional cross section and suppression of ablation for cores with masses larger than the cores' Bonnor-Ebert mass.

  9. Size Distributions and Characterization of Native and Ground Samples for Toxicology Studies

    McKay, David S.; Cooper, Bonnie L.; Taylor, Larry A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation shows charts and graphs that review the particle size distribution and characterization of natural and ground samples for toxicology studies. There are graphs which show the volume distribution versus the number distribution for natural occurring dust, jet mill ground dust, and ball mill ground dust.

  10. The limit distribution of the maximum increment of a random walk with regularly varying jump size distribution

    Mikosch, Thomas; Ra?kauskas, Alfredas

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the asymptotic distribution of the maximum increment of a random walk with a regularly varying jump size distribution. This problem is motivated by a long-standing problem on change point detection for epidemic alternatives. It turns out that the limit distribution of the maximum increment of the random walk is one of the classical extreme value distributions, the Fr\\'{e}chet distribution. We prove the results in the general framework of point processes and for jum...

  11. Physicochemical Characterization of Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols II: Particle Size Distributions as a Function of Time

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study, which generated and characterized aerosols containing depleted uranium from perforation of armored vehicles with large-caliber DU penetrators, incorporated a sampling protocol to evaluated particle size distributions. Aerosol particle size distribution is an important parameter that influences aerosol transport and deposition processes as well as the dosimetry of the inhaled particles. These aerosols were collected on cascade impactor substrates using a pre-established time sequence following the firing event to analyze the uranium concentration and particle size of the aerosols as a function of time. The impactor substrates were analyzed using beta spectrometry, and the derived uranium content of each served as input to the evaluation of particle size distributions. Activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) of the particle size distributions were evaluated using unimodal and bimodal models. The particle size data from the impactor measurements was quite variable. Most size distributions measured in the test based on activity had bimodal size distributions with a small particle size mode in the range of between 0.2 and 1.2 um and a large size mode between 2 and 15 um. In general, the evolution of particle size over time showed an overall decrease of average particle size from AMADs of 5 to 10 um shortly after perforation to around 1 um at the end of the 2-hr sampling period. The AMADs generally decreased over time because of settling. Additionally, the median diameter of the larger size mode decreased with time. These results were used to estimate the dosimetry of inhaled DU particles

  12. Physicochemical characterization of Capstone depleted uranium aerosols II: particle size distributions as a function of time.

    Cheng, Yung Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L; Guilmette, Raymond A; Parkhurst, Mary Ann

    2009-03-01

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study, which generated and characterized aerosols containing DU from perforation of armored vehicles with large-caliber DU penetrators, incorporated a sampling protocol to evaluate particle size distributions. Aerosol particle size distribution is an important parameter that influences aerosol transport and deposition processes as well as the dosimetry of the inhaled particles. These aerosols were collected on cascade impactor substrates using a pre-established time sequence following the firing event to analyze the uranium concentration and particle size of the aerosols as a function of time. The impactor substrates were analyzed using proportional counting, and the derived uranium content of each served as input to the evaluation of particle size distributions. Activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) of the particle size distributions were evaluated using unimodal and bimodal models. The particle size data from the impactor measurements were quite variable. Most size distributions measured in the test based on activity had bimodal size distributions with a small particle size mode in the range of between 0.2 and 1.2 microm and a large size mode between 2 and 15 microm. In general, the evolution of particle size over time showed an overall decrease of average particle size from AMADs of 5 to 10 microm shortly after perforation to around 1 microm at the end of the 2-h sampling period. The AMADs generally decreased over time because of settling. Additionally, the median diameter of the larger size mode decreased with time. These results were used to estimate the dosimetry of inhaled DU particles. PMID:19204485

  13. Two-size approximation: a simple way of treating the evolution of grain size distribution in galaxies

    Hirashita, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Full calculations of the evolution of grain size distribution in galaxies are in general computationally heavy. In this paper, we propose a simple model of dust enrichment in a galaxy with a simplified treatment of grain size distribution by imposing a `two-size approximation'; that is, all the grain population is represented by small (grain radius a 0.03 micron) grains. We include in the model dust supply from stellar ejecta, destruction in supernova shocks, dust growth by accretion, grain growth by coagulation and grain disruption by shattering, considering how these processes work on the small and large grains. We show that this simple framework reproduces the main features found in full calculations of grain size distributions as follows. The dust enrichment starts with the supply of large grains from stars. At a metallicity level referred to as the critical metallicity of accretion, the abundance of the small grains formed by shattering becomes large enough to rapidly increase the grain abundance by acc...

  14. Assessing the accuracy of routine photon correlation spectroscopy analysis of heterogeneous size distributions

    Frantzen, Christer B.; Ingebrigtsen, Lars; Skar, Merete; Brandl, Martin

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the ability of a fixed-angle routine photon correlation spectrometer (PCS) to resolve bimodal size distributions. The focus was on dispersions consisting of a majority of smaller and a minority of bigger particles. Monodisperse latex beads of sizes from 21 to 269 nm were measured first as single-size dispersions and then with various binary blends. For single-size dispersions, the mean diameters obtained were as indicated by the manufacturer, ex...

  15. Particle Size Distribution Measurements of Manganese-Doped ZnS Nanoparticles

    Dieckmann, Yvonne; Cölfen, Helmut; Hofmann, Heinrich; Petri-Fink, Alke

    2009-01-01

    We performed particle size and particle size distribution measurements for L-cysteine-stabilized ZnS/Mn nanoparticles in the size region below 10 nm. For this we applied transmission electron microscopy (TEM), analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (aF-FFF) measurements, and we calculated particle sizes with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and the shift of the band gap absorption in the UV-vis spectrum. T...

  16. On wildfire complexity, simple models and environmental templates for fire size distributions

    Boer, M. M.; Bradstock, R.; Gill, M.; Sadler, R.

    2012-12-01

    Vegetation fires affect some 370 Mha annually. At global and continental scales, fire activity follows predictable spatiotemporal patterns driven by gradients and seasonal fluctuations of primary productivity and evaporative demand that set constraints for fuel accumulation rates and fuel dryness, two key ingredients of fire. At regional scales, fires are also known to affect some landscapes more than others and within landscapes to occur preferentially in some sectors (e.g. wind-swept ridges) and rarely in others (e.g. wet gullies). Another common observation is that small fires occur relatively frequent yet collectively burn far less country than relatively infrequent large fires. These patterns of fire activity are well known to management agencies and consistent with their (informal) models of how the basic drivers and constraints of fire (i.e. fuels, ignitions, weather) vary in time and space across the landscape. The statistical behaviour of these landscape fire patterns has excited the (academic) research community by showing some consistency with that of complex dynamical systems poised at a phase transition. The common finding that the frequency-size distributions of actual fires follow power laws that resemble those produced by simple cellular models from statistical mechanics has been interpreted as evidence that flammable landscapes operate as self-organising systems with scale invariant fire size distributions emerging 'spontaneously' from simple rules of contagious fire spread and a strong feedback between fires and fuel patterns. In this paper we argue that the resemblance of simulated and actual fire size distributions is an example of equifinality, that is fires in model landscapes and actual landscapes may show similar statistical behaviour but this is reached by qualitatively different pathways or controlling mechanisms. We support this claim with two key findings regarding simulated fire spread mechanisms and fire-fuel feedbacks. Firstly, we demonstrate that the power law behaviour of fire size distributions in the widely used Drossel and Schwabl (1992) Forest Fire Model (FFM) is strictly conditional on simulating fire spread as a cell-to-cell contagion over a fixed distance; the invariant scaling of fire sizes breaks down under the slightest variation in that distance, suggesting that pattern formation in the FFM is irreconcilable with the reality of disparate rates and modes of fire spread observed in the field. Secondly, we review field evidence showing that fuel age effects on the probability of fire spread, a key assumption in simulation models like the FFM, do not generally apply across flammable environments. Finally, we explore alternative explanations for the formation of scale invariant fire sizes in real landscapes. Using observations from southern Australian forest regions we demonstrate that the spatiotemporal patterns of fuel dryness and magnitudes of fire driving weather events set strong environmental templates for regional fire size distributions.

  17. Research on measurement method of 220Rn progeny aerosol size distribution

    The method for measuring 220Rn progeny aerosol activity particle size distributions was introduced through ELPI system, α spectroscopy and the energy discrimination method. The different particle sizes of the 220Rn progeny aerosols were collected and the activity size distributions in the 220Rn laboratory of the University of South China were measured by this method. The experiment results show that the activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of ThB aerosol is 237 nm, and that of ThC is 245 nm. The simple and quick method can be used to monitor the particle size distributions of 220Rn progeny aerosol in real time, the aerosol activity size distributions of ThB and ThC can be obtained by this method at the same time, and the measurement accuracy of the energy spectrum is higher than that of custom method. (authors)

  18. Does the size distribution of mineral dust aerosols depend on the wind speed at emission?

    Kok, Jasper F

    2011-01-01

    The size distribution of mineral dust aerosols partially determines their interactions with clouds, radiation, ecosystems, and other components of the Earth system. Several theoretical models predict that the dust size distribution depends on the wind speed at emission, with larger wind speeds predicted to produce smaller aerosols. The present study investigates this prediction using a compilation of published measurements of the size-resolved vertical dust flux emitted by eroding soils. Surprisingly, these measurements indicate that the size distribution of naturally emitted dust aerosols is independent of the wind speed. The recently formulated brittle fragmentation theory of dust emission is consistent with this finding, whereas other theoretical dust emission models are not. The independence of the emitted dust size distribution with wind speed simplifies both the interpretation of geological records of dust deposition and the parameterization of dust emission in atmospheric circulation models.

  19. Earthquake Size Distribution: Power-Law with Exponent Beta = 1/2 ?

    Kagan, Yan Y

    2009-01-01

    We propose that the widely observed and universal Gutenberg-Richter relation is a mathematical consequence of the critical branching nature of earthquake process in a brittle fracture environment. These arguments, though preliminary, are confirmed by recent investigations of the seismic moment distribution in global earthquake catalogs and by the results on the distribution in crystals of dislocation avalanche sizes. We consider possible systematic and random errors in determining earthquake size, especially its seismic moment. These effects increase the estimate of the parameter beta of the power-law distribution of earthquake sizes. In particular we find that the decrease in relative moment uncertainties with earthquake size causes inflation in the beta-value by about 1-3%. Moreover, earthquake clustering greatly influences the beta-parameter. If clusters (aftershock sequences) are taken as the entity to be studied, then the exponent value for their size distribution would decrease by 5-10%. The complexity ...

  20. Size distribution of autotrophy and microheterotrophy in reservoirs: implications for foodweb structure

    Kimmel, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Particle size is a primary determinant of resources available to consumers and of the efficiency of energy transfer through planktonic food chains. Dual radioisotopic labeling (with /sup 14/C-bicarbonate and /sup 3/H-acetate) and size fractionation of naturally-occurring phytoplankton-bacterioplankton assemblages were employed to examine the particle size distributions of planktonic autotrophy and microheterotrophy in four limnologically-dissimilar US reservoirs (Lake Mead, Arizona-Nevada, oligo-mesotrophic; Broken Bow Lake, Oklahoma, mesotrophic; Lake Texoma, Oklahoma-Texas, eutrophic; and Normandy Lake, Tennessee, eutrophic). Small nano- and ultraphytoplankton (< 8.0 ..mu..m) and free-living bacteria (< 3.0 ..mu..m) were primarly responsible for planktonic autotrophy and microheterotrophy, respecitvely, even in eutrophic conditions. Zooplankton grazing experiments indicated that (1) most grazing pressure occurs on 3.0 to 8.0 ..mu..m particles, (2) grazer limitation of the occurrence of attached bacteria amd microbial-detrital aggregates is unlikely, and (3) free-living bacteria are inefficiently harvested, relative to algae, by most reservoir zooplankton. Relative to autorophy, the microheterotrophic conversion of allochthonous dissolved organic matter and algal excretion products to bacterial biomass appears unlikely to be a significant source of organic carbon for planktonic grazers in most reservoirs.

  1. Size distribution of autotrophy and microheterotrophy in reservoirs: implications for foodweb structure

    Particle size is a primary determinant of resources available to consumers and of the efficiency of energy transfer through planktonic food chains. Dual radioisotopic labeling (with 14C-bicarbonate and 3H-acetate) and size fractionation of naturally-occurring phytoplankton-bacterioplankton assemblages were employed to examine the particle size distributions of planktonic autotrophy and microheterotrophy in four limnologically-dissimilar US reservoirs (Lake Mead, Arizona-Nevada, oligo-mesotrophic; Broken Bow Lake, Oklahoma, mesotrophic; Lake Texoma, Oklahoma-Texas, eutrophic; and Normandy Lake, Tennessee, eutrophic). Small nano- and ultraphytoplankton (< 8.0 μm) and free-living bacteria (< 3.0 μm) were primarly responsible for planktonic autotrophy and microheterotrophy, respecitvely, even in eutrophic conditions. Zooplankton grazing experiments indicated that (1) most grazing pressure occurs on 3.0 to 8.0 μm particles, (2) grazer limitation of the occurrence of attached bacteria amd microbial-detrital aggregates is unlikely, and (3) free-living bacteria are inefficiently harvested, relative to algae, by most reservoir zooplankton. Relative to autorophy, the microheterotrophic conversion of allochthonous dissolved organic matter and algal excretion products to bacterial biomass appears unlikely to be a significant source of organic carbon for planktonic grazers in most reservoirs

  2. Early-stage evolution of particle size distribution with Johnson's SB function due to Brownian coagulation

    The moment method can be used to determine the time evolution of particle size distribution due to Brownian coagulation based on the general dynamic equation (GDE). But the function form of the initial particle size distribution must be determined beforehand for the moment method. If the assumed function type of the initial particle size distribution has an obvious deviation from the true particle population, the evolution of particle size distribution may be different from the real evolution tendency. Thus, a simple and general method is proposed based on the moment method. In this method, the Johnson's SB function is chosen as a general distribution function to fit the initial distributions including the log normal (L-N), Rosin–Rammler (R-R), normal (N-N) and gamma distribution functions, respectively. Meanwhile, using the modified beta function to fit the L-N, R-R, N-N and gamma functions is also conducted as a comparison in order to present the advantage of the Johnson's SB function as the general distribution function. And then, the time evolution of particle size distributions using the Johnson's SB function as the initial distribution can be obtained by several lower order moment equations of the Johnson's SB function in conjunction with the GDE during the Brownian coagulation process. Simulation experiments indicate that fairly reasonable results of the time evolution of particle size distribution can be obtained with this proposed method in the free molecule regime, transition regime and continuum plus near continuum regime, respectively, at the early time stage of evolution. The Johnson's SB function has the ability of describing the early time evolution of different initial particle size distributions. (paper)

  3. Equilibrium island size distribution in one dimension revisited: analytical models and Monte Carlo simulations

    The island size distribution, at thermodynamic equilibrium, of interacting particles in a one-dimensional lattice-gas model is revisited. A derivation for the exact island size distribution of nearest neighbor interacting particles using the detailed balance principle is proposed and it is shown that it agrees with the distribution obtained by Gambardella et al who resorted to the minimization of the free energy (2006 Phys. Rev. B 73 245425). We find that the island size distributions change from an exponential shape to one exhibiting a maximum when repulsive interactions with distant neighbors are considered. In this work we present an analytical model that successfully reproduces the island size distribution obtained from Monte Carlo simulations for both interaction schemes and any coverage

  4. Determination of the particle size distribution of aerosols by means of a diffusion battery

    The different methods allowing to determine the particle size distribution of aerosols by means of diffusion batteries are described. To that purpose, a new method for the processing of experimental data (percentages of particles trapped by the battery vs flow rate) was developed on the basis of calculation principles which are described and assessed. This method was first tested by numerical simulation from a priori particle size distributions and then verified experimentally using a fine uranine aerosol whose particle size distribution as determined by our method was compared with the distribution previously obtained by electron microscopy. The method can be applied to the determination of particle size distribution spectra of fine aerosols produced by 'radiolysis' of atmospheric gaseous impurities. Two other applications concern the detection threshold of the condensation nuclei counter and the 'critical' radii of 'radiolysis' particles

  5. Optimal production scheduling and lot-sizing in diary plants: the yogurt production line

    Kopanos, Georgios; Puigjaner Corbella, Lluís; Georgiadis, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    The lot-sizing and production scheduling problem in a multiproduct yogurt production line of a real-life dairy plant is addressed in this work. A new mixed discrete/ continuous-time mixed-integer linear programming model, based on the definition of families of products, is proposed. The problem under question is mainly focused on the packaging stage, whereas timing and capacity constraints are imposed with respect to the pasteurization/homogenization and fermentation stage. Packaging units o...

  6. Economically Efficient Cow Size Selection Using the Product/Product Model

    Bryant, Kelly J.; Montgomery, Thomas G.; Whitworth, Whitney A; Stark, C. Robert, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Economically optimal cow size is examined using a two product production framework with a single allocatable factor. Auction price data is used to construct a Total Revenue Curve for sales of small and large calves. A Production Possibilities Curve is constructed for a farmer with 100 animal units of resources. Results show that smaller calves are the solution regardless of calving season or market location.

  7. Nanomaterial size distribution analysis via liquid nebulization coupled with ion mobility spectrometry (LN-IMS).

    Jeon, Seongho; Oberreit, Derek R; Van Schooneveld, Gary; Hogan, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    We apply liquid nebulization (LN) in series with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS, using a differential mobility analyzer coupled to a condensation particle counter) to measure the size distribution functions (the number concentration per unit log diameter) of gold nanospheres in the 5-30 nm range, 70 nm × 11.7 nm gold nanorods, and albumin proteins originally in aqueous suspensions. In prior studies, IMS measurements have only been carried out for colloidal nanoparticles in this size range using electrosprays for aerosolization, as traditional nebulizers produce supermicrometer droplets which leave residue particles from non-volatile species. Residue particles mask the size distribution of the particles of interest. Uniquely, the LN employed in this study uses both online dilution (with dilution factors of up to 10(4)) with ultra-high purity water and a ball-impactor to remove droplets larger than 500 nm in diameter. This combination enables hydrosol-to-aerosol conversion preserving the size and morphology of particles, and also enables higher non-volatile residue tolerance than electrospray based aerosolization. Through LN-IMS measurements we show that the size distribution functions of narrowly distributed but similarly sized particles can be distinguished from one another, which is not possible with Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis in the sub-30 nm size range. Through comparison to electron microscopy measurements, we find that the size distribution functions inferred via LN-IMS measurements correspond to the particle sizes coated by surfactants, i.e. as they persist in colloidal suspensions. Finally, we show that the gas phase particle concentrations inferred from IMS size distribution functions are functions of only of the liquid phase particle concentration, and are independent of particle size, shape, and chemical composition. Therefore LN-IMS enables characterization of the size, yield, and polydispersity of sub-30 nm particles. PMID:26750519

  8. Spatial Distribution of Pair Production over the Pulsar Polar Cap

    Belyaev, Mikhail A

    2016-01-01

    Using an analytic, axisymmetric approach that includes general relativity, coupled to a condition for pair production deduced from simulations, we derive general results about the spatial distribution of pair-producing field lines over the pulsar polar cap. In particular, we show that pair production by curvature photons on magnetic field lines operates over only a fraction of the polar cap for an aligned rotator for general magnetic field configurations, assuming the magnetic field varies spatially on a scale that is larger than the size of the polar cap. We compare our result to force-free simulations of a pulsar with a dipole surface field and find excellent agreement. Our work has implications for first-principles simulations of pulsar magnetospheres, and for explaining observations of pulsed radio and high-energy emission.

  9. Linear and nonlinear excitations in complex plasmas with nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation and dust size distribution

    Both linear and nonlinear excitation in dusty plasmas have been investigated including the nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation and Gaussian size distribution dust particles. A linear dispersion relation and a Korteweg—de Vries—Burgers equation governing the dust acoustic shock waves are obtained. The relevance of the instability of wave and the wave evolution to the dust size distribution and nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation is illustrated both analytically and numerically. The numerical results show that the Gaussian size distribution of dust particles and the nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation have strong common influence on the propagation of both linear and nonlinear excitations. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  10. Effect of a polynomial arbitrary dust size distribution on dust acoustic solitons

    Ishak-Boushaki, M.; Djellout, D.; Annou, R. [Faculty of Physics, USTHB, P.B. 32 El Alia, Bab-ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria)

    2012-07-15

    The investigation of dust-acoustic solitons when dust grains are size-distributed and ions adiabatically heated is conducted. The influence of an arbitrary dust size-distribution described by a polynomial function on the properties of dust acoustic waves is investigated. An energy-like integral equation involving Sagdeev potential is derived. The solitary solutions are shown to undergo a transformation into cnoidal ones under some physical conditions. The dust size-distribution can significantly affect both lower and upper critical Mach numbers for both solitons and cnoidal solutions.

  11. Why Does Zipf's Law Break Down in Rank-Size Distribution of Cities?

    Kuninaka, Hiroto

    2008-01-01

    We study rank-size distribution of cities in Japan on the basis of data analysis. From the census data after World War II, we find that the rank-size distribution of cities is composed of two parts, each of which has independent power exponent. In addition, the power exponent of the head part of the distribution changes in time and Zipf's law holds only in a restricted period. We show that Zipf's law broke down due to both of Showa and Heisei great mergers and recovered due to population growth in middle-sized cities after the great Showa merger.

  12. Why Does Zipfs Law Break Down in Rank-Size Distribution of Cities?

    Kuninaka, Hiroto; Matsushita, Mitsugu

    2008-11-01

    We study the rank-size distribution of cities in Japan by data analysis and computer simulation. From the census data after World War II, we find that the rank-size distribution of cities is composed of two parts, each of which has an independent power exponent. In addition, the power exponent of the head part of the distribution changes with time and Zipfs law holds only for a restricted period. We show that Zipfs law broke down owing to the great Showa and Heisei mergers and recovered owing to population growth in middle-sized cities after the great Showa merger.

  13. Modelling of Population Migration to Reproduce Rank-Size Distribution of Cities in Japan

    Kuninaka, Hiroto; Matsushita, Mitsugu

    We investigate the rank-size distribution of cities in Japan by data analysis and computer simulation. From our previous data analysis of the census data after World War II, it has been clarified that the power exponent of the rank-size distribution of cities changes with time and Zipfs law holds only for a restricted period. We show that Zipfs law broke down owing to the great mergers and recovered by investigating the time evolution of the rank-size distribution of cities without mergers.

  14. Based on particle size distribution of radioactive aerosol of screen diffusion battery measuring software

    Based on screen diffusion battery of particle size distribution of the radioactive aerosol measuring system developed a measurement and analysis software, the software operating environment was the embedded ARM-based hardware system and embedded linux operating system. The software is developed by the open source package QT. System functions included the measurement process control, screen diffusion battery transmittance calculations, particle size distribution measurement, measurement data analysed by the EM algorithm and Twomey algorithms, particle size distribution showed, system communication and other functions. (authors)

  15. Optimizing Batch Size in a Flow-Oriented Synchronized Production

    Imran Aslan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was prepared for a leading company, Miele GmbH, the global premium brand of domestic appliancesand commercial machines in the field of laundry care, dishwashing and disinfection in Germany. The productionline of Miele GmbH in Bielefeld, Germany was analyzed to develop a model that can be used for all the firms inthe group.Dynamic programming models are widely used by companies to efficiently meet the demand for a variety ofproducts. In a flow shop, each product has to be processed by a number of machines in synchronized lines. Theproduction smoothing problems under the presence of setup and processing times vary among the products. Themaster production-inventory problem of Miele GmbH was divided into two sub-problems which were concernedwith determining the batch sizes and production sequences of products, respectively. A dynamic programmingprocedure was developed to solve the batching problem for the current problem. A dynamic computational studyfor the first case was conducted so that the solution method is effective in meeting the goals of the firm andefficient in its computational requirements.Scientific problem –the firm has a problem of high logistics. Moreover, they want to decrease the cost ofproduction in order to compete with their competitors. Their competitors start to make some of their productionin low labour countries such as China. Miele is a special brand for upper level. However, they now have a morestrict competition with new global players and one way to stay competitive in the market is to decrease the costsand find new market segments.The aim of the research –The dynamic programming algorithm is suggested to them to decrease the costs. Thenumbers of products are decreased to explain the algorithm. An example with calculations of this algorithm wasexplained in this study. The number of variables and constraints can be increased. After the logic of algorithm isunderstood, it can be applied many similar problems. The algorithm can be developed by using differentsoftware such as Java. Then, the variables and values of algorithm can be input for the algorithm and the resultscan be gotten in a short time.The object of the research – Inventory and Production mix projects.The methods of the research –Dynamic Programming.

  16. Detailed modeling of soot size distribution evolution and pollutant formation inside aircraft and diesel engines

    Moniruzzaman, Chowdhury G.

    Combustion emission of soot and pollutant gas species contributes to poor regional air quality near emission sources and to climate change. It is important to understand the formation mechanism and time evolution of these pollutants inside the combustion engine, through detailed modeling of combustion chemistry and microphysics as well as comparison with observation. In this thesis, two multi-zone gas parcel combustion engine models, one for aircraft engines and another for diesel engines, have been developed to study soot size distribution evolution and pollutant formation inside the engines as well as emissions. The models take into account size-resolved (sectional) soot aerosol dynamics (nucleation, growth, and coagulation) and detailed combustion chemistry of jet and diesel fuel. For the aircraft engine, the model considers 362 chemical species, 2657 reversible reactions and 75 aerosol size bins. The model was applied to a CFM56-2-C1 aircraft engine for idle operating conditions. This is the first model to simulate soot size distribution evolution inside an aircraft engine (to our knowledge). The simulated values for major species are generally consistent with measurements. Model simulation shows that, for idle operating conditions, concentrations of most key combustion products don't change significantly in the post-combustor, however, HONO, H2SO4, and HO 2 concentrations change by more than a factor of 10. The sulfur oxidation efficiency (SOE), ([SO3]+[H2SO4])/([SO 2]+[SO3] +[H2SO4]), was found to be 2.1% at the engine exit. For the diesel engine, the multi-zone gas parcel model has been further enhanced by including fuel injection, droplet break-up, fuel evaporation and air entrainment rate. The model considers 283 chemical species, 2137 reversible reactions, and 75 aerosol size bins. The developed model calculates the time evolution of concentrations of these chemical species and soot size distributions inside a diesel engine. This is the first model to simulate soot size distribution evolution inside a diesel engine (to our knowledge). Model calculations are generally consistent with measurements. SOE was found to be 2% at end of the expansion stroke. The diesel engine emission model was used to study the effects of fuel sulfur content (FSC), relative humidity (RH) of intake air and fuel injection angle (FIA) on pollutant formation and emission as well as engine performances. The model simulation shows that FSC does not affect non-sulfur species, however, SO2 and SO3 increase linearly with increase in FSC. Simulation also shows that both higher RH and late injection (higher FIA) increase soot but decrease NOx. The model enables us to test the predictive capability of any existing or newly developed chemical kinetic mechanism of surrogate fuel and soot microphysics inside diesel engines.

  17. Size distributions for multivariate morphological granulometries: texture classification and statistical properties

    Batman, Sinan; Dougherty, Edward R.

    1997-05-01

    As introduced by Matheron (1975), granulometries depend on a single sizing parameter for each structuring element forming the filter. Size distributions resulting from these granulometries have been used to classify texture by using as features the moments of the resulting pattern spectra. The concept of granulometry is extended in such a way that each structuring element has its own sizing parameter and the size distribution is multivariate. Whereas with univariate granulometries the normalized size distribution (pattern spectrum) is easily shown to be a probability distribution function, this proposition is more difficult to show for multivariate granulometries. Its demonstration is the main theoretical result. The classical single- structuring-element granulometries appear as marginal size distributions and the single-parameter multiple-structuring- element granulometries result from setting all parameters equal in a multivariate granulometry. Because of the greatly expanded freedom in choosing parameters, multivariate granulometries can discriminate textures that are indistinguishable using single-parameter granulometries. Texture classification proceeds by taking either the Walsh or moment transform of the multivariate pattern spectrum, obtaining a reduced feature set by applying the Karhunen- Loeve transform to the Walsh or moment features, and classifying textures via a Gaussian maximum-likelihood classifier. For the disjoint multiprimitive random set model, multivariate granulometric moments are represented in terms of sizing-distribution moments and shown to be asymptotically normal. Formulas are given for their asymptotic mean and variance.

  18. Cloud particle size distributions measured with an airborne digital in-line holographic instrument

    J. P. Fugal

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Holographic data from the prototype airborne digital holographic instrument HOLODEC (Holographic Detector for Clouds, taken during test flights are digitally reconstructed to obtain the size (equivalent diameters in the range 23 to 1000 μm, three-dimensional position, and two-dimensional profile of ice particles and then ice particle size distributions and number densities are calculated using an automated algorithm with minimal user intervention. The holographic method offers the advantages of a well-defined sample volume size that is not dependent on particle size or airspeed, and offers a unique method of detecting shattered particles. The holographic method also allows the volume sample rate to be increased beyond that of the prototype HOLODEC instrument, limited solely by camera technology.

    HOLODEC size distributions taken in mixed-phase regions of cloud compare well to size distributions from a PMS FSSP probe also onboard the aircraft during the test flights. A conservative algorithm for detecting shattered particles utilizing the particles depth-position along the optical axis eliminates the obvious ice particle shattering events from the data set. In this particular case, the size distributions of non-shattered particles are reduced by approximately a factor of two for particles 15 to 70 μm in equivalent diameter, compared to size distributions of all particles.

  19. Species sensitivity distribution for chlorpyrifos to aquatic organisms: Model choice and sample size.

    Zhao, Jinsong; Chen, Boyu

    2016-03-01

    Species sensitivity distribution (SSD) is a widely used model that extrapolates the ecological risk to ecosystem levels from the ecotoxicity of a chemical to individual organisms. However, model choice and sample size significantly affect the development of the SSD model and the estimation of hazardous concentrations at the 5th centile (HC5). To interpret their effects, the SSD model for chlorpyrifos, a widely used organophosphate pesticide, to aquatic organisms is presented with emphases on model choice and sample size. Three subsets of median effective concentration (EC50) with different sample sizes were obtained from ECOTOX and used to build SSD models based on parametric distribution (normal, logistic, and triangle distribution) and nonparametric bootstrap. The SSD models based on the triangle distribution are superior to the normal and logistic distributions according to several goodness-of-fit techniques. Among all parametric SSD models, the one with the largest sample size based on the triangle distribution gives the most strict HC5 with 0.141?molL(-1). The HC5 derived from the nonparametric bootstrap is 0.159?mol L(-1). The minimum sample size required to build a stable SSD model is 11 based on parametric distribution and 23 based on nonparametric bootstrap. The study suggests that model choice and sample size are important sources of uncertainty for application of the SSD model. PMID:26701839

  20. A theoretical analysis and prediction of pore size and pore size distribution in electrospun multilayer nanofibrous materials.

    Bagherzadeh, Roohollah; Najar, Saeed Shaikhzadeh; Latifi, Masoud; Tehran, Mohammad Amani; Kong, Lingxue

    2013-07-01

    Electrospinning process can fabricate nanomaterials with unique nanostructures for potential biomedical and environmental applications. However, the prediction and, consequently, the control of the porous structure of these materials has been impractical due to the complexity of the electrospinning process. In this research, a theoretical model for characterizing the porous structure of the electrospun nanofibrous network has been developed by combining the stochastic and stereological probability approaches. From consideration of number of fiber-to-fiber contacts in an electrospun nanofibrous assembly, geometrical and statistical theory relating morphological and structural parameters of the network to the characteristic dimensions of interfibers pores is provided. It has been shown that these properties are strongly influenced by the fiber diameter, porosity, and thickness of assembly. It is also demonstrated that at a given network porosity, increasing fiber diameter and thickness of the network reduces the characteristic dimensions of pores. It is also discussed that the role of fiber diameter and number of the layer in the assembly is dominant in controlling the pore size distribution of the networks. The theory has been validated experimentally and results compared with the existing theory to predict the pore size distribution of nanofiber mats. It is believed that the presented theory for estimation of pore size distribution is more realistic and useful for further studies of multilayer random nanofibrous assemblies. PMID:23426993

  1. PBO Strainmeters: Distribution, Design and Data Products

    Hodgkinson, K.; Anderson, G.; Hasting, M.; Mueller, B.

    2004-12-01

    PBO will install and operate up to 143 three-component borehole strainmeters and five long-baseline laser strainmeters along the Pacific-North American plate boundary over the next four years. Drilling for the first borehole strainmeter, located in the Cascadia region of Washington, will start in October/November 2004 with instrumentation being installed in early 2005. Installing the first borehole station in Cascadia at that time should allow us to capture the next anticipated silent earthquake on the Cascadia subduction zone. In the second year of PBO, four new borehole strainmeters will be installed at Parkfield, 11 more in the Cascadia region, and up to four on Vancouver Island. The remaining strainmeters will be distributed so as to improve our understanding of tectonic and volcanic processes along the entire plate boundary. Three-component borehole strainmeters (BSM) measure change in diameter of the borehole in 3 directions oriented 120 degrees apart. The 3 measurements are then combined to determine the change in areal and shear strains. The BSMs will be installed at depths of between 150 m and 240 m. Long-baseline laser strainmeters (LSM) measure change in the relative position of end monuments hundreds of meters apart using an unequal-arm Michelson interferometer. The LSMs will be installed on the surface. Each BSM station will have a 2 Hz, 3 component, passive borehole seismometer installed above the strainmeter making the PBO BSM network the second largest borehole seismic network in the world. Each BSM station will monitor pore and atmospheric pressures, and some will monitor rainfall, temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity. Some BSM stations will also be colocated with PBO GPS stations. The BSM data, collected at 20 samples per second (sps), will be buffered on-site and downloaded in near real time to PBO via direct Internet connections, along with environmental data. BSM data will be transferred to a central quality-checking system and then passed to the Strainmeter Analysis and Archive Centers. LSM data, collected at 1 sps, will be buffered on-site and downloaded at least daily to PBO. It will then be sent to Scripps Institution of Oceanography for analysis and to the archives for storage. Strainmeter data analysis will include: instrument calibration, removal of spikes and offsets, identification of strain induced by changes in atmospheric and pore pressure, removal of borehole relaxation trends in BSM data, and production of an earth tide model. Borehole seismic data will likely be sent to the Array Network Facility (ANF) located at Scripps for analysis, quality-checking, distribution and arching. The ANF also process and analyses data for the USArray arm of EarthScope. PBO strain data products will be divided into 3 levels. The raw data will be considered the Level 0 product. Level 1 data will consist of clean, scaled, gauge data. The Level 2 data set will contain derived products: areal and shear strains, tidal and pressure corrections. Level 2 data will be further divided into 3 sub-levels ranging from a rapid solution produced every 24 hours to a final verified data set updated every 3 months. The data will be available in XML and SEED format from the EarthScope Data Access System. Metadata such as site information and scale factors will be retrievable from the PBO Operational Database.

  2. Effects of dust size distribution on dust acoustic waves in two-dimensional unmagnetized dusty plasma

    For unmagnetized dusty plasma with many different dust grain species containing both hot isothermal electrons and ions, both the linear dispersion relation and the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation for small, but finite amplitude dust acoustic waves are obtained. The linear dispersion relation is investigated numerically. Furthermore, the variations of amplitude, width, and propagation velocity of the nonlinear solitary wave with an arbitrary dust size distribution function are studied as well. Moreover, both the power law distribution and the Gaussian distribution are approximately simulated by using appropriate arbitrary dust size distribution functions

  3. Occlusion effects and the distribution of interstellar cloud sizes and masses

    Scalo, J M

    1995-01-01

    The frequency distributions of sizes of ``clouds" and ``clumps" within clouds are significantly flatter for extinction surveys than for CO spectral line surveys, even for comparable size ranges. A possible explanation is the blocking of extinction clouds by larger foreground clouds (occlusion), which should not affect spectral line surveys much because clouds are resolved in velocity space along a given line of sight. We present a simple derivation of the relation between the true and occluded size distributions, assuming clouds are uniformly distributed in space or the distance to a cloud comples is much greater than the size of the complex. Because the occlusion is dominated by the largest clouds, we find that occlusion does not affect the measured size distribution except for sizes comparable to the largest size, implying that occlusion is not responsible for the discrepancy if the range in sizes of the samples is large. However, we find that the range in sizes for many of the published observed samples is...

  4. THE TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF REGIONAL CITY SIZE DISTRIBUTION: ANDHRA PRADESH (1951-2001

    G. Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systems with measurable entities are characterized by certain properties of their size distribution. City Size Distribution (CSD and the underlying city size dynamics have received attention in the urban economic literature in recent years. In this approach we aim at evaluating the temporal dynamics of city size distribution in Andhra Pradesh, an Indian state for the period 1951-2001. The research framework-which is based on a function relating population size to rank-is used to test for the trends of deconcentration cities of population over the study period. The expansion methodology is used to investigate the dynamics of rank size function in temporal dimension. We have studied the threshold size and its influence on temporal trends. The size distribution of cities/towns from one period to another is modeled by way of a Markov Chain. Our findings reveal that all places in the urban system are growing with small towns growing at a faster rate during study period. The largest cities and the smallest towns display higher persistence than the medium sized cities.

  5. Critical conditions for particle motion in coarse bed materials of nonuniform size distribution

    Bathurst, James C.

    2013-09-01

    Initiation of particle motion in a bed material of nonuniform size distribution may be quantified by (qci/qcr) = (Di/Dr)b, where qci is the critical unit discharge at which particle size Di enters motion, qcr is the critical condition for a reference size Dr unaffected by the hiding/exposure effects associated with nonuniform size distributions, i and r refer to percentiles of the distribution and b varies from 0 (equal mobility in entrainment of all particle sizes) to 1.5-2.5 (full size selective transport). Currently there is no generally accepted method for predicting the value of b. Flume and field data are therefore combined to investigate the above relationship. Thirty-seven sets of flume data quantify the relationship between critical unit discharge and particle size for bed materials with uniform size distributions (used here to approximate full size selective transport). Field data quantify the relationship for bed materials of nonuniform size distribution at 24 sites, with b ranging from 0.15 to 1.3. Intersection of the two relationships clearly demonstrates the hiding/exposure effect; in some but not all cases, Dr is close to the median size D50. The exponent has two clusters of values: b > 1 for sites subject to episodic rain-fed floods and data collected by bedload pit trap and tracers; and b 1, sites with relatively infrequent bedload transport where particle embedding and consolidation could reduce the mobility of coarser particles; and, for b firm evidence for such a dependency on bed structure but variations in b could potentially be caused by factors outside those determining equal mobility or size selection but appearing to affect b in the same way.

  6. A new stochastic algorithm for inversion of dust aerosol size distribution

    Wang, Li; Li, Feng; Yang, Ma-ying

    2015-08-01

    Dust aerosol size distribution is an important source of information about atmospheric aerosols, and it can be determined from multiwavelength extinction measurements. This paper describes a stochastic inverse technique based on artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm to invert the dust aerosol size distribution by light extinction method. The direct problems for the size distribution of water drop and dust particle, which are the main elements of atmospheric aerosols, are solved by the Mie theory and the Lambert-Beer Law in multispectral region. And then, the parameters of three widely used functions, i.e. the log normal distribution (L-N), the Junge distribution (J-J), and the normal distribution (N-N), which can provide the most useful representation of aerosol size distributions, are inversed by the ABC algorithm in the dependent model. Numerical results show that the ABC algorithm can be successfully applied to recover the aerosol size distribution with high feasibility and reliability even in the presence of random noise.

  7. EFFECTS ON ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION OF CHANGES IN GRAIN LOADING, SIZE DISTRIBUTION, RESISTIVITY, AND TEMPERATURE

    The paper discusses the simulation of the effects of changes to particle loading, particle size distribution, and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) operating temperatures using ESP models. It also illustrates the usefulness of modern ESP models for this type of analysis. Increasin...

  8. Droplet Size Distribution in Sprays Based on Maximization of Entropy Generation

    Meishen Li

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The maximum entropy principle (MEP, which has been popular in the modeling of droplet size and velocity distribution in sprays, is, strictly speaking, only applicable for isolated systems in thermodynamic equilibrium; whereas the spray formation processes are irreversible and non-isolated with interaction between the atomizing liquid and its surrounding gas medium. In this study, a new model for the droplet size distribution has been developed based on the thermodynamically consistent concept - the maximization of entropy generation during the liquid atomization process. The model prediction compares favorably with the experimentally measured size distribution for droplets, near the liquid bulk breakup region, produced by an air-blast annular nozzle and a practical gas turbine nozzle. Therefore, the present model can be used to predict the initial droplet size distribution in sprays.

  9. Evolutionary implications of a power-law distribution of protein family sizes

    Bader, J S

    1999-01-01

    Current-day genomes bear the mark of the evolutionary processes. One of the strongest indications is the sequence homology among families of proteins that perform similar biological functions in different species. The number of proteins in a family can grow over time as genetic information is duplicated through evolution. We explore how evolution directs the size distribution of these families. Theoretical predictions for family sizes are obtained from two models, one in which individual genes duplicate and a second in which the entire genome duplicates. Predictions from these models are compared with the family size distributions for several organisms whose complete genome sequence is known. We find that protein family size distributions in nature follow a power-law distribution. Comparing these results to the model systems, we conclude that genome duplication is the dominant mechanism leading to increased genetic material in the species considered.

  10. The k-generalized distribution: A new descriptive model for the size distribution of incomes

    F. Clementi; T. Di Matteo; Gallegati, M.; Kaniadakis, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes the k-generalized distribution as a model for describing the distribution and dispersion of income within a population. Formulas for the shape, moments and standard tools for inequality measurement - such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini coefficient - are given. A method for parameter estimation is also discussed. The model is shown to fit extremely well the data on personal income distribution in Australia and the United States.

  11. The ?-generalized distribution: A new descriptive model for the size distribution of incomes

    Clementi, F.; Di Matteo, T.; Gallegati, M.; Kaniadakis, G.

    2008-05-01

    This paper proposes the ?-generalized distribution as a model for describing the distribution and dispersion of income within a population. Formulas for the shape, moments and standard tools for inequality measurement-such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini coefficient-are given. A method for parameter estimation is also discussed. The model is shown to fit extremely well the data on personal income distribution in Australia and in the United States.

  12. An improved methodology of asymmetric flow field flow fractionation hyphenated with inductively coupled mass spectrometry for the determination of size distribution of gold nanoparticles in dietary supplements.

    Mudalige, Thilak K; Qu, Haiou; Linder, Sean W

    2015-11-13

    Engineered nanoparticles are available in large numbers of commercial products claiming various health benefits. Nanoparticle absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity in a biological system are dependent on particle size, thus the determination of size and size distribution is essential for full characterization. Number based average size and size distribution is a major parameter for full characterization of the nanoparticle. In the case of polydispersed samples, large numbers of particles are needed to obtain accurate size distribution data. Herein, we report a rapid methodology, demonstrating improved nanoparticle recovery and excellent size resolution, for the characterization of gold nanoparticles in dietary supplements using asymmetric flow field flow fractionation coupled with visible absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A linear relationship between gold nanoparticle size and retention times was observed, and used for characterization of unknown samples. The particle size results from unknown samples were compared to results from traditional size analysis by transmission electron microscopy, and found to have less than a 5% deviation in size for unknown product over the size range from 7 to 30 nm. PMID:26456512

  13. Optimal Location and Size of Distributed Generation inDistribution System by Artificial Bees Colony Algorithm

    Nguyen Tung Linh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed generation (DG application hasreceived increasing attention during recent years. The impactof DG on various aspects of distribution system operation,such as reliability and energy loss, depend highly on DGlocation in distribution feeder. Optimal DG placement is animportant. This paper presents a new methodology usingartificial bees conoly algorithm (ABC for the placement andsize of Distributed Generators (DG in the radial distributionsystems. The proposed method is tested in standard IEEE 33bus test system and the results are presented.

  14. Solitary waves in a dusty plasma with charge fluctuation and dust size distribution and vortex like ion distribution

    A modified KdV equation is derived for the propagation of non-linear waves in a dusty plasma, containing N different dust grains with a size distribution and charge fluctuation with electrons in the background. The ions are assumed to obey a vortex like distribution due to their non-isothermal nature. The standard distribution for the dust size is a power law. The variation of the soliton width is studied with respect to normalized size of the dust grains. A numerical solution of the equation is done by considering the soliton solution of the modified KdV as the initial pulse. It shows considerable broadening of the pulse variation of width with β 1 is shown

  15. Mass Size Distribution of Water Soluble Ions in Prague and Wiena in Summer

    Schwarz, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Aerosol mass size distribution is a key factor that influences aerosol behavior both on local (health effects, visibility) and global (global warming) level. The content of water soluble ions is the most important factor controlling hygroscopic behavior of aerosol particles. Hygroscopicity is a substantial parameter for particle deposition in lungs, particle cloud interactions, aerosol optical effects etc. Therefore we studied size distribution of water soluble ions in two Central Europea...

  16. Statistical estimation of stratospheric particle size distribution by combining optical modelling and lidar scattering measurements

    J. Jumelet; S. Bekki; David, C.; P. Keckhut

    2008-01-01

    A method for estimating the stratospheric particle size distribution from multiwavelength lidar measurements is presented. It is based on matching measured and model-simulated backscatter coefficients. The lidar backscatter coefficients measured at the three commonly used wavelengths 355, 532 and 1064 nm are compared to a precomputed look-up table of model-calculated values. The optical model assumes that particles are spherical and that their size distribution is unimodal. ...

  17. Grain Size Distributions and Photo-Electric Heating in Ionized Regions

    van Hoof, P. A. M; Weingartner, J. C.; Martin, P G; Volk, K.; Ferland, G. J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present results obtained with the new grain code in Cloudy which underline the strong effect of photo-electric heating by grains in photo-ionized regions. We study the effect that the distribution of grain sizes has on the magnitude of the effect, and show that this effect is nothing short of dramatic. This makes the grain size distribution an important parameter in modeling of photo-ionized regions such as H II regions and planetary nebulae.

  18. Research of CWS’ Particle Size Distribution based on Ultrasonic Attenuation Theory

    Wang, Weidong; ZHANG Chenglian; CHU Fengge

    2010-01-01

    the key to reduce coal pollution is the development of clean coal technology and the improvement of the backward coal-burning technology. The coal water slurry (CWS) is the first substitute of the oil. The particle size distribution of CWS plays an important role in the quality control of CWS. Now there are three methods that are used to analysis the particle size distribution of CWS, screening method, settlement method, laser method. These methods produce some disadvantages when be used to f...

  19. A simple technique to determine the size distribution of nuclear crater fallback and ejecta

    This report describes the results of an investigation to find an economic method for determining the block size distribution of nuclear crater fallback and ejecta. It is shown that the modal analysis method of determining relative proportions can be applied with the use of a special sampling technique, to provide a size distribution curve for clastic materials similar to one obtainable by sieving and weighing the same materials

  20. FRACTAL SCALING OF PARTICLE AND PORE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS AND ITS RELATION TO SOIL HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY

    BACCHI O.O.S.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractal scaling has been applied to soils, both for void and solid phases, as an approach to characterize the porous arrangement, attempting to relate particle-size distribution to soil water retention and soil water dynamic properties. One important point of such an analysis is the assumption that the void space geometry of soils reflects its solid phase geometry, taking into account that soil pores are lined by the full range of particles, and that their fractal dimension, which expresses their tortuosity, could be evaluated by the fractal scaling of particle-size distribution. Other authors already concluded that although fractal scaling plays an important role in soil water retention and porosity, particle-size distribution alone is not sufficient to evaluate the fractal structure of porosity. It is also recommended to examine the relationship between fractal properties of solids and of voids, and in some special cases, look for an equivalence of both fractal dimensions. In the present paper data of 42 soil samples were analyzed in order to compare fractal dimensions of pore-size distribution, evaluated by soil water retention curves (SWRC of soils, with fractal dimensions of soil particle-size distributions (PSD, taking the hydraulic conductivity as a standard variable for the comparison, due to its relation to tortuosity. A new procedure is proposed to evaluate the fractal dimension of pore-size distribution. Results indicate a better correlation between fractal dimensions of pore-size distribution and the hydraulic conductivity for this set of soils, showing that for most of the soils analyzed there is no equivalence of both fractal dimensions. For most of these soils the fractal dimension of particle-size distribution does not indicate properly the pore trace tortuosity. A better equivalence of both fractal dimensions was found for sandy soils.

  1. Aged boreal biomass-burning aerosol size distributions from BORTAS 2011

    Sakamoto, K. M.; J. D. Allan; Coe, H.; Taylor, J.W.; Duck, T. J.; Pierce, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Biomass-burning aerosols contribute to aerosol radiative forcing on the climate system. The magnitude of this effect is partially determined by aerosol size distributions, which are functions of source fire characteristics (e.g. fuel type, MCE) and in-plume microphysical processing. The uncertainties in biomass-burning emission number–size distributions in climate model inventories lead to uncertainties in the CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) concentrations and forcing estima...

  2. Development and validation of a molecular size distribution method for polysaccharide vaccines.

    Clément, G; Dierick, J-F; Lenfant, C; Giffroy, D

    2014-01-01

    Determination of the molecular size distribution of vaccine products by high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled to refractive index detection is important during the manufacturing process. Partial elution of high molecular weight compounds in the void volume of the chromatographic column is responsible for variation in the results obtained with a reference method using a TSK G5000PWXL chromatographic column. GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines has developed an alternative method relying on the selection of a different chromatographic column with a wider separation range and the generation of a dextran calibration curve to determine the optimal molecular weight cut-off values for all tested products. Validation of this method was performed according to The International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The new method detected product degradation with the same sensitivity as that observed for the reference method. All validation parameters were within the pre-specified range. Precision (relative standard deviation (RSD) of mean values) was 70 per cent for all polysaccharide conjugates and for the Haemophilus influenzae type B final container vaccine. All results obtained for robustness met the acceptance criteria defined in the validation protocol (≤ 2 times (RSD) or ≤ 2 per cent difference between the modified and the reference parameter value if RSD = 0 per cent). The new method was shown to be a suitable quality control method for the release and stability follow-up of polysaccharide-containing vaccines. The new method gave comparable results to the reference method, but with less intra- and inter-assay variability. PMID:25655242

  3. Measurement of particle size distribution of soil and selected aggregate sizes using the hydrometer method and laser diffractometry

    Guzmán, G.; Gómez, J. A.; Giráldez, J. V.

    2010-05-01

    Soil particle size distribution has been traditionally determined by the hydrometer or the sieve-pipette methods, both of them time consuming and requiring a relatively large soil sample. This might be a limitation in situations, such as for instance analysis of suspended sediment, when the sample is small. A possible alternative to these methods are the optical techniques such as laser diffractometry. However the literature indicates that the use of this technique as an alternative to traditional methods is still limited, because the difficulty in replicating the results obtained with the standard methods. In this study we present the percentages of soil grain size determined using laser diffractometry within ranges set between 0.04 - 2000 μm. A Beckman-Coulter ® LS-230 with a 750 nm laser beam and software version 3.2 in five soils, representative of southern Spain: Alameda, Benacazón, Conchuela, Lanjarón and Pedrera. In three of the studied soils (Alameda, Benacazón and Conchuela) the particle size distribution of each aggregate size class was also determined. Aggregate size classes were obtained by dry sieve analysis using a Retsch AS 200 basic ®. Two hundred grams of air dried soil were sieved during 150 s, at amplitude 2 mm, getting nine different sizes between 2000 μm and 10 μm. Analyses were performed by triplicate. The soil sample preparation was also adapted to our conditions. A small amount each soil sample (less than 1 g) was transferred to the fluid module full of running water and disaggregated by ultrasonication at energy level 4 and 80 ml of sodium hexametaphosphate solution during 580 seconds. Two replicates of each sample were performed. Each measurement was made for a 90 second reading at a pump speed of 62. After the laser diffractometry analysis, each soil and its aggregate classes were processed calibrating its own optical model fitting the optical parameters that mainly depends on the color and the shape of the analyzed particle. As a second alternative a unique optical model valid for a broad range of soils developed by the Department of Soil, Water, and Environmental Science of the University of Arizona (personal communication, already submitted) was tested. The results were compared with the particle size distribution measured in the same soils and aggregate classes using the hydrometer method. Preliminary results indicate a better calibration of the technique using the optical model of the Department of Soil, Water, and Environmental Science of the University of Arizona, which obtained a good correlations (r2>0.85). This result suggests that with an appropriate calibration of the optical model laser diffractometry might provide a reliable soil particle characterization.

  4. Placement and Sizing of DG Using PSO&HBMO Algorithms in Radial Distribution Networks

    M. A.Taghikhani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Optimal placement and sizing of DG in distribution network is an optimization problem with continuous and discrete variables. Many researchers have used evolutionary methods for finding the optimal DG placement and sizing. This paper proposes a hybrid algorithm PSO&HBMO for optimal placement and sizing of distributed generation (DG in radial distri-bution system to minimize the total power loss and improve the voltage profile. The proposed method is tested on a standard 13 bus radial distribution system and simulation results carried out using MATLAB software. The simulation results indicate that PSO&HBMO method can obtain better results than the simple heuristic search method and PSO algorithm. The method has a potential to be a tool for identifying the best location and rating of a DG to be installed for improving voltage profile and line losses reduction in an electrical power system. Moreover, current reduction is obtained in distribution system.

  5. The magnetized sheath of a dusty plasma with grains size distribution

    Ou, Jing, E-mail: ouj@ipp.ac.cn; Gan, Chunyun; Lin, Binbin [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Heifei 230031 (China); Center for Magnetic Fusion Theory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Heifei 230031 (China); Yang, Jinhong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Heifei 230031 (China)

    2015-05-15

    The structure of a plasma sheath in the presence of dust grains size distribution (DGSD) is investigated in the multi-fluid framework. It is shown that effect of the dust grains with different sizes on the sheath structure is a collective behavior. The spatial distributions of electric potential, the electron and ion densities and velocities, and the dust grains surface potential are strongly affected by DGSD. The dynamics of dust grains with different sizes in the sheath depend on not only DGSD but also their radius. By comparison of the sheath structure, it is found that under the same expected value of DGSD condition, the sheath length is longer in the case of lognormal distribution than that in the case of uniform distribution. In two cases of normal and lognormal distributions, the sheath length is almost equal for the small variance of DGSD, and then the difference of sheath length increases gradually with increase in the variance.

  6. The magnetized sheath of a dusty plasma with grains size distribution

    The structure of a plasma sheath in the presence of dust grains size distribution (DGSD) is investigated in the multi-fluid framework. It is shown that effect of the dust grains with different sizes on the sheath structure is a collective behavior. The spatial distributions of electric potential, the electron and ion densities and velocities, and the dust grains surface potential are strongly affected by DGSD. The dynamics of dust grains with different sizes in the sheath depend on not only DGSD but also their radius. By comparison of the sheath structure, it is found that under the same expected value of DGSD condition, the sheath length is longer in the case of lognormal distribution than that in the case of uniform distribution. In two cases of normal and lognormal distributions, the sheath length is almost equal for the small variance of DGSD, and then the difference of sheath length increases gradually with increase in the variance

  7. The magnetized sheath of a dusty plasma with grains size distribution

    Ou, Jing; Gan, Chunyun; Lin, Binbin; Yang, Jinhong

    2015-05-01

    The structure of a plasma sheath in the presence of dust grains size distribution (DGSD) is investigated in the multi-fluid framework. It is shown that effect of the dust grains with different sizes on the sheath structure is a collective behavior. The spatial distributions of electric potential, the electron and ion densities and velocities, and the dust grains surface potential are strongly affected by DGSD. The dynamics of dust grains with different sizes in the sheath depend on not only DGSD but also their radius. By comparison of the sheath structure, it is found that under the same expected value of DGSD condition, the sheath length is longer in the case of lognormal distribution than that in the case of uniform distribution. In two cases of normal and lognormal distributions, the sheath length is almost equal for the small variance of DGSD, and then the difference of sheath length increases gradually with increase in the variance.

  8. Size-fractionated dissolved primary production and carbohydrate composition of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi

    Borchard, C.; Engel, A.

    2015-02-01

    Extracellular release (ER) by phytoplankton is the major source of fresh dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in marine ecosystems and accompanies primary production during all growth phases. Little is known, so far, on size and composition of released molecules, and to which extent ER occurs passively, by leakage, or actively, by exudation. Here, we report on ER by the widespread and bloom-forming coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi grown under steady-state conditions in phosphorus-controlled chemostats (N:P = 29, growth rate of ? = 0.2 d-1) at present-day and high-CO2 concentrations. 14C incubations were performed to determine primary production (PP), comprised of particulate (PO14C) and dissolved organic carbon (DO14C). Concentration and composition of particulate combined carbohydrates (pCCHO) and high-molecular-weight (>1 kDa, HMW) dissolved combined carbohydrates (dCCHO) were determined by ion chromatography. Information on size distribution of ER products was obtained by investigating distinct size classes (sugars had a significant share on freshly produced pCCHO as well as on HMW-dCCHO. While pCCHO and the smallest size fraction (sugar composition, dominated by high percentage of glucose (74-80 mol%), the composition of HMW-dCCHO size classes >10 kDa was significantly different, with a higher mol% of arabinose. The mol% of acidic sugars increased and that of glucose decreased with increasing size of HMW-dCCHO. We conclude that larger polysaccharides follow different production and release pathways than smaller molecules, potentially serving distinct ecological and biogeochemical functions.

  9. Size distribution of BaF2 nanocrystallites in transparent glass ceramics

    In glasses with the composition 1.9 Na2O-15 K2O-7.5 Al2O3-69.6 SiO2-6 BaF2 (in mol.%), BaF2 nanocrystalline precipitates are formed upon heat treatment. Using dark-field and bright-field transmission electron micrographs, crystallite size distributions are obtained for samples crystallized at various temperatures. According to the 'tomato-salad problem', the size distributions are corrected and then compared to various theories of grain growth taking into account coarsening of the crystallites during heat treatment. The experimental crystallite size distributions show for smaller mean crystallite sizes a more symmetric shape in comparison to the theories of Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) or Brailsford and Wynblatt (B and W). With increasing mean crystallite sizes to about 18 nm at higher heat-treatment temperatures, the full width at half maximum of the observed distributions decreases and becomes even narrower than the LSW function. These findings indicate that in the investigated nano glass ceramics no coarsening by Ostwald ripening or coalescence occurs. This is explained by the formation of a diffusion barrier around each nanocrystallite which limits the size of the crystallites and hence results in such a narrow and uniform crystallite size distribution.

  10. Size distribution of BaF{sub 2} nanocrystallites in transparent glass ceramics

    Bocker, Christian [Otto-Schott-Institut, Jena University, Fraunhoferstrasse 6, 07743 Jena (Germany); Bhattacharyya, Somnath [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung e.V., Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Hoeche, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.hoeche@iom-leipzig.de [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung e.V., Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Ruessel, Christian [Otto-Schott-Institut, Jena University, Fraunhoferstrasse 6, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    In glasses with the composition 1.9 Na{sub 2}O-15 K{sub 2}O-7.5 Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-69.6 SiO{sub 2}-6 BaF{sub 2} (in mol.%), BaF{sub 2} nanocrystalline precipitates are formed upon heat treatment. Using dark-field and bright-field transmission electron micrographs, crystallite size distributions are obtained for samples crystallized at various temperatures. According to the 'tomato-salad problem', the size distributions are corrected and then compared to various theories of grain growth taking into account coarsening of the crystallites during heat treatment. The experimental crystallite size distributions show for smaller mean crystallite sizes a more symmetric shape in comparison to the theories of Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) or Brailsford and Wynblatt (B and W). With increasing mean crystallite sizes to about 18 nm at higher heat-treatment temperatures, the full width at half maximum of the observed distributions decreases and becomes even narrower than the LSW function. These findings indicate that in the investigated nano glass ceramics no coarsening by Ostwald ripening or coalescence occurs. This is explained by the formation of a diffusion barrier around each nanocrystallite which limits the size of the crystallites and hence results in such a narrow and uniform crystallite size distribution.

  11. Polymorphic mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) in a coastal riverscape: size class assemblages, distribution, and habitat associations

    Starr, James C.; Torgersen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We compared the assemblage structure, spatial distributions, and habitat associations of mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) morphotypes and size classes. We hypothesised that morphotypes would have different spatial distributions and would be associated with different habitat features based on feeding behaviour and diet. Spatially continuous sampling was conducted over a broad extent (29 km) in the Calawah River, WA (USA). Whitefish were enumerated via snorkelling in three size classes: small (10–29 cm), medium (30–49 cm), and large (≥50 cm). We identified morphotypes based on head and snout morphology: a pinocchio form that had an elongated snout and a normal form with a blunted snout. Large size classes of both morphotypes were distributed downstream of small and medium size classes, and normal whitefish were distributed downstream of pinocchio whitefish. Ordination of whitefish assemblages with nonmetric multidimensional scaling revealed that normal whitefish size classes were associated with higher gradient and depth, whereas pinocchio whitefish size classes were positively associated with pool area, distance upstream, and depth. Reach-scale generalised additive models indicated that normal whitefish relative density was associated with larger substrate size in downstream reaches (R2 = 0.64), and pinocchio whitefish were associated with greater stream depth in the reaches farther upstream (R2 = 0.87). These results suggest broad-scale spatial segregation (1–10 km), particularly between larger and more phenotypically extreme individuals. These results provide the first perspective on spatial distributions and habitat relationships of polymorphic mountain whitefish.

  12. A facile synthesis of Tenanoparticles with binary size distribution by green chemistry

    He, Weidong; Krejci, Alex; Lin, Junhao; Osmulski, Max E.; Dickerson, James H.

    2011-04-01

    Our work reports a facile route to colloidal Tenanocrystals with binary uniform size distributions at room temperature. The binary-sized Tenanocrystals were well separated into two size regimes and assembled into films by electrophoretic deposition. The research provides a new platform for nanomaterials to be efficiently synthesized and manipulated.Our work reports a facile route to colloidal Tenanocrystals with binary uniform size distributions at room temperature. The binary-sized Tenanocrystals were well separated into two size regimes and assembled into films by electrophoretic deposition. The research provides a new platform for nanomaterials to be efficiently synthesized and manipulated. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthetic procedures, FTIR analysis, ED pattern, AFM image, and EPD current curve. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10025d

  13. Study on infiltrability of some arid region soils based on particle size distribution

    Mazaheri, Mahmood Reza; Mahmoodabadi, Majid

    2010-05-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) is one of the most important soil properties which affects on soil infiltrability. This study investigates the influence of PSD on infiltration rate (IR) at the field conditions. Infiltration experiments were conducted using double ring method with constant head of water at 15 different land uses. To investigate the effect of soil characteristics on IR, some physical and chemical properties of the soils were measured. The results showed that final IR, ranged between 0.8 - 34.6 cm/h with the CV of 100%. Particle size distribution had a significant effect on the IR in almost all of the land uses. Increasing clay and silt particles as the primary PSD, final IR declined, significantly. Aggregate size distribution (secondary PSD) had a remarkable role in controlling the soils infiltrability. Soils with higher stable aggregates, showed further IR. The results indicate that land management practices which affect on IR deeply, expose their role by means of aggregate size distribution. The PSD parameter, especially aggregates size distribution can be applied in estimating the infiltration process. The findings of this study reveal that among different soil properties, PSD is the most important agent which affects on the IR in the arid regions. Keywords: Infiltrability, Soil properties, Double ring, Particle size distribution.

  14. Quantitative ultrasound estimates from populations of scatterers with continuous size distributions: effects of the size estimator algorithm.

    Lavarello, Roberto; Oelze, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Quantitative ultrasonic techniques using backscatter coefficients (BSCs) may fail to produce physically meaningful estimates of effective scatterer diameter (ESD) when the analysis media contains scatterers of different sizes. In this work, three different estimator algorithms were used to produce estimates of ESD. The performance of the three estimators was compared over different frequency bands using simulations and experiments with physical phantoms. All estimators produced ESD estimates by comparing the estimated BSCs with a scattering model based on the backscattering cross section of a single spherical fluid scatterer. The first estimator consisted of minimizing the average square deviation of the logarithmically compressed ratio between the estimated BSCs and the scattering model. The second and third estimators consisted of minimizing the mean square error between the estimated BSCs and a linear transformation of the scattering model with and without considering an intercept, respectively. Simulations were conducted over several analysis bandwidths between 1 and 40 MHz from populations of scatterers with either a uniform size distribution or a distribution based on the inverse cubic of the size. Diameters of the distributions ranged between [25, 100], [25, 50], [50, 100], and [50, 75] ?m. Experimental results were obtained from two gelatin phantoms containing cross-linked dextran gel spheres ranging in diameter from 28 to 130 ?m and 70 to 130 ?m, respectively, and 5-, 7.5-, 10-, and 13-MHz focused transducers. Significant differences in the performances of the ESD estimator algorithms as a function of the analysis frequency were observed. Specifically, the third estimator exhibited potential to produce physically meaningful ESD estimates even for large ka values when using a single-size scattering model if sufficient analysis bandwidth was available. PMID:23007782

  15. Detection of the Concentration and Size Distribution of Indoor Inhalable Particle Based on Mathematical Morphology

    Hongli Liu; Xiong Zhou; Lei Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Adopting the microscopic observation imaging and digital image processing technologies, this paper researches a new measuring method of indoor inhalable particulate matter concentration and size distribution .It realizes denoising, binarization, filtering and edge detection to based on mathematical morphology, regional filled and calibration detection to particulate matter image, designs the parameters recognition algorithm for particulate matter size, fractal dimension ,shape factors and so ...

  16. Determination of size and shape distributions of metal and ceramic powders

    For testing the size and shape distributions of metal and ceramic uranium oxide powders the following method for analysing the grain size of powders were developed and implemented: microscopic analysis and sedimentation method. A gravimetry absorption device was constructed for determining the specific surfaces of powders

  17. Are range-size distributions consistent with species-level heritability?

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Gotelli, Nicholas; Rahbek, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    of three different models to the range-size distribution of the South American avifauna. Although there were differences among the models, a moderate-to-high degree of range-size heritability consistently leads to SRDs that were similar to empirical data. These results suggest that range...

  18. Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles of narrow size distribution on polysaccharide templates

    M Nidhin; R Indumathy; K J Sreeram; Balachandran Unni Nair

    2008-02-01

    We report here the preparation of nanoparticles of iron oxide in the presence of polysaccharide templates. Interaction between iron (II) sulfate and template has been carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the selective and controlled removal of the template to achieve narrow distribution of particle size. Particles of iron oxide obtained have been characterized for their stability in solvent media, size, size distribution and crystallinity and found that when the negative value of the zeta potential increases, particle size decreases. A narrow particle size distribution with 100 = 275 nm was obtained with chitosan and starch templates. SEM measurements further confirm the particle size measurement. Diffuse reflectance UV–vis spectra values show that the template is completely removed from the final iron oxide particles and powder XRD measurements show that the peaks of the diffractogram are in agreement with the theoretical data of hematite. The salient observations of our study shows that there occurs a direct correlation between zeta potential, polydispersity index, bandgap energy and particle size. The crystallite size of the particles was found to be 30–35 nm. A large negative zeta potential was found to be advantageous for achieving lower particle sizes, owing to the particles remaining discrete without agglomeration.

  19. A POSSIBLE DIVOT IN THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF THE KUIPER BELT'S SCATTERING OBJECTS

    Via joint analysis of a calibrated telescopic survey, which found scattering Kuiper Belt objects, and models of their expected orbital distribution, we explore the scattering-object (SO) size distribution. Although for D > 100 km the number of objects quickly rise as diameters decrease, we find a relative lack of smaller objects, ruling out a single power law at greater than 99% confidence. After studying traditional ''knees'' in the size distribution, we explore other formulations and find that, surprisingly, our analysis is consistent with a very sudden decrease (a divot) in the number distribution as diameters decrease below 100 km, which then rises again as a power law. Motivated by other dynamically hot populations and the Centaurs, we argue for a divot size distribution where the number of smaller objects rises again as expected via collisional equilibrium. Extrapolation yields enough kilometer-scale SOs to supply the nearby Jupiter-family comets. Our interpretation is that this divot feature is a preserved relic of the size distribution made by planetesimal formation, now ''frozen in'' to portions of the Kuiper Belt sharing a ''hot'' orbital inclination distribution, explaining several puzzles in Kuiper Belt science. Additionally, we show that to match today's SO inclination distribution, the supply source that was scattered outward must have already been vertically heated to the of order 10°.

  20. Residue strength, water absorption and pore size distributions of recycled aggregate concrete after exposure to elevated temperatures

    Kou, Shi-Cong; Poon, Chi-Sun; Etxeberria Larrañaga, Miren

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of high temperature exposure of recycled aggregate concretes in terms of residual strengths, capillary water absorption capacity and pore size distribution are discussed. Two mineral admixtures, fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace (GGBS) were used in the experiment to partially replace ordinary Portland cement for concrete production. The water to cementitious materials ratio was maintained at 0.50 for all the concrete mixes. The replacement levels of n...

  1. Measurements of Particle Size Distribution Based on Mie Scattering Theory and Markov Chain Inversion Algorithm

    Zi Ye

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring particle size distribution through calculating light scattering intensity is a typical inverse problem. This paper builds an inverse mathematical model based on Mie scattering, deduces the inversion formulas for particle size, and calculates the relative coefficients through programming with built-in functions in MATLAB. In order to improve the accuracy and noise immunity of particle size distribution measurement, the development of stochastic inversion algorithm: an inverse problem model based on Markov chain algorithm is proposed. Results of numerical simulation are added acceptable noise indicate that the algorithm of Markov chain has strong noise immunity and can meet the requirements of on-line measurement.

  2. Martensitic transformations in nanostructured nitinol: Finite element modeling of grain size and distribution effects

    Liu, Hong-Sheng; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2013-01-01

    A computational model of martensitic phase transformation in nanostructured nitinol is developed which takes into account the grain size effect. On the basis of the theoretical analysis of the thermodynamic transformation criterion and the energy barrier for phase transformation, it was...... transformation are totally suppressed. Graded and localized distributions of grain sizes of nitinol were compared with nitinol samples with homogeneous grain size distribution. In the materials with localized region of small grains, it was observed that the martensite rich regions form first on the border...

  3. Detection of the Concentration and Size Distribution of Indoor Inhalable Particle Based on Mathematical Morphology

    Hongli Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Adopting the microscopic observation imaging and digital image processing technologies, this paper researches a new measuring method of indoor inhalable particulate matter concentration and size distribution .It realizes denoising, binarization, filtering and edge detection to based on mathematical morphology, regional filled and calibration detection to particulate matter image, designs the parameters recognition algorithm for particulate matter size, fractal dimension ,shape factors and so on, then calculates the concentration and size distribution of particulate matter using data fusion method. The experimental results show that the method has advantages with intuitive, high precision, fast processing speed ,easily data statistics, clearly data analysis and stable measuring results.

  4. The origin of bimodal grain-size distribution for aeolian deposits

    Lin, Yongchong; Mu, Guijin; Xu, Lishuai; Zhao, Xue

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric dust deposition is a common phenomenon in arid and semi-arid regions. Bimodal grain size distribution (BGSD) (including the fine component and coarse component) of aeolian deposits has been widely reported. But the origin of this pattern is still debated. Here, we focused on the sedimentary process of modern dust deposition, and analyzed the grain size distribution of modern dust deposition, foliar dust, and aggregation of the aeolian dust collected in Cele Oasis, southern margin of Tarim Basin. The results show that BGSD also appear in a dust deposition. The content of fine components (environmental changes with the indicator of grain size.

  5. The temperature and size distribution of large water clusters from a non-equilibrium model

    A hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian approach is used to examine the properties of water clusters formed in neon-water vapor mixtures expanding through microscale conical nozzles. Experimental size distributions were reliably determined by the sodium doping technique in a molecular beam machine. The comparison of computed size distributions and experimental data shows satisfactory agreement, especially for (H2O)n clusters with n larger than 50. Thus validated simulations provide size selected cluster temperature profiles in and outside the nozzle. This information is used for an in-depth analysis of the crystallization and water cluster aggregation dynamics of recently reported supersonic jet expansion experiments

  6. The Influence of Wildfires on Aerosol Size Distributions in Rural Areas

    Alonso-Blanco, E.; Calvo, A. I.; R. Fraile; A Castro

    2012-01-01

    The number of particles and their size distributions were measured in a rural area, during the summer, using a PCASP-X. The aim was to study the influence of wildfires on particle size distributions. The comparative studies carried out reveal an average increase of around ten times in the number of particles in the fine mode, especially in sizes between 0.10 and 0.14??m, where the increase is of nearly 20 times. An analysis carried out at three different points in timebefore, during, and aft...

  7. The CONTIN algorithm and its application to determine the size distribution of microgel suspensions

    We review a powerful regularization method, known as CONTIN, for obtaining the size distribution of colloidal suspensions from dynamic light scattering data. We show that together with the so-called L-curve criterion for selecting the optimal regularization parameter, the method correctly describes the average size and size distribution of microgel suspensions independently characterized using small-angle neutron scattering. In contrast, we find that when using the default regularization process, where the regularizer is selected via the “probability to reject” method, the results are not as satisfactory

  8. A Stochastic Theory for Deep Bed Filtration Accounting for Dispersion and Size Distributions

    Shapiro, Alexander; Bedrikovetsky, P. G.

    2010-01-01

    procedure for averaging of the derived system of equations is developed for polydisperse suspensions with several distinctive particle sizes. A numerical method for solution of the flow equations is proposed. Sample calculations are applied to compare the roles of the particle size distribution and of the...... limit of the infinitely many small walk steps we derive a system of governing equations for the evolution of the particle and pore size distributions. We consider the case of concentrated suspensions, where plugging the pores by particles may change porosity and other parameters of the porous medium. A...

  9. Spatial distributions and productivity in salmonid populations

    Foldvik, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents analysis and fieldwork investigating how the effect spatial distributions and spatial relationships have on population growth in two anadromous salmonid species, Atlantic salmon and brown trout. The thesis looks at how the spatial distribution of spawning within a river can shape the distribution of juveniles within a river throughout their freshwater stage, and investigates how habitat characteristics, ranging in spatial scale from micro-habitat to catchment, affect popu...

  10. Finite-Size Effects on Return Interval Distributions for Weakest-Link-Scaling Systems

    Hristopulos, Dionissios T.; Petrakis, Manolis P.; Kaniadakis, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    The Weibull distribution is a commonly used model for the strength of brittle materials and earthquake return intervals. Deviations from Weibull scaling, however, have been observed in earthquake return intervals and in the fracture strength of quasi-brittle materials. We investigate weakest-link scaling in finite-size systems and deviations of empirical return interval distributions from the Weibull distribution function. We use the ansatz that the survival probability function of a system w...

  11. Dust Particle Size Distribution Inversion Based on the Multi Population Genetic Algorithm

    Jiandong Mao and Juan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol number size distribution is the main parameter for characterizing aerosol optical properties and physical properties, it has a major influence on radiation forcing. With regard to some disadvantages in the traditional methods, a method based on the multi population genetic algorithm (MPGA is proposed and employed to retrieve the aerosol size distribution of dust particles. The MPGA principles and design are presented in detail. The MPGA has better performance compared with conventional methods. In order to verify the feasibility of the inversion method, the measured aerosol optical thickness (AOT data of dust particles taken by a sun photometer are used and a series of comparisons between the simple genetic algorithm (SGA and MPGA are carried out. The results show that the MPGA presents better properties when compared with the SGA with smaller inversion errors, smaller population size and fewer generation numbers to retrieve the aerosol size distribution. The MPGA inversion method is analyzed using the background day, dust storm event and seasonal size distribution. The method proposed in this study has important applications and reference value for aerosol particle size distribution inversion.

  12. Estimation of riverbed grain-size distribution using image-processing techniques

    Chang, Fi-John; Chung, Chang-Han

    2012-05-01

    SummaryQuantification of the grain size distribution of fluvial gravels remains an important and challenging issue in the study of river behavior. It is desirable for sampling techniques to achieve accurate estimation of grain size distribution, while simultaneously reducing the time spent. Recent advances in image analysis techniques have facilitated automated grain identification and measurement within digital images. In this study, an image-processing method fusing feedback pulse couple neural network and multilevel thresholding, the I-FM method, is proposed for automatic extraction of grain-size distribution based on digital photographs taken from a river-bed. A decisive image-merging algorithm is also developed for improving the quality of image segmentation in grain-size measurements. The experiments were conducted in both lab and field, and the proposed method was compared with traditional image processing methods. The proposed I-FM produces much more satisfactory results in estimating the amount of gravel and the percentiles of grain-size distribution in comparison with other image processing methods and manual sieving methods. It demonstrates the I-FM method is an efficient method for precisely measuring the grain-size distribution of river-bed material.

  13. Preferred numbers and the distribution of trade sizes and trading volumes in the Chinese stock market

    Guo-Hua Mu; Wei Chen; J\\'anos Kert\\'esz; Wei-Xing Zhou

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of trade sizes and trading volumes are investigated based on the limit order book data of 22 liquid Chinese stocks listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange in the whole year 2003. We observe that the size distribution of trades for individual stocks exhibits jumps, which is caused by the number preference of traders when placing orders. We analyze the applicability of the "$q$-Gamma" function for fitting the distribution by the Cram\\'{e}r-von Mises criterion. The empirical PDFs ...

  14. Planar dust-acoustic waves in electron-positron-ion-dust plasmas with dust size distribution

    Nonlinear dust-acoustic solitary waves which are described with a Kortweg-de vries (KdV) equation by using the reductive perturbation method, are investigated in a planar unmagnetized dusty plasma consisting of electrons, positrons, ions and negatively-charged dust particles of different sizes and masses. The effects of the power-law distribution of dust and other plasma parameters on the dust-acoustic solitary waves are studied. Numerical results show that the dust size distribution has a significant influence on the propagation properties of dust-acoustic solitons. The amplitudes of solitary waves in the case of a power-law distribution is observed to be smaller, but the soliton velocity and width are observed to be larger, than those of mono-sized dust grains with an average dust size. Our results indicate that only compressed solitary waves exist in dusty plasma with different dust species. The relevance of the present investigation to interstellar clouds is discussed.

  15. Particle size distribution of iron nanomaterials in biological medium by SR-SAXS method

    A better understanding of biological effects of nanomaterials in organisms requests knowledge of the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials in biological systems. Affected by high concentration salts and proteins in biological medium, nanoparticles are much easy to agglomerate,hence the difficulties in characterizing size distribution of the nanomaterials in biological medium.In this work, synchrotron radiation small angle X-ray scattering(SR-SAXS) was used to determine size distributions of Fe, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 nanoparticles of various concentrations in PBS and DMEM culture medium. The results show that size distributions of the nanomaterials could perfectly analyzed by SR-SAXS. The SR-SAXS data were not affected by the particle content and types of the dispersion medium.It is concluded that SR-SAXS can be used for size measurement of nanomaterials in unstable dispersion systems. (authors)

  16. Dust Grain Size Distributions and Extinction in the Milky Way, LMC, and SMC

    Weingartner, J. C.; Draine, B. T.

    2000-12-01

    We construct size distributions for carbonaceous and silicate grain populations in different regions of the Milky Way, LMC, and SMC. The size distributions include sufficient very small carbonaceous grains (including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules) to account for the observed infrared and microwave emission from the diffuse interstellar medium. Our distributions reproduce the observed extinction of starlight, which varies depending upon the interstellar environment through which the light travels. As shown by Cardelli, Clayton & Mathis in 1989, these variations can be roughly parameterized by the ratio of visual extinction to reddening, RV. We adopt a fairly simple functional form for the size distribution, characterized by several parameters. We tabulate these parameters for various combinations of values for RV and b C, the C abundance in very small grains. We also find size distributions for the line of sight to HD 210121, and for sightlines in the LMC and SMC. For several size distributions, we evaluate the albedo and scattering asymmetry parameter, and present model extinction curves extending beyond the Lyman limit. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation.

  17. Particle size distribution of halogenated flame retardants and implications for atmospheric deposition and transport.

    Okonski, Krzysztof; Degrendele, Céline; Melymuk, Lisa; Landlová, Linda; Kukučka, Petr; Vojta, Šimon; Kohoutek, Jiří; Čupr, Pavel; Klánová, Jana

    2014-12-16

    This study investigates the distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and a group of novel flame retardants (NFRs) on atmospheric aerosols. Two high volume cascade impactors were used to collect particulate fractions of ambient air over a one year period at urban and rural sites. The majority of FRs were found on the finest aerosols (<0.95 μm). Concentrations of HBCD were higher than those of ΣPBDEs. Moreover, we noted seasonality and spatial differences in particle size distributions, yet a large portion of the observed differences were due to differences in particulate matter (PM) itself. When normalized by PM, the size distributions of the FRs exhibited much greater heterogeneity. Differences existed between the FR distributions by molecular weight, with the higher molecular weight FRs (e.g., BDE-209, Dechlorane Plus) distributed more uniformly across all particulate size fractions. The seasonal, spatial, and compound-specific differences are of crucial importance when estimating dry and wet deposition of FRs as smaller aerosols have longer atmospheric residence times. Estimated wet and dry deposition of four representative FRs (BDE-47, BDE-209, HBCD, and Dechlorane Plus) using size-segregated aerosol data resulted in lower deposition estimates than when bulk aerosol data were used. This has implications for estimates of long-range atmospheric transport and atmospheric residence times, as it suggests that without size-specific distributions, these parameters could be underestimated for FRs. PMID:25380095

  18. Seismic cycles, size of the largest events, and the avalanche size distribution in a model of seismicity

    Aragón, L E; Rosso, A

    2012-01-01

    We address several questions on the behavior of a numerical model recently introduced to study seismic phenomena, that includes relaxation in the plates as a key ingredient. We make an analysis of the scaling of the largest events with system size, and show that when parameters are appropriately interpreted, the typical size of the largest events scale as the system size, without the necessity to tune any parameter. Secondly, we show that the temporal activity in the model is inherently non-stationary, and obtain from here justification and support for the concept of a "seismic cycle" in the temporal evolution of seismic activity. Finally, we ask for the reasons that make the model display a realistic value of the decaying exponent $b$ in the Gutenberg-Richter law for the avalanche size distribution. We explain why relaxation induces a systematic increase of $b$ from its value $b\\simeq 0.4$ observed in the absence of relaxation. However, we have not been able to justify the actual robustness of the model in d...

  19. Measurements of activity size distributions of the short-lived radon daughters in the indoor and outdoor environment

    Activity size distributions of the short-lived radon decay products 218Po, 214Pb and 214Bi/214Po were measured in dwellings with a low pressure cascade impactor (type Berner) and a device using high volume screen diffusion batteries under various conditions. In low ventilated rooms without additional aerosol sources, the activity size distributions can be described by one log normal distribution (accumulation mode) with average activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMAD) of 188-234 nm (range 115-370 nm) and average geometric standard deviations σg of 2.0-2.5 (range 1.4-4.3). The mean diffusion equivalent diameter of the unattached activity of 218Po was determined to be 1.2 nm (range 0.5-2.0 nm). Additional aerosol sources (electric motor, candle light) sometimes yield a second maximum of the attached fraction in the diameter size range of 10-100 nm (nuclei mode) or the accumulation mode can be shifted to greater sizes (cigarette smoke: AMAD = 300 nm). Activity size distributions in the open air were only measured with the impactor. Most of the activities are also associated with the accumulation mode with an average AMAD of 369 nm (range 173-645 nm) and an average σg of 2.5 (range 1.6-4.4). Depending on outdoor aerosol sources and meteorological parameters, a small fraction of the nuclei mode in the diameter size range 10-100 nm and a small fraction in the size range of some microns (coarse mode) were sometimes found. (author)

  20. Size distributions of aerosols produced from substitute materials by the Laskin cold DOP aerosol generator

    Test aerosols of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DOP) produced by Laskin nozzle aerosol generators are widely used for in-place filter testing and respirator fit testing. Concern for the health effects of this material has led to a search for substitute materials for test aerosols. Aerosols were generated with a Laskin generator and diluted 6000-fold with clean air. Size distributions were measured for DOP, di(2-ethylhexyl)sebecate, polyethylene glycol, mineral oil, and corn oil aerosols with a PMS ASAS-X optical particle counter. Distributions were slightly bimodal with count median diameters from 0.22 to 0.30 ?m. Size distributions varied little with aerosol material, operating pressure, or liquid level. Mineral oil and corn oil gave the best agreement with the DOP size distribution

  1. Size distributions of air showers accompanied with high energy gamma ray bundles observed at Mt. Chacaltaya

    Matano, T.; Machida, M.; Tsuchima, I.; Kawasumi, N.; Honda, K.; Hashimoto, K.; Martinic, N.; Zapata, J.; Navia, C. E.; Aquirre, C.

    1985-01-01

    Size distributions of air showers accompanied with bundle of high energy gamma rays and/or large size bursts under emulsion chambers, to study the composition of primary cosmic rays and also characteristics of high energy nuclear interaction. Air showers initiated by particles with a large cross section of interaction may develop from narrow region of the atmosphere near the top. Starting levels of air showers by particles with smaller cross section fluctuate in wider region of the atmosphere. Air showers of extremely small size accompanied with bundle of gamma rays may be ones initiated by protons at lower level after penetrating deep atmosphere without interaction. It is determined that the relative size distribution according to the total energy of bundle of gamma rays and the total burst size observed under 15 cm lead absorber.

  2. Effects of Particle Size Distribution on the Burn Ability of Limestone

    Ismaila E. SULEIMAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of particle size reduction on the burn ability of Limestone was investigated using the limestone obtained from Obajana Cement Mines. Limestone samples were grinded and were classified into following particles size distribution: 90µm, 200µm, 250µm and 500µm graduated in different sieve sizes. The decomposition rates of these samples were monitored under the same temperature condition in a pre-heated furnace of 1000°C and at constant time interval of 0-35 minutes. From the results of the investigation, the material with particle size distribution of 90µm has the fastest reaction rate of 0.1369g/min and highest lime conversion of 52.0 weight percent; loss on ignition being 48 weight percent. This reaction rate increases as the particle size decreases from 500µm to 90µm.

  3. Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong

    2015-01-01

    This thesis, entitled “Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand”, presents many aspects of pig production in Thailand including the characteristics of pig farming system, distribution of pig population and pig farms, spatio-temporal distribution and risk of most important diseases in pig at present, and the suitability area for pig farming. Spatial distribution and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand were studied using time-series pig population data to des...

  4. 222Rn decay products as tracers of indoor and outdoor aerosol particle size

    Measurements of the air concentration of 210Pb indoors and outdoors were made at a single-family suburban home in northern New Jersey over a 1.5 year period. A sampler with 5 fine mesh screens and a backup Millipore filter was used to determine the indoor and outdoor ultrafine particle size distribution. A sample of the total airborne particulates was collected simultaneously. The long-lived 222Rn decay product 210Pb presents a unique and highly sensitive tracer to study atmospheric aerosol particles. The aerosol particle size sampler integrates ultrafine particulates deposited over 3-4 weeks. The measurement of 210Pb (210Po) on the screens and filter was performed using very low background alpha scintillation counters (3-5 counts/day), and long count times (5000 min). Deconvolution of the alpha counting data was performed using an extreme value estimation program (EVE) that provides an accurate evaluation of the particle size distribution. The particle size data show that a significant fraction (20-60%) of the atmospheric aerosol particles in this suburban location are in the ultrafine region. The indoor to outdoor 210Pb ratio revealed that 65% of the outdoor aerosol particles in this suburban location comprise the indoor particle concentration

  5. Distribution Systems Loss Reduction by Optimal Allocation and Sizing of Distributed Generation via Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Shivaleela Kori

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Distributed generation (DG refers to generation applied at the distribution level. It offers a valuable alternative to traditional sources of electric power for industrial, residential and commercial applications, particularly where transmission and distribution costs are high. Great attention should be rendered to the problem of allocation and sizing of DG. The installation of DG units at non optimal places can result in an increase in system losses, implying in an increase in costs and therefore, having an effect opposite to the desired. An Algorithm proposed in this paper is Artificial Bee Colony (ABC. This method helps in optimal allocation and sizing of DGs in order to minimize the total system real power loss.

  6. Study of Particle Size Distribution in Activated Sludge Processes: Impacts of Solids Retention Time and Process Configurations

    Li, Zhongtian

    2016-01-01

    Particle size distribution of the particulates is an essential characteristic of the wastewater quality. Particle size distribution has been used to predict COD, suspended solids, color, and turbidity. The understanding of particle size distribution contributed to the better understanding of soluble and particulate COD fractions and benefited the modeling of activated sludge process. Particle size distribution of wastewater particles was used to improve the understanding of both primary tre...

  7. Size distribution of trace organic species emitted from biomass combustion and meat charbroiling

    Kleeman, Michael J.; Robert, Michael A.; Riddle, Sarah G.; Fine, Philip M.; Hays, Michael D.; Schauer, James J.; Hannigan, Michael P.

    Size-resolved particulate matter emissions from pine, California oak, east coast oak, eucalyptus, rice straw, cigarette smoke, and meat cooking were analyzed for trace organic species using solvent-extraction followed by GC-MS analysis. Six particle size fractions were studied between 0.056, 0.1, 0.18, 0.32, 0.56, 1.0, and 1.8 μm particle diameter. The smallest particle size fraction analyzed was in the ultrafine (Dp0.9) with the size distribution of particle-phase organic carbon (OC) and/or elemental carbon (EC). The only organic compounds besides PAHs detected in the ultrafine size fraction of rice straw and cigarette smoke were benz[ de]anthracen-7-one (0.19 mg kg -1 rice straw burned) and 4-methylphenylacetone (2.64 mg cigarette -1), respectively. Caffeine was measured in cigarette smoke size fractions >0.1 μm with a total PM 1.8 emissions rate of 1 (mg cigarette -1). The most abundant organic species measured in meat cooking smoke was cholesterol with a size distribution that was highly correlated with both OC and EC. The concentration of each compound normalized by the concentration of total OC was relatively uniform for all particle sizes. Cholesterol and levoglucosan should prove to be useful tracers for meat cooking and wood smoke emissions in the ultrafine size range.

  8. Multi-product allocation and distribution

    D.C. Currin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes techniques used by a beer company to optimise the allocation and distribution of their beer. These techniques are also applicable to other manufacturing and distribution environments. Of particular interest is a two-phase model that allows a "look-ahead" to future sales, the decomposition of the problem into a large number of sub-problems (to reduce solution time, and the equitable distribution of material when stocks are over- or undersupplied. The optimisation is part of an interactive planning system, and the relationship between the optimisation module and the rest of the system is briefly described.

  9. Prediction of size distribution of Ag nanoparticles synthesized via gamma-ray radiolysis

    The spherical shape Ag nanoparticles synthesized via gamma-ray radiolysis were observed with the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Diameters of Ag nanoparticles were measured from the TEM photographs. Statistical analysis showed that the particle diameter complied with a linear-converted Poisson distribution. The distribution parameter, which was the average of diameters, was related to the ultraviolet–visible spectrum peak position of the nanosilver collosol. An empirical equation was established to predicting size distribution of Ag nanoparticles with the peak position. Nanosilver of different sizes could be synthesized by adjusting the intensity of γ-irradiation, the kind and the addition amount of the stabilizing agent. Because particle size affects the physiochemical properties of nanosilver material, results of this paper would be of practical significance for the application of nanosilver. - Highlights: • Ag nanoparticles were produced by reduction using 60Co gamma radiolysis. • Observed Ag nanoparticles by using the transmission electron microscope. • Deduced a quasi-Poisson size distribution for the Ag nanoparticles. • Empirical equation for measuring the size of Ag nanoparticles with UV–vis spectrum. • Size-controlled synthesis of spherical Ag nanoparticles

  10. Size distribution of particles in Saturn's rings from aggregation and fragmentation.

    Brilliantov, Nikolai; Krapivsky, P L; Bodrova, Anna; Spahn, Frank; Hayakawa, Hisao; Stadnichuk, Vladimir; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2015-08-01

    Saturn's rings consist of a huge number of water ice particles, with a tiny addition of rocky material. They form a flat disk, as the result of an interplay of angular momentum conservation and the steady loss of energy in dissipative interparticle collisions. For particles in the size range from a few centimeters to a few meters, a power-law distribution of radii, ~r(-q) with q ≈ 3, has been inferred; for larger sizes, the distribution has a steep cutoff. It has been suggested that this size distribution may arise from a balance between aggregation and fragmentation of ring particles, yet neither the power-law dependence nor the upper size cutoff have been established on theoretical grounds. Here we propose a model for the particle size distribution that quantitatively explains the observations. In accordance with data, our model predicts the exponent q to be constrained to the interval 2.75 ≤ q ≤ 3.5. Also an exponential cutoff for larger particle sizes establishes naturally with the cutoff radius being set by the relative frequency of aggregating and disruptive collisions. This cutoff is much smaller than the typical scale of microstructures seen in Saturn's rings. PMID:26183228

  11. Fast Airborne Size Distribution Measurements of an Aerosol Processes and Aging

    Kapustin, V.; Clarke, A. D.; Zhou, J.; Brekhovskikh, V.; McNaughton, C. S.; Howell, S.

    2009-12-01

    During MILAGRO/INTEX experiment the Hawaii Group for Environmental Aerosol Research (HIGEAR) deployed a wide range of aerosol instrumentation aboard NSF C-130 and NASA DC-8. These were designed to provide rapid information on aerosol composition, state of mixing (internal or external), spectral optical properties (scattering and absorption), the humidity dependence of light scattering - f(RH), and the role of condensed species in changing the absorption properties of black carbon (BC) and inferred properties of organic carbon (OC). We also flew the Fast Mobility Particle Spectrometer (FMPS, TSI Inc.) to measure aerosol size distributions in a range 5.6 - 560 nm. For all our flights around Mexico City, an aerosol number concentration usually was well above the nominal FMPS sensitivity (from ~100 particles/cc @ Dp = 5.6 nm to 1 part/cc @ 560nm), providing us with reliable size distributions even at 1 sec resolution. FMPS measurements revealed small scale structure of an aerosol and allowed us to examine size distributions varying over space and time associated with mixing processes previously unresolved. These 1-Hz measurements during aircraft profiles captured variations in size distributions within shallow layers. Other dynamic processes observed included orography induced aerosol layers and evolution of the nanoparticles formed by nucleation. We put FMPS high resolution size distribution data in a context of aerosol evolution and aging, using a range of established (for MIRAGE/INTEX) chemical, aerosol and transport aging parameters.

  12. Two-phase dynamics of volcanic eruptions: Particle size distribution and the conditions for choking

    Yarushina, Viktoriya M.; Bercovici, David; Michaut, Chloé

    2015-03-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions are studied using a two-phase model of polydisperse suspensions of solid particles in gas. Eruption velocities depend on choking conditions in the volcanic conduit, which depend on acoustic wave propagation that is, in turn, influenced by the particle size distribution in the two-phase mixture. The acoustic wave spectrum is divided into three regions of superfast short waves moving at the pure gas sound speed, purely attenuated domain at intermediate wavelengths, and slower long waves for a dusty pseudogas. The addition of solid phases with differing particle sizes qualitatively preserves the features of two-phase acoustic wave dispersion, although it narrows the regions of short-fast and intermediate-blocked waves. Choking conditions, however, strongly depend on the number and size distribution of solid phases. Changes in particle sizes lead to variations in the choking conditions, which determine the eruption velocities and the resulting height of the erupting column. Smaller particles always exit the choking point faster than big particles, as expected. Even though particle-particle interaction is neglected, the particle distributions influence each other by momentum exchange through the gas. Therefore, the structure of the dispersion relation as well as the eruption or choking velocities and subsequent column height and particle deposition bear information on how eruption dynamics are controlled by size distribution and relative volume fractions of small and big particles. We suggest that unimodal distributions, with one dominant small particle size, favor development of vertical plinian eruptions, while bimodal distributions, with a comparable mean size, lead to pyroclastic lateral flows.

  13. Multi-Scale Particle Size Distributions of Mars, Moon and Itokawa based on a time-maturation dependent fragmentation model

    Charalambous, C. A.; Pike, W. T.

    2013-12-01

    We present the development of a soil evolution framework and multiscale modelling of the surface of Mars, Moon and Itokawa thus providing an atlas of extra-terrestrial Particle Size Distributions (PSD). These PSDs are profoundly based on a tailoring method which interconnects several datasets from different sites captured by the various missions. The final integrated product is then fully justified through a soil evolution analysis model mathematically constructed via fundamental physical principles (Charalambous, 2013). The construction of the PSD takes into account the macroscale fresh primary impacts and their products, the mesoscale distributions obtained by the in-situ data of surface missions (Golombek et al., 1997, 2012) and finally the microscopic scale distributions provided by Curiosity and Phoenix Lander (Pike, 2011). The distribution naturally extends at the magnitudinal scales at which current data does not exist due to the lack of scientific instruments capturing the populations at these data absent scales. The extension is based on the model distribution (Charalambous, 2013) which takes as parameters known values of material specific probabilities of fragmentation and grinding limits. Additionally, the establishment of a closed-form statistical distribution provides a quantitative description of the soil's structure. Consequently, reverse engineering of the model distribution allows the synthesis of soil that faithfully represents the particle population at the studied sites (Charalambous, 2011). Such representation essentially delivers a virtual soil environment to work with for numerous applications. A specific application demonstrated here will be the information that can directly be extracted for the successful drilling probability as a function of distance in an effort to aid the HP3 instrument of the 2016 Insight Mission to Mars. Pike, W. T., et al. "Quantification of the dry history of the Martian soil inferred from in situ microscopy." Geophysical Research Letters 38.24 (2011). C. A. Charalambous and W. T. Pike (2013). 'Evolution of Particle Size Distributions in Fragmentation Over Time' Abstract Submitted to the AGU 46th Fall Meeting. Charalambous, C., Pike, W. T., Goetz, W., Hecht, M. H., & Staufer, U. (2011, December). 'A Digital Martian Soil based on In-Situ Data.' In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts (Vol. 1, p. 1669). Golombek, M., & Rapp, D. (1997). 'Size-frequency distributions of rocks on Mars and Earth analog sites: Implications for future landed missions.' Journal of Geophysical Research, 102(E2), 4117-4129. Golombek, M., Huertas, A., Kipp, D., & Calef, F. (2012). 'Detection and characterization of rocks and rock size-frequency distributions at the final four Mars Science Laboratory landing sites.' Mars, 7, 1-22.

  14. Production and distribution of enriched stable isotopes

    Approximately 225 nongaseous stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements are isotopically enriched using the electromagnetic process at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Enriched materials are distributed throughout the world for a wide range of uses, including medical research and health care programs. The basis of the separation process is described, as well as state-of-the-art techniques to achieve special isotopic, chemical, and physical requirements. A general review of the stable isotope enrichment and distribution program is presented

  15. The Effects of Grain Size and Temperature Distributions on the Formation of Interstellar Ice Mantles

    Pauly, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    Computational models of interstellar gas-grain chemistry have historically adopted a single dust-grain size of 0.1 micron, assumed to be representative of the size distribution present in the interstellar medium. Here, we investigate the effects of a broad grain-size distribution on the chemistry on dust-grain surfaces and the subsequent build-up of molecular ices on the grains, using a three-phase gas-grain chemical model of a quiescent dark cloud. We include an explicit treatment of the grain temperatures, governed both by the visual extinction of the cloud and the size of each individual grain-size population. We find that the temperature difference plays a significant role in determining the total bulk ice composition across the grain-size distribution, while the effects of geometrical differences between size populations appear marginal. We also consider collapse from a diffuse to a dark cloud, allowing dust temperatures to fall. Under the initial diffuse conditions, small grains are too warm to promote ...

  16. Changes in concentration and size distribution of aerosols during fog over the south Indian Ocean

    Vimlesh Pant; C G Deshpande; A K Kamra

    2010-08-01

    Measurements of the concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles in the size-ranges of 0.520 m and 16700 nm diameters were made during six fog episodes over the south Indian Ocean. Observations show that concentrations of particles of all sizes start decreasing 12 hours before the occurrence of fog. This decrease is more prominent for coarse particles of < 1 m diameter and continues until 1020 minutes before the onset of fog when particle concentrations in all size ranges rapidly increase by one/two orders of magnitude in ?20 minutes. Thereafter, concentrations of particles of all sizes gradually decrease until the dissipation of fog. After the fog dissipation, concentrations of coarse mode particles rapidly increase and restore to their pre-fog levels but concentrations of the Aitken mode particles decrease slowly and reach their pre-fog levels only after 12 hours. The net effect of fog is to change the bimodal size distributions of aerosols with a coarse mode at 1.0 m and an accumulation mode at 4060 nm to a power law size distribution. It is proposed that the preferential growth and sedimentation of the coarse mode hygroscopic particles in the initial phase cause a large decrease in the aerosol surface area. As a result, the low vapour pressure gases which were initially being used for the growth of coarse mode particles, now accelerate the growth rates of the accumulation and Aitken mode particles.

  17. The Effects of Grain Size and Temperature Distributions on the Formation of Interstellar Ice Mantles

    Pauly, Tyler; Garrod, Robin T.

    2016-02-01

    Computational models of interstellar gas-grain chemistry have historically adopted a single dust-grain size of 0.1 micron, assumed to be representative of the size distribution present in the interstellar medium. Here, we investigate the effects of a broad grain-size distribution on the chemistry of dust-grain surfaces and the subsequent build-up of molecular ices on the grains, using a three-phase gas-grain chemical model of a quiescent dark cloud. We include an explicit treatment of the grain temperatures, governed both by the visual extinction of the cloud and the size of each individual grain-size population. We find that the temperature difference plays a significant role in determining the total bulk ice composition across the grain-size distribution, while the effects of geometrical differences between size populations appear marginal. We also consider collapse from a diffuse to a dark cloud, allowing dust temperatures to fall. Under the initial diffuse conditions, small grains are too warm to promote grain-mantle build-up, with most ices forming on the mid-sized grains. As collapse proceeds, the more abundant, smallest grains cool and become the dominant ice carriers; the large population of small grains means that this ice is distributed across many grains, with perhaps no more than 40 monolayers of ice each (versus several hundred assuming a single grain size). This effect may be important for the subsequent processing and desorption of the ice during the hot-core phase of star formation, exposing a significant proportion of the ice to the gas phase, increasing the importance of ice-surface chemistry and surface-gas interactions.

  18. Advanced analysis of polymer emulsions: Particle size and particle size distribution by field-flow fractionation and dynamic light scattering.

    Makan, Ashwell C; Spallek, Markus J; du Toit, Madeleine; Klein, Thorsten; Pasch, Harald

    2016-04-15

    Field flow fractionation (FFF) is an advanced fractionation technique for the analyses of very sensitive particles. In this study, different FFF techniques were used for the fractionation and analysis of polymer emulsions/latexes. As model systems, a pure acrylic emulsion and emulsions containing titanium dioxide were prepared and analyzed. An acrylic emulsion polymerization was conducted, continuously sampled from the reactor and subsequently analyzed to determine the particle size, radius of gyration in specific, of the latex particles throughout the polymerization reaction. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF), coupled to a multidetector system, multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS), ultraviolet (UV) and refractive index (RI), respectively, were used to investigate the evolution of particle sizes and particle size distributions (PSDs) as the polymerization progressed. The obtained particle sizes were compared against batch-mode dynamic light scattering (DLS). Results indicated differences between AF4 and DLS results due to DLS taking hydration layers into account, whereas both AF4 and SdFFF were coupled to MALLS detection, hence not taking the hydration layer into account for size determination. SdFFF has additional separation capabilities with a much higher resolution compared to AF4. The calculated radii values were 5nm larger for SdFFF measurements for each analyzed sample against the corresponding AF4 values. Additionally a low particle size shoulder was observed for SdFFF indicating bimodality in the reactor very early during the polymerization reaction. Furthermore, different emulsions were mixed with inorganic species used as additives in cosmetics and coatings such as TiO2. These complex mixtures of species were analyzed to investigate the retention and particle interaction behavior under different AF4 experimental conditions, such as the mobile phase. The AF4 system was coupled online to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for elemental speciation and identification of the inorganic additive. SdFFF had a larger separation power to distinguish different particle size populations whereas AF4 had the capability of separating the organic particles and inorganic TiO2 particles, with high resolution. PMID:26987415

  19. Comparison of crystal orientation mapping-based and image-based measurement of grain size and grain size distribution in a thin aluminum film

    Crystal orientation maps of a nanocrystalline Al film were obtained using precession electron diffraction in a transmission electron microscope. The orientation maps were then subjected to a series of well-defined clean-up procedures for removal of badly indexed points and pseudosymmetry boundaries. The mean grain size and grain size distribution were obtained from the reconstructed boundary network. The grain size and grain size distribution were also measured by the conventional transmission electron microscopy bright-field-imaging-based hand-tracing methodology, and were compared quantitatively with the orientation mapping results. It was found that the mean grain size from the two methodologies agree within experimental error. On the other hand, the orientation mapping methodology produced a somewhat different grain size distribution compared with the distribution obtained by the hand-tracing methodology. The reasons for the differences in the distributions are discussed

  20. Nano size Aerosols of Radon Decay Products in Various Environments

    The radioactive noble gas radon (222Rn, alpha decay, t1/2 = 3.82 days) is always accompanied by its short-lived decay products (RnDP): 218Po (alpha decay, t1/2 = 3.10 min), 214Pb (beta/gamma decay, t1/2 = 26.8 min), 214Bi (beta/gamma decay, t1/2 = 19.9 min), and 214Po (alpha decay, t1/2 = 164 μs). In indoor and outdoor air, they appear as unattached RnDP in the form of clusters in the size range 0.5-3 nm and as attached RnDP between 200 and 800 nm. Because of plate-out of aerosols on the walls and floor of a room, as well as air movement and entry of fresh air, radioactive equilibrium between RnDP and Rn in indoor air is only partly achieved and is expressed as a fraction between 0 and 1, called the equilibrium factor, F. Birchall and James elaborated a dosimetric approach to calculate the dose conversion factor, DCFD, based on fun. In this paper, the results of our studies on fun in 29 rooms of kindergartens and 26 rooms of elementary and high schools, at the lowest point and the railway station in the Postojna Cave, and in 4 rooms in wineries in Slovenia are reported, and DCFD values based on the Porstendorfer formulae are discussed and compared with the DCFE value recommended by ICRP-65

  1. Size-frequency distribution of boulders ?7 m on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Pajola, Maurizio; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Gttler, Carsten; Lee, Jui-Chi; Bertini, Ivano; Massironi, Matteo; Simioni, Emanuele; Marzari, Francesco; Giacomini, Lorenza; Lucchetti, Alice; Barbieri, Cesare; Cremonese, Gabriele; Naletto, Giampiero; Pommerol, Antoine; El-Maarry, Mohamed R.; Besse, Sbastien; Kppers, Michael; La Forgia, Fiorangela; Lazzarin, Monica; Thomas, Nicholas; Auger, Anne-Thrse; Sierks, Holger; Lamy, Philippe; Rodrigo, Rafael; Koschny, Detlef; Rickman, Hans; Keller, Horst U.; Agarwal, Jessica; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Barucci, Maria A.; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Da Deppo, Vania; Davidsson, Bjrn; De Cecco, Mariolino; Debei, Stefano; Ferri, Francesca; Fornasier, Sonia; Fulle, Marco; Groussin, Olivier; Gutierrez, Pedro J.; Hviid, Stubbe F.; Ip, Wing-Huen; Jorda, Laurent; Knollenberg, Jrg; Kramm, J.-Rainer; Krt, Ekkehard; Lara, Luisa M.; Lin, Zhong-Yi; Lopez Moreno, Jose J.; Magrin, Sara; Marchi, Simone; Michalik, Harald; Moissl, Richard; Mottola, Stefano; Oklay, Nilda; Preusker, Frank; Scholten, Frank; Tubiana, Cecilia

    2015-11-01

    Aims: We derive for the first time the size-frequency distribution of boulders on a comet, 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P), computed from the images taken by the Rosetta/OSIRIS imaging system. We highlight the possible physical processes that lead to these boulder size distributions. Methods: We used images acquired by the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera, NAC, on 5 and 6 August 2014. The scale of these images (2.44-2.03 m/px) is such that boulders ?7 m can be identified and manually extracted from the datasets with the software ArcGIS. We derived both global and localized size-frequency distributions. The three-pixel sampling detection, coupled with the favorable shadowing of the surface (observation phase angle ranging from 48 to 53), enables unequivocally detecting boulders scattered all over the illuminated side of 67P. Results: We identify 3546 boulders larger than 7 m on the imaged surface (36.4 km2), with a global number density of nearly 100/km2 and a cumulative size-frequency distribution represented by a power-law with index of -3.6 +0.2/-0.3. The two lobes of 67P appear to have slightly different distributions, with an index of -3.5 +0.2/-0.3 for the main lobe (body) and -4.0 +0.3/-0.2 for the small lobe (head). The steeper distribution of the small lobe might be due to a more pervasive fracturing. The difference of the distribution for the connecting region (neck) is much more significant, with an index value of -2.2 +0.2/-0.2. We propose that the boulder field located in the neck area is the result of blocks falling from the contiguous Hathor cliff. The lower slope of the size-frequency distribution we see today in the neck area might be due to the concurrent processes acting on the smallest boulders, such as i) disintegration or fragmentation and vanishing through sublimation; ii) uplifting by gas drag and consequent redistribution; and iii) burial beneath a debris blanket. We also derived the cumulative size-frequency distribution per km2 of localized areas on 67P. By comparing the cumulative size-frequency distributions of similar geomorphological settings, we derived similar power-law index values. This suggests that despite the selected locations on different and often opposite sides of the comet, similar sublimation or activity processes, pit formation or collapses, as well as thermal stresses or fracturing events occurred on multiple areas of the comet, shaping its surface into the appearance we see today.

  2. SOME IMPORTANT STATISTICAL PROPERTIES, INFORMATION MEASURES AND ESTIMATIONS OF SIZE BIASED GENERALIZED GAMMA DISTRIBUTION

    J. A. Reshi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new class of Size-biased Generalized Gamma (SBGG distribution is defined. A Size-biased Generalized Gamma (SBGG distribution, a particular case of weighted Generalized Gamma distribution, taking the weights as the variate values has been defined. The important statistical properties including hazard functions, reverse hazard functions, mode, moment generating function, characteristic function, Shannons entropy, generalized entropy and Fishers information matrix of the new model have been derived and studied. Here, we also study SBGG entropy estimation, Akaike and Bayesian information criterion. A likelihood ratio test for size-biasedness is conducted. The estimation of parameters is obtained by employing the classical methods of estimation especially method of moments and maximum likelihood estimator.

  3. Size Distribution of Inorganic Species and Their Inhaled Dose in a Detergent Industrial Workplace

    Aerosol particles in the workplace of a detergent industry were sampled during July 2005 by a Berner low-pressure impactor. The samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry and ion chromatography in order to determine the size distribution of metallic elements and water-soluble inorganic ions. The size distributions of some characteristic metallic elements (Cu, Fe, Al) were unimodal with their maximum found in coarse particles. Among the water-soluble aerosol components SO4+, NO3-, Cl-, NH4+ and Ca++ were the major contributors to total particle mass. The lung deposition resulting from the partially hygroscopic aerosol is estimated. The calculated lung deposition reveals the impact of separate chemical aerosol compounds on the levels of the inhaled dose. The differences observed between the total and regional deposition of the different compounds appear mainly due to their different size distributions

  4. Progress on the Size Frequency Distribution of Small Main-belt Asteroids

    Burt, Brian; Trilling, D. E.; Hines, D. C.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Rebull, L. M.; Fuentes, C. I.; Hulsebus, A.

    2012-10-01

    The asteroid size distribution informs us about the formation and composition of the Solar System. We build on our previous work in which we harvest serendipitously obtained Spitzer data of the Taurus region and measure the brightness and size distributions of Main-belt asteroids. This is accomplished with the highly sensitive MIPS 24 micron channel. We expect to catalog 104 asteroids, giving us a statistically significant data set. Results from this investigation will allow us to characterize the total population of small, Main-belt asteroids. Here we will present new results on the completeness of our study and the presence of size distribution variations with inclination and radial distance in the belt. We acknowledge and thank funding from PMDAP through NASA.

  5. Increasing Returns to Scale, Dynamics of Industrial Structure and Size Distribution of Firms

    Fan, Y; Di, Z; Fan, Ying; Li, Menghui; Di, Zengru

    2004-01-01

    A model is presented of the market dynamics to emphasis the effects of increasing returns to scale, including the description of the born and death of the adaptive producers. The evolution of market structure and its behavior with the technological shocks are discussed. Its dynamics is in good agreement with some empirical stylized facts of industrial evolution. Together with the diversities of demand and adaptive growth strategies of firms, the generalized model has reproduced the power-law distribution of firm size. Three factors mainly determine the competitive dynamics and the skewed size distributions of firms: 1. Self-reinforcing mechanism; 2. Adaptive firm grows strategies; 3. Demand diversities or widespread heterogeneity in the technological capabilities of different firms. Key words: Econophysics, Increasing returns, Industry dynamics, Size distribution of firms

  6. Numerical Model to Predict Wax Crystal Size Distribution in Solvent Dewaxing Unit

    Nassir D. Mokhlif

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model was implemented to predict the wax crystal size distribution of distillate lube oil SN500. The model solved the coupled equations for the heat transfer and moments of the population balance numerically. The predicted temperatures and wax crystal size distributions were validated with actual unit database and experimental measurements. The kinetics of the wax crystallization considered only the nucleation and crystal growth. N-alkanes from n-C22 to n-C36 were tested to select compound for representation of the wax fraction. The nucleation process order constant was fitted from wax recovery experimental measurements. The developed numerical model was proved to be capable to predict wax crystal size distribution in real solvent dewaxing plant. The model results were found to be in good agreement with the process data

  7. Prediction of size distribution of Ag nanoparticles synthesized via gamma-ray radiolysis

    Liang, Jia-liang; Shen, Sheng-wen; Ye, Sheng-ying; Ye, Lü-meng

    2015-09-01

    The spherical shape Ag nanoparticles synthesized via gamma-ray radiolysis were observed with the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Diameters of Ag nanoparticles were measured from the TEM photographs. Statistical analysis showed that the particle diameter complied with a linear-converted Poisson distribution. The distribution parameter, which was the average of diameters, was related to the ultraviolet-visible spectrum peak position of the nanosilver collosol. An empirical equation was established to predicting size distribution of Ag nanoparticles with the peak position. Nanosilver of different sizes could be synthesized by adjusting the intensity of γ-irradiation, the kind and the addition amount of the stabilizing agent. Because particle size affects the physiochemical properties of nanosilver material, results of this paper would be of practical significance for the application of nanosilver.

  8. Accelerating Growth and Size-dependent Distribution of Collective Human Activities Online

    Wu, Lingfei

    2011-01-01

    Research on human activities online usually assumes the linear relationship between active population $P$ and total activity $T$, that is, $T\\sim P^{\\gamma}(\\gamma=1)$. However, in our research, we find that the power law relationship $T\\sim P^{\\gamma}(\\gamma>1)$, also called accelerating growth, turns out to be ubiquitous in online activities such as micro-blogging, voting and tagging. Moreover, in the online activities under study, a unique type of distribution that changes with system size emerges. We name it size-dependent distribution and find it may give rise to accelerating growth. Interestingly, the power law exponent of accelerating growth $\\gamma$ is determined by the size-dependent exponent but not the Zipf or power law exponent of distributions. This is contradict to our intuition and previous studies.

  9. Size distributions and aerodynamic equivalence of metal chondrules and silicate chondrules in Acfer 059

    Skinner, William R.; Leenhouts, James M.

    1993-01-01

    The CR2 chondrite Acfer 059 is unusual in that the original droplet shapes of metal chondrules are well preserved. We determined separate size distributions for metal chondrules and silicate chondrules; the two types are well sorted and have similar size distributions about their respective mean diameters of 0.74 mm and 1.44 mm. These mean values are aerodynamically equivalent for the contrasting densities, as shown by calculated terminal settling velocities in a model solar nebula. Aerodynamic equivalence and similarity of size distributions suggest that metal and silicate fractions experienced the same sorting process before they were accreted onto the parent body. These characteristics, together with depletion of iron in Acfer 059 and essentially all other chondrites relative to primitive CI compositions, strongly suggest that sorting in the solar nebula involved a radial aerodynamic component and that sorting and siderophile depletion in chondrites are closely related.

  10. Effect of rotational disruption on the size-frequency distribution of the Main Belt asteroid population

    Jacobson, Seth A; Rossi, Alessandro; Scheeres, Daniel J; Davis, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    The size distribution of small asteroids in the Main Belt is assumed to be determined by an equilibrium between the creation of new bodies out of the impact debris of larger asteroids and the destruction of small asteroids by collisions with smaller projectiles. However, for a diameter less than 6 km we find that YORP-induced rotational disruption significantly contributes to the erosion even exceeding the effects of collisional fragmentation. Including this additional grinding mechanism in a collision evolution model for the asteroid belt, we generate size-frequency distributions from either an accretional (Weidenschilling, 2011) or an "Asteroids were born big" (Morbidelli, 2009) initial size-frequency distribution that are consistent with observations reported in Gladman et al. (2009). Rotational disruption is a new mechanism that must be included in all future collisional evolution models of asteroids.

  11. Sol-gel synthesis of forsterite nanopowders with narrow particle size distribution

    Forsterite (FS) nanopowders (∼27 nm) were synthesized using a sol-gel route with magnesium nitrate hexahydrate and tetra ethyl ortho-silicate as magnesium and silicon precursors, respectively. Nitric acid was used as a catalyst. After aging, the FS gel was calcined at 800 oC for 30 min. The calcined powders were characterized for phase composition using X-ray diffractrometry and fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. The particle size and morphology was studied using transmission electron microscopy. The particle size distribution analysis of FS powders showed skewed distribution plot with particle size ranging from 5-90 nm. This study showed that high phase purity and narrowly distributed FS nanoparticles could be obtained using this simple sol-gel technique.

  12. EVOLUTION OF SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF ICY GRAINS BY SUBLIMATION AND CONDENSATION

    In the outer part of a protoplanetary disk, dust grains consist of silicate core covered by an ice mantle. A temporal heating event in the disk results in sublimation of the ice mantle. After the end of the heating event, as the temperature decreases, H2O molecules recondense on the surface of the dust grain. Ultimately, the dust grain is covered by an ice mantle. Because the equilibrium vapor pressure on the grain surface decreases with the grain size, a large grain grows faster than a small grain. As a result, the size of an icy dust grain changes as a result of the heating event. The change in size also affects the mechanical properties of the dust aggregates formed by the icy grains. In this paper, we investigated the evolution of the size distribution of icy dust grains during sublimation and condensation. We found that the size evolution of icy grains can be divided into two stages. In the first stage, the icy grains grow through condensation of H2O molecules. In the second stage, the size of grains changes further as H2O molecules are transferred between icy grains while the surrounding gas condenses. The size distribution of the icy dust grains becomes bimodal, with a small number of relatively large grains and many small grains without an icy mantle. Possible effects of the size change on the evolution of icy dust aggregates are discussed.

  13. Determination of size distribution of small DNA fragments by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Size distribution determination of DNA fragments can be normally determined by the agarose gel electrophoresis, including the normal DNA banding pattern analysis. However this method is only good for large DNA, such as the DNA of the size of kilo base pairs to mega base pairs range. DNA of size less than kilo base pairs is difficult to be quantified by the agarose gel method. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis however can be used to measure the quantity of DNA fragments of size less than kilo base pairs in length, down to less than ten base pairs. This method is good for determining the quantity of the smaller size DNA, single stranded polymers or even some proteins, if the known standards are available. In this report detail description of the method of preparing the polyacrylamide gel, and the experimental set up is discussed. Possible uses of this method, and the comparison with the standard sizes of DNA is also shown. This method is used to determine the distribution of the amount of the fragmented DNA after the Calf-thymus DNA has been exposed to various types of radiation and of different doses. The standards were used to determine the sizes of the fragmented Calf-thymus DNA. The higher the dose the higher is the amount of the smaller size DNA measured

  14. Comparison of outdoor activity size distributions of 220 Rn and 222 Rn progeny and their Influences on lung dosimetry distributions

    In the case of internally deposited radionuclides, direct measurement of the energy absorbed from ionizing radiation emitted by the decaying radionuclides is rarely, if ever, possible. Therefore, one must rely on dosimetric models to obtain estimates of the spatial and temporal patterns of energy deposition in human lung. T These models always need some information about the parameters of activity size distributions of thoron and radon progeny. In the present work, the attached and unattached activity size distributions of thoron and radon progeny were measured in outdoor air of El-Minia, Egypt. The attached samples were collected using a low pressure Berner cascade impactor technique, while a constructed screen diffusion battery was used for collecting the unattached samples. Most of the attached activities for 222Rn and 220Rn progeny were associated with the aerosol particles of the accumulation mode. The activity size distribution of thoron progeny was found to be shifted to slightly smaller particle size, compared to radon progeny. An analytical method has been developed to compute the local energy deposition of 2l2Bi alpha particles in a target volume of 1 jam spheres located at different depths in bronchial epithelium. In order to reach the target, alpha particles travel either through tissue alone (near-wall dose) or through air and tissue (far-wall dose). It was found that the contribution of near-wall dose is higher than that of the far wall dose. While the depth-dose distributions for nuclides uniformly distributed within the epithelium are practically constant with

  15. Vertical grain size distribution in dust devils: Analyses of in situ samples from southern Morocco

    Raack, J.; Reiss, D.; Ori, G. G.; Taj-Eddine, K.

    2014-04-01

    Dust devils are vertical convective vortices occurring on Earth and Mars [1]. Entrained particle sizes such as dust and sand lifted by dust devils make them visible [1]. On Earth, finer particles (desert dust are important for human health, weather, climate, and biogeochemistry [4]. The entrainment of dust particles by dust devil and its vertical grain size distribution is not well constrained. In situ grain size samples from active dust devils were so far derived by [5,6,7] in three different continents: Africa, Australia, and North America, respectively. In this study we report about in situ samples directly derived from active dust devils in the Sahara Desert (Erg Chegaga) in southern Morocco in 2012 to characterize the vertical grain size distribution within dust devils.

  16. A model for the size distribution of shops in a price driven market

    D'Hulst, R

    2000-01-01

    A microscopic model is introduced to investigate the size distribution of shops. In the model, shops are constrained to comply with the market price, as expected by the customers, while customers can only buy at the prices offered by the shops. We show numerically and analytically that the size distribution scales like a power-law, with an exponent in agreement with empirical data on company sizes in the U.S. and debt sizes in Japan. A mean-field version of our model is also introduced and we determine for which value of the parameters the mean-field model agrees with both the microscopic model and the empirical data. Finally, possible extensions of the mean-field model are discussed, to cope with other empirical data.

  17. Predicting Whole Forest Structure, Primary Productivity, and Biomass Density From Maximum Tree Size and Resource Limitations

    Kempes, Christopher P; Dooris, William; West, Geoffrey B

    2015-01-01

    In the face of uncertain biological response to climate change and the many critiques concerning model complexity it is increasingly important to develop predictive mechanistic frameworks that capture the dominant features of ecological communities and their dependencies on environmental factors. This is particularly important for critical global processes such as biomass changes, carbon export, and biogenic climate feedback. Past efforts have successfully understood a broad spectrum of plant and community traits across a range of biological diversity and body size, including tree size distributions and maximum tree height, from mechanical, hydrodynamic, and resource constraints. Recently it was shown that global scaling relationships for net primary productivity are correlated with local meteorology and the overall biomass density within a forest. Along with previous efforts, this highlights the connection between widely observed allometric relationships and predictive ecology. An emerging goal of ecological...

  18. Performance of DMPS/C System in Determining Aerosol Particle Size Distribution

    An evaluation of performance of DMPS/C system TSI-3932 in determining aerosol particle size has been carried out. The evaluation consist of validity of experimentally transfer function, instrument resolution, and test of measurement accuracy and precision for monodisperse and polydisperse aerosol size distribution. Evaluation of measurement accuracy gave a deviation of 0.74 %, and evaluation of measurement precision gave variation coefficient of 0,50 % and 1.63 % for monodisperse aerosol and polydisperse aerosol respectively

  19. Subcutaneous Adipose Cell Size and Distribution: Relationship to Insulin Resistance and Body Fat

    McLaughlin, T; Lamendola, C.; Coghlan, N; Liu, TC; Lerner, K; Sherman, A; Cushman, SW

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic heterogeneity among obese individuals may be attributable to differences in adipose cell size. We sought to clarify this by quantifying adipose cell-size distribution, body fat, and insulin-mediated glucose uptake in overweight/moderately-obese individuals. 148 healthy nondiabetic subjects with BMI 25–38 kg/m2 underwent subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies and quantification of insulin-mediated glucose uptake with steady-state plasma glucose concentrations (SSPG) during the modified...

  20. Location and rank-size distribution of Arts and Entertainment : A study of US Metropolitan Regions

    Ruett, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes and analyzes the location and size distribution of artand entertainment establishments and metropolitan regions in the UnitedStates. The included sectors are sound recording, motion picture and video,book and newspaper publishing as well as the live performing arts. Their sizeis analyzed by total employment and brought in context to their respectivemarkets and the rank-size rule. The results are interpreted within the economictraits specific to the art and entertainment ...

  1. Estimation of effective population size in continuously distributed populations: there goes the neighborhood

    Neel, M. C.; McKelvey, K; Ryman, N.; Lloyd, M W; Short Bull, R; Allendorf, F W; Schwartz, M. K.; Waples, R. S.

    2013-01-01

    Use of genetic methods to estimate effective population size (Ne) is rapidly increasing, but all approaches make simplifying assumptions unlikely to be met in real populations. In particular, all assume a single, unstructured population, and none has been evaluated for use with continuously distributed species. We simulated continuous populations with local mating structure, as envisioned by Wright's concept of neighborhood size (NS), and evaluated performance of a single-sample estimator bas...

  2. Statistically heterogeneous size distribution of ejecta from shock-loaded Cu with a wedged surface groove

    He, An-Min; Wang, Pei; Shao, Jian-Li

    2016-02-01

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the fragmentation of microsheets produced from single crystal Cu with a wedged surface groove. Heterogeneous fragmentation of the microsheet is observed and the ejecta size distribution in the large size limit obeys a bilinear exponential dependence, consistent with the geometric fragmentation model with statistical heterogeneity. The underlying mechanisms governing the statistical heterogeneity are illustrated within the frameworks of geometric fragmentation models.

  3. Estimating the 3D Pore Size Distribution of Biopolymer Networks from Directionally Biased Data

    Lang, Nadine R.; Münster, Stefan; Metzner, Claus; Krauss, Patrick; Schürmann, Sebastian; Lange, Janina; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Friedrich, Oliver; Fabry, Ben

    2013-01-01

    The pore size of biopolymer networks governs their mechanical properties and strongly impacts the behavior of embedded cells. Confocal reflection microscopy and second harmonic generation microscopy are widely used to image biopolymer networks; however, both techniques fail to resolve vertically oriented fibers. Here, we describe how such directionally biased data can be used to estimate the network pore size. We first determine the distribution of distances from random points in the fluid ph...

  4. ASSESSMENT OF THE MAIN PETROLEUM PRODUCT DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY

    Florea Vlad

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the main petroleum product distribution strategy. Three main criteria are identified in this respect: the economic criterion, the control criterion and adjustment criterion. In addition, aspects pertaining to the administration of petroleum product distribution network are also revealed.

  5. Ultrahigh throughput plasma processing of free standing silicon nanocrystals with lognormal size distribution

    Dogan, I.; Kramer, N.J.; Westermann, R. H. J.; Dohnalova, K.; Smets, A.H.M.; Verheijen, M.A.; Greogorkiewicz, T.; Sanden, M.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for synthesizing free standing silicon nanocrystals in an argon/silane gas mixture by using a remote expanding thermal plasma. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy measurements reveal that the distribution has a bimodal shape consisting of two distinct groups of small and large silicon nanocrystals with sizes in the range 2–10 nm and 50–120 nm, respectively. We also observe that both size distributions are lognormal which is linked with the growth ti...

  6. Ultrahigh throughput plasma processing of free standing silicon nanocrystals with lognormal size distribution

    Doğan, I; Kramer, N.J.; Westermann, R. H. J.; Dohnalová, K.; Smets, A.H.M.; Verheijen, M.A.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Sanden, M.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for synthesizing free standing silicon nanocrystals in an argon/silane gas mixture by using a remote expanding thermal plasma. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy measurements reveal that the distribution has a bimodal shape consisting of two distinct groups of small and large silicon nanocrystals with sizes in the range 2-10 nm and 50-120 nm, respectively. We also observe that both size distributions are lognormal which is linked with the growth ti...

  7. Particle size distribution and solubility characteristics of aerosols in TAPS working areas

    Particle size distribution of aerosols from different working areas of TAPS was evaluated using an Andersen sampler. GFA filter papers were used for collection of particles. AMAD of 137Cs and 60Co was evaluated by gamma spectrometry. The results obtained are discussed. Based on particle size distribution and solubility studies it has been suggested that the ICRP DAC values for 137Cs, 60Co and transuranics can be upgraded by a factor of 2-3 for the TAPS working environment. (author). 4 tabs., 2 figs

  8. FT-IR process monitoring of metal powder temperature and size distribution

    Rosenthal, P.A.; Cosgrove, J.E.; Haigis, J.R.; Markham, J.R.; Solomon, P.R.; Farquharson, S. [Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States); Morrison, P.W. Jr. [Case Western Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science; Ridder, S.D.; Biancaniello, F.S. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The authors have developed in-situ infrared sensors for on-line measurements of particle size distributions and temperatures during the manufacture of metal powders produced by the supersonic inert gas molten atomization technique. The sensors are based on novel applications of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and advanced numerical analysis techniques based on sound physical models. The authors have demonstrated the ability to measure the infrared transmission and emission of a hot molten particle stream. They have also identified a promising mathematical approach which deconvolves particle size distributions from extinction spectra.

  9. History of water-column anoxia in the Black Sea indicated by pyrite framboid size distributions

    Wilkin, R.T.; Arthur, M.A.; Dean, W.E.

    1997-01-01

    A detailed study of size distributions of framboidal pyrite in Holocene Black Sea sediments establishes the timing of a change from deposition under an oxic water column to deposition under an anoxic and sulfidic water column. In the most recent carbonate-rich sediments (Unit I) and in the organic carbon-rich sapropel (Unit II), framboid size distributions are remarkably uniform (mean diameter= 5 ??m); over 95% of the framboids in Unit I and Unit II are anoxia in the Black Sea coincided with the initiation of deposition of laminated Unit II sapropels.

  10. Magnetic relaxation and correlating effective magnetic moment with particle size distribution in maghemite nanoparticles

    Pisane, Kelly L.; Despeaux, Emily C.; Seehra, Mohindar S.

    2015-01-01

    The role of particle size distribution inherently present in magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) is examined in considerable detail in relation to the measured magnetic properties of oleic acid-coated maghemite ({\\gamma}-Fe$_2$O$_3$) NPs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the sol-gel synthesized $\\gamma$-$Fe$$_2$$O$$_3$ NPs showed a log-normal distribution of sizes with average diameter $$= 7.04 nm and standard deviation $\\sigma$= 0.78 nm. Magnetization, $M$, vs. temperature (2 K to 350 K) o...

  11. Effect of non uniform void size and shape distributions on deformation failure in cast aluminum alloy

    Tensile tests were conducted on several cast aluminum specimens with different degrees of porosity. The effects of non uniform void size and shape distributions, including spherical and non spherical types, on stress-strain behavior resulting from different initiation mechanisms were investigated. A micro mechanics based statistical approach was employed, and the heterogeneous microstructures could therefore be modeled during the deformation process. The predicted changes of the distributions of void size and void shape generally agreed with experimental results. Void spatial variation was also quantified, and its effects on the level of failure were analyzed. The void spatial variation facilitated development of inhomogeneous deformation, which results in failure

  12. Effect of Dimethyl Ether Mixing on Soot Size Distribution in Premixed Ethylene Flame

    Li, Zepeng

    2016-04-21

    As a byproduct of incomplete combustion, soot attracts increasing attentions as extensive researches exploring serious health and environmental effects from soot particles. Soot emission reduction requires a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and of soot formation and aging processes. Therefore, advanced experimental techniques and numerical simulations have been conducted to investigate this procedure. In order to investigate the effects of dimethyl ether (DME) mixing on soot particle size distribution functions (PSDFs), DME was mixed in premixed ethylene/oxygen/argon at flames at the equivalence ratio of 2.0 with a range of mixing ratio from 0% to 30% of the total carbon fed. Two series of atmospheric pressure flames were tested in which cold gas velocity was varied to obtain different flame temperatures. The evolution of PSDFs along the centerline of the flame was determined by burner stabilized stagnation probe and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) techniques, yielding the PSDFs for various separation distances above the burner surface. Meanwhile, the flame temperature profiles were carefully measured by a thermocouple and the comparison to that of simulated laminar premixed burner-stabilized stagnation flame was satisfactory. Additionally, to understand the chemical role of DME mixing in soot properties, characterization measurements were conducted on soot samples using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis (EA). Results of the evolution of PSDFs and soot volume fraction showed that adding DME into ethylene flame could reduce soot yield significantly. The addition of DME led to the decrease of both the soot nucleation rate and the particle mass growth rate. To explain the possible mechanism for the observation, numerical simulations were performed. Although DME addition resulted in the slight increase of methyl radicals from pyrolysis, the decrease in acetylene and propargyl radicals inhibited the production of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. At the same time, the addition of DME gave rise to the increase of the flame temperatures, which favored the production of OH radicals. The incremental concentration of OH radicals promoted the oxidation rate of soot particles. Additionally, soot samples from flames with higher DME mixing ratios showed higher O/C, H/C mass ratios and thus better oxidation characteristics. In summary, the addition of DME reduces soot emission in two ways: on the one hand, it inhibits soot nucleation and mass/size growth, then the production of soot particles decreases; on the other hand, it promotes soot oxidation process by increasing the concentration of OH radicals and improving the oxidation behavior of the soot particles, then more particles are oxidized. Both of them are responsible for the reduction of soot emissions at the presence of DME.

  13. The effect of magnetic particles on pore size distribution in soft polyurethane foams

    The combination of elastomeric matrices with magnetic particles to obtain magnetically controllable hybrid materials is an actual field of intense research. An important aspect in this context is the stiffness of the matrix, which determines the effectiveness of the magnetically driven changes in the material properties. In this paper an approach has been undertaken to use soft polyurethane foams as matrix material. By means of x-ray computed microtomography and digital image processing the pore size distribution has been determined to get information on how this distribution is affected by the introduction of magnetic microparticles. To do so, 20 000 to 40 000 pores per foam sample were evaluated. As a result, it could be proven that the pore sizes of the analysed foams clearly obey the Weibull distribution. Increasing the carbonyl iron particle concentrations leads to a decrement of the shape parameter of the distribution. Based on known particle stabilization mechanisms, an approach to explain the experimental results is proposed. (papers)

  14. Size distribution and emission rate measurement of fine and ultrafine particle from indoor human activities

    Ghin, Evelyne; Ramalho, Olivier; Kirchner, Sverine

    Human indoor activities generate airborne particles which contribute to the increase of aerosol concentration levels in the home. The particle size distribution emission rate was measured for 18 different activities (burning candle or incense, cooking, spray use, computer printing and household cleaning). The particle emission rate was calculated from concentration measurements with a DMS500 (CAMBUSTION) in an experimental chamber (2.36 0.05 m 3). The results showed that ultrafine particles are emitted during these activities and the lowest number distribution mode was 6 nm for one of the burning candles. All the cooking activities had similar emissions with a mode between 20 and 40 nm. The measured size distributions were represented in a database by the sum of 1, 2 or 3 lognormal distributions. The measured total emission rate ranged between 0.06 10 10 and 13.10 10 10 s -1 and the highest emission rate was measured for the self cleaning oven program (pyrolysis).

  15. The effect of magnetic particles on pore size distribution in soft polyurethane foams

    Schümann, M.; Günther, S.; Odenbach, S.

    2014-07-01

    The combination of elastomeric matrices with magnetic particles to obtain magnetically controllable hybrid materials is an actual field of intense research. An important aspect in this context is the stiffness of the matrix, which determines the effectiveness of the magnetically driven changes in the material properties. In this paper an approach has been undertaken to use soft polyurethane foams as matrix material. By means of x-ray computed microtomography and digital image processing the pore size distribution has been determined to get information on how this distribution is affected by the introduction of magnetic microparticles. To do so, 20 000 to 40 000 pores per foam sample were evaluated. As a result, it could be proven that the pore sizes of the analysed foams clearly obey the Weibull distribution. Increasing the carbonyl iron particle concentrations leads to a decrement of the shape parameter of the distribution. Based on known particle stabilization mechanisms, an approach to explain the experimental results is proposed.

  16. Size distribution and waiting times for the avalanches of the Cell Network Model of Fracture

    Villalobos, Gabriel; Linero, Dorian L; Muñoz, Jose D

    2010-01-01

    The Cell Network Model is a fracture model recently introduced that resembles the microscopical structure and drying process of the parenchymatous tissue of the Bamboo Guadua angustifolia. The model exhibits a power-law distribution of avalanche sizes, with exponent -3.0 when the breaking thresholds are randomly distributed with uniform probability density. Hereby we show that the same exponent also holds when the breaking thresholds obey a broad set of Weibull distributions, and that the humidity decrements between successive avalanches (the equivalent to waiting times for this model) follow in all cases an exponential distribution. Moreover, the fraction of remaining junctures shows an exponential decay in time. In addition, introducing partial breakings and cumulative damages induces a crossover behavior between two power-laws in the avalanche size histograms. This results support the idea that the Cell Network Model may be in the same universality class as the Random Fuse Model.

  17. Size distribution of possible dust carriers for the extended red emission

    Mahapatra, D. P.; Chutjian, A.; Machacek, J. R.; Mangina, R. S., E-mail: ara.chutjian@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Power-law size distributions expected to be applicable to possible carriers of extended red emission (ERE) have been examined using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Si nanoparticles and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon complexes such as oligoacene and oligorylenes with energy gaps close to 2 eV have been considered. In the simplest case of unit quantum efficiency, the MC-generated size distributions are used to obtain photoluminescence (PL) spectra that are then corrected for dust extinction and reddening effects for comparison with observed ERE spectra. It is shown that a power-law size distribution with a decay exponent of ? = 7/2, which closely agrees with starlight extinction data, fails to produce an ERE-like spectrum. However, size distributions with decay exponents of ? = 19/12 and 3/2 are found to lead to acceptable spectra. Results indicate that energetic photon-induced breakup and competing aggregation effects dominate collisional effects in producing the observed steady-state mass distribution. It is shown that the peak wavelength of emission critically depends on the band gap, rather than cluster mass, which for oligoacenes and oligorylenes is widely different. The peak wavelength is also shown to be insensitive to dust attenuation.

  18. A prognostic model of the sea-ice floe size and thickness distribution

    Horvat, C.; Tziperman, E.

    2015-11-01

    Sea ice exhibits considerable seasonal and longer-term variations in extent, concentration, thickness, and age, and is characterized by a complex and continuously changing distribution of floe sizes and thicknesses, particularly in the marginal ice zone (MIZ). Models of sea ice used in current climate models keep track of its concentration and of the distribution of ice thicknesses, but do not account for the floe size distribution and its potential effects on air-sea exchange and sea-ice evolution. Accurately capturing sea-ice variability in climate models may require a better understanding and representation of the distribution of floe sizes and thicknesses. We develop and demonstrate a model for the evolution of the joint sea-ice floe size and thickness distribution that depends on atmospheric and oceanic forcing fields. The model accounts for effects due to multiple processes that are active in the MIZ and seasonal ice zones: freezing and melting along the lateral side and base of floes, mechanical interactions due to floe collisions (ridging and rafting), and sea-ice fracture due to wave propagation in the MIZ. The model is then examined and demonstrated in a series of idealized test cases.

  19. (99m)Tc-human serum albumin nanocolloids: particle sizing and radioactivity distribution.

    Persico, Marco G; Lodola, Lorenzo; Buroni, Federica E; Morandotti, Marco; Pallavicini, Piersandro; Aprile, Carlo

    2015-07-01

    Several parameters affect the biodistribution of administered nanocolloids (NC) for Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN) detection: particle size distribution, number of Tc atoms per particle and specific activity (SA). Relatively few data are available with frequently conflicting results. (99m)Tc-NC-human serum albumin (HSA) Nanocoll®, Nanoalbumon® and Nanotop® were analysed for particles' dimensional and radioactivity distribution, and a mathematical model was elaborated to estimate the number of particles involved. Commercially available kits were reconstituted at maximal SA of 11 MBq/µg HSA. Particles size distribution was evaluated by Dynamic Light Scattering. These data were related to the radioactivity distribution analysis passing labelled NC through three polycarbonate filters (15-30-50-nm pore size) under vacuum. Highest radioactivity was carried by 30-50 nm particles. The smallest ones, even though most numerous, carried only the 10% of (99m)Tc atoms. Nanocoll and Nanotop are not significantly different, while Nanoalbumon is characterized by largest particles (>30 nm) that carried the most of radioactivity (80%). Smallest particles could saturate the clearing capacity of macrophages; therefore, if the tracer is used for SLN detection, more node tiers could be visualized, reducing accuracy of SLN mapping. Manufacturers could implement technical leaflets with particle size distribution and could improve the labelling protocol to provide clinicians useful information. PMID:26198778

  20. Pore size distribution in porous glass: fractal dimension obtained by calorimetry

    Neffati, R.; Rault, J.

    2001-05-01

    By differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), at low heating rate and using a technique of fractionation, we have measured the equilibrium DSC signal (heat flow) J q 0 of two families of porous glass saturated with water. The shape of the DSC peak obtained by these techniques is dependent on the sizes distribution of the pores. For porous glass with large pore size distribution, obtained by sol-gel technology, we show that in the domain of ice melting, the heat flow Jq is related to the melting temperature depression of the solvent, Δ T m , by the scaling law: J q 0˜Δ T m - (1 + D). We suggest that the exponent D is of the order of the fractal dimension of the backbone of the pore network and we discuss the influence of the variation of the melting enthalpy with the temperature on the value of this exponent. Similar D values were obtained from small angle neutron scattering and electronic energy transfer measurements on similar porous glass. The proposed scaling law is explained if one assumes that the pore size distribution is self similar. In porous glass obtained from mesomorphic copolymers, the pore size distribution is very sharp and therefore this law is not observed. One concludes that DSC, at low heating rate ( q? 2°C/min) is the most rapid and less expensive method for determining the pore distribution and the fractal exponent of a porous material.

  1. The variability of tidewater-glacier calving: origin of event-size and interval distributions

    Chapuis, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Calving activity at the front of tidewater glaciers is characterized by a large variability in iceberg sizes and inter-event intervals. We present calving-event data obtained from continuous observations of the fronts of two tidewater glaciers on Svalbard, and show that the distributions of event sizes and inter-event intervals can be reproduced by a simple calving model focusing on the mutual interplay between calving and the destabilization of the glacier front. The event-size distributions of both the field and the model data extend over several orders of magnitude and resemble power laws. The distributions of inter-event intervals are broad, but have a less pronounced tail. In the model, the width of the size distribution increases with the calving susceptibility of the glacier front, a parameter measuring the effect of calving on the stress in the local neighborhood of the calving region. Inter-event interval distributions, in contrast, are insensitive to the calving susceptibility. Above a critical susc...

  2. The Degree Distribution of Random Birth-and-Death Network with Network Size Decline

    Zhang, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a general method to obtain the exact solutions of the degree distributions for RBDN with network size decline. First by stochastic process rules, the steady state transformation equations and steady state degree distribution equations are given in the case of m>2, 0distribution. Especially, taking m=3 as an example, we explain the detailed solving process, in which computer simulation is used to verify our degree distribution solutions. In addition, the tail characteristics of the degree distribution are discussed. Our findings suggest that the degree distributions will exhibit Poisson tail property for the declining RBDN.

  3. Size-frequency distribution of crater populations in equilibrium on the Moon

    Xiao, Zhiyong; Werner, Stephanie C.

    2015-12-01

    Overprinting of craters by subsequent impacts and topographic degradation complicates crater statistics, especially for old surfaces and small-diameter crater populations. A crater population is regarded as in equilibrium at a particular crater size when smaller craters are being produced at the same rate at which they are being destroyed. Evaluating the equilibrium state of crater populations is challenging, and empirical equilibrium densities are frequently inferred. By performing careful crater counts and cross comparisons on several lunar surfaces, we study the size-frequency distributions (SFD) for the crater populations, which have portions in equilibrium. The results are one of the few observational constraints on the SFD of crater populations in equilibrium, showing that referring to empirical equilibrium densities is not safe for evaluating the equilibrium states of crater populations. Equilibrium densities are not positively correlated with the ages of crater populations, and some populations in equilibrium have crater densities less than those previously believed to represent equilibrium conditions. Besides the SFD of the production population, different crater removal rates at different diameters also affect the SFD of crater populations in equilibrium. The equilibrium onset diameter (Deq) of a crater population can be translated to model ages because older populations have larger Deq, and those for same-aged surfaces are comparable. We show that the crater populations studied here are in equilibrium at much smaller diameters than those predicted for same-aged surfaces by crater degradation models, thus indicating lower crater degradation rates on the Moon, and/or younger ages of the counting areas.

  4. Location and Size of Distributed Generation Using a Modified Water Cycle Algorithm

    John Edwin Candelo Becerra; Helman Enrique Hernández Riaño; Rodrigo Ramirez Pisco

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a modified water cycle algorithm (WCA) adapted to the problem of finding the location and size of distributed generation (DG). Power losses minimization was used as an objective function to compare the proposed algorithm with particle swarm optimization (PSO), the batinspired Algorithm (BA), and harmony search (HS). The test scenarios consisted of locating five to seven generators with a maximum real and reactive power in the 33-node and 69-node radial distribution network...

  5. Analysis of ionic fragment size distribution in collision of nanosecond laser with the C60 molecule

    At the critical point of fragmentation phase transition occurring in C60 system, we found that the yield distribution of ionic fragments Cn+ (n=3-16) originating from the multi-fragmentation pattern can be approximated fairly well by a power-law attenuation form of n−λ. Under the framework of Fisher model, the experimental result implies that the ionization-degree distribution of fragments obeys a power law enhancement form as the size n.

  6. THE SENSITIVITY OF THE CATALYST EFFECTIVENESS FACTOR TO PORE SIZE DISTRIBUTION

    Z. Bensetiti

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available A model is proposed for the average effective diffusivity for an arbitrary pore size distribution. It is shown that the average diffusivity must also depend on the distribution of the catalyst sites. The reaction diffusivity is compared with the average diffusivities defined by Wakao and Smith (1962 and Johnson and Stewart (1965. For the methanol dehydration and n-butene isomerization, the reaction diffusivity gives a better estimation of the effectiveness factor than the other models

  7. Improved Multiobjective Harmony Search Algorithm with Application to Placement and Sizing of Distributed Generation

    Wanxing Sheng; Ke-yan Liu; Yunhua Li; Yuan Liu; Xiaoli Meng

    2014-01-01

    To solve the comprehensive multiobjective optimization problem, this study proposes an improved metaheuristic searching algorithm with combination of harmony search and the fast nondominated sorting approach. This is a kind of the novel intelligent optimization algorithm for multiobjective harmony search (MOHS). The detailed description and the algorithm formulating are discussed. Taking the optimal placement and sizing issue of distributed generation (DG) in distributed power system as one e...

  8. Statistical and Physical Descriptions of Raindrop Size Distributions in Equatorial Malaysia from Disdrometer Observations

    Hong Yin Lam; Jafri Din; Siat Ling Jong

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the physical characteristics of raindrop size distribution (DSD) in an equatorial heavy rain region based on three years of disdrometer observations carried out at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia’s (UTM’s) campus in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The natural characteristics of DSD are deduced, and the statistical results are found to be in accordance with the findings obtained from others disdrometer measurements. Moreover, the parameters of the Gamma distribution and the normal...

  9. PSO Based Multi Objective Approach for Optimal Sizing and Placement of Distributed Generation

    Ali Aref; Mohsen Davoudi; Mohammad Dosaranian Moghadam; Iraj Ganjkhany Majid Davoodi; Robabe Jahanbakhshi

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a multi-objective formulation using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) approach, for optimal placement and sizing of Distributed Generation (DG) resources in the power distribution systems in order to minimize the cost of power losses and improve the voltage profile and energy not supplied. The proposed method considers the options of the DGs installation and takes more number of significant parameters into account compare to the previous studies which consider only a few p...

  10. Kinetics of cesium lead halide perovskite nanoparticle growth; focusing and de-focusing of size distribution

    Koolyk, Miriam; Amgar, Daniel; Aharon, Sigalit; Etgar, Lioz

    2016-03-01

    In this work we study the kinetics of cesium lead halide perovskite nanoparticle (NP) growth; the focusing and de-focusing of the NP size distribution. Cesium lead halide perovskite NPs are considered to be attractive materials for optoelectronic applications. Understanding the kinetics of the formation of these all-inorganic perovskite NPs is critical for reproducibly and reliably generating large amounts of uniformly sized NPs. Here we investigate different growth durations for CsPbI3 and CsPbBr3 NPs, tracking their growth by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and size distribution analysis. As a result, we are able to provide a detailed model for the kinetics of their growth. It was observed that the CsPbI3 NPs exhibit focusing of the size distribution in the first 20 seconds of growth, followed by de-focusing over longer growth durations, while the CsPbBr3 NPs show de-focusing of the size distribution starting from the beginning of the growth. The monomer concentration is depleted faster in the case of CsPbBr3 than in the case of CsPbI3, due to faster diffusion of the monomers, which increases the critical radius and results in de-focusing of the population. Accordingly, focusing is not observed within 40 seconds of growth in the case of CsPbBr3. This study provides important knowledge on how to achieve a narrow size distribution of cesium lead halide perovskite NPs when generating large amounts of these promising, highly luminescent NPs.In this work we study the kinetics of cesium lead halide perovskite nanoparticle (NP) growth; the focusing and de-focusing of the NP size distribution. Cesium lead halide perovskite NPs are considered to be attractive materials for optoelectronic applications. Understanding the kinetics of the formation of these all-inorganic perovskite NPs is critical for reproducibly and reliably generating large amounts of uniformly sized NPs. Here we investigate different growth durations for CsPbI3 and CsPbBr3 NPs, tracking their growth by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and size distribution analysis. As a result, we are able to provide a detailed model for the kinetics of their growth. It was observed that the CsPbI3 NPs exhibit focusing of the size distribution in the first 20 seconds of growth, followed by de-focusing over longer growth durations, while the CsPbBr3 NPs show de-focusing of the size distribution starting from the beginning of the growth. The monomer concentration is depleted faster in the case of CsPbBr3 than in the case of CsPbI3, due to faster diffusion of the monomers, which increases the critical radius and results in de-focusing of the population. Accordingly, focusing is not observed within 40 seconds of growth in the case of CsPbBr3. This study provides important knowledge on how to achieve a narrow size distribution of cesium lead halide perovskite NPs when generating large amounts of these promising, highly luminescent NPs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09127f

  11. Particle size distribution of ground ITP washed precipitate for estimating filter box radioactive cesium release during transfer

    Synthetic washed ITP slurry (200 g) was oven dried for three days at 60--65 degrees C in a pan, to a hard solid that stuck to the pan bottom. Between the cracks that formed were a few small particles of unknown size. The solids that were stuck to the pan bottom were pried free and repetitively ground in a mortar and pestle until they all passed through a 40 mesh sieve. This product was then sieved into 50, 80, 100, 170, 200, 325 sieve fractions and the results plotted. A protion of the fines passing the 325 sieve were further separated by air flotation in a glass tube with fritted bottom. Increasing amounts of air were passed up through the tube that floated out increasing fractions of particles after weighing. ITP washed precipitate, ground and dried, had a particle size distribution versus cumulative weight fraction curve between Powered coal and Filter sand. The minimum particle size was about 20 microns

  12. Statistical physics studies of multilayer adsorption isotherm in food materials and pore size distribution

    Aouaini, F.; Knani, S.; Ben Yahia, M.; Ben Lamine, A.

    2015-08-01

    Water sorption isotherms of foodstuffs are very important in different areas of food science engineering such as for design, modeling and optimization of many processes. The equilibrium moisture content is an important parameter in models used to predict changes in the moisture content of a product during storage. A formulation of multilayer model with two energy levels was based on statistical physics and theoretical considerations. Thanks to the grand canonical ensemble in statistical physics. Some physicochemical parameters related to the adsorption process were introduced in the analytical model expression. The data tabulated in literature of water adsorption at different temperatures on: chickpea seeds, lentil seeds, potato and on green peppers were described applying the most popular models applied in food science. We also extend the study to the newest proposed model. It is concluded that among studied models the proposed model seems to be the best for description of data in the whole range of relative humidity. By using our model, we were able to determine the thermodynamic functions. The measurement of desorption isotherms, in particular a gas over a solid porous, allows access to the distribution of pore size PSD.

  13. Factors determining the most efficient spray size distribution for marine cloud brightening

    Wood, R.; Connolly, P.; McFiggans, G.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of marine cloud brightening geoengineering to the properties of the added salt particle distribution using a cloud parcel model, with an aim to address the question: what is the most efficient particle size distribution to produce a desired cooling effect?. We investigate this by using a parcel model with different configurations of salt spray size distribution to assess the approximate power required to generate an albedo increase sufficient to approximately offset a doubling of carbon dioxide. Our findings show that this question depends on the spray generation method employed. We find that for all three methods of spray generation investigated (supercritical fluid, Taylor cone, and Rayleigh jet), distributions of salt particles with median dry diameters in the range Dm = 30 to 100 nm are the are the most effective in terms of brightening per power consumed in generating the particles. Size distributions that resemble the present day emitted sea-spray distribution are not particularly efficient for brightening clouds. The Rayleigh jet method is found to be the most energy efficient method when compared to the supercritical fluid and Taylor cone-jet method. We also find that care needs to be taken when using droplet activation parameterizations: for the concentrations considered Aitken particles do not result in a decrease in the total albedo, as was found in a recent study, and such findings are likely a result of the parameterization's inability to simulate the effect of swollen aerosol.

  14. [Studies on the size distribution of airborne microbes at home in Beijing].

    Fang, Zhi-Guo; Sun, Ping; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Liu, Peng; Sun, Li; Wang, Xiao-Yong

    2013-07-01

    The effect of airborne microbes on human health not only depends on their compositions (genera and species), but also on their concentrations and sizes. Moreover, there are different mechanisms of airborne microbes of different sizes with different effects on human health. The size distributions and median diameters were investigated in detail with imitated six-stage Andersen sampler in 31 selected family homes with children in Beijing. Results showed that there was similar distribution characteristics of airborne microbes in different home environment, different season, different child's sex, and different apartment's architecture, but different distribution characteristics between airborne bacteria and fungi were observed in family homes in Beijing. In general, although airborne bacteria and fungi were plotted with normal logarithmic distribution, the particle percentage of airborne bacteria increased gradually from stage 1 (> 8.2 microm) to stage 5 (1.0-2.0 microm), and then decreased dramatically in stage 6 (normal logarithmic distribution, with the highest percentage detected in stage 4, and Alternaria were observed with skew distribution, with the highest percentage detected in stage 2 (5.0-10.4 microm). Finally, the median diameters of airborne bacteria were larger than those of airborne fungi, and the lowest median diameter of airborne bacteria and fungi was found in winter, while there were no significant variations of airborne bacterial and fungal median diameters in spring, summer and autumn in a year in this study. PMID:24027978

  15. The effect of bubble size on void fraction distribution in a vertical channel

    The effect of bubble size on void distribution in a vertical upward cocurrent air-water two-phase flow was studied systematically based on the measurement of dual-sensor resistivity probe. The experiments were carried out under various fixed gas and liquid fluxes, but only changed the bubble size at the flow entrance. Profiles of void fraction, bubble frequency, bubble velocity and bubble size were measured along the test section diameter at four axial positions with length(L)-to-diameter (D) ratio of 30, 60, 90, and 120 respectively, to study the void development phenomena. It is found that the variation of bubble size and the bubble coalescence effect are very sensitive to bubble lateral migration and flow regime transition during the development of bubbly flow. Hence, models which are to be valid over a wide range of conditions should include the effect of bubble size. (author)

  16. Effect of particle size and distribution of the sizing agent on the carbon fibers surface and interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of its composites

    Effect of particle size and distribution of the sizing agent on the performance of carbon fiber and carbon fiber composites has been investigated. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize carbon fiber surface topographies. At the same time, the single fiber strength and Weibull distribution were also studied in order to investigate the effect of coatings on the fibers. The interfacial shear strength and hygrothermal aging of the carbon fiber/epoxy resin composites were also measured. The results indicated that the particle size and distribution is important for improving the surface of carbon fibers and its composites performance. Different particle size and distribution of sizing agent has different contribution to the wetting performance of carbon fibers. The fibers sized with P-2 had higher value of IFSS and better hygrothermal aging resistant properties.

  17. International intercalibration and intercomparison measurements of radon progeny particle size distribution

    Because there is no standard method for 222Rn progeny size measurements, verifying the performance of various measurement techniques is important. This report describes results of an international intercomparison and calibration of 222Rn progeny size measurements involving low pressure impactors (MOUDI and Berner) and diffusion battery systems, as well as both alpha- and gamma- counting methods. The intercomparison was at EML on June 12-15, 1995. 5 different particle sizes (80, 90, 165, 395, 1200 nm) of near monodisperse condensation Carbauba wax aerosol and 2 bimodal size spectra (160 and 365 nm, and 70 and 400 nm) were used. 20 tests were completed, covering both low and high concentrations of 222Rn and test aerosols. For the single-mode test aerosol, the measurements agreed within the size range. Best agreement was found between the two low pressure impactors. Some differences between the impactor and diffusion battery methods were observed in the specific peak locations and the resultant geometric mean diameters. For the two bimodal size distribution aerosols, the MOUDI measurements showed two modes, while the other 3 devices showed a single mode size distribution

  18. Optimal Placement and Sizing of Distributed Generation And Capacitor Bank For Loss Reduction And Reliability Improvement In Distribution Systems

    Reza Baghipourr; Seyyed Mehdi Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    In this paper optimum size and location of the capacitors and distributed generators (DGs) are determined for reliability improvement and power loss reduction using genetic algorithm (GA). The main innovation of this paper is using both DG and Capacitor for the reliability improvement and power loss reduction. For this purpose an objective function consisting of reliability cost, power loss cost and also DG's and capacitor's investment cost are considered. The effectiveness of the proposed me...

  19. Scale economies and optimal size in the Swiss gas distribution sector

    This paper studies the cost structure of Swiss gas distribution utilities. Several econometric models are applied to a panel of 26 companies over 1996–2000. Our main objective is to estimate the optimal size and scale economies of the industry and to study their possible variation with respect to network characteristics. The results indicate the presence of unexploited scale economies. However, very large companies in the sample and companies with a disproportionate mixture of output and density present an exception. Furthermore, the estimated optimal size for majority of companies in the sample has shown a value far greater than the actual size, suggesting remarkable efficiency gains by reorganization of the industry. The results also highlight the effect of customer density on optimal size. Networks with higher density or greater complexity have a lower optimal size. - highlights: • Presence of unexploited scale economies for small and medium sized companies. • Scale economies vary considerably with customer density. • Higher density or greater complexity is associated with lower optimal size. • Optimal size varies across the companies through unobserved heterogeneity. • Firms with low density can gain more from expanding firm size

  20. DISTRIBUTION OF BANKING PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

    BULGAREA CATALIN NICOLAE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the 90s, retails banks have faced several challenges. One of them is how to efficiently deliver their products and services to the customers. In fact, the most important challenge of a bank is how to efficiently reach the customer, with the right product or service, at the right time. Today, they can choose between branches, contact centers, ATMs, online channels, portals and web banks. Multichannel banking is, therefore, more relevant than ever. Multichannel banking is more than just offering multiple channels, but offering integrated channels, with the optimal balance of services, prices and offer across channels. Banks should have the ability to deliver the right service at the right time in the right channel. The bank should define exactly how they are going to use each channels, which services and products in which channels, how to mix and integrate the channels and how to support the channels

  1. A statistical analysis of North East Atlantic (submicron aerosol size distributions

    M. Dall'Osto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Global Atmospheric Watch research station at Mace Head (Ireland offers the possibility to sample some of the cleanest air masses being imported into Europe as well as some of the most polluted being exported out of Europe. We present a statistical cluster analysis of the physical characteristics of aerosol size distributions in air ranging from the cleanest to the most polluted for the year 2008. Data coverage achieved was 75% throughout the year. By applying the Hartigan-Wong k-Means method, 12 clusters were identified as systematically occurring. These 12 clusters could be further combined into 4 categories with similar characteristics, namely: coastal nucleation category (occurring 21.3 % of the time, open ocean nucleation category (occurring 32.6% of the time, background clean marine category (occurring 26.1% of the time and anthropogenic category (occurring 20% of the time aerosol size distributions. The coastal nucleation category is characterised by a clear and dominant nucleation mode at sizes less than 10 nm while the open ocean nucleation category is characterised by a dominant Aitken mode between 15 nm and 50 nm. The background clean marine aerosol exhibited a clear bimodality in the sub-micron size distribution, with although it should be noted that either the Aitken mode or the accumulation mode may dominate the number concentration. However, peculiar background clean marine size distributions with coarser accumulation modes are also observed during winter months. By contrast, the continentally-influenced size distributions are generally more monomodal (accumulation, albeit with traces of bimodality. The open ocean category occurs more often during May, June and July, corresponding with the North East (NE Atlantic high biological period. Combined with the relatively high percentage frequency of occurrence (32.6%, this suggests that the marine biota is an important source of new nano aerosol particles in NE Atlantic Air.

  2. Evolution of knowledge about distribution of productive forces

    Yevgeny Georgievich Animitsa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents systematization of scientific knowledge concerning distribution of productive forces. It is proved that the conception of distribution of productive forces has dual-natured matter. The authors put an emphasis on interpretation of three main “distribution of productive forces” paradigms, which were figured out from foreign and native theories. Each of these paradigms has its special features and characteristics. It is necessary to use the complex of methods and tools in order to analyze the distinguish features of the distribution in different historic steps. The article provides methodology of distribution of productive forces, which based on such categories as “time” and “space.” Nowadays, this approach is more convenient as allows to reach continuous development. This idea also corresponds to contemporary principles of distribution of productive forces: parsimony principle, spatial concentration principle, irregular distribution of productive forces principle. The authors made conclusion that the modern paradigm of distribution of productive forces will contribute to developing regional economics as a science.

  3. Effect of lubricant oil additive on size distribution, morphology, and nanostructure of diesel particulate matter

    Highlights: • Pour point depressant (PPD) has great impact on particulate matters. • The number of nanoparticles increases sharply after PPD is added. • Ambiguous boundaries can be found when the PPD additive was added. • PPD changes the size distribution into bimodal logarithmic. • Three nanostructure parameters are changed greatly by PPD. - Abstract: Effects of lubricant oil additive on the characterization of particles from a four-cylinder turbocharged diesel engine were investigated. Neat diesel and blended fuel containing oil pour point depressant (PPD) additive were chosen as the test fuels. Effects of different fuels on size distribution, morphology, and nanostructure of the diesel particles were studied. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM) were employed to study the morphology and nanostructure parameters. Particle size distribution was measured by fast particulate spectrometer (DMS 500). According to the experimental results, distribution of the primary particles size of the two fuels conforms to Gaussian distribution, whereas the mean diameter of blended fuel is larger than that of neat diesel at 1200 rpm, which is contrarily smaller at 2400 rpm. Besides, fractal dimension (Df) of aggregates increases close to 2 (Df = 1.991), indicating that the structure became compacter with adding PPD. As to the nanostructure parameters of the blended fuel particles, the layer fringe length decreases from 1.191 nm to 1.064 nm, while both the separation distance and tortuosity increase. The changes in the nanostructure parameters indicate that the particles are more ordered and compressed with burning pure diesel. Results of blended fuel from DMS show that more particles, particularly nucleation mode particles, were discharged. In addition, its size distribution become bimodal logarithmic at 2400 rpm. All these results can provide new information of the effects of oil PPD additive on the formation and characterization of diesel particles

  4. 18th ICPR paper: NEGOTIATION IN DISTRIBUTED PRODUCTION PLANNING ENVIRONMENTS

    Lo Nigro, G; Bruccoleri, Manfredi; Perrone, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Mass customization and global competition push enterprises to adopt proper business models able to capture all the opportunities arising from emerging competition rules. An increasing number of industrial enterprise distributes its production capacity world wide to achieve lower production costs, lower distribution costs (due to the higher closeness to customers), and deeper knowledge of customer needs. As drawback, coordination of the different production plants and the b...

  5. Optimal Price and Product Quality Decisions in a Distribution Channel

    Xiaowei Xu

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies a joint pricing and product quality decision problem in a distribution channel, in which a manufacturer sells a product through a retailer. The manufacturer jointly determines the wholesale price and quality of the product, and the retailer determines the retail price. We find that if the marginal revenue function is strictly concave, then the manufacturer chooses a lower product quality level than if selling the product directly to customers. If the marginal revenue functi...

  6. Determination of the particle size distribution of an aerosol using a diffusion battery

    The principal methods for the treatment of concentration measurements both upstream and downstream of a diffusion battery are reviewed and discussed, the purpose of the measurements being the determination of the aerosol particle size distribution. It is then demonstrated that the resolution of the equations arising from the problem leads to the imposing of physical constraints on the distribution sought, these constraints being more and more restrictive with increasing experimental inaccuracies. An algorithm is proposed which provides an approximate solution to the system of equations, certain predetermined criteria, and the constraints imposed on the distribution being taken into account. (author)

  7. The Determinants of Parental Effort in Education Production: Do Parents Respond to Changes in Class Size?

    Bonesronning, Hans

    2004-01-01

    The present paper supplements the traditional class size literature by exploring the causal relationship between class size and parental effort in education production. Class size variation that is exogenous to parental effort comes from interaction between enrollment and a maximum class size rule of 30 students in the lower secondary school in…

  8. The limit distribution of the maximum increment of a random walk with dependent regularly varying jump sizes

    Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Moser, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the maximum increment of a random walk with heavy-tailed jump size distribution. Here heavy-tailedness is understood as regular variation of the finite-dimensional distributions. The jump sizes constitute a strictly stationary sequence. Using a continuous mapping argument acting on...... the point processes of the normalized jump sizes, we prove that the maximum increment of the random walk converges in distribution to a Frchet distributed random variable....

  9. A stochastic differential equations approach for the description of helium bubble size distributions in irradiated metals

    A rate theory model based on the theory of nonlinear stochastic differential equations (SDEs) is developed to estimate the time-dependent size distribution of helium bubbles in metals under irradiation. Using approaches derived from Itô’s calculus, rate equations for the first five moments of the size distribution in helium–vacancy space are derived, accounting for the stochastic nature of the atomic processes involved. In the first iteration of the model, the distribution is represented as a bivariate Gaussian distribution. The spread of the distribution about the mean is obtained by white-noise terms in the second-order moments, driven by fluctuations in the general absorption and emission of point defects by bubbles, and fluctuations stemming from collision cascades. This statistical model for the reconstruction of the distribution by its moments is coupled to a previously developed reduced-set, mean-field, rate theory model. As an illustrative case study, the model is applied to a tungsten plasma facing component under irradiation. Our findings highlight the important role of stochastic atomic fluctuations on the evolution of helium–vacancy cluster size distributions. It is found that when the average bubble size is small (at low dpa levels), the relative spread of the distribution is large and average bubble pressures may be very large. As bubbles begin to grow in size, average bubble pressures decrease, and stochastic fluctuations have a lessened effect. The distribution becomes tighter as it evolves in time, corresponding to a more uniform bubble population. The model is formulated in a general way, capable of including point defect drift due to internal temperature and/or stress gradients. These arise during pulsed irradiation, and also during steady irradiation as a result of externally applied or internally generated non-homogeneous stress fields. Discussion is given into how the model can be extended to include full spatial resolution and how the implementation of a path-integral approach may proceed if the distribution is known experimentally to significantly stray from a Gaussian description

  10. A stochastic differential equations approach for the description of helium bubble size distributions in irradiated metals

    Seif, Dariush, E-mail: dariush.seif@iwm-extern.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institut für Werkstoffmechanik, Freiburg 79108 (Germany); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States); Ghoniem, Nasr M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    A rate theory model based on the theory of nonlinear stochastic differential equations (SDEs) is developed to estimate the time-dependent size distribution of helium bubbles in metals under irradiation. Using approaches derived from Itô’s calculus, rate equations for the first five moments of the size distribution in helium–vacancy space are derived, accounting for the stochastic nature of the atomic processes involved. In the first iteration of the model, the distribution is represented as a bivariate Gaussian distribution. The spread of the distribution about the mean is obtained by white-noise terms in the second-order moments, driven by fluctuations in the general absorption and emission of point defects by bubbles, and fluctuations stemming from collision cascades. This statistical model for the reconstruction of the distribution by its moments is coupled to a previously developed reduced-set, mean-field, rate theory model. As an illustrative case study, the model is applied to a tungsten plasma facing component under irradiation. Our findings highlight the important role of stochastic atomic fluctuations on the evolution of helium–vacancy cluster size distributions. It is found that when the average bubble size is small (at low dpa levels), the relative spread of the distribution is large and average bubble pressures may be very large. As bubbles begin to grow in size, average bubble pressures decrease, and stochastic fluctuations have a lessened effect. The distribution becomes tighter as it evolves in time, corresponding to a more uniform bubble population. The model is formulated in a general way, capable of including point defect drift due to internal temperature and/or stress gradients. These arise during pulsed irradiation, and also during steady irradiation as a result of externally applied or internally generated non-homogeneous stress fields. Discussion is given into how the model can be extended to include full spatial resolution and how the implementation of a path-integral approach may proceed if the distribution is known experimentally to significantly stray from a Gaussian description.

  11. Structure analysis and size distribution of particulate matter from candles and kerosene combustion in burning chamber

    Baitimirova, M.; Osite, A.; Katkevics, J.; Viksna, A.

    2012-08-01

    Burning of candles generates particulate matter of fine dimensions that produces poor indoor air quality, so it may cause harmful impact on human health. In this study solid aerosol particles of burning of candles of different composition and kerosene combustion were collected in a closed laboratory system. Present work describes particulate matter collection for structure analysis and the relationship between source and size distribution of particulate matter. The formation mechanism of particulate matter and their tendency to agglomerate also are described. Particles obtained from kerosene combustion have normal size distribution. Whereas, particles generated from the burning of stearin candles have distribution shifted towards finer particle size range. If an additive of stearin to paraffin candle is used, particle size distribution is also observed in range of towards finer particles. A tendency to form agglomerates in a short time is observed in case of particles obtained from kerosene combustion, while in case of particles obtained from burning of candles of different composition such a tendency is not observed. Particles from candles and kerosene combustion are Aitken and accumulation mode particles

  12. Structure analysis and size distribution of particulate matter from candles and kerosene combustion in burning chamber

    Burning of candles generates particulate matter of fine dimensions that produces poor indoor air quality, so it may cause harmful impact on human health. In this study solid aerosol particles of burning of candles of different composition and kerosene combustion were collected in a closed laboratory system. Present work describes particulate matter collection for structure analysis and the relationship between source and size distribution of particulate matter. The formation mechanism of particulate matter and their tendency to agglomerate also are described. Particles obtained from kerosene combustion have normal size distribution. Whereas, particles generated from the burning of stearin candles have distribution shifted towards finer particle size range. If an additive of stearin to paraffin candle is used, particle size distribution is also observed in range of towards finer particles. A tendency to form agglomerates in a short time is observed in case of particles obtained from kerosene combustion, while in case of particles obtained from burning of candles of different composition such a tendency is not observed. Particles from candles and kerosene combustion are Aitken and accumulation mode particles

  13. M(H) dependence and size distribution of SPIONs measured by atomic magnetometry

    Colombo, Simone; Grujic, Zoran D; Dolgovskiy, Vladimir; Weis, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the quasistatic recording of the magnetic excitation function M(H) of superparamagnetic iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle (SPION) suspensions by an atomic magnetometer allows a precise determination of the sample's iron mass content mFe and the particle size distribution.

  14. Bubble Size Distribution and Two-Phase Pressure Drop in Thin-Gap Microchannel.

    Křišťál, Jiří; Havlica, Jaromír; Jiřičný, Vladimír

    - : Norhaven Book , 2007 - (Gani, R.; Dam-Johansen, K.), s. 271-272 ISBN 978-87-91435-56-0. [European Congress of Chemical Engineering ECCE-6. Copenhagen (DK), 16.09.2007-20.09.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : rectangular microchannel * bubble size distribution * pressure drop Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  15. Estimates of zooplankton abundance and size distribution with the Optical Plankton Counter (OPC)

    Wieland, Kai; Petersen, D.; Schnack, D.

    1997-01-01

    in order to identify main species in the in situ size frequency distributions obtained by the submersible version of the OPC. Differences in the particle concentration between shallow and deep water layers were clearly resolved by the submersible OPC, but the high diversity of the zooplankton...

  16. Particle size distribution of eroded material from semi-arid soils

    The particle size distribution (PSD) of eroded sediments can be used to deduce potential nutrient losses, pollution hazards and the redistribution of soil components over the landscape. We studied eroded sediments from three semi-arid soils, with different clay contents, that were wetted at a slow (...

  17. Atmospheric Aerosols in Suburb of Prague: The Dynamics of Particle Size Distributions

    Řimnáčová, Daniela; Ždímal, Vladimír; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Smolík, Jiří; Řimnáč, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 3 (2011), s. 539-552. ISSN 0169-8095 Grant ostatní: MF NF(CZ) CZ0049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : atm ospheric aerosols * atm ospheric nucleation * part size distribution Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.911, year: 2011

  18. Investigations on suspended sediment particles size distribution in a small agricultural watershed

    The investigation of suspended sediment size distribution (SSSD) was carried on in a small agricultural watershed of Zagozdzonka river. The Low Angle Laser Light Scattering method was used for SSSD determination. Received results has shown annual changeability in SSSD. The d50 characteristic diameter varied from 0.045 do 0.10 micrometer. The relationship between d50 and mean flow was described

  19. Features of thermal adsorption spectroscopy to find the size distribution of biological polymers and their fragments

    The work deals with the determination of various biopolymer fragments' distribution (DNA and proteins) by their size on the basis of thermal adsorption technique. New features of thermal adsorption spectroscopy with the determination of the length of the DNA fragments and proteins, also analysis of the role of buffer solution in the thermal desorption of biopolymer fragments have been found. (authors)

  20. On-line measurement of particle size distribution of radioactive aerosols

    A device based on the varying impaction efficiencies of particles as a function of their aerodynamic equivalent diameters has been designed and built. It is being installed and calibrated in a dog exposure chamber where it will be used to determine in real time the particle size distribution of the aerosols being inhaled by the animals. (U.S.)

  1. SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS OF SPECIES IN FINE PARTICLES IN DENVER USING A MICROORIFICE IMPACTOR

    Size fractionated fine particles in Denver, Colorado, were collected by a micro-orifice impactor and analyzed for mass and elemental composition by a beta-gauge and an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. A least squares procedure was used to fit a log normal distribution function to...

  2. Nucleation, adatom capture, and island size distributions: Unified scaling analysis for submonolayer deposition

    We consider the irreversible nucleation and growth of two-dimensional islands during submonolayer deposition in the regime of large island sizes. A quasihydrodynamic analysis of rate equations for island densities yields an ordinary differential equation (ODE) for the scaling function describing the island size distribution. This ODE involves the scaling function for the dependence on island size of 'capture numbers' describing the aggregation of diffusing adatoms. The latter is determined via a quasihydrodynamic analysis of rate equations for the areas of 'capture zones' surrounding islands. Alternatively, a more complicated analysis yields a partial differential equation (PDE) for the scaling function describing the joint probability distribution for island sizes and capture zone areas. Then, applying a moment analysis to this PDE, we obtain refined versions of the above ODE's, together with a third equation for the variance of the cell area distribution (for islands of a given size). The key nontrivial input to the above equations is a detailed characterization of nucleation. We analyze these equations for a general formulation of nucleation, as well as for an idealized picture considered previously, wherein nucleated islands have capture zones lying completely within those of existing islands

  3. Ultrashort laser ablation of bulk copper targets: Dynamics and size distribution of the generated nanoparticles

    We address the role of laser pulse fluence on expansion dynamics and size distribution of the nanoparticles produced by irradiating a metallic target with an ultrashort laser pulse in a vacuum, an issue for which contrasting indications are present in the literature. To this end, we have carried out a combined theoretical and experimental analysis of laser ablation of a bulk copper target with ≈50 fs, 800 nm pulses, in an interval of laser fluencies going from few to several times the ablation threshold. On one side, molecular dynamics simulations, with two-temperature model, describe the decomposition of the material through the analysis of the evolution of thermodynamic trajectories in the material phase diagram, and allow estimating the size distribution of the generated nano-aggregates. On the other side, atomic force microscopy of less than one layer nanoparticles deposits on witness plates, and fast imaging of the nanoparticles broadband optical emission provide the corresponding experimental characterization. Both experimental and numerical findings agree on a size distribution characterized by a significant fraction (≈90%) of small nanoparticles, and a residual part (≈10%) spanning over a rather large size interval, evidencing a weak dependence of the nanoparticles sizes on the laser pulse fluence. Numerical and experimental findings show a good degree of consistency, thus suggesting that modeling can realistically support the search for experimental methods leading to an improved control over the generation of nanoparticles by ultrashort laser ablation.

  4. Vertical distribution of the prokaryotic cell size in the Mediterranean Sea

    La Ferla, R.; Maimone, G.; Azzaro, M.; Conversano, F.; Brunet, C.; Cabral, A. S.; Paranhos, R.

    2012-12-01

    Distributions of prokaryotic cell size and morphology were studied in different areas of the Mediterranean Sea by using image analysis on samples collected from surface down to bathypelagic layers (max depth 4,900 m) in the Southern Tyrrhenian, Southern Adriatic and Eastern Mediterranean Seas. Distribution of cell size of prokaryotes in marine ecosystem is very often not considered, which makes our study first in the context of prokaryotic ecology. In the deep Mediterranean layers, an usually-not-considered form of carbon sequestration through prokaryotic cells has been highlighted, which is consistent with an increase in cell size with the depth of the water column. A wide range in prokaryotic cell volumes was observed (between 0.045 and 0.566 μm3). Increase in cell size with depth was opposed to cell abundance distribution. Our results from microscopic observations were confirmed by the increasing HNA/LNA ratio (HNA, cells with high nucleic acid content; LNA, cells with low nucleic acid content) along the water column. Implications of our results on the increasing cell size with depth are in the fact that the quantitative estimation of prokaryotic biomass changes along the water column and the amount of carbon sequestered in the deep biota is enhanced.

  5. Size distribution of particle-associated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their implications for health

    Lyu, Yan; Xu, Tingting; Li, Xiang; Cheng, Tiantao; Yang, Xin; Sun, Xiaomin; Chen, Jianmin

    2016-03-01

    In order to better understand the size distribution of particle-associated PBDEs and their deposition pattern in the human respiratory tract, we carried out a 1-year campaign during 2012-2013 for the measurement of size-resolved particles at the urban site of Shanghai. The results showed that particulate PBDEs exhibited a bimodal distribution with a mode peak in the accumulation particle size range and the second mode peak in the coarse particle size ranges. As the number of bromine atoms in the molecule increases, accumulation-mode peak intensity increased while coarse-mode peak intensity decreased. This change was consistent with the variation of PBDEs' subcooled vapor pressure. Absorption and adsorption processes dominated the distribution of PBDEs among the different size particles. The evaluated deposition flux of Σ13 PBDEs was 26.8 pg h-1, in which coarse particles contributed most PBDEs in head and tracheobronchial regions, while fine-mode particles contributed major PBDEs in the alveoli region. In association with the fact that fine particles can penetrate deeper into the respiratory system, fine-particle-bound highly brominated PBDEs can be inhaled more deeply into human lungs and cause a greater risk to human health.

  6. Dependence of Particle Size and Size Distribution on Mechanical Sensitivity and Thermal Stability of Hexahydro-1, 3, 5-trinitro-1, 3, 5-triazine

    Xiaolan Song

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of RDX samples, with broad and narrow particle size distribution, have been fabricated by wet riddling and solvent/non-solvent methods, respectively. By controlling the technical condition, the RDX powders with different particle sizes were obtained for each sample. All samples were characterised by laser granularity measurement and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Using mechanical sensitivity tests, slow cook-off test and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, the mechanical safety and thermal stability of RDX samples, depending on the particle sizes and size distribution, were studied. Results indicated that, for each kind of RDX particles, the mechanical sensitivity and thermal stability of samples changed according to the particle size. However, although two samples had almost the same average particle size, their safety changed when two particle size distributions differed. Concretely, the mechanical sensitivity of RDX reduced and their thermal stability increased gradually along with the decreasing of particle size. Meanwhile, RDX with broad size distribution had higher mechanical sensitivity and thermal stability than samples with narrow size distribution.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(1, pp.37-42, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1482

  7. The Distribution of Family Sizes Under a Time-Homogeneous Birth and Death Process.

    Moschopoulos, Panagis; Shpak, Max

    2010-05-11

    The number of extant individuals within a lineage, as exemplified by counts of species numbers across genera in a higher taxonomic category, is known to be a highly skewed distribution. Because the sublineages (such as genera in a clade) themselves follow a random birth process, deriving the distribution of lineage sizes involves averaging the solutions to a birth and death process over the distribution of time intervals separating the origin of the lineages. In this article, we show that the resulting distributions can be represented by hypergeometric functions of the second kind. We also provide approximations of these distributions up to the second order, and compare these results to the asymptotic distributions and numerical approximations used in previous studies. For two limiting cases, one with a relatively high rate of lineage origin, one with a low rate, the cumulative probability densities and percentiles are compared to show that the approximations are robust over a wide range of parameters. It is proposed that the probability distributions of lineage size may have a number of relevant applications to biological problems such as the coalescence of genetic lineages and in predicting the number of species in living and extinct higher taxa, as these systems are special instances of the underlying process analyzed in this article. PMID:23543815

  8. Effect of ground granulated blast furnace slag particle size distribution on paste rheology: A preliminary model

    Kashani, Alireza; Provis, John L.; van Deventer, Jannie S. J.

    2013-06-01

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag is widely combined with Portland cement as a supplementary material, and is also used in alkali-activated binders (geopolymers) and in supersulfated cements, which are potential replacements for Portland cement with significantly reduced carbon dioxide emissions. The rheology of a cementitious material is important in terms of its influence on workability, especially in self leveling concretes. The current research investigates the effects of different particle size distributions of slag particles on paste rheology. Rheological measurements results show a direct relationship between the modal particle size and the yield stress of the paste. An empirical model is introduced to calculate the yield stress value of each paste based on the particle size distribution, and applied to a range of systems at single water to solids ratio. The model gives a very good match with the experimental data.

  9. A uniform measurement expression for cross method comparison of nanoparticle aggregate size distributions

    Dudkiewicz, Agnieszka; Wagner, Stephan; Lehner, Angela; Chaudhry, Qasim; Pietravalle, Stphane; Tiede, Karen; Boxall, Alistair B. A.; Allmaier, Guenter; Tiede, Dirk; Grombe, Ringo; von der Kammer, Frank; Hofmann, Thilo; Mlhave, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Available measurement methods for nanomaterials are based on very different measurement principles and hence produce different values when used on aggregated nanoparticle dispersions. This paper provides a solution for relating measurements of nanomaterials comprised of nanoparticle aggregates...... determined by different techniques using a uniform expression of a mass equivalent diameter (MED). The obtained solution is used to transform into MED the size distributions of the same sample of synthetic amorphous silica (nanomaterial comprising aggregated nanoparticles) measured by six different...... increased retention of smaller nanomaterials (SEM). This study thereby presents a successful and conclusive cross-method comparison of size distribution measurements of aggregated nanomaterials. The authors recommend the uniform MED size expression for application in nanomaterial risk assessment studies and...

  10. Ultrafine particle emissions along motorways. Emission factors, particle numbers and size distributions

    The aim of this study is the determination of emission factors for ultrafine particles and size distributions along motorways in the Netherlands. In the experimental campaign particle number concentrations and size distribution in the size range from 13 to 583 nm were measured by condensation particle counters (CPC) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), respectively. The measurements were taken upwind and at various distances downwind of two Dutch motorways of which one site was situated about 20 km north of the city of Amsterdam (A9- motorway) in the open field, and the other within the Amsterdam agglomeration (A4, near the junction with the A10). At each sampling day, concentrations of particulate matter, CO and NOx were measured over 20 to 30 min after which the mobile measurement was driven to the next location at another distance. In this study the experimental data collected on 8 days are discussed

  11. Controlled grain size distribution and refinement of an EN AW-6082 aluminium alloy

    Lampke, Thomas; Dietrich, Dagmar; Nickel, Daniela [Chemnitz Univ. of Technology (Germany). Inst. of Materials Science and Engineering; Bergmann, Markus [Chemnitz Univ. of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Machine Tools and Production Processes; Zachaeus, Rene [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Umformtechnik (IWU), Chemnitz (Germany); Neugebauer, Reimund [Chemnitz Univ. of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Machine Tools and Production Processes; Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Umformtechnik (IWU), Chemnitz (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    An EN AW-6082 aluminium alloy was subjected to incremental deformation by a new process named gradation rolling. The process has been used to generate a grain size distribution in a rod-shaped billet. A grain size gradient ranging from coarse-grained in the billet core to ultrafine grained at the surface of the billet can be obtained. The grain size distribution has been confirmed by electron backscatter diffraction showing the grain refinement related to the true strain. The fibre texture of the base material has been transformed to a rolling texture in the surface region. This results in strain-hardening and grain-boundary strengthening in the surface region (130 HV0.5) as compared to the unchanged core material (110 HV0.5). (orig.)

  12. A new method for measurement of droplet size distribution in superheated emulsions

    Superheated emulsion contains micron-sized superheated liquid droplets suspended in a host liquid medium. The superheated droplets nucleate to vapor bubbles when energetic radiation deposits a sufficient amount of energy within a very small localized region of the active liquid. Droplet nucleation is associated with a change in volume and also emission of an acoustic pulse, both of which can be detected electronically. When exposed to energetic radiation, the metastable superheated droplets nucleate independently of each other, and the number of drops nucleated and volume of vapor formed due to nucleation of these droplets are both acquired simultaneously as a function of time. These two data are then fitted simultaneously to obtain the droplet size distribution of the emulsion. The size distributions of R-114 (C2Cl2F4)- and R-12 (CCl2F2)-based emulsions are obtained by this method and compared with direct optical measurements

  13. Algorithm of Data Reduce in Determination of Aerosol Particle Size Distribution at Damps/C

    The analysis had to do for algorithm of data reduction on Damps/C (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer with Condensation Particle Counter) system, this is for determine aerosol particle size distribution with range 0,01 ?m to 1 ?m in diameter. Damps/C (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer with Condensation Particle Counter) system contents are software and hardware. The hardware used determine of mobilities of aerosol particle and so the software used determine aerosol particle size distribution in diameter. The mobilities and diameter particle had connection in the electricity field. That is basic program for reduction of data and particle size conversion from particle mobility become particle diameter. The analysis to get transfer function value, ?, is 0.5. The data reduction program to do conversation mobility basis become diameter basis with number efficiency correction, transfer function value, and poly charge particle. (author)

  14. Forms of density regulation and (quasi-) stationary distributions of population sizes in birds

    Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Engen, Steinar; Grøtan, Vidar; Bregnballe, Thomas; Both, Chistiaan; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Leivits, Agu; Wright, Jonathan; Møller, Anders Pape; Visser, Marcel E.; Winkel, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The theta-logistic model of density regulation is an especially flexible class of density regulation models where different forms of non-linear density regulation can be expressed by only one parameter, u. Estimating the parameters of the thetalogistic model is, however, challenging. This is mainly...... that have grown from very small population sizes followed by a period of fluctuations around K. We then use these parameters to estimate the quasi-stationary distribution of population size. There were often large uncertainties in these parameters specifying the form of density regulation that were...... generally independent of the duration of the study period. In contrast, precision in the estimates of environmental variance increased with the length of the time series. In most of the populations, a large proportion of the probability density of the (quasi-) stationary distribution of population sizes was...

  15. Explicit expressions of the Pietra index for the generalized function for the size distribution of income

    Sarabia, Jos Mara; Jord, Vanesa

    2014-12-01

    The importance of the Pietra index in socioeconomic systems and econophysics has been highlighted by Eliazar and Sokolov (2010). In this paper, we obtain closed expressions for the Pietra index for the generalized function for the size of income proposed by McDonald (1984). This family is composed of three classes of distributions: the generalized gamma distribution (GG), the generalized beta of the first kind (GB1) and the generalized beta of the second kind (GB2). For the different distributions, we obtain closed and simple expressions of the Pietra index, which can be easily computed. We also obtain the Pietra index for other relevant income models including finite mixtures of distributions and the ?-generalized distribution (Clementi et al., 2008). Finally, two empirical applications with real income data are given.

  16. Effect of indoor activity size distribution of 222Rn progeny in-depth dose estimation

    In this work, the attached and unattached activity size distribution of 222Rn progeny (214Bi and 218Po) were measured indoor. The fraction of attached progeny was collected using a low-pressure Berner cascade-impactor technique. A constructed wire screen diffusion battery was used for collecting the fraction of unattached progeny. Most of the attached activities for 214Bi progeny were associated with the aerosol particles of the accumulation mode. The active median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of this mode for 214Bi was determined to be 350 nm with a geometric standard division (GSD) of 3. The GSD of unattached size distributions for 218Po was 1.3 with an active median aerodynamic diameter (AMTD) of 1.3 nm. Given that dose estimation is sensitive to environmental conditions, an analytical method was introduced to compute the local energy deposition of 218Po alpha particles in a target volume of 1 μm spheres located at different depths in bronchial epithelium. While the depth–dose distributions for nuclides uniformly distributed within the epithelium were found to be practically constant with depth, they decreased in an almost linear fashion with increasing depth for nuclides on the airway surface. - Highlights: • The activity size distribution of short-lived 222Rn progeny in indoor air is determined. • Radiation depth dose in lung from radon progeny is determined experimentally. • Mechanism of 218Po alpha particles deposition in bronchial airways is described. • Dose conversion factors as functions of depth are produced

  17. COLOR DEPENDENCE IN THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS REVISITED

    The size distribution of the asteroid belt is examined with 16956 main belt asteroids detected in data taken from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey in two filters (g' and r'). The cumulative H (absolute magnitude) distribution is examined in both filters, and both match well to simple power laws down to H = 17, with slopes in rough agreement with those reported the literature. This implies that disruptive collisions between asteroids are gravitationally dominated down to at least this size, and probably sub-kilometer scales. The slopes of these distributions appear shallower in the outer belt than the inner belt, and the g' distributions appear slightly steeper than the r'. The slope shallowing in the outer belt may reflect a real compositional difference: the inner asteroid belt has been suggested to consist mostly of stony and/or metallic S-type asteroids, whereas carbonaceous C-types are thought to be more prevalent further from the Sun. No waves are seen in the size distribution above H = 15. Since waves are expected to be produced at the transition from gravitationally-dominated to internal strength-dominated collisions, their absence here may imply that the transition occurs at sub-kilometer scales, much smaller than the H = 17 (diameter ∼ 1.6 km) cutoff of this study.

  18. Spatio-temporal evolution of the dust particle size distribution in dusty argon rf plasmas

    Killer, Carsten; Mulsow, Matthias; Melzer, André

    2015-04-01

    An imaging Mie scattering technique has been developed to measure the spatially resolved size distribution of dust particles in extended dust clouds. For large dust clouds of micrometre-sized plastic particles confined in an radio frequency (rf) discharge, a segmentation of the dust cloud into populations of different sizes is observed, even though the size differences are very small. The dust size dispersion inside a population is much smaller than the difference between the populations. Furthermore, the dust size is found to be constantly decreasing over time while the particles are confined in an inert argon plasma. The processes responsible for the shrinking of the dust in the plasma have been addressed by mass spectrometry, ex situ microscopy of the dust size, dust resonance measurements, in situ determination of the dust surface temperature and Fourier transform infrared absorption (FT-IR). It is concluded that both a reduction of dust size and its mass density due to outgassing of water and other volatile constituents as well as chemical etching by oxygen impurities are responsible for the observations.

  19. Production and characterization of deposited mono-sized clusters

    Using high energy rare gas ion sputtering of metal targets, the authors are able to produce nanoamps of mass selected transition metal clusters. Mono-sized cluster ions are deposited at low kinetic energy upon substrates, e.g. silica or carbon, and are then characterized using UV and x-ray photoemission. In this paper the authors discuss photoemission measurements of the 4f7/2 core level energies of Au (1-5,7 atom samples) clusters deposited on silica. From such studies the authors are beginning to understand how electronic structure, cluster stability and mobility depend on (deposited) cluster size, surface coverage, and substrate temperature

  20. Biomass and estimated production properties of size-fractionated zooplankton in the Yellow Sea, China

    Huo, Yuanzi; Sun, Song; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Minxiao; Li, Chaolun; Yang, Bo

    2012-06-01

    The size-fractionated zooplankton biomass, taxonomic composition, and production calculated by formulas basing on Ikeda-Motoda's physiological methods were studied on the basis of samples taken from six cruises in the Yellow Sea. Zooplankton was size-fractionated using sieves into ~ 2 mm, 1-2 mm, 0.5-1 mm, 0.25-0.5 mm and 0.16-0.25 mm groups. The results showed that the average zooplankton biomass was 84.03 mg DM m- 3 in May, followed in order by September, June, March, August and December with 42.34, 38.36, 32.37, 27.17 and 21.83 mg DM m- 3, respectively. The contribution of ~ 2 mm, 1-2 mm, 0.5-1 mm, 0.25-0.5 mm and 0.16-0.25 mm groups to the total biomass was in the range of 15.2-27.4%, 13.2-29.4%, 14.7-18.2%, 15.8-22.6% and 16.3-34.2%, respectively, during the investigating period. The biomass of all size groups was all highest in May, and except that the biomass of 0.16-0.25 mm group was lowest in August, the biomass of other size groups was lowest in December. The dominant zooplankton species (or taxa) in each group were similar between six cruises. The estimated zooplankton production was highest in May with 1.97 mg C m- 3 d- 1, and was lowest in December with 0.51 mg C m- 3 d- 1, and was in the range of 0.67-1.44 mg C m- 3 d- 1 in other investigating months. The estimated annual zooplankton production was 0.37 g C m- 3 y- 1. The two smallest groups aggregately comprised 59-84% of the net-zooplankton production in the Yellow Sea. The geographical distribution of size-fractionated zooplankton biomass and production was significantly affected by the complex physical features of the Yellow Sea. When the Yellow Sea Cold Bottom Water appeared from June to September, the biomass and production of zooplankton larger than 1 mm were higher inside the cold water mass area than outside it, while the zooplankton smaller than 1 mm showed contrary results. The higher biomass and production of all zooplankton groups occurred in the southern part of the study area in December due to the intrusion of the Yellow Sea Warm Current. And in March, the higher zooplankton biomass and production, especially for small size zooplankton, occurred at the coastal waters resulting from complex physical properties. Results of the present paper showed the biomass and production properties of size-fractionated zooplankton, which is very important for "parameterization" of food web structure models of the Yellow Sea.