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Sample records for plant salacia reticulata

  1. Adverse pregnancy outcome in rats following exposure to a Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) root extract

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    W.D., Ratnasooriya; J.R.A.C., Jayakody; G.A.S., Premakumara.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The root extract of Salacia reticulata Wight (family: Celastraceae) is used in Sri Lanka by traditional practitioners as a herbal therapy for glycemic control even during pregnancy. It is recognized that some clinically used antidiabetic drugs have harmful effects on pregnancy but the effects of the [...] S. reticulata root extract on reproductive outcome is unknown and deserves examination. We determined the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on the reproductive outcome of Wistar rats (250-260 g) when administered orally (10 g/kg) during early (days 1-7) and mid- (days 7-14) pregnancy. The root extract significantly (P

  2. Anti-proliferative effects of Salacia reticulata leaves hot-water extract on interleukin-1?-activated cells derived from the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis model mice

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    Sekiguchi Yuusuke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salacia reticulata (SR is a plant native to Sri Lanka. In ayurvedic medicine, SR bark preparations, taken orally, are considered effective in the treatment of rheumatism and diabetes. We investigated the ability of SR leaves (SRL to inhibit in vitro the interleukin-1? (IL-1?-activated proliferation of synoviocyte-like cells derived from rheumatoid arthritis model mice. Findings Inflammatory synovial tissues were harvested from type II collagen antibody-induced arthritic mice. From these tissues, a synoviocyte-like cell line was established and named MTS-C H7. To determine whether SRL can suppress cell proliferation and gene expression in MTS-C H7 cells, fractionation of the SRL hot-water extract was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, liquid-liquid extraction, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, and protease digestion. The 50% inhibitory concentration of the SRL hot-water extract against MTS-C H7 cells proliferation was ~850??g/mL. Treatment with a low dose (25??g dry matter per millilitre of the extract inhibited IL-1?-induced cell proliferation and suppressed the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP genes in MTS-C H7 cells. Various polyphenolic fractions obtained from HPLC and the fractions from liquid-liquid extraction did not affect cell proliferation. Only the residual water sample from liquid-liquid extraction significantly affected cell proliferation and the expression of MMP genes. The results of SDS-PAGE and protease digestion experiment showed that low molecular weight proteins present in SRL inhibited the IL-1?-activated cell proliferation. Conclusions We surmised that the residual water fraction of the SRL extract was involved in the inhibition of IL-1?-activated cell proliferation and regulation of mRNA expression in MTS-C H7 cells. In addition, we believe that the active ingredients in the extract are low molecular weight proteins.

  3. Mutagenicity induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the medicinal plant Plathymenia reticulata Benth

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    A Della Torre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plathymenia reticulata Benth has an anti-inflammatory effect and is capable of neutralizing the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu or Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, probably by precipitating venom proteins (an effect caused by plant tannins. The present study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic activity of P. reticulata by using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test and the micronucleus test in CHO-K1 cells. P. reticulata extract concentrations of 2.84, 5.68, 11.37, and 19.90 mg/plate were assayed by the Ames test using TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 bacterial strains, with (+S9 and without (-S9 metabolic activation. Concentrations of 5, 1.6 and 0.5 μg/mL of P. reticulata extract were used for the micronucleus test. P. reticulata extract was mutagenic to TA98 (-S9 and showed signs of mutagenic activity in TA97a and TA102 (both -S9 strains. Micronucleus test CBPI values showed that the endogenous metabolic system increased the number of viable cells when compared to the non-activated samples and the micronucleus frequency increased when the cells were treated in the absence of S9. We concluded that P. reticulata extract may present direct mutagenic properties.

  4. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart): Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties.

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    Jamkhande, Prasad G; Wattamwar, Amruta S

    2015-07-01

    From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. ( niú x?n gu?; Bullock's heart) is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound healing and cytotoxic effects. It is widely distributed with phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Present article is an attempt to highlight over taxonomy, morphology, geographical distribution, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of A. reticulata reported so far. PMID:26151026

  5. A REVIEW UPDATED ON ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF KIRGANELIA RETICULATA POIR (BAILL. : AN IMPORTANT HERBAL PLANT

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    Rajesh Kumar Soni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kirganelia reticulata (Poir. Baill. is known for its importance in various traditional medicines around the world. In present review covers a literature survey across from 1971 to 2014 until now. The some information collected from published literature on species of Kirganelia reticulata (Poir. Baill. (=Syn. Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir..The extract and the compounds isolated from Kirganelia reticulata show a wide spectrum of biological activities including antidiabetic, antibacterial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antiplasmodial, anticiceptive, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.

  6. SALACIA IMPERATORIA URBS

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    José d’Encarnação

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Síntese acerca do que se tem investigado sobre Alcácer do Sal na época romana. Explicita-se a razão do nome; refere-se o interesse que, em todos os tempos, despertou nos historiadores; releva-se o papel fundamental que deteve do ponto de vista estratégico e económico (os Cornelli Bocchi, a emissão de moeda…. Analisa-se, nesse contexto, o pedestal dedicado por uma flamínia a I. O. M. (IRCP 183; a consagração de Vicanus, Bouti filius, ao imperador Augusto (IRCP 184, a presença da onomástica grega e a importância invulgar da tabella defixionis, em que se invocam Hércules e Átis. ENGLISH: Synthesis of the investigation about Salacia: the cause of its Roman designation, the interest of the researchers throughout time, the important strategic and economic position of the town (the family of the Cornelli Bocchi, emission of money…. Additionally, this synthesis includes the reanalysis of uncommon epigraphic texts: the dedication of a flaminica to I. O. M. (IRCP 183, the consecration of Vicanus Bouti filius to the Emperor August (IRCP 184, the significant presence of the Greek names and of a tabella defixionis where the power of Hercules and Atis are invoked.

  7. REVIEW ON KIRGANELIA RETICULATA

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    Amol Kharat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and information on Kirganelia reticulata (Poir Family Euphorbiaceae, a medicinal herb used in the indigenous system of medicine. K. reticulata has been adored in almost all ancient ayurvedic texts for its extraordinary medicinal properties. K. reticulata is annual herbaceous climbing plant with long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties and has utilized for treatment of various ailments including, diuretic, diarrhoea, small pox and astringent. Wild range of chemical compound including, flavanoids, triterpenoids, alkaloids and glycosides have been isolated from the species. Their extracts have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. A compressive review of its ethanomedical uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant is prepared. Particular attention is given to its antibacterial, antiviral, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant effects so that its potential uses can be better evaluated. This review will definitely help for the researchers as well as clinicians dealing with K. reticulata to know its proper usage as this herb is seemed to be highly valuable, possessing many pharmacological / medicinal properties. Keywords: Euphorbiaceae, Kirganelia reticulate, phytochemistry, Pharmacological properties

  8. Biochemical characterization of selected plant species from Brazilian Savannas

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    Samantha Salomão Caramori

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the presence of antinutritional compounds such as lectins and trypsin-like inhibitors, polyphenols and tannins, and enzymatic activity of peroxidases and proteases in the seeds of Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá, Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca, Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada, Salacia crassiflora Mart G. Don. (bacupari, and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro. The results suggested that these plants could be used as new source of food.O Cerrado é constituído por inúmeras espécies vegetais com potencial econômico, as quais são utilizadas para os mais variados fins, como medicinal e nutricional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar e quantificar a presença de atividade enzimática de peroxidases e proteases e fatores antinutricionais, como lectinas e inibidores de proteases, além de polifenóis e taninos em algumas espécies nativas do Cerrado. O material vegetal utilizado foram sementes de Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá, Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca, Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada, Salacia crassiflora (Mart. G. Don. (bacupari e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro, coletadas na cidade de Goiânia e municípios de Jataí e Caldas Novas, estado de Goiás. O uso potencial destas plantas e suas enzimas na indústria de alimentos, poderia resultar em aplicações ao aparecimento de novos produtos a partir das matérias-primas tradicionais, além do uso de novas fontes de alimentos.

  9. Analgesic, Anti- inflammatory, Anti- lipoxygenase Activity and Characterization of Three Bioactive Compounds in the Most Active Fraction of Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.)Wight & Arn. - A Valuable Medicinal Plant.

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    Mohanty, Sudipta Kumar; Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Middha, Sushil Kumar; Prakash, Lokesh; Subbanarashiman, Balasubramanya; Maniyam, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Leptadenia reticulata was reported to be used for several medicinal purposes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate anti-inflammatory, analgesic and lipid peroxidation inhibition activities of L. reticulata. The anti-inflammatory assay was performed by ?-carrageenan and formalin induced paw edema test. Pro inflammatory mediators (IL2, IL6, TNF-?) in serum of treated and control organism were analyzed by quantitative ELISA. Lipid peroxidation inhibition was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Analysis of the most active fraction revealed the presence of one phenolic compound (p-coumaric acid), two flavonoids (rutin and quercetin) which also determined quantitatively. The ethyl acetate fraction at 600 mg/Kg significantly inhibited ?-carrageenan and formalin induced paw edema by 60.59% and 59.24% respectively. Notable reduction in percentage of writhing (76.25%), induced by acetic acid signifies the potent analgesic activity. Lower level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, TNF-?) in serum at the 4(th) hour of ?-Carrageenan injection indicated the inhibition of cyclooxigenase-2 (Cox-2), Nitric oxide (NO) and release of prostaglandin to prevent inflammation. The study also demonstrated the decrease in malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration which revealed the lipid peroxidation inhibition potential of the plant. Our finding provides evidence for potent biological activities in tested model which is supported by its characterized bioactive compounds and ethnomedicinal relevance. PMID:26330883

  10. Use of an infrared thermometer for assessment of plant water stress in neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco

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    Sayan Sdoodee

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In general, water stress causes stomatal closure in citrus, and this leads to higher leaf temperature. Recently, it has been reported that infrared thermometry technique can be used for detecting stomatal closure indirectly to assess plant water stress. Therefore, it was proposed to apply to neck orange. An experiment was arranged as a completely randomized design. There were 3 treatments of watering levels: 1 wellwatering (W1, 2 3-day interval watering (W2, and 3 6-day interval watering (W3 with 6 replicates. Eighteen 2-year-old trees of neck orange were used, and each tree was grown in a container (0.4 m3 filled with mixed media of soil, compost and sand (1:1:1. During 18 days of the experimental period, it was found that leaf water potential and stomatal conductance of the plants in W2 and W3 treatments decreased with the progress of water stress. There was high correlation (r2 = 0.71** between leaf water potential and stomatal conductance as a linear regression (Y = 0.0044X-1.8635. Canopy temperature (Tc and air temperature (Ta of each tree were measured by an infrared thermometer, and Tc-Ta was assessed. At the end of the experimental period, it was found that Tc-Ta was significantly highest in the W3 treatment (3.5ºC followed by the of W2 treatment (2ºC, while it was lowest in the W1 treatment (1ºC. The relationship between Tc-Ta and stomatal conductance was high as polynomial (Y = 0.0002X2 0.0572X+3.9878, r2 = 0.70**. This indicated that stomatal closure or decreasing stomatal conductance caused increasing of Tc-Ta in the leaves. Hence, it suggests that infrared thermometer is a convenient device for the assessment of plant water stress in neck orange.

  11. Salacia campestris root bark extract: peroxidase inhibition, antioxidant and antiradical profile

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    José Carlos Rebuglio Vellosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS and free radical species have been implicated in initiating or accompanying many diseases in living organisms; there is thus, a continual need for antioxidants molecules to inactivate ROS/free radicals. Many studies of plants crude extracts have demonstrated free-radical scavenging and antioxidant action. Salacia species have long been used, in several countries, as traditional medicines against certain diseases and for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae root bark ethanol extract (ScEtOH was assessed for its ability to scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen species; the results were expressed as percentage inhibition of the active species. ScEtOH was efficient against studied species: DPPH radical (obtained inhibition = 30%, ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1.8±0.8 ?g/mL, HOCl (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.1 ?g/mL, O2•- (obtained inhibition = 32%, and NO• (obtained inhibition = 18 %. Peroxidase activity inhibition was evaluated through the guaiacol oxidation reaction catalyzed by hemin, HRP and myeloperoxidase (MPO; data showed that ScEtOH at 10 ?g/mL led to 54 and 51% of inhibition, respectively, for the hemin and HRP systems. In the MPO system, ScEtOH promoted a 50% inhibition at 8.9 ?g/mL, whereas quercetin, a powerful MPO inhibitor, inhibited this system at 1.35 ?g/mL.Espécies reativas do oxigênio (ERO e radicais livres estão relacionados ao início ou à exacerbação de muitas doenças em organismos vivos; existindo portanto uma necessidade contínua por moléculas antioxidantes que inativem as ERO e radicais livres. Muitos estudos com extratos brutos de plantas têm demonstrado propriedades antioxidantes e seqüestradoras de radicais livres. Espécies de Salacia são utilizadas, em muitos países, como remédio tradicional contra certas doenças e por suas propriedades antiinflamatórias. Neste estudo, o extrato bruto etanólico da casca da raiz da Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae foi avaliado quanto à sua habilidade em seqüestrar radicais livres e espécies reativas do oxigênio; os resultados são expressos como porcentagem de inibição das espécies ativas. ScEtOH mostrou-se eficiente frente as espécies estudadas: radical DPPH (inibição obtida = 30%, ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1,8±0,8 ?g/mL, HOCl (IC50 = 1,7 ± 0,1 ?g/mL, O2•- (inibição obtida = 32%, and NO• (inibição obtida = 18%. A inibição da atividade peroxidásica foi avaliada através da oxidação do guaiacol catalisada pela hemina, HRP e mieloperoxidase (MPO; os dados mostram que 10 ?g/mL de ScEtOH promovem 54 e 51% de inibição, respectivamente para os sistemas da hemina e da HRP. No sistema da MPO, ScEtOH promoveu 50% de inibição na dose de 8,9 ?g/mL, enquanto a quercetina, um potente inibidor da MPO promoveu tal inibição com 1,35 ?g/mL.

  12. Salacia campestris root bark extract: peroxidase inhibition, antioxidant and antiradical profile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Carlos Rebuglio, Vellosa; Najeh Maissar, Khalil; Vânia Ortega, Gutierres; Vânia Aparecida de Freitas Formenton Macedo dos, Santos; Maysa, Furlan; Iguatemy Lourenço, Brunetti; Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria, Oliveira.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Espécies reativas do oxigênio (ERO) e radicais livres estão relacionados ao início ou à exacerbação de muitas doenças em organismos vivos; existindo portanto uma necessidade contínua por moléculas antioxidantes que inativem as ERO e radicais livres. Muitos estudos com extratos brutos de plantas têm [...] demonstrado propriedades antioxidantes e seqüestradoras de radicais livres. Espécies de Salacia são utilizadas, em muitos países, como remédio tradicional contra certas doenças e por suas propriedades antiinflamatórias. Neste estudo, o extrato bruto etanólico da casca da raiz da Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae) foi avaliado quanto à sua habilidade em seqüestrar radicais livres e espécies reativas do oxigênio; os resultados são expressos como porcentagem de inibição das espécies ativas. ScEtOH mostrou-se eficiente frente as espécies estudadas: radical DPPH (inibição obtida = 30%), ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1,8±0,8 ?g/mL), HOCl (IC50 = 1,7 ± 0,1 ?g/mL), O2•- (inibição obtida = 32%), and NO• (inibição obtida = 18%). A inibição da atividade peroxidásica foi avaliada através da oxidação do guaiacol catalisada pela hemina, HRP e mieloperoxidase (MPO); os dados mostram que 10 ?g/mL de ScEtOH promovem 54 e 51% de inibição, respectivamente para os sistemas da hemina e da HRP. No sistema da MPO, ScEtOH promoveu 50% de inibição na dose de 8,9 ?g/mL, enquanto a quercetina, um potente inibidor da MPO promoveu tal inibição com 1,35 ?g/mL. Abstract in english Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radical species have been implicated in initiating or accompanying many diseases in living organisms; there is thus, a continual need for antioxidants molecules to inactivate ROS/free radicals. Many studies of plants crude extracts have demonstrated free-radica [...] l scavenging and antioxidant action. Salacia species have long been used, in several countries, as traditional medicines against certain diseases and for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae) root bark ethanol extract (ScEtOH) was assessed for its ability to scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen species; the results were expressed as percentage inhibition of the active species. ScEtOH was efficient against studied species: DPPH radical (obtained inhibition = 30%), ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1.8±0.8 ?g/mL), HOCl (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.1 ?g/mL), O2•- (obtained inhibition = 32%), and NO• (obtained inhibition = 18 %). Peroxidase activity inhibition was evaluated through the guaiacol oxidation reaction catalyzed by hemin, HRP and myeloperoxidase (MPO); data showed that ScEtOH at 10 ?g/mL led to 54 and 51% of inhibition, respectively, for the hemin and HRP systems. In the MPO system, ScEtOH promoted a 50% inhibition at 8.9 ?g/mL, whereas quercetin, a powerful MPO inhibitor, inhibited this system at 1.35 ?g/mL.

  13. Determination of Bioactive components from the Ethanolic Peel extract of Citrus reticulata by Gas chromatography ? Mass Spectrometry

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    Rane Zab Anish Kumar P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out for identification of the bioactive components present in the Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange is one of the medicinally important plants belonging to the Rutaceae family. In the present study the ethanolic peel extract of Citrus reticulata has been subjected to GC-MS analysis. This analysis revealed that Ethanolic peel extract of Citrus reticulata contains Maltol , 3,5-Dihydroxy-6- methyl-2,3-dihydro-4H-pyran-4-one, Glycerol , 5 Hydrxoy methylfur fural, Nitroisobutylglycerol, heptamethoxyflavone etc., justifying the use of this plant to treat many aliments in folk and herbal medicine.

  14. Biochemical studies in Ulva reticulata Forsskal

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    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    Major metabolites like proteins, carbohydrates and lipids in the alga Ulva reticulata were estimated. Carbohydrate was found to decrease after December which may perhaps be due to the spore formation and extensive growth of the thallus. Protein...

  15. KIRGANELIA RETICULATA (POIR BAILL.-A REVIEW ON ITS BOTANY, ETHNOBOTANY, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY

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    Rajesh Kumar Soni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological relevance: Kirganelia reticulata (Poir. Baill. is known for its importance in various traditional medicine around the world and are proved pharmacologically as an antiviral against Hepatitis B, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic and antioxidant. In Ayurvedic system of Indian medicine recognized its activity against jaundice, diuretic, fever, liver disorder, in bleeding gums, small pox, syphilis, etc. Aim of the review: The review summarizes the up-to-date and comprehensive information concerning the botany, traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology of important drug. Kirganelia reticulata and discusses the possible future scope for future research. Material and methods: In present review covers a literature survey across from 1932 to 2012. The some information collected from published literature on species of Kirganelia reticulata (Poir. Baill. (=Syn. Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir. and traditional ayurvedic texts. Results: Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of many valuable compounds such as lignans, flavonoids, steroids, coumerins, triterpenes, phenols, flavonones, alkaloids are common compounds in test species. The extract and the compounds isolated from Kirganelia reticulata show a wide spectrum of Biological activities including antidiabetic, antibacterial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antiplasmodial, anticiceptive, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Conclusion: The present review summarizes information concerning the morphology, ecology, ethanopharmacologically, phytochemistry, and traditional diseases and applications of K. reticulata. This review target at gathering the research work undertaken till date on this plant in order to provide sufficient baseline information for future works and commercial exploitation.

  16. Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae: CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

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    Vanessa G. Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical study of hexane extract from leaves of Salacia crassifolia resulted in the isolation of 3?-palmitoxy-urs-12-ene, 3-oxofriedelane, 3?-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-28-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane, 28,29-dihydroxyfriedelan-3-one, 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid, 3?-hydroxy-olean-9(11:12-diene and the mixture of ?-amirin and ?-amirin. ?-sitosterol, the polymer gutta-percha, squalene and eicosanoic acid were also isolated. The chemical structures of these constituents were established by IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data. Crude extracts and the triterpenes were tested against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis and no activity was observed under the in vitro assay conditions. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol crude extracts, and the constituent 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid and 28,29-dihydroxyfriedelan-3-one showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus sanguinis and Candida albicans.

  17. Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae): CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa G., Rodrigues; Lucienir P., Duarte; Roqueline R., Silva; Grácia D. F., Silva; Maria O., Mercadante-Simões; Jacqueline A., Takahashi; Bibiane L. G., Matildes; Thaisa H. S., Fonseca; Maria A., Gomes; Sidney A., Vieira Filho.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical study of hexane extract from leaves of Salacia crassifolia resulted in the isolation of 3?-palmitoxy-urs-12-ene, 3-oxofriedelane, 3?-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-28-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane, 28,29-dihydroxyfriedelan-3-one, 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid, 3?-hydroxy- [...] olean-9(11):12-diene and the mixture of ?-amirin and ?-amirin. ?-sitosterol, the polymer gutta-percha, squalene and eicosanoic acid were also isolated. The chemical structures of these constituents were established by IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data. Crude extracts and the triterpenes were tested against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis and no activity was observed under the in vitro assay conditions. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol crude extracts, and the constituent 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid and 28,29-dihydroxyfriedelan-3-one showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus sanguinis and Candida albicans.

  18. Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae); Constituintes quimicos do caule de Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae)

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    Santos, Rogerio Nunes dos; Silva, Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: mgvsilva@ufc.br; Braz Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais

    2008-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae) yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes {alpha} and {beta}-amirin, the steroids {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants. (author)

  19. Larvicidal activity of oil-resin fractions from the Brazilian medicinal plant Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae Atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina da planta medicinal brasileira Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae sobre o Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Heloísa Helena Garcia da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil-resin fractions from Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae were evaluated for larvicidal activity on third larval instars of Aedes aegypti, in searching for alternative control methods for this mosquito. The bioactive fractions were chemically monitored by thin-layer chromatography, ¹H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Bioassays were performed using five repetitions, at a temperature of 28 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 80 ± 5% and light and dark cycles of 12h. Mortality was indicated by darkening of the cephalic capsule after 24h of exposure of the larvae to the solutions. The most active fractions were CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenes and CRM5-7 (labdane diterpenes, which showed LC50 values of 0.2 and 0.8ppm, respectively.A atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae foi avaliada em larvas de 3º estádio de Aedes aegypti, na busca de alternativas para o controle desse mosquito. As frações bioativas foram monitoradas quimicamente através de cromatografia de camada delgada, analisada por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio (¹H e 13C e espectrometria de massas. Os bioensaios foram realizados à temperatura de 28±1°C, 80±5% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 12h, com cinco repetições. A mortalidade foi determinada através do escurecimento da cápsula cefálica, após 24h de exposição das larvas às soluções. As frações mais ativas foram CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenos e CRM5-7 (diterpeno labdano, que mostraram os valores de CL50 de 0,2 e 0,8ppm, respectivamente.

  20. Larvicidal activity of oil-resin fractions from the Brazilian medicinal plant Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae) / Atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina da planta medicinal brasileira Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) sobre o Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Heloísa Helena Garcia da, Silva; Regina, Geris; Edson, Rodrigues Filho; Cleonice, Rocha; Ionizete Garcia da, Silva.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) foi avaliada em larvas de 3º estádio de Aedes aegypti, na busca de alternativas para o controle desse mosquito. As frações bioativas foram monitoradas quimicamente através de cromatografia de [...] camada delgada, analisada por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio (¹H e 13C) e espectrometria de massas. Os bioensaios foram realizados à temperatura de 28±1°C, 80±5% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 12h, com cinco repetições. A mortalidade foi determinada através do escurecimento da cápsula cefálica, após 24h de exposição das larvas às soluções. As frações mais ativas foram CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenos) e CRM5-7 (diterpeno labdano), que mostraram os valores de CL50 de 0,2 e 0,8ppm, respectivamente. Abstract in english Oil-resin fractions from Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) were evaluated for larvicidal activity on third larval instars of Aedes aegypti, in searching for alternative control methods for this mosquito. The bioactive fractions were chemically monitored by thin-layer chromatog [...] raphy, ¹H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Bioassays were performed using five repetitions, at a temperature of 28 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 80 ± 5% and light and dark cycles of 12h. Mortality was indicated by darkening of the cephalic capsule after 24h of exposure of the larvae to the solutions. The most active fractions were CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenes) and CRM5-7 (labdane diterpenes), which showed LC50 values of 0.2 and 0.8ppm, respectively.

  1. Two new phenolic glycosides from Syringa reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Koichi; Ohkawa, Naomi; Ohsawa, Asami; Kikuchi, Masao

    2009-04-01

    Two new phenolic glycosides-3'-O-beta-D: -glucopyranosysalidroside (1) and cis-echinacoside (2)-together with four known ones-forsythoside B (3), decaffeoylacteoside (4), osmanthuside F (5) and (-)-olivil-4'-O-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (6)-were isolated from the leaves of Syringa reticulata. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral and chemical data. PMID:18985282

  2. Simultaneous Determination of Flavonoids in Different Parts of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ Fruit by High Performance Liquid Chromatography—Photodiode Array Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Yujie Zhang; Zhengbo Liu; Shubo Gu; Jianhua Wang; Yinshi Sun; Xiaoxia Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Flavonoids are important polyphenolic secondary metabolites in plant. Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit are rich in flavonoids and are being used as functional antioxidant ingredients for the treatment of atherosclerosis and cancer, etc. A high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection system was used to analyze five flavonoids, namely, naringin, hesperidin, didymin, tangeretin and nobiletin, in different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit. The chromatographic analysis wa...

  3. Social networks in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    OpenAIRE

    Croft, Darren P; Krause, Jens; James, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Social network theory is used to elicit details of the social structure of a population of free-ranging guppies, Poecilia reticulata. They were found to have a complex and highly structured social network, which exhibited characteristics consistent with the 'small world' phenomenon. Stable partner associations between individuals were observed, a finding that fulfils the basic prerequisite for the evolution of reciprocal altruism. The findings are discussed in relation to the ecology and evol...

  4. EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF IPOMEA CARNEA LEAVES ON GUPPY, POECILIA RETICULATA (PETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Wanule and J. V. Balkhande

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ipomea carnea is a toxic plant causes severe damage to intestine, liver and kidney. In the present investigation ethanolic extract of I. carnea leaves was tested for its toxicity against fresh water fish guppy Poecilia reticulata using 0.025, 0.050, 0.075 and 0.1 mg/ml concentrations. The experiment was run in triplicate along with suitable control. Ethanolic extract of Ipomea carnea leaves showed toxic effect, causes mortality in guppy fishes. All concentrations of ethanolic extracts of I. carnea leaves were found toxic. Mortality of fishes increases with increase of time and concentrations. The 0.1mg/ml concentration of ethanolic extract of I. carnea leaves showed three times higher mortality than control in guppy fishes, Poecilia reticulata Peters. Further study is needed to isolate toxic principles present in I. carnea leaves and to be studied separately against guppy fishes to determine their toxicity.

  5. Molecular features of fossil organic matter in remains of the Lower Cretaceous fern Weichselia reticulata from Przenosza basement (Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Almendros Martín, Gonzalo; Zancada Fernández, M. Cristina; González-Vila, Francisco Javier; Lesiak, M. A.; Álvarez Ramis, Concepción

    2005-01-01

    Przenosza (Western Carpathians, Poland) is an important palaeobotanical Cretaceous basement site with morphologically well-preserved plant remains. Both the morphology of the macro remains and microscopic examination of isolated plant cuticles reveal species typical of coastal swampy palaeoenvironments, mainly the fern Weichselia reticulata. After isolation of the plant remains, preliminary characterisation of the fossil organic matter was carried out using cross-polarization, mag...

  6. ENTOMOFAUNA ASSOCIADA AOS FRUTOS DO BACUPARI, Salacia folia (MART. PEYR, NOS CERRADOS DO BRASIL CENTRAL INSECTS ASSOCIED WITH BACUPARI FRUIT, Salacia crassifolia (Mart. PEYR, IN THE SAVANNAHS OF CENTRAL BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juracy Rocha Braga Filho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O bacupari, Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Peyr, (Hippocrateaceae é uma frutífera nativa da região dos cerrados, utilizada pela fauna e também pela população da região, embora seus frutos sejam muito atacados pelas moscas-das-frutas, e por isso seu consumo fica limitado. De polpa branca à alaranjada, de sabor levemente ácido e muito agradável os frutos dessa espécie podem ser consumidos ao natural ou na forma de sucos. Neste trabalho apresenta-se um levantamento da entomofauna associada aos frutos do bacupari, coletados em 11 municípios da região dos cerrados no Estado de Goiás, no período de setembro de 1995 a dezembro de 1999. No Laboratório de Entomologia da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, esses frutos foram, inicialmente, contados e pesados e, posteriormente, acondicionados em caixas de polipropileno com areia úmida para obtenção de pupários e insetos adultos. Tephritidae foi a família mais freqüente nos frutos do bacupari, com 54,22% dos insetos coletados. Nessa família foram registradas as espécies Anastrepha sp. (espécie nova em fase de descrição, A. zenildae, A. obliqua, A. fraterculus, A. sororcula e A. serpentina. Na família Lonchaeidae foi coletada Neosilba sp., em Muscidae, Atherigona orientalis e espécimes da família Oititidae. Dessas moscas foram obtidos os parasitóides Doryctobracon sp. (espécie nova, D. areolatus, Dicerataspis flavipes, Lopheucoila anastrephae, Aganaspis nordlanderi e A. pelleranoi. Foram coletados isoladamente no mesmo fruto exemplares de Anastrepha sp. e Lonchaeidae e Anastrepha sp. e A. zenildae comprovando a sobreposição dessas espécies por fruto.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Insecta; frutífera nativa; levantamento populacional.

    The bacupari (Salacia crassifolia is a native fruit plant of the Brazilian cerrado areas. Although a high fruit fly infestation limits its utilization, it is eaten by animals and humans. Fruits present orange colored pulp, with slightly acid flavour and can be apreciated in natura or juices. The objective of this study was to assay bacupari plant features in Goiás State cerrado and to verify insects associated to bacupari, to determine infestation index and to verify this plant as a natural reservoir of fruit flies for adjacent orchards. Samples were collected during the frutification stage from September to December from 1995 to 1999 on 11 counties in Goiás State. The insects found more often were from Tephritidae (54.22% as Anastrepha sp. (new species, A. zenildae, A. obliqua, A. fraterculus, A. sororcula, A. serpentina. Insects from other families were also identified: Lonchaeidae (Neosilba sp., Muscidae (Atherigona orientalis, Oititidae and their p

  7. Comparative Antioxidant Activity on The Ficus benjamina and Annona reticulata Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyi Mekar Saptarini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants can prevent free radical formation. Natural antioxidants found in many plants, such as Ficus benjamina and Annona reticulata. The study aimed to compare the antioxidant activity of extracts and fractions of Ficus benjamina and Annona reticulata leaves against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrilhydrazyl. The steps of this study consist of extraction, fractionation with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and water, phytochemical screening, antioxidant activity determination, and comparing the IC50 values. Percentage scavenging activity of the extracts and fractions against DPPH was calculated to determine the antioxidant activity. The IC50 value of Ficus benjamina was 127.86 ppm for ethanolic extract, 94.01 ppm for water fraction, 115.48 ppm for ethyl acetate fraction, and 335.50 ppm for n-hexane fraction. The IC50 value of Annona reticulata was 274.31 ppm for ethanolic extract, 211.42 ppm for water fraction, 367.91 ppm for ethyl acetate fraction, and 741.08 ppm for n-hexane fraction. The results showed that the Ficus benjamina water fraction was the best antioxidant compared to other extract and fraction.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiang-Fei; Li, Jiong-Tang; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2016-01-01

    The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a member of the Poeciliidae family, is one of the most popular aquarium fish. Here, we reported the complete mitochondrial genome of P. reticulata. The genome is 16,570?bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The structure of non-coding control region was also analyzed. Comparing the mitochondrial genome of P. reticulata with its congener Xiphophorus maculatus revealed the high sequence similarity and the identical gene structure. The complete mitochondrial genome of the guppy would help study the evolution of Poeciliidae family. PMID:24495134

  9. Physical properties of trans-neptunian binaries (120347) Salacia-Actaea and (42355) Typhon-Echidna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansberry, J. A.; Grundy, W. M.; Mueller, M.; Benecchi, S. D.; Rieke, G. H.; Noll, K. S.; Buie, M. W.; Levison, H. F.; Porter, S. B.; Roe, H. G.

    2012-06-01

    We report new Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer Space Telescope results concerning the physical properties of the trans-neptunian object (TNO) binaries (120347) Salacia-Actaea (formerly 2004 SB60), and (42355) Typhon-Echidna (formerly 2002 CR46). The mass of the (120347) Salacia-Actaea system is 4.66 ± 0.22 × 1020 kg. The semi-major axis, period, and eccentricity of the binary orbit are a = 5619 ± 87 km, P = 5.49380 ± 0.00016 days, and e = 0.0084 ± 0.0076, respectively. In terms of the ratio of the semimajor axis to the radius of the Hill sphere, a/rH, (120347) Salacia-Actaea is the tightest TNO binary system with a known orbit. Based on hybrid Standard Thermal Model (hybrid-STM) fits to the data, the effective diameter and V-band geometric albedo of the system are D = 954 ± 109 km (making it one of the largest known TNOs), and pV=3.57-0.72+1.03%. Thermophysical models for (120347) Salacia suggest that it probably has a thermal inertia ?5 J m-2 s-1/2 K-1, although we cannot rule out values as high as 30 J m-2 s-1/2 K-1. Based on the magnitude difference between Salacia and Actaea, ? = 2.37 ± 0.06, we estimate their individual diameters to be d1 = 905 ± 103 km and d2 = 303 ± 35 km. The mass density of the components is ?=1.16-0.36+0.59 g/cm3. Hybrid-STM fits to new Spitzer data for Typhon-Echidna give an effective diameter and V-band geometric albedo for the system of D = 157 ± 34 km, and pV=6.00-2.08+4.10%. Thermophysical models for (42355) Typhon suggest somewhat lower albedos (probably no higher than about 8.2%, as compared to the hybrid-STM upper limit of 10.1%). Taken together with the previously reported mass, this diameter indicates a density of ?=0.60-0.29+0.72g/cm3, consistent with the very low densities of most other TNOs smaller than 500 km diameter. Both objects must have significant amounts of void space in their interiors, particularly if they contain silicates as well as water-ice (as is expected). The ensemble of binary-TNO densities suggests a trend of increasing density with size, with objects smaller than 400 km diameter all having densities less than 1 g/cm3, and those with diameters greater than 800 km all having densities greater than 1 g/cm3. If the eccentricity of the binary orbit of (42355) Typhon-Echidna is not due to recent perturbations, considerations of tidal evolution suggest that (42355) Typhon-Echidna must have a rigidity close to that of solid water ice, otherwise the orbital eccentricity of the system would have been damped by now.

  10. Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae) yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes ? and ?-amirin, the steroids ?-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants. (author)

  11. Yield and fruit quality of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) as influenced by evaporation based drip irrigation schedules

    OpenAIRE

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2013-01-01

    To identify the critical stages of irrigation water requirement of bearing Nagpur mandarin through drip irrigation system a field experiment was conducted on 7-9 years old bearing Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) based on evaporation replenishment (ER) irrigation scheduling during 2009-12. The plant growing period was divided into 6 stages, 2 months each, starting from January to December and the effect on water use, tree growth, fruit yield and quality was studied. The irrigation w...

  12. Avaliação citotóxica em três linhagens de células tumorais das frações obtidas da casca do caule de Salacia crassifolia (MART. ex. Schult.) G. Dom. (Celastraceae) / Assessment of cytotoxicity in three tumor cell lines of the fractions attained from the stem bark of Salacia crassifolia (Mart. ex. Schult.) G. Dom (Celastraceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clayton, Rodrigues de Oliveira; Antânio Calos, Severo Menezes; Manoel O., de Moraes; Letícia, de Melo Vieira; Adriana, Gomes Pereira; Rosa, Silva Lima; Mirley Luciene, dos Santos.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de plantas pela humanidade com fins medicinais é uma das formas mais antigas para tratamento, cura e prevenção de doenças, dentre elas o câncer, cujas espécies vegetais são encontradas em elevada diversidade no ecossistema. Com essa perspectiva, se optou por um arbusto típico do Cerrado [...] , Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae), para um screening inicial na determinação do potencial citotóxico desta espécie in vitro. Na medicina popular, S. crassifolia é utilizada no tratamento de problemas renais, tosse crônica, dores de cabeça, cicatrizantes, ulcerogênicas e na terapia da malaria. As frações: hidroalcoólica (SCCcM-W), diclorometânica(SCCcM-D), hexânica (SCCcM-H) e acetato de etila (SCCcM-A) da casca do caule foram submetidas a testes de citotoxicidade in vitro frente às linhagens MDA-MB-435(melanoma), HCT-8 (cólon-humano) e SF-295 (sistema nervoso central) utilizando o método colorimétrico MTT. As frações hexânica (SCCcM-H) e de acetato de etila(SCCcM-A) foram aquelas que proporcionaram citotoxicidade significativas frente às células tumorais analisadas. Abstract in english For millennia humans have been using plants for medicinal purposes to treat, cure, or prevent diseases, including cancer. Brazilian ecosystem has a high diversity of plant species. From this perspective, a species found in the Cerrado, Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae), was selected, for an initial [...] screening to determine the cytotoxic potential of this species "in vitro". S. crassifolia has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat kidney diseases, chronic cough, headaches, healing, ulcerogenic, and for treatment of malaria. The fractions: hydroalcoholic (SCCcM-W), dichloromethane(SCCcM-D), hexane (SCCcM-H) and ethyl acetate (SCCcM-A) from the stem bark were tested for cytotoxicity "in vitro" to within MDA -MB-435(melanoma), HCT-8 (human-colon), and SF-295 (CNS) using the MTT colorimetric method. The hexane (SCCcM-H) and ethyl acetate (SCCcM-A) fractions were those that provided significant cytotoxicity against analyzed tumor cells.

  13. Ecophysiological aspects of sun and shade leaves of Ponkan tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) / Aspectos ecofisiológicos de hojas de sol y sombra de Ponkan mandarina (Citrus reticulata Blanco)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Domingos, Grecco; Luiz Flávio, Vianna Silveira; Victor Luiz, de Souza Lima; José Eduardo, .

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ponkan mandarina (Citrus reticulata) tiene una amplia aceptación por los consumidores debido a varios aspectos: es una fruta colorida, cáscara dulce y fácil de pelar. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la respuesta a la sombra de las plantas de Ponkan mandarina (Citrus reticulata) respecto de [...] sus aspectos ecofisiológicos, de acuerdo con la intensidad relativa de la luz, a fin de evaluar la capacidad de adaptación de esta especie para dar sombra. Las hojas se obtienen de la cubierta superior (sol) y la cubierta inferior (sombra) para la determinación de los aspectos ecofisiológicos. Cortes en las manos se hicieron para la evaluación del espesor de parénquima de empalizada, número de estomas (mm²) y el espesor total de la hoja. Las secciones transversales de la parte media de la licencia se obtuvieron, para la evaluación de la parénquima, utilizando un cuerpo de evidencia, y para el estomática se hicieron cortes en la superficie abaxial. La clorofila se extrajo de las hojas de mandarina Ponkan y posteriormente se mide en espectrofotometría a longitudes de onda de 645nm y 663nm. La relación entre la clorofila a y b tendía a aumentar con una mayor intensidad de luz. El sombreado no afectó a las características anatómicas de las plantas de mandarina Ponkan. Sin embargo, los niveles de clorofila fueron diferentes en "sol" y se va "sombra". Abstract in english The Ponkan tangerine (Citrus reticulata) has wide acceptance by consumers due to several properties; it is a colorful, sweet, and easy to peel fruit. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ecophysiological aspects of the response of plants of Ponkan tangerine to shading, according to relative int [...] ensity of light, in order to assess the adaptability of this species to shade. Leaves were collected from the upper canopy (sun) and lower canopy (shade) to determine the ecophysiological aspects. Cuts were by hand made to assess the thickness of palisade parenchyma, number of stomata (mm²) and total thickness of the leaf. Cross-sections of the middle part of leaves were obtained to assess the parenchyma, using a body-of-evidence, and for the stomata cuts were made on the abaxial surfaces. Chlorophyll was extracted from the leaves of Ponkan Tangerine and subsequently measured in a spectrophotometer at wave lengths 645nm and 663nm The ratio between chlorophyll a and b tended to increase with increased intensity of light. Shading did not affect the anatomical characteristics of Ponkan tangerine plants. However, chlorophyll levels were different in sun and shade leaves.

  14. The diet of Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) in southeastern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo Q., Yokoyama; Antonia C. Z., Amaral.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O ofiuróide Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825) ocorre na interface sedimento rocha de costões rochosos, sob pequenas pedras. Alguns aspectos de sua dieta alimentar foram analisados nesta nota. A amostragem foi realizada na Praia Grande, localizada no litoral norte do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os [...] indivíduos, coletados em julho de 2002 e janeiro de 2003, foram fixados em álcool 70% e dissecados para obtenção de seus conteúdos estomacais. Do total (35), 77,1% (27) tinham ingerido algum tipo de alimento, e destes, 81,4% (22) possuíam mais de um item. O número médio de itens alimentares por estômago foi 1,9. Ophionereis reticulata é uma espécie onívora, consumindo sedimento, algas verdes e vermelhas, e poliquetas. Abstract in english The ophiuroid Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825) occurs in the sediment-rocky shore interface, under small stones. Its diet is analyzed in this short communication. Specimens were collected at the Praia Grande beach, located on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in July, 2002 and [...] January, 2003. The animals were fixed in 70% ethanol and dissected to obtain their stomach contents. Of the total (35), 77.1% (27) had ingested some kind of food and, among those, 81.4% (22) had more than one item. The mean number of food items per stomach was 1.9. Ophionereis reticulata is an omnivorous species, consuming sediment, green and red algae, and polychaetes.

  15. Effects of Deltamethrin on Lipase Activity in Guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    OpenAIRE

    Güne?, Elif; Yerli, Sedat V.

    2011-01-01

    Effect of the deltamethrin, which is extensively used synthetic pyrethroid, was investigated on the lipase activity of Poecilia reticulata in the present study. One control and five experimental groups were exposed to different concentrations of deltamethrin. Three experiments, including 60 guppies each, were conducted. Titration method was used in order to determine the lipase activity. Lipase activity level in control group was 5 U/min, while it was 2.5 U/min in the highest concentration of...

  16. Studies of In Vitro Embryo Culture of Guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, LiLi; LEE, KI-YOUNG

    2014-01-01

    Different with other fishes, the guppies (Poecilia reticulata) is ovoviviparity, which retain their fertilized eggs within the follicle throughout gestation. The synchronously growing diplotene oocytes store nutrients in droplets and yolk, before their maturation and fertilization. The lecithotrophic strategy of development entails the provisioning of embryos with resources from the maternal yolk deposit rather than from a placenta, it allows the extracorporeal culture of guppy embryo. Studie...

  17. Acute toxicity study of commercial antifungal drugs using Poecilia reticulata

    OpenAIRE

    Mascotti, María L.; Enriz, Ricardo Daniel; Giannini, Fernando Angel

    2008-01-01

    Commercial antifungal drugs possess important side effect; being toxicity the main limitation of such compounds. We report here a study of acute toxicity of four well-known commercial antifungal drugs; two of them used in human medicine (griseofulvine and miconazole) and the other two used against phytopatogens fungi (carbendazin and benomil). Toxic effects of these compounds were evaluated using an acute toxicity test on fish of the specie Poecilia reticulata.

  18. In vitro, In vivo and In silico Antiarthritic studies of Polyprenol from Kirganelia reticulata Baill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi SD

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-IN X-NONE X-NONE Kirganelia reticulata is a medicinal shrub which has been valued for centuries in ayurvedic medicine. In vitro, in vivo and in silico antiarthritic activity of a phytoconstituent, polyprenol isolated from the leaves of Kirganelia reticulata was screened. Various in vitro models such as inhibition of protein denaturation, effect of membrane stabilization and proteinase inhibitory actions were studied. Polyprenol with two different concentrations (100µg/ml and 250µg/ml was used and results were compared with acetyl salicylic acid. The in vivo antiarthritic activity of polyprenol was evaluated against formaldehyde induced arthritis in albino rats. The course of treatment was followed for over and 4 weeks post inoculation period using health, clinical and behavioural methods of study. Estimation of change in body weight was considered as health parameters and clinical observations included paw edema volume, change in the movements was studied in behavioral observations. The effect of polyprenol was compared with standard drug aspirin.  HIF-2? promotes degradative pathways that foster osteoarthritis. The articular cartilage resides in hypoxic, avascular conditions within the synovial joint. Chondrocytes, cells of the articular cartilage are affected by various forms of stress. The biological role of this mediator is clearly understood thus offering new target for inhibiting incurable osteoarthritis. The inhibitory effect of polyprenol was studied using Autodock and efficiency was compared with standard drug in terms of interation and binding. The isolated compound polyprenol showed dose dependent activity which was found to be significant to that of the standard drugs and supports the traditional use of plant for rheumatism.

  19. Development of seedless fruits mutants in citrus including tangerine (C. reticulata) and pummelo (C. grandis) through induced mutations and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of seedless fruit mutants in citrus, including Tangerine (C. reticulata) and Pummelo (C. grandis), through induced mutation and biotechnology was studied at the Gamma Irradiation Service and Nuclear Technology Center, Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center for 4 years (August 2000 to September 2004). The results showed successful induction of mutants with gamma irradiation using both chronic and acute procedures for pot plants, scions and in vitro plantlets of tangerine (Citrus reticulata var. Shogun and Sai Nam Puaeng) and pummelo (Citrus grandis viz. Kao Thong Dee). MS medium with 2 mgL-1 of BA was found to be the most suitable medium for shoot proliferation. The seedlings were sub-cultured at least 4 times, and then they were treated with acute and chronic irradiation. Shoot induction from M1V0 to M1V4 generation was performed in basic MS medium with 2 mgL-1 added BA. Rooting was induced in the M1V4 in halfstrength MS enriched with BA 2 mgL-1. Later, the shoots were excised and grafted on mature plants or the plantlets directly transferred in the field and later the fruits from mature trees were evaluated for seedlessness in M1V4 at Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center. (author)

  20. The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked Orange and shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim, M.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked Orange and shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2006, 28(3 : 515-530 The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked orange and Shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun was investigated at the Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University during January, 2003 to October, 2004. Eighty-eight of three-year-old Necked orange and Shogun grafted onto 11 species of citrus rootstocks were raised in 35 litre pot. Complete randomized factorial design was used for evaluating the two factors, scions and rootstocks. The vegetative growth: upper and lower of trunk diameter, tree height, canopy volume and leaf area; the foliar nutrient: nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC and C/N ratio; flowering; fruit-set and fruit qualities were determined and analysed. Furthermore, the graft compatibility between stock and scion was also evaluated by the esterase isozymes technique. It was found that Necked orange grafted onto most of the rootstocks showed higher range of upper and lower trunk diameter and leaf area than that of Shogun. Both of the scions on rough lemon and volkamer lemon gave higher vegetative growth characteristics than on the other roostock species. Necked orange grafted onto Cleopatra mandarin, Swingle citrumelo, Volkamer lemon and Mawo rootstock had 5 times the flowering and fruit-set while Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange had 7 times the flowering and fruit-set. There was no significant difference on the foliar nutrient between scions and rootstocks except the foliar TNC of necked orange and Shogun on Manaao-khwaai (34.86%. Necked orange and Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange gave the highest number of fruits/tree (20.6 and 31.6 fruits/ tree and fruit weight/tree (3,906 g/tree and 5,114 g/tree respectively. Necked orange grafted onto Rough lemon showed the highest rind thickness (0.559 cm while Shogun grafted onto Cleopatra mandarin showed 0.275 cm rind thickness. Necked orange grafted on Troyer citrange and Mawo and Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange and Volkamer lemon gave the highest TSS: TA ratio. The esterase enzyme pattern of necked orange grafted on Manaao-khwaai was changed and most of the rootstock species affected the esterase enzyme activities of Shogun.

  1. Influence of GAMMA radiation on morphological changes of Poecilia reticulata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our experiment were followed histological changes after gamma-irradiation with dose of 30 Gy in Poecilia reticulata. After radiation shyness and lethargy were observed. The most prominent clinical symptoms observed were emaciation, hampered breathing, ex ophthalmia and hemorrhages. The histological picture found were adequate to these symptoms. The enteritic villi compared with controls were relatively low. Enterocytes taking part on resorption processes were damaged and desquamated on some sites, and the number of microvilli was reduced on their surface. As our earlier findings on rats revealed, the decrease in number of microvilli designates malfunctioning intestinal resorption, which can lead to emaciation. (authors)

  2. TRIAGEM METABÓLICA POR PKS E NRPS EM ACTINOBACTÉRIAS ENDOFÍTICAS DE Citrus reticulata / METABOLIC SCREENING FOR PKS AND NRPS IN ENDOPHYTIC ACTINOBACTERIA FROM Citrus reticulata

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro L. R. da, Cruz; Leila R., Giarola; Suellen da Silva, Moraes; Déborah Ellen S. G. da, Silva; Joelma, Marcon; João L., Azevedo; Welington L., Araújo; Luciana G. de, Oliveira,.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides are natural products widely found in bacteria, fungi and plants. The biological activities associated with these metabolites have attracted special attention in biopharmaceutical studies. Polyketide synthases act similarly to fatty acids synthetases and the who [...] le multi-enzymatic set coordinating precursor and extending unit selection and reduction levels during chain growth. Acting in a similarly orchestrated model, non-ribosomal peptide synthetases biosynthesize NRPs. PKSs-I and NRPSs enzymatic modules and domains are collinearly organized with the parent gene sequence. This arrangement allows the use of degenerated PCR primers to amplify targeted regions in the genes corresponding to specific enzymatic domains such as ketosynthases and acyltransferases in PKSs and adenilation domains in NRPSs. Careful analysis of these short regions allows the classifying of a set of organisms according to their potential to biosynthesize PKs and NRPs. In this work, the biosynthetic potential of a set of 13 endophytic actinobacteria from Citrus reticulata for producing PKs and NRP metabolites was evaluated. The biosynthetic profile was compared to antimicrobial activity. Based on the inhibition promoted, 4 strains were considered for cluster analysis. A PKS/NRPS phylogeny was generated in order to classify some of the representative sequences throughout comparison with homologous genes. Using this approach, a molecular fingerprint was generated to help guide future studies on the most promising strains.

  3. Simultaneous Determination of Flavonoids in Different Parts of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ Fruit by High Performance Liquid Chromatography—Photodiode Array Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are important polyphenolic secondary metabolites in plant. Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit are rich in flavonoids and are being used as functional antioxidant ingredients for the treatment of atherosclerosis and cancer, etc. A high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection system was used to analyze five flavonoids, namely, naringin, hesperidin, didymin, tangeretin and nobiletin, in different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a C18 column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a photodiode array detector at 280 nm. The calibration curves for the determination of all analytes showed good linearity over the investigated ranges (R2 > 0.9995. Precision and reproducibility were evaluated by six replicated analyses, and the R.S.D. values were less than 0.9% and 2.7%. The recoveries were between 98.37 and 103.89%. This method is promising to improve the quality control of different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit.

  4. Determination of the precise sequences of computationally predicted miRNAs in Citrus reticulata by miR-RACE and characterization of the related target genes using RLM-RACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xiangpeng; Song, Changnian; Han, Jian; Shangguan, Lingfei; Fang, Jinggui; Wang, Chen

    2016-01-10

    MicroRNAs play vital roles in various biological and metabolic processes by regulating the expression of their target genes in model plants. Since there are limited reports on miRNAs in Citrus reticulata (Crt-miRNAs), the determination of precise sequences of miRNAs is essential to further analyze the functions of miRNAs in Citrus reticulata. Here, miR-RACE, a recently developed technique for determination of the potential miRNAs computationally, was employed to identify the precise sequences of Crt-miRNAs. Tissue- and development-specific expression of nine miRNAs were identified by quantitative RT-PCR in the leaves, stems, flowers and fruits Subsequently, 10 potential target genes were predicated for the eight Crt-miRNAs, most of which were transcription factors and disease resistance proteins. Four target genes were experimentally validated by Poly (A) polymerase-mediated 3? rapid amplification of cDNA ends and RNA ligase-mediated 5? rapid amplification of cDNA ends (PPM-RACE and RLM-RACE). Our findings showed that regulatory miRNAs in C. reticulata may play a key role in regulating growth, development, and response to disease. Future work is required to study the functions of miRNAs and their targets of C. reticulata. PMID:26385323

  5. In vitro efficacy of Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides and Copaifera reticulata against Leishmania chagasi Eficácia in vitro de Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides e Copaifera reticulata sobre Leishmania chagasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cristina Macedo Rondon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the murine monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To determine the IC50 a MTT test (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide was performed on promastigotes, and an in situ ELISA assay was conducted on amastigotes. Here, we demonstrate that oleoresin from C. reticulata was effective against both promastigotes (IC50 of 7.88 µg.mL-1 and amastigotes (IC50 of 0.52 µg.mL-1, and neither of the two treatments differed significantly (p > 0.05 from pentamidine (IC50 of 2.149 µg.mL-1 and amphotericin B (IC50 of 9.754 µg.mL-1. Of the three plant oils tested, only oleoresin showed no toxicity toward monocyte, with 78.45% viability after treatment. Inhibition of promastigote and amastigote growth and the lack of cytotoxicity by C. reticulata demonstrate that oleoresin may be a viable option for analyzing the in vivo therapeutic effects of leishmanicidal plantsO aumento na incidência da Leishmaníase Visceral (LV no Brasil deve-se à ineficácia das medidas de controle da doença. Além disso, não há tratamento efetivo para LV canina com drogas sintéticas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos óleos essenciais de Coriandrum sativum e de Lippia sidoides e do óleo-resina de Copaiferareticulata sobre promastigotas e amastigotas de Leishmania chagasi e analisar o grau de toxicidade sobre células monocíticas murinas RAW 264.7. Para determinar a CI50 sobre promastigotas foi usado teste MTT (brometo de 3-[4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il]-2,5-difeniltetrazólio e sobre amastigotas foi realizado imunoensaio in situ pela técnica de ELISA. Os resultados obtidos comprovaram que o óleo-resina de C. reticulata foi o mais eficaz contra as formas promastigotas (CI50 de 7,88 µg.mL-1 e amastigotas (CI50 de 0,52 µg.mL-1 e em nenhum dos dois testes diferiu do controle pentamidina que obteve CI50 de 2,149 µg.mL-1, no teste sobre promastigotas, e anfotericina B que obteve CI50 de 9,754 µg.mL-1, nos testes com amastigotas (p > 0.05. Quanto à citotoxicidade apenas o óleo-resina não apresentou toxicidade com 78,45% de monócitos viáveis. Os resultados obtidos sobre promastigotas e amastigotas e a ausência de citotoxicidade do óleo-resina de C. reticulata evidenciam que este óleo-resina pode ser viável para a análise de seus efeitos terapêuticos em testes in vivo.

  6. Blond: a regulatory gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Shaddock

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present letter is a response to the paper ?Interallelic interaction between the autosomal Blond and the sex-linked Nigrocaudatus gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata? (Petrescu-Mag et al 2007.

  7. Hepatoprotective activity of Leptadenia reticulata stems against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Nema

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of stems of L. reticulata showed significant hepatoprotective activity. The ethanolic extract is more potent in hepatoprotection in CCl 4 -indiced liver injury model as compared with aqueous extract.

  8. Low cost freshwater fish pickle using cheap citrus fruit (C. reticulata)

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, A K; Bandyopadhyay, J.K.; Batthacharyya, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    The juice extracted from a locally abundant cheap variety of citrus fruit namely, Citrus reticulata was utilized for pickling. The paper highlights the trials made to select the optimum concentrations of acetic acid and sodium chloride to be used along with the juice of C. reticulata so as to obtain the best, product. The product can be stored well at room temperature for six months.

  9. Vulnerability of the mosquito larvae to the guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in the presence of alternative preys

    OpenAIRE

    Barnali Manna; Gautam Aditya; , Samir Banerjee

    2008-01-01

    Background & objectives: The predatory potential of the larvivorous fishes can be affected by the presence of alternative preys. In the present study the predation pattern of the sewage dwelling Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1872) on the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae) was evaluated in the presence of alternative preys. Methods: The predation of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by different size groups of P. reticulata fishes was evaluated. In addition to this, th...

  10. Cryptosporidium muris in a reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodádková, A; Kvác, M; Ditrich, O; Sak, B; Xiao, L

    2010-02-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. infection in captive exotic mammals was investigated using staining and molecular biological methods. A total of 323 fecal samples from 100 mammalian species (62 Artiodactyla, 33 Rodentia, 3 Perissodactyla, and 2 Paenungultata) in 4 zoological gardens in the Czech Republic was examined. Only in a reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) sample was Cryptosporidium sp. infection detected. The partial small subunit rRNA sequence obtained from the isolate was identical to sequences of Cryptosporidium muris in rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) and Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus). Neonatal BALB/c mice inoculated with 1 x 10(3) fresh oocysts of the C. muris giraffe isolate did not produce a detectable infection. PMID:19685941

  11. Tracking the startle response of guppies Poecilia reticulata in three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanesyan, A; Rodd, F H; Ryu, W S

    2015-10-01

    A three-dimensional analysis of startle behaviours of guppies Poecilia reticulata, in dyads or alone, from two populations that show distinct differences in shoaling behaviour was performed. During the first few seconds after a startling stimulus, changes in behaviour, which could be critical if an individual is to survive a predatory attack, and the interactions between pairs of P. reticulata were examined. The enhanced social interactions immediately after the stimulus, as a proxy for shoaling behaviour, and their dissipation were quantified. Social (individuals tested in dyads) v. asocial (tested alone) responses to the startling stimulus were also compared. The three-dimensional reconstruction, from a two-camera, high-frame-rate tracking system allowed for the tracking of the individuals' speed and speed recovery and, for P. reticulata in dyads, interindividual distance and orientation. For the dyads from the high-predation population, the closer the individuals were to each other, the more likely they were to be parallel, but no correlation was found for the low-predation P. reticulata. The startle response of P. reticulata comprised the following sequence: freezing, darting and skittering and recovery to pre-stimulus swimming behaviour. Upon repeated encounters with the stimulus, a reduced shoaling and startle response was observed, although the rate of reduction was faster in P. reticulata from the high-predation population than those from the low-predation population. The results are discussed in light of what is known about the anti-predator behaviour of this species. PMID:26376772

  12. Determinação do potencial larvófago de Poecilia reticulata em condições domésticas de controle biológico / Larvovirous potencial of Poecilia reticulata at domestic biological control conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Boscolli Barbosa, Pereira; Eidis Antônio de, Oliveira.

    Full Text Available Configurada como um dos mais importantes problemas de saúde pública do mundo, a dengue atinge especialmente países com clima tropical, como o Brasil. O controle biológico por meio da utilização de peixes larvófagos aparece como alternativa para reduzir os índices de infestação do vetor da dengue. O [...] presente trabalho objetiva avaliar e descrever condições em que peixes da espécie Poecilia reticulata possam ser utilizados como controladores biológicos de larvas de Aedes aegypti em ambiente doméstico. Para tanto, o potencial larvófago diário (observação direta) de diferentes grupos de P. reticulata foi calculado considerando-se a influência do sexo e do tamanho dos espécimes empregados. Os resultados dos ensaios revelaram que o potencial larvófago de P. reticulata varia com o sexo. Observou-se também que a capacidade controladora do grupo composto apenas por fêmeas foi cerca de duas vezes maior quando comparada à dos machos da espécie. Abstract in english Configured as an important public health problem in the world, the dengue fever affects tropical countries, like Brazil. Biological control through the use of larvivorous fish appears as an alternative to reduce the infestation rates of the dengue vector. This work aims to evaluate and describe cond [...] itions under which Poecilia reticulata fishes can be used as biological controllers of Aedes aegypti in a domestic environment. Thus, the daily larvivorous potential (direct observation) of different groups of P. reticulata was calculated, considering the influence of sex and size of the used specimens. The test results revealed that P. reticulata larvivorous potential ranges with sex, and found that the ability of the group composed only of females was about twice as high compared to that of males of the species.

  13. Induction of seedlessness in kinow (citrus reticulata blanco) with gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormant budwood of KINNOW mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) were subjected to acute exposures of gamma radiations. Doses of 0, 40, 60, 80 and 120 Gy were applied at ambient temperature (25 -+ 2 deg. C) with air as the medium of irradiation. The irradiated and un-irradiated scions were grafted onto 2 years old Citrus jambhiri rootstock already established in the field using the side-graft technique. Based on the bud survival percentage, Ld-50 was found to be 18.5 Gy under field conditions. A sparsely seeded (2 - 8 seeds/fruit) mutant was detected in the mV/sub 1/ progeny of shoots from 20 Gy exposed buds. The induced sparse seedy character was retained by the mV/sub 2/ and mV/sub 3/ propagations. Parent Kinnow contained 18-28 seeds per fruit. The peel of mutant Kinnows was thicker which may protect the fruit during transit and may compensate for the slightly lower juice yield as compared to parent Kinnow. Sparsely seeded mutant Kinnow fruit and plant resembled with the parent kinnow in most of the morphological, physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics. (author)

  14. Efficacy of commercially available products against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infections on guppies Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkle, Bettina; Snellgrove, Donna; Jones, Lewis L; Cable, Jo

    2015-07-23

    The demand for ornamental fish has led to a steep rise in aquaculture for the hobbyist trade, promoting the emergence, persistence and spread of various infectious diseases. Complete control of disease outbreaks with antibiotics and chemical-based medicines is rare, but plant compounds may herald potential alternatives effective against a range of pathogens. Melafix® and Pimafix® are formulated with the essential oils cajuput (Melaleuca cajuputi) and West Indian bay (Pimenta racemosa) and are marketed against bacterial and fungal infections, respectively. Previous experiments showed high efficacy of emulsified cajuput oil against gyrodactylids; the current study tested Melafix® and Pimafix® and their individual compounds against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting the guppies Poecilia reticulata. In particular, a combination treatment of Melafix® and Pimafix® was highly effective at reducing in vitro survival of parasites from 15 to 2 h and eradicating 95% of gyrodactylids in vivo. The unexpected high efficacy of this combination treatment is likely explained by the high content of terpenes and phenol propanoids in the cajuput and West Indian bay oils, as well as the anti-helminthic properties of the emulsifier Crovol PK 70. Hence, Melafix® and Pimafix® effectively reduce gyrodactylid burdens on fish, increasing the chances of efficient disease control in ornamental fish. PMID:26203884

  15. Modeling Kuiper belt objects Charon, Orcus and Salacia by means of a new equation of state for porous icy bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, Uri; Prialnik, Dina

    2015-01-01

    We use a one-dimensional adaptive-grid thermal evolution code to model Kuiper belt objects Charon, Orcus and Salacia and compare their measured bulk densities with those resulting from evolutionary calculations at the end of 4.6 Gyr. Our model assumes an initial homogeneous composition of mixed ice and rock, and follows the multiphase flow of water through the porous rocky medium, consequent differentiation and aqueous chemical alterations in the rock. Heating sources include long-lived radionuclides, serpentinization reactions, release of gravitational potential energy due to compaction, and crystallization of amorphous ice. The density profile is calculated by assuming hydrostatic equilibrium to be maintained through changes in composition, pressure and temperature. To this purpose, we construct an equation of state suitable for porous icy bodies with radii of a few hundred km, based on the best available empirical studies of ice and rock compaction, and on comparisons with rock porosities in Earth analog and Solar System silicates. We show that the observed bulk densities can be reproduced by assuming the same set of initial and physical parameters, including the same rock/ice mass ratio for all three bodies. We conclude that the mass of the object uniquely determines the evolution of porosity, and thus explains the observed differences in bulk density. The final structure of all three objects is differentiated, with an inner rocky core, and outer ice-enriched mantle. The degree of differentiation, too, is determined by the object's mass.

  16. Modeling KBOs Charon, Orcus and Salacia by means of a new equation of state for porous icy bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, U.; Prialnik, D.

    2015-10-01

    We use a one-dimensional adaptive-grid thermal evolution code to model intermediate sized Kuiper belt objects Charon, Orcus and Salacia and compare their measured bulk densities with those resulting from evolutionary calculations at the end of 4.6 Gyr. Our model assumes an initial homogeneous composition of mixed ice and rock, and follows the multiphase flow of water through the porous rocky medium, consequent differentiation and aqueous chemical alterations in the rock. Heating sources include long-lived radionuclides, serpentinization reactions, release of gravitational potential energy due to compaction, and crystallization of amorphous ice. The density profile is calculated by assuming hydrostatic equilibrium to be maintained through changes in composition, pressure and temperature. To this purpose, we construct an equation of state suitable for porous icy bodies with radii of a few hundred km, based on the best available empirical studies of ice and rock compaction, and on comparisons with rock porosities in Earth analog and Solar System silicates. We show that the observed bulk densities can be reproduced by assuming the same set of initial and physical parameters, including the same rock/ice mass ratio for all three bodies. We conclude that the mass of the object uniquely determines the evolution of porosity, and thus explains the observed differences in bulk density. The final structure of all three objects is differentiated, with an inner rocky core, and outer ice-enriched mantle. The degree of differentiation, too, is determined by the object's mass.

  17. ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF LEAF EXTRACTS FROM KIRGANELIA RETICULATA BAILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi SD

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antibacterial activity of crude methanolic, chloroform and hexane extracts of the leaves of Kirganelia reticulata (Euphorbiaceae were investigated. Susceptibility of some Gram-negative organisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Gram-positive organism (Staphylococcus aureus were tested. Agar well diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to determine the minimum antibacterial activity against all the tested microorganisms. The extracts exhibited antibacterial activities with zones of inhibition ranging from 9.07 - 30.10 mm, 8.17 - 24.57 mm and 5.60 - 14.67 mm for methanol, chloroform and hexane extracts respectively. Screening of crude extracts showed notable minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC at concentrations of 100 to 6.25 mgml-1. The organisms were more sensitive to the methanolic extract of the leaves, where as extracts from other solvents like chloroform and hexane showed moderate to weak activity respectively. Similar results have been showed in MIC and MBC.

  18. The Effects of Gokshura, Tribulus terrestris on Sex Reversal of Guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oehriban cek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT on sex reversal in guppy, Poecilia reticulata. The objective of this study was to introduce a new environmentally friendly method for masculinization in P. reticulata. Since male guppy has higher commercial value than female. TT is a natural, non-toxic herb which helps enhance testosterone levels in human and animals. It was prepared in a laboratory in France. Different concentration (0.0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 g L-1 of TT was investigated for sex reversal in the Poecilia reticulata. TT extract was administered by immersion of newly born offspring once weekly for two months. Among the dosages used in the present study 0.15 g L-1 TT was the most effective dosage that ensured maximum male ratio (80%, p<0.01. Although, sex ratios of 0.05 and 0.1 g L-1 TT were not significantly different from the expected 1:1 ratio, in these two groups treatment with TT also result in higher number of males (58.25 and 59.77%, respectively, than control (p>0.05. Total survival rates in all treatments and control were uniformly high ranging from 83 to 87% (p>0.05. It is concluded that TT has no negative effect on survival rate of P. reticulata. All groups of TT-treated fish exhibited successful growth acceleration comparing to the control group, but only TT treatment at the concentration of 0.15 and 0.1 g L-1 TT significantly improved growth rate of P. reticulata (p<0.01. Histological examinations revealed that testes of fish treated with TT-extract contained all stages of spermatogenesis. Sex reversal in P. reticulata demonstrated that TT treated new-born progenies showed successful sex reversal, spermatogenesis and better growth rate than untreated progenies.

  19. Vulnerability of the mosquito larvae to the guppies (Poecilia reticulata in the presence of alternative preys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnali Manna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The predatory potential of the larvivorous fishes can be affected by the presence of alternative preys. In the present study the predation pattern of the sewage dwelling Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1872 on the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae was evaluated in the presence of alternative preys. Methods: The predation of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by different size groups of P. reticulata fishes was evaluated. In addition to this, the niche breadth (N and diet breadth (B were measured following Manly’s selectivity index (Si as an indicator of variation of such predation pattern in the presence of alternative prey types, like chironomid larvae and tubificid worms.Results: The consumption of IV instar Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by individual P. reticulata ranged between 65 and 84 in a 3 h feeding period and varied with the size of fish (F2, 33 = 34.91; p<0.001. The selectivity coefficient revealed a significantly low preference for the Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae (0.16, CL: 0.05 – 0.27; p< 0.05 compared to the chironomid larvae and tubificid worms, when all the three prey types were present. The niche breadth (N and diet breadth (B ranged from 0.77 to 0.92 and 0.69 to 0.93, respectively. The total consumption of all the prey types varied with the predator density, but the selectivity index for the mosquito larvae was significantly low in all the instances.Interpretation & conclusion: P. reticulata can consume a good number of mosquito larvae, with the consumption rate varying with the body size. P. reticulata fishes exhibit low preference for mosquito larvae as prey in the presence of alternative controphic preys like chironomid larvae and tubificid worms. Though establishment and sustenance of P. reticulata in new habitats will be favoured by the presence of alternative preys, but vulnerability of mosquito larvae may be reduced with availability of multiple preys in natural conditions.

  20. Salacinol and Related Analogs: New Leads for Type 2 Diabetes Therapeutic Candidates from the Thai Traditional Natural Medicine Salacia chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Morikawa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic effect of a hot water extract of stems of Salacia chinensis (SCE was evaluated in vivo in KK-Ay mice, a typical type 2 diabetes mellitus mice model. Administration of CE-2 dietary feed containing 0.25 and/or 0.50% of SCE for three weeks to KK-Ay mice significantly suppressed the elevation of both blood glucose and HbA1c levels without significant changes in body weight or food intake. Glucose tolerance was improved by administration to KK-Ay mice for 27 days of AIN93M purified dietary feed containing 0.12% of SCE. No suppressive effect with respect to HbA1c level was observed when AIN93M/Glc dietary feed in which all digestible glucides were replaced with glucose was administered with SCE. Thus, ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity approved as the mechanism of action of the antidiabetic effect of SCE by in vitro investigation was reconfirmed also in in vivo studies. Evaluation of the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the active constituents, salacinol (1, kotalanol (3, and neokotalanol (4, by employing human ?-glucosidases revealed that these compounds inhibited them as potently (IC50 = 3.9–4.9 ?M for maltase as they inhibited rat small intestinal ?-glucosidase. The principal sulfonium constituents (1–4 were highly stable in an artificial gastric juice. In addition, 1–4 were hardly absorbed from the intestine in an experiment using the in situ rat ligated intestinal loop model. The results indicate that these sulfoniums are promising leads for a new type of anti-diabetic agents.

  1. Salacia oblonga root improves postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: Activation of PPAR-α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salacia oblonga (SO) root is an Ayurvedic medicine with anti-diabetic and anti-obese properties. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, a nuclear receptor, plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of lipid metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that chronic oral administration of the water extract from the root of SO to Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, a genetic model of type 2 diabetes and obesity, lowered plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol (TC) levels, increased plasma high-density lipoprotein levels and reduced the liver contents of triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and the ratio of fatty droplets to total tissue. By contrast, the extract had no effect on plasma triglyceride and TC levels in fasted ZDF rats. After olive oil administration to ZDF the extract also inhibited the increase in plasma triglyceride levels. These results suggest that SO extract improves postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in ZDF rats. Additionally, SO treatment enhanced hepatic expression of PPAR-α mRNA and protein, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and acyl-CoA oxidase mRNAs in ZDF rats. In vitro, SO extract and its main component mangiferin activated PPAR-α luciferase activity in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and lipoprotein lipase mRNA expression and enzyme activity in THP-1 differentiated macrophages; these effects were completely suppressed by a selective PPAR-α antagonist MK-886. The findings from both in vivo and in vitro suggest that SO extract functions as a PPAR-α activator, providing a potential mechanism for improvement of postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in diabetes and obesity

  2. HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN POECILIA RETICULATA AFTER INTERACTION OF IONIZING RADIATION AND ZINC SULFID

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    Michaela Špalková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In our experiment we have studied interaction of ionizing radiation and zinc at Poecilia reticulata. Fish were irradiated with a 20 Gy of gamma-rays. Zinc sulphate in concentration 25 mg.l-1 was added to water in aquarium. Food intake, clinicl symptoms and histological changes were followed after gamma-irradiation and zinc sulfid in guppy Poecilia reticulata. In the first days timidity and lethargy were observed. The most prominent clinical symptoms observed were emaciation, hampered breathing and haemorrhages. Histological findings corresponded with these symptoms.doi:10.5219/228

  3. Studies of In Vitro Embryo Culture of Guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, LiLi; Lee, Ki-Young

    2014-09-01

    Different with other fishes, the guppies (Poecilia reticulata) is ovoviviparity, which retain their fertilized eggs within the follicle throughout gestation. The synchronously growing diplotene oocytes store nutrients in droplets and yolk, before their maturation and fertilization. The lecithotrophic strategy of development entails the provisioning of embryos with resources from the maternal yolk deposit rather than from a placenta, it allows the extracorporeal culture of guppy embryo. Studies on their early development of live bearers like the guppy including lineage tracing and genetic manipulations, have been limited. Therefore, to optimize conditions of embryo in vitro culture, explanted embryos from pregnant females were incubated in embryo medium (L-15 medium, supplemented with 5, 10, 15, 20% fetal bovine serum, respectively). We investigated whether the contents of FBS in vitro culture medium impact the development of embryos, and whether they would hatch in vitro. Our study found that in 5% of FBS of the medium, although embryos developed significantly slower in vitro than in the ovary, it was impossible to exactly quantify the developmental delay in culture, due to the obvious spread in developmental stage within each batch of eggs, and embryos can only be maintained until the early-eyed. And although in culture with 20% FBS the embryos can sustain rapid development of early stage, but cannot be cultured for the entire period of their embryonic development and ultimately died. In the medium with 10% and 15% FBS, the embryos seems well developed, even some can continue to grow after follicle ruptures until it can be fed. We also observed that embryonic in these two culture conditions were significantly different in development speed, in 15% it is faster than 10%. But 10% FBS appears to be more optimizing condition than 15% one on development process of embryos and survival rate to larvae stage. PMID:25949182

  4. Protective immunization against Tetrahymena sp. infection in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettri, J Kumar; Leibowitz, M Pimenta; Ofir, R; Zilberg, D

    2009-08-01

    Systemic tetrahymenosis constitutes a serious problem in guppy (Poecilia reticulata) production worldwide and no therapeutic solution is available for this disease. Three immunization trials were conducted, testing the effectiveness of different Tetrahymena preparations applied by intraperitoneal injection (IP) with or without Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) and with or without booster dose. In trial 1, immunization with the pathogenic Tet-NI 6 lysate and live attenuated Tet-NI 1 did not provide significant protection from infection, although infection rates were significantly lower in the Tet-NI 6-immunized group than in controls. In trial 2, mortality in Tet-NI 6 + FCA-immunized fish was 10%, significantly lower than in all other treatment groups, including Tet-NI 6 lysate, live attenuated Tet-NI 1 and controls (77, 67 and 73%, respectively). In trial 3, the lowest mortality rates were obtained in the Tet-NI 6 + FCA + booster-immunized group (15%). These levels were lower but not significantly different from the non-boostered Tet-NI 6-immunized group (28%) and the groups immunized with Tet-NI 1, with and without booster (32 and 34%, respectively). Mortality in these four groups was significantly lower than in controls, including adjuvant- and PBS-injected groups (72 and 81%, respectively). Body homogenates of immunized fish immobilized Tetrahymena in-vitro, as compared to no or very little immobilization in controls. Lysozyme levels in the Tet-NI 6 + FCA + booster group were significantly higher than in all other treatments in trial 2 and controls in trial 3. There was no significant difference in anti-protease activity among the differently immunized fish. We conclude that immunization with Tetrahymena lysates in FCA confers a high degree of protection from infection, suggesting this preparation as a basis for vaccine development. PMID:19490943

  5. Regression comparisons of Tetrahymena pyriformis and Poecilia reticulata toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Julie R; Hamblen, Elizabeth L; Schultz, T Wayne

    2002-04-01

    The toxicity data of chemicals common to both the Poecilia reticulata mortality assay and the Tetrahymena pyriformis growth impairment assay were evaluated. Two chemicals were not toxic at saturation in the T. pyriformis assay. In addition, due to abiotic transformation, a third chemical was removed from further consideration. Each chemical was a priori assigned a mode of toxic action: neutral non-covalent, polar non-covalent, or electrophilic covalent toxicity. To further investigate comparisons between endpoints, polar and electrophilic chemicals were separated into class-based groups. The polar non-covalent chemicals were separated into phenols and anilines, while the electrophilic chemicals were separated into those reacting via Schiff-base formation (i.e., aldehydes) and those reacting via bimolecular substitution to a nucleophile (i.e., selected nitroaromatics). A comparison of toxic potency as a collective set was statistically described by the relationship; log(LC50(-1)) = 1.05(log(IGC50(-1))) + 0.56, n = 124; r2 = 0.85; s = 0.42; F = 682; Pr > F = 0.0001. The relationship between endpoints was inversely proportional to reactivity associated with the mode of action. While the comparative toxicity for neutral narcotics exhibited an excellent fit (r2 = 0.94), the fits for polar narcotics and electrophiles were poorer, r2 = 0.69 and 0.62, respectively. Investigations into class-based groupings indicated fit of toxic potency data for aldehydes (r2 = 0.85) and phenols (r2 = 0.81) were quite good. However, fits for anilines (r2 = 0.43) and nitroaromatics (r2 = 0.68) revealed that toxicity was not as well related between endpoints for these chemicals. PMID:11996142

  6. Determination of the Presence of Huanglongbing in Seeds and Movement of the Pathogen in Citrus reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajivand Shokrollah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Huanglongbing (HLB also known as citrus greening disease is a fastidious phloem-inhabiting bacterium in the genus Candidatus Liberibacter. Using universal primers, the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence of three strains of the bacterium were obtained by PCR. However there is very little information on seed transmission and HLB pathogen movement to find a way for control or reduce the severity of HLB on the field. The study was conducted to detect HLB pathogen in seeds of Citrus, to determine pathogen movement in citrus seedling after infection and to detect the HLB pathogen in citrus roots. Approach: Seeds of Citrus reticulata cv. Limau Madu were collected from infected orchard and were germinated in screenhouse condition. The seeds of Citrus reticlata cv. L. Madu were planted in screenhouse too for HLB pathogen movement and HLB detection in roots. The seedlings were inoculated using infected grafting methods. Results: HLB was not amplified in new seedlings after germination. HLB moved slowly reaching up to 1.5 cm after 2 weeks, 1.5-4.5 cm after eight weeks and detected on 4.5-9 cm after 14 weeks below the grafting area. HLB was also detected up to 9-15 cm after 16 weeks, 15-24 cm after twenty weeks, 24-28.5 cm after 22 weeks and 28.5-30 cm after 24 weeks below the grafting area. Conclusion: Base on conventional PCR test, HLB disease in citrus is not seed borne and it can reach to the roots 26 weeks after inoculation.

  7. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces wadayamensis Strain A23, an Endophytic Actinobacterium from Citrus reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana G; Tormet Gonzalez, Gabriela D; Samborsky, Markyian; Marcon, Joelma; Araujo, Welington L; de Azevedo, João Lucio

    2014-01-01

    The actinobacterium Streptomyces wadayamensis A23 is an endophyte of Citrus reticulata that produces the antimycin and mannopeptimycin antibiotics, among others. The strain has the capability to inhibit Xylella fastidiosa growth. The draft genome of S. wadayamensis A23 has ~7.0 Mb and 6,006 protein-coding sequences, with a 73.5% G+C content. PMID:24994795

  8. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces wadayamensis Strain A23, an Endophytic Actinobacterium from Citrus reticulata

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Luciana G.; Tormet Gonzalez, Gabriela D.; Samborsky, Markyian; Marcon, Joelma; Araujo, Welington L.; de Azevedo, João Lucio

    2014-01-01

    The actinobacterium Streptomyces wadayamensis A23 is an endophyte of Citrus reticulata that produces the antimycin and mannopeptimycin antibiotics, among others. The strain has the capability to inhibit Xylella fastidiosa growth. The draft genome of S. wadayamensis A23 has ~7.0 Mb and 6,006 protein-coding sequences, with a 73.5% G+C content.

  9. Changes of ionizing radiation on palace reticulata exposed to various doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of the effect of radiation on animal organisms help us to develop methods of protection against its unfavourable influences. The present study focused on changes, clinical symptoms and survival of Poecilia reticulata exposed to various doses of ionizing radiation. The fish were exposed to a single dose whole-body gamma radiation of 10, 20, 30, 35 and 40 Gy. (authors)

  10. Mutational changes in the courtship activity of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The courtship activity of male F2 descendants of irradiated and control guppies, Poecilia reticulata, of the inbred strain Istanbul was compared. The results of Spieser and Schroeder (1978), who found a decrease in courtship activity of descendants of irradiated guppies, were confirmed under more natural conditions

  11. ADENOCARCINOMA OF THE RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM IN THE GUPPY POECILIA RETICULATA PETERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A single case of adenocarcinoma of the retinal pigment epithelium occurred in a guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters. his is the first such tumor reported from fishes. he left eye of the affected fish was severely exophthalmic because of a large intraocular tumor mass. he tumor, whi...

  12. Biodiesel from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seed oil, a potential non-food feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil extracted from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seeds was investigated as a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was prepared by sodium methoxide-catalyzed transesterification of the oil with methanol. Fuel properties that were determined include cetane numb...

  13. Sequencing and characterization of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata transcriptome

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    Rodd F Helen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next-generation sequencing is providing researchers with a relatively fast and affordable option for developing genomic resources for organisms that are not among the traditional genetic models. Here we present a de novo assembly of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata transcriptome using 454 sequence reads, and we evaluate potential uses of this transcriptome, including detection of sex-specific transcripts and deployment as a reference for gene expression analysis in guppies and a related species. Guppies have been model organisms in ecology, evolutionary biology, and animal behaviour for over 100 years. An annotated transcriptome and other genomic tools will facilitate understanding the genetic and molecular bases of adaptation and variation in a vertebrate species with a uniquely well known natural history. Results We generated approximately 336 Mbp of mRNA sequence data from male brain, male body, female brain, and female body. The resulting 1,162,670 reads assembled into 54,921 contigs, creating a reference transcriptome for the guppy with an average read depth of 28×. We annotated nearly 40% of this reference transcriptome by searching protein and gene ontology databases. Using this annotated transcriptome database, we identified candidate genes of interest to the guppy research community, putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and male-specific expressed genes. We also showed that our reference transcriptome can be used for RNA-sequencing-based analysis of differential gene expression. We identified transcripts that, in juveniles, are regulated differently in the presence and absence of an important predator, Rivulus hartii, including two genes implicated in stress response. For each sample in the RNA-seq study, >50% of high-quality reads mapped to unique sequences in the reference database with high confidence. In addition, we evaluated the use of the guppy reference transcriptome for gene expression analyses in a congeneric species, the sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna. Over 40% of reads from the sailfin molly sample aligned to the guppy transcriptome. Conclusions We show that next-generation sequencing provided a reliable and broad reference transcriptome. This resource allowed us to identify candidate gene variants, SNPs in coding regions, and sex-specific gene expression, and permitted quantitative analysis of differential gene expression.

  14. Yield and fruit quality of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco as influenced by evaporation based drip irrigation schedules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To identify the critical stages of irrigation water requirement of bearing Nagpur mandarin through drip irrigation system a field experiment was conducted on 7-9 years old bearing Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco based on evaporation replenishment (ER irrigation scheduling during 2009-12. The plant growing period was divided into 6 stages, 2 months each, starting from January to December and the effect on water use, tree growth, fruit yield and quality was studied. The irrigation water quantity given per day per plant under different treatments in various months varied from 21.3-158.5 liters per plant, 17.5-153.4 liters per plant and 20.9-164.5 liters per plant in different months during 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12. The highest quantity of water was applied under the irrigation scheduled at 80 % evaporation replenishment (ER treatment and it varied from 46.8-164.5 liters per plant in 2009-12. The average mandarin plant height was 4.57-4.83 m, stock girth was 51.5-56.3 cm and canopy volume 62.4-71.2 m3. The only canopy volume was found significant among the various scheduling treatments. The fruit yield and quality was significantly affected under various evaporation replenishment (ER based drip irrigation scheduling treatments. The highest fruit yield (17.25 and 21.48 tones per ha higher TSS, juice percentage and lower acidity was observed under irrigation at 80 % ER in stages I-V and 30 % ER in stage VI during the study period. The highest TSS to acidity ratio (12.7 and 12.4 was found in the irrigation schedule with 80 % ER in stages I-V and 30 % ER in stage VI during 2010-12.

  15. USE OF THE JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES) AND GUPPY (POECILIA RETICULATA) IN CARCINOGENESIS TESTING UNDER NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM PROTOCOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    that are economical, sensitive, and scientifically acceptable. Among small fish models, the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) is preeminent for investigating effects of carcinogenic and/or toxic waterborne hazards to humans. The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), although less widely u...

  16. Antibacterial activity of Ulva reticulata from southwest coast of Kanyakumari, India

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    Sundaram Ravikumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Ulva reticulata species collected from the Kanyakumari coast of India to determine their potential for bioactivity. Methods: The algal extract was prepared using n-butanol for evaluating the antibacterial activity of Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. Results: It was observed that the n-butanolic extract of the seaweed powder of Ulva reticulata (25–100 mg/mL exerted notable antibacterial activity against tested bacterial strains. The maximum antibacterial activity was exhibited against Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus in all concentrations. Conclusions: The results obtained in the present investigation supported the traditional use of the seaweeds against various infections. However, further investigation has been carried out to elucidate the exact mechanism and isolation of active principle.

  17. Acute toxicity of lanthanum to fish Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata

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    Stanislava Mácová

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lanthanides are widely used in industry as well as medicine, where serve as contrast agents in imaging methods and techniques. Due to these facts, lanthanides can become significant pollutants of living environment. In our work, we were focused in investigation of toxicity of lanthanum on juvenile stages of two fish species- Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata and embryonic stages of D. rerio. The 96hLC50 values were 156.33 ± 5.59 mg.l–1 for juvenile D. rerio and 128.38 ± 5.29 mg.l–1 for juvenile P. reticulata. The 144hLC50 for embryonic stages of D. rerio was 152.98 ± 8.06 mg.l–1. Results of toxicity tests indicate possible toxicity of lanthanum in the case of presence in aquatic environment.

  18. KIRGANELIA RETICULATA (POIR) BAILL.-A REVIEW ON ITS BOTANY, ETHNOBOTANY, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Kumar Soni; Vihangesh Dixit; Akanksha Chandra; Raghuveer Irchhaiya; Nandlal Singh, Harsh Singh

    2013-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Kirganelia reticulata (Poir.) Baill. is known for its importance in various traditional medicine around the world and are proved pharmacologically as an antiviral against Hepatitis B, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic and antioxidant. In Ayurvedic system of Indian medicine recognized its activity against jaundice, diuretic, fever, liver disorder, in bleeding gums, small pox, syphilis, etc. Aim of the review: The review summarizes the up-to-date and comprehensi...

  19. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Essential Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Bei Gao; Yulong Chen; Mingwei Zhang; Yujuan Xu; Siyi Pan

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (PCR) essential oil obtained using an improved Clevenger type apparatus were studied. Among the five different PCRs examined the highest yield of essential oil was found in Chachi 2004 (harvested and stored in 2004) and the lowest in Chachi 2008 (harvested and stored in 2008). Fifty three different volatile compounds were determined, including terpenic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones a...

  20. Impact of expected value on neural activity in rat substantia nigra pars reticulata

    OpenAIRE

    Bryden, Daniel W.; Johnson, Emily E; Diao, Xiayang; Roesch, Matthew R

    2011-01-01

    The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is thought to serve as the output of the basal ganglia, whereby associative information from striatum influences behavior via disinhibition of downstream motor areas to motivate behavior. Unfortunately, few studies have examined activity in SNr in rats making decisions based on the value of predicted reward similar to those conducted in primates. To fill this void, we recorded from single neurons in SNr while rats performed a choice task in which dif...

  1. Investigation of LC50, NOEC and LOEC of Glyphosate, Deltamethrin and Pretilachlor in Guppies (Poecilia Reticulata)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sadeghi; Aliakbar Hedayati

    2014-01-01

    Background: The presence of pesticides is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran. These toxic substances may accumulate in the food chain and cause serious ecological and health problems. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor as potential dangerous organic pesticides to assess lethal effects of these chemicals agents to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Methods: Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of glypho...

  2. PEMBUATAN KARBON AKTIF DARI KULIT JERUK KEPROK (Citrus reticulata) UNTUK ADSORBSI PEWARNA REMAZOL BRILLIANT BLUE

    OpenAIRE

    Asriningtyas Ajeng Erprihana; Dhoni Hartanto

    2014-01-01

    Limbah kulit jeruk keprok (Citrus reticulata) sering dijumpai di industri pembuatan berbagai macam minuman seperti jus, sirup, dan sari buah. Limbah kulit jeruk ini hanya akan dibuang begitu saja dengan jumlah banyak, dan pada akhirnya limbah ini akan mencemari lingkungan. Salah satu upaya peningkatan nilai ekonomis limbah kulit jeruk dapat dilakukan dengan mengolahnya menjadi karbon aktif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan karbon aktif dari kulit jeruk keprok dengan aktivasi kimia,...

  3. Female mate preference explains countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    OpenAIRE

    Deere, Kerry A; Grether, Gregory F.; Sun, Aida; Sinsheimer, Janet S.

    2011-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that mate choice is responsible for countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The nature of the countergradient pattern is that geographical variation in the carotenoid content of the orange spots of males is counterbalanced by genetic variation in drosopterin production, resulting in a relatively uniform pigment ratio. A female hue preference could produce this pattern, because hue is the axis of colour variation...

  4. Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine)

    OpenAIRE

    Amine Elleuch; Fattouma Djilani Khouaja; Imen Hamdi; Nabiha Bsais; Jean-Pierre Perreault; Mohamed Marrakchi; Hatem Fakhfakh

    2006-01-01

    We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III) isolated from a single natural infected Citrus reticulata var. Clementine tree growing in a tree nursery in Manouba (near Tunis Capital). We describe the sequence variability of these viroids from their natural host without using an alternative passage by an indicator host or an artificial inoculation. This work...

  5. Protective Effect against Hydroxyl-induced DNA Damage and Antioxidant Activity of Citri reticulatae Pericarpium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng Chen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As a typical Chinese herbal medicine, Citri reticulatae pericarpium (CRP possesses various pharmacological effects involved in antioxidant ability. However, its antioxidant effects have not been reported yet. The objective of this work was to investigate its antioxidant ability, then further discuss the antioxidant mechanism. Methods: CRP was extracted by ethanol to obtain ethanol extract of Citri reticulatae pericarpium (ECRP. ECRP was then measured by various antioxidant methods, including DNA damage assay, DPPH assay, ABTS assay, Fe3+-reducing assay and Cu2+-reducing assay. Finally, the content of total flavonoids was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. Results: Our results revealed that ECRP could effectively protect against hydroxyl-induced DNA damage (IC50 944.47±147.74 ?g/mL. In addition, it could also scavenge DPPH· radical (IC50349.67±1.91 ?g/mL and ABTS+• radical (IC5011.33±0.10 ?g/mL, reduce Fe3+ (IC50 140.95±2.15 ?g/mL and Cu2+ (IC50 70.46±1.77 ?g/mL. Chemical analysis demonstrated that the content of total flavonoids in ECRP was 198.29±12.24 mg quercetin/g. Conclusion: Citri reticulatae pericarpium can effectively protect against hydroxyl-induced DNA damage. One mechanism of protective effect may be radical-scavenging which is via donating hydrogen atom (H·, donating electron (e. Its antioxidant ability can be mainly attributed to the flavonoids, especially hesperidin and narirutin.

  6. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of citrus jambhiri lush and citrus reticulata blanco essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time interval in which we can get maximum concentration of essential oil from the peels of Citrus jambhiri Lush and Citrus reticulata Blanco, to determine the composition of peel oils and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracted oils. It was observed that in case of Citrus jambhiri Lush maximum oil yield (I %) was obtained when fruits were immature (during October). As the fruit samples got matured, the oil yield decreased. In December the oil yield decreased to 0.2 %. In case of Citrus reticulata Blanco maximum oil yield (0.189 %) was obtained during the last week of January. Chemical analysis of essential oils showed that limonene was the most abundant compound (86 %-93 %) followed by alpha terpinene (2 %-4.5 %), beta-pinene(1 0/0-2 %) and nerol (0.5 %-1.5 %). The radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of essential oils were determined by DPPH and linoleic acid test. The essential oil of Citrus jambhiri Lush inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid by 54.98 % and that of Citrus reticulata Blanco inhibited by 49.98 %. Moreover, the essential oils also showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms. (author)

  7. Inhibitory effects of amines from Citrus reticulata on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xian-Mei; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Xiao, Na; Shen, Qi; Li, Jian-Xin

    2016-02-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, fatal lung disease for which, thus far, there are no effective treatments. The pericarp of Citrus reticulata, as a traditional herbal drug, has been used for the clinical treatment of lung-related diseases in China for many years. In the present study, the amines from the pericarp of Citrus reticulata were isolated, and their hydrochlorides were prepared. The results of screening using cultured human embryonic lung fibroblasts (hELFs) revealed that, of the amines, 4-methoxyphenethylamine hydrochloride (designated as amine hydrochloride 1) possessed the most potent inhibitory effect. Further in vivo experiments using a rat model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis demonstrated that the oral administration of amine hydrochloride 1 significantly lowered the hydroxyproline content in both serum and lung tissue, and alleviated pulmonary alveolitis and fibrosis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that amine hydrochloride 1 exerted its inhibitory effect against IPF through the downregulation of lung transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 protein expression. Our results demonstrated that amine hydrochloride 1 prevented the development of bleomycin?induced lung fibrosis in rats. Thus, our data suggest that the amines from the pericarp of Citrus reticulata have therapeutic potential for use in the treatment of IPF. PMID:26675886

  8. Efecto anabólico y androgénico del esteroide acetato de trembolona en el guppy (Poecilia reticulata) / Anabolic and androgenic effect of steroid trenbolone acetate on guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Héctor, Salgado Zamora; Aída, Azpeitia Hernández; Samuel, Marañón Herrera; Eduardo, Maya Peña.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto del esteroide semisintético acetato de trembolona (ATB) en el pez de ornato Poecilia reticulata (guppy). Especímenes juveniles de 30 días de edad fueron tratados con el esteroide a dosis de 300 mg/kg de alimento durante 60 días. Al término del tratamiento, 40 días después, se [...] estimó el efecto residual del esteroide. Se analizó la sobrevivencia, la proporción de peces masculinizados, así como el efecto anabólico. Los resultados indicaron que el ATB es eficaz para inducir la masculinización, a diferencia del grupo testigo, donde se registraron 32% de machos. Asimismo, el ATB tuvo un efecto anabólico, ya que los peces tratados mostraron mayor peso y talla e incremento de la aleta caudal. El esteroide no causó daño en la población tratada, al sobrevivir 93.3% de los peces, comparado con 83% del grupo testigo. Abstract in english The effect of semi-synthetic steroid trenbolone acetate (TBA) on the ornamental fish Poecilia reticulata (guppy) was studied. The steroid at a dose of 300 mg/kg feed was administered to 30 days old juvenile specimens during 60 days. Forty days after treatment was ended, an evaluation aimed to determ [...] ine the steroid residual effect was undertaken. Survival, masculinization ratio and the drug anabolic effect were analyzed. Results showed TBA to be effective to induce masculinization, differing (P

  9. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Some Nigerian Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Sofidiya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research evaluates the DPPH radical scavenging, total antioxidant activities, reducing power and total contents of phenolic compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of five Nigerian medicinal plants (Dalbergia saxatilis Hook.f. (Papilionacae, Ekebergia senegalensis A.Juss.(Meliaceae, Hymenocardia acida Tul. (Hymenocardiaceae, Icacina tricantha Oliv. (Icacinaceae and Salacia pallescens Oliv.(Celastraceae. Total phenols were analysed according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Each sample under assay condition, showed a dose-dependent effect both on free radical scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH and also on Fe3+ reducing power. The antioxidant activity of the plant extracts with the DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power method, were in the order Hymenocardia> Ekebergia> Salacia> Icacina> Dalbergia. H. acida and E. senegalensis possess very high radical scavenging activity in both assays. Potency of H. acida extract was of the same magnitude as that of reference ?-tocopherol. Total phenols in all the samples expressed as GAE (Gallic Acid Equivalent varied from 1.83 to 15.47mg g-1 of dry plant material. Total antioxidant activities correlated with total phenols (R2 = 0.6640 an indication that 66% of the antioxidant capacity of these extracts results from contribution of phenolic compounds. A linear positive relationship existed between the reducing power and total phenolics of the tested plant extracts (R2 = 0.9564.

  10. Utilization of chemically modified citrus reticulata peels for biosorptive removal of acid yellow-73 dye from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Textile effluents contain several varieties of natural and synthetic dyes, which are non-biodegradable. Acid Yellow-73 is one of them. In this research work, adsorptive removal of this dye was investigated using chemically modified Citrus reticulata peels, in batch mode. It was noted that adsorption of dye on Citrus reticulata peels increased by increasing contact time and decreased in basic pH conditions. Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal models were followed by equilibrium data, but the first isotherm fitted the data better, showing that chemisorption occurred more as compared to physiosorption, showing maximum adsorption capacity 96.46 mg.g-1.L-1. The thermodynamic study showed that adsorption of Acid Yellow-73 on chemically modified Citrus reticulata peels was favorable in nature, following pseudo-second order kinetics. (author)

  11. Two new phenylglycol derivatives isolated from Syringa reticulata var. mandshurica and their antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiong Ming; Liu, Yan Li; Li, Xiao Ran; Feng, Yu Lin; Yang, Shi Lin

    2009-08-01

    Two new phenylglycol derivatives, (S)-(+)-2-(3,4-dihydroxy phenyl)-2-ethoxyl- ethanol and (S)-(+)-2-(3,4-dihydroxy phenyl)-2-acetoxy-ethanol, were isolated from the leaves of Syringa reticulata var. mandshurica, along with two known phenethylols, p-hydroxyl phenethanol and 3,4-dihydroxy phenethanol. The planar structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of their spectral data, and their absolute stereochemistry was established by modified Mosher's method. The two known compounds were identified by comparison of spectral data with published references. The two new compounds showed conspicuous antifungal activities by agar medium assay. PMID:19652414

  12. Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine

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    Amine Elleuch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd, Hop stunt viroid (HSVd and Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III isolated from a single natural infected Citrus reticulata var. Clementine tree growing in a tree nursery in Manouba (near Tunis Capital. We describe the sequence variability of these viroids from their natural host without using an alternative passage by an indicator host or an artificial inoculation. This work confirms that naturally occurring viroid infections contain a mixture of sequence variants. These are the first sequences of citrus viroids from Africa.

  13. Acute Toxicity of Premium Motor Spirit to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J .K. Saliu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Static bioassays were made to determine acute toxicity of premium motor spirit on poecilia reticulata. Lethal doses of the oil were determined using LC50 software programmes based on Finneys probit statistical method. The 96 LC50 value of the oil for guppy was estimated as 1.69 (1.13-2.43 mg L-1. The fish exhibited behavioural changes in the form of aggression, rapid gulping of water, increased opercular movement and abnormal swimming movements. The significance of this sublethal effect particularly as a stress indicator of petrol oil contamination was discussed.

  14. Efficacy of Citrus reticulata and Mirazid in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Manal A Hamed

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid, as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for different cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase; acid phosphatase (AP and 5'- nucleotidase. Liver function enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST; alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were also estimated. Parasitological studies through ova count and worm burden will also be taken into consideration. The results showed a marked reduction in SDH, LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities and a significant increase in G-6-Pase, AP, 5'- nucleotidase, and ALP after S. mansoni infection. A noticeable alteration in LDH subunits were also noticed. Treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all the previous enzyme activities with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden.

  15. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLLASE ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO L. USING SEAWEED EXTRACT OF ULVA RETICULATA FORSSKAL.

    OpenAIRE

    Ganapathy Selvam G.; Balamurugan M; Thinakaran T.; Sivakumar K

    2013-01-01

    The effect of seaweed extract prepared from Ulva reticulata on seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyllase activity of Vigna mungo L. was studied. 100% germination was recorded in the seeds treated with lower concentration of seaweed extract. The V. mungo seeds soaked with lower concentrations of the seaweed extracts showed higher rates of germination, while the higher concentrations of the extracts inhibited the germination.

  16. Phenological Variation Within and Among Populations of Plathymenia reticulata in Brazilian Cerrado, the Atlantic Forest and Transitional Sites

    OpenAIRE

    GOULART, MAÍRA FIGUEIREDO; de Lemos Filho, José Pires; LOVATO, MARIA BERNADETE

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plathymenia reticulata (Leguminosae) is a Brazilian tree that occurs in two biomes: Cerrado, a woody savanna vegetation, and the Atlantic Forest, a tropical forest. In this study, phenological patterns and their variability within and among populations located in these biomes and in transitional zones between them were assessed.

  17. Effects of kindling stimulations on parvalbumin immunoreactivity in substantia nigra pars reticulata of gaers and wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Akman, Özlem; Gulcebi Idrisoglu, M; Eryigit, T.; Yilmaz Onat, F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: One of the mechanisms that control epileptic seizures involves the neural network in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR). Two functionally discrete regions, SNRanterior and posterior were demonstrated to mediate distinct effects on epileptic seizures. Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) show a resistance to secondary generalization of focal limbic seizures induced by kindling.

  18. Cultivo de Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poecilidae en cuerpos de agua tropicales,Veracruz,México

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    Patricia Devezé Murillo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Los peces ornamentales cultivados se han popularizado como mascotas,generando una demanda local que no se ha podido cubrir con la producción de México y por lo tanto deben importarse.Poecilia reticulata "guppy ",es un pez muy popular en el ámbito acuarístico,hoy en día se ha logrado desarrollar una gran cantidad de variedades según su coloración,tipo y forma de cola.Son peces vivíparos que toleran un ámbito extremo de temperatura,siendo la más adecuada entre 25ºC y 28ºC.El tiempo que tardan las hembras en expulsar a las crías una vez que quedan preñadas,oscila entre los 25 y 30 días dependiendo de la temperatura.En esta investigación,el ciclo reproductivo completo se desarrolló en jaulas flotantes,en una laguna tropical situada en la Llanura Costera del Golfo Sur, Veracruz, México.Se diseñó la infraestructura necesaria para producir guppys (P.reticulata incluyendo el manejo de reproductores,crianza,engorda,alimentación y comercialización,evaluando su factibilidad técnica y financiera.Se realizó un estudio de mercado,a través de una encuesta aplicada a los propietarios de los 22 acuarios existentes en la Ciudad de Veracruz,México.Se analizaron las frecuencias de oferta y demanda de cada especie con respecto a la temporada del año,lugar de origen y resistencia al manejo.Las características hidrobiológicas presentaron valores medios de temperatura (31.4ºC,oxígeno disuelto (4.5 mgl-1y pH (6.8.Con los datos obtenidos en campo se realizó un modelo para producción de P.reticulata ,obteniendo una relación beneficio/costo=1.16,correspondiente al ingreso mínimo potencial con una ganancia bruta de US$257.67, proporcionando empleo a dos personas El aprovechamiento de cuerpos de agua en regiones tropicales a través de la producción de peces de ornato representa una alternativa para disminuir la presión sobre las poblaciones silvestres y las tierras de cultivo,proporcionar fuentes de empleo e incrementar los ingresos para el productor en comparación con sistemas tradicionales de producción.Culture of Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poecilidaein tropical water bodies, Veracruz, México. Poecilia reticulata,also known as guppy,is the most popular fish in the aquarium environment. Guppys are viviparous fish with high tolerance to extreme temperatures.The development of the offspring takes between 25 and 30 days.We developed a technology for raising guppys,which outlines infrastructure and devices for reproduction,nursery,feeding,and commercialization,evaluating the financial and technical feasibility of this technology in a case study.The complete reproductive cycle occured in floating cages with 1 mm mesh and the method was tested in a tropical lagoon in Mexico.Water quality was monitored throughout the study period (temperature,dissolved oxygen and pH levels.A marketing survey was carried out at all existing aquarium shops in Veracruz City.Data collected depict quantities demanded and offered for each species by season,place of origin,and resistance to handling.The hydrobiological characteristics were:average temperature 31.4 ºC, dissolved oxygen 4.5 mgl-1,and pH level 6.8.With these values we built a production function,and used it to evaluate profitability.We estimate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.16,with a net annual income of US$257.67.The system may provide two permanent jobs.Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4:951-958.Epub 2005 Jun 24.

  19. Upstream guppies (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859) go against the flow / Gupies (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859) de áreas de cabeceira se posicionam contra a corrente

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ryan Simon, Mohammed; Cock, van Oosterhout; Bettina, Schelkle; Joanne, Cable; Mark, McMullan.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Populações de guppies (Poecilia reticulata Peters) que vivem em lagos e em cativeiro podem demonstrar menos reotaxia em comparação com populações que habitam rios e que estão frequentemente expostas a enchentes e que provocam a migração involuntária para jusante. Neste trabalho, vamos testar esta hi [...] pótese num rio artificial utilizando guppies de duas populações selvagens que habitam em rios, uma população que habita em lagos, e uma linhagem ornamental. Os resultados demonstram que os guppies de rios que provêm de localidades a montante demonstram maior reotaxia, diminuindo assim probabilidade de serem arrastados para jusante em períodos de enchentes. No entanto, não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre guppies de localidades a jusante, do lago Pitch ou ornamentais. Este resultado pode dever-se ao facto de existirem grandes diferenças ecológicas entre os habitats localizados a jusante e a montante dos rios. Devido ao facto de estas localidades estarem separadas por cachoeiras, impossibilitando a migração rio-acima, a seleção natural poderá estar a actuar contra guppies que sejam arrastados rio abaixo durantes os períodos de cheias Abstract in english Guppies (Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859) in lakes and from captive-bred populations are predicted to show little rheotaxis compared to conspecifics in a stream environment that are regularly exposed to flash floods associated with involuntary downstream migration. Here we test this hypothesis using [...] an artificial stream, examining guppies of two wild riverine populations, one lake population, and one ornamental strain. Guppies from the most upstream riverine habitat show the most pronounced rheotaxis and are less likely to be swept downstream during flooding events. However, there is no significant difference between guppies from the lowland riverine habitat, the Pitch Lake and ornamental strain. We propose that station-keeping behaviours are most strongly selected in the upstream population because large spatial differences exist in ecology and environment between up- and downstream habitats. Given that these sites are separated by barrier waterfalls that prevent compensatory upstream migration, natural selection operates particularly strong against upstream guppies that have been displaced downstream during flooding events.

  20. Salacia oblonga root improves cardiac lipid metabolism in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: Modulation of cardiac PPAR-α-mediated transcription of fatty acid metabolic genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excess cardiac triglyceride accumulation in diabetes and obesity induces lipotoxicity, which predisposes the myocytes to death. On the other hand, increased cardiac fatty acid (FA) oxidation plays a role in the development of myocardial dysfunction in diabetes. PPAR-α plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis of lipid metabolism. We have previously demonstrated that the extract from Salacia oblonga root (SOE), an Ayurvedic anti-diabetic and anti-obesity medicine, improves hyperlipidemia in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats (a genetic model of type 2 diabetes and obesity) and possesses PPAR-α activating properties. Here we demonstrate that chronic oral administration of SOE reduces cardiac triglyceride and FA contents and decreases the Oil red O-stained area in the myocardium of ZDF rats, which parallels the effects on plasma triglyceride and FA levels. Furthermore, the treatment suppressed cardiac overexpression of both FA transporter protein-1 mRNA and protein in ZDF rats, suggesting inhibition of increased cardiac FA uptake as the basis for decreased cardiac FA levels. Additionally, the treatment also inhibited overexpression in ZDF rat heart of PPAR-α mRNA and protein and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, acyl-CoA oxidase and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase mRNAs and restored the downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA. These results suggest that SOE inhibits cardiac FA oxidation in ZDF rats. Thus, our findings suggest that improvement by SOE of excess cardiac lipid accumulation and increased cardiac FA oxidation in diabetes and obesity occurs by reduction of cardiac FA uptake, thereby modulating cardiac PPAR-α-mediated FA metabolic gene transcription

  1. Pseudobrânquia do guaru Poecilia reticulata (Peter, 1859): análise estrutural, morfométrica e histoquímica para detecção de glicoconjugados / Pseudo-gill of guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Peter, 1859): structural, morphometric, and histochemical analyses for the detection of glycoconjugates

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thiago L., Rocha; Ana P.R., Santos; Simone M.T., Sabóia-Morais.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A morfologia, os parâmetros citomorfométricos e os glicoconjugados presentes na pseudobrânquia de guaru, Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae), foram investigados por microscopia de luz acoplada ao sistema de captura e análise de imagens, juntamente por histoquímica com l [...] ectinas. A anatomia microscópica indicou que P. reticulata possui pseudobrânquia glandular formada por dois lóbulos, a qual se localiza abaixo do epitélio faringiano. O órgão é constituído por parênquima vascularizado e rico em células pseudobranquiais. Esse tipo celular exibe estado citofisiológico ativo, com abundante sistema de biomembranas e ausência de óstio na superfície apical,que por sua vez é encontrado nas células ricas em mitocôndrias das holobrânquias. Assim, indica-se que as células da pseudobrânquia se distinguem das células das holobrânquias em relação à morfologia, histoquímica e fisiologia. Em decorrência dessas características intrínsecas, a pseudobrânquia de alevinos do guaru pode desempenhar funções não respiratórias nas fases iniciais do desenvolvimento. Além disso, a caracterização da pseudobrânquia do guaru possibilitará estudos futuros sobre o efeito de poluentes aquáticos em espécies biomonitoras, como P. reticulata. Abstract in english The morphology, cytomorphometric parameters, and glycoconjugates present in the pseudo-gill of guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae), were investigated by light microscopy coupled to image capture and analysis system, and also by lectin histochemistry. The microsco [...] pic anatomy indicates that P. reticulata has a glandular pseudo-gill formed by two lobes, located underneath the pharynx epithelium. The organ is formed by vascularized parenchyma rich in pseudo-gill cells. This cell type exhibits active cytophysiological state with an abundant system of biomembranes and lacking of ostium in apical surface, which in turn is found in the mitochondria-rich cells of the holobranch. This indicates that the pseudo-gill cells distinguishe from the holobranch cells in their morphology, histochemistry and physiology. Due to these intrinsic characteristics, the pseudo-gill of guppy fingerlings may have non-respiratory function in the initial phase of their development. The characterization of guppy's pseudo-gill could facilitate further studies about the effect of water pollutants on biomonitor species, such as P. reticulata.

  2. EFECTOS ECOTOXICOLOGICOS DEL CARTAP SOBRE POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE Y PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE ECOTOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CARTAP ON POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE AND PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Iannacone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el impacto ecotoxicológico del insecticida carbámico cartap (1,3 di (carbamoytio-2-dimetiloaminopropano usado para el control de plagas agrícolas y como molusquicida de vectores de importancia en Salud Pública, sobre dos especies de peces del ecosistema acuático continental: Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859 "guppy" (Poecilidae y Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936 ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae. Ellos fueron utilizados como organismos no destinatarios en ensayos de corta duración, para determinar el impacto toxicológico del cartap. Para ambas especies de peces se evaluó el porcentaje de mortalidad, y dos respuestas subletales: el incremento del movimiento opercular y el nado extraño. A 3 h de exposición para P. reticulata, se encontró un valor de CL50 (Concentración letal media de 6,75 mg•L-1 y valores de CE50 (Concentración efectiva media de The ecotoxicological impact of the carbamate insecticide cartap (1,3 di (carbamoythio-2-dimethyloaminopropan used for agriculture pests and as mollusquicide of vectors of Public Health importance was evaluated, on two fish species of the continental aquatic ecosystem. Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859 ``guppy" (Poecilidae and Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936 ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae were employed as non-target organisms in assays of short duration to determine the toxicological impact of cartap. For both fish, percentage of mortality and two sublethal responses: increase of opercula movement and strange swim, were evaluated. In P. reticulata after 3 h exposure it was found a LC50 (mean Lethal Concentration of 6.75 mg'•L-1 and values of EC50 (mean Effective Concentration of <7.55 and <8.16 mg•L-1 as speed up of opercula movement and strange swim, respectively. For P. innesi, it was found an LC50 value of <0.02 mg•L-1 and values of EC50 of <0.01 and <0.03 mg•L-1, as speed up of opercula movement and strange swim, respectively. P. innesi was more sensitive to cartap than P. reticulata. Risk Quotients (RQ to evaluate environmental risk (ERA of this insecticide on aquatic ecosystem were calculated, indicating that P. innesi was more accurate than P. reticulata as ecotoxicological tool to evaluate cartap.

  3. Chemical and pharmacognostical characterization of two Malaysian plants both known as Ajisamat

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tengku Azlan S. Tengku, Mohamad; Humera, Naz; Ratni S., Jalal; Khatijah, Hussin; Mohd R. Abd, Rahman; Aishah, Adam; Jean-Frederic F., Weber.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ajisamat, an herb commonly used as an aphrodisiac in the Malaysian traditional medicine, corresponds to two different species from different families - Salacia macrophylla Blume, Celastraceae, and Prismatomeris glabra (Korth.) Valeton, Rubiaceae. Macromorphological inspection of the vegetative parts [...] both plants reveals only a slight difference in the arrangement of the petioles. Microscopic investigation of the plants roots used as crude drugs revealed however distinctive anatomical features. Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and banded paratracheal parenchyma are characteristics of S. macrophylla while P. glabra displays an abundance as crystals. Other features such as vessels diameters and arrangements are also of diagnostic importance. Some of these characters were also identified in the powder of thes e plant materials and proposed for diagnostic purpose. The values for extraction of ethanol and water as well as total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash and sulfated ash were determined for both plants. Phytochemical studies were carried out on hexane and chloroform extracts of S. macrophylla and methanolic extract of P. glabra. S. macrophylla was shown to contain highly oxidized pentacyclic triterpenes while P. glabra contains anthraquinones. The pharmacognostical and hytochemical information can be utilised as the identification tools for Salacia macrophylla and Prismatomeris glabra

  4. Chemical and pharmacognostical characterization of two Malaysian plants both known as Ajisamat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Azlan S. Tengku Mohamad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ajisamat, an herb commonly used as an aphrodisiac in the Malaysian traditional medicine, corresponds to two different species from different families - Salacia macrophylla Blume, Celastraceae, and Prismatomeris glabra (Korth. Valeton, Rubiaceae. Macromorphological inspection of the vegetative parts both plants reveals only a slight difference in the arrangement of the petioles. Microscopic investigation of the plants roots used as crude drugs revealed however distinctive anatomical features. Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and banded paratracheal parenchyma are characteristics of S. macrophylla while P. glabradisplays an abundance as crystals. Other features such as vessels diameters and arrangements are also of diagnostic importance. Some of these characters were also identified in the powder of thes e plant materials and proposed for diagnostic purpose. The values for extraction of ethanol and water as well as total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash and sulfated ash were determined for both plants. Phytochemical studies were carried out on hexane and chloroform extracts of S. macrophylla and methanolic extract of P. glabra. S. macrophylla was shown to contain highly oxidized pentacyclic triterpenes while P. glabra contains anthraquinones. The pharmacognostical and hytochemical information can be utilised as the identification tools for Salacia macrophylla and Prismatomeris glabra

  5. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Gao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (PCR essential oil obtained using an improved Clevenger type apparatus were studied. Among the five different PCRs examined the highest yield of essential oil was found in Chachi 2004 (harvested and stored in 2004 and the lowest in Chachi 2008 (harvested and stored in 2008. Fifty three different volatile compounds were determined, including terpenic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters. D-limonene, one of terpenes, was the major constituent in PCR. The antioxidant capacity of PCR essential oil varied considerably with the duration of storage time, and the oil from Chachi 1994 has the strongest ferric-reducing antioxidant power. In addition, the essential oil possessed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, except Streptococcus faecalis, while had no effect on Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae.

  6. DETAILED COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA LINN. AND ANNONA RETICULATA LINN. LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Switu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Annona squamosa Linn. and Annona reticulata Linn. are locally known as Sitaphala and Ramphala respectively both belongs to family Annonaceae. Leaves of both are used in various diseases like suppurant, toothache, anthelmintic commonly. Individually A. squamosa is used in anti diabetic, antispasmodic, dandruff and A. reticulate is used in flatulence and toothache. Till date there is no scientific comparative study has been reported. Pharmacognostical study of A. squamosa shows lysogenous cavity and sparse trichome where as, A. reticulate shows multicellular trichomes filled with tannin and stone cells. The powder characters of A. squamosa are stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate whereas A. reticulate shows pitted stones cells and micro rosettes crystals of calcium oxalate. Annular vessels, lysogenous cavity and paracytic stomata are common characters observed in both the leaves.

  7. Environmental and physiological conditions affecting Tetrahymena sp. infection in guppies, Poecilia reticulata Peters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta Leibowitz, M; Ariav, R; Zilberg, D

    2005-09-01

    Parasitic infections caused by Tetrahymena sp. constitute a serious problem in guppies, Poecilia reticulata. Tetrahymena was isolated from skin lesions of naturally infected guppies in a commercial aquaculture farm, cultured in vitro and used in subsequent experimental infections. In addition to guppies, angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare, platyfish, Xiphophorus maculates, and neontetra, Paracheirodon innesi, were susceptible, whereas tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus xO. aureus) was resistant. The ciliate had a high affinity for dead fish. Skin abrasion did not affect the infection, but fish with gas bubble disease exhibited a significantly higher infection than non-affected fish. Infection was significantly higher when fish were exposed to high levels of ammonia, high organic load and low water temperatures. Under shipment conditions, infection was significantly elevated. Full recovery was achieved at a low fish density. Results suggest that poor environmental and physiological conditions enhance infection with Tetrahymena sp. PMID:16266327

  8. EFECTOS ECOTOXICOLOGICOS DEL CARTAP SOBRE POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE) Y PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE) ECOTOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CARTAP ON POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE) AND PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Iannacone; Roxana Onofre; Olga Huanqui

    2007-01-01

    Se evaluó el impacto ecotoxicológico del insecticida carbámico cartap (1,3 di (carbamoytio)-2-dimetiloaminopropano) usado para el control de plagas agrícolas y como molusquicida de vectores de importancia en Salud Pública, sobre dos especies de peces del ecosistema acuático continental: Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859) "guppy" (Poecilidae) y Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936) ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae). Ellos fueron utilizados como organismos no destinatarios en ensayos de corta duración, par...

  9. Populational approach in ecophysiological studies: the case of Plathymenia reticulata, a tree from Cerrado and Atlantic Forest Abordagem populacional em estudos ecofisiológicos: o caso de /Plathymenia reticulata/, uma árvore do Cerrado e da Mata Atlântica

    OpenAIRE

    José Pires Lemos Filho; Maíra Figueiredo Goulart; Maria Bernadete Lovato

    2008-01-01

    The variability of ecophysiological traits among populations can be a result of selection in response to environmental pressure and/or due to random factors, like the genetic drift. The analysis of both genetic and phenotypic variation within populations can lead to better understanding of adaptation in order to colonize different habitats. In the last years we have developed several studies with an widely ecogeographic distributed legume tree species, Plathymenia reticulata, which were focus...

  10. Flutuação populacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton em Citrus deliciosa e no híbrido Murcott Citrus sinensis x Citrus reticulata Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton population fluctuation in Citrus deliciosa and Murcott hybrid Citrus sinensis x Citrus reticulata

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Ramos de Jesus; Luiza Rodrigues Redaelli; Fábio Kessler Dal Soglio

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a dinâmica populacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), o minador-dos-citros, em pomares de tangerineira Citrus deliciosa Tenore variedade Montenegrina e de tangoreiro híbrido "Murcott" Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck X Citrus reticulata Blanco, com manejo orgânico, em Montenegro (29° 68'S e 51° 46'O), Rio Grande do Sul. Foram realizadas amostragens quinzenais de julho de 2001 a junho de 2003. Os brotos coletados foram...

  11. Investigation of acute toxicity of pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic, 25%EC) on guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, M O; Samuel, O B

    2010-04-15

    Pirimiphos-methyl is a broad spectrum organophosphate insecticide and potential toxic pollutant in aquatic ecosystems. The acute toxicity of Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic) was investigated using Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) in a 96 h static renewal laboratory bioassay. Based on probit analysis the LC50 was 0.026, 0.024, 0.022 and 0.019 ml L(-1) at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that there was significant difference (p < 0.05) in the quantal response (mortality) of P. reticulata to different concentrations of Actellic at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure. Actellic insecticide is toxic to fish; therefore its indiscriminate use in aquatic environment should be discouraged. PMID:20836303

  12. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of Pirimiphos-Methyl (Actellic®, 25%EC on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Lawal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pirimiphos-methyl is a broad spectrum organophosphate insecticide and potential toxic pollutant in aquatic ecosystems. The acute toxicity of Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic® was investigated using Guppy (Poecilia reticulata in a 96 h static renewal laboratory bioassay. Based on probit analysis, the LC50 was 0.026, 0.024, 0.022 and 0.019 ml L-1 at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA showed that there was significant difference (p<0.05 in the quantal response (mortality of P. reticulata to different concentrations of Actellic at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure. Actellic insecticide is toxic to fish; therefore its indiscriminate use in aquatic environment should be discouraged.

  13. Fruit Characteristics, Chromosome and DNA Profiles of Four Mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco) Collected in West Sumatra, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Masashi; NASRIL Nasir; NINOMIYA, Takanori; KUBO, Tatsuya; Tominaga, Shigeto; ヤマモト, マサシ; ニノミヤ, タカノリ; クボ, タツヤ; トミナガ, シゲト; 山本, 雅史; 久保, 達也; 冨永, 茂人

    2012-01-01

    Fruit characteristics, chromosome, and DNA profiles were analyzed in four mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Jeruk Brastagi', 'JeruK Keprok', 'Jeruk Siem' and 'Limau Talang Babungo', collected in West Sumatra, Indonesia. In terms of fruit characteristic, all four mandarins possessed orange rind and flesh and green polyembryonic seed. The fruit diameter of 'Limau Talang Babungo' was the smallest. 'Jeruk Siem' possessed the thinnest rind. The brix of juice was high in 'Jeruk Brastagi' and '...

  14. Atividade antimicrobiana do oleorresina de copaíba (Copaifera reticulata) frente a Staphylococcus coagulase positiva isolados de casos de otite em cães

    OpenAIRE

    Rosangela E. Ziech; Luana D. Farias; Cláudia Balzan; Magnos F. Ziech; Berta M. Heinzmann; Osmar A. Lameira; de Vargas, Agueda C.

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar o potencial antimicrobiano do oleorresina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke em isolados de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (SCP) provenientes de casos de otite externa em cães. O método de microdiluição em caldo foi utilizado para determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e concentração bactericida mínima (CBM) de oleorresina de copaíba. Em adição, foi determinado o perfil de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos dos isolados de SCP pelo m...

  15. Multielemental analysis of mineral nutrients in Nagpur Santra (Citrus reticulata Blanco) leaves by thermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mn, Zn, Cu, Na, K, Fe and P have been determined in the Nagpur Santra (Citrus reticulata Blanco) leaves by thermal neutron activation analysis. The irradiated sample was dissolved in aqua regia in the presence of carriers. The ? and/or ? activities of the purified elements were measured after radiochemical separations involving solvent extraction and precipitation. The values obtained for the elements are comparable to those reported in literature for Indian citrus leaves. (author)

  16. Use of artificial sediment to assess toxicity of chromium on Chironomus xanthus, Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata / Utilização de sedimento artificial na avaliação da toxicidade do cromo sobre Chironomus xanthus, Danio rerio e Poecilia reticulata

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline Fernanda, Campagna; Beatriz Kawamura, Rodrigues; Roberta Corrêa, Nogueirol; Nelsy Fenerich, Verani; Evaldo Luiz Gaeta, Espíndola; Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú, Alleoni.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Sedimentos artificiais com formulações simples foram utilizados para avaliar a toxicidade do Cr em C. xanthus, D. rerio e P. reticulata. MÉTODOS: Os organismos foram expostos a duas formulações: sem matéria orgânica (S0) e com 1% de matéria orgânica (SIII), contaminadas com Cr nas concentr [...] ações de 90; 180; 360; 720 e 1440 mg/kg para os ensaios com C. xanthus e 375; 750; 1500 e 3000 mg/kg para os ensaios com peixes. RESULTADOS: Os resultados dos ensaios agudos demonstraram uma redução de até quatro vezes na toxicidade frente à presença de matéria orgânica detrital biodegradável (MO). C. xanthus apresentou maior sensibilidade ao metal em relação aos peixes. A redução na toxicidade do Cr frente à presença de MO foi verificada nos valores de CL50, que estiveram mais elevados nos em SIII (C. xanthus = 1234,43 mg/kg ; D. rerio = 2263,54 m/kg e P. reticulata = 2244,48 mg/kg) em relação à S0 (C. xanthus = 340,56 mg/kg; D. rerio = 1731,04 mg/kg e P. reticulata = 1733,55 mg/kg). CONCLUSÕES: Os sedimentos artificiais com formulações simples foram satisfatórios na avaliação da toxicidade e asseguram resultados confiáveis em estudos ecotoxicológicos Abstract in english AIM: Artificial sediments with simple formulations were used to assess the toxicity of Cr to C. xanthus, D. rerio and P. reticulata. METHODS: The organisms were exposed to two sediment formulations: one without organic matter (S0) and one with 1% organic matter (SIII), both contaminated with Cr at c [...] oncentrations of 90, 180, 360, 720 and 1440 mg/kg for the assays with C. xanthus, and 375, 750, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg for those with the two fish species. Chromium was obtained from the potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). RESULTS: The results of the acute toxicity tests demonstrated a reduction of up to four times in toxicity with the presence of OM, consisting of biodegradable detritus, even at the low concentration used (1%), and that C. xanthus was most sensitive to the metal. The reduction in the chromium toxicity was indicated by the LC50 values, which were higher in SIII (1234.43 mg/kg; 2263.54 m/kg; 2244.48 mg/kg) than in S0 (340.56 mg/kg; 1731.04 mg/kg; 1733.55 mg/kg) for C. xanthus, D. rerio and P. reticulata, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Because of the repeatability of the results obtained, the artificial sediments with simple formulations were satisfactory to assess toxicity and can thus provide reliable results in ecotoxicological studies

  17. The MC1R gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata: Genotypic and phenotypic polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Jun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The guppy (Poecilia reticulata is an important model organism for studying sexual selection; male guppies have complex and conspicuous pigmentation, and female guppies exhibit preferences for males with specific color spots. Understanding the genetic basis underlying pigmentation variation in the guppy is important for exploring the factors causing the maintenance of color polymorphism in wild populations. Findings We focused on the melanic black pigmentation of guppies, and examined genetic variations in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene because variation in this gene is known to contribute to polymorphism of melanin pigmentation in several animal species. The complete coding sequence of the guppy MC1R gene was determined, and two different MC1R alleles (963 and 969 bp were found in wild populations. Ornamental strain guppies with a 963-bp MC1R tended to show less black pigmentation than those with a 969-bp MC1R, although the association between MC1R genotype and black pigmentation disappeared in the F2 offspring. Conclusions The guppy MC1R gene showed variation in the five wild Trinidadian populations we examined, and these populations also differed in terms of allele frequencies. We identified a significant association between black pigmentation and MC1R genotype in fish obtained from aquarium shops. However, the results from F2 families suggest that there are other genes that modify the effects of the MC1R gene.

  18. Proteomic and histopathological response in the gills of Poecilia reticulata exposed to glyphosate-based herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Santos, Ana Paula Rezende Dos; Yamada, Áureo Tatsumi; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira

    2015-07-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) are one of the most used herbicide nowadays, whilst there is growing concern over their impact on aquatic environment. Since data about the early proteomic response and toxic mechanisms of GBH in fish is very limited, the aim of this study was to investigate the early toxicity of GBH in the gills of guppies Poecilia reticulata using a proteomic approach associated with histopathological index. Median lethal concentration (LC50,96 h) was determined and LC50,96h values of guppies exposed to GBH were 3.6 ± 0.4 mg GLIL(-1). Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis associated with mass spectrometry, 14 proteins regulated by GBH were identified, which are involved in different cell processes, as energy metabolism, regulation and maintenance of cytoskeleton, nucleic acid metabolism and stress response. Guppies exposed to GBH at 1.82 mg GLIL(-1) showed time-dependent histopathological response in different epithelial and muscle cell types. The histopathological indexes indicate that GBH cause regressive, vascular and progressive disorders in the gills of guppies. This study helped to unravel the molecular and tissue mechanisms associated with GBH toxicity, which are potential biomarkers for biomonitoring water pollution by herbicides. PMID:26141659

  19. Effects of methylphenidate on responses to novelty in a teleost fish (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Serrano, Alex R; Fong, Charmaine; Rodd, F Helen

    2016-04-01

    Novelty seeking, the willingness to explore novel stimuli, can have important fitness consequences. The neurotransmitter dopamine has been linked to this behavior in studies on lab animals including rodents and fish; however, few studies have investigated this association in individuals from natural populations. Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) show variation in willingness to explore novel objects and environments, and females tend to show a preference for novel males. In this study, we asked whether we could enhance interest in several types of novel stimuli in lab-reared, female Trinidadian guppies by administering methylphenidate hydrochloride, a stimulant known to increase dopamine levels. We scored their responses to three different types of novelty: novel environments, objects, and males. Treated females showed enhanced exploratory behavior: they traversed relatively more inner squares of the novel environment (open-field test); they spent more time inspecting a novel object; and they showed greater interest in the second male guppy to which they were exposed than control fish. We also found a positive association between our metrics of exploration in the open field and novel object tests. Our other assays suggest that these differences were not the result of increased activity or reduced levels of stress. Therefore, our results suggest that dopamine plays a role in the responsiveness of guppies to novelty; this opens the door to studies of behavioral mechanisms in natural populations. PMID:26792109

  20. Genetic and environmental effects on secondary sex traits in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K A; Rodd, F H; Reznick, D N

    2005-01-01

    Male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exhibit extreme phenotypic and genetic variability for several traits that are important to male fitness, and several lines of evidence suggest that resource level affects phenotypic expression of these traits in nature. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation for male secondary sex traits could be maintained by genotype-specific effects of variable resource levels (genotype-environment interaction). To do this, we measured genetic variation and covariation under two environmental conditions--relatively low and relatively high food availability. We found high levels of genetic variation for most traits, but we only found a significant G x E interaction across food levels for one trait (body size) for one population. The across-environment correlations for size were large and positive, indicating that the reaction norms for size did not cross. We also found that male colour pattern elements had nearly an order of magnitude more genetic variation than did male size. Heritability estimates indicated that Y-linked genes are responsible for some of the genetic variation in male size and colour traits. We discuss implications of these results for theories of the maintenance of genetic variation in male secondary sexual traits in guppies. PMID:15669959

  1. Flavonoid Fraction of Citrus reticulata Juice Reduces Proliferation and Migration of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, Marilena; Maggisano, Valentina; De Rose, Roberta Francesca; Bulotta, Stefania; Maiuolo, Jessica; Navarra, Michele; Russo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Effects of flavonoids extracted from Citrus reticulata (mandarin) juice on proliferation and migration of 3 human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) cell lines were evaluated. Flavonoid components of Mandarin juice extract (MJe) were analyzed by uHPLC. Proliferation of CAL-62, C-643, and 8505C cells, measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, was significantly reduced by MJe in a concentration- and time-dependent way, with maximal effect elicited at 0.5 mg/ml concentration after 48 h. Cytofluorimetric analysis showed a block in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, accompanied by low cell mortality owed to autophagic death. The extract caused also a reduction of cell migration, associated with decreased activity of the metalloproteinase MMP-2. These findings demonstrate that the flavonoid fraction of mandarin juice exerts in vitro antiproliferative effects on ATC cells, associated with a reduction of migration, suggesting for such a functional food a potential use as adjuvant in the treatment of thyroid cancer. PMID:26365817

  2. Controlled infection of Poecilia reticulata Peters (guppy) with Tetrahymena by immersion and intraperitoneal injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, G; Pimenta-Leibowitz, M; Vilchis, M C L; Isakov, N; Zilberg, D

    2015-01-01

    Tetrahymena is a protozoan parasite, which infects guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters, and causes substantial economical losses in commercial farms worldwide. Studies of guppy infected by Tetrahymena require standardized infection protocols. The LD50 for Tetrahymena infection of guppies by intraperitoneal (IP) injection was calibrated, and the level obtained was 946 parasites per fish. Guppy infection with Tetrahymena by immersion, imitating the natural route of infection via the integument, was studied under normal or stress conditions. Exposure to cold and netting (CNI) and to cold only (CI) followed by immersion exposure to 10 000 Tetrahymena per mL resulted in 22.5% and 19.2% mortality, respectively, as compared to 14.2% and 10% in groups that were netted only (NI) or non-stressed (I). Histopathology revealed that immersion infection resulted in a systemic infection. Lysozyme levels, measured 3 weeks after infection, were significantly higher in the CNI group (288 ?g per mg protein) compared with CI-, NI- and I-treated groups (94.5, 64 and 62.3 ?g mg(-1), respectively). There was no evident parasite immobilization activity in body homogenates, suggesting no development of acquired immunity. Re-infection by IP injection revealed no increase in protection in any of the treatment groups, mortality range of 56.3-75%, higher than in the non-exposed control (40.6% mortality). PMID:24423242

  3. Investigation of LC50, NOEC and LOEC of Glyphosate, Deltamethrin and Pretilachlor in Guppies (Poecilia Reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadeghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of pesticides is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran. These toxic substances may accumulate in the food chain and cause serious ecological and health problems. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor as potential dangerous organic pesticides to assess lethal effects of these chemicals agents to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata. Methods: Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate (41% (0, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 25 ppm, deltamethrin (2.5% (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.10 and 0.30 ppm and pretilachlor (50% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm for 96 h and cumulative mortality of the guppies was calculated with 24 h intervals. Results: LC50-96h was 12.01±1.00, 0.08±0.47 and 8.24±0.42 for glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor respectively. The very low LC50 obtained for glyphosate (12.01±1.00 ppm, deltamethrin (0.08±0.47 ppm and pretilachlor (8.24±0.42 ppm indicate that glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor are highly toxic to guppies. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that deltamethrin and glyphosate had the lowest and highest rate of mortality on the guppy respectively.

  4. Crescimento de frutos da tangerineira 'Poncã' (Citrus reticulata Blanco Fruit gowth of 'Ponkan' mandarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Dutra Degli Esposti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de frutos da tangerineira Poncã, desde o pegamento até a colheita dos frutos, em Viçosa - Minas Gerais. O desenvolvimento do fruto seguiu uma curva do tipo sigmóide simples, sendo a fase I compreendida da antese até o 85º dia após o pleno florescimento, com um período de transição na fase II, que foi até o 101º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase II teve início logo após a fase de transição, prolongando-se até o 251º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase III, de amadurecimento do fruto, iniciou-se no 251º dia após o pleno florescimento e prolongou-se até a colheita dos frutos, a qual foi realizada no 276º dia após o pleno florescimento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit development of Ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco. Fruit development followed a simple sigmoid curve, with phase I extending from anthesis to the 85th day after full flowering, with a transition period to phase II that lasted up to the 101st day after full flowering. Phase II began soon after the transition phase, extending up to the 251st day after full flowering. Phase III, fruit ripening, began at the 251st day after full flowering and it was prolonged until harvest, which was carried out at the 276th day after full flowering.

  5. IDENTIFICATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF POTENTIAL PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM POECILIA RETICULATA (GUPPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Balakrishna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Antagonistic activities against candidate indicator strains, adhesion to mucus and biofilm formation of potential probiotic strains isolated from Poecilia reticulata were evaluated. Four isolated strains (MBTU_PB1, MBTU_PB2, MBTU_PB3 and MBTU_PB4 showed moderate to strong antagonistic activities against the tested five indicator strains (Aeromonas hydrophila1739, Vibrio cholera 3906, Flavobacterium 2495, Acinetobacter 1271 and Alcaligenes 1424 and these isolates were further identified using biochemical tests and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Except the whole cell product, the other three cellular components, namely, heat-killed whole cell product, intracellular product and extracellular product of all the four selected isolates were equally effective, as revealed by the zone of inhibitions to the tested indicator strains. The in vitro adhesion property or the ability of colonization is often considered as a selection criteria for probiotics. All the selected four strains had higher adhesion abilities than the indicator strains. Further, these four strains had the ability to form biofilms on polystyrene surfaces. The in vitro characterization of these four strains suggests possibility of using the isolates, as individual strain or in combination, for probiotic therapy in aquaculture.

  6. Use of multi species freshwater bio monitor (MFB) to assess behavioral changes of guppy Poecilia reticulata and freshwater prawn Macrobrachium lanchesteri in response to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Multi species Freshwater Bio monitor (MFB) uses the measurement and analysis of different types of behaviours from different aquatic organisms for monitoring the water quality in freshwater ecosystem. The aim of this study was to determine the specific response of freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium lanchesteri) and guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) to cadmium (Cd) in the laboratory. Different concentrations of Cd were exposed to M. lanchesteri (1 ppb and 10 ppb) and P. reticulata (100 ppb and 560 ppb) and the behavioural changes of the organisms were recorded by MFB for 2 hours. Results showed that the behavioural and ventilation response of M. lanchesteri and P. reticulata increased with increasing exposure concentrations of Cd. Results also showed that the shrimp was more sensitive to Cd than the guppy fish and these local species were suitable as indicator organism for the MFB. (author)

  7. EFECTOS ECOTOXICOLOGICOS DEL CARTAP SOBRE POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE) Y PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE) / ECOTOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CARTAP ON POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE) AND PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jose, Iannacone; Roxana, Onofre; Olga, Huanqui.

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el impacto ecotoxicológico del insecticida carbámico cartap (1,3 di (carbamoytio)-2-dimetiloaminopropano) usado para el control de plagas agrícolas y como molusquicida de vectores de importancia en Salud Pública, sobre dos especies de peces del ecosistema acuático continental: Poecilia ret [...] iculata (Peters 1859) "guppy" (Poecilidae) y Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936) ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae). Ellos fueron utilizados como organismos no destinatarios en ensayos de corta duración, para determinar el impacto toxicológico del cartap. Para ambas especies de peces se evaluó el porcentaje de mortalidad, y dos respuestas subletales: el incremento del movimiento opercular y el nado extraño. A 3 h de exposición para P. reticulata, se encontró un valor de CL50 (Concentración letal media) de 6,75 mg•L-1 y valores de CE50 (Concentración efectiva media) de Abstract in english The ecotoxicological impact of the carbamate insecticide cartap (1,3 di (carbamoythio)-2-dimethyloaminopropan) used for agriculture pests and as mollusquicide of vectors of Public Health importance was evaluated, on two fish species of the continental aquatic ecosystem. Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1 [...] 859) ``guppy" (Poecilidae) and Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936) ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae) were employed as non-target organisms in assays of short duration to determine the toxicological impact of cartap. For both fish, percentage of mortality and two sublethal responses: increase of opercula movement and strange swim, were evaluated. In P. reticulata after 3 h exposure it was found a LC50 (mean Lethal Concentration) of 6.75 mg'•L-1 and values of EC50 (mean Effective Concentration) of

  8. The Effects of Gokshura, Tribulus terrestris on Sex Reversal of Guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    OpenAIRE

    Oehriban cek; Funda Turan; Esin Atik

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on sex reversal in guppy, Poecilia reticulata. The objective of this study was to introduce a new environmentally friendly method for masculinization in P. reticulata. Since male guppy has higher commercial value than female. TT is a natural, non-toxic herb which helps enhance testosterone levels in human and animals. It was prepared in a laboratory in France. Different concentration (0.0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 g L-1) of TT was ...

  9. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  10. Studies on the constituents of Syringa species. X. Five new iridoid glycosides from the leaves of Syringa reticulata (Blume) Hara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Koichi; Kaneko, Atsuko; Hosogai, Tomokazu; Kakuda, Rie; Yaoita, Yasunori; Kikuchi, Masao

    2002-04-01

    Five new iridoid glycosides, (8Z)-ligstroside (1), (8Z)-nüzhenide (3), 6'-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosylsyringopicroside (4), 3'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylsyringopicroside (5) and 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylsyringopicroside (6) were isolated, together with a known one, (8E)-nüzhenide (2), from the leaves of Syringa reticulata. Their structures were established on the basis of chemical and spectral data. Compounds 1 and 3 are the first findings of a (8Z)-oleoside-type secoiridoid. Compound 4 is the first naturally occurring iridoid di-glycoside having an isomaltose. PMID:11963996

  11. Studies on the constituents of Syringa species. XII. New glycosides from the leaves of Syringa reticulata (BLUME) HARA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Koichi; Unagami, Eriko; Ojima, Hiromi; Kikuchi, Masao

    2003-07-01

    Three new glycosides, 6'-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosylsyringopicroside (1), secologanoside 7-methyl ester (2) and (+)-lariciresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), were isolated from the leaves of Syringa reticulata. Their structures were established on the basis of chemical and spectral data. Compound 1 is the first naturally occurring iridoid di-glycoside having melibiose. Comparison of the spectral data of 2 and that previously recognized as secologanoside 7-methyl ester led to the conclusion that the recognized structure should be revised to the sodium salt of secoxyloganin (2'). PMID:12843604

  12. Acute Toxicity of Premium Motor Spirit to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859)

    OpenAIRE

    J .K. Saliu

    2007-01-01

    Static bioassays were made to determine acute toxicity of premium motor spirit on poecilia reticulata. Lethal doses of the oil were determined using LC50 software programmes based on Finneys probit statistical method. The 96 LC50 value of the oil for guppy was estimated as 1.69 (1.13-2.43) mg L-1. The fish exhibited behavioural changes in the form of aggression, rapid gulping of water, increased opercular movement and abnormal swimming movements. The significance of this sublethal effect part...

  13. Additional Insights on the Bastadins – Isolation of Analogs from the Sponge Ianthella cf. reticulata and Exploration of the Oxime Configurations†

    OpenAIRE

    Calcul, Laurent; Inman, Wayne D.; Morris, Alexi A.; Tenney, Karen; Ratnam, Joseline; Mckerrow, James H; Valeriote, Frederick A; Crews, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was on the bastadin class of bromotyrosine derivatives, commonly isolated from Ianthella marine sponges, and is the first report on the secondary metabolites from Ianthella cf. reticulata. Two new bastadins were isolated, (E,Z)-bastadin 19 (1b), a diastereoisomer of the known (E,E)-bastadin 19 (1a), and dioxepine bastadin 3 (2), an unusual dibenzo-1,3-dioxepine. A bastadin NMR database was created and assisted in the structure determination of 1b, 2 and the rapid derep...

  14. / Diterpenos de Copaifera reticulata Ducke com atividade larvicida contra Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera, Culicidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Regina, Geris; Ionizete Garcia da, Silva; Heloísa Helena Garcia da, Silva; Andersson, Barison; Edson, Rodrigues-Filho; Antônio Gilberto, Ferreira.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade larvicida de diterpenos isolados do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata sobre Aedes aegypti, principal vetor de dengue e febre amarela urbana. Quatro diterpenóides foram obtidos a partir da extração do óleo-resina com solventes orgânicos e, subseqüen [...] tes procedimentos cromatográficos e espectroscópicos permitiram o isolamento e a identificação desses compostos como ácido 3-b-acetoxylabdan-8(17)-13-dien-15-óico (1), ácido alepterólico (2), ácido 3-b-hidroxylabdan-8(17)-en-15-óico (3) e ácido ent-agático (4). Cada um desses compostos foi previamente solubilizado em dimetilsulfóxido, acrescentando-se água, até se obterem as concentrações desejadas. Em cada bioensaio foram utilizadas 20 larvas de 3° estádio de Ae. aegypti colocadas em 25 mL da solução-teste. Foram feitas cinco repetições, e a mortalidade avaliada 48 h após a exposição, indicada pela ausência de movimentos e escurecimento da cápsula cefálica. Os dados obtidos da mortalidade x concentração (ppm) foram analisados, em gráfico de Probit para avaliar as concentrações letais (CL50 e CL90). Este estudo revelou que os diterpenóides 1 e 2 mostraram atividade larvicida com CL50 de 0,8 e 87,3 ppm, respectivamente, sendo o diterpeno 1 o composto mais promissor a ser usado como larvicida para o controle de Ae. aegypti. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of diterpenoids obtained from the oil-resin of Copaifera reticulata against Aedes aegypti larvae, the principal vector of dengue and urban yellow fever. Four diterpenes were obtained from oil-resin extraction with organic solvents a [...] nd subsequent chromatographic and spectroscopic procedures allowed to isolation and identification of these compounds as 3-b-acetoxylabdan-8(17)-13-dien-15-oic acid (1), alepterolic acid (2), 3-b-hidroxylabdan-8(17)-en-15-oic acid (3), and ent-agatic acid (4). Each compound was previously dissolved in dimethylsulphoxide, and distilled water was added to obtain the desired concentrations. Twenty larvae of third instars were placed into plastic beckers, containing the solution test (25 mL), in a five repetitions scheme, and their mortality, indicated by torpor and darkening of the cephalic capsule, was recorded after 48h. Probit analyses were used to determine lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) and their respective 95% confidence intervals. This study showed that only diterpenoids 1 and 2 exhibited larvicidal properties with LC50 of 0.8 ppm and 87.3 ppm, respectively, revealing the former as the most toxic compound against third instars of Ae. aegypti. Therefore, this compound seems to be an interesting source for new metabolite to be exploited.

  15. Spatial discounting of food and social rewards in guppies (Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JeffreyRStevens

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In temporal discounting, animals trade off the time to obtain a reward against the quality of a reward, choosing between a smaller reward available sooner versus a larger reward available later. Similar discounting can apply over space, when animals choose between smaller and closer versus larger and more distant rewards. Most studies of temporal and spatial discounting in nonhuman animals use food as the reward, and it is not established whether animals trade off other preferred stimuli in similar ways. Here, we offered female guppies (Poecilia reticulata a spatial discounting task in which we measured preferences for a larger reward as the distance to it increased relative to a closer but smaller reward. We tested whether the fish discounted reward types differently by offering subjects either food items or same-sex conspecifics as rewards. Before beginning the discounting tasks, we conducted validation tests to ensure that subjects equally valued the food and social stimuli in the quantities provided. In the discounting task, subjects switched their preferences from the larger to the smaller reward as the distance to the larger reward increased (spatial discounting, but the pattern and magnitude of discounting did not differ across the two reward types. These findings indicate that guppies show similar patterns of discounting food and social rewards in a spatial task. In an analysis of travel times, however, the fish swam faster to food rewards than to shoaling partners. This difference in travel times implies that fish temporally discounted social rewards less steeply than food rewards. Thus, reward type influences temporal discounting, suggesting a dissociation between temporal and spatial discounting. Our results illustrate how animals adjust choices and travel times depending on both the type of cost (time, distance and benefits (food, social partners.

  16. Cysteine proteases and acid phosphatases contribute to Tetrahymena spp. pathogenicity in guppies, Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, M Pimenta; Ofir, R; Golan-Goldhirsh, A; Zilberg, D

    2009-12-01

    Systemic tetrahymenosis caused by the protozoan parasite Tetrahymena spp. is a serious problem in guppy (Poecilia reticulata) farms worldwide. There is no therapeutic solution for the systemic form of this disease. Guppies severely infected with Tetrahymena spp. were imported by a commercial ornamental fish farm and brought to our laboratory. Tetrahymena sp. (Tet-NI) was isolated and in vitro cultured. Isolates maintained in culture for different time periods (as reflected by different numbers of passages in culture) were analyzed-Tet-NI 1, 4, 5 and 6, with Tet-NI 1 being cultured for the longest period (about 15 months, 54 passages) and Tet-NI 6 for the shortest (2.5 months, 10 passages). Controlled internal infection was successfully achieved by IP injection with most isolates, except for Tet-NI 1 which produced no infection. The isolate Tet-NI 6 induced the highest infection rates in internal organs (80% vs. 50% and 64% for Tet-NI 4 and 5, respectively) and mortality rates (67% vs. 20% and 27% for Tet-NI 4 and 5, respectively, and 6.7% for Tet-NI 1). The correlation between pathogenicity and Tetrahymena enzymatic activity was studied. Electrophoretic analyses revealed at least two bands of gelanolytic activity in Tet-NI 4 and 5, three bands in Tet-NI 6, and no activity in Tet-NI 1. Total inhibition of gelanolytic activity was observed after pretreatment of Tet-NI 6 with E-64, a highly selective cysteine protease inhibitor. Using hemoglobin as a substrate, Tet-NI 6 had two bands of proteolytic activity and no bands were observed in Tet-NI 1. A correlation was observed between pathogenicity and acid phosphatase activities (analyzed by commercial fluorescence kit) for Tet-NI 1 and Tet-NI 6. PMID:19720465

  17. Reasons for the Invasive Success of a Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) Population in Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Caya; Willing, Eva-Maria; Hoffmann, Margarete; Dreyer, Christine; Ramnarine, Indar; Magurran, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of non-native species into new habitats poses a major threat to native populations. Of particular interest, though often overlooked, are introductions of populations that are not fully reproductively isolated from native individuals and can hybridize with them. To address this important topic we used different approaches in a multi-pronged study, combining the effects of mate choice, shoaling behaviour and genetics. Here we present evidence that behavioural traits such as shoaling and mate choice can promote population mixing if individuals do not distinguish between native and foreign conspecifics. We examined this in the context of two guppy (Poecilia reticulata) populations that have been subject to an introduction and subsequent population mixing event in Trinidad. The introduction of Guanapo River guppies into the Turure River more than 50 years ago led to a marked reduction of the original genotype. In our experiments, female guppies did not distinguish between shoaling partners when given the choice between native and foreign individuals. Introduced fish are therefore likely to benefit from the protection of a shoal and will improve their survival chances as a result. The additional finding that male guppies do not discriminate between females on the basis of origin will further increase the process of population mixing, especially if males encounter mixed shoals. In a mesocosm experiment, in which the native and foreign populations were allowed to mate freely, we found, as expected on the basis of these behavioural interactions, that the distribution of offspring genotypes could be predicted from the proportions of the two types of founding fish. This result suggests that stochastic and environmental processes have reinforced the biological ones to bring about the genetic dominance of the invading population in the Turure River. Re-sampling the Turure for genetic analysis using SNP markers confirmed the population mixing process and showed that it is an on-going process in this river and has led to the nearly complete disappearance of the original genotype. PMID:22693621

  18. Sexual characteristics are altered by 4-tert-octylphenol and 17beta-estradiol in the adult male guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, G; Baatrup, E

    2001-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are believed to interfere with animal reproduction, but only few biomarkers above the cellular level have been developed to assess the adverse effects of these chemicals. Using the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) as a model organism, studies have been undertaken ...

  19. Ecotoxicological assessment of tannery effluent using guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) as an experimental model: a biomarker study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Anulipi; Goswami, Abhishek Roy; Roy, Utpal Singha; Mukhopadhyay, Subhra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Tannery wastewater in the East Calcutta Wetlands (a Ramsar site of West Bengal; number 1208) exerts adverse effects on commercial fish production and subsequently affects humans. The present study was conducted to investigate acute and chronic toxicity of tannery effluent on a fish biosystem by examining oxidative stress enzyme expression in different organs including liver, gills, and muscle following exposure. Phosphatases, both alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, and antioxidant superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities were determined in guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to sublethal concentrations of composite tannery effluent. Data demonstrated that tannery effluent was capable of interfering with metabolic processes of fish by altering stress enzyme activities in fish organs, resulting in cellular injury. Data suggest that elevated activities of stress enzymes in fish upon exposure to environmental pollutants may serve as important biomarkers for oxidative stress. PMID:25674829

  20. Nutritional Evaluation of Raw Materials Entering the Structure to Mixed Fodder for the Specie Poecilia reticulata (Guppy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gruber

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the ornamental pisciculture is a especial emphasis on the exterior shape and color to the fishes, issues that are dependent directly to the structure of compound feeds in relation to the nutritional characteristics of the raw materials.Own research or focused on analyzing the crude chemical composition with Weende scheme (water content and dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, SEN of raw materials can be used in the structure of a compound feeds for the Poecilia reticulata (guppy species, for most of these materials there are no current data in the literature.These materials were analyzed: gelatin, wheat flour, sunflower meal, soybean meal, meal Spirulina platensis, carrot (Daucus carota, Pangasius fillet, Daphnia pulex, grount dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, grount nettle (Urtica dioica and yeast.

  1. The green synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the biological activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Leptadenia reticulata leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara Swamy, M.; Sudipta, K. M.; Jayanta, K.; Balasubramanya, S.

    2015-01-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag Nps) was carried out using methanol leaves extract of L. reticulata. Ag Nps were characterized based on the observations of UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. These Ag Nps were tested for antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method against different pathogenic microorganisms and antioxidant activity was performed using DPPH assay. Further, the in vitro cytotoxic effects of Ag Nps were screened against HCT15 cancer cell line and viability of tumor cells was confirmed using MTT ((3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole)) assay. The nuclear condensation was studied using the propidium iodide-staining method. The color change from green to dark brown and the absorbance peak at about 420 nm indicated the formation of nanoparticles. XRD pattern showed characteristic peaks indexed to the crystalline planes (111), (200) and (220) of face-centered cubic silver. The nanoparticles were of spherical shape with varying sizes ranging from 50 to 70 nm. Biosynthesized Ag Nps showed potent antibacterial activity and effective radical scavenging activity. MTT assay revealed a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability. Microscopic observations showed distinct cellular morphological changes indicating unhealthy cells, whereas the control appeared normal. Increase in the number of propidium iodide positive cells were observed in maximum concentration. Methanolic leaf extract of L. reticulata acts as an excellent capping agent for the formation of silver nanoparticles and demonstrates immense biological activities. Hence, these Ag NPs can be used as antibacterial, antioxidant as well as cytotoxic agent in treating many medical complications.

  2. PEMBUATAN KARBON AKTIF DARI KULIT JERUK KEPROK (Citrus reticulata UNTUK ADSORBSI PEWARNA REMAZOL BRILLIANT BLUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asriningtyas Ajeng Erprihana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Limbah kulit jeruk keprok (Citrus reticulata sering dijumpai di industri pembuatan berbagai macam minuman seperti jus, sirup, dan sari buah. Limbah kulit jeruk ini hanya akan dibuang begitu saja dengan jumlah banyak, dan pada akhirnya limbah ini akan mencemari lingkungan. Salah satu upaya peningkatan nilai ekonomis limbah kulit jeruk dapat dilakukan dengan mengolahnya menjadi karbon aktif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan karbon aktif dari kulit jeruk keprok dengan aktivasi kimia, luas permukaan, serta mengetahui kemampuannya dalam mengadsorpsi zat warna Remazol Brilliant Blue. Kulit jeruk yang telah dibersihkan dari kotoran, dikeringkan menggunakan oven pada suhu 120oC selama 3 jam. Aktivator yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah H3PO4 dengan rasio massa aktivator : massa karbon 1:1. Aktivasi dilakukan pada temperatur 600oC selama 1 jam, kulit jeruk kemudian dicuci dengan aquades dan dikeringkan menggunakan oven pada suhu 150oC selama 6 jam. Setelah itu, dilakukan uji bilangan iodin terhadap sampel hasil penelitian. Adsorpsi zat warna Remazol Brilliant Blue oleh karbon aktif kulit jeruk dilakukan dengan variasi waktu kontak dan massa karbon aktif untuk mencari kondisi adsorpsi optimum. Kondisi optimum adsorpsi zat warna Remazol Brilliant Blue oleh karbon aktif pada kulit jeruk keprok pada waktu kontak 30 menit dengan massa karbon aktif 1 gram. Karbon aktif dari kulit jeruk keprok memiliki luas permukaan karbon aktif sebesar 529,17 mg/g berdasarkan daya serapnya terhadap larutan iodin. Orange peel (Citrus reticulate waste is often found in industrial manufacturing various kinds of beverages such as juice, syrup, fruit juice. Orange peel waste is just be thrown away with the lot number, and in the end of this waste will pollute the environment. One of the efforts to increase the economic value of orange peel waste by using the process which convert waste into activated carbon. This research aims are to produce activated carbon from orange peel with chemical activation, to determine the surface area, and its ability to adsorb Remazol Brilliant Blue dyes. Orangel peel that have washed, dried in oven at 120oC for 3 hours. H3PO4 is activating agent that used in this research with mass ratio activating agent : mass carbon 1:1. Activation is conduct at 600oC for 1 hour, orange peel then washed with bidistiled water, and dried in oven at 150oC for 6 hours. Iodine number was used to analysis the results. Adsorption of Remazol Brilliant Blue dyes by orange peel activated carbon conduct at variation contact time and mass activated carbon to find optimum condition. Optimum condition adsorption of Remazol Brilliant Blue dyes by orange peel actvated carbon isreached at 30 minutes contact time with mass activated carbon 1 gram. Activated carbon from orange peel has surface area 529,17 m g/gr based aqueous iodine adsorption.

  3. The MC1R gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata): Genotypic and phenotypic polymorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama Jun; Yamamoto Hiroaki; Tezuka Ayumi; van Oosterhout Cock; Kawata Masakado

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The guppy (Poecilia reticulata) is an important model organism for studying sexual selection; male guppies have complex and conspicuous pigmentation, and female guppies exhibit preferences for males with specific color spots. Understanding the genetic basis underlying pigmentation variation in the guppy is important for exploring the factors causing the maintenance of color polymorphism in wild populations. Findings We focused on the melanic black pigmentation of guppies, ...

  4. Crossing-over between Y chromosomes: another possible source of phenotypic variability in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters

    OpenAIRE

    I. Valentin Petrescu-Mag; Godfrey R. Bourne

    2008-01-01

    Genetic linkage acting through crossing-over between X and X chromosomes, X and Y chromosomes, and autosomal gene recombination are the most important sources of color pattern polymorphisms in animals. Variability in male color patterns and fin morphologies in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing fish is an example of extreme pattern polymorphism. We explored the possibility that crossing-over between Y chromosomes can also contribute to the high degree of pattern polymorphism in gup...

  5. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove) and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit)

    OpenAIRE

    OO Johnson; GA Ayoola; T Adenipekun

    2013-01-01

    The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum) and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata) were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity....

  6. Comportamiento de la producción de lima Tahití (Citrus latifolia Tanaka), injertada sobre el patrón de Mandarina Cleopatra (Citrus reticulata Blanco) y la influencia del virus de la tristeza (CTV) en condiciones del piedemonte del Meta, 1997-2008 / Performance of the production of Tahiti lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) grafted on the pattern of Cleopatra Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and the influence of tristeza virus (CTV) under the piedemont of Meta, 1997-2008

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio, Quiroga - Cardona; Francy L, Hernández- Parrado; María del Rosario, Silva- Herrera; Javier O., Orduz-Rodríguez.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La lima ácida Tahití (Citrus latifolia T) ocupa el tercer lugar dentro de las especies cítricas cultivadas en Colombia. Sus frutos se consumen en el mercado interno y presenta un creciente mercado de exportación. Entre las enfermedades virales que afectan a los cultivos de cítricos el Virus de la Tr [...] isteza de los Cítricos (CTV) es uno de los más limitantes para la producción y longevidad de las plantas en particular en las de lima Tahití. Este estudio se llevó a cabo bajo las condiciones agroecológicas del Centro de Investigación Corpoica La Libertad, en el piedemonte del departamento del Meta. Las plantas utilizadas se injertaron en vivero en 1996 con yemas provenientes de cultivos comerciales utilizándose como patrón la mandarina Cleopatra (Citrus reticulata Blanco). El cultivo se estableció en campo en 1997, ocupando una extensión de una hectárea, con una densidad de 490 plantas ha-1. Para determinar la producción del cultivo se llevaron registros anuales; y para la incidencia y severidad de la (CTV) se realizaron dos lecturas en las plantas, durante el séptimo y onceavo año después del transplante (addt). En el año 2008 (11 addt) se realizó la descripción de la sintomatología del daño ocasionado por la tristeza de los cítricos en la planta y se realizó el registro fotográfico. La producción de la lima Tahití se inicio en el 3 año después del transplante con 4 t/ha y se incremento anualmente hasta presentar el pico de producción en el 8 año con 62 t/ha, posteriormente decrece hasta obtener 2 t/ha en el año 11. La incidencia de CTV en el año 2003 (6 addt) fue de 16.5 % para un total de 80 plantas afectadas y en el 2008 (11 addt) el 100 % de las plantas estaban afectadas (490 plantas) La severidad del CTV, en el año 2003 fue de 29.4 %, mientras que en el 2008 fue del 84 %. Abstract in english Tahiti limes (Citrus latifolia T) is in third place among the citrus species cultivated in Colombia. Its fruits are consumed in the domestic market and has a growing export market. Among the viral diseases affecting citrus crops Virus Citrus Tristeza (CTV) is one of the most limiting for production [...] and longevity of plants especially in Tahiti lime. This study was carried out under the ecological conditions of the Research Center Corpoica La Libertad, in the foothills of the department of Meta. The plants used in the nursery in 1996 grafted with buds from crops used as standard Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco). The crop field was established in 1997, occupying an area of one hectare, with a density of 490 plants ha-1. To determine crop production took annual records, and the incidence and severity of the (CTV) were two readings in plants, during the seventh and eleventh year after transplantation (addt). In 2008 (11 addt) A description of the symptoms of the damage caused by citrus tristeza in the plant and the photographic record was made. The Tahiti lime production started three years after transplantation with 4 t / ha and increased annually to present the peak of production in the eighth year with 62 t/ha, then decreased until 2 t/ha in year 11. The incidence of CTV in 2003 (6 addt) was 16.5 % for a total of 80 affected plants and in 2008 (11 addt) 100 % of plants were affected (490 plants). The severity of CTV, in the 2003 was 29.4 %, while the reading of 2008 was 84 %.

  7. Comparison of Ensemble Strategies in Online NIR for Monitoring the Extraction Process of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Based on Different Variable Selections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Li, Yang; Zhang, Qiao; Shi, Xinyuan; Wu, Zhisheng; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2016-01-01

    Different ensemble strategies were compared in online near-infrared models for monitoring active pharmaceutical ingredients of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Bagging partial least square regression and boosting partial least square regression were adopted to near-infrared models, to determine hesperidin and nobiletin content during the extraction process of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae in a pilot scale system. Different pretreatment methods were investigated, including Savitzky-Golay smoothing, derivatives, multiplicative scatter correction, standard normal variate, normalize, and combinations of them. Two different variable selection methods, including synergy interval partial least squares and backward interval partial least squares algorithms, were performed. Based on the result of the synergy interval partial least squares algorithm, bagging partial least square regression and boosting partial least square regression were adopted into the quantitative analysis. The results demonstrated that the established approach could be applied for rapid determination and real-time monitoring of hesperidin and nobiletin in Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (Citrus reticulata) during the extraction process. Comparing the results, the boosting partial least square regression provided a slightly better accuracy than the bagging partial least square regression. Finally, this paper provides a promising ensemble strategy on online near-infrared models in Chinese medicine. PMID:26485639

  8. Pathogen infection drives patterns of nutrient resorption in citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jirong; Cheng, Chunzhen; Yang, Junjie; Wang, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient resorption processes in the plants infected by pathogen remain poorly understood. Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease of citrus. HLB-pathogen 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' grows specifically in the phloem of hosts and may cause problems in the plant vascular system after infection. Therefore, it brings a great concern about the phloem nutrient transport and nutrient intra-cycling in HLB-affected plants. We investigated the effects of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and resorption in different citrus species (i.e. Citrus reticulata, Citrus limon and Citrus maxima). HLB-pathogen infection had distinctive impacts on nutrient resorption in different species. P resorption efficiency substantially decreased in infected C. reticulata plants relative to the healthy plants in summer, which may account for the marked decrease in the average fruit yield. P resorption was more efficient in infected C. limon plants than in the healthy plants. However, for C. maxima plants, HLB had no significant effects on N:P ratio in live leaves and resorption efficiency as well as on fruit yield. Keeping efficient internal nutrient cycling can be a strategy of citrus species being tolerant to HLB. PMID:26419510

  9. Atividade antimicrobiana do oleorresina de copaíba (Copaifera reticulata) frente a Staphylococcus coagulase positiva isolados de casos de otite em cães / Antimicrobial activity of copaiba oil (Copaifera reticulata) against coagulase positive Staphylococcus of canine otitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosangela E., Ziech; Luana D., Farias; Cláudia, Balzan; Magnos F., Ziech; Berta M., Heinzmann; Osmar A., Lameira; Agueda C. de, Vargas.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar o potencial antimicrobiano do oleorresina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke em isolados de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (SCP) provenientes de casos de otite externa em cães. O método de microdiluição em caldo foi utilizado para determinação da concentr [...] ação inibitória mínima (CIM) e concentração bactericida mínima (CBM) de oleorresina de copaíba. Em adição, foi determinado o perfil de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos dos isolados de SCP pelo método de difusão em ágar. Oito classes de antimicrobianos foram usadas para o cálculo de multirresistência antimicrobiana. A determinação da composição química do oleorresina de copaíba foi realizada por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (GC/MS), sendo que ?-cariofileno, ?-bisaboleno e (E)-?-bergamoteno foram os compostos majoritários. O oleorresina de copaíba demonstrou CIM90 de 0,164mg/mL e CBM90 de 1,31mg/mL. A multirresistência foi verificada em 27% das cepas testadas. Os resultados sugerem que o oleorresina de copaíba exerceu atividade bacteriostática e bactericida mesmo em cepas multirresistentes de Staphylococcus coagulase-positiva. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the oleoresin Copaifera reticulata Ducke against Staphylococcus coagulase positive (SCP) isolated from otitis externa in dogs. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the oleores [...] in were determined by broth microdilution method. In addition, we verified the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates of SCP by agar diffusion method. Eight classes of antimicrobial were used to calculate the multidrug resistance. The chemical composition of the oleoresin was performed by gas chromatography coupled to the mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and ?-caryophyllene, ?-bisabolene, and (E)-?-bergamotene were the main compounds found. The copaiba oleoresin showed a MIC90 of 0.164mg/mL and a CBM90 of 1.3mg/mL. The multidrug resistance was found in 27% of the strains tested. The results suggest that copaiba oleoresin has bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity even in multidrug-resistant coagulase-positive strains.

  10. Determination of nickel in alcoholic beverages by FAAS after online preconcentration using mandarin peel (Citrus reticulata) as biosorbent

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriela C., Ribeiro; Luciana M., Coelho; Nívia M. Melo, Coelho.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Um método de extração por fase sólida foi desenvolvido para determinação direta de níquel em bebidas alcóolicas. Este método baseia-se na adsorção de níquel em cascas de Citrus reticulata, conhecida como mexerica. O pH de solução, quantidade de adsorvente, vazão da amostra e do eluente, concentração [...] do eluente e efeito de matriz foram investigados usando estratégias de otimização multivariada. Estudos de dessorção foram feitos com HCl 1 mol L-1. As condições ideais de extração foram obtidas usando amostra em pH 6,0, vazão da amostra de 4,3 mL min-1, massa de adsorvente de 50 mg e HCl 1,0 mol L-1 na vazão de 2,0 mL min-1 usado como eluente. Fator de pré-concentração, precisão, limite de detecção (LOD), limite de quantificação (LOQ), índice de consumo e frequência analítica foram estimados como 12, 0,9% (30,0 µg L-1, n = 7), 3,1 µg L-1, 10,3 µg L-1, 0,85 mL e 15 amostras por h, respectivamente. O método foi aplicado em amostras de cachaça e uísque e os resultados para os testes de recuperação foram maiores que 99%. Abstract in english A solid phase extraction method was developed for the direct determination of nickel in alcoholic beverages. This method is based on the adsorption of nickel onto the peel of Citrus reticulata (mandarin orange). The solution pH, amount of adsorbent, sample and eluent flow rates, eluent concentration [...] and matrix effects were investigated using multivariate optimization strategies. Desorption studies were carried out with 1 mol L-1 HCl. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained using a sample pH of 6.0, sample flow rate of 4.3 mL min-1, 50 mg of sorbent mass and 1.0 mol L-1 HCl at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min-1 used as eluent. The preconcentration factor, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), consumption index and sample throughput were estimated as 12, 0.9% (30.0 µg L-1, n = 7), 3.1 µg L-1, 10.3 µg L-1, 0.85 mL and 15 samples per h, respectively. The method was applied to sugar cane spirit and whisky samples and the results for recovery tests were higher than 99%.

  11. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of garlic compounds against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkle, Bettina; Snellgrove, Donna; Cable, Joanne

    2013-11-15

    Traditional compounds used to treat fish diseases in aquaculture and the ornamental fish industry (such as formalin and malachite green) can be more toxic to the hosts than their parasites. With the reviviscence in the use of herbal products, various botanicals have been heralded as cures for particular pathogens, but the efficacy of these compounds for parasitic worms is questionable. Here, we tested a range of garlic (Allium sativum) products against a major aquarium pathogen, Gyrodactylus turnbulli, infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). All garlic products significantly reduced parasite mean survival time in vitro, from 13 h to <1 h. In fully randomised trials, the number of parasites was also significantly reduced on infected fish exposed to garlic from different sources. Two garlic treatments (minced and granule forms) reduced worm burdens by 66% and 75% after three doses, whereas Chinese freeze-dried garlic and allyl disulphide were 95% effective after a single application. In fact, Chinese freeze dried garlic was equally effective as Levamisole, a licensed livestock dewormer that is highly effective against G. turnbulli but not routinely prescribed for use in fish; hence, garlic may be a potential alternative treatment for gyrodactylosis. PMID:24074607

  12. Beauty in the eyes of the beholders: colour vision is tuned to mate preference in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandkam, Benjamin; Young, C Megan; Breden, Felix

    2015-02-01

    A broad range of animals use visual signals to assess potential mates, and the theory of sensory exploitation suggests variation in visual systems drives mate preference variation due to sensory bias. Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a classic system for studies of the evolution of female mate choice, provide a unique opportunity to test this theory by looking for covariation in visual tuning, light environment and mate preferences. Female preference co-evolves with male coloration, such that guppy females from 'low-predation' environments have stronger preferences for males with more orange/red coloration than do females from 'high-predation' environments. Here, we show that colour vision also varies across populations, with 'low'-predation guppies investing more of their colour vision to detect red/orange coloration. In independently colonized watersheds, guppies expressed higher levels of both LWS-1 and LWS-3 (the most abundant LWS opsins) in 'low-predation' populations than 'high-predation' populations at a time that corresponds to differences in cone cell abundance. We also observed that the frequency of a coding polymorphism differed between high- and low-predation populations. Together, this shows that the variation underlying preference could be explained by simple changes in expression and coding of opsins, providing important candidate genes to investigate the genetic basis of female preference variation in this model system. PMID:25556876

  13. Crossing-over between Y chromosomes: another possible source of phenotypic variability in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Valentin Petrescu-Mag

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic linkage acting through crossing-over between X and X chromosomes, X and Y chromosomes, and autosomal gene recombination are the most important sources of color pattern polymorphisms in animals. Variability in male color patterns and fin morphologies in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing fish is an example of extreme pattern polymorphism. We explored the possibility that crossing-over between Y chromosomes can also contribute to the high degree of pattern polymorphism in guppies because YY individuals are easily induced in the boratory. However, note that YY individuals are also produced in natural populations. Our results indicated that YY crossing-over was another important source of phenotypic variability - probably because recombination may be possible ver the entire length of Y chromosomes, and at very high frequencies due to high degrees of homology. Thus, crossing-over between Y chromosomes is yet another mechanism that can contribute to extreme pattern polymorphism in the guppy, a popular aquarium and important research model species.

  14. Slight Fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium Improves the Taste (Sugar:Acid Ratio) of Citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. chachiensis) Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Fu, Manqin; Wen, Jing

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium, which can metabolize citric acid, could be applied in improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice. During fermentation, the strain of L. fermentium can preferentially utilize citric acid of citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis) juice to support the growth without the consumption of sugar. After 6 h of fermentation with L. fermentium at 30 °C, the sugar:acid ratio of citrus juice increased to 22:1 from 12:1, which resulted in that the hedonic scores of sweetness, acidity and overall acceptability of fermented-pasteurized citrus juice were higher than the unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice, the ORAC value and total amino acid showed a reduction, and no significant change (P > 0.05) in the L*, a*, b*, total soluble phenolics and ascorbic acid (Vc) content in the fermented-pasteurized citrus juice was observed as compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Hence, slight fermentation with L. fermentium can be used for improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice with the well retaining of quality. PMID:26447635

  15. Storage Stability of Kinnow Fruit (Citrus reticulata as Affected by CMC and Guar Gum-Based Silver Nanoparticle Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Wasim Ahmad Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC and guargum-based coatings containing silver nanoparticles was studied on the postharvest storage stability of the kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata cv. Blanco for a period of 120 days (85%–90% relative humidity at 4 °C and 10 °C. Physicochemical and microbiological qualities were monitored after every 15 days of storage. Overall results revealed an increase in total soluble solid (TSS, total sugars, reducing sugars and weight loss but this increase was comparatively less significant in coated fruits stored at 4 °C. Ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity was significantly enhanced in coated fruits stored at 4 °C. Titratable acidity significantly decreased during storage except for coated kinnow stored at 4 °C. In control samples stored at 10 °C, high intensity of fruit rotting and no chilling injury was observed. Total aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria and yeast and molds were noticed in all treatments during storage but the growth was not significant in coated fruits at 4 °C. Kinnow fruit can be kept in good quality after coating for four months at 4 °C and for 2 months at 10 °C.

  16. Change of mitotic behavior and ultra structure of 'Fuju' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) stem-apex clones after space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using conventional squash stain technique and ultrathin sectioning technique, the effects of space flight on mitotic behavior and ultrastructure were studied in the shoot apical meristem of 'Fuju' (Citrus reticulata Blanco), which had been carried by China's seed-breeding satellite, Shijian-8. The results showed that space flight had effect on the mutagenesis of stem-apical meristem. Abnormal mitosis with various degrees had been detected in 13 mutant clones, of which mitotic aberrations in clone '08004' were significantly higher than the others. The aberration rate of numerical abnormalities of chromosomes at metaphase, lagging chromosome, micronucleus, C-spindle, S-spindle and polyarch spindle in the clone '08004' was 0.34%, 0.669%, 0.86%, 0.17%, 1.20% and 1.03%, respectively. The ultrastructure of mesophyll cell in most clones was unchanged, but nucleus chromatin agglutination, chloroplast thylakoid disintegrated, autophagosome appeared, cell vacuolated, plasmolysis and the formation of apoptotic body were found in the clone '08004', suggesting that programmed cell death (PCD) Nevertheless, no change in the mitochondrial structure was observed until terminal phase of PCD. (authors)

  17. Atividade antimicrobiana do oleorresina de copaíba (Copaifera reticulata frente a Staphylococcus coagulase positiva isolados de casos de otite em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela E. Ziech

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar o potencial antimicrobiano do oleorresina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke em isolados de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (SCP provenientes de casos de otite externa em cães. O método de microdiluição em caldo foi utilizado para determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e concentração bactericida mínima (CBM de oleorresina de copaíba. Em adição, foi determinado o perfil de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos dos isolados de SCP pelo método de difusão em ágar. Oito classes de antimicrobianos foram usadas para o cálculo de multirresistência antimicrobiana. A determinação da composição química do oleorresina de copaíba foi realizada por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (GC/MS, sendo que ?-cariofileno, ?-bisaboleno e (E-?-bergamoteno foram os compostos majoritários. O oleorresina de copaíba demonstrou CIM90 de 0,164mg/mL e CBM90 de 1,31mg/mL. A multirresistência foi verificada em 27% das cepas testadas. Os resultados sugerem que o oleorresina de copaíba exerceu atividade bacteriostática e bactericida mesmo em cepas multirresistentes de Staphylococcus coagulase-positiva.

  18. Hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeretin are collectively responsible for the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of tangerine peel (Citri reticulatae pericarpium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Su-Chen; Kuo, Chun-Ting

    2014-09-01

    Inhibiting microglial activation-mediated neuroinflammation has become a convincing target for the development of functional foods to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Tangerine peel (Citri reticulatae pericarpium) has potent anti-inflammatory capacity; however, its anti-neuroinflammatory capacity and the corresponding active compounds remain unclear. To this end, the composition of a tangerine peel ethanolic extract was analysed by LC-MS, and the anti-neuroinflammatory ability was evaluated using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV2 microglia culture system. Hesperidin is the most predominant flavonoid in tangerine peel, followed by tangeretin and nobiletin. Among the eight tested flavanone glycosides and polymethoxy flavones, only nobiletin displayed a capacity of>50% to inhibit LPS-induced proinflammatory NO, TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 secretion at a concentration of 100 ?M. At 2 mg/ml, tangerine peel extract attenuated LPS-induced NO, TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 secretion by 90.6%, 80.2%, 66.7%, and 86.8%, respectively. Hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeretin individually (at concentrations of 135, 40, and 60 ?M, respectively) in 2 mg/ml tangerine peel extract were only mildly inhibitory, whereas in combination, they significantly inhibited LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine expression at levels equal to that of 2 mg/ml tangerine peel extract. Overall, tangerine peel possesses potent anti-neuroinflammatory capacity, which is attributed to the collective effect of hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeretin. PMID:24955543

  19. Additional insights on the bastadins: isolation of analogues from the sponge Ianthella cf. reticulata and exploration of the oxime configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcul, Laurent; Inman, Wayne D; Morris, Alexi A; Tenney, Karen; Ratnam, Joseline; McKerrow, James H; Valeriote, Frederick A; Crews, Phillip

    2010-03-26

    The focus of this study is on the bastadin class of bromotyrosine derivatives, commonly isolated from Ianthella marine sponges, and is the first report on the secondary metabolites from Ianthella cf. reticulata. Two new bastadins were isolated, (E,Z)-bastadin 19 (1a), a diastereoisomer of the known (E,E)-bastadin 19 (1b), and dioxepine bastadin 3 (2), an unusual dibenzo-1,3-dioxepine. A bastadin NMR database was created and assisted in the structure determination of 1b and 2 and the rapid dereplication of 10 other known compounds including bastadins 2-9 (3-10), 13 (11), and 19 (1a). The geometry of the 2-(hydroxyimino)-N-alkylamide chains, a chemical feature present in all bastadins, was further probed, and new insights regarding the natural oxime configuration are discussed. Bastadins possessing (E,Z)-, (Z,E)-, or (E,E)-dioxime configurations could be artifacts of isolation or storage in solution. Therefore, this point was explored by photochemical and thermal isomerization studies, as well as molecular mechanics calculations. Bastadins 13 (11) and 19 (1a) exhibited moderate inhibition against Trypanosoma brucei, and bastadin 4 (5) was cytotoxic to HCT-116 colon cancer cells. PMID:20102170

  20. Sex-specific control of flurothyl-induced tonic-clonic seizures by the substantia nigra pars reticulata during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velísek, Libor; Velísková, Jana; Giorgi, Filippo S; Moshé, Solomon L

    2006-09-01

    The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) plays an important age- and sex-specific role in control of clonic seizures. Its involvement in control of tonic-clonic seizures is contradictory. We investigated the role of the SNR in the tonic-clonic seizures induced in male, female and neonatally castrated male rats using flurothyl. In adult female rats, vaginal impedance determined the changes in progesterone/estrogen ratio. Rats at various postnatal ages received infusions of muscimol or vehicle in the SNRanterior or SNRposterior. Furthermore, in 15-day-old (P15) and adult male rats, ZAPA (a GABA(A) receptor agonist) or AP7 (an NMDA receptor antagonist) was infused. The developmental profile of tonic-clonic seizure threshold differed between male and female rats possibly due to early postnatal testosterone surge in male rats. On the other hand, changing estrogen/progesterone ratio in cycling adult female rats had no effect on seizure threshold. Intranigral muscimol had proconvulsant effects on tonic-clonic seizures only in immature rats, and this effect was dependent on the perinatal testosterone surge. ZAPA had anticonvulsant effects in P15 rats but was not effective in adult rats. Only AP7 had anticonvulsant effects in both adult and P15 rats. Results indicate that thresholds for flurothyl-induced tonic-clonic seizures develop under the control of postnatal testosterone. Although GABAergic inhibition in the SNR affects tonic-clonic seizures in developing rats, only the NMDA antagonist had consistent anticonvulsant effects throughout development. PMID:16730708

  1. Metabolism regulates the spontaneous firing of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons via KATP and nonselective cation channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutas, Andrew; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Yellen, Gary

    2014-12-01

    Neurons use glucose to fuel glycolysis and provide substrates for mitochondrial respiration, but neurons can also use alternative fuels that bypass glycolysis and feed directly into mitochondria. To determine whether neuronal pacemaking depends on active glucose metabolism, we switched the metabolic fuel from glucose to alternative fuels, lactate or β-hydroxybutyrate, while monitoring the spontaneous firing of GABAergic neurons in mouse substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) brain slices. We found that alternative fuels, in the absence of glucose, sustained SNr spontaneous firing at basal rates, but glycolysis may still be supported by glycogen in the absence of glucose. To prevent any glycogen-fueled glycolysis, we directly inhibited glycolysis using either 2-deoxyglucose or iodoacetic acid. Inhibiting glycolysis in the presence of alternative fuels lowered SNr firing to a slower sustained firing rate. Surprisingly, we found that the decrease in SNr firing was not mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel activity, but if we lowered the perfusion flow rate or omitted the alternative fuel, KATP channels were activated and could silence SNr firing. The KATP-independent slowing of SNr firing that occurred with glycolytic inhibition in the presence of alternative fuels was consistent with a decrease in a nonselective cationic conductance. Although mitochondrial metabolism alone can prevent severe energy deprivation and KATP channel activation in SNr neurons, active glucose metabolism appears important for keeping open a class of ion channels that is crucial for the high spontaneous firing rate of SNr neurons. PMID:25471572

  2. Effect of juice extraction methods and processing temperature-time on juice quality of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Pareek, Sunil; Paliwal, Ravinder; Mukherjee, Subrata

    2010-01-01

    Influence of juice extraction methods and pasteurization temperature and time on quality of mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) juice was studied. The experiment consisted of 65 °C pasteurization temperature with 15, 25 and 35 min holding time; 75 °C with 10, 20 and 30 min and 85 °C with 5, 10 and 15 min holding times and two types of juice extraction methods. The experiment was laid out in factorial completely randomized Design with three replications. Juice extracted with screw type juice e...

  3. Regulation of substantia nigra pars reticulata GABAergic neuron activity by hydrogen peroxide via flufenamic acid-sensitive channels and KATP channels

    OpenAIRE

    MargaretERice; PaulWitkovsky

    2011-01-01

    Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) GABAergic neurons are key output neurons of the basal ganglia. Given the role of these neurons in motor control, it is important to understand factors that regulate their firing rate and pattern. One potential regulator is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen species that is increasingly recognized as a neuromodulator. We used whole-cell current clamp recordings of SNr GABAergic neurons in guinea-pig midbrain slices to determine how H2O2 affects t...

  4. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of Pirimiphos-Methyl (Actellic®, 25%EC) on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859)

    OpenAIRE

    M.O. Lawal; O.B. Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Pirimiphos-methyl is a broad spectrum organophosphate insecticide and potential toxic pollutant in aquatic ecosystems. The acute toxicity of Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic®) was investigated using Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) in a 96 h static renewal laboratory bioassay. Based on probit analysis, the LC50 was 0.026, 0.024, 0.022 and 0.019 ml L-1 at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that there was significant difference (p<0.05) in the quantal response (mort...

  5. Crecimiento, Abundancia Y Biomasa De Poecilia reticulata En El Lago Urbano Del Parque Tezozomoc De La Ciudad De México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Elías-Fernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los lagos urbanos tienen importancia estética, recreativa, cultural y biológica por albergar organismos generalmente alóctonos, como aves, reptiles, insectos y peces, en particular poecilidos, los cuales son muy tolerantes y se reproducen con facilidad. Por lo anterior, el objetivo de este trabajo fue: determinar la variación en la abundancia y biomasa de Poecilia reticulata en el lago del parque Tezozomoc, así como obtener la ecuación de crecimiento. Se realizaron muestreos mensuales de julio del año 2000 a junio del 2001. Se establecieron tres estaciones donde se registraron las siguientes variables físicas y químicas; transparencia, alcalinidad, dureza, pH, conductividad, temperatura y turbiedad por métodos convencionales. Los peces se capturaron con una red de cuchara de marco rectangular de 100 x 50 cm (área barrida de 0.5 m2, con luz de malla de 0.5 cm. Los organismos se fijaron con formalina al 10 %. Se registraron las siguientes variables morfométricas de los organismos; peso (gr y longitud patrón (mm. Se calculó la abundancia y biomasa, así como la ecuación de crecimiento de acuerdo al modelo de Von Bertalanffy. Se encontró que el agua del sistema es templada, turbia, alcalina, dura y somera. La mayor abundancia (6,148 organismos y biomasa (677.28 g se presentó en la estación I, caracterizada por la mayor presencia de visitantes al lago que arroja desperdicios alimenticios al sistema. Los meses con mayor abundancia fueron julio (1,483 org y agosto (1,252 org y los de mayor biomasa agosto (145.12 gr y marzo (138.63 gr. La longitud máxima obtenida de 61.55 mm y la tasa de crecimiento de 0.2987 son valores similares a los obtenidos en sistemas naturales.

  6. Seasonal simulation of water, salinity and nitrate dynamics under drip irrigated mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and assessing management options for drainage and nitrate leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phogat, V.; Skewes, M. A.; Cox, J. W.; Sanderson, G.; Alam, J.; Šim?nek, J.

    2014-05-01

    Estimation of all water fluxes temporally and spatially within and out of the crop root zone, and evaluation of issues like salinity and nutrient leaching, are necessary to fully appraise the efficiency of irrigation systems. Simulation models can be used to investigate these issues over several seasons when the cost of long term monitoring is prohibitive. Model results can be used to advise growers if improvements are required to various aspects of irrigation system operations. In this study, HYDRUS-2D was used to evaluate data measured during one season in a young mandarin (Citrus reticulata) orchard, irrigated with an intensive surface drip fertigation system. Water contents, salinities, and nitrate concentrations measured weekly in the field were compared with model predictions. The temporal mean absolute error (MAE) values between weekly measured and simulated water contents ranged from 0.01 to 0.04 cm3 cm-3. However, modelling error (MAE) was slightly larger at 10 cm depth (0.04 cm3 cm-3), as compared to greater depths (0.02-0.03 cm3 cm-3). Similarly, the errors were larger in the surface soil layer (25 cm depth) for nitrate-nitrogen, NO3--N (1.52 mmol(c) L-1), as compared to greater depths. The spatial and temporal soil solution salinity (ECsw) and NO3--N data showed accumulation of salts and nitrate within the soil up until day 150 of the simulation (December, 2006), followed by leaching due to high precipitation and over irrigation at later times. Only 49% of applied water was used by the mandarin trees, while 33.5% was leached. On the other hand, the simulation revealed that a significant amount of applied nitrogen (85%) was taken up by the mandarin trees, and the remaining 15% was leached. The results indicate that the irrigation and fertigation schedule needs modifying as there was overwatering from December onwards. Different permutations and combinations of irrigation and fertigation scheduling were evaluated to optimise the water and nitrogen uptake and to reduce their leaching out of the crop root zone. Slightly higher nitrogen uptake (1.73 kg ha-1) was recorded when fertigation was applied second to last hour in an irrigation event, as compared to applying it earlier during an irrigation event. Similarly, a 20% reduction in irrigation and N application produced a pronounced reduction in drainage (28%) and N leaching (46.4%), but it also decreased plant N uptake by 15.8% and water uptake by 4.8%, and increased salinity by 25.8%, as compared to the normal practice. This management would adversely impact the sustainability of this expensive irrigation system. However, reducing only irrigation by 30% during the 2nd half of the crop season (January to August) reduced drainage and N leaching by 37.2% and 50.5%, respectively, and increased N uptake by 6.9%. Such management of irrigation would be quite promising for the sustainability of the entire system. It is concluded that judicious manipulations of irrigation and fertilizer applications can be helpful in designing drip irrigation schedules for perennial horticultural crops to achieve improved efficiency of irrigation and fertigation applications and reduced contamination of receiving water bodies.

  7. Simultaneous determination of six bioactive flavonoids in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium by rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, E-Hu; Zhao, Pan; Duan, Li; Zheng, Guo-Dong; Guo, Long; Yang, Hua; Li, Ping

    2013-12-15

    A rapid resolution liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-ESI-MS(n)) method has been firstly developed and validated for simultaneous determination of six bioactive flavonoids in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (CRP). The antiproliferative activities of the six flavonoids in CRP, namely naringin, hesperidin, nobiletin, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone, tangeretin and 5-hydroxy-6,7,8,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone, were evaluated and compared by Cell Counting Kit-8 Assay. Quantification was carried out on an Agilent triple quadrupole LC-MS system using multiple reaction monitoring mode. The established method was successfully applied for determination of the six flavonoids in samples collected from different regions in China. Compared with the reported analytical methods, the RRLC-ESI-MS(n) method is powerful in quantitative analysis of multi-component in terms of time savings and sensitivity. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was also performed to differentiate and classify the samples based on the contents of the six characteristic flavonoids. The HCA results indicated that Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' samples could be easily distinguished from other CRP samples. The developed RRLC-ESI-MS(n) method combined with HCA might be utilised as a quality control method for CRP. PMID:23993574

  8. Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Banet, Amanda I.

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable intraspecific variation in metabolic rates and locomotor performance in aquatic ectothermic vertebrates; however, the mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. Using pregnant Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing teleost, we examined the effects of reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burse-assisted swimming on swimming metabolic rate, standard metabolic rate (MO2std) and prolonged swimming performance (Ucrit). Reproductive traits included reproductive allocation and pregnancy stage, the former defined as the mass of the reproductive tissues divided by the total body mass. Results showed that the metabolic rate increased curvilinearly with swimming speed. The slope of the relationship was used as an index of swimming cost. There was no evidence that reproductive traits correlated with swimming cost, MO2std or Ucrit. In contrast, data revealed strong effects of pectoral fin use on swimming cost and Ucrit. Poecilia reticulata employed body-caudal fin (BCF) swimming at all tested swimming speeds; however, fish with a high simultaneous use of the pectoral fins exhibited increased swimming cost and decreased Ucrit. These data indicated that combining BCF swimming and pectoral fin movement over a wide speed range, presumably to support swimming stability and control, is an inefficient swimming behaviour. Finally, transition to burst-assisted swimming was associated with an increase in aerobic metabolic rate. Our study highlights factors other than swimming speed that affect swimming cost and suggests that intraspecific diversity in biomechanical performance, such as pectoral fin use, is an important source of variation in both locomotor cost and maximal performance.

  9. Acute toxicity and environmental risk of teflubenzuron to Daphnia magna, Poecilia reticulata and Lemna minor in the absence and presence of sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Louise S; Souza, Jaqueline P; Winkaler, Elissandra U; Carraschi, Silvia P; Cruz, Claudinei; Souza-Júnior, Severino C; Machado-Neto, Joaquim G

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the acute toxicity of teflubenzuron (1-(3,5-dichloro-2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)urea) (TFB) for Daphnia magna, Lemna minor and Poecilia reticulata, in the absence and presence of sediment; evaluate the effect of sediment on the TFB bioavailability; and to classify this insecticide according to its environmental poisoning risk for agricultural and aquaculture uses. The tests of TFB acute toxicity were conducted in static system in a completely randomized design with increasing TFB concentrations, and a control group. The TFB has been classified according to the estimated values of EC50 and LC50 by its acute toxicity and environmental risk. The sediment significantly reduced toxicity and bioavailability of TFB in water column. Therefore, the insecticide can be classified as being highly toxic to Daphnia magna, which means the agricultural and aquacultural uses of TFB pose a high risk of environmental toxicity to non-target organisms. However, it was practically non-toxic to L. minor and P. reticulata. PMID:23581694

  10. Neuroprotective effect of seaweeds inhabiting South Indian coastal area (Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve): Cholinesterase inhibitory effect of Hypnea valentiae and Ulva reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganthy, N; Karutha Pandian, S; Pandima Devi, K

    2010-01-14

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, which is one of the four leading causes of death in developed nations. Until date the only symptomatic treatment for this disease is based on the "cholinergic hypothesis" where the drugs enhance acetylcholine levels in the brain by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In the course for screening cholinesterase inhibitors about eight seaweeds, with wide pharmaceutical applications, were collected from Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar, Marine Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu, India. Inhibitory effect of methanol extract of the seaweeds was studied in vitro by incubating various concentration of the extract with AChE or butyryl cholinesterase (BuChE) and assessing their activities by Ellman's colorimetric method. Kinetic parameters like IC(50), K(i) and V(max) were also analyzed. The results showed that of the eight seaweeds screened Hypnea valentiae, Padina gymnospora, Ulva reticulata and Gracilaria edulis exhibited inhibitory activity to AChE with IC(50) value of 2.6, 3.5, 10 and 3mg/ml respectively, while H. valentiae, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Dictyota dichotoma and U. reticulata showed 50% inhibition to BuChE at concentration 3.9, 7, 6.5 and 10mg/ml respectively. The inhibitory activities of the seaweed extracts were comparable to the standard drug donepezil. Enzyme kinetic analysis showed that algal extracts exhibited mixed type inhibition (partial noncompetitive inhibition). PMID:19897016

  11. Ecotoxicological monitoring for the evaluation of environmental recovery of aquatic ecosystems using Poecilia reticulata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DaSilva, E.M.; Navarro, M.F.T.; Mota, M.F.; Chastinet, C.B.A.

    1995-12-31

    Groundwater contamination has led to a considerable environmental impact on the humic acid-rich lake systems of Jaua and Interiagos (Camagari-BA). This was caused by the seepage of rainwater through a dune, which was used for some time as a dumping ground of a titanium dioxide plant. The pH fall in the water has conducted to a precipitation of the humic acids and the disappearance of the local fish fauna. The plant (TIBRAS S/A) initiated a recovery program in 1992 to seal up the contaminated dune, thus avoiding further contamination of the groundwater. During the last two years, ecotoxicity tests have been carried out with lake water, employing young individual of the guppy (Poecilia reticulate), an endemic species, as a test organism. Results for 1993 indicated and confined the contamination of five water stations from a total of eight sampled nearby. The LT{sub 50} were in some cases lower than 60 min. In the end of 1993, a severe drought caused the total disappearance of the surface water in the whole aquatic ecosystem. In May 1994, the testing series restarted and some considerable changes have been detected: the return of the water color for the whole system, an increase in pH and a considerable decrease of toxicity in two other stations. LT{sub 50} values for five stations were above 96 hours. These results are not yet an indicative that the dune sealing has been carried out properly, but are able to show and follow improvements in the biological quality of water bodies.

  12. Evaluation of guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters) immunization against Tetrahymena sp. by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Galit; Nath, Pulak R; Isakov, Noah; Zilberg, Dina

    2014-09-15

    Analysis of the effectiveness of guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters) immunization based on measurements of antibody (Ab) titers suffers from a shortage of reagents that can detect guppy antibodies (Abs). To overcome this problem, we immunized mice with different preparations of guppy immunoglobulins (Igs) and used the mouse antisera to develop a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The most efficient immunogen for mouse immunization was guppy Igs adsorbed on protein A/G beads. Antisera from mice boosted with this immunoglobulin (Ig) preparation were highly specific and contained high Ab titers. They immunoreacted in a Western blot with Ig heavy and light chains from guppy serum, and Ig heavy chain from guppy whole-body homogenate. The mouse anti-guppy Ig was applied in an ELISA aimed at comparing the efficiency of different routes of guppy immunization against Tetrahymena: (i) anal intubation with sonicated Tetrahymena (40,000 Tetrahymena/fish in a total volume of 10 ?L) mixed with domperidon, deoxycholic acid and free amino acids (valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and tryptophan), or (ii) intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of sonicated Tetrahymena in complete Freund's adjuvant (15,000 Tetrahymena/fish in total a volume of 20 ?L). Negative control fish were anally intubated with the intubation mixture without Tetrahymena, or untreated. ELISA measurement of anti-Tetrahymena Ab titer revealed a significantly higher level of Abs in i.p.-immunized guppies, compared to the anally intubated and control fish. In addition, the efficiency of immunization was tested by monitoring guppy mortality following (i) i.p. challenge with Tetrahymena (900 Tetrahymena/fish) or (ii) cold stress followed by immersion in water containing 10,000 Tetrahymena/mL. Fish mortality on day 14 post-Tetrahymena infection by i.p. injection exceeded 50% in the control and anally intubated fish, compared to 31% in i.p.-immunized fish. Immunization did not protect from pathogen challenge by immersion. The results suggest a direct correlation between the anti-Tetrahymena Ab response and fish resistance to i.p.-injected Tetrahymena, but not to infection by immersion preceded by cold stress. PMID:25085773

  13. Alterações químicas, físicas e físico-químicas da tangerina 'ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) durante o armazenamento refrigerado / Chemical, physical and physical-chemical changes on tangerina 'ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) under refrigerated storage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana Aparecida Souza, Vale; Custódio Donizete dos, Santos; Celeste Maria Patto de, Abreu; Angelita Duarte, Corrêa; Juliana Araújo, Santos.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo proposto neste trabalho foi o de avaliar as alterações químicas, físicas e físico-químicas da tangerina 'Ponkan' (citrus reticulata Blanco) durante o armazenamento refrigerado a 5 ± 2° C e umidade relativa de 85 ± 3% por um período de 28 dias, em dois estádios de maturação (frutos coletad [...] os no início da safra; com a casca mais verde e frutos coletados no final da safra com a casca amarela). Os frutos foram coletados com pedúnculo, ao acaso de um pomar comercial com sete anos de idade, localizado no município de Perdões, região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram realizadas duas colheitas, uma no mês de Abril quando os frutos estavam com a casca verde, mas já estavam aptos para o consumo; e outra mais no final da safra no mês de Julho quando os frutos já estavam com a casca bem amarela. Os frutos coletados foram levados ao Laboratório de Bioquímica da Universidade Federal de Lavras, onde foram selecionados 100 (cem) frutos de tamanho uniforme e com ausência de injúrias a cada colheita, estes foram lavados com uma solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%, protocolados, pesados, medidos e realizadas as leituras de cor. Os frutos foram então armazenados em refrigerador a 5 ± 2° C e umidade relativa de 85 ± 3% por um período de 28 dias, e as análises foram realizadas nos frutos e no suco dos frutos aos 0, 7 14, 21 e 28 dias de armazenamento. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com 5 repetições de 4 frutos . Os resultados mostraram que quase todas as análises realizadas apresentaram variações significativas. A perda de massa, os diâmetros transversais e longitudinais apresentaram diminuições significativas com os dias de armazenamento refrigerado. Os açúcares também tiveram variações significativas com tendência de aumento com os dias de armazenamento.O pH não apresentou variações significativas. Os teores de Vitamina C não apresentaram variações significativas com os dias de armazenamento refrigerado. A coloração da casca dos frutos foi medida com um colorímetro e foram medidos três variáveis de cor: luminosidade, teor de amarelo e teor de vermelho. Pode-se observar visualmente que os frutos coletados no início da safra apresentaram um ressecamento das vesículas de suco, ou seja, frutos com granulação, principalmente a partir da segunda semana de armazenamento, enquanto os frutos coletados mais maduros com maiores teores de açúcares solúveis foram mais resistentes ao ressecamento interno das vesículas.(análise visual e tátil). Abstract in english This work was aimed to evaluating chemical, physical and physical-chemical changes on tangerine 'Ponkan' (citrus reticulata Blanco) during the storage at 5 ± 2° C under relative humidity of 85 ± 3%, for a period of 28 days, in two maturation stadiums (fruits collected at the beginning of the crop; w [...] ith the greenest peel and yellow peel fruits,, collected by the end of the crop). Fruits with stalf were alleatory collected in a seven-years old commercial orchard, located at Perdões, South area of the State of Minas Gerais. Fruits were collectd twice: on April, when they got a green peel, but they were already edible; and on July, by the end of the crop, when fruits got a very yellow peel. Then fruits were taken to the Laboratory of Biochemistry of the Federal University of Lavras, where a hundred aff them with uniform size and injury were washed with a 1% sodium hypochoride solution, marked, weigthted measured and submitted to color readings. After 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days in a refrigerator at fruits of uniform size and with absence of offenses to each crop, these were washed with a hipoclorito of sodium solution to 1%, recorded, heavy, measured and accomplished the color readings. Then the fruits were stored then in refrigerator at 5 ± 2° C, under relative humidity of 85 ± 3%, fruits as well as thein juice were analysed. The experimental outline used was entirely randomized, with five replicates containig four fruits in each one. Almos

  14. Alterações químicas, físicas e físico-químicas da tangerina 'ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco durante o armazenamento refrigerado Chemical, physical and physical-chemical changes on tangerina 'ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco under refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Aparecida Souza Vale

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo proposto neste trabalho foi o de avaliar as alterações químicas, físicas e físico-químicas da tangerina 'Ponkan' (citrus reticulata Blanco durante o armazenamento refrigerado a 5 ± 2° C e umidade relativa de 85 ± 3% por um período de 28 dias, em dois estádios de maturação (frutos coletados no início da safra; com a casca mais verde e frutos coletados no final da safra com a casca amarela. Os frutos foram coletados com pedúnculo, ao acaso de um pomar comercial com sete anos de idade, localizado no município de Perdões, região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram realizadas duas colheitas, uma no mês de Abril quando os frutos estavam com a casca verde, mas já estavam aptos para o consumo; e outra mais no final da safra no mês de Julho quando os frutos já estavam com a casca bem amarela. Os frutos coletados foram levados ao Laboratório de Bioquímica da Universidade Federal de Lavras, onde foram selecionados 100 (cem frutos de tamanho uniforme e com ausência de injúrias a cada colheita, estes foram lavados com uma solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%, protocolados, pesados, medidos e realizadas as leituras de cor. Os frutos foram então armazenados em refrigerador a 5 ± 2° C e umidade relativa de 85 ± 3% por um período de 28 dias, e as análises foram realizadas nos frutos e no suco dos frutos aos 0, 7 14, 21 e 28 dias de armazenamento. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com 5 repetições de 4 frutos . Os resultados mostraram que quase todas as análises realizadas apresentaram variações significativas. A perda de massa, os diâmetros transversais e longitudinais apresentaram diminuições significativas com os dias de armazenamento refrigerado. Os açúcares também tiveram variações significativas com tendência de aumento com os dias de armazenamento.O pH não apresentou variações significativas. Os teores de Vitamina C não apresentaram variações significativas com os dias de armazenamento refrigerado. A coloração da casca dos frutos foi medida com um colorímetro e foram medidos três variáveis de cor: luminosidade, teor de amarelo e teor de vermelho. Pode-se observar visualmente que os frutos coletados no início da safra apresentaram um ressecamento das vesículas de suco, ou seja, frutos com granulação, principalmente a partir da segunda semana de armazenamento, enquanto os frutos coletados mais maduros com maiores teores de açúcares solúveis foram mais resistentes ao ressecamento interno das vesículas.(análise visual e tátil.This work was aimed to evaluating chemical, physical and physical-chemical changes on tangerine 'Ponkan' (citrus reticulata Blanco during the storage at 5 ± 2° C under relative humidity of 85 ± 3%, for a period of 28 days, in two maturation stadiums (fruits collected at the beginning of the crop; with the greenest peel and yellow peel fruits,, collected by the end of the crop. Fruits with stalf were alleatory collected in a seven-years old commercial orchard, located at Perdões, South area of the State of Minas Gerais. Fruits were collectd twice: on April, when they got a green peel, but they were already edible; and on July, by the end of the crop, when fruits got a very yellow peel. Then fruits were taken to the Laboratory of Biochemistry of the Federal University of Lavras, where a hundred aff them with uniform size and injury were washed with a 1% sodium hypochoride solution, marked, weigthted measured and submitted to color readings. After 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days in a refrigerator at fruits of uniform size and with absence of offenses to each crop, these were washed with a hipoclorito of sodium solution to 1%, recorded, heavy, measured and accomplished the color readings. Then the fruits were stored then in refrigerator at 5 ± 2° C, under relative humidity of 85 ± 3%, fruits as well as thein juice were analysed. The experimental outline used was entirely randomized, with five replicates containig four fruits in each one. Almost all rescelts were significantly depende

  15. Length-weight relationship and reproduction of the guppy Poecilia reticulata (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) in urban drainage channels in the Brazilian city of Belém / Relação peso-comprimento e reprodução do guppy Poecilia reticulata (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) em canais de coleta residual na região metropolitana de Belém, Pará, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciano Fogaça de Assis, Montag; Tiago Magalhães da Silva, Freitas; Roberta Dannyele de Oliveira, Raiol; Marlene Vasconcelos da, Silva.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo descrever aspectos populacionais relacionados ao estabelecimento da relação peso/comprimento, estimativa de tamanho de primeira maturação (L) e período reprodutivo de Poecilia reticulata encontrados em sistemas de coleta residual no campus da Universidade Federal [...] do Pará, região metropolitana de Belém - PA (Brasil). Foram realizadas coletas mensais no período de junho de 2006 a março de 2007, utilizando um puçá, que resultou na captura de 1.936 exemplares, sendo 942 machos e 994 fêmeas. As fêmeas apresentaram-se maiores e mais pesadas que os machos. A relação peso/comprimento para machos foi estabelecida pela equação Pt = 5 × 10-5 × Ct2,397 e para fêmeas esta foi dada pela fórmula Pt = 3 × 10-6 × Ct3,419. Os valores estimados para L foi 17,5 mm para machos 20,4 mm para fêmeas, sugerindo que os machos iniciam atividades reprodutivas em tamanhos menores que as fêmeas. A frequência mensal de fêmeas maduras não variou significativamente. Além disso, também não foram encontradas diferenças na proporção sexual durante os períodos investigados, sendo no geral, a proporção de fêmeas iguais as de machos. Desta forma, verificamos que, apesar das condições presentes nos sistemas de coleta residual da UFPA, a espécie P. reticulata parece ter adaptado seus processos biológicos. Abstract in english This paper describes the length-weight relationship, size at first maturation (L), and breeding season of Poecilia reticulata found in drainage channels on the campus of the Federal University of Pará (UFPA) in the Brazilian city of Belém. A total of 1.936 specimens (942 males and 994 females) were [...] collected in monthly samples of the study area between June, 2006, and March, 2007. Females were significantly longer and heavier than males. The length-weight relationship for males was established by the equation Pt = 5 × 10-5 × Ct2.397 and for females by Pt = 3 × 10-6 × Ct3.419. The estimated value of L was 17.5 mm for males and 20.4 mm for females, suggesting that males initiate reproductive activity at a smaller size than females. The abundance of mature females did not vary significantly among months, and there was little variation in the sex ratio, which was close to parity overall. Despite the adverse conditions encountered in the UFPA drainage system, P. reticulata appeared to have adapted its biological processes adequately.

  16. Phylogeography of Plathymenia reticulata (Leguminosae) reveals patterns of recent range expansion towards northeastern Brazil and southern Cerrados in Eastern Tropical South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Renan Milagres Lage; De Lemos Filho, José Pires; Ribeiro, Renata Acácio; Lovato, Maria Bernadete

    2010-03-01

    Little is known about past vegetation dynamics in Eastern Tropical South America (ETSA). Here we describe patterns of chloroplast (cp) DNA variation in Plathymenia reticulata, a widespread tree in the ETSA Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes, but not found in the xeromorphic Caatinga. Forty one populations, comprising 220 individuals, were analysed by sequencing the trnS-trnG and trnL-trnL-trnF cpDNA regions. Combined, they resulted in 18 geographically structured haplotypes. The central region of the sampling area, comprising Minas Gerais and Goiás Brazilian states, is a centre of genetic diversity and probably the most longstanding area of the distribution range of the species. In contrast, populations from northeastern Brazil and the southern Cerrados showed very low diversity levels, almost exclusively with common haplotypes which are also found in the central region. Coupled with a long-branched star-like network, these patterns suggest a recent range expansion of P. reticulata to those regions from central region sources. The recent origin of the species (in the early Pleistocene) or the extinction of some populations due to drier and cooler climate during the last glacial maximum could have been responsible for that phylogeographic pattern. The populations from northeastern Brazil originated from two colonization routes, one eastern (Atlantic) and one western (inland). Due to its high diversity and complex landscape, the central region, especially central-north Minas Gerais (between 15 degrees -18 degrees S and 42 degrees -46 degrees W), should be given the highest priority for conservation. PMID:20149092

  17. Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Jon C; Banet, Amanda I; Christensen, Rune H B; Steffensen, John F; Aarestrup, Kim

    2013-09-15

    There is considerable intraspecific variation in metabolic rates and locomotor performance in aquatic ectothermic vertebrates; however, the mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. Using pregnant Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a live-bearing teleost, we examined the effects of reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst-assisted swimming on swimming metabolic rate, standard metabolic rate (O2std) and prolonged swimming performance (Ucrit). Reproductive traits included reproductive allocation and pregnancy stage, the former defined as the mass of the reproductive tissues divided by the total body mass. Results showed that the metabolic rate increased curvilinearly with swimming speed. The slope of the relationship was used as an index of swimming cost. There was no evidence that reproductive traits correlated with swimming cost, O2std or Ucrit. In contrast, data revealed strong effects of pectoral fin use on swimming cost and Ucrit. Poecilia reticulata employed body-caudal fin (BCF) swimming at all tested swimming speeds; however, fish with a high simultaneous use of the pectoral fins exhibited increased swimming cost and decreased Ucrit. These data indicated that combining BCF swimming and pectoral fin movement over a wide speed range, presumably to support swimming stability and control, is an inefficient swimming behaviour. Finally, transition to burst-assisted swimming was associated with an increase in aerobic metabolic rate. Our study highlights factors other than swimming speed that affect swimming cost and suggests that intraspecific diversity in biomechanical performance, such as pectoral fin use, is an important source of variation in both locomotor cost and maximal performance. PMID:23737561

  18. Preventive effects of Citrus reticulata essential oil on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats and the mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-mei Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of essential oil of Citrus reticulata (EOCR on proliferation of human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELFs, and to explore its protective effects on bleomycin (BLM-induced lung fibrosis in rats.METHODS: Routinely cultured HELFs during the logarithmic phase of growth were divided into control and treated groups, and applied for evaluation of inhibitory activity using methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT assay. A rat model of BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis was used for the evaluation of antifibrotic effect of EOCR. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, prednisone group and different doses of EOCR groups. BLM was intratracheally instilled into all the rats except those in the normal group, and EOCR was orally given to BLM-treated rats at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg once per day for four weeks. The rats in the normal group were intratracheally administered the same volume of saline. On the 28th day, rats were sacrificed under anesthesia, and the serum and lung tissues were collected. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activities and malondialdehyde (MDA contents in serum and lung tissues were analyzed with corresponding kits; type Ⅰ collagen (Col Ⅰ content in lung tissues was evaluated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; pulmonary fibrosis was assessed by lung histology; protein and mRNA expressions of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF in lung tissues were measured with immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization semiquantitative image analyses, respectively.RESULTS: The EOCR at different concentrations displayed inhibitory activity on proliferation of HELFs. In in vivo experiment, the weight gain of the rats in groups treated with EOCR at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg per day was significantly higher than those in the model group at the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day (P<0.05 or P<0.01. The scores of alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis in the groups treated with EOCR at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg per day were significantly lower than those in the model group (P<0.01; the SOD levels in serum and pulmonary tissues of the EOCR (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg groups were markedly increased compared with the model group (P<0.01 , while the MDA levels in both serum and pulmonary tissues were markedly reduced (P<0.05; the Col Ⅰ level in pulmonary tissues of the EOCR (100 and 200 mg/kg per day groups were markedly lower than that of the model group (P<0.01; the protein and mRNA expressions of CTGF in the groups treated with EOCR at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg per day were down-regulated compared with the model group (P<0.01.CONCLUSION: The results indicate that EOCR has preventive effects on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. The mechanism may be via adjusting the unbalance of oxidation and antioxidation, down-regulating CTGF protein and mRNA expressions, and reducing collagen deposition and fibrosis.

  19. RT-qPCR reveals opsin gene upregulation associated with age and sex in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) - a species with color-based sexual selection and 11 visual-opsin genes

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor John S; Laver Christopher RJ

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background PCR-based surveys have shown that guppies (Poecilia reticulata) have an unusually large visual-opsin gene repertoire. This has led to speculation that opsin duplication and divergence has enhanced the evolution of elaborate male coloration because it improves spectral sensitivity and/or discrimination in females. However, this conjecture on evolutionary connections between opsin repertoire, vision, mate choice, and male coloration was generated with little data on gene exp...

  20. Avaliação da toxicidade aguda e potencial neurotóxico do óleo-resina de copaíba (Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae) / Assessment of the neurotoxic potential and acute toxicity of copaiba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camile Giaretta, Sachetti; Maria Luiza, Fascineli; Juliana Alves, Sampaio; Osmar Alves, Lameira; Eloisa Dutra, Caldas.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O óleo-resina de copaíba obtido do gênero Copaifera L., Fabaceae, é largamente utilizado na medicina popular como antiinflamatório, antimicrobiano e antitumoral. Porém, informações sobre seu potencial tóxico são escassos na literatura. O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer a toxicidade oral aguda [...] e os possíveis efeitos neurotóxicos relacionados à ingestão do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, em ratas Wistar. O estudo foi conduzido com quinze ratas nulíparas distribuídas nos grupos de doses 300 e 2000 mg/kg pc de óleo-resina administrado por gavagem. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que nestas doses não houve sinais clínicos de toxicidade ou neurotoxicidade, alteração no consumo de ração ou alteração no peso corpóreo. A dose letal aguda foi estimada como maior que 2000 mg/kg pc e classificada como categoria 5, segundo o Guia OECD 423. Estes resultados indicam que existe uma relativa margem de segurança para o uso do óleo-resina de copaíba como agente terapêutico, embora estudos toxicológicos adicionais sejam ainda necessários, principalmente com a administração repetida de baixas doses. Abstract in english Copaiba oil-resin obtained from Copaifera L. genus, Fabaceae, is largely used in popular medicine as antinflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumoral. Information concerning the potential toxicity of this oil is limited in the literature. The goal of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity an [...] d the possible neurotoxic effects related to the ingestion of Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, oil-resin using female Wistar rats. Fifteen nulliparous rats were used and distributed in the experimental groups orally exposed to doses of 300 e 2000 mg/kg bw of oil-resin (gavage). No overt clinical signs of toxicity or neurotoxicity, alteration of food consumption or body weight were observed in the animals at the tested doses. The lethal oral toxicity was estimated to be higher than 2000 mg/kg bw, classified as category 5 according to OECD Guide 423. These results indicate that there is a certain safety margin associated with the use of copaiba as therapeutic agent, although additional toxicological studies are still necessary, mainly using repeated low doses.

  1. Parámetros de calidad en la etapa de desarrollo y maduración en frutos de dos variedades y un cultivar de mandarina (Citrus reticulata Blanco) / Parameters regarding quality during development and maturation stages in fruit from two varieties of a mandarin orange cultivar (Citrus reticulata Blanco) / Os parâmetros de qualidade na fase de desenvolvimento ematuração dos frutos em duas variedades e cultivares de tangerina (Citrus reticulata branco)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo, Villalba-Campos; Aníbal O, Herrera-Arévalo; Javier Orlando, Orduz-Rodríguez.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se determino o comportamento das variáveis de qualidade de frutos de três variedades de tangerina (C. reticulata Blanco): Dancy, Arrayan a e experimental cultivar chamado LL053, enxertadosempadrão Cleopatra (C. reticulata Blanco). As variáveis avaliadas foram peso, firmeza, diâmetro (polar e equator [...] ial), volume, Sólidos Solúveis Totais (SST), Acidez Total Titulável (ATT), Relacao de Maturidade (RM) e índice da cor (IC). Com quatro tratamentos correspondentes a os materiais, um delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC) com quatro árvores por parcela e quatro repetições. Quatro coletas for am feitas de forma aleatória na fase II de crescimento do fruto cada três semanas a partir dos 148 dias de pois deanteses ea última no dia 208 dda. No amadurecimento de consumo realizou-se uma amostragemà 222 daàtangerina Dancy ea os 260 dda para Arrayana e LL053. O índice de relacao de maturidade (RM) mostra um comportamento cedo para os frutos de tangerina Dancy, a relaçãoatingi-o 10 (SST/ATT), aproximadamente à206 dda; enquanto que Arrayana y LL053 chegouà244 e 252dda, respectivamente. Arrayana apresentou os maiores valores de peso do fruto, diâmetro equatorial, pH e volume. O cultivar "LL053" e variedade "Dancy" exibiram os mai orespercentuais de teor de suco (10% a mais do que Arrayana) e maiores valores de firmeza. O maior valor de SST é apresentado no cultivar LL053, em quanto a variedade Dancy apresentou os menores valores. O índice dacorfoimaiorna arrayana y LL053 à260dda, em quanto avariedade Dancy presento u os frutos mais verdes à 220dda, atingindo umacorlaranja intenso comuma maiorvelocidade no tempo com o aumento da RM. O comportamento no início do am adurecimento de consumo da tangerina Dancy é importante para o desenvolvimento da produção de tangerina nos trópicos baixos da Colômbia; ja que permite ampliar o período de colheita e competir com a qualidade interna e externa com o fruto importado. Abstract in spanish Se determinó el comportamiento de las variables de calidad del fruto de tres variedades de mandarina (C. reticulata Blanco): Dancy, Arrayana y un cultivar experimental denominado LL053; injertadas sobre el patrón Cleopatra (C. reticulata Blanco). Las variables evaluadas fueron peso, firmeza, diámetr [...] o (polar y ecuatorial), volumen, sólidos solubles totales (SST), acidez total titulable (ATT), relación de madurez (RM) e índice de color (IC). Con cuatro tratamientos correspondientes a los materiales, se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar (DCA), con cuatro árboles por unidad experimental y cuatro repeticiones. Se realizaron cuatro muestreos de forma aleatoria en la fase II de crecimiento del fruto cada cerca de tres semanas a partir de los 148 días después de antesis y el último en el día 208 dda. En la madurez de consumo se les hizo un muestreo a los 222 dda a la mandarina Dancy y 260 dda para Arrayana y LL053. El índice de relación de madurez (RM) muestra un comportamiento temprano para los frutos de mandarina Dancy, alcanzando la relación 10 (SST/ATT), aproximadamente a los 206 dda; mientras que Arrayana y LL053 lo alcanzaron a los 244 y 252 dda respectivamente. Arrayana presentó los mayores valores de peso de frutos, diámetro ecuatorial, pH y volumen. El cultivar "LL053" y la variedad "Dancy" exhibieron los mayores porcentajes de contenido de jugo (10% más que Arrayana) y mayores valores de firmeza. El mayor valor de SST se presentó en el cultivar LL053, mientras que la variedad Dancy presentó los valores menores. El índice de color fue mayor en Arrayana y LL053 a los 260 dda, mientras que la variedad Dancy presentó los frutos más verdes a los 220 dda, alcanzando un color naranja intenso con una mayor velocidad en el tiempo, con el aumento de la RM. El comportamiento temprano de la madurez de consumo de la mandarina Dancy es importante para el desarrollo de la producción de mandarinas en el trópico bajo de Colombia, ya que permite ampliar la época de cosecha y competir con la calidad interna y externa con la fru

  2. Characterization of Chemical Composition of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Volatile Oil by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography with High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Kunming; Zheng, Lijuan; Cai, Hao; Cao, Gang; Lou, Yajing; Lu, Tulin; Shu, Yachun; Zhou, Wei; Cai, Baochang

    2013-01-01

    Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (Chenpi in Chinese) has been widely used as an herbal medicine in Korea, China, and Japan. Chenpi extracts are used to treat indigestion and inflammatory syndromes of the respiratory tract such as bronchitis and asthma. This thesis will analyze chemical compositions of Chenpi volatile oil, which was performed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-HR-TOFMS). One hundred and sixty-seven components were tentatively identified, and terpene compounds are the main components of Chenpi volatile oil, a significant larger number than in previous studies. The majority of the eluted compounds, which were identified, were well separated as a result of high-resolution capability of the GC × GC method, which significantly reduces, the coelution. ? -Elemene is tentatively qualified by means of GC × GC in tandem with high-resolution TOFMS detection, which plays an important role in enhancing the effects of many anticancer drugs and in reducing the side effects of chemotherapy. This study suggests that GC × GC-HR-TOFMS is suitable for routine characterization of chemical composition of volatile oil in herbal medicines. PMID:23710215

  3. Sexual characteristics are altered by 4-tert-octylphenol and 17beta-estradiol in the adult male guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, G; Baatrup, E

    2001-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are believed to interfere with animal reproduction, but only few biomarkers above the cellular level have been developed to assess the adverse effects of these chemicals. Using the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) as a model organism, studies have been undertaken with the object of comparing biomarker responses to EDCs at increasing levels of biological complexity. Short-term exposure to the xenoestrogen 4-tert-octylphenol and the natural estrogen 17beta-estradiol (E2) changed important sexual characteristics in the adult male guppy. Both compounds increased the number of sperm cells in the ejaculates, reduced the area and color intensity of the sexually attractive orange spots, and inhibited testis growth. In the case of E2, the effects on sperm count and coloration were still evident after 3 months of recovery in clean water. Preliminary results on male reproductive capability demonstrated that treated males produced fewer offspring than untreated fish, indicating an impairment of reproduction itself. Udgivelsesdato: 2001-Jan

  4. Normalization of GABAA receptor specific binding in the substantia nigra reticulata and the prevention of L-dopa-induced dyskinesias in MPTP parkinsonian monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Pershia; Morissette, Marc; Calon, Fréderic; Hadj Tahar, Abdallah; Dridi, Mehdi; Belanger, Nancy; Meltzer, Leonard T; Bédard, Paul J; Di Paolo, Thérèse

    2008-02-01

    L-Dopa therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) is counfounded by the development of involuntary movements such as L-Dopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs). In this study GABA(A) receptor autoradiography was assessed using [(3)H]flunitrazepam binding to the benzodiazepine site of the GABA(A) receptor and [(35)S]t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) binding to the chloride channel of GABA(A) receptors in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr) and subthalamic nucleus (STN). L-Dopa-treated parkinsonian monkeys experiencing LIDs were compared to animals in which LIDs was prevented by adjunct treatments with CI-1041, a selective antagonist of the NR1A/2B subtype of NMDA receptor, or low doses of the dopamine D2 receptor agonist, cabergoline. Our results demonstrated a decrease of GABA(A) receptor specific binding in the posterior part of the SNr in dyskinetic monkeys compared to nondyskinetic animals, while no modulation has been observed in the STN. These results provide evidence for the first time that pharmacological treatments preventing LIDs in nonhuman primate model of PD are associated with normalization of GABA(A) receptor-mediated signalling in the SNr. PMID:17992687

  5. Indução do florescimento e crescimento de tangerineira 'Poncã' (Citrus reticulata Blanco em função da irrigação e da aplicação de paclobutrazol Flowering induction and vegetative development of 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco by irrigation and paclobutrazol application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique dos Santos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP/Câmpus de Botucatu (SP, com o objetivo de avaliar o florescimento fora de época e o crescimento vegetativo da tangerineira 'Poncã'. Nesse contexto, adotou-se o delineamento estatístico em blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas, com duas repetições, na instalação do ensaio. Os dois tratamentos de -0,03 e -0,05 MPa, como potenciais mínimos da água no solo, constituíram as parcelas e as quatro doses de paclobutrazol: 0; 4; 8 e 12 g por planta, nas subparcelas. No segundo ano de pesquisa, foram mantidas as mesmas parcelas e foram aplicadas nas plantas das subparcelas as doses de 0; 500; 1000 e 2000 mg l-1 de paclobutrazol, via foliar. Cada parcela foi constituída de 16 plantas, sendo oito destinadas à avaliação. Utilizou-se, em ambas as combinações, de um tratamento sem irrigação (-0,07 MPa e sem aplicação de paclobutrazol, como testemunha. Foram avaliados parâmetros, como a altura, diâmetro médio, volume e área de projeção da copa e condutância estomática para caracterizar a resposta das plantas aos tratamentos empregados. Concluiu-se que a aplicação do paclobutrazol e a variação do potencial da água no solo não proporcionaram a indução do florescimento fora de época das tangerineiras, e que os níveis de paclobutrazol influenciaram no desenvolvimento das plantas.The aim of this research was to study the flowering out of season in no induction conditions and the vegetative development of 'Ponkan' mandarin by irrigation and paclobutrazol application. The experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences - UNESP/Botucatu, State of São Paulo. The treatments followed a randomized blocks experimental design, being distributed in split-splots, and two replications. Each experimental unit was represented per 16 plants, being 8 destined for the evaluations. The treatments consisted of two soil water potential, -0,03 e -0,05 MPa that constituted the main experimental unit and the paclobutrazol levels that represented the sub units. In the second year of the experiment the units were maintained and it was applied the paclobutrazol: 0; 500; 1000 e 2000 mg L-1, by foliar application, in the plants of the sub units. Both treatments was compared with the treatments without irrigation (control plants: -0,07MPa and whitout paclobutrazol application plants. It was evaluated the following parameters: height, scion diameter medium, scion projection area, scion volume and stomatic condutance showing the plant's response to treatments. It was concluded that the paclobutrazol application and the irrigation did not influence the plant's flowering out of season and that the paclobutrazol levels influenced the growth of 'Ponkan' mandarin plants.

  6. Histamine H3 receptor activation selectively inhibits dopamine D1 receptor-dependent [3H]GABA release from depolarization-stimulated slices of rat substantia nigra pars reticulata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of [3H]GABA from slices of rat substantia nigra pars reticulata induced by increasing extracellular K+ from 6 to 15 mM in the presence of 10 ?M sulpiride was inhibited by 73±3% by 1 ?M SCH 23390, consistent with a large component of release dependent upon D1 receptor activation. The histamine H3 receptor-selective agonist immepip (1 ?M) and the non-selective agonist histamine (100 ?M) inhibited [3H]GABA release by 78±2 and 80±2%, respectively. The inhibition by both agonists was reversed by the H3 receptor antagonist thioperamide (1 ?M). However, in the presence of 1 ?M SCH 23390 depolarization-induced release of [3H]GABA was not significantly decreased by 1 ?M immepip. In rats depleted of dopamine by pretreatment with reserpine, immepip no longer inhibited control release of [3H]GABA, but in the presence of 1 ?M SKF 38393, which produced a 7±1-fold stimulation of release, immepip reduced the release to a level not statistically different from that in the presence of immepip alone. Immepip (1 ?M) also inhibited the depolarization-induced release of [3H]dopamine from substantia nigra pars reticulata slices, by 38±3%.The evidence is consistent with the proposition that activation of histamine H3 receptors leads to the selective inhibition of the component of depolarization-induced [3H]GABA release in substantia nigra pars reticulata slices which is dependent upon D1 receptor activation. This appears to be largely an action at the terminals of the striatonigral GABA projection neurons, which may be enhanced by a partial inhibition of dendritic [3H]dopamine release. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. [The introduction of the larvivorous fish Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1895) (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae), a bioregulator of culicids in oxidation ponds and contaminated drainage ditches on the Isla de la Juventud].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Avila, I; Koldenkova, L; Santamarina Mijares, A; González Broche, R

    1991-01-01

    The larvivorous fish Poecilla reticulata, internationally known as mosquito larva bioregulators, was introduced in 2 oxidation ponds and 2 ditches containing polluted waters (sewage) without the presence of other fish species, in Isle of Youth, Cuba, in order to control the larva populations of the Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito Say, 1823 in these its main breeding sites. After 2.5 months, such reservoirs were free of mosquito larvae. The fish settled within one year, reaching enough density to be used in other aquatoria. PMID:1801089

  8. Biosynthesis, mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Toddalia asiatica-synthesized silver nanoparticles: do they impact predation of guppy Poecilia reticulata against the filariasis mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Venus, Joseph Selvaraj Eugine; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Bedini, Stefano; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Furthermore, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgN) were biosynthesized a cheap aqueous extract of T. asiatica leaves as reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of nanoparticle was confirmed by surface Plasmon resonance band illustrated in UV-vis spectrophotometer. AgN were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. AgN were mostly spherical in shape, crystalline in nature, with face-centered cubic geometry, and their mean size was 25-30 nm. T. asiatica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgN showed excellent larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the filariasis vector Culex quinqufasciatus, both in laboratory and field experiments. AgN LC50 ranged from 16.48 (I instar larvae) to 31.83 ppm (pupae). T. asiatica-synthesized were also highly effective in inhibiting growth of Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. Lastly, we evaluated if sublethal doses of nanoparticles affect predation rates of fishes, Poecilia reticulata, against C. quinquefasciatus. In AgN-contaminated environment, predation of guppies against mosquito larvae was slightly higher over normal laboratory conditions. Overall, this study highlighted that T. asiatica-synthesized AgN are easy to produce, stable over time, and may be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of filariasis vectors, without detrimental effects on predation rates of mosquito natural enemies. PMID:26122577

  9. Dopamine D4 receptor stimulation in GABAergic projections of the globus pallidus to the reticular thalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra reticulata of the rat decreases locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlij, David; Acosta-García, Jacqueline; Rojas-Márquez, Martín; González-Hernández, Brenda; Escartín-Perez, Erick; Aceves, Jorge; Florán, Benjamín

    2012-02-01

    Dopamine D4 receptors are localized in the GABAergic projections that globus pallidus (GP) neurons send to the reticular nucleus of the thalamus (RTN), the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Deficient D4 function in this network could lead to hyperactivity and thus be important in generating some of the symptoms of ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), a condition associated with polymorphisms of dopamine D4 receptors. It is then, unexpected that systemic injections of D4 ligands have no significant effects on the motor activity of normal rats. We further examined this issue by microinjecting D4 ligands and psychostimulant drugs in relevant structures. Interstitial dopamine overflow in the RTN was increased by reverse microdialysis of both methylphenidate and methamphetamine. Intranuclear injections in the RTN of methylphenidate, methamphetamine and the selective D4 agonist PD 168,077 reduced motor activity. Intraperitoneal injection of the D4 antagonist L 745,870 blocked the effects of these intranuclear injections. Similarly, intranuclear injections of PD 168,077 in the SNr inhibited motor activity, an effect that was also blocked by intraperitoneal L 745,870. In rats with 6-OHDA induced hemiparkinsonism, intraperitoneal PD 168,077 produced ipsilateral turning behavior that was blocked by L 745,870. Our results suggest that diminished D4 signaling in GP projections could lead to increased traffic through the relay nuclei of the thalamus and hyperactivity. Hence this basal-ganglia-thalamus network may be one of the targets of the beneficial effects that psychostimulant drugs have in disorders associated with D4 receptor abnormalities. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. PMID:22108379

  10. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OO Johnson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity. The microorganisms used include, Staphylococcus aureus isolate, Escherichia coli isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans isolate, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 90028. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs ranged from 9.31×10-13 – 7.88 mg/ml for garlic oil, 0.16 – 2.66 mg/ml for tangerine oil and 5.95×10-31 – 1.24 mg/ml for the essential oil blend. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration indicated that the Garlic oil and Tangerine oil blend was better at inhibiting the tested microorganisms than the individual oils except for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (30.32% as the major component in the garlic oil extract and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha 4-trimethyl (33.38% in the tangerine oil. While the equal volume of the oil blend also revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (15.92% and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha.4-trimethyl (12.02% as the major constituents though in lower concentrations. Hence, the more potent antimicrobial properties demonstrated by the oil blend can be exploited further with a view to generate new effective antimicrobial compounds.

  11. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo, E-mail: rusg@ouc.edu.cn

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine?disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi?static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long?term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17??estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine?disrupting action. -- Highlights: ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17??estradiol levels of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male guppies.

  12. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine‐disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi‐static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long‐term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β‐estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine‐disrupting action. -- Highlights: ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17β‐estradiol levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male guppies.

  13. Effect of Time of Fertilizer Application on the Productivity of Kinnow (Citrus reticulata Blanko)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Raza Salik; Faqir Muhammad; M. Amin Shakir

    2000-01-01

    Present studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of fertilizer application at different times of the year on the productivity of kinnow. 40 kg rottened farm yard manure, 1 kg urea, 4 kg single supper phosphate and 1 kg sulphate of potash per plant was applied at three different times i.e., in January, April and July. Application in January improved the number of fruits, fruit size, weight of fruit and juice contents during 1997-98. TSS and juice percentage was not affected by any treatme...

  14. Control de larvas de Aedes aegypti (L con Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1895: una experiencia comunitaria en el municipio Taguasco, Sancti Spíritus, Cuba Control of Aedes aegypti larvae (L with Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1895: a community experience in Taguasco municipality, Sancti Spíritus, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Hernández Hernández

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la eficacia del control de larvas de Aedes aegypti (L con Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1895, en depósitos para almacenar agua destinada al consumo doméstico, en el municipio Taguasco, al centro de la Provincia de Sancti Spíritus, Cuba. Con anterioridad a las epidemias de Santiago de Cuba y Provincia Habana, este municipio no había sido positivo a Aedes aegypti (L. Ante el temor a una epidemia de dengue, las crecientes infestaciones del vector comenzaron a preocupar a la población. Antes de iniciar las siembras de peces, se realizó un levantamiento, durante el cual se encuestaron 1 298 viviendas y locales con extensos patios y un deficiente suministro de agua; eso hace que sus habitantes utilicen todo tipo de depósitos, entre estos 458 tanques bajos donde se observaron 40 focos de mosquitos. Los peces se distribuyeron a razón de no menos de 3 por recipiente, controlándose los focos en 2 meses, excepto en un tanque donde los huevos llegaron a eclosionar. Los resultados además, facilitan la labor del personal sanitario al prescindir de una constante revisión de los depósitos. Por lo que se propone extender la experiencia de Taguasco a otras provincias del país con situación similar.The efficacy of the control of Aedes aegypti (L with Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1895, was determined in containers used for domestic consumption water in Taguasco municipality in the center of Sancti Spiritus province, Cuba. Before the epidemic of Santiago de Cuba and Havana Province, this municipality had not been positive to Aedes aegypti (L. The increasing infections caused by the vector started to worry the population that feared an outbreak of dengue epidemic. Previous to the fish growth, a survey was done in 1 298 houses and places with large backyards and a deficient water supply that made its dwellers use all kinds of containers. Among them 458 low tanks where 40 mosquito foci were detected. Fishes were distributed at a rate of no less than 3 per container. The foci were controlled in 2 months, excepting a tank where eclosion occurred. The results also make easy the work of the health personnel on avoiding the constant checking of the containers. That’s why, it is recommended to extend the experience of Taguasco to other provinces of the country under similar situations.

  15. Control de larvas de Aedes aegypti (L) con Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1895: una experiencia comunitaria en el municipio Taguasco, Sancti Spíritus, Cuba / Control of Aedes aegypti larvae (L) with Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1895: a community experience in Taguasco municipality, Sancti Spíritus, Cuba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eugenia, Hernández Hernández; María, Marques Pina.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la eficacia del control de larvas de Aedes aegypti (L) con Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1895, en depósitos para almacenar agua destinada al consumo doméstico, en el municipio Taguasco, al centro de la Provincia de Sancti Spíritus, Cuba. Con anterioridad a las epidemias de Santiago de Cuba [...] y Provincia Habana, este municipio no había sido positivo a Aedes aegypti (L). Ante el temor a una epidemia de dengue, las crecientes infestaciones del vector comenzaron a preocupar a la población. Antes de iniciar las siembras de peces, se realizó un levantamiento, durante el cual se encuestaron 1 298 viviendas y locales con extensos patios y un deficiente suministro de agua; eso hace que sus habitantes utilicen todo tipo de depósitos, entre estos 458 tanques bajos donde se observaron 40 focos de mosquitos. Los peces se distribuyeron a razón de no menos de 3 por recipiente, controlándose los focos en 2 meses, excepto en un tanque donde los huevos llegaron a eclosionar. Los resultados además, facilitan la labor del personal sanitario al prescindir de una constante revisión de los depósitos. Por lo que se propone extender la experiencia de Taguasco a otras provincias del país con situación similar. Abstract in english The efficacy of the control of Aedes aegypti (L) with Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1895, was determined in containers used for domestic consumption water in Taguasco municipality in the center of Sancti Spiritus province, Cuba. Before the epidemic of Santiago de Cuba and Havana Province, this municipa [...] lity had not been positive to Aedes aegypti (L). The increasing infections caused by the vector started to worry the population that feared an outbreak of dengue epidemic. Previous to the fish growth, a survey was done in 1 298 houses and places with large backyards and a deficient water supply that made its dwellers use all kinds of containers. Among them 458 low tanks where 40 mosquito foci were detected. Fishes were distributed at a rate of no less than 3 per container. The foci were controlled in 2 months, excepting a tank where eclosion occurred. The results also make easy the work of the health personnel on avoiding the constant checking of the containers. That’s why, it is recommended to extend the experience of Taguasco to other provinces of the country under similar situations.

  16. Effect of micronutrients (zn, cu and b) on photosynthetic and fruit yield attributes of citrus reticulata blanco var. kinnow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this investigation, influence of foliar application of micronutrients (Zn, Cu and B) was studied on the improvement in photosynthetic and fruit yield attributes of citrus (Kinnow) plants. Experiments were conducted in two districts of Punjab (Sargodha and Toba Tek Singh), Pakistan varying in soil properties and agro-climatic conditions. Plants at both sites were subjected to foliar spray of three different levels (i.e. 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%) of each Zn, Cu and B at three different fruit developmental stages while macronutrients (NPK) were applied at recommended rates as soil amendment. Micronutrients (Zn, Cu and B) application caused a significant improvement in net photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs), Chlorophyll a, b, total, and caroteniods in both the citrus orchards. However, effect of micronutrients i.e. Zn, Cu and B was more pronounced at the levels of 0.3, 0.1 and 0.2%, respectively. These levels of nutrients were also effective in improving fruit yield with better fruit quality. (author)

  17. Regeneração de plantas após fusão de protoplastos de tangelo 'Page' e toranja 'Lau Tau' Plant regeneration after protoplast fusion of 'Page' tangelo and 'Lau Tau' pummelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Cristina de Carvalho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se a hibridação somática entre tangelo 'Page' e toranja 'Lau Tau' visando à produção de porta-enxerto semelhante à laranja-azeda, por esta espécie ser considerada um provável híbrido entre C. reticulata e C. grandis. Após isolamento, fusão e cultivo de protoplastos, obtiveram-se brotações que foram enxertadas in vitro, em laranja 'Hamlin'. Dezessete plantas foram aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação. A análise de citometria de fluxo confirmou a constituição diplóide dessas plantas. Marcadores moleculares RAPD das plantas regeneradas apresentaram padrão de bandas similar ao de tangelo 'Page'. Entretanto, todas as plantas apresentaram conformação fenotípica diferente dos genitores.This work aimed to produce somatic hybrid between 'Page' tangelo and 'Lau Tau' pummelo in an attempt to regenerate a similar rootstock to sour orange, because this species is considered a probable hybrid between C. reticulata and C. grandis. After protoplast isolation, fusion and culture regenerated shoots were in vitro grafted on 'Hamlin' sweet orange. Seventeen plants were acclimatized in a greenhouse. Citometric flow analyses revealed that all plants are diploid. RAPD molecular markers of regenerated plants had the same pattern as compared to 'Page' tangelo. However, all plants had phenotypic traits different from both genitors.

  18. Regeneração de plantas após fusão de protoplastos de tangelo 'Page' e toranja 'Lau Tau' / Plant regeneration after protoplast fusion of 'Page' tangelo and 'Lau Tau' pummelo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dayse Cristina de, Carvalho; Francisco de Assis Alves, Mourão Filho; Beatriz Madalena Januzzi, Mendes; Carlos Roberto de, Carvalho.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se a hibridação somática entre tangelo 'Page' e toranja 'Lau Tau' visando à produção de porta-enxerto semelhante à laranja-azeda, por esta espécie ser considerada um provável híbrido entre C. reticulata e C. grandis. Após isolamento, fusão e cultivo de protoplastos, obtiveram-se brotações que [...] foram enxertadas in vitro, em laranja 'Hamlin'. Dezessete plantas foram aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação. A análise de citometria de fluxo confirmou a constituição diplóide dessas plantas. Marcadores moleculares RAPD das plantas regeneradas apresentaram padrão de bandas similar ao de tangelo 'Page'. Entretanto, todas as plantas apresentaram conformação fenotípica diferente dos genitores. Abstract in english This work aimed to produce somatic hybrid between 'Page' tangelo and 'Lau Tau' pummelo in an attempt to regenerate a similar rootstock to sour orange, because this species is considered a probable hybrid between C. reticulata and C. grandis. After protoplast isolation, fusion and culture regenerated [...] shoots were in vitro grafted on 'Hamlin' sweet orange. Seventeen plants were acclimatized in a greenhouse. Citometric flow analyses revealed that all plants are diploid. RAPD molecular markers of regenerated plants had the same pattern as compared to 'Page' tangelo. However, all plants had phenotypic traits different from both genitors.

  19. Rapid screening and identification of compounds with DNA-binding activity from Folium Citri Reticulatae using on-line HPLC-DAD-MS(n) coupled with a post column fluorescence detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qingrong; Zhang, Cangman; Lin, Zongtao; Sun, Hongyang; Liang, Yi; Jiang, Haixiu; Song, Zhiling; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shizhong

    2016-02-01

    To study the interactions between natural compounds and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), a method has been established combining a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-multi-stage mass spectrometer with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)-FLD). The FLD was used to monitor fluorescence intensity of the ethidium bromide-DNA (EB-DNA) complex when a compound separated by HPLC was introduced. This novel method was used to simultaneously obtain the HPLC fingerprint, UV spectra, MS(n) fragments and DNA-binding activity profile of various components in Folium Citri Reticulatae. As a result, 35 compounds were identified, of which 25 were found in the extract of Folium Citri Reticulatae for the first time, and 33 compounds showed DNA-binding activities, with the most active being feruloylhexaric and p-coumaroylhexaric acids. In addition, the precision, stability and reproducibility of this method were validated by two positive controls, quercetin and hesperidin. This new on-line method is accurate, precise and reliable for further high-throughput screening of DNA-binding compounds from food samples and other complex matrices. PMID:26304344

  20. Moscas frugívoras (Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae: ocorrência em pomares comerciais de tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco do município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba = Frugivorous flies (Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae: occurrence in commercials tangerine orchards (Citrus reticulata Blanco in Matinhas, state of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Batista Lopes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba com aproximadamente 1,3 milhões de plantas de tangerina, é responsável por 90% da produção do Estado. A pesquisa foi conduzida em cinco regiões geográficas do município de Matinhas, onde foram coletados 20 frutos na copa e 20 sob a copa da planta, objetivando pesquisar a ocorrência de moscasfrugívoras e seus níveis de infestação em tangerina. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a tangerina é infestada por Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann,1824, Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal e Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann,1830. O índice médio de infestação de C. capitata nas cinco regiões não ultrapassou 0,5 pupa fruto-1. A percentagem de emergência (P.E. de C. capitata em frutos coletados na planta e solo variou entre 14,0 a 54,0% de adultos fruto-1. Osíndices de infestação de N. zadolicha, em frutos coletados na planta e solo, variaram entre 0,4 a 4,3 pupários fruto-1. Os dados da percentagem de emergência (P.E. de N. zadolicha variaram entre 49,9 a 65,9% de adultos fruto-1, sendo considerada a espécie mais abundante, dominante e com uma alta taxa de sobrevivência. N. zadolicha foi considerada praga primária da tangerina nas condições de Matinhas. Este é, também, o primeiro relato das espécies N. zadolicha e N. glaberrima infestando tangerina na Paraíba.The municipality of Matinhas, with approximately 1.3 million tangerinetrees, is responsible for 90% of the tangerine production in the state of Paraíba. This research was carried out in five geographic regions of Matinhas, where 20 fruits on plant and 20 fruits in soil were collected, with the aim of searching for the frugivorous flies and their levels of infestation in tangerine. The results showed that tangerine is infested by frugivorous flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann, 1824, Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal and Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann, 1830. The mean infestation index of C. capitata in five regions did not exceed 0.5 pupae fruit-1. The emergence percentage (EP of C. capitata adults in fruits collected on plant and in soil varied between 14.0% and 54.0% of adults fruit-1. The infestation index for N. zadolicha had variations between 0.4 and 4.3 pupae fruit-1. The data on the emergence percentage (EP of N. zadolicha varied between 49.9% and 65.9% of adults fruit-1, which made it the most abundant and dominant species, with a high survival rate. N. zadolicha was considered the pest with the highest economic impact to tangerines in Matinhas. The present work is also the first report of the N. zadolicha and N. glaberiimaspecies causing infestation in tangerine fruits in the state of Paraíba.

  1. Moscas frugívoras (Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae): ocorrência em pomares comerciais de tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco) do município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba / Frugivorous flies (Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae): occurrence in commercials tangerine orchards (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in Matinhas, state of Paraíba, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edson Batista, Lopes; Jacinto de Luna, Batista; Ivanildo Cavalcanti de, Albuquerque; Carlos Henrique de, Brito.

    Full Text Available O município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba com aproximadamente 1,3 milhões de plantas de tangerina, é responsável por 90% da produção do Estado. A pesquisa foi conduzida em cinco regiões geográficas do município de Matinhas, onde foram coletados 20 frutos na copa e 20 sob a copa da planta, objetivan [...] do pesquisar a ocorrência de moscas frugívoras e seus níveis de infestação em tangerina. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a tangerina é infestada por Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann,1824), Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal) e Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann,1830). O índice médio de infestação de C. capitata nas cinco regiões não ultrapassou 0,5 pupa fruto-1. A percentagem de emergência (P.E.) de C. capitata em frutos coletados na planta e solo variou entre 14,0 a 54,0% de adultos fruto-1. Os índices de infestação de N. zadolicha, em frutos coletados na planta e solo, variaram entre 0,4 a 4,3 pupários fruto-1. Os dados da percentagem de emergência (P.E.) de N . zadolicha variaram entre 49,9 a 65,9% de adultos fruto-1, sendo considerada a espécie mais abundante, dominante e com uma alta taxa de sobrevivência. N. zadolicha foi considerada praga primária da tangerina nas condições de Matinhas. Este é, também, o primeiro relato das espécies N. zadolicha e N. glaberrima infestando tangerina na Paraíba. Abstract in english The municipality of Matinhas, with approximately 1.3 million tangerine trees, is responsible for 90% of the tangerine production in the state of Paraíba. This research was carried out in five geographic regions of Matinhas, where 20 fruits on plant and 20 fruits in soil were collected, with the aim [...] of searching for the frugivorous flies and their levels of infestation in tangerine. The results showed that tangerine is infested by frugivorous flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann, 1824), Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal) and Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann, 1830). The mean infestation index of C. capitata in five regions did not exceed 0.5 pupae fruit-1. The emergence percentage (EP) of C . capitata adults in fruits collected on plant and in soil varied between 14.0% and 54.0% of adults fruit-1. The infestation index for N . zadolicha had variations between 0.4 and 4.3 pupae fruit-1. The data on the emergence percentage (EP) of N . zadolicha varied between 49.9% and 65.9% of adults fruit-1, which made it the most abundant and dominant species, with a high survival rate. N. zadolicha was considered the pest with the highest economic impact to tangerines in Matinhas. The present work is also the first report of the N. zadolicha and N. glaberiima species causing infestation in tangerine fruits in the state of Paraíba.

  2. Efficacy of ginger-based treatments against infection with Gyrodactylus turnbulli in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata (Peters)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, G; Zilberg, D; Paladini, G; Fridman, S

    2015-04-30

    Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses and existing chemical therapeutants, often stressful to the fish, pose associated risks. As part of a recent trend to move towards the use of alternative, plant-based remedies for commonly occurring aquaculture-related diseases, the efficiency of ginger (Zingiber officinale) was investigated against the monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli in the guppy. In vitro trials revealed the clear anti-parasitic effects of ginger. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts, prepared from freeze dried ginger, were tested. An increase in extract concentration was associated with reduced time to parasite immobilisation, with ethanolic extract being more efficient; at 75 and 200ppt aqueous ginger extract parasites died at 65.6±2.8 and 1.8±0.2min, respectively, whereas at 5 and 40ppt ethanolic extract parasites died at 26.1±0.7 and 4.9±0.3min, respectively. Bathing G. turnbulli-infected fish in ethanolic ginger extract (i.e. 5 and 7.5ppt for 90 and 30min, respectively) significantly reduced infection prevalence and intensity when compared to the water and ethanol controls. The higher concentration (i.e. 7.5ppt) proved as equally effective as Praziquantel, the conventionally used chemical treatment for gyrodactylosis, with the fish appearing to be completely cleared of the infection in both cases. Oral treatments of G. turnbulli-infected guppies with diets supplemented with 10 and 20% ginger powder proved to be ineffective in decreasing parasite load. These findings demonstrate that immersion in ginger extract offers an effective, alternative treatment against monogenean infection in fish. PMID:25819871

  3. Alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de Aedes aegypti submetidas ao diterpeno labdano, isolado de Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae), e à uma fração rica em taninos de Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae) / Ultrastructural alterations in larvae of Aedes aegypti subject to labdane diterpene isolated from Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae) and a fraction enriched with tannins of Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cleyde Ferreira Barreto, Valotto; Heloisa Helena Garcia da, Silva; Gláucia, Cavasin; Regina, Geris; Edson, Rodrigues Filho; Ionizete Garcia da, Silva.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública, em vários países, e tem como principal vetor o Aedes aegypti, mosquito mais adaptado às áreas urbanizadas. Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, as alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de 3º estádio, desse mosquito, causadas pelos larvicidas [...] naturais, um diterpeno labdano, extraído de Copaifera reticulata, e uma fração rica em taninos catéquicos, extraída de Magonia pubescens, evidenciando o mecanismo de ação dessas substâncias. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados com larvas de 3º estádio em solução de 0,9ppm, do diterpeno (3-?-acetoxylabdan-8(17)-13-dien-15-óico) e de 3,7ppm, da fração majoritária de tanino catéquico de massa molecular 864Da. Obtiveram-se as substâncias através de fracionamentos cromatográficos sucessivos, identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. As larvas que atingiram estado letárgico foram coletadas e dissecadas e seus tubos digestórios fixados, desidratados, emblocados e polimerizados. Cortes ultrafinos foram feitos e contrastados com acetato de uranila 3% e citrato de chumbo, posteriormente, levados ao microscópio eletrônico. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações ultraestruturais provocadas pelos diterpeno e tanino sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti foram vacuolização citoplasmática, desorganização e degeneração celular, mudança estrutural dos microvilos e deslocamento das células da lâmina basal. CONCLUSÕES: O diterpeno e a fração rica em taninos catéquicos provocaram a morte das larvas de Aedes aegypti através da destruição celular no intestino médio. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Dengue is an important public health problem in many countries and its main vector Aedes aegypti, is the mosquito most adapted to urban areas. For the first time, the mechanism of action of labdane diterpenoid extracted from Copaifera reticulata and the fraction enriched of catechin ta [...] nnins extracted from Magonia pubescens is demonstrated through ultrastructural alterations of Aedes aegypti larvae. METHODS: Experiments were performed using a 0.9ppm solution of diterpenoid and 3.7ppm of the fraction as the main catechin tannin of molecular mass 846Da. The compounds were obtained by thin layer chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen and mass spectrometry. Larvae that achieved lethargic state were collected and dissected. Next, they were contrasted with 1% uranyl acetate, dehydrated, embedded and polymerized. Ultrathin sections were made, mixed with 3% uranyl acetate and lead citrate and placed in an electron microscope. RESULTS: The main ultrastructural alterations caused by the diterpenoid and by tanins in larvae of Aedes aegypti were: cytoplasmic vacuolation, alteration of microvilli, cellular aging, cell disruption and degeneration, formation of secretion vesicles and structural changes in microvilli, irregular nuclei and displacement of cells in the basal lamina. CONCLUSIONS: The fraction containing tannins and the diterpenoid caused the death of Aedes aegypti larvae by cell destruction in the midgut.

  4. Potent activity of nobiletin-rich Citrus reticulata peel extract to facilitate cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB signaling associated with learning and memory in cultured hippocampal neurons: identification of the substances responsible for the pharmacological action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahata, Ichiro; Yoshida, Masaaki; Sun, Wen; Nakajima, Akira; Lai, Yanxin; Osaka, Naoya; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Yokosuka, Akihito; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Naganuma, Akira; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Yamakuni, Tohru

    2013-10-01

    cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB signaling linked to CRE-mediated transcription is crucial for learning and memory. We originally found nobiletin as a natural compound that stimulates this intracellular signaling and exhibits anti-dementia action in animals. Citrus reticulata or C. unshiu peels are employed as "chinpi" and include a small amount of nobiletin. We here provide the first evidence for beneficial pharmacological actions on the cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB cascade of extracts from nobiletin-rich C.reticulata peels designated as Nchinpi, the nobiletin content of which was 0.83 ± 0.13% of the dry weight or 16-fold higher than that of standard chinpi extracts. Nchinpi extracts potently facilitated CRE-mediated transcription in cultured hippocampal neurons, whereas the standard chinpi extracts showed no such activity. Also, the Nchinpi extract, but not the standard chinpi extract, stimulated PKA/ERK/CREB signaling. Interestingly, treatment with the Nchinpi extract at the concentration corresponding to approximately 5 ?M nobiletin more potently facilitated CRE-mediated transcriptional activity than did 30 ?M nobiletin alone. Consistently, sinensetin, tangeretin, 6-demethoxynobiletin, and 6-demethoxytangeretin were also identified as bioactive substances in Nchinpi that facilitated the CRE-mediated transcription. Purified sinensetin enhanced the transcription to a greater degree than nobiletin. Furthermore, samples reconstituted with the four purified compounds and nobiletin in the ratio of each constituent's content in the extract showed activity almost equal to that of the Nchinpi extract to stimulate CRE-mediated transcription. These findings suggest that above four compounds and nobiletin in the Nchinpi extract mainly cooperated to facilitate potently CRE-mediated transcription linked to the upstream cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB pathway in hippocampal neurons. PMID:23588349

  5. Avaliação da toxicidade aguda e potencial neurotóxico do óleo-resina de copaíba (Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae Assessment of the neurotoxic potential and acute toxicity of copaiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camile Giaretta Sachetti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O óleo-resina de copaíba obtido do gênero Copaifera L., Fabaceae, é largamente utilizado na medicina popular como antiinflamatório, antimicrobiano e antitumoral. Porém, informações sobre seu potencial tóxico são escassos na literatura. O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer a toxicidade oral aguda e os possíveis efeitos neurotóxicos relacionados à ingestão do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, em ratas Wistar. O estudo foi conduzido com quinze ratas nulíparas distribuídas nos grupos de doses 300 e 2000 mg/kg pc de óleo-resina administrado por gavagem. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que nestas doses não houve sinais clínicos de toxicidade ou neurotoxicidade, alteração no consumo de ração ou alteração no peso corpóreo. A dose letal aguda foi estimada como maior que 2000 mg/kg pc e classificada como categoria 5, segundo o Guia OECD 423. Estes resultados indicam que existe uma relativa margem de segurança para o uso do óleo-resina de copaíba como agente terapêutico, embora estudos toxicológicos adicionais sejam ainda necessários, principalmente com a administração repetida de baixas doses.Copaiba oil-resin obtained from Copaifera L. genus, Fabaceae, is largely used in popular medicine as antinflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumoral. Information concerning the potential toxicity of this oil is limited in the literature. The goal of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity and the possible neurotoxic effects related to the ingestion of Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, oil-resin using female Wistar rats. Fifteen nulliparous rats were used and distributed in the experimental groups orally exposed to doses of 300 e 2000 mg/kg bw of oil-resin (gavage. No overt clinical signs of toxicity or neurotoxicity, alteration of food consumption or body weight were observed in the animals at the tested doses. The lethal oral toxicity was estimated to be higher than 2000 mg/kg bw, classified as category 5 according to OECD Guide 423. These results indicate that there is a certain safety margin associated with the use of copaiba as therapeutic agent, although additional toxicological studies are still necessary, mainly using repeated low doses.

  6. A Comparative Study on the Toxicity of a Synthetic Pyrethroid, Deltamethrin and a Neem Based Pesticide, Azadirachtin to Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Stalin, S. Israel; Kiruba, S.; DAS, S. Sam Manohar

    2008-01-01

    Addition of pollutants changes the natural qualities of water. Pesticides in agricultural runoff affect fish and other aquatic organisms. Fish are common indicators of water pollution status. This study was done to check whether plant based pesticides are less toxic to fish and other non-target organisms, compared to chemical pesticides. Bioassays of a natural pesticide of plant origin (Azadirachtin) and a synthetic pyrethroid, deltamethrin were separately done on a freshwater teleost, Poecil...

  7. Pharmacognostical Characterization of an Anti-Diabe tic Polyherbal Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P P JOHN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Standardization of drugs and formulation is one theessential parameter in today’s drug discovery. Current study includes pharmacognostic study of a polyherbal formulation which comprise of six crude powdered drugs i.e.Acacia catechu, Phyllanthus embellica, Pterocarpus marsupium, Salacia reticulata, Tinospora cordifoliaand Vetiveria zizanioides, which is used locally for diabetes. Morphological, microscopical and physico-chemical studies were done to standardize the plant ingredients and also for the formulation. Current study includes lycopodium spore method, which is one of the most important methods for standardization of individual powder drug and powdered formulations. When combined with various parameters like linearity, specificity, precision, repeatability and accuracy, the method become a powerful tool to uncover and check even a very small amount of adulteration in a large extent. Mean value for the identifying characters in the mixture was near to one-sixth as compared to the drug when they were individually studied, vindicating our assumption that after mixing the ratio remained intact in the formulation. Thus, this method can be used for finding the exact ratio of drugs in any formulation in near future. All the result of the study could be useful in setting some diagnostic indices for the identification and preparation of a monograph of the drugs. The developed technique will be useful for standardization of different formulations also.

  8. Determination of the contents and distribution characteristics of REE in natural plants by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of 8 REEs (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in 17 species of plants and their host soil, which were collected from a rare earth ore area located in the south of China, have been determined by INAA. The chondritic normalized REE patterns for different parts of plants (e.g., leaf, stem and root) and their host soils were studied. The results showed that the concentration levels of REE for most plants in the sampling area were elevated. Particularly, the leaves of the fern (Dicranopteris dichotoma) contain extremely high concentration of the total REE (675-3358 ?g/g). Generally, these REE distribution patterns in every part of plants were very similar and reflected the characteristics of their host soils. However, the chondritic normalized REE patterns in some plants relative to the host soil revealed obvious fractionation, such as the depletion of the heavy REE (for fern, Citrus reticulata and Brassia campestris), the heavy REE enrichment (for Camellia sinensis, Camellia oleifera and Ziziphus) and the Ce positive anomaly (for Gardenia jasminoides). (author)

  9. The molecular basis of color vision in colorful fish: Four Long Wave-Sensitive (LWS opsins in guppies (Poecilia reticulata are defined by amino acid substitutions at key functional sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Pam R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparisons of functionally important changes at the molecular level in model systems have identified key adaptations driving isolation and speciation. In cichlids, for example, long wavelength-sensitive (LWS opsins appear to play a role in mate choice and male color variation within and among species. To test the hypothesis that the evolution of elaborate coloration in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata is also associated with opsin gene diversity, we sequenced long wavelength-sensitive (LWS opsin genes in six species of the family Poeciliidae. Results Sequences of four LWS opsin genes were amplified from the guppy genome and from mRNA isolated from adult guppy eyes. Variation in expression was quantified using qPCR. Three of the four genes encode opsins predicted to be most sensitive to different wavelengths of light because they vary at key amino acid positions. This family of LWS opsin genes was produced by a diversity of duplication events. One, an intronless gene, was produced prior to the divergence of families Fundulidae and Poeciliidae. Between-gene PCR and DNA sequencing show that two of the guppy LWS opsins are linked in an inverted orientation. This inverted tandem duplication event occurred near the base of the poeciliid tree in the common ancestor of Poecilia and Xiphophorus. The fourth sequence has been uncovered only in the genus Poecilia. In the guppies surveyed here, this sequence is a hybrid, with the 5' end most similar to one of the tandem duplicates and the 3' end identical to the other. Conclusion Enhanced wavelength discrimination, a possible consequence of opsin gene duplication and divergence, might have been an evolutionary prerequisite for color-based sexual selection and have led to the extraordinary coloration now observed in male guppies and in many other poeciliids.

  10. Identification of Novel and Conserved miRNAs in Leaves of In vitro Grown Citrus reticulata “Lugan” Plantlets by Solexa Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rongfang; Chen, Xiaodong; Lin, Yuling; Xu, Xuhan; Thu, Min Kyaw; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in plant development, but the roles in the in vitro plant development are unknown. Leaves of ponkan plantlets derived from mature embryos at in vitro culture conditions were used to sequence small RNA fraction via Solexa sequencing, and the miRNAs expression was analyzed. The results showed that there were 3,065,625 unique sequences in ponkan, of which 0.79% were miRNAs. The RNA sequences with lengths of 18–25 nt derived from the library were analyzed, leading to the identification of 224 known miRNAs, of which the most abundant were miR157, miR156, and miR166. Three hundred and fifty-eight novel miRNA candidates were also identified, and the number of reads of ponkan novel miRNAs varied from 5 to 168,273. The expression of the most known miRNAs obtained was at low levels, which varied from 5 to 4,946,356. To better understand the role of miRNAs during the preservation of ponkan in vitro plantlet, the expression patterns of cre-miR156a/159b/160a/166a/167a/168a/171/398b were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The results showed that not only the development-associated miRNAs, e.g., cre-miR156/159/166/396, expressed highly at the early preservation period in the in vitro ponkan plantlet leaves but also the stress-related miRNAs, e.g., cre-miR171 and cre-miR398b, expressed highly at the same time. The expression levels of most tested miRNAs were found to decrease after 6 months and the amounts of these miRNAs were kept at low levels at 18 months. After analyzing the expression level of their targets during the reservation of the ponkan in vitro plantlet, development-associated cre-ARF6 and stress-related cre-CSD modules exhibited negative correlation with miR167 and miR398, respectively, indicating an involvement of the miRNAs in the in vitro development of ponkan and function in the conservation of ponkan germplasm. PMID:26779240

  11. RT-qPCR reveals opsin gene upregulation associated with age and sex in guppies (Poecilia reticulata - a species with color-based sexual selection and 11 visual-opsin genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor John S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCR-based surveys have shown that guppies (Poecilia reticulata have an unusually large visual-opsin gene repertoire. This has led to speculation that opsin duplication and divergence has enhanced the evolution of elaborate male coloration because it improves spectral sensitivity and/or discrimination in females. However, this conjecture on evolutionary connections between opsin repertoire, vision, mate choice, and male coloration was generated with little data on gene expression. Here, we used RT-qPCR to survey visual-opsin gene expression in the eyes of males, females, and juveniles in order to further understand color-based sexual selection from the perspective of the visual system. Results Juvenile and adult (male and female guppies express 10 visual opsins at varying levels in the eye. Two opsin genes in juveniles, SWS2B and RH2-2, accounted for >85% of all visual-opsin transcripts in the eye, excluding RH1. This relative abundance (RA value dropped to about 65% in adults, as LWS-A180 expression increased from approximately 3% to 20% RA. The juvenile-to-female transition also showed LWS-S180 upregulation from about 1.5% to 7% RA. Finally, we found that expression in guppies' SWS2-LWS gene cluster is negatively correlated with distance from a candidate locus control region (LCR. Conclusions Selective pressures influencing visual-opsin gene expression appear to differ among age and sex. LWS upregulation in females is implicated in augmenting spectral discrimination of male coloration and courtship displays. In males, enhanced discrimination of carotenoid-rich food and possibly rival males are strong candidate selective pressures driving LWS upregulation. These developmental changes in expression suggest that adults possess better wavelength discrimination than juveniles. Opsin expression within the SWS2-LWS gene cluster appears to be regulated, in part, by a common LCR. Finally, by comparing our RT-qPCR data to MSP data, we were able to propose the first opsin-to-?max assignments for all photoreceptor types in the cone mosaic.

  12. Chronic L-DOPA administration increases the firing rate but does not reverse enhanced slow frequency oscillatory activity and synchronization in substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons from 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristieta, A; Ruiz-Ortega, J A; Miguelez, C; Morera-Herreras, T; Ugedo, L

    2016-05-01

    The pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) and of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) is associated with dysfunctional neuronal activity in several nuclei of the basal ganglia. Moreover, high levels of oscillatory activity and synchronization have also been described in both intra- and inter-basal ganglia nuclei and the cerebral cortex. However, the relevance of these alterations in the motor symptomatology related to Parkinsonism and LID is not fully understood. Recently, we have shown that subthalamic neuronal activity correlates with axial abnormal movements and that a subthalamic nucleus (STN) lesion partially reduces LID severity as well as the expression of some striatal molecular modifications. The aim of the present study was to assess, through single-unit extracellular recording techniques under urethane anaesthesia, neuronal activity of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and its relationship with LID and STN hyperactivity together with oscillatory and synchronization between these nuclei and the cerebral cortex in 6-OHDA-lesioned and dyskinetic rats. Twenty-four hours after the last injection of L-DOPA the firing rate and the inhibitory response to an acute challenge of L-DOPA of SNr neurons from dyskinetic animals were increased with respect to those found in intact and 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the mean firing rate of SNr neurons and the severity of the abnormal movements (limb and orolingual subtypes). There was also a significant correlation between the firing activity of SNr and STN neurons recorded from dyskinetic rats. In addition, low frequency band oscillatory activity and synchronization both within the SNr or STN and with the cerebral cortex were enhanced in 6-OHDA-lesioned animals and not or slightly affected by chronic treatment with L-DOPA. Altogether, these results indicate that neuronal SNr firing activity is relevant in dyskinesia and may be driven by STN hyperactivity. Conversely, low frequency oscillatory activity and synchronization seem to be more important in PD because they are not influenced by prolonged L-DOPA administration. PMID:26852950

  13. Alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de Aedes aegypti submetidas ao diterpeno labdano, isolado de Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae, e à uma fração rica em taninos de Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleyde Ferreira Barreto Valotto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública, em vários países, e tem como principal vetor o Aedes aegypti, mosquito mais adaptado às áreas urbanizadas. Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, as alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de 3º estádio, desse mosquito, causadas pelos larvicidas naturais, um diterpeno labdano, extraído de Copaifera reticulata, e uma fração rica em taninos catéquicos, extraída de Magonia pubescens, evidenciando o mecanismo de ação dessas substâncias. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados com larvas de 3º estádio em solução de 0,9ppm, do diterpeno (3-β-acetoxylabdan-8(17-13-dien-15-óico e de 3,7ppm, da fração majoritária de tanino catéquico de massa molecular 864Da. Obtiveram-se as substâncias através de fracionamentos cromatográficos sucessivos, identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. As larvas que atingiram estado letárgico foram coletadas e dissecadas e seus tubos digestórios fixados, desidratados, emblocados e polimerizados. Cortes ultrafinos foram feitos e contrastados com acetato de uranila 3% e citrato de chumbo, posteriormente, levados ao microscópio eletrônico. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações ultraestruturais provocadas pelos diterpeno e tanino sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti foram vacuolização citoplasmática, desorganização e degeneração celular, mudança estrutural dos microvilos e deslocamento das células da lâmina basal. CONCLUSÕES: O diterpeno e a fração rica em taninos catéquicos provocaram a morte das larvas de Aedes aegypti através da destruição celular no intestino médio.

  14. Fruit splitting occurrence of Shogun mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun in southern Thailand and alleviation by calcium and boron sprays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiarawipa, R.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Fruit splitting is a serious problem of Shogun mandarin in southern Thailand. To alleviate this impact, the applications of calcium and boron by spraying were investigated. An experiment was established in a farmer orchard (at Amphur Sadao, Songkhla province where four-year plants were grown at 6 m x 6 m spacing. The experiment was arranged as a completely randomized design, and 16 trees were used. There were 4 treatments (1. control or water spray, 2. 1% CaCl2 spray or C treatment, 3. 0.8% boric acid spray or B treatment and 4. 1% CaCl2+ 0.8% boric acid spray or C+B treatment with 4 replicates. The application was started at 4 months after fruit-setting, the sprays were done at 1 month intervals. It was found that the occurrence of fruit-splitting started at 3 months after fruit-setting, and there were 4 causes of fruit-splitting: 1. scab (28.33%, 2. sun scald (11.11%, 3. sun burn (7.78% and 4. no primary peel damage (52.78%. Various patterns of fruit splitting were found: vertical, horizontal, oblique and informal shape. The treatments of calcium and boron sprays did not affect on fruit growth or fruit size compared with the control, but they significantly enhanced fruit firmness, total soluble solid (TSS and total acidity (TA. The treatments of C, B, and C + B can reduce the percentages of fruit splitting to 5.56, 8.89 and 6.67%, respectively, and they were significantly different from that of the control (52.22%. It is suggested that calcium and boron sprays can alleviate fruit splitting in Shogun mandarin, and fruit quality is also enhanced.

  15. Plant physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Duca, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of plant physiology: plant cell physiology, water regime of plants, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition, plant respiration, plant growth and development, movements in plants, signal perception and transduction etc. It focuses on the fundamental principles of plant physiology and biochemistry from the molecular level to whole plants, on the mechanisms of plant-environment interactions. The book is intended for students (biologists, physiologists, biochemists, biophysicists, ecologists, geneticists), teachers and researchers. Particular emphasis is given to recent research advances made on national and international levels, as well as to personal experimental results of the author that are relevant for a deeper understanding of processes and for practical implementation of gained knowledge. An essential amount of illustrative material (graphics, images, schemes, illustrations) completes the text and supplies additional information in an accessible manner. At the end of each chapter...

  16. Plant toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book comprises a general part on plant biology, the pathway of pollutant accumulation in plants, and the function of plants as pollutant indicators, as well as a specialized section in which pollutants and their effects are classified by origin and type of compound. Finally, indirect damage caused by parasites or radiation effects is gone into. Higher plants and fungi get most of the attention but lichens, mosses and algae are discussed as well. (orig./MG)

  17. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  18. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  19. Antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus reticulata) peel

    OpenAIRE

    Tumbas Vesna T.; Ćetković Gordana S.; Đilas Sonja M.; Čanadanović-Brunet Jasna M.; Vulić Jelena J.; Knez Željko; Škerget Mojca

    2010-01-01

    Mandarin peel, a waste product coming from juice production, was extracted by conventional extraction with 70% acetone. Content of flavonoids in mandarin peel extract (MPE) was determined by HPLC. Hesperidin was the most dominant flavonoid. Free radical scavenging activity of MPE on stable DPPH radicals and reactive hydroxyl radicals was also evaluated. EC50 value determined in spectrophotometrical DPPH radical assay was 0.179 mg/ml, while this value in ESR spin trapping hydroxyl radica...

  20. Antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus reticulata peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumbas Vesna T.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandarin peel, a waste product coming from juice production, was extracted by conventional extraction with 70% acetone. Content of flavonoids in mandarin peel extract (MPE was determined by HPLC. Hesperidin was the most dominant flavonoid. Free radical scavenging activity of MPE on stable DPPH radicals and reactive hydroxyl radicals was also evaluated. EC50 value determined in spectrophotometrical DPPH radical assay was 0.179 mg/ml, while this value in ESR spin trapping hydroxyl radical assay was 0.415 mg/ml. Also, MPE showed protective effects in stabilising sunflower oil during accelerated storage. The results indicated that mandarin peel can be a valuable source of natural antioxidants.

  1. Plant walkdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers the following: preparatory steps for performing plant walk-down; the objective of the first plant walk-down; plant walk-down procedures; earthquake screening evaluation; walk-down documentation; second plant walk-down. The following objectives concerning the plant walk-down(s) were achieved. The plant system configuration is verified in order to proceed with event tree and fault tree analyses. Systems interactions, other types of dependencies or plant unique features are identified. he safety related components that are judged to generically possess high capacities (i.e., larger than the earthquake review level) have been verified to contain no weaknesses. Further analyses needed to establish the capacities of remaining safety-related components are identified and necessary field data are obtained. Information on components is obtained to assist in HCLPF (fragility) evaluation and peer review of the seismic margin study

  2. Screening for estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of plants growing in Egypt and Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M El-Halawany

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a growing demand for the discovery of new phytoestrogens to be used as a safe and effective hormonal replacement therapy. Materials and Methods: The methanol extracts of 40 plants from the Egyptian and Thailand folk medicines were screened for their estrogen agonist and antagonist activities. The estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects of the tested extracts were carried out using the yeast two-hybrid assay system expressing ERα and ERβ. In addition, all the extracts were subjected to a naringinase treatment and retested for their estrogenic activity. Results: The methanol extracts of Derris reticulata and Dracaena lourieri showed the most potent estrogenic activity on both estrogen-receptor subtypes, while, the methanol extracts of Butea monosperma, Erythrina fusca, and Dalbergia candenatensis revealed significant estrogenic activity on ERβ only. Nigella sativa, Sophora japonica, Artabotrys harmandii, and Clitorea hanceana showed estrogenic effect only after naringinase treatment. The most potent antiestrogenic effect was revealed by Aframomum melegueta, Dalbergia candenatensis, Dracena loureiri, and Mansonia gagei.

  3. Poisonous plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T.S., Kellerman.

    Full Text Available South Africa is blessed with one of the richest floras in the world, which-not surprisingly-includes many poisonous plants. Theiler in the founding years believed that plants could be involved in the aetiologies of many of the then unexplained conditions of stock, such as gousiekte and geeldikkop. H [...] is subsequent investigations of plant poisonings largely laid the foundation for the future Sections of Toxicology at the Institute and the Faculty of Veterinary Science (UP). The history of research into plant poisonings over the last 100 years is briefly outlined. Some examples of sustained research on important plant poisonings, such as cardiac glycoside poisoning and gousiekte, are given to illustrate our approach to the subject and the progress that has been made. The collation and transfer of information and the impact of plant poisonings on the livestock industry is discussed and possible avenues of future research are investigated.

  4. Plant Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hideo

    Recently, much attention is paid on the plant factory, as it enable to grow plants stably under extraordinary climate condition such as high and/or low air temperature and less rain. Lots of questions such as decreasing investing cost, realizing stable plant production and developing new growing technique should be solved for making popular this growing system. However, I think that we can introduce a highly developed Japanese industrial now-how to plant factory system and can produce a business chance to the world market.

  5. Plant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are a huge and diverse group of organisms, ranging from microscopic marine phytoplankton to enormous terrestrial trees epitomized by the giant sequoia: 300 feet tall, living 3000 years, and weighing as much as 3000 tons. For this plant issue of "CBE-Life Sciences Education," the author focuses on a botanical topic that most…

  6. Plant ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported in the following areas of research: effects of chromium toxicity on bush bean plants; role of synthetic chelating agents in mineral cycling; use of waste pyrites from mine operations on highly calcareous soil; roots of higher plants as a barrier to translocation of metals; nitrogen cycle in the northern Mohave desert; plant productivity and nutrient interrelationships of perennials; effects of copper, cobalt, cadmium, zinc, nickel, and chromium on growth and mineral concentration in chrysanthemum; plant uptake of 239Pu, 240Pu, and 241Am through roots from soils containing aged fallout materials; estimated inventory of plutonium and uranium radionuclides for vegetation in aged fallout areas; and temperature and water relations and photosynthesis in desert plants

  7. Plant Macrofossils

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past vegetation and environmental change derived from plant remains large enough to be seen without a microscope (macrofossils), such as leaves, needles,...

  8. Plant grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Charles W; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2015-03-01

    Since ancient times, people have cut and joined together plants of different varieties or species so they would grow as a single plant - a process known as grafting (Figures 1 and 2). References to grafting appear in the Bible, ancient Greek and ancient Chinese texts, indicating that grafting was practised in Europe, the Middle East and Asia by at least the 5(th) century BCE. It is unknown where or how grafting was first discovered, but it is likely that natural grafting, the process by which two plants touch and fuse limbs or roots in the absence of human interference (Figure 3), influenced people's thinking. Such natural grafts are generally uncommon, but are seen in certain species, including English ivy. Parasitic plants, such as mistletoe, that grow and feed on often unrelated species may have also contributed to the development of grafting as a technique, as people would have observed mistletoe growing on trees such as apples or poplars. PMID:25734263

  9. Electronic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and d...

  10. Coupling a branch enclosure with differential mobility spectrometry to isolate and measure plant volatiles in contained greenhouse settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Mitchell M; Spitulski, Sierra L; Pasamontes, Alberto; Peirano, Daniel J; Schirle, Michael J; Cumeras, Raquel; Simmons, Jason D; Ware, Jeffrey L; Brown, Joshua F; Poh, Alexandria J Y; Dike, Seth C; Foster, Elizabeth K; Godfrey, Kristine E; Davis, Cristina E

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are off-gassed from all living organisms and represent end products of metabolic pathways within the system. In agricultural systems, these VOCs can provide important information on plant health and can ordinarily be measured non-invasively without harvesting tissue from the plants. Previously we reported a portable gas chromatography/differential mobility spectrometry (GC/DMS) system that could distinguish VOC profiles of pathogen-infected citrus from healthy trees before visual symptoms of disease were present. These measurements were taken directly from canopies in the field, but the sampling and analysis protocol did not readily transfer to a controlled greenhouse study where the ambient background air was saturated with volatiles contained in the facility. In this study, we describe for the first time a branch enclosure uniquely coupled with GC/DMS to isolate and measure plant volatiles. To test our system, we sought to replicate our field experiment within a contained greenhouse and distinguish the VOC profiles of healthy versus citrus infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. We indeed confirm the ability to track infection-related trace biogenic VOCs using our sampling system and method and we now show this difference in Lisbon lemons (Citrus×limon L. Burm. f.), a varietal not previously reported. Furthermore, the system differentiates the volatile profiles of Lisbon lemons from Washington navels [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and also from Tango mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Based on this evidence, we believe this enclosure-GC/DMS system is adaptable to other volatile-based investigations of plant diseases in greenhouses or other contained settings, and this system may be helpful for basic science research studies of infection mechanisms. PMID:26695246

  11. Power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power plant of the present invention can calibrate and clean a feedwater flowmeter. That is, a branched pipeline is disposed between the feedwater flowmeter and an isolation valve. Water passing through the feedwater flowmeter is introduced to the branched pipeline to measure the amount of passing water by a water flow rate measuring container. Further, there is disposed a branched pipe line which is branched from a supplementary water line and connected between the feed water flowmeter and the isolation valve or connected with instrumentation pipelines of the feedwater flowmeter, having an opening/closing valve interposed. With such a constitution, the feedwater flowmeter tending to suffer from aging change as it is present in a high temperature/high pressure portion can be calibrated accurately by a measuring tank. Further, the feedwater flowmeter tending to suffer from aging change can easily be cleaned. In addition, it can be calibrated without removal in a plant shut down state. (I.S.)

  12. Plant biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Fernández, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The first decade of the 21st century has seen an intense debate of the potential contribution of Plant Biotechnology to meeting present and future world demands of food and biomass. The discussion started in 1997 when the first genetically modified (GM) crops were approved by the EPA for commercial production. The debate has been later stimulated by the increasing awareness of the potential effects of global climate change on agricultural production, as the current crops may be poorly adapted...

  13. Dissociation between the panicolytic effect of cannabidiol microinjected into the substantia nigra, pars reticulata, and fear-induced antinociception elicited by bicuculline administration in deep layers of the superior colliculus: The role of CB1-cannabinoid receptor in the ventral mesencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Juliana Almeida; Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; Almada, Rafael Carvalho; de Souza Crippa, José Alexandre; Cecílio Hallak, Jaime Eduardo; Zuardi, Antônio Waldo; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2015-07-01

    Many studies suggest that the substantia nigra, pars reticulata (SNpr), a tegmental mesencephalic structure rich in ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)- and cannabinoid receptor-containing neurons, is involved in the complex control of defensive responses through the neostriatum-nigral disinhibitory and nigro-tectal inhibitory GABAergic pathways during imminently dangerous situations. The aim of the present work was to investigate the role played by CB1-cannabinoid receptor of GABAergic pathways terminal boutons in the SNpr or of SNpr-endocannabinoid receptor-containing interneurons on the effect of intra-nigral microinjections of cannabidiol in the activity of nigro-tectal inhibitory pathways. GABAA receptor blockade in the deep layers of the superior colliculus (dlSC) elicited vigorous defensive behaviour. This explosive escape behaviour was followed by significant antinociception. Cannabidiol microinjection into the SNpr had a clear anti-aversive effect, decreasing the duration of defensive alertness, the frequency and duration of defensive immobility, and the frequency and duration of explosive escape behaviour, expressed by running and jumps, elicited by transitory GABAergic dysfunction in dlSC. However, the innate fear induced-antinociception was not significantly changed. The blockade of CB1 endocannabinoid receptor in the SNpr decreased the anti-aversive effect of canabidiol based on the frequency and duration of defensive immobility, the frequency of escape expressed by running, and both the frequency and duration of escape expressed by jumps. These findings suggest a CB1 mediated endocannabinoid signalling in cannabidiol modulation of panic-like defensive behaviour, but not of innate fear-induced antinociception evoked by GABAA receptor blockade with bicuculline microinjection into the superior colliculus, with a putative activity in nigro-collicular GABAergic pathways. PMID:25841876

  14. Nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear power plant operating with both a thermal and a fast reactor housed in the same containment building is discussed in this invention. The fuel elements are transferred between the two reactors using a charge/discharge machine. As the enrichment of the fuel elements in the thermal reactor falls (and hence also the reactor reactivity), the fuel elements are transferred to the fast reactor to permit re-enrichment of the isotopes which are fissionable by thermal neutrons. The fuel elements are then replaced in the thermal reactor. The advantage of obtaining a higher breeding ratio in the fast reactor by using a gaseous rather than a liquid metal coolant is also discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Evaluation of antioxidant effect of Salacia oblonga against aluminum chloride induced visceral toxicity in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nathiya

    2014-04-01

    Result: The results showed that S. oblonga produced significant (pS. oblonga protects against aluminuminduced oxidative stress, which is an important finding that further reinforces the antioxidant properties of this natural product. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 315-319

  16. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.)

  17. LNG plant combined with power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs

  18. Power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a nuclear power plant which can efficiently take out energy of a reactor core with a simple structure. Namely, primary coolants exchange heat with a heat source. Secondary coolants intrude into heated primary coolants to exchange heat by direct contact with the primary coolants. The secondary coolants are separated from the primary coolants after the heat exchange by the difference of boiling points or the gravitational effect, and convert the heat into a dynamic power. With such procedures, a heat exchange efficiency between the primary coolants and the secondary coolants is increased. Various devices for isolating the primary coolants circuits from the secondary coolants, circuit a gas/liquid separator and the like can be saved. The secondary coolants are jetted out to the primary coolants by means of a coolant driving means. The primary coolants recycle in the primary coolant circuits by a kinetic energy generated by the coolant driving means. Accordingly, pumps for the primary coolants can be eliminated. (I.S.)

  19. Power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a building of a BWR type reactor, the height from the upper end of a mat to the upper end of an operation floor space is up to 57m, the minimum width of the building is up to 55m, the height of the container is up to 32m, the height from the upper end of the mat to an operation floor surface is up to 39m, and the outer diameter of the side wall of the reactor is up to 28m. In addition, the height of a pressure control chamber is up to 20m, the height of an upper dry well is up to 11m, the depth of a spent fuel pool is up to 11m, the depth of a temporary equipment depositing pool is up to 8m, and the height of an operation floor is up to 17m. The side wall of the reactor container and a top slab are made of prestressed concretes. The building is constituted so that a region including the reactor container, operation floor, spent fuel pool, temporary equipment depositing pool and reactor well is separately independent of a region including an equipment operation chamber. Then, the reactor building can be reduced in the size and the construction cost for the plant can be reduced. (N.H.)

  20. Caladium plant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... describes poisoning caused by eating parts of the Caladium plant and other plants belonging to the Araceae ... Caladium and related plants may be purchased as houseplants or used in landscapes. Types include Caladium esculentum ...

  1. The plant microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Thomas R; James, Euan K; Poole, Philip S.

    2013-01-01

    Plant genomes contribute to the structure and function of the plant microbiome, a key determinant of plant health and productivity. High-throughput technologies are revealing interactions between these complex communities and their hosts in unprecedented detail.

  2. Poinsettia plant exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas flower poisoning; Lobster plant poisoning; Painted leaf poisoning ... Leaves, stem, sap of the poinsettia plant ... Eating this plant does not usually result in a trip to the hospital. Rinse the mouth out with water if leaves ...

  3. THE PLANT ONTOLOGY CONSORTIUM AND PLANT ONTOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of the Plant OntologyTM Consortium is to produce structured controlled vocabularies, arranged in ontologies, that can be applied to plant-based database information even as knowledge of the biology of the relevant plant taxa (e.g., development, anatomy, morphology, genomics, proteomics) is ...

  4. Beginning Plant Biotechnology Laboratories Using Fast Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mike

    This set of 16 laboratory activities is designed to illustrate the life cycle of Brassicae plants from seeds in pots to pods in 40 days. At certain points along the production cycle of the central core of labs, there are related lateral labs to provide additional learning opportunities employing this family of plants, referred to as "fast plants,"…

  5. Floating nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of offshore nuclear power plants is reviewed. Topics discussed include plant and site design features, steam supply system design, manufacturing concept, and siting and environmental considerations

  6. Ethylene insensitive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Joseph R. (Carlsbad, CA); Nehring, Ramlah (La Jolla, CA); McGrath, Robert B. (Philadelphia, PA)

    2007-05-22

    Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences are described which relate to an EIN6 gene, a gene involved in the plant ethylene response. Plant transformation vectors and transgenic plants are described which display an altered ethylene-dependent phenotype due to altered expression of EIN6 in transformed plants.

  7. Spanish Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report issued by the Nuclear Safety Conseil analyzes the technical characteristics, nuclear safety and radiation protection of spanish nuclear power plants. The report elaborates on 3 chapters for each nuclear power plant: 1.- Site characteristics. 2.- General description of Nuclear Power Plant. 3.- Nuclear Power plant history

  8. Molecular plant breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yunbi

    2015-01-01

    "Recent advances in plant genomics and molecular biology have revolutionized our understanding of plant genetics, providing new opportunities for more efficient and controllable plant breeding. Modern plant breeding involves development and utilization of various genetic populations, molecular tools, statistical methods, breeding informatics and decision support tools. Successful techniques therefore require a solid understanding of the underlying molecular biology as well as experience in ap...

  9. GCFR plant control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plant control system is being designed for a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) demonstration plant. Control analysis is being performed as an integral part of the plant design process to ensure that control requirements are satisfied as the plant design evolves. The load control portion of the plant control system provides stable automatic (closed-loop) control of the plant over the 25% to 100% load range. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate load control system performance. The results show that the plant is controllable at full load with the control system structure selected, but gain scheduling is required to achieve desired performance over the load range

  10. Catalogue of the Lower Cretaceous fossil plant collection from the Autonomous Region of La Rioja (Spain) held at the Geominero Museum (Spanish Geological Survey); Catalogo de la coleccion de plantas fosiles del Cretacico Inferior de la Comunidad Autonoma de La Rioja (Espana) depositada en el Museo Geominero (Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente, M de la; Gomez, B.

    2008-07-01

    The Collection of Fossil Invertebrate and Flora from Spain constitutes a 76% of the total collections in the Geominero Museum. The fossil plant mega remains form the Lower Cretaceous of La Rioja, included in such collection, have been revised from the bibliographical, museological, systematic and taxonomic points of view, and have shown significant historical and palaeobotanical interests. The 22 specimens come from the localities of Ortigosa de Cameros and Prejano. The samples from Prejano, collected during the production of the Spanish Geological Map of Calahorra in 1947, have an outstanding interest. They allowed giving an accurate age to the lignite in which the fossil plants were found (Lower Cretaceous), after several wrong determinations. The museological study has allowed reorganizing the collections through inventorying, correction of errors and inclusion of new data. In relation to the taxonomic and systematic revision, it has provided a catalogue in which diverse genera and species of ferns (Sphenopteris [Brongniart] Sternberg, 1825; Weichselia reticulata [Stokes and Webb] Fontaine emend. Alvin, 1971) and conifers (Brachyphyllum Brongniart, 1828, Pagiophyllum Heer, 1881, Sphenolepis cf. debile Heer, 1881) have been identified. Moreover, the analysis of the collection from those points of view enabled the detection of specimens that do not belong to it (Pagiophyllum pedreranum Barale, 1989; Montsechia vidalii [Zeiller] Teixeira, 1954). Lower Cretaceous flora collections known from Cameros Basin are rare and fragmentary; as a result, the collection held at the Geominero Museum has additional interest. (Author) 40 refs.

  11. PLANT BIOPRINTING: NOVEL PERSPECTIVE FOR PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhityo WICAKSONO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioprinting is a technical innovation that has revolutionized tissue engineering. Using conventional printer cartridges filled with cells as well as a suitable scaffold, major advances have been made in the biomedical field, and it is now possible to print skin, bones, blood vessels, and even organs. Unlike animal systems, the application of bioprinting in simple plant tissue cells is still in a nascent phase and has yet to be studied. One major advantage of plants is that all living parts are reprogrammable in the form of totipotent cells. Plant bioprinting may improve scientists’understanding of plant shape and morphogenesis, and could serve for the mass production of desired tissues or plants, or even the production of plant-based biomaterial for industrial uses. This perspectives paper explores these possibilities using knowledge on what is known about bioprinting in other biosystems.

  12. Plant Research '75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Research is reported on stomatal regulation of the gas exchanges between plant and environment; inhibitory effects in flower formation; plant growth and development through hormones; hormone action; development and nitrogen fixation in algae; primary cell wall glycoprotein ectensin; enzymic mechanisms and control of polysaccharide and glycoprotein synthesis; molecular studies of membrane studies; sensory transduction in plants; regulation of formation of protein complexes and enzymes in higher plant cell and mechanism of sulfur dioxide toxicity in plants. (PCS)

  13. Nitrogen volatilization form plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kastori Rudolf R.

    2004-01-01

    In plant nitrogen metabolism, a significant role is played not only by the uptake of nitrogen compounds but also by their release into the environment. One of the ways in which plant nitrogen is released is the volatilization of reduced and oxidized nitrogen forms through the above-ground plant organs. During the growing season, depending on plant species, genotype and environmental conditions, plants may release by volatilization a significant portion of their nitrogen uptake and up to 80 kg...

  14. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non-parametric estimates show that domestic MNE plants are more likely to exit the market than other plants, also when controlling for plant-specific differences. Finally, foreign presence in the market seems to have had a negative impact on the survival rate of plants in non-exporting non- MNEs, but not to have affected plants in exporting non-MNEs or plants in domestic MNEs.

  15. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  16. Kansas Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power...

  17. Plant tissue culture techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  18. Nitrogen volatilization form plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastori Rudolf R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In plant nitrogen metabolism, a significant role is played not only by the uptake of nitrogen compounds but also by their release into the environment. One of the ways in which plant nitrogen is released is the volatilization of reduced and oxidized nitrogen forms through the above-ground plant organs. During the growing season, depending on plant species, genotype and environmental conditions, plants may release by volatilization a significant portion of their nitrogen uptake and up to 80 kg of ammonia per hectare. Besides releasing ammonia into the atmosphere, plants also take it up from the atmosphere and thus partially compensate for their ammonia losses by volatilization. These losses can be reduced by plant breeding by developing genotypes with reduced ammonia releases and a more effective reassimilation of the ammonia quantities released. Attempts have been made to reduce the volatilization of nitrogen compounds from the above-ground plant parts by applying physiologically active substances.

  19. Plant centromere compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach; Jennifer M. (Chicago, IL), Zieler; Helge (Del Mar, CA), Jin; RongGuan (Chesterfield, MO), Keith; Kevin (Three Forks, MT), Copenhaver; Gregory P. (Chapel Hill, NC), Preuss; Daphne (Chicago, IL)

    2011-11-22

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  20. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  1. Plant abiotic stress signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Akpinar, B. Ani; Avsar, Bihter; Stuart J. Lucas; Budak, Hikmet

    2012-01-01

    Stress signaling is central to plants which—as immobile organisms—have to endure environmental fluctuations that constantly interfere with vigorous growth. As a result, plant-specific, elaborate mechanisms have evolved to perceive and respond to stress conditions. Currently, these stress responses are plausibly being revealed to involve crosstalks with energy signaling pathways as any growth-limiting factor alters plant’s energy status. Among these, autophagy, conventionally regarded as the m...

  2. Evolution of plant breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Arnel R. Hallauer

    2011-01-01

    Plant breeding is considered one of the longest ongoing activities undertaken by humans, who select plantsmore productive and useful to themselves and the animals for at least 10,000 years ago. The evolution of civilizationsparalleled the success of plant breeding, although this has not been recognized by the public. The reason may be lack ofunderstanding of what plant breeding encompasses. The concept of plant breeding evolved, depending on the time it wasformulated, but without losing the e...

  3. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.; Ambus, Per

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...... the line under the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  4. Plant antimicrobial peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Nawrot, Robert; Barylski, Jakub; Nowicki, Grzegorz; Broniarczyk, Justyna; Buchwald, Waldemar; Go?dzicka-Józefiak, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a component of barrier defense system of plants. They have been isolated from roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves of a wide variety of species and have activities towards phytopathogens, as well as against bacteria pathogenic to humans. Thus, plant AMPs are considered as promising antibiotic compounds with important biotechnological applications. Plant AMPs are grouped into several families and share general features such as positive charge, the pr...

  5. Classification of cultivated plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenburg., W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Agricultural practice demands principles for classification, starting from the basal entity in cultivated plants: the cultivar. In establishing biosystematic relationships between wild, weedy and cultivated plants, the species concept needs re-examination. Combining of botanic classification, based on biosystematic research, and agricultural classification starting from the cultivar, into one unequivocal classification system for cultivated plants, is urgently needed. This is illustrated by t...

  6. Plant Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynildson, Inga

    Appropriate for secondary school botany instruction, this study guide focuses on the important roles of plants in human lives. Following a rationale for learning the basic skills of a botanist, separate sections discuss the process sunlight undergoes during photosynthesis, the flow of energy in the food chain, alternative plant lifestyles, plant…

  7. Plant ozone injury symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouchi, I.; Odaira, T.; Sawada, T.; Oguchi, K.; Komeiji, T.

    1973-01-01

    A study of the phytotoxicity of ozone to plants was conducted in controlled-atmosphere greenhouses to determine if the symptoms of such exposure would be similar to symptoms exhibited by plants exposed to photochemical smog (which contains ozone) in the Tokyo area. Test plants used were herbaceous plants and woody plants, which were fumigated to 20 pphm ozone. Plants used as controls for the oxone exposure experiments were placed in a carbon filtered greenhouse. Herbaceous plants were generally sensitive to injury, especially Brassica rapa, Brassica pekinensis and others were extremely responsive species. In comparison with herbaceous plants, woody plants were rather resistant except for poplar. Depending on plant species and severity of injury, ozone-injury symptoms of herbaceous plants were bleaching, chlorosis, necrosis, and red-dish-brown flecks. Leaves of woody plants developed discrete, punctate spots, reddish-brown pigment on the upper surfaces and lastly defoliation. Ozone injury was typically confined to the upper leaf surfaces and notably greater mature leaves. Microscopic examination showed that pallisade cells were much more prone to ozone injury than other tissues.

  8. TRANSGENIC PLANT CONTAINMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new technology using plant genetics to produce chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and therapeuitics in a wide array of new plant forms requires sufficient testing to ensure that these new plant introductions are benign in the environment. A recent effort to provide necessary guidan...

  9. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  10. Fruit growth of Minneola tangelo (Citrus paradisi x C. reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Esterhuizen

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of gibberellic acid (GA₃ on the fruit growth pattern of the Minneola tungelo was investigated. The growth pattern follows a S-curve, similar to other citrus cultivars but the growth rate differs. GA₃, applied at low concentrations caused a slightly slower fruit growth rate compared to controls, resulting in smaller fruit. In the case of GA₃ , applied at 15ppm, fruit numbers exceeded those of the control. GA₃ treatment of fruit resulted in a slight decrease in average seed con­tent. GA₃, had no significant effect on juice quality.

  11. Cryptosporidium muris in a Reticulated Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodádková, A.; Kvá?, M.; Ditrich, Oleg; Sak, Bohumil; Xiao, L.

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 96, ?. 1 (2010), s. 211-212. ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA524/05/0992; GA ?R GP523/07/P117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cryptosporidium muris * Reticulated giraffe * natural infection Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2010

  12. Next Generation Population Genomics in the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    OpenAIRE

    Willing, Eva-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Population genetic studies estimate allele frequency distributions and the change of these frequencies over time in order to infer the demographic history of natural populations. Such studies aim to explain how adaptation and speciation have occurred. Until recently, inferences in non-reference taxa have been based on very few loci due to the high cost of developing a large set of markers de-novo. Only in established model organisms with a known reference genome was it possible to study genom...

  13. Fruit growth of Minneola tangelo (Citrus paradisi x C. reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Esterhuizen

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of gibberellic acid (GA? on the fruit growth pattern of the Minneola tungelo was investigated. The growth pattern follows a S-curve, similar to other citrus cultivars but the growth rate differs. GA?, applied at low concentrations caused a slightly slower fruit growth rate compared to controls, resulting in smaller fruit. In the case of GA? , applied at 15ppm, fruit numbers exceeded those of the control. GA? treatment of fruit resulted in a slight decrease in average seed con­tent. GA?, had no significant effect on juice quality.

  14. Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this brochure the Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina, (VED), subsidiary of the utility Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, plc. Bratislava) are presented. VED is mainly aimed at generating peak-load electrical energy and maintenance of operational equipment. Reaching its goals, company is first of all focused on reliability of production, economy and effectiveness, keeping principles of work safety and industry safety standards and also ecology. VED operates eight hydroelectric power plants, from which PVE Ruzin I and PVE Dobsina I are pump storage ones and they are controlled directly by the Slovak Energy Dispatch Centre located in Zilina thought the system LS 3200. Those power plants participate in secondary regulation of electrical network of Slovakia. They are used to compensate balance in reference to foreign electrical networks and they are put into operation independently from VED. Activity of the branch is focused mainly on support of fulfilment of such an important aim as electric network regulation. Beginnings of the subsidiary Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina are related to the year of 1948. After commissioning of the pump storage Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina in 1953, the plant started to carry out its mission. Since that time the subsidiary has been enlarged by other seven power plants, through which it is fulfilling its missions nowadays. The characteristics of these hydroelectric power plants (The pump-storage power plant Dobsina, Small hydroelectric power plant Dobsina II, Small hydroelectric power plant Rakovec, Small hydroelectric power plant Svedlar, Hydroelectric power plant Domasa, The pump-storage power plant Ruzin, and Small hydroelectric power plant Krompachy) are described in detail. Employees welfare and public relations are presented

  15. Outsourcing meets expanded plant`s requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, W.E. [Ecolochem Inc., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    This article describes a system provided and operated by outside contractor that converts treated sewage water to high-purity makeup for expanded gas-turbine plant with minimal environmental impact. Florida Power Corp. (FPC), St. Petersburg, Fla., faced various challenges when planning to expand the Intercession City gas-turbine plant located near Kissimmee, Fla. One challenge was dealing with water for NO{sub x} emissions reduction supplied from the Kissimmee sanitary sewage treatment plant. Another was to minimize or eliminate wastewater generated by chemical cleaning of the reverse-osmosis (RO) system envisioned for the plant. Because of the substantial capital investment needed to meet these challenges, FPC outsourced the design, construction, and operation of the water treatment system to Ecolochem Inc., Norfolk, VA. After three years of operation, the system is meeting all design requirements and is saving the utility about $250,000/yr.

  16. Quantitative plant proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschedler, Laurence V; Cramer, Rainer

    2011-02-01

    Quantitation is an inherent requirement in comparative proteomics and there is no exception to this for plant proteomics. Quantitative proteomics has high demands on the experimental workflow, requiring a thorough design and often a complex multi-step structure. It has to include sufficient numbers of biological and technical replicates and methods that are able to facilitate a quantitative signal read-out. Quantitative plant proteomics in particular poses many additional challenges but because of the nature of plants it also offers some potential advantages. In general, analysis of plants has been less prominent in proteomics. Low protein concentration, difficulties in protein extraction, genome multiploidy, high Rubisco abundance in green tissue, and an absence of well-annotated and completed genome sequences are some of the main challenges in plant proteomics. However, the latter is now changing with several genomes emerging for model plants and crops such as potato, tomato, soybean, rice, maize and barley. This review discusses the current status in quantitative plant proteomics (MS-based and non-MS-based) and its challenges and potentials. Both relative and absolute quantitation methods in plant proteomics from DIGE to MS-based analysis after isotope labeling and label-free quantitation are described and illustrated by published studies. In particular, we describe plant-specific quantitative methods such as metabolic labeling methods that can take full advantage of plant metabolism and culture practices, and discuss other potential advantages and challenges that may arise from the unique properties of plants. PMID:21246733

  17. Plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant life assessment and extension studies have been performed by numerous companies all over the world. Critical equipment has been identified as well as various degradation mechanisms involved in the plant aging process. Nowadays one has to think what to implement to improve the existing situation in the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). FRAMATOME has undertaken this thought process in order to find the right answers and bring them to utilities facing either critical concern for plant life extension or the problem of management of power plant potential longevity. This is why we prepared a Plant Life Improvement Action Plan, comprising 10 (ten) major items described hereafter using examples of work performed by FRAMATOME for its utility customers desiring to manage the lives of their plants, both in France with EDF and abroad

  18. Irradiation Plant Economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world's first gamma irradiation plant designed specifically for the sterilization of catgut became operational early in 1963, after loading with 40 000 curies of Co60. The plant is operated by Ethicon Ltd. in Edinburgh and was designed and built by Nuclear Chemical Plant Ltd., a licensee of the UKAEA. The plant capacity has been determined using 'Perspex' dosimeters with target material of constant density. The information so obtained has been used to determine cost data for the irradiation treatment of materials over a wide range of densities for plant of similar design. Cost data have been evaluated for plant where the number of passes ate increased from four to eight or twelve. Such units are particularly suited to low target density materials where the throughput is high. Details of plant designs and costs are given so that operating cost data can be evaluated for other conditions than those in this paper. (author)

  19. Safe genetically engineered plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.

    2007-10-01

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  20. Safe genetically engineered plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work

  1. [Intoxications with plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Jacqueline; Reichert, Cornelia

    2009-05-01

    Ingestions of plants rarely lead to life-threatening intoxications. Highly toxic plants, which can cause death, are monkshood (Aconitum sp.), yew (Taxus sp.) and autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale). Lethal ingestions of monkshood and yew are usually suicides, intoxications with autumn crocus are mostly accidental ingestions of the leaves mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Severe intoxications can occur with plants of the nightshade family like deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), angel's trumpet (Datura suaveolens) or jimsonweed (Datura stramonium). These plants are ingested for their psychoactive effects. Ingestion of plant material by children most often only causes minor symptoms or no symptoms at all, as children usually do not eat great quantities of the plants. They are especially attracted by the colorful berries. There are plants with mostly cardiovascular effects like monkshood, yew and Digitalis sp. Some of the most dangerous plants belong to this group. Plants of the nightshade family cause an anticholinergic syndrome. With golden chain (Laburnum anagyroides), castor bean (Ricinus communis) and raw beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) we see severe gastrointestinal effects. Autumn crocus contains a cell toxin, colchicine, which leads to multiorgan failure. Different plants are irritative or even caustic to the skin. Treatment is usually symptomatic. Activated charcoal is administered within one hour after ingestion (1 g/kg). Endoscopic removal of plant material can be considered with ingestions of great quantities of highly toxic plants. Administration of repeated doses of charcoal (1-2 g/h every 2-4 hours) may be effective in case of oleander poisoning. There exist only two antidotes: Anti-digoxin Fab fragments can be used with cardenolide glycoside-containing plants (Digitalis sp., Oleander). Physostigmine is the antidote for severe anticholinergic symptoms of the CNS. Antibodies against colchicine, having been developed in France, are not available at the moment. PMID:19401984

  2. Plant diagnosis device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a nuclear plant diagnosis device, there are prepared a mathematical model (single mathematical model) on every block put between measuring points of a plant and a combined mathematical model comprising blocks in adjacent with each other as one mathematical model. Measured values corresponding to each of the mathematical models are inputted, and estimated values on the output side obtained from the models and actually measured values on the output side are compared successively. The abnormalities of the plant are judged separately as to whether they are physical abnormalities or abnormalities in measuring system based on the pattern (combination) of the results of comparison. Since abnormalities in the measuring system and abnormalities in the plant physical system can be separately judged by the diagnosis of the data during plant operation, restoration treatment upon occurrence of an abnormality can be cope with rapidly. In addition, information for determining the capability of the operation of the plant can be provided. (N.H.)

  3. Desert Plant: Mimosa hamata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakuleshwar Dut Jasuja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant derived medicinal products have been used for centuries in every culture throughout the world. Mimosa hamata possesses a vast ethnomedicinal history of heuristic medical value. Ethnomedicinal use of Mimosa hamata has been known since time immemorial and this plant were used to cure diseases and to maintain good health. M. hamata whole plant are used in traditional systems of medicine for treating various diseases. M. hamata exhibited higher antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities. Some bioactive constituents of this plant were thoroughly reviewed and discussed based on literatures. M. hamata has been claimed as folk medicinal plant but little is known about the phytochemicals and pharmacognostical information. There is a need to review this plant in order to provide scientific information for its application in traditonal and biological medicinal system.

  4. Plants as air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinette, G.

    1968-01-01

    Plants function primarily to purify air by absorbing harmful excess carbon dioxide and by giving off oxygen vital to man's survival. Without vegetation - and animals - the life-cycle on earth would be broken. Actually, there are other ways in which plants condition air. Plants control temperature, air flow, and moisture content. Their efficiency in these aspects may be demonstrated in a discussion of climate control with plants. For the purpose of this discussion, however, attention is focused on air conditioning as an engineering function of plant materials. This involves primarily contaminant collection and control. Plants do remove from the air impurities such as air-borne dirt and sand, fly ash, dust, pollen, smoke, odors and fumes. The ways in which they do this are discussed. These methods are: (1) dilution, (2) precipitation or filtration, (3) narcosis, (4) oxidation, (5) air washing, (6) reodorization or masking.

  5. Conditional sterility in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B. (Athens, GA); McKinney, Elizabeth (Athens, GA); Kim, Tehryung (Taejeon, KR)

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  6. Annual Plant Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , three dimensional structures and functions of each protein in a biological system. In plant science, the number of proteome studies is rapidly expanding after the completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence, and proteome analyses of other important or emerging model systems and crop plants...... are in progress or are being initiated. Proteome analysis in plants is subject to the same obstacles and limitations as in other organisms, but the nature of plant tissues, with their rigid cell walls and complex variety of secondary metabolites, means that extra challenges are involved that may not...... be faced when analysing other organisms. This volume aims to highlight the ways in which proteome analysis has been used to probe the complexities of plant biochemistry and physiology. It is aimed at researchers in plant biochemistry, genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics who wish to gain an up...

  7. Chubu pilot plant test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron beam plant for the gas purification has been in operation since November 1992. Currently testing on various flue gas conditions are being conducted. The 94% SO2 and 80% NOx removal efficiency has already been achieved. The plant is operating smoothly. Optimization of the by-product collector, assuring long life of the electron beam window foil, facility control and various tests for practicability of the plant will be conduced. 5 figs, 2 tabs

  8. ANTIMICROBIAL CONSTITUENTS FROM PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    G.Murgananthan; Sathya Chethan Pabbithi

    2012-01-01

    Research on medicinal plants showed promising constituents for effective treatment and management of various illnesses. Microbes are commonly found everywhere which causes many diseases to the man kind. Antibiotics available in the markets are often reported of microbial resistance. Scientist realized that the effective life span of any Antibiotic is limited hence new sources from plants need be investigated. A multitude of plant compounds as always promised as a Antimicrobial agents. In this...

  9. Enterprise Hydropower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brochure describes the Enterprise Hydropower plants of the joint stock company Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE-VE). This Enterprise consists of 34 hydroelectric power plants with total installed electric power 2.399 GW and with mean annual production 4.786 TWh of electric power. Technical data in detail of SE-VE and plans for construction of new hydropower plants as well as influence of use of hydro-energetic potential on the environment are presented

  10. Design of chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes design of chemical plant, which includes chemical engineer and plan for chemical plant, development of chemical process, cost engineering pattern, design and process development, general plant construction plan, project engineering, foundation for economy on assets and depreciation, estimation for cost on capital investment and manufacturing cost, design with computers optimal design and method like fluid mechanics design chemical device and estimation for cost, such as dispatch of material and device writing on design report and appendixes.

  11. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.; Ambus, Per

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature, ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species. Further, we analyze rates of measured emission of aerobically produced CH4 in pectin and in plant tissues from different studies and argue that pectin is ve...

  12. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on othe...

  13. TBX plant study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, H.G.

    1954-09-16

    A new separations plant using a Purex type flow sheet has been proposed for the 200-West area. The proposed plant, which has been named TBX, would replace the two bismuth phosphate type plants, but it would use existing 200-T and 200-U area facilities. Substantial savings in operating costs, a potential capacity increase for the 200-Areas, and a reduction in plutonium losses are incentives for making the change.

  14. Phyllotactic patterns on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Patrick D; Newell, Alan C

    2004-04-23

    We demonstrate how phyllotaxis (the arrangement of leaves on plants) and the deformation configurations seen on plant surfaces may be understood as the energy-minimizing buckling pattern of a compressed shell (the plant's tunica) on an elastic foundation. The key new idea is that the strain energy is minimized by configurations consisting of special triads of almost periodic deformations. We reproduce a wide spectrum of plant patterns, all with the divergence angles observed in nature, and show how the occurrences of Fibonacci-like sequences and the golden angle are natural consequences. PMID:15169264

  15. Phyllotactic Patterns on Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Patrick D.; Newell, Alan C.

    2004-04-01

    We demonstrate how phyllotaxis (the arrangement of leaves on plants) and the deformation configurations seen on plant surfaces may be understood as the energy-minimizing buckling pattern of a compressed shell (the plant's tunica) on an elastic foundation. The key new idea is that the strain energy is minimized by configurations consisting of special triads of almost periodic deformations. We reproduce a wide spectrum of plant patterns, all with the divergence angles observed in nature, and show how the occurrences of Fibonacci-like sequences and the golden angle are natural consequences.

  16. Floating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the floating nuclear power plant concept is presented. Topics discussed include characteristics, advantages, safety considerations, siting alternatives, the site design envelope, and site selection

  17. Recombinant Cytokines from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Redkiewicz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based platforms have been successfully applied for the last two decades for the efficient production of pharmaceutical proteins. The number of commercialized products biomanufactured in plants is, however, rather discouraging. Cytokines are small glycosylated polypeptides used in the treatment of cancer, immune disorders and various other related diseases. Because the clinical use of cytokines is limited by high production costs they are good candidates for plant-made pharmaceuticals. Several research groups explored the possibilities of cost-effective production of animal cytokines in plant systems. This review summarizes recent advances in this field.

  18. Plant monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device of the present invention gives optimum information to operators with simple procedures in accordance with aspects and the states of operation in a nuclear power plant or a chemical plant. That is, pattern matching, etc. are deduced by a plant status judging device based on on-line data for process amount collected by a process input/output device and previously contained status judging intelligence data. Then, the plant status is judged to determine a priority and the states of the plant are collected and integrated in the order of important information of higher superiority. Further, the on-line data described above are arranged and edited by a display driving information providing device based on the result of the judgment in the plant status judging device. The plant information judged to have a high priority and to be important in the plant status judging device is displayed on a display device. With such procedures, complicated and various monitorings and operations of the process plant can be conducted without requiring skills. (I.S.)

  19. MBS Native Plant Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  20. Towards plant wires

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems.

  1. The Kuroshio power plant

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Falin

    2013-01-01

    By outlining a new design or the Kuroshio power plant, new approaches to turbine design, anchorage system planning, deep sea marine engineering and power plant operations and maintenance are explored and suggested. The impact on the local environment, particularly in the face of natural disasters, is also considered to provide a well rounded introduction to plan and build a 30MW pilot power plant. Following a literature review, the six chapters of this book propose a conceptual design by focusing on the plant's core technologies and establish the separate analysis logics for turbine design and

  2. Plant Transporter Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo

    Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a critical role for numerous biological processes, by controlling the movements of ions and molecules in and out of cells. In plants, transporters thus function as gatekeepers between the plant and its surrounding environment and between organs......, tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast majority of predicted transporters have not yet been experimentally verified to have transport...... activity. This project contains a review of the implemented methods, which have led to plant transporter identification, and present our progress on creating a high-throughput functional genomics transporter identification platform....

  3. Offshore atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various merits of offshore atomic power plants are illustrated, and their systems are assessed. The planning of the offshore atomic power plants in USA is reviewed, and the construction costs of the offshore plant in Japan were estimated. Air pollution problem may be solved by the offshore atomic power plants remarkably. Deep water at low temperature may be advantageously used as cooling water for condensers. Marine resources may be bred by building artificial habitats and by providing spring-up equipments. In the case of floating plants, the plant design can be standardized so that the construction costs may be reduced. The offshore plants can be classified into three systems, namely artificial island system, floating system and sea bottom-based system. The island system may be realized with the present level of civil engineering, but requires the development of technology for the resistance of base against earthquake and its calculation means. The floating system may be constructed with conventional power plant engineering and shipbuilding engineering, but the aseismatic stability of breakwater may be a problem to be solved. Deep water floating system and deep water submerging system are conceivable, but its realization may be difficult. The sea bottom-based system with large caissons can be realized by the present civil engineering, but the construction of the caissons, stability against earthquake and resistance to waves may be problems to be solved. The technical prediction and assessment of new plant sites for nuclear power plants have been reported by Science and Technology Agency in 1974. The construction costs of an offshore plant has been estimated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry to be yen71,026/kW as of 1985. (Iwakiri, K.)

  4. Plant integrity: an important factor in plant-pathogen interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlowska, Elzbieta Zofia; Llorente, Briardo

    2013-01-01

    The effect of plant integrity and of aboveground-belowground defense signaling on plant resistance against pathogens and herbivores is emerging as a subject of scientific research. There is increasing evidence that plant defense responses to pathogen infection differ between whole intact plants and detached leaves. Studies have revealed the importance of aboveground-belowground defense signaling for plant defenses against herbivores, while our studies have uncovered that the roots as well as the plant integrity are important for the resistance of the potato cultivar Sarpo Mira against the hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Furthermore, in the Sarpo Mira–P. infestans interactions, the plant’s meristems, the stalks or both, seem to be associated with the development of the hypersensitive response and both the plant’s roots and shoots contain antimicrobial compounds when the aerial parts of the plants are infected. Here, we present a short overview of the evidence indicating the importance of plant integrity on plant defense responses

  5. Plants Bioassays: Comet Assay on Higher Plants.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mukherjee, A.; Gichner, Tomáš

    Houston : Studium Press, 2009 - (Sampietro, D.; Narwal, S.), s. 97-108 ISBN 1-933699-42-6 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA521/05/0500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Comet assay * DNA damage * Plants Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  6. Plant pathogen resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jean T.; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2015-10-20

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  7. Plant Light Measurement & Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    1991-01-01

    The differences between measuring light intensity for the human eye and for plant photosynthesis are discussed. Conversion factors needed to convert various units of light are provided. Photosynthetic efficiency and the electricity costs for plants to undergo photosynthesis using interior lighting are described. (KR)

  8. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...

  9. Floating nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first floating nuclear power plant has been set up in Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation) on may 2009. The exploitation of this floating power plant will be the last step of the plan. The first running will be carried out after a test planned on the fourth quarter of the year 2012. (O.M.)

  10. Plant redox proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrot, Nicolas; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Hägglund, Per

    2011-01-01

    . To get a comprehensive overview of these types of redox-regulated pathways there is therefore an emerging interest to monitor changes in redox PTMs on a proteome scale. Compared to some other PTMs, e.g. protein phosphorylation, redox PTMs have received less attention in plant proteome analysis...... area of plant redox proteomics....

  11. Solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  12. Better Plants Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program is a voluntary partnership initiative to drive significant energy efficiency improvement across energy intensive companies and organizations. 157 leading manufacturers and public water and wastewater treatment utilities are partnering with DOE through Better Plants to improve energy efficiency, slash carbon emissions, and cut energy costs.

  13. Potassium (K+) in plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Dreyer, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Potassium (K+) is the most abundant inorganic cation in plant cells. This is an editorial for a compendium prepared by 34 authors that provides a stock-check of the current knowledge in the field and provides a first step toward a holistic view on ?Potassium (K+) in Plants?.

  14. Overview of plant pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids and betalains are four major classes of biological pigments produced in plants. Chlorophylls are the primary pigments responsible for plant green and photosynthesis. The other three are accessary pigments and secondary metabolites that yield non-green colors and...

  15. Plant pathogen resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Jean T.; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2015-10-20

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  16. Power plant chemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

  17. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, James P; Wang, Shujing; Wong, Ka H; Tan, Wei Liang

    2015-01-01

    Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic), lipid transfer proteins, ?-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms. PMID:26580629

  18. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Tam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic, lipid transfer proteins, ?-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms.

  19. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  20. Thermal power plant instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhande, A.P.

    1982-12-01

    With increasing progress in the Indian power industry, the plants are becoming more complex. The Maharashtra State Electricity Board alone has initiated a program of installing 14 units of 210 Mw sets. As the size and complexity of plants continued to increase, the dependence on instrumentation increased, giving rise to developments in electronics that have revolutionized the field of instrumentation.

  1. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Weston, David

    2015-08-11

    The present invention is directed to the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain GM30 deposited under ATCC Accession No. PTA-13340, compositions containing the GM30 strain, and methods of using the GM30 strain to enhance plant growth and/or enhance plant resistance to pathogens.

  2. PlantEye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Helle Kjærsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Katrine Kjær explanes how PlantEye is uesd in her work at Institute of Food Science at Aarhus University.......Katrine Kjær explanes how PlantEye is uesd in her work at Institute of Food Science at Aarhus University....

  3. Modulating lignin in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  4. Rocky Flats plant overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, D.E. [EG and G Rocky Flats, Golden, CO (United States)

    1990-11-01

    This paper reports on the robotics applications at the Rocky Flats Plant. The topics discussed include current plant activities in resumption of plutonium operations, pondcrete, and federal facilities compliance agreement, automated storage and retrieval system, pneumatic sample transfer system, bag-out robot, participation in the national robotics technology development program. This report consists of overheads only.

  5. Plant proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaxiola, Roberto A.; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Schumacher, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Chemiosmotic circuits of plant cells are driven by proton (H+) gradients that mediate secondary active transport of compounds across plasma and endosomal membranes. Furthermore, regulation of endosomal acidification is critical for endocytic and secretory pathways. For plants to react to their...

  6. Evolution & Diversity in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Lorentz C.

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes recent findings that help in understanding how evolution has brought about the diversity of plant life that presently exists. Discusses basic concepts of evolution, diversity and classification, the three-line hypothesis of plant evolution, the origin of fungi, and the geologic time table. Included are 31 references. (CW)

  7. Plant tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant tissue culture refers to growing and multiplication of cells, tissues and organs of plants on defined solid or liquid media under aseptic and controlled environment. The commercial technology is primarily based on micropropagation, in which rapid proliferation is achieved from tiny stem cuttings, axillary buds, and to a limited extent from somatic embryos, cell clumps in suspension cultures and bioreactors. The cultured cells and tissue can take several pathways. The pathways that lead to the production of true-to-type plants in large numbers are the preferred ones for commercial multiplication. The process of micropropagation is usually divided into several stages i.e., pre-propagation, initiation of explants, subculture of explants for proliferation, shooting and rooting, and hardening. These stages are universally applicable in large-scale multiplication of plants. The delivery of hardened small micropropagated plants to growers and market also requires extra care. (author)

  8. Plant operation aid device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention automatically diagnoses a plant state to aid the plant operation, automatically diagnoses integrity of each of measuring devices containing sensors and also diagnoses a system having a chaotic behavior. Namely, an input processing section receives signals as an input from plant equipments and outputs observation signals. A characteristic memory section memorizes equipment models quantitatively simulating static characteristics of plant constitutional equipments. A state estimation section estimates a process state of the plant based on the observation signals using equipment models. The estimated process state is compared with the observation signals to judge the extent of normality of the observation signals using a fuzzy theory. The observation signals and the result of the judgement are displayed. An operator can recognize the reliability of the observation values, that is, integrity of gauges by numerical information, thereby enabling to judge the essential qualities of an abnormal event. (I.S.)

  9. Kruemmel nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This short description of the site and the nuclear power plant with information on the presumable effects on the environment and the general public is to provide some data material to the population in a popular form so that the citizens may in form themselves about the plant. In this description which shall be presented to the safety report, the site, the technical design and the operation mode of the nuclear power plant are described. Some problems of the emission and the effects of radioactive materials as well as other issues related to the plant which are of interest to the public are dealt with. The supposed accidents and their handling are discussed. The description shows that the selected site is suitable for both setting-up and operation of the plant without affecting the safety of the people living there and that in admissible burdens of the environment shall not have to be expected. (orig./HP)

  10. Automatic micropropagation of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Clemens; Schwanke, Joerg; Jensch, Peter F.

    1996-12-01

    Micropropagation is a sophisticated technique for the rapid multiplication of plants. It has a great commercial potential due to the speed of propagation, the high plant quality, and the ability to produce disease-free plants. However, micropropagation is usually done by hand which makes the process cost-intensive and tedious for the workers especially because it requires a sterile work-place. Therefore, we have developed a prototype automation system for the micropropagation of a grass species (miscanthus sinensis gigantheus). The objective of this paper is to describe the robotic system in an overview and to discuss the vision system more closely including the implemented morphological operations recognizing the cutting and gripping points of miscanthus plants. Fuzzy controllers are used to adapt the parameters of image operations on-line to each individual plant. Finally, we discuss our experiences with the developed prototype an give a preview of a possible real production line system.

  11. K Water Plant improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, R.E.; Heacock, H.W.; Reinig, L.P.; Jones, S.S.; Mollerus, F.J.

    1959-03-19

    A Task Force was established in the Irradiation Processing Department to examine the K-Reactor Water Plant to (1) review the operating and maintenance experience with the water plant as improved since startup, (2) identify major plant additions which could further improve reliability, and (3) estimate the costs of any such additions. The K-Water Plant basically consists of the electrically driven primary cooling system with power supplied by the BPA system, electrically driven secondary or backup cooling system powered by a steam driven emergency generator pair, and a ``last ditch`` system consisting of hydraulic cross-ties between the two K-Water Plants. This report summarizes information developed in the course of the Task Force deliberations.

  12. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim was to show the agricultural advantages of farmers being in connection with Communal Biogas Plant. Whether a more environmentally protectire distribution of plant nutrients from animal manure takes place through a biogas plants distribution system, whether the nitrogen in the digested slurry is better utilized and whether the connection results in slurry transportation-time reduction, are discussed. The average amount of nitrogen from animal manure used per hectare was reduced. The area of manure distribution was larger. The nitrogen efficiency was increased when using digested slurry and purchase of N mineral fertilizer decreased, resulting in considerable reduction in nitrogen leaching. The amount of slurry delivered to the local storage tanks was approximately 45 per cent of the total amount treated on the biogas plant. Conditions of manure transport improved greatly as this was now the responsibility of the communal biomass conversion plant administrators. (AB) (24 refs.)

  13. Aquaporins in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurel, Christophe; Boursiac, Yann; Luu, Doan-Trung; Santoni, Véronique; Shahzad, Zaigham; Verdoucq, Lionel

    2015-10-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels that facilitate the transport of water and small neutral molecules across biological membranes of most living organisms. In plants, aquaporins occur as multiple isoforms reflecting a high diversity of cellular localizations, transport selectivity, and regulation properties. Plant aquaporins are localized in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles, plastids and, in some species, in membrane compartments interacting with symbiotic organisms. Plant aquaporins can transport various physiological substrates in addition to water. Of particular relevance for plants is the transport of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and ammonia or metalloids such as boron and silicon. Structure-function studies are developed to address the molecular and cellular mechanisms of plant aquaporin gating and subcellular trafficking. Phosphorylation plays a central role in these two processes. These mechanisms allow aquaporin regulation in response to signaling intermediates such as cytosolic pH and calcium, and reactive oxygen species. Combined genetic and physiological approaches are now integrating this knowledge, showing that aquaporins play key roles in hydraulic regulation in roots and leaves, during drought but also in response to stimuli as diverse as flooding, nutrient availability, temperature, or light. A general hydraulic control of plant tissue expansion by aquaporins is emerging, and their role in key developmental processes (seed germination, emergence of lateral roots) has been established. Plants with genetically altered aquaporin functions are now tested for their ability to improve plant tolerance to stresses. In conclusion, research on aquaporins delineates ever expanding fields in plant integrative biology thereby establishing their crucial role in plants. PMID:26336033

  14. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-15

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate report.

  15. Mycoplasma infections of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, J M

    1981-07-01

    Plants can be infected by two types of wall-less procaryotes, spiroplasmas and mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO), both located intracellularly in the phloem tissues of affected plants. Spiroplasmas have been cultured, characterized and shown to be true members of the class Mollicutes. MLO have not yet been cultured or characterized; they are thought to be mycoplasma-like on the basis of their ultrastructure as seen in situ, their sensitivity to tetracycline and resistance to penicillin. Mycoplasmas can also be found on the surface of plants. These extracellularly located organisms are members of the following genera: Spiroplasma. Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma. The presence of such surface mycoplasmas must not be overlooked when attempts to culture MLO from affected plants are undertaken. Sensitive serological techniques such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can successfully be used to compare the MLO located in the phloem of affected plants with those eventually cultured from the same plants. In California and Morocco periwinkles naturally infected with both Spiroplasma citri and MLO have been reported. With such doubly infected plants, the symptom expression has been that characteristic of the MLO disease (phyllody or stolbur), not that given by S. citri. Only S. citri can be cultured from such plants, but this does not indicate that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease expressed by the plant. In California many nonrutaceous plants have been found to be infected with S. citri. Stubborn affected citrus trees represent an important reservoir of S. citri, and Circulifer tenellus is an active leafhopper vector of S. citri. Hence, it is not surprising that in California MLO-infected fruit trees could also become infected with S. citri but it would not mean that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease. Criteria are discussed that are helpful in distinguishing between MLO infections and S. citri infections. PMID:7287398

  16. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate report

  17. The Development of Plant Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, John G.

    1985-01-01

    Examines major lines of thought leading to what is meant by plant biotechnology, namely, the application of existing techniques of plant organ, tissue, and cell culture, plant molecular biology, and genetic engineering to the improvement of plants and of plant productivity for the benefit of man. (JN)

  18. Global Activities and Plant Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an extensive review of the empirical evidence found for Sweden concerning plant survival. The result reveals that foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants have the lowest exit rates, followed by purely domestic-oriented plants, and that domestic MNE plants have the...

  19. PlantDB – a versatile database for managing plant research

    OpenAIRE

    Gruissem Wilhelm; Hirsch-Hoffmann Matthias; Exner Vivien; Hennig Lars

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Research in plant science laboratories often involves usage of many different species, cultivars, ecotypes, mutants, alleles or transgenic lines. This creates a great challenge to keep track of the identity of experimental plants and stored samples or seeds. Results Here, we describe PlantDB – a Microsoft® Office Access database – with a user-friendly front-end for managing information relevant for experimental plants. PlantDB can hold information about plants of different...

  20. The Plant – Pathogen Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAHYA PRIHATNA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between plants and their pathogens is complex, involving multifaceted recognition of pathogens by the plants and, on the other hand, subtle evasion from the pathogens. Plants perceive pathogens through direct recognition of common molecular patterns in microbes and direct recognition of effectors or their perturbation on cellular components by the pathogens. Recognition of microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns triggers innate immunity that renders plants resistant to most potential microbial pathogens. Recognition-dependant immunity in plants largely relies on polymorphism of resistance gene products that confer specificity towards host-specialised pathogens, which, in turn, induces more specific resistance that is effective against host-specialised pathogens. The deployment of effective resistance involves signalling of pathogen recognition through complex signalling cascades, transcriptional reprogramming, and defence-related genes, which all contribute to an arrest of pathogen growth. Our current insights into effector biology and to which the plants respond, provide a detailed information on the evolutionary arms race between plants and their pathogens. These will lead to an improvement of current strategies for crop improvement and protection.

  1. Experimental mutagenesis in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable progress has been made in directed or controlled mutagenesis with bacterial systems, the genetic resolving power of which is much greater than that of higher plants. The mutagen specificity in higher plants has been of great interest, and numerous results and observations have been reported. The advances in the culture of plant cells and tissues have created much interest concerning the possibility of inducing and recovering mutants at the cellular level. There are great problems including the failure to regenerate plants from cells in all but a few species. The genetic and cytogenetic instability in the culture of plant tissues is well known, and the most common nuclear change is polyploidy including aneuploidy. The degree of polyploidy increases with calluses or culture age. In rice, the frequency of aneuploidy is greater in the calluses derived from roots than those derived from stem internodes. Polyploid and/or self-incompatible plant species are not as amenable to conventional mutation breeding techniques as diploid, self-fertilizing species. Inducing mutations in somatic tissues creates the problem of chimeras. However, the new cultivars of highly heterozygous, outcrossing, self-incompatible species are produced by combining several different clones. The performance of the progeny of at least 4 generations removed from the polycross of the parent clones is the important factor, and a high amount of heterozygocity is tolerated within cultivars and even on the same plants. (Yamashita, S.)

  2. Plant state display device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device of the present invention conducts information processing suitable for a man to solve a problem in a plant such as a nuclear power plant incorporating a great amount of information, where safety is required and provides information to an operator. Namely, theories and rules with respect to the flow and balanced state of materials and energy upon plant start-up, and a vapor cycle of operation fluids are symbolized and displayed on the display screen of the device. Then, the display of the plant information suitable to the information processing for a man to dissolve problems is provided. Accordingly, a mechanism for analyzing a purpose of the plant is made more definite, thereby enabling to prevent an erroneous judgement of an operator and occurrence of plant troubles. In addition, a simular effect can also be expected when the theories and rules with respect to the flow and the balanced state of materials and energy and thermohydrodynamic behavior of the operation fluids in a state of after-heat removing operation during shutdown of the plant are symbolized and displayed. (I.S.)

  3. Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

    1994-01-01

    Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned. PMID:12287843

  4. THE PLANT TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EH. Shokraii

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is a survey type of work on the plant tumors and their characteristics in genera1; special attention is given to those tumors which are caused by grobacterium tumefactions and also by plant hormones. The type of work and the methods are very much similar to the work of other investigators, but attempt was made to compare the results which are obtained upon the local varieties of a large group of plant species grown in Iran with those which were obtained in other parts of the world, The results obtained clearly demonstrates that the tumorogenic effect of Agrobacterium Mefaciences is not universal among all plant species, as there are some plants which are quite resistant and will not produce any tumor upon the inocu1ation of the acteria. For example tradescantia spp. did not produce any tumors neither they showed any sign of infection. On the other hand the degree of the responses toward the umorogenic effects of the bacteria was shown to be quite different among the plants which were susceptible. Sunflower (H elianthues annus tomato (Lycopersicum esculantum and Tobacco (Nicotiana tubacum were most sensitive toward the bacteria and produced the largest size of the tumors, whereas plants such as the common peas (pisum sativrum and the common beans (phasealus vulgaris the tumors produced were very small and did not have much inhibitory effect on the growth of the infected plants as compared with, the controls. Unsuccessful attempt was made to induce tumors upon the leaf of different plants, this observation infect contradicts the results obtained by other workers and the viability of the bacteria in the tumors was also being investigated. Some results with the Hormones and also discussed in this paper, and finally histological, studies on the tumors tissue are also reported here.

  5. Radiation hormesis in plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Cun, Ki Jung; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1999-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as acid rain or soil types could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant enzyme (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with difference dosage of {gamma}-ray.

  6. Labarge liquid helium plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New applications for helium have resulted in a significant growth in helium demand. This growth has contributed to development of larger, more efficient liquid helium production plants. The liquid helium plant at LaBarge is sized for 4,600 liters per hour of liquid helium production (dewar mass gain basis) using 2 purification/liquefaction plant trains. A liquid nitrogen forecooled refrigerator having a power consumption similar to the liquefier cycle would provide about 10,000 watts of refrigeration at liquid helium temperature. Operating experience with liquid helium production facilities has demonstrated reliable commercial operation. 1 ref., 7 fig

  7. Nuclear power plants maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants maintenance now appears as an important factor contributing to the competitivity of nuclea energy. The articles published in this issue describe the way maintenance has been organized in France and how it led to an actual industrial activity developing and providing products and services. An information note about Georges Besse uranium enrichment plant (Eurodif) recalls that maintenance has become a main data not only for power plants but for all nuclear industry installations. (The second part of this dossier will be published in the next issue: vol. 1 January-February 1989)

  8. Radiation hormesis in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose γ-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as acid rain or soil types could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant enzyme (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with difference dosage of γ-ray

  9. Radiation hormesis in plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Byung Hun; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with different dose of {gamma}-ray. (author)

  10. Radiation hormesis in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose γ-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with different dose of γ-ray. (author)

  11. Morphological and physiological features of the species Asimina triloba (L. dunal, introduced as an ornamental plant in Baia Mare (Maramure? county, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice SZILAGYI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tree species Asimina triloba (L. Dunal, is native to North America. In the area of origin is cultivated, both as food species because the edible fruit, and as ornamental species. Ornamental value derives both from decorative flowers, that open in early spring, and because habitus species. The species is demanding from slightly acidic soils (pH 5.5 to 7.0 and well drained. Seedlings are susceptible to heatstroke and need areas of the sun, but since the second year, vegetate well in bright light conditions [27]. Optimum climate is temperate to subtropical one. The species exhibits unique quality traits for a temperate fruit that are similar to other fruit in the Annonaceae family, including cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill., sugar apple or sweetsop, (A. squamosa L., soursop (A. muricata L., custard apple (A. reticulata L., and atemoya (A. squamosa X A. cherimola, all of which are tropical [2].This study follows the behavior of the species, in particular conditions of the Baia Mare and its surroundings. In this area a fewindividuals were introduced, in order to diversigy the range of species of ornamental plants. In Baia Mare, topoclimate is specifically depression, sheltered by mountains, more atenuated as temperature and winds, than in surrounding areas. As a result ofclimatic conditions, chestnut Castanea sativa, grows in good conditions in Baia Mare. Instead, the area is heavily polluted,especially at ground level. Pollution by heavy metals is a historical being generated by the mining industry.The introduction and use of a new plant species into a new area involves: 1. easy to obtain seed; 2.- maintaining the crown shape habitus and and leaf shape and size, respectively; 3 – determination of optimal physiological parameters. Therefore have been performed, the following experimental determinations: 1. - germination of seed obtained in the particular conditions of the Baia Mare; 2. - some morphomtric characteristics of leaves, in the juveniles of the 1-2 years; 3. – the dynamic of photosynthesis intensity in these plants, during the day, during summer/autumn months.The study results are promising for acclimatization of the species Asimina triloba (L. Dunal in particular conditions of Baia Mare. Morphological and physiological parametres tested are maintaned at similar to those of native habitat, described in the literature.

  12. Chitosan in Plant Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelbasset El Hadrami

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitin and chitosan are naturally-occurring compounds that have potential in agriculture with regard to controlling plant diseases. These molecules were shown to display toxicity and inhibit fungal growth and development. They were reported to be active against viruses, bacteria and other pests. Fragments from chitin and chitosan are known to have eliciting activities leading to a variety of defense responses in host plants in response to microbial infections, including the accumulation of phytoalexins, pathogen-related (PR proteins and proteinase inhibitors, lignin synthesis, and callose formation. Based on these and other proprieties that help strengthen host plant defenses, interest has been growing in using them in agricultural systems to reduce the negative impact of diseases on yield and quality of crops. This review recapitulates the properties and uses of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives, and will focus on their applications and mechanisms of action during plant-pathogen interactions.

  13. Performance driven plant management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant maintenance in the regulated electric utility industry, has historically been driven by availability and capacity considerations. Operation's role has been to keep the units on-line and at the maximum load available. With the recent emergence of independently produced power and considerations of further deregulation of electric power production, an increasingly competitive environment is being created. Performance Driven Plant Management focuses on an integrated management approach to operation, engineering and maintenance. The application of the concepts of Performance Driven Plant Management to the electric utility industry becomes one of incorporating the historical management philosophy, built around concerns for availability and capacity, into a more comprehensive framework built around a concern for overall plant effectiveness. 5 refs., 1 tab

  14. Higher plant cellulose synthases

    OpenAIRE

    Richmond, Todd

    2000-01-01

    The sole function of cellulose synthases, which are found in plants bacteria, fungi, and animals, is to produce the biopolymer cellulose. Although no crystal structure has yet been solved, a considerable amount is known about their structure, function and evolution.

  15. Fuel rod reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plant for the reprocessing of fuel rods for a nuclear reactor comprises a plurality of rectangular compartments desirably arranged on a rectangular grid. Signal lines, power lines, pipes, conduits for instrumentation, and other communication lines leave a compartment just below its top edges. A vehicle access zone permits overhead and/or mobile cranes to remove covers from compartments. The number of compartments is at least 25% greater than the number of compartments used in the initial design and operation of the plant. Vacant compartments are available in which replacement apparatus can be constructed. At the time of the replacement of a unit, the piping and conduits are altered to utilize the substitute equipment in the formerly vacant compartment, and it is put on stream prior to dismantling old equipment from the previous compartment. Thus the downtime for the reprocessing plant for such a changeover is less than in a traditional reprocessing plant

  16. Power plant profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The facilities described here represent the rich variety of technologies being applied at new and existing powerplants in the US. While new capacity additions are at an all-time low in this country, the plants and projects that are completed generally represent new highs in regulatory compliance, technical savvy, and management ingenuity. They range from a 4-MW landfill-gas-fired turbine to a 2,500-MW nuclear plant. Several gas-turbine projects are included, confirming the current dominance of this technology. The projects are: Fort St. Vrain, Pinon Pine, Cleburne cogeneration plant, Gilbert station, Hanes Mill Rd, El Dorado, Wolf Creek, South Texas Project, Stanton Energy Center Unit 2, Milliken station and Northampton plant

  17. Nuclear Power Plants (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell III, Walter [Southern Nuclear Engineering, Inc.

    1973-01-01

    Projected energy requirements for the future suggest that we must employ atomic energy to generate electric power or face depletion of our fossil-fuel resources—coal, oil, and gas. In short, both conservation and economic considerations will require us to use nuclear energy to generate the electricity that supports our civilization. Until we reach the time when nuclear power plants are as common as fossil-fueled or hydroelectric plants, many people will wonder how the nuclear plants work, how much they cost, where they are located, and what kinds of reactors they use. The purpose of this booklet is to answer these questions. In doing so, it will consider only central station plants, which are those that provide electric power for established utility systems.

  18. Small nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economies of scale are highly significant for conventional light water nuclear power plants, but large units have become very difficult to finance for US utilities. If a small reactor with not quite such an unfavourable scaling factor could be designed, would it find a market. A modelling exercise, in which a hypothetical utility meets its capacity needs by building either 400 MW or 1200 MW nuclear plants, suggests that it might, under the right conditions. The model showed that the economies of scale of large plants tend to be overcome by financing difficulties which are avoided if small units are built. A small reactor would not be in the market alone, however. Competing with it would be other fuels and technologies, as well as the options of joint ownership of large plants, and purchased power. (author)

  19. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  20. Protoplasts and plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of protoplasts in the study of plant viruses has attracted considerable attention since its inception in the late 1960s. This article is an attempt to assess the current status of protoplasts (primarily) and all cell cultures (in some instances) in studies of virus infection, virus replication, cytopathology, cross-protection, virus resistance, and the use of in vitro methods and genetic engineering to recover virus-resistant plants. These areas of study proved difficult to do entirely with whole plants or plant parts. However, because protoplasts could be synchronously infected with virus, they provided a valuable alternative means of following biochemical and cytological events in relation to the virus growth cycle in a more precise manner than previously possible

  1. Nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal aspects of nuclear power plant construction in Brazil, derived from governamental political guidelines, are presented. Their evolution, as a consequence of tecnology development is related. (A.L.S.L.)

  2. Memristors in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Tucket, Clayton; Reedus, Jada; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    We investigated electrical circuitry of the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera. The goal was to discover if these plants might have a new electrical component--a resistor with memory. This element was postulated recently and the researchers were looking for its presence in different systems. The analysis was based on cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation of plants by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in plant tissue. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. This study can be a starting point for understanding mechanisms of memory, learning, circadian rhythms, and biological clocks. PMID:24556876

  3. Plant for Demercurization

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Development, Testing and Transfer to the «PKhZ» OJSC of a New Continuous Operating Full-Scale Industrial Vibro-Vacuum Plant for the Anthropogenic Waste Demercurization, and Organization of the Maintenance Personnel Training

  4. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis. PMID:22404469

  5. Why do plants 'talk'?

    OpenAIRE

    Dicke, M

    1995-01-01

    Plant defence can be induced by herbivory. This is true for both direct and indirect plant defence. Induced direct defence has been the most studied of the two. However, in most cases induced direct defence does not appear to be a water-tight defence option. In contrast, induced indirect defence through the production of herbivore-induced carnivore attractants can be a decisive factor in the extermination of herbivore populations. In this paper the main characteristics of induced attraction o...

  6. The plant information center

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Evelyn; White, Peter; Greenberg, Jane; Massey, James

    2000-01-01

    The Plant Information Center is a partnership of the North Carolina Botanical Garden, Unviersity of North Carolina (UNC) Herbarium, UNC School of Information and Library Science, McDougle Middle School, and Orange County Public Library. The intent of the Project is to connect the research community and the general public (including school children) to make greater use of primary research material and to nurture the public interest and enthusiasm in the study of trees, plants, and natural hist...

  7. Copper in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Yruela Guerrero, Inmaculada

    2005-01-01

    Copper is an essential metal for normal plant growth and development, although is also potentially toxic. Copper participates in numerous physiological processes and is essential cofactor for many metalloproteins, however, problems arise when excess copper is present in cells. Excess copper inhibits plant growth and impairs important cellular processes (i.e., photosynthetic electron transport). Since copper is both an essential cofactor and a toxic element, different strategies with a complex...

  8. Quantitative plant ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from Wolfram.com) The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement and statistical modelling of plant species abundance and the relevant ecological processes that control species abundance. The focus on statistical modelling and likelihood function based methods also means ...

  9. Virtual power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Montes Ruiz, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    El presente proyecto tiene como objetivo determinar posibles beneficios de la agregación de unidades de energía distribuida controlables en Virtual Power Plants (VPP). Se diseñan y se implementan con el programa GAMS® los modelos de programación utilizados para optimizar la operación de una agregación de sistemas VPP en diversos escenarios. En la primera parte del trabajo se expone una introducción teórica de las Virtual Power Plants y sus elementos asociados: unidades de ge...

  10. Nucleoelectric plants technical memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work explains the basic norms that establish the guidelines to the Technical Memory elaboration of this electrical energy sector - the nucleoelectric plants. It guides the technicians who execute the Technical Memory of the plants, exposing the items that may compose the work: contents: introduction, planning, proposition, equipment and materials supply, construction, commissioning, commercial actions, budget, financing and costs; generalities: drawings and photographies, monetary references, terminology, system units, management, graphic guide project, responsible staff, a summarized technical card and illustrations

  11. Powder detergents production plant

    OpenAIRE

    Stankovi? Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.

    2003-01-01

    The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for powder detergent production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories, in 1998. - 2000. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant with a capacity of 25,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Delta In", Zrenjanin, in 2000.This technology was an innovation, because new approach in mixing a powder materials was used, as well as introducing ...

  12. Dry alcohol production plant

    OpenAIRE

    Stankovi? Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.

    2003-01-01

    The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There...

  13. Wet hydrate dissolution plant

    OpenAIRE

    Stankovi? Mirjana S.; Kova?evi? Branimir T.; Pezo Lato L.

    2003-01-01

    The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for a wet hydrate dissolution plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant with capacity of 50,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Zeolite Mira", Mira (VE), Italy, in 1997, for increasing detergent zeolite production from 50,000 to 100,000 t/y. Several goals were realized by designing a wet hydrate ...

  14. Detergent zeolite filtration plant

    OpenAIRE

    Stankovi? Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.

    2003-01-01

    The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for detergent zeolite filtration plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant with a capacity of 75,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Zeolite Mira", Mira (VE), Italy, in 1997, for increasing detergent zeolite production, from 50,000 to 100,000 t/y. The main goal was to increase the detergent zeoli...

  15. Technology and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the contributions presented at the 18th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in the field of technology and power plants are summarised with reference to the following distinct issues: ITER EDA Design, ITER Technology R and D, Progress Towards Advanced Performance and Steady State, Compact Cu Burning Plasma Experiments and Neutron Sources, Advanced Materials Research, Power Plant Design and Economic Forecasts, and Conclusions

  16. Thermonuclear power plant model

    OpenAIRE

    Esteves, João Sena; Sepúlveda, João

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a model of a thermonuclear power plant with a very detailed electrical substation. The model includes facilities such as an operational railroad, a train shed, a container crane and two diesel oil filling stations. The result is very eye-catching and most suitable for the classroom or science-fair events. A brief technical explanation on the components of real-world nuclear power plants and electrical substations is also given.

  17. NMR, water and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the application of a non-destructive pulsed proton NMR method mainly to measure water transport in the xylem vessels of plant stems and in some model systems. The results are equally well applicable to liquid flow in other biological objects than plants, e.g. flow of blood and other body fluids in human and animals. The method is based on a pulse sequence of equidistant ? pulses in combination with a linear magnetic field gradient. (Auth.)

  18. Memristors in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Volkov, Alexander G.; Tucket, Clayton; Reedus, Jada; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    We investigated electrical circuitry of the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera. The goal was to discover if these plants might have a new electrical component—a resistor with memory. This element has attracted great interest recently and the researchers were looking for its presence in different systems. The analysis was based on cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation of plants by bipolar sinuso...

  19. Selection of Transformed Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Huw D.; Sparks, Caroline A.

    The low frequency and randomness of transgene integration into host cells, combined with the significant challenges of recovering whole plants from those rare events, makes the use of selectable marker genes routine in plant transformation experiments. For research applications that are unlikely to be grown in the field, strong herbicide- or antibiotic resistance is commonly used. Here we use genes conferring resistance to glufosinate herbicides as an example of a selectable marker in wheat transformation by either Agrobacterium or biolistics.

  20. Plant genomics: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    HUGO CAMPOS-DE QUIROZ

    2002-01-01

    Recent technological advancements have substantially expanded our ability to analyze and understand plant genomes and to reduce the gap existing between genotype and phenotype. The fast evolving field of genomics allows scientists to analyze thousand of genes in parallel, to understand the genetic architecture of plant genomes and also to isolate the genes responsible for mutations. Furthermore, whole genomes can now be sequenced. This review addresses these issues and also discusses ways to ...

  1. Plant Thioredoxin Systems Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Schürmann, Peter; Jacquot, J.-P.

    2006-01-01

    Thioredoxins, the ubiquitous small proteins with a redox active disulfide bridge, are important regulatory elements in plant metabolism. Initially recognized as regulatory proteins in the reversible light activation of key photosynthetic enzymes, they have subsequently been found in the cytoplasm and in mitochondria. The various plant thioredoxins are different in structure and function. Depending on their intracellular location they are reduced enzymatically by an NADP-dependent or by a ferr...

  2. Pellet plant energy simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeasu, D.; Vasquez Pulido, T.; Nielsen, C.

    2016-02-01

    The Pellet Plant energy simulator is a software based on advanced algorithms which has the main purpose to see the response of a pellet plant regarding certain location conditions. It combines energy provided by a combined heat and power, and/or by a combustion chamber with the energy consumption of the pellet factory and information regarding weather conditions in order to predict the biomass consumption of the pellet factory together with the combined heat and power, and/or with the biomass consumption of the combustion chamber. The user of the software will not only be able to plan smart the biomass acquisition and estimate its cost, but also to plan smart the preventive maintenance (charcoal cleaning in case of a gasification plant) and use the pellet plant at the maximum output regarding weather conditions and biomass moisture. The software can also be used in order to execute a more precise feasibility study for a pellet plant in a certain location. The paper outlines the algorithm that supports the Pellet Plant Energy Simulator idea and presents preliminary tests results that supports the discussion and implementation of the system

  3. Power plants 2010. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings include the following lectures: Facing the challenges - new structures for electricity production. Renewable energies in Europe - chances and challenges. Nuclear outlook in the UK. Sustainable energy for Europe. Requirements of the market and the grid operator at the electricity production companies. Perspectives for the future energy production. Pumped storage plants - status and perspectives. Nuclear power/renewable energies -partners or opponents? New fossil fired power stations in Europe - status and perspectives. Nuclear energy: outlook for new build and lifetime extension in Europe. Biomass in the future European energy market - experiences for dong energy. Meeting the EU 20:20 renewable energy targets: the offshore challenges. DESERTEC: sustainable electricity for Europe, Middle East and North Africa. New power plants in Europe - a challenge for project and quality management. Consideration of safely in new build activities of power plants. Challenges to an integrated development in Maasvlakte, Netherlands. Power enhancement in EnBW power plants. Operational experiences of CCS pilot plants worldwide. Two years of operational experiences with Vattenfall's oxyfuel pilot plant. Pre-conditions for CCS. Storage technologies for a volatile generation. Overview: new generation of gas turbines.

  4. A modular reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a new concept in liquid metal reactors that is being developed by General Electric under contract to the Department of Energy. This concept is called the Modular Reactor Plant. While this effort is not expected to have a near-term impact, it is directed toward three principal issues currently affecting nuclear power in the United States. First, plant costs have escalated to the point where the startup of new plants require large electric rate increases. Second, the cost of new plants coming on-line today vary by as much as a factor of three. And, third, nuclear construction times often exceed the utilities prudent planning cycle. This paper describes how General Electric's Modular Reactor Plant addreses these issues through shop fabrication and assembly, rail shipment to the site for rapid installation of nuclear components and inherent reactor protection. In addition, it is expected the modular reactor plant will reduce the current cost of development and demonstration of liquid metal reactors to an affordable level

  5. Uranium speciation in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed knowledge of the nature of uranium complexes formed after the uptake by plants is an essential prerequisite to describe the migration behavior of uranium in the environment. This study focuses on the determination of uranium speciation after uptake of uranium by lupine plants. For the first time, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy were used to determine the chemical speciation of uranium in plants. Differences were detected between the uranium speciation in the initial solution (hydroponic solution and pore water of soil) and inside the lupine plants. The oxidation state of uranium did not change and remained hexavalent after it was taken up by the lupine plants. The chemical speciation of uranium was identical in the roots, shoot axis, and leaves and was independent of the uranium speciation in the uptake solution. The results indicate that the uranium is predominantly bound as uranyl(VI) phosphate to the phosphoryl groups. Dandelions and lamb's lettuce showed uranium speciation identical to lupine plants. (orig.)

  6. Plant cytokinin signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshishian, Erika A; Rashotte, Aaron M

    2015-09-15

    Cytokinin is an essential plant hormone that is involved in a wide range of plant growth and developmental processes which are controlled through its signalling pathway. Cytokinins are a class of molecules that are N(6)-substituted adenine derivatives, such as isopentenyl adenine, and trans- and cis-zeatin, which are common in most plants. The ability to perceive and respond to cytokinin occurs through a modified bacterial two-component pathway that functions via a multi-step phosphorelay. This cytokinin signalling process is a crucial part of almost all stages of plant life, from embryo patterning to apical meristem regulation, organ development and eventually senescence. The cytokinin signalling pathway involves the co-ordination of three types of proteins: histidine kinase receptors to perceive the signal, histidine phosphotransfer proteins to relay the signal, and response regulators to provide signal output. This pathway contains both positive and negative elements that function in a complex co-ordinated manner to control cytokinin-regulated plant responses. Although much is known about how this cytokinin signal is perceived and initially regulated, there are still many avenues that need to be explored before the role of cytokinin in the control of plant processes is fully understood. PMID:26374884

  7. Plant data acquisition device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Shinya; Tsuneoka, Osamu.

    1992-06-19

    A plant data acquisition device comprises a primary storage means, a data operation and storage means and a compression storage means. A plurality of plant data are primarily stored continuously and successively operated in parallel with the storage operation, to store the result of the operation. A compression and storage demand signal is outputted in accordance with the change of the state in the result of the operation to automatically set the data compression and storage period. By simultaneously storing a plurality of plant data under compression, they are stored in a fine and compact manner for a long period of time. Further, the entire status for each of plant operations can be acquired accurately, and it is useful for mitigating the load of the acquisition device, plant diagnosis such as analysis for the cause of abnormal events and management for each of plant operations. If various kinds of data are locally acquired, detailed data analysis and evaluation are enabled also for signals with only an indicator but with no recorder, or for signals with no indicator. (N.H.).

  8. Haploidization of vegetable plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haploid plants have been widely introduced into vegetable crops breeding programmes, also in Poland. They can be produced by means of androgenesis in brassicas and pepper, gynogenesis in onion and beetroot, or induced parthenogenesis in vegetables belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. Androgenesis in brassicas can be induced using both anther and microspore cultures. Efficiency of this process, provided the optimal medium composition, depends on conditions for culture initiation (thermal shock is necessary). Around 40% of developing androgenic plants of white cabbage and Brussels sprouts are diploids and after their self-pollination doubled-haploid lines can instantly be produced. Gynogenic development of haploid cells constituting the embryo sac in onion can be induced by a flower bud culture method. Firstly an induction medium is used, followed by a regeneration medium. Almost 90% of obtained plants are haploids and therefore the use of antimitotic agents is necessary in order to double their chromosome number. Induced parthogenesis is being applied in cucumber. Pollen previously exposed to ionising radiation is used for pollination, which causes the development of embryos being subsequently plated on a medium in order to develop haploid plants. Efficiency of the processes leading to the production of haploid plants in every species depends to a high degree on the genotype and growth conditions of donor plants. (author)

  9. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  10. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author)

  11. Plant critical concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the effort summarized in this paper is to support O and M cost reduction efforts by focusing resources on components and processes critical to plant performance. This effort will identify where resources on nonplant critical components and processes can be reduced or eliminated. This method will use a functional assessment as the basis for component-specific evaluations and ranking. This effort consists of two stages conducted in series. The first stage is to deterministically identify that set of plant components that are relevant from a plant performance perspective (i.e., safety, economics, reliability). The second stage probabilistically ranks that set of plant components from an importance perspective, where importance pertains to the particular application and is probabilistically weighted. The results of a pilot study identified that only a relatively small set of components are truly critical from an integrated plant performance perspective. These results are consistent with work being conducted at other nuclear power plants, as well as other commercial facilities. Initial implementation of this effort is estimated to reduce O and M costs on the order of $1 million per year. Subsequent applications are anticipated to increase that savings to $4--$5 million per year

  12. Biofuelled heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to serve as a basis to enable establishment and operation of small and medium-sized bio-fuel plants, district heating plants and local district heating plants. Furthermore, the purpose of this report is to serve as a guideline and basis when realizing projects, from the first concept to established plant. Taking into account all the phases, from selection of heating system, fuel type, selection of technical solutions, authorization request or application to operate a plant, planning, construction and buying, inspection, performance test, take-over and control system of the plant. Another purpose of the report is to make sure that best available technology is used and to contribute to continuous development of the technology. The report deals mainly with bio-fuelled plants in the effect range 0.3 to10 MW. The term 'plant' refers to combined power and heating plants as well as 'simpler' district heating plants. The last-mentioned is also often referred to as 'local heating plant'. In this context, the term bio fuel refers to a wide range of fuel types. The term bio fuel includes processed fractions like powders, pellets, and briquettes along with unprocessed fractions, such as by-products from the forest industry; chips and bark. Bio fuels also include straw, energy crops and cereal waste products, but these have not been expressly studied in this report. The report is structured with appendixes regarding the various phases of the projects, with the purpose of serving as a helping handbook, or manual for new establishment, helping out with technical and administrative advice and environmental requirements. Plants of this size are already expanding considerably, and the need for guiding principles for design/technology and environmental requirements is great. These guiding principles should comply with the environmental legislation requirements, and must contain advice and recommendations for bio fuel plants in this effect range, also in reference to the environmental legislation. This means, among other things, that the suggested environmental requirements should be realistic so that they can be fulfilled, but there will also be a strong motive to raise the requirements, but not so high that the new establishment of bio fuelled plants is held back in favour of old-fashioned routine technology or fossil fuels. Concurrent with the expansion of bio fuel plants in Sweden, there is an increasing need for clear and simple practical handling of this type of project in its different phases: The selection of heating system/fuel; The selection of technical solutions; Application or authorization according to environmental legislation; Design and purchasing; Inspection and performance test; Operation and control system. The selection of burning and flue gas cleaning techniques is dependent on the kind of fuel used, and the fuel's moisture content. Pellet burning furnace is the easiest and most developed solution for plants in the smaller range, and grate firing is the best solution for the bigger plants. Pulverized bio fuel burning is not used to a great extent in this particular effect range. Depending on the size and effect of the plant, the plant establishment requires authorization request according to the environmental legislation. The authorization request is different depending on the effect of the plant and the distinction between the two possible kinds is at 10 MW. The term plant size refer to the fuel supplied for all the plant's existing furnaces, which means that several plants need authorization although the effects of the individual bio fuel furnace is lower than 10 MW. An example of an EIA, which is a part of an application or authorization request, is included as an appendix. Flue gas dust cleaning is always required in this effect range. The most frequent cleaning equipment is dynamic separators, (such as multi cyclone batteries), fabric filters, (such as bag filters), and electrical partition filters. Fabric filters or electrical partition filters is needed to meet the environment requi

  13. Plant integrity: an important factor in plant-pathogen interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlowska, Elzbieta Zofia; Llorente, Briardo; Cvitanich, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Furthermore, in the Sarpo Mira–P. infestans interactions, the plant’s meristems, the stalks or both, seem to be associated with the development of the hypersensitive response and both the plant’s roots and shoots contain antimicrobial compounds when the...

  14. Plant integrity: an important factor in plant-pathogen interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlowska, Elzbieta Zofia; Llorente, Briardo; Cvitanich, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The effect of plant integrity and of aboveground-belowground defense signaling on plant resistance against pathogens and herbivores is emerging as a subject of scientific research. There is increasing evidence that plant defense responses to pathogen infection differ between whole intact plants and detached leaves. Studies have revealed the importance of aboveground-belowground defense signaling for plant defenses against herbivores, while our studies have uncovered that the roots as well as the...

  15. Plant the Seeds of Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Both indoor and outdoor garden plants can cause problems. For example, the foliage of the bird-of-paradise and philodendron plants is toxic. A poinsettia leaf can kill a young child. Outdoor plants such as castor beans are highly dangerous. All parts of the potato and tomato plant are poisonous, except the potato and tomato themselves. Large…

  16. Japanese national reference reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a general description of the proposed Japanese national reprocessing plant and of the design philosophy. The plant is in most respects similar to the base case reprocessing plant, with an annual throughput of 100-1500 tU. The plant would be co-located with a fuel fabrication facility

  17. AECL's plant Information Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The competitiveness of the world-wide energy market is a continual driving force for improvements to CANDU performance and lower operating, maintenance, and administration costs. As in other industries, advanced Information Technologies (IT) are changing the way we work and conduct business. The nuclear industry is no different and there exists strong incentives to improve work processes and provide faster and more flexible access to the information needed to effectively manage and maintain nuclear plant assets. AECL has responded to these forces through the development of a vision of integrated IT systems addressing all phases of nuclear plant development and operations. This includes the initial engineering, design, and construction processes as well as support to the long-term operations and maintenance. Integral to the AECL vision is the need for cost-effective engineering and operational configuration management systems, proactive maintenance processes and systems, and advanced plant surveillance and diagnostics. This paper presents the vision and describes the integrated information systems needed to manage both the design basis and operating plant data systems to ensure the cost-effective, long-term viability of CANDU plants. (author)

  18. GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  19. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis NØrgaard; Bruhn, Dan

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature, ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species. Further, we analyze rates of measured emission of aerobically produced CH4 in pectin and in plant tissues from different studies and argue that pectin is very far from the sole contributing precursor. Hence, scaling up of aerobic CH4 emission needs to take into consideration other potential sources than pectin. Due to the large uncertainties related to effects of stimulating factors, genotypic responses and type of precursors, we conclude that current attempts for upscaling aerobic CH4 into a global budget is insufficient. Thus it is too early to draw the line under the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution ofseveral proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material.

  20. Plant based butters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrepati, Kalyani; Balasubramanian, S; Chandra, Pitam

    2015-07-01

    During the last few years the popularity for the plant based butters (nut and seed butters) has increased considerably. Earlier peanut butter was the only alternative to the dairy butter, but over the years development in the technologies and also the consumer awareness about the plant based butters, has led the development of myriad varieties of butters with different nuts and seeds, which are very good source of protein, fiber, essential fatty acids and other nutrients. These days' different varieties of plant based butters are available in the market viz., peanut butter, soy butter, almond butter, pistachio butter, cashew butter and sesame butter etc. The form of butter is one of the healthy way of integrating nuts and seeds in to our regular diet. Nut and seed butters are generally prepared by roasting, grinding and refrigerated to consume it when it is still fresh. During this process it is imperative to retain the nutritional properties of these nuts and seeds in order to reap the benefits of the fresh nuts and seeds in the form of butter as well. Proper care is needed to minimize the conversion of healthful components in to unhealthy components during processing and further storage. Roasting temperature, temperatures during grinding and storage are the vital factors to be considered in order to have healthy and nutritious plant based butters. In this article, different plant based butters and their processing methods have been described. PMID:26139864

  1. Antidiabetic Plants of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafeddin Goushegir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To identify the antidiabetic plants of Iran, a systematic review of the published literature on the efficacy of Iranian medicinal plant for glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was conducted. We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus, Proquest, Ebsco, Googlescholar, SID, Cochrane Library Database, from 1966 up to June 2010. The search terms were complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, diabetes mellitus, plant (herb, Iran, patient, glycemic control, clinical trial, RCT, natural or herbal medicine, hypoglycemic plants, and individual herb names from popular sources, or combination of these key words. Available Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT published in English or Persian language examined effects of an herb (limited to Iran on glycemic indexes in type 2 diabetic patients were included. Among all of the articles identified in the initial database search, 23 trials were RCT, examining herbs as potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The key outcome for antidiabetic effect was changes in blood glucose or HbA1 c, as well as improves in insulin sensitivity or resistance. Available data suggest that several antidiabetic plants of Iran need further study. Among the RCT studies, the best evidence in glycemic control was found in Citrullus colocynthus, Ipomoea betatas, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum graecum.

  2. Pinellas Plant facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant

  3. Plants cultivation in controlled containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plants cultivation in controlled containments permits to the - Departement d'Ecophysiologie Vegetale et de Microbiologie (DVEM) - of the CEA to lead several topics of research. The works of DVEM which are based on the molecular labelling, technique adapted to plants, contribute to understand the plant - soil relationships and the plant growth process. In addition, the staff of DVEM study the impact of pollutant heavy metals, existing in the soil, on plants and the plant stress induced by oxygen, light, ionizing radiations,... and defence mechanisms of plants (F. M.)

  4. Owners of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies. The report includes all plants operating, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review, but does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally cancelled. Part 1 of the report lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants or licensees and percentage ownership. Part 2 lists applicants or licensees alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part 1 also indicates which plants have received operating licenses (OLS)

  5. Collective biogas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papers contributed to the European seminar on collective biogas plants held at Herning, Denmark on October 22-23 under the auspices of the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy (DG XVII) are presented. Within the framework of the THERMIE programme, a network of OPETs (Organizations for the Promotion of Energy Technologies) was set up in order to disseminate information on new energy technologies throughout the European communities. The potential for further implementation of centralized capacity for the conversion of animal manures and other organic wastes to bio-fuels, not only in central and eastern Europe but also in the developing countries, is discussed in addition to the relevant technologies. Actual biomass conversion plants are described and details are given on operational experience and plant management. Agricultural, economic and policy aspects are also dealt with. (AB)

  6. [Imprinted genes in plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Geng; Yang, Ruo-Fei; Fu, Feng-Ling; Li, Wan-Chen

    2010-12-01

    The expression of imprinted genes is regulated by epigenetic mechanism. In plant endosperm, the allele of imprinted genes is expressed in a pattern of parent-of-origin-dependent. The expression of imprinted genes plays essential roles in the development of embryos and their annexe structures, as well as seed size, reproductive barriers and apomixis. Along with the progress of plant epigenetic research, the exploration of imprinted genes is becoming hotspot in epigenetic research. This review focused on the parental conflict theory about the origin of imprinted genes, and the latest research advances in expression regulation mechanism of plant imprinted genes, using the examples of the important imprinted genes MEA, FIS2, FWA, MPC, and PHE1 in Arabidopsis, and FIEI and FIE2 in maize. PMID:21513148

  7. APROS nuclear plant analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the build-up of the Loviisa plant primary circuit model using graphical user interface and generic components. The secondary circuit model of Loviisa is constructed in the same manner. The entire power plant model thus obtained is used for the calculation of two example transients. These examples originate from the Loviisa 2 unit dynamical tests in 1980. The Modular Plant Analyser results are compared with the Loviisa Unit 2 measurement data. This comparison indicates good agreement with the data. The present work has been performed using the Alliant FX/40 minisupercomputer. With this computer the Loviisa model fulfills at present the real-time requirement with 0.5 second timestep. (orig./DG)

  8. Nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power industry's addressing of life extension is a natural trend in the maturation of this technology after 20 years of commercial operation. With increasing emphasis on how plants are operated, and less on how to build them, attention is turning on to maximizing the use of these substantial investments. The first studies of life extension were conducted in the period from 1978 and 1982. These were motivated by the initiation, by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), of studies to support decommissioning rulemaking. The basic conclusions of those early studies that life extension is feasible and worth pursuing have not been changed by the much more extensive investigations that have since been conducted. From an engineering perspective, life extension for nuclear plants is fundamentally the same as for fossil plants

  9. Molybdenum metabolism in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Jiménez, Manuel; Chamizo-Ampudia, Alejandro; Galván, Aurora; Fernández, Emilio; Llamas, Ángel

    2013-09-01

    The viability of plants relies on molybdenum, which after binding to the organic moiety of molybdopterin forms the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) and acquires remarkable redox properties. Moco is in the active site of critical molybdoenzymes, which use to work as small electron transport chains and participate in N and S metabolism, hormone biosynthesis, toxic compound transformations and other important processes not only in plants but also in all the other kingdoms of life. Molybdate metabolism in plants is reviewed here, with special attention to two main aspects, the different molybdate transporters that with a very high affinity participate in molybdenum acquisition and the recently discovered Moco enzyme amidoxime-reducing component. Their functionality is starting to be understood. PMID:23800757

  10. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  11. Plant redox proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrot, Nicolas; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Hägglund, Per

    2011-01-01

    In common with other aerobic organisms, plants are exposed to reactive oxygen species resulting in formation of post-translational modifications related to protein oxidoreduction (redox PTMs) that may inflict oxidative protein damage. Accumulating evidence also underscores the importance of redox...... PTMs in regulating enzymatic activities and controlling biological processes in plants. Notably, proteins controlling the cellular redox state, e.g. thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, appear to play dual roles to maintain oxidative stress resistance and regulate signal transduction pathways via redox PTMs....... To get a comprehensive overview of these types of redox-regulated pathways there is therefore an emerging interest to monitor changes in redox PTMs on a proteome scale. Compared to some other PTMs, e.g. protein phosphorylation, redox PTMs have received less attention in plant proteome analysis...

  12. Owners of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The list indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies as of September 1, 1982. The list includes all plants licensed to operate, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review. Part I lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants and percentage ownership. Part II lists applicants alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part I also indicates which plants have received operating licenses

  13. Carbohydrate microarrays in plant science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, Henriette Lodberg; Vidal Melgosa, Silvia; Ahl, Louise Isager; Asunción Salmeán, Armando; Madsen, Jack Egelund; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Clausen, Mads Hartvig; Willats, William George Tycho

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occ...

  14. New technology for BWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the hope rested on nuclear power plants is rising up, the demand for further improvement of reliability and working ratio of plants is increasing as well. Toshiba, wrestling with this problem of improvement, have applied the fruits of the efforts to the plants under construction or planning. The application ranges over reactor cores and system design, plant arrangement planning, apparatus improvement, and plant construction. (author)

  15. Fertigation management of potted plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The horticultural crops considered in this chapter are characterised by the fact that the plants are grown in a restricted volume, like pots, containers, plastic trays or compressed peat blocks. In the market these crops are recognized as potted plants, bedding plants and container grown nursery stock, mostly for ornamental purposes. Another group is the raising of young vegetable and cut flower plants, due to production holdings. Although extremely diverse, all these plants are grown as sing...

  16. Carbohydrate Microarrays in Plant Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, H.L.; Vidal-Melgosa, S.; Ahl, Louise Isager; Salmean, A.A.; Egelund, Jack; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Clausen, M.H.; Willats, William George Tycho

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occ...

  17. Carotenoid metabolism in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Nazia; Li, Li; Lu, Shan; Khin, Nay Chi; Pogson, Barry J

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are mostly C40 terpenoids, a class of hydrocarbons that participate in various biological processes in plants, such as photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis, photoprotection, and development. Carotenoids also serve as precursors for two plant hormones and a diverse set of apocarotenoids. They are colorants and critical components of the human diet as antioxidants and provitamin A. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the genes and enzymes involved in carotenoid metabolism and describe recent progress in understanding the regulatory mechanisms underlying carotenoid accumulation. The importance of the specific location of carotenoid enzyme metabolons and plastid types as well as of carotenoid-derived signals is discussed. PMID:25578273

  18. Power plants 2009. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the Annual Conference 2009 of the VGB PowerTech e.V. (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) from 23rd to 25th May, 2009, in Lyon (France) the following lectures were held: (1) Electricity demand, consequences of the financial and economic crisis - Current overview 2020 for the EU-27 (Hans ten Berge); (2) Status and perspectives of the electricity generation mix in France (Bernard Dupraz); (3) European electricity grid - status and perspective (Dominique Maillard); (4) Technologies and acceptance in the European energy market (Gordon MacKerran); (5) EPR construction in Finland, China, France, (Claude Jaouen); (6) EPR Flamanville 3: A project on the path towards nuclear revival (Jacques Alary); (7) Worldwide nuclear Revival and acceptance (Luc Geraets); (8) An overview on the status of final disposal of radioactive wastes worldwide (Piet Zuidema); (9) Who needs pumped storage plants? PSP are partner to grid stability and renewable energies (Hans-Christoph Funke); (10) Sustainable use of water resources to generate electricity safely and efficiently (Patrick Tourasse); (11) The growth strategy of RWE Innogy - Role of RES in RWE strategy (Fritz Vahrenholt); (12) Solar technologies towards grid parity - key factors and timeframe (G. Gigliucci); (13) Overview on CCS technologies and results of Vattenfalls oxyfuel pilot plant (Philippe Paelinck); (14) Development perspectives of lignite-based IGCC-plants with CCS (Dietmar Keller); (15) Post combustion capture plants - concept and plant integration (Wolfgang Schreier); (16) CCS fossil power generation in a carbon constraint world (Daniel Hofmann); (17) CEZ group strategy in Central and South Eastern Europe (Jan Zizka); (18) Strategy and projects of DONG Energy (Jens Erik Pedersen); (19) E.ON coal-based power generation of the future - The highly efficient power plant and downstream separation of carbon dioxide (Gerhard Seibel); (20) Final sage of first supercritical 460 MW{sub e}l. CFB Boiler construction - firs experience (Damian Goral); (21) Technological development and actual quality in new power plants - rights and reality (M. Kehr); (22) Actual challenges in new materials and quality assurance for high efficiency power plants (M. Giehl).

  19. MRI of intact plants

    OpenAIRE

    Van As, H.; Scheenen, T.; Vergeldt, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive and non-invasive technique that can be used to acquire two- or even three-dimensional images of intact plants. The information within the images can be manipulated and used to study the dynamics of plant water relations and water transport in the stem, e.g., as a function of environmental (stress) conditions. Non-spatially resolved portable NMR is becoming available to study leaf water content and distribution of water in different...

  20. Thermodynamic solar plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermodynamic solar plants include all techniques aiming at converting the solar radiation into high temperature heat, and then at converting this heat into mechanical or electrical energy through a thermodynamic cycle connected to a power generator. The first step, capture of the solar radiation, requires the use of optical systems and, in most cases, the use of solar concentrators which allow to reach temperatures above 250 deg. C. The hybridization with another heat generation source (fossil or biomass) allows to increase the availability of the solar facilities. The heat is then converted into electricity using classical thermodynamic cycles with efficiencies ranging from 23% to 50%, and above in the case of combined cycles. The immediate efficiency of solar-electricity conversion is comprised between 20% and 30% depending on the technology implemented, and the investment costs are evaluated between 2800 euro/kWe (20-80 MWe plant with cylindro-parabolic collectors and Rankine cycle) and 4000 euro/KWe (40-200 MWe tower plant with combined cycles) but can reach 14000 euro/kWe in the case of a 10-25 kWe parabola-Stirling decentralized plant. The electricity cost ranges from 0.16 to 0.24 euro/kWhe for a big facility and is of about 0.30 euro/kWhe in the case of a parabola-Stirling plant (to be compared with 0.04 euro/kWe in the case of a nuclear power plant). The environmental impact of solar thermal electricity is lower than 20 kg CO2/MWhe and comparable to the impact of hydro or nuclear power (4 and 6 kg CO2/MWhe, respectively), but much lower than the impact of photovoltaic energy (100 kg CO2/MWhe) or coal combustion (900 kg CO2/MWhe). The time of return on energy (duration of plant operation to produce the energy needed for its fabrication) is of only 5 months and the lifetime of solar concentration facilities is estimated to 25-30 years. This article presents the state-of-the-art of solar plant technologies and their economic aspects (market penetration strategy and R and D efforts). (J.S.)

  1. Quantitative plant ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    statistical modelling of plant species abundance and the relevant ecological processes that control species abundance. The focus on statistical modelling and likelihood function based methods also means that more algorithm based methods, e.g. ordination techniques and boosted regression tress, will not be......This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from Wolfram.com) The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement and...

  2. Conceptualizing Pharmaceutical Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard

    2007-01-01

    In the conceptual design phase of pharmaceutical plants as much as 80%-90% of the total cost of a project is committed. It is therefore essential that the chosen concept is viable. In this design process configuration and 3D models can help validate the decisions made. Designing 3D models is a complex task and requires skilled users. We demonstrate that a simple 2D/3D configuration tool can support conceptualizing of pharmaceutical plants. Present paper reports on preliminary results fr...

  3. Power plant process computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants incorporates the use of process computers for tasks which are on-line in respect to real-time requirements but not closed-loop in respect to closed-loop control. The general scope of tasks is: - alarm annunciation on CRT's - data logging - data recording for post trip reviews and plant behaviour analysis - nuclear data computation - graphic displays. Process computers are used additionally for dedicated tasks such as the aeroball measuring system, the turbine stress evaluator. Further applications are personal dose supervision and access monitoring. (orig.)

  4. Multiplex Tokamak power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of multiplexing for a fusion power core as an option for producing power is explored. Superconducting, as well as normal magnet, coils in either first or second stability regimes are considered. The results show that multiplex plants with superconducting magnets operating in the second stability regime could be competitive with the single-unit plants in some unit sizes. The key issues that impact the expected benefits of multiplexing must be investigated further. These are factory fabrication, economy of scale, the extent of equipment sharing, inherent safety, maintainability, and utility load management

  5. ITER plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a series of documents published by the IAEA that summarize the results of the Conceptual Design Activities for the ITER project, this publication describes the conceptual design of the ITER plant systems, in particular (i) the heat transport system, (ii) the electrical distribution system, (iii) the requirements for radioactive equipment handling, the hot cell, and waste management, (iv) the supply system for fluids and operational chemicals, (v) the qualitative analyses of failure scenarios and methods of burn stability control and emergency shutdown control, (vi) analyses of tokamak building functions and design requirements, (vii) a plant layout, and (viii) site requirements. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Multiplex tokamak power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of multiplexing for a fusion power core as an option for producing power is explored. Superconducting, as well as normal magnet, coils in either first or second stability regimes are considered. The results show that multiplex plants with superconducting magnets operating in the second stability regime could be competitive with the single-unit plants in some unit sizes. The key issues that impact the expected benefits of multiplexing must be investigated further. These are factory fabrication, economy of scale, the extent of equipment sharing, inherent safety, maintainability, and utility load management

  7. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To provide a nuclear power plant wherein pool water of the suppressed pressure chamber (SP) is purified, thereby improving the drivability and reliability of a nuclear power plant, unnecessitating to provide an exhaust water storage tank for SP pool water and reducing the quantity of water used. Constitution: In purifying SP water, a condensate desalting device, a desalting device of a used fuel pool purifying system, and a desalting device of a reactor coolant purifying system are used. Pool water is purified constantly or intermittently by a condensate desalting device, whereby radioactive substances present in pool water are eliminated. (Nakamura, S.)

  8. Savannah River Plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 20, 1972, the Atomic Energy Commission designated 192,323 acres of land near Aiken, SC, as the nation's first National Environmental Research Park. The designated land surrounds the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant production complex. The site, which borders the Savannah River for 17 miles, includes swampland, pine forests, abandoned town sites, a large man-made lake for cooling water impoundment, fields, streams, and watersheds. This report is a description of the geological, hydrological, meteorological, and biological characteristics of the Savannah River Plant site and is intended as a source of information for those interested in environmental research at the site. 165 references, 68 figures, 52 tables

  9. Conceptualizing Pharmaceutical Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Gjøl, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    In the conceptual design phase of pharmaceutical plants as much as 80%-90% of the total cost of a project is committed. It is therefore essential that the chosen concept is viable. In this design process configuration and 3D models can help validate the decisions made. Designing 3D models is a...... complex task and requires skilled users. We demonstrate that a simple 2D/3D configuration tool can support conceptualizing of pharmaceutical plants. Present paper reports on preliminary results from a full scale implementation project at a Danish engineering company....

  10. Power plants 2009. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the Annual Conference 2009 of the VGB PowerTech e.V. (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) from 23rd to 25th May, 2009, in Lyon (France) the following lectures were held: (1) Electricity demand, consequences of the financial and economic crisis - Current overview 2020 for the EU-27 (Hans ten Berge); (2) Status and perspectives of the electricity generation mix in France (Bernard Dupraz); (3) European electricity grid - status and perspective (Dominique Maillard); (4) Technologies and acceptance in the European energy market (Gordon MacKerran); (5) EPR construction in Finland, China, France, (Claude Jaouen); (6) EPR Flamanville 3: A project on the path towards nuclear revival (Jacques Alary); (7) Worldwide nuclear Revival and acceptance (Luc Geraets); (8) An overview on the status of final disposal of radioactive wastes worldwide (Piet Zuidema); (9) Who needs pumped storage plants? PSP are partner to grid stability and renewable energies (Hans-Christoph Funke); (10) Sustainable use of water resources to generate electricity safely and efficiently (Patrick Tourasse); (11) The growth strategy of RWE Innogy - Role of RES in RWE strategy (Fritz Vahrenholt); (12) Solar technologies towards grid parity - key factors and timeframe (G. Gigliucci); (13) Overview on CCS technologies and results of Vattenfalls oxyfuel pilot plant (Philippe Paelinck); (14) Development perspectives of lignite-based IGCC-plants with CCS (Dietmar Keller); (15) Post combustion capture plants - concept and plant integration (Wolfgang Schreier); (16) CCS fossil power generation in a carbon constraint world (Daniel Hofmann); (17) CEZ group strategy in Central and South Eastern Europe (Jan Zizka); (18) Strategy and projects of DONG Energy (Jens Erik Pedersen); (19) E.ON coal-based power generation of the future - The highly efficient power plant and downstream separation of carbon dioxide (Gerhard Seibel); (20) Final sage of first supercritical 460 MWel. CFB Boiler construction - firs experience (Damian Goral); (21) Technological development and actual quality in new power plants - rights and reality (M. Kehr); (22) Actual challenges in new materials and quality assurance for high efficiency power plants (M. Giehl).

  11. PlantDB – a versatile database for managing plant research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruissem Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research in plant science laboratories often involves usage of many different species, cultivars, ecotypes, mutants, alleles or transgenic lines. This creates a great challenge to keep track of the identity of experimental plants and stored samples or seeds. Results Here, we describe PlantDB – a Microsoft® Office Access database – with a user-friendly front-end for managing information relevant for experimental plants. PlantDB can hold information about plants of different species, cultivars or genetic composition. Introduction of a concise identifier system allows easy generation of pedigree trees. In addition, all information about any experimental plant – from growth conditions and dates over extracted samples such as RNA to files containing images of the plants – can be linked unequivocally. Conclusion We have been using PlantDB for several years in our laboratory and found that it greatly facilitates access to relevant information.

  12. Plant-plant interactions vary with different mycorrhizal fungus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, Jason D

    2005-12-22

    Because different species of mycorrhizal fungi have different effects on the growth of particular plant species, variation in mycorrhizal fungus species composition could cause changes in the strength of plant-plant interactions. Results are presented from a growth chamber experiment that compared the strength of interactions among seedlings of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) when the pines were colonized by two different groups of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the genus Rhizopogon. Plant density effects differed between the two groups of mycorrhizal fungi: plant growth was low regardless of density when plants were colonized with pine-specific Rhizopogon species, while plant growth declined with plant density when plants were colonized by Rhizopogon species having a broader host range. This result parallels results from previous studies showing that plant interactions are more antagonistic with mycorrhizal fungi than without, implying that plant responsiveness to beneficial mycorrhizal fungi declines with increasing plant density. If such effects are prevalent in plant communities, then variation in mycorrhizal fungus community composition is predicted to have a density-dependent effect on plants. PMID:17148227

  13. Plant–plant interactions vary with different mycorrhizal fungus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, Jason D

    2005-01-01

    Because different species of mycorrhizal fungi have different effects on the growth of particular plant species, variation in mycorrhizal fungus species composition could cause changes in the strength of plant–plant interactions. Results are presented from a growth chamber experiment that compared the strength of interactions among seedlings of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) when the pines were colonized by two different groups of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the genus Rhizopogon. Plant density effects differed between the two groups of mycorrhizal fungi: plant growth was low regardless of density when plants were colonized with pine-specific Rhizopogon species, while plant growth declined with plant density when plants were colonized by Rhizopogon species having a broader host range. This result parallels results from previous studies showing that plant interactions are more antagonistic with mycorrhizal fungi than without, implying that plant responsiveness to beneficial mycorrhizal fungi declines with increasing plant density. If such effects are prevalent in plant communities, then variation in mycorrhizal fungus community composition is predicted to have a density-dependent effect on plants. PMID:17148227

  14. 7 CFR 1000.5 - Distributing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Distributing plant. 1000.5 Section 1000.5 Agriculture... Definitions § 1000.5 Distributing plant. Distributing plant means a plant that is approved by a duly... plants....

  15. Fuel handling plant and site ion exchange effluent plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new facilities at Sellafield are explained. The fuel handling plant has been built to provide facilities for the receipt, storage and decanning of Magnox fuel and to increase the capacity and throughput for Magnox reprocessing. AGR fuel will also be stored and dismantled in the plant but not reprocessed until the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) comes into operation. The plant is described and illustrated with photographs. The route of the fuel through the plant is shown. The Site Ion Exchange Effluent Plant (SIXEP) is designed to reduce liquid radioactive discharges to a few percent of peak levels. The SIXEP process is shown schematically and in photographs. (UK)

  16. Orgenic plants: gene-manipulated plants compatible with organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryffel, Gerhart U

    2012-11-01

    Based on recent advances in plant gene technology, I propose to develop a new category of GM plants, orgenic plants, that are compatible with organic farming. These orgenic plants do not contain herbicide resistance genes to avoid herbicide application in agriculture. Furthermore, they either contain genes that are naturally exchanged between species, or are sterile to avoid outcrossing if they received a transgene from a different species. These GM plants are likely to be acceptable to most skeptics of GM plants and facilitate the use of innovative new crops. PMID:22893621

  17. Plants on the Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Mary

    2009-01-01

    When it comes to directly interacting with and doing experiments with organisms, plants have some distinct advantages over animals. Their diversity and accessibility allows students to use them in experiments, thus practicing important science inquiry skills. This article describes an investigation that was designed to help students appreciate the…

  18. Plant monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel in the control room. A separate data processing system, which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board. The discrete indicator and alarm system and the data processing system receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the main machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof. (author)

  19. Diagnosing Physical Plant Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, B. P.; Smith, H. W.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a survey designed to help administrators evaluate functional aspects, adequacy of employee work areas, quality of housekeeping methods, maintenance response, interior and exterior appearances, alteration and renovation satisfaction, employee feelings about parking adequacy, plant security, and attraction and function of roads and…

  20. The plant mitochondrial proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millar, A.H.; Heazlewood, J.L.; Kristensen, B.K.; Braun, H.-P.; Møller, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    The plant mitochondrial proteome might contain as many as 2000-3000 different gene products, each of which might undergo post-translational modification. Recent studies using analytical methods, such as one-, two- and three-dimensional gel electrophoresis and one- and two-dimensional liquid...

  1. Helium leak finding plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention concerns a helium leak finding plant with a mass spectrometer cell on the suction side of a molecular pump and a mechanical pre-pump, where a test sample or a test sensor is connected between the two pumps. The mechanical pre-pump consists of three successive stages. (orig./HP)

  2. Pinellas Plant facts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-11-01

    The Pinellas Plant, near St. Petersburg, Florida, is wholly owned by the United States Government. It is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by GE Aerospace, Neutron Devices (GEND). This plant was built in 1956 to manufacture neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators built at Neutron Devices consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. Production of these devices has necessitated the development of several uniquely specialized areas of competence and supporting facilities. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology; hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials; plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at Neutron Devices has led directly to the assignment of other weapon application products: the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Other product assignments such as active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator evolved from the plant`s materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life.

  3. Tritium and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although tritium is produced naturally in very small quantities and emits only a low energy radiation, its distribution and its behaviour in the environment are studied. This work concerns the organic tritium of plants, its use in environment monitoring and its impact on the doses received by man

  4. Planting for Wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Chad P.; Decker, Daniel J.

    1979-01-01

    Songbirds and small mammals can be encouraged to visit and live in residential yards if structures such as bird feeders and birdbaths are provided and if vegetation is planted to provide basic requirements of wildlife habitat. Examples and instructions are provided. (RE)

  5. Plant Tissue Culture Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert Alan

    Plant tissue culture has developed into a valid botanical discipline and is considered a key area of biotechnology, but it has not been a key component of the science curriculum because of the expensive and technical nature of research in this area. This manual presents a number of activities that are relatively easy to prepare and perform. The…

  6. Power plant at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drilling platforms are rather inefficient when it comes to their own power supply. In view of ecotax and their environmental image, the offshore industry particularly the Norwegians is highly committed to changing this situation. An efficient power plant, specially designed for the offshore industry, might just prove to be the answer to their prayers

  7. Plant research '76

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Overall objective remains unchanged: to contribute to the knowledge, with strong emphasis on fundamental problems, of how plants function, the roles they play in the environment and energy relations of the world, and how these roles may be optimized for the benefit of mankind. (PCS)

  8. TEXTILE PLANT WASTEWATER TOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of a study to provide chemical and toxicological baseline data on wastewater samples collected from 32 textile plants in the U.S. Raw waste and secondary effluent wastewater samples were analyzed for 129 consent decree priority pollutants, effluent guideli...

  9. Garigliano nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period under review, the Garigliano power station produced 1,028,77 million kWh with a utilization factor of 73,41% and an availability factor of 85,64%. The disparity between the utilization and availability factors was mainly due to a shutdown of about one and half months owing to lack of staff at the plant. The reasons for nonavailability (14.36%) break down as follows: nuclear reasons 11,49%; conventional reasons 2,81%; other reasons 0,06%. During the period under review, no fuel replacements took place. The plant functioned throughout with a single reactor reticulation pump and resulting maximum available capacity of 150 MWe gross. After the month of August, the plant was operated at levels slightly below the maximum available capacity in order to lengthen the fuel cycle. The total number of outages during the period under review was 11. Since the plant was brought into commercial operation, it has produced 9.226 million kWh

  10. B Plant hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for B Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific , Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  11. Native plant identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of 44 grazing farms in the northeastern United States found 9 to 73 plant species per pasture. Forage species were the most abundant. Other species varied with the seasons, or were more common in wetter areas. Some species increase with disturbance, or respond to grazing management. Learnin...

  12. Radiosensitivity in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nauman, A F

    1979-01-01

    The report presents a compilation of available data on the sensitivity of plants to ionizing radiation, and provides basic information on methods of determining such sensitivities, or of estimating radiosensitivities by calcuation of the nuclear factors upon which they depend. The scope of the data presented here is necessarily limited to the most generally useful radiobiological end points and to the most commonly-used types of radiation. Many of the factors which influence radiosensitivity, particularly nuclear factors, will be discussed. Emphasis will be upon whole-plant studies done at Brookhaven National Laboratory by A.H. Sparrow and his associates, since these studies are the source of most of the available radiosensitivity data and of all the sensitivity predictions listed here. Data presented here include summaries of experimentally-determined radiosensitivities at various end points for both herbaceous and woody higher plants, and for a few species of ferns and lower plants. The algae and fungi have not been considered here due to space limitations.

  13. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  14. Recombinant Cytokines from Plants.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sirko, A.; Van?k, Tomáš; Gora-Sochacka, A.; Redkiewicz, P.

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 12, ?. 6 (2011), s. 3536-3552. ISSN 1661-6596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : cytokines * pharmaceutical proteins * plant-based production systems Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.598, year: 2011

  15. Radiosensitivity in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents a compilation of available data on the sensitivity of plants to ionizing radiation, and provides basic information on methods of determining such sensitivities, or of estimating radiosensitivities by calcuation of the nuclear factors upon which they depend. The scope of the data presented here is necessarily limited to the most generally useful radiobiological end points and to the most commonly-used types of radiation. Many of the factors which influence radiosensitivity, particularly nuclear factors, will be discussed. Emphasis will be upon whole-plant studies done at Brookhaven National Laboratory by A.H. Sparrow and his associates, since these studies are the source of most of the available radiosensitivity data and of all the sensitivity predictions listed here. Data presented here include summaries of experimentally-determined radiosensitivities at various end points for both herbaceous and woody higher plants, and for a few species of ferns and lower plants. The algae and fungi have not been considered here due to space limitations

  16. Plants and Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsell, Eric; Hug, J. William

    2007-01-01

    Investigations with Wisconsin Fast Plants can make the subject matter come alive...or dead, depending on the experimental treatment. This became apparent when a university-based teacher educator and a fifth-grade teacher collaborated on a professional development experience aimed at increasing understanding of how science inquiry could be used…

  17. Egg Processing Plant Sanitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard analysis and critical control programs (HACCP) will eventually be required for commercial shell egg processing plants. Sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for HACCP and is based upon current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) as listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Good ...

  18. Plant Biotech Lab Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tant, Carl

    This book provides laboratory experiments to enhance any food science/botany curriculum. Chapter 1, "Introduction," presents a survey of the techniques used in plant biotechnology laboratory procedures. Chapter 2, "Micronutrition," discusses media and nutritional requirements for tissue culture studies. Chapter 3, "Sterile Seeds," focuses on the…

  19. Sex chromosomes in plants.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hobza, Roman; Vyskot, Boris

    London : Global Science Books , Ltd, 2006 - (da Silva, J.), s. 224-235 - (1. vydání) R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA521/06/0056; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : dioecious plants * sex determination * Silene latifolia Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  20. Plant Modernization Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most nuclear plants were designed and built from the 1960's through the 1990's. These plants employ predominantly analog instrumentation and control (I and C) technology, and their control rooms are made up of primarily hardwired controls (e.g., switches, knobs and handles) and displays (e.g., gauges, linear scales and indicator lights). Over the past several years, these plants have been modernized with digital I and C and computer-based human-system interfaces (HSIs) such as software-based process controls, touch-screen interfaces and large-screen, overview displays. As these computer based HIS technologies are integrated into control rooms based on conventional technology, hybrid control rooms are created. The paper summarizes lessons learned from the study of plant modernization programs over the past ten years so that they can be used to help improve the modification process. While the research focused on the impact of technology change on human performance, a number of organizational and programmatic issues were observed as well. Eleven lessons learned are presented

  1. Plants flex their skeletons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foster, Randy; Mattsson, Ole; Mundy, John

    2003-01-01

    Recent work on the fragile fiber mutants of Arabidopsis has identified microtubule-associated proteins that affect the orientation of cellulose microfibrils in cell walls, a major determinant of plant elongation growth. These same proteins are implicated in responses to gibberellin, provoking fresh...

  2. Phenolics and Plant Allelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-An Jiang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds arise from the shikimic and acetic acid (polyketide metabolic pathways in plants. They are but one category of the many secondary metabolites implicated in plant allelopathy. Phenolic allelochemicals have been observed in both natural and managed ecosystems, where they cause a number of ecological and economic problems, such as declines in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure of natural forests, and replanting problems in orchards. Phenolic allelochemical structures and modes of action are diverse and may offer potential lead compounds for the development of future herbicides or pesticides. This article reviews allelopathic effects, analysis methods, and allelopathic mechanisms underlying the activity of plant phenolic compounds. Additionally, the currently debated topic in plant allelopathy of whether catechin and 8-hydroxyquinoline play an important role in Centaurea maculata and Centaurea diffusa invasion success is discussed. Overall, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the allelopacthic potential of phenolic compounds to provide us with methods to solve various ecology problems, especially in regard to the sustainable development of agriculture, forestry, nature resources and environment conservation.

  3. Mechanisms in Plant Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hake, Sarah [USDA ARS Plant Gene Expression Center

    2013-08-21

    This meeting has been held every other year for the past twenty-two years and is the only regularly held meeting focused specifically on plant development. Topics covered included: patterning in developing tissues; short and long distance signaling; differentiation of cell types; the role of epigenetics in development; evolution; growth.

  4. Drug from plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors make certain general observations and comments concerning the role of photosynthesis in the labeling of natural compounds, as well as some recommendations based on recent results regarding the labeling of a new anti-malaria drug extracted from a plant and originally known to traditional Chinese medicine. (author). 6 refs

  5. Gas-technology plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gas-technological plant (GTP) for storage of liquid and gaseous SF6, used in accelerating engineering as a high-voltage insulator, is described. The GTP ensures also maintenance of the high insulation properties of SF6 gas. Main performances of GTP are presented. The operation experience during some years has shown high reliability and efficiency of GTP

  6. PRINS on Plant Chromosomes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macas, Ji?í; Navrátilová, Alice; Kubaláková, Marie; Doležel, Jaroslav

    Vol. 334. Totowa, NJ : Humana Press, 2006 - (Pellestor, F.), s. 133-139 ISBN 978-1-58829-549-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Plant chromosomes * repetitive sequences * satellite DNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  7. T Plant hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the T Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  8. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

  9. Plant thymidine kinase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Zahidul; Knecht,, Wolfgang; Willer,, Mette; Rozpedowska, Elzbieta; Kristoffersen, Peter; Clausen,, Anders Ranegaard; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte; Almqvist,, Per M.; Gojkovic, Zoran; ,Jure, Piskur; Ekstrom,, Tomas J.

    2010-01-01

    thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) from the tomato plant, with favorable characteristics in vitro and in vivo. This enzyme (toTK1) is highly specific for the nucleoside analog prodrug zidovudine (azidothymidine, AZT), which is known to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. An important feature of toTK1 is that it...

  10. Site treatment plant delayed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A $21-million nuclear waste vitrification plant at the U.S. Dept. of Energy's former uranium enrichment site in Fernald, Ohio, is facing design and procurement problems that have delayed its startup 17 months. But DOE says it will not delay the 10-year cleanup of the entire site. The pressure of Superfund-imposed deadlines forced the plant's fast-track design and construction. Portions of the project were designed in parallel rather than in sequence, say officials of DOE and Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Co. (FERMCO), the site's Fluor Corp.-led cleanup contractor. DOE opted to vitrify 9,700 tons of radioactive waste stored in four cement silos as part of a December 1994 agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The pact gave FERMCO 15 months to start remediation. The first glitch occurred when DOE could not get bids for a melter in the pilot vitrification plant that could effectively operate at up to 1,450 degrees C. That forced DOE to revise the request for proposals for the melter to specify a one-ton-per-day furnace instead of a 5- tpd unit, says Nina Akgunduz, DOE project manager. The melter supplier is GTS Duratek Inc., Columbia, Md. The original operating schedule anticipated 100% in the pilot plant, when completed test burns in three months. But the schedule was revised after European vitrification specialists specified 30% efficiency as a more realistic estimate. The pilot is now set to begin operating in February. Data collected from the pilot plant will be used to design the Site's $200-million, full-scale vitrification plant, which will handle up to 30 tons of material a day. Reising says one lesson learned so far is to include operations and construction staff early on in the process. Design problems would have been caught earlier, he says. Meanwhile, design and construction of the larger plant is also on a fast track, with the first construction package to be awarded in March

  11. Plant life management optimized utilization of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For safe, reliable and economical nuclear power generation it is of central importance to understand, analyze and manage aging-related phenomena and to apply this information in the systematic utilization and as-necessary extension of the service life of components and systems. An operator's overall approach to aging and plant life management which also improves performance characteristics can help to optimize plant operating economy. In view of the deregulation of the power generation industry with its increased competition, nuclear power plants must today also increasingly provide for or maintain a high level of plant availability and low power generating costs. This is a difficult challenge even for the newest, most modern plants, and as plants age they can only remain competitive if a plant operator adopts a strategic approach which takes into account the various aging-related effects on a plant-wide basis. The significance of aging and plant life management for nuclear power plants becomes apparent when looking at their age: By the year 2000 roughly fifty of the world's 434 commercial nuclear power plants will have been in operation for thirty years or more. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency, as many as 110 plants will have reached the thirty-year service mark by the year 2005. In many countries human society does not push the construction of new nuclear power plants and presumably will not change mind within the next ten years. New construction licenses cannot be expected so that for economical and ecological reasons existing plants have to be operated unchallengeably. On the other hand the deregulation of the power production market is asking just now for analysis of plant life time to operate the plants at a high technical and economical level until new nuclear power plants can be licensed and constructed. (author)

  12. Photooxidative stress in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The light-dependent generation of active oxygen species is termed photooxidative stress. This can occur in two ways: (1) the donation of energy or electrons directly to oxygen as a result of photosynthetic activity; (2) exposure of tissues to ultraviolet irradiation. The light-dependent destruction of catalase compounds the problem. Although generally detrimental to metabolism, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide may serve useful functions if rigorously controlled and compartmentalised. During photosynthesis the formation of active oxygen species is minimised by a number of complex and refined regulatory mechanisms. When produced, active oxygen species are eliminated rapidly by efficient antioxidative systems. The chloroplast is able to use the production and destruction of hydrogen peroxide to regulate the thermal dissipation of excess excitation energy. This is an intrinsic feature of the regulation of photosynthetic electron transport. Photoinhibition and photooxidation only usually occur when plants are exposed to stress. Active oxygen species are part of the alarm-signalling processes in plants. These serve to modify metabolism and gene expression so that the plant can respond to adverse environmental conditions, invading organisms and ultraviolet irradiation. The capacity of the antioxidative defense system is often increased at such times but if the response is not sufficient, radical production will exceed scavenging and ultimately lead to the disruption of metabolism. Oxidative damage arises in high light principally when the latter is in synergy with additional stress factors such as chilling temperatures or pollution. Environmental stress can modify the photooxidative processes in various ways ranging from direct involvement in light-induced free radical formation to the inhibition of metabolism that renders previously optimal light levels excessive. It is in just such situations that the capacity for the production of active oxygen species can exceed that for scavenging by the antioxidative defense systems. The advent of plant transformation, however, may have placed within our grasp the possibility of engineering greater stress tolerance in plants by enhancement of the antioxidative defence system

  13. Heating plant privatization stagnates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state has been talking about privatization of 6 municipal heating plants since 2001. The tenders were to start last year. But nothing has happened and the future is uncertain. The city councils would prefer to receive, if not 100%, then at least a majority stake in the heating plants free of charge. But the Cabinet has decided to sell 51% to investors. The privatization agency - the National Property Fund (FNM) is preparing a proposal to increase the stake offered for sale to 67%. According to information provided by the FNM the sale will begin after Cabinet approval. The Fund intends to apply the same model to the sale of all the heating plants. Last year, a major German company Verbundnetz Gas declared its interest in purchasing large municipal heating plants in Slovakia. But it has been waiting for a response ever since. The French company - Dalkia, which has 10-years' experience of doing business in Slovakia, is interested in all the heating plants to be offered for sale. The Austrian company - Stefe is not new to the business either, it is interested mainly in the regions where it has already established itself - Central and Eastern Slovakia. Strategic investors expect financial groups to show interest too. The Penta Group has not hid its ambitions - it has already privatised a company which represents the key to the future development of heat management in Bratislava - Paroplynovy cyklus. Whereas Penta is not new to the heat production business another financial group - Slavia Capital is still surveying the sector. Should it not succeed, it plans several projects that would allow it to take a stake in the sector

  14. Nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Action at the international level will assume greater importance as the number of nuclear power plants increases, especially in the more densely populated parts of the world. Predictions of growth made prior to October 1973 [9] indicated that, by 1980, 14% of the electricity would be supplied by nuclear plants and by the year 2000 this figure would be about 50%. This will make the topic of international co-operation and standards of even greater importance. The IAEA has long been active in providing assistance to Member States in the siting design and operation of nuclear reactors. These activities have been pursued through advisory missions, the publication of codes of practice, guide books, technical reports and in arranging meetings to promote information exchange. During the early development of nuclear power, there was no well-established body of experience which would allow formulation of internationally acceptable safety criteria, except in a few special cases. Hence, nuclear power plant safety and reliability matters often received an ad hoc approach which necessarily entailed a lack of consistency in the criteria used and in the levels of safety required. It is clear that the continuation of an ad hoc approach to safety will prove inadequate in the context of a world-wide nuclear power industry, and the international trade which this implies. As in several other fields, the establishment of internationally acceptable safety standards and appropriate guides for use by regulatory bodies, utilities, designers and constructors, is becoming a necessity. The IAEA is presently planning the development of a comprehensive set of basic requirements for nuclear power plant safety, and the associated reliability requirements, which would be internationally acceptable, and could serve as a standard frame of reference for nuclear plant safety and reliability analyses

  15. Plant breeder's toolbox through history

    OpenAIRE

    Grimberg, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    More than ten thousand years ago people began to cultivate the land and grow different plants. Thus they did not need to wander around to hunt and collect their food. That was the time when plant breeding history began. Wild plants were adapted to become crops when humans began to pick and sow the seeds from the plants with the best properties. They chose plants with for example many seeds that remained long on the plant and thus gave them a lot of food. Through thousands of years, it was ...

  16. Integrated Gasification SOFC Plant with a Steam Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Pierobon, Leonardo

    A hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Steam Turbine (ST) plant is integrated with a gasification plant. Wood chips are fed to the gasification plant to produce biogas and then this gas is fed into the anode side of a SOFC cycle to produce electricity and heat. The gases from the SOFC stacks...... steam plant is presented and studied. The plant is called as IGSS (Integrated Gasification SOFC Steam plant). Different systems layouts are presented and investigated. Electrical efficiencies up to 56% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional integrated gasification combined...... cycles (IGCC). Plants characteristics are discussed while the plants sizes are defined form the available steam turbine as well as cultivation area....

  17. Pipeline from sewage plant fills A-plant's cooling needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary treated effluent from a Phoenix sewage plant will be sent by pipeline to the Palo Verde nuclear plant to be used as coolant. Prestressed concrete cylindrical pipe will be used. Fabrication and installation of the pipeline are described

  18. Mycorrhizal fungal identity and diversity relaxes plant–plant competition

    OpenAIRE

    Wagg, C.; Jansa, J; Stadler, M.; Schmid, B; Heijden, M.G.A., van der

    2011-01-01

    There is a great interest in ecology to understand the role of soil microbial diversity for plant productivity and coexistence. Recent research has shown increases in species richness of mutualistic soil fungi, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), to be related to increases in aboveground productivity of plant communities. However, the impact of AMF richness on plant–plant interactions has not been determined. Moreover, it is unknown whether species-rich AMF communities can act as insuranc...

  19. Plant–plant interactions vary with different mycorrhizal fungus species

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeksema, Jason D

    2005-01-01

    Because different species of mycorrhizal fungi have different effects on the growth of particular plant species, variation in mycorrhizal fungus species composition could cause changes in the strength of plant–plant interactions. Results are presented from a growth chamber experiment that compared the strength of interactions among seedlings of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) when the pines were colonized by two different groups of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the genus Rhizopogon. Plant density...

  20. Design of plant safety model in plant enterprise engineering environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant enterprise engineering environment (PEEE) is an approach aiming to manage the plant through its lifecycle. In such environment, safety is considered as the common objective for all activities throughout the plant lifecycle. One approach to achieve plant safety is to embed safety aspects within each function and activity within such environment. One ideal way to enable safety aspects within each automated function is through modeling. This paper proposes a theoretical approach to design plant safety model as integrated with the plant lifecycle model within such environment. Object-oriented modeling approach is used to construct the plant safety model using OO CASE tool on the basis of unified modeling language (UML). Multiple views are defined for plant objects to express static, dynamic, and functional semantics of these objects. Process safety aspects are mapped to each model element and inherited from design to operation stage, as it is naturally embedded within plant's objects. By developing and realizing the plant safety model, safer plant operation can be achieved and plant safety can be assured

  1. Convergence of plant-rich and plant-only diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, J

    1999-09-01

    Discussants at the Third International Congress on Vegetarian Nutrition considered the nutritional adequacy, benefits, and health outcomes of plant-only (e.g., vegan and fruitarian), plant-based (e.g., macrobiotic, lactovegetarian, semivegetarian, and meatless), and omnivorous dietary patterns. The increased availability of a variety of plant foods, the advent of nutrient-fortified plant foods, the use of vitamin and mineral supplements, and the widespread dissemination of sound information on dietary patterns mean that convergence between the essential nutrient profiles of plant-only and plant-rich, plant-based diets is possible. Special attention should be paid to nutrition among vulnerable groups by age or physiologic status if they consume diets based solely on plants. Research has shown that both plant-only and plant-based eating patterns have health benefits, most notably in reducing the risk of chronic, degenerative diseases. The panel concluded that evidence for a convergence of scientific opinion on the safety and healthfulness of plant-only diets that are appropriately planned to meet all nutrient requirements compared with plant-based diets is considerable. PMID:10479241

  2. Design of plant safety model in plant enterprise engineering environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbar, Hossam A.; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Yukiyasu

    2001-07-01

    Plant enterprise engineering environment (PEEE) is an approach aiming to manage the plant through its lifecycle. In such environment, safety is considered as the common objective for all activities throughout the plant lifecycle. One approach to achieve plant safety is to embed safety aspects within each function and activity within such environment. One ideal way to enable safety aspects within each automated function is through modeling. This paper proposes a theoretical approach to design plant safety model as integrated with the plant lifecycle model within such environment. Object-oriented modeling approach is used to construct the plant safety model using OO CASE tool on the basis of unified modeling language (UML). Multiple views are defined for plant objects to express static, dynamic, and functional semantics of these objects. Process safety aspects are mapped to each model element and inherited from design to operation stage, as it is naturally embedded within plant's objects. By developing and realizing the plant safety model, safer plant operation can be achieved and plant safety can be assured.

  3. Plant air systems safety study: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Air System facilities and operations are reviewed for potential safety problems not covered by standard industrial safety procedures. Information is presented under the following section headings: facility and process description (general); air plant equipment; air distribution system; safety systems; accident analysis; plant air system safety overview; and conclusion

  4. Plant Genetic Resources: Not Just for Plant Breeding Anymore

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System maintains over 480,000 accessions of plant genetic resources from 2,000 genera and 12,400 species. These genetic resources consist of agronomic crops, horticultural crops, fruit and nut crops, medicinal plants, ornamental crops, and other species. Each year...

  5. Production of virus resistant plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, W.G.; Lindbo, J.A.

    1996-12-10

    A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection. 9 figs.

  6. Gene encoding plant asparagine synthetase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruzzi, Gloria M. (New York, NY); Tsai, Fong-Ying (New York, NY)

    1993-10-26

    The identification and cloning of the gene(s) for plant asparagine synthetase (AS), an important enzyme involved in the formation of asparagine, a major nitrogen transport compound of higher plants is described. Expression vectors constructed with the AS coding sequence may be utilized to produce plant AS; to engineer herbicide resistant plants, salt/drought tolerant plants or pathogen resistant plants; as a dominant selectable marker; or to select for novel herbicides or compounds useful as agents that synchronize plant cells in culture. The promoter for plant AS, which directs high levels of gene expression and is induced in an organ specific manner and by darkness, is also described. The AS promoter may be used to direct the expression of heterologous coding sequences in appropriate hosts.

  7. Return factors of power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extension of the return factor to the aggregate return factor is the quotient of the net energy output of a plant over its planned serviceable life, and the cumulated total energy consumption for the fabrication of the plant, the operating equipment and material, and the power plant internal energy consumption for operation. The latter is defined to be the fossil or nuclear fuel consumption of a power plant, evaluated with the primary energy requirement. A table is given showing the return factor, the amortization period in terms of energy, and the aggregate return factor, for a coal-fired power plant, a nuclear power plant, six variants of photovoltaic power plants, and a wind power plant. (orig./DG)

  8. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  9. Initiative against nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication of the Initiative of Austrian Nuclear Power Plant Opponents contains articles on radiactive waste dispoasal in Austria and and discusses safety issues of the nuclear power plant 'Zwentendorf'. (kancsar)

  10. [Alfalfa Planting as weed control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter to farming cooperators regarding the stipulations surrounding alfalfa plantings in lieu of small grain plantings to provide weed control,...

  11. Plant status monitor system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In today's regulatory and financial environment, improving plant efficiency and safety are necessary elements of plant operations. Public utility commissions are making rate rulings based, in part, on plant availability performance; and the NRC is putting more emphasis on plant operational aspects. This comes at a time when operating, maintaining, and managing a plant are becoming increasingly complex; moreover, the desired number of experienced plant personnel are becoming more difficult to find. This situation can be partially resolved by using computer software tools to assist operations, maintenance, engineering, and management personnel. These software tools provide information and interpretations based on plant and equipment status. They support improved plant availability, technical specification compliance, and administrative functions. A key element or computerization is the ability to operate on integrated information

  12. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  13. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  14. Lunar Influence On Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Wolfgang

    Concerning lunar periodicity in biology, we summarized all what has been observationally and experimentally found and published in scientific literature till 1996. We summoned up as many as about 600 living species (mostly animals) with identified lunar periodicities, functioning in a more or less endogenous manner. Here we give a short review about the occurrence in the plant kingdom. In Thallophytes 45 species have been described as well as 40 species of Angiosperms. In Prokaryonts no lunar rhythms could be found. Their individual life cycles do not reach the time span of at least comparable parts of a lunar day. Thus as in all Eukaryonts the occurrence of the cell nucleus constitutes specifically ndogenous rhythms in plants as well as in the animal kingdom.

  15. Jennings Demonstration PLant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ Heissner

    2010-08-31

    Verenium operated a demonstration plant with a capacity to produce 1.4 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural resiues for about two years. During this time, the plant was able to evaluate the technical issues in producing ethanol from three different cellulosic feedstocks, sugar cane bagasse, energy cane, and sorghum. The project was intended to develop a better understanding of the operating parameters that would inform a commercial sized operation. Issues related to feedstock variability, use of hydrolytic enzymes, and the viability of fermentative organisms were evaluated. Considerable success was achieved with pretreatment processes and use of enzymes but challenges were encountered with feedstock variability and fermentation systems. Limited amounts of cellulosic ethanol were produced.

  16. Savannah River Plant overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) is located in the state of South Carolina. SRP's primary function is the production of plutonium, tritium, and other special nuclear materials for the national defense, for other governmental uses, and for some civilian purposes. The liquid high-level wastes produced from these operations are shown. Fission products from the separations plants are sent to underground waste storage tanks where the volume and mobility of the wastes are decreased by evaporation. Solid wastes generated by the facilities are sent to a 195-acre burial ground. The beta-gamma and low-level alpha wastes are buried in trenches. TRU wastes estimated to contain > 10 nCi/g are stored retrievably on pads. The long-range plan for managing TRU waste at SRP is shown graphically

  17. Powder detergents production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankovi? Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for powder detergent production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories, in 1998. - 2000. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant with a capacity of 25,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Delta In", Zrenjanin, in 2000.This technology was an innovation, because new approach in mixing a powder materials was used, as well as introducing a new type of dryer in detergent production. The product meets all quality demands for detergents with high specific weight (1000 g/l, as well as environmental regulations. The detergent production process is fully automatized, and the product has uniform quality. There is no waste material in detergent zeolite production, because all products with unsatisfactory quality are returned to the process. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  18. DNA repair in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examples of the DNA repair system in plants and the repair mechanism are reviewed under the following headings: Repair by visible light of the DNA damage caused by ultraviolet rays. Excision repair of the pyridine dimer produced by UV, and repair of spliced single stranded DNA by a gamma-ray irradiation and mutagens. The mutation frequency by UV irradiation of pollen of corn was lowered by light repair. The mutants of barley caused by gamma-ray irradiation are increased by EDTA or caffein which inhibits repair synthesis. Therefore, these are all repair without error. Whether erratic repair exists in plants is unknown; but when the barley seed irradiated with 1 kR gamma rays were treated with ethylmethane sulfonic acid, the mortality was lower than when only EMS treatment was given, and the mutation incidence increased. This suggests that erratic repair occurs in such cases. (Kaihara, S.)

  19. Plant Pathway Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Pankaj; Usadel, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Pathway databases provide information about the role of chemicals, genes, and gene products in the form of protein or RNA, their interactions leading to the formulation of metabolic, transport, regulatory, and signaling reactions. The reactions can then be tethered by the principle of inputs and outputs of one or more reaction to create pathways. This chapter provides a list of various online databases that carry information about plant pathways and provides a brief overview of how to use the pathway databases such as WikiPathways Plants Portal, MapMan and the cereal crop pathway databases like RiceCyc and MaizeCyc, that were developed using the Pathway Tools software. PMID:26519401

  20. The Chernobyl plant shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobylsk-1 reactor, operational in september 1977 has been stopped in november 1996; the Chernobylsk-2 reactor started in november 1978 is out of order since 1991 following a fire. The Chernobylsk-3 reactor began in 1981. During the last three years it occurs several maintenance operations that stop it. In june 2000, the Ukrainian authorities decided to stop it definitively on the 15. of december (2000). This file handles the subject. it is divided in four chapters: the first one gives the general context of the plant shutdown, the second chapter studies the supporting projects to stop definitively the nuclear plant, the third chapter treats the question of the sarcophagus, and the fourth and final chapter studies the consequences of the accident and the contaminated territories. (N.C.)