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Sample records for plant salacia reticulata

  1. Salacia reticulata has therapeutic effects on obesity.

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Nakayama, Yuichiro; Harasawa, Yukiko; Matsui, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Hiroko; Sai, Yoshimichi; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Tomatsu, Shunji; Aburada, Masaki

    2014-10-01

    Salacia reticulata Wight (S. reticulata) is a herbal medicine used for treatment of early diabetes in Ayurvedic medicine. In previous reports, the extract of S. reticulata showed preventive effects on obesity and various metabolic disorders and a suppressive effect on differentiation in premature adipocytes. The aim of this research was to elucidate the therapeutic efficacy of the extract of S. reticulata on obesity and various metabolic disorders in 12-week-old TSOD mice with obesity and metabolic disorders and in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In TSOD mice, S. reticulata therapy produced a reduction in body weight and mesenteric fat accumulation, an improvement in abnormal glucose metabolism, and an increase in adiponectin level in plasma. In addition, the mRNA expressions of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and adiponectin were increased in mesenteric fat. In in vitro experiments, S. reticulata therapy produced suppression of intracellular triacylglycerol accumulation and enhancement of glycerol release into the medium in mature 3T3-L1 cells. The mRNA expressions of lipogenesis factor (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, lipoprotein lipase, CD36, and fatty acid binding protein 4) were down-regulated, while the expressions of lipolysis factor (adipose tissue triacylglycerol lipase and HSL) and adiponectin were up-regulated. Moreover, the extract of S. reticulata enhanced the expression of total AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) and phosphorylated AMPKα in mature adipocytes. These findings demonstrate that the extract of S. reticulata has therapeutic effects on obesity and metabolic disorders by enhancing lipogenesis genes and suppressing lipolysis genes through the activation of AMPKα in adipocytes. PMID:24838513

  2. Adverse pregnancy outcome in rats following exposure to a Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) root extract

    Ratnasooriya W.D.; Jayakody J.R.A.C.; Premakumara G.A.S.

    2003-01-01

    The root extract of Salacia reticulata Wight (family: Celastraceae) is used in Sri Lanka by traditional practitioners as a herbal therapy for glycemic control even during pregnancy. It is recognized that some clinically used antidiabetic drugs have harmful effects on pregnancy but the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on reproductive outcome is unknown and deserves examination. We determined the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on the reproductive outcome of Wistar rats (250-...

  3. Adverse pregnancy outcome in rats following exposure to a Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae root extract

    Ratnasooriya W.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The root extract of Salacia reticulata Wight (family: Celastraceae is used in Sri Lanka by traditional practitioners as a herbal therapy for glycemic control even during pregnancy. It is recognized that some clinically used antidiabetic drugs have harmful effects on pregnancy but the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on reproductive outcome is unknown and deserves examination. We determined the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on the reproductive outcome of Wistar rats (250-260 g when administered orally (10 g/kg during early (days 1-7 and mid- (days 7-14 pregnancy. The root extract significantly (P<0.05 enhanced post-implantation losses (control vs treatment: early pregnancy, 4.7 ± 2.4 vs 49.3 ± 13%; mid-pregnancy, 4.7 ± 2.4 vs 41.7 ± 16.1%. Gestational length was unaltered but the pups born had a low birth weight (P<0.05 (early pregnancy, 6.8 ± 0.1 vs 5.3 ± 0.1 g; mid-pregnancy, 6.8 ± 0.1 vs 5.0 ± 0.1 g and low birth index (P<0.05 (early pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 50.7 ± 12.9%; mid-pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 58.3 ± 16.1%, fetal survival ratio (P<0.05 (early pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 50.7 ± 12.9; mid-pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 58.3 ± 16.1, and viability index (P<0.05 (early pregnancy, 94.9 ± 2.6 vs 49.5 ± 12.5%; mid-pregnancy, 94.9 ± 2.6 vs 57.1 ± 16.1%. However, the root extract was non-teratogenic. We conclude that the S. reticulata root extract can be hazardous to successful pregnancy in women and should not be used in pregnancy complicated by diabetes.

  4. Orally Administered Salacia reticulata Extract Reduces H1N1 Influenza Clinical Symptoms in Murine Lung Tissues Putatively Due to Enhanced Natural Killer Cell Activity.

    Romero-Pérez, Gustavo A; Egashira, Masayo; Harada, Yuri; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Oda, Yuriko; Ueda, Fumitaka; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Tsukamoto, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is a major cause of respiratory tract infection. Although most cases do not require further hospitalization, influenza periodically causes epidemics in humans that can potentially infect and kill millions of people. To countermeasure this threat, new vaccines need to be developed annually to match emerging influenza viral strains with increased resistance to existing vaccines. Thus, there is a need for finding and developing new anti-influenza viral agents as alternatives to current treatments. Here, we tested the antiviral effects of an extract from the stems and roots of Salacia reticulata (SSRE), a plant rich in phytochemicals, such as salacinol, kotalanol, and catechins, on H1N1 influenza virus-infected mice. Following oral administration of 0.6 mg/day of SSRE, the incidence of coughing decreased in 80% of mice, and only one case of severe pulmonary inflammation was detected. Moreover, when compared with mice given Lactobacillus casei JCM1134, a strain previously shown to help increase in vitro natural killer (NK) cell activity, SSRE-administered mice showed greater and equal NK cell activity in splenocytes and pulmonary cells, respectively, at high effector cell:target cell ratios. Next, to test whether or not SSRE would exert protective effects against influenza in the absence of gut microbiota, mice were given antibiotics before being inoculated influenza virus and subsequently administered SSRE. SSRE administration induced an increase in NK cell activity in splenocytes and pulmonary cells at levels similar to those detected in mice not treated with antibiotics. Based on our results, it can be concluded that phytochemicals in the SSRE exerted protective effects against influenza infection putatively via modulation of the immune response, including enhancement of NK cell activity, although some protective effects were not necessarily through modulation of gut microbiota. Further investigation is necessary to elucidate the molecular mechanisms

  5. Mutagenicity induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the medicinal plant Plathymenia reticulata Benth

    A Della Torre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plathymenia reticulata Benth has an anti-inflammatory effect and is capable of neutralizing the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu or Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, probably by precipitating venom proteins (an effect caused by plant tannins. The present study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic activity of P. reticulata by using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test and the micronucleus test in CHO-K1 cells. P. reticulata extract concentrations of 2.84, 5.68, 11.37, and 19.90 mg/plate were assayed by the Ames test using TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 bacterial strains, with (+S9 and without (-S9 metabolic activation. Concentrations of 5, 1.6 and 0.5 μg/mL of P. reticulata extract were used for the micronucleus test. P. reticulata extract was mutagenic to TA98 (-S9 and showed signs of mutagenic activity in TA97a and TA102 (both -S9 strains. Micronucleus test CBPI values showed that the endogenous metabolic system increased the number of viable cells when compared to the non-activated samples and the micronucleus frequency increased when the cells were treated in the absence of S9. We concluded that P. reticulata extract may present direct mutagenic properties.

  6. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart): Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties

    Jamkhande, Prasad G.; Wattamwar, Amruta S.

    2015-01-01

    From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. (牛心果 niú xīn guǒ; Bullock's heart) is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthe...

  7. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart): Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties.

    Jamkhande, Prasad G; Wattamwar, Amruta S

    2015-07-01

    From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. ( niú xīn guǒ; Bullock's heart) is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound healing and cytotoxic effects. It is widely distributed with phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Present article is an attempt to highlight over taxonomy, morphology, geographical distribution, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of A. reticulata reported so far. PMID:26151026

  8. Studies on the acetogenins of Formosan annonaceous plants. II. Cytotoxic acetogenins from Annona reticulata.

    Chang, F R; Wu, Y C; Duh, C Y; Wang, S K

    1993-10-01

    Using cytotoxicity as a guide to fractionation, one novel acetogenin, annoreticuin-9-one [3], and four known cytotoxic acetogenins, squamone [4], solamin [5], annomonicin [6] and rolliniastatin 2 [7], were isolated from active extracts of the leaves of the Formosan plant Annona reticulata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of uv, ir, 1H- and 13C-nmr, and ms data of the natural compounds and their derivatives. PMID:8277309

  9. SALACIA IMPERATORIA URBS

    José d’Encarnação

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Síntese acerca do que se tem investigado sobre Alcácer do Sal na época romana. Explicita-se a razão do nome; refere-se o interesse que, em todos os tempos, despertou nos historiadores; releva-se o papel fundamental que deteve do ponto de vista estratégico e económico (os Cornelli Bocchi, a emissão de moeda…. Analisa-se, nesse contexto, o pedestal dedicado por uma flamínia a I. O. M. (IRCP 183; a consagração de Vicanus, Bouti filius, ao imperador Augusto (IRCP 184, a presença da onomástica grega e a importância invulgar da tabella defixionis, em que se invocam Hércules e Átis. ENGLISH: Synthesis of the investigation about Salacia: the cause of its Roman designation, the interest of the researchers throughout time, the important strategic and economic position of the town (the family of the Cornelli Bocchi, emission of money…. Additionally, this synthesis includes the reanalysis of uncommon epigraphic texts: the dedication of a flaminica to I. O. M. (IRCP 183, the consecration of Vicanus Bouti filius to the Emperor August (IRCP 184, the significant presence of the Greek names and of a tabella defixionis where the power of Hercules and Atis are invoked.

  10. Biosynthesis, Characterization, and Antidermatophytic Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Using Raamphal Plant (Annona reticulata Aqueous Leaves Extract

    P. Shivakumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Annona reticulata leaf aqueous extract. The biosynthesised silver nanoparticles were confirmed by visual observation and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Appearance of dark brown colour indicated the synthesis of silver in the reaction mixture. The silver nanoparticles were found to be spherical, rod, and triangular in shape with variable size ranging from 23.84 to 50.54 nm, as evident by X-ray diffraction studies, TEM. The X-ray diffraction studies, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and TEM analysis indicate that the particles are crystalline in nature. The nanoparticles appeared to be associated with some chemical compounds which possess hydroxyl and carbonyl groups, confirmed by FTIR. This is the first and novel report of silver nanoparticles synthesised from Annona reticulata leaves extract and their antidermatophytic activity.

  11. Biosynthesis, Characterization, and Antidermatophytic Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Using Raamphal Plant (Annona reticulata) Aqueous Leaves Extract

    P. Shivakumar Singh; Vidyasagar, G. M.

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigated the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Annona reticulata leaf aqueous extract. The biosynthesised silver nanoparticles were confirmed by visual observation and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Appearance of dark brown colour indicated the synthesis of silver in the reaction mixture. The silver nanoparticles were found to be spherical, rod, and triangular in shape with variable size ranging from 23.84 to 50.54 nm, as evident by X-ray diffraction studies, TEM. The X-ra...

  12. PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND HPTLC PROFILING OF EXTRACTS OF SALACIA OBLONGA

    Sujata Basu, Mamta Pant and Rachana*

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Plants of medicinal importance though are quite well known among the Ayurvedic practitioners since years, yet many of them have not been standardized, validated and documented completely. Among such medicinally valuable plants, Salacia holds a place as an effective antidiabetic herb and many species of this plant are in use as anti-diabetics. The present study reports the phytochemical analysis of one of its species Salacia oblonga (SO (roots and stems, belonging to the family Celastraceae (bittersweet, through various biochemical and chromatographic methods. TLC and HPTLC analysis of six different extracts of SO revealed numerous bands, indicating the presence of diverse groups of phytocompounds, many of them are assumed to contribute significantly to its antioxidant activity as well as, other biological activities. This type of analysis can help in fingerprint profiling of the plant and its various species. The identification and characterization of the phytocompounds can further help in finding out molecular targets/mechanism of action of the constituents of this herb that are responsible for its biological activities.

  13. Pharmacologically tested aldose reductase inhibitors isolated from plant sources—A concise report

    D.K.Patel; R.Kumar; K.Sairam; S.Hemalatha

    2012-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AR),a cytosolic,monomeric oxidoreductase,is a key enzyme in the polyol pathway which controls the conversion of glucose to sorbitol.The accumulation of sorbitol by the activation of AR enzymes in lens,retina,and sciatic nerves leads to the cause of diabetic defects resulting in various secondary complications,viz.retinopathy,neuropathy,nephropathy and Alzheimer's disease.Thus,reduction of the polyol pathway flux by AR inhibitors could be a potential therapeutic opening in the treatment and prevention of diabetic complications.At present,the AR inhibitors belong to two different chemical classes.One is the hydantoin derivatives,such as Sorbinil,Dilantin,and Minalrestat,and the other is the carboxylic acid derivatives,such as Epalrestat,Alrestatin,and Tolrestat.However,it is known that most of these synthethic compounds have unacceptable side-effects.Well known medicinal plants like Chrysanthemum indicum,Chrysanthemum morifolium,Prunus mume,Myrcia multiflora,Centella asiatica,and Salacia reticulata,Salacia oblonga,and Salacia chinensis exhibited potent AR inhibitory activity.The present review summarizes the list of plant material,and their isolated phytoconstituents which have been tested for their AR inhibitory activity.This litreature review covers the period to 2011,and a total of 72 plants are listed.

  14. Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Candidate Genes Related to Triacylglycerol and Pigment Biosynthesis and Photoperiodic Flowering in the Ornamental and Oil-Producing Plant, Camellia reticulata (Theaceae).

    Yao, Qiu-Yang; Huang, Hui; Tong, Yan; Xia, En-Hua; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Camellia reticulata, which is native to Southwest China, is famous for its ornamental flowers and high-quality seed oil. However, the lack of genomic information for this species has largely hampered our understanding of its key pathways related to oil production, photoperiodic flowering process and pigment biosynthesis. Here, we first sequenced and characterized the transcriptome of a diploid C. reticulata in an attempt to identify genes potentially involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis (TAGBS), photoperiodic flowering, flavonoid biosynthesis (FlaBS), carotenoid biosynthesis (CrtBS) pathways. De novo assembly of the transcriptome provided a catalog of 141,460 unigenes with a total length of ~96.1 million nucleotides (Mnt) and an N50 of 1080 nt. Of them, 22,229 unigenes were defined as differentially expressed genes (DEGs) across five sequenced tissues. A large number of annotated genes in C. reticulata were found to have been duplicated, and differential expression patterns of these duplicated genes were commonly observed across tissues, such as the differential expression of SOC1_a, SOC1_b, and SOC1_c in the photoperiodic flowering pathway. Up-regulation of SAD_a and FATA genes and down-regulation of FAD2_a gene in the TAGBS pathway in seeds may be relevant to the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFAs) to polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) in seed oil. MYBF1, a transcription regulator gene of the FlaBS pathway, was found with great sequence variation and alteration of expression patterns, probably resulting in functionally evolutionary differentiation in C. reticulata. MYBA1_a and some anthocyanin-specific biosynthetic genes in the FlaBS pathway were highly expressed in both flower buds and flowers, suggesting important roles of anthocyanin biosynthesis in flower development. Besides, a total of 40,823 expressed sequence tag simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) were identified in the C. reticulata transcriptome, providing valuable marker resources for

  15. Transcriptome analysis identifies candidate genes related to triacylglycerol and pigment biosynthesis and photoperiodic flowering in the ornamental and oil-producing plant, Camellia reticulata (Theaceae

    Qiu-Yang eYao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Camellia reticulata, which is native to Southwest China, is famous for its ornamental flowers and high-quality seed oil. However, the lack of genomic information for this species has largely hampered our understanding of its key pathways related to oil production, photoperiodic flowering process and pigment biosynthesis. Here, we first sequenced and characterized the transcriptome of a diploid C. reticulata in an attempt to identify genes potentially involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis (TAGBS, photoperiodic flowering, flavonoid biosynthesis (FlaBS, carotenoid biosynthesis (CrtBS pathways. De novo assembly of the transcriptome provided a catalogue of 141,460 unigenes with a total length of ~96.1 million nucleotides (Mnt and an N50 of 1080 nt. Of them, 22,229 unigenes were defined as differentially expressed genes (DEGs across five sequenced tissues. A large number of annotated genes in C. reticulata were found to have been duplicated, and differential expression patterns of these duplicated genes were commonly observed across tissues, such as the differential expression of SOC1_a, SOC1_b and SOC1_c in the photoperiodic flowering pathway. Up-regulation of SAD_a and FATA genes and down-regulation of FAD2_a gene in the TAGBS pathway in seeds may be relevant to the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFAs to polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs in seed oil. MYBF1, a transcription regulator gene of the FlaBS pathway, was found with great sequence variation and alteration of expression patterns, probably resulting in functionally evolutionary differentiation in C. reticulata. MYBA1_a and some anthocyanin-specific biosynthetic genes in the FlaBS pathway were highly expressed in both flower buds and flowers, suggesting important roles of anthocyanin biosynthesis in flower development. Besides, a total of 40,823 expressed sequence tag simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs were identified in the C. reticulata transcriptome, providing valuable marker

  16. Evaluation of Skin Anti-aging Potential of Citrus reticulata Blanco Peel

    Apraj, Vinita D.; Pandita, Nancy S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The peel of Citrus reticulata Blanco is traditionally used as tonic, stomachic, astringent, and carminative. It is also useful in skin care. Objective: To study the anti-aging potential of alcoholic extracts of C. reticulata Blanco peel using in vitro antioxidant and anti-enzyme assays. Materials and Methods: Plant extracts were obtained by Soxhlation (CR HAE- Hot Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata) and maceration method (CR CAE- Cold Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata). Q...

  17. Evaluation of skin anti-aging potential of Citrus reticulata blanco peel

    Vinita D Apraj; Nancy S Pandita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The peel of Citrus reticulata Blanco is traditionally used as tonic, stomachic, astringent, and carminative. It is also useful in skin care. Objective: To study the anti-aging potential of alcoholic extracts of C. reticulata Blanco peel using in vitro antioxidant and anti-enzyme assays. Materials and Methods: Plant extracts were obtained by Soxhlation (CR HAE- Hot Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata) and maceration method (CR CAE- Cold Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata). Q...

  18. PHARMACEUTICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON SALACIA MACROSPERMA-1

    Venkateswarlu, V.; Kokate, C. K.; Peddanna, G.; Veeresham, C.; Rambhau, D.

    1990-01-01

    The chloroform, ethanol (95%) and aqueous extracts of roots of Salacia macrosperma (Hippocrataceae) were prepared by double maceration followed by vacuum evaporation. All the extracts were subjects to qualitative chemical tests to find out phytoconstituents present in them. The ethanolic extract showed significant hypoglycemic activity in fasted rabbits. The activity of ethanolic extract was also evaluated in alloxan induced hyperglycemic albino rats. It showed a mean blood sugar level reduct...

  19. Chemical constituents of Salacia elliptica (Celastraceae)

    Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Figueiredo, Rute Cunha; Sousa, Grasiely Faria de; Soares, Debora Barbosa da Silva; Rodrigues, Salomao Bento Vasconcelos; Silva, Fernando Cesar; Silva, Gracia Divina de Fatima, E-mail: lucienir@ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Vieira Filho, Sidney Augusto [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Escola de Farmacia. Dept. de Farmacia

    2010-07-01

    The chemical investigation of Salacia elliptica allowed to the isolation of 20 constituents: two polyols, one xanthone, a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons, one carboxylic acid, one polymer, two steroidal compounds, one aromatic ester and eleven pentacyclic triterpenes. These triterpenes include 3{beta}-stearyloxy-oleanane, 3{beta}-stearyloxy-ursane, one seco-friedelane, and eight compounds of the friedelane series. The chemical structure and the relative configuration of a new triterpene 1,3-dioxo-16alpha-hydroxyfriedelane (15) were established through {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR including 2D experiments (HMBC, HMQC, COSY and NOESY) and herein reported for the first time (author)

  20. Bioefficacy of Plumbago zeylanica (Plumbaginaceae) and Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) plant extracts against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicide) and nontarget fish Poecilia reticulata.

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Patil, Satish V; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Salunkhe, Rahul B

    2011-05-01

    In a search for natural products that could be used to control the vectors of tropical diseases, extracts of medicinal plants Plumbago zeylanica and Cestrum nocturnum have been tested for larvicidal activity against second, third, and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The LC(50) values of all the extracts in different solvents of both the plants were less than 50 ppm (15.40-38.50 ppm) against all tested larval instars. Plant extracts also affected the life cycle of A. aegypti by inhibition of pupal development and adult emergence with increasing concentrations. The larvicidal stability of the extracts at five constant temperatures (19°C, 22°C, 25°C, 28°C, and 31°C) evaluated against fourth instar larvae revealed that toxicity of both plant extracts increases with increase in temperature. Toxicity studies carried out against fish species Poecilia reticulata, the most common nontarget organism in the habitats of A. aegypti, showed almost nil to meager toxicity at LC(50) and LC(90) doses of the plant extracts. The qualitative analysis of crude extracts of P. Zeylanica and C. nocturnum revealed the presence of bioactive phytochemicals with predominance of plumbagin in P. zeylanica and saponins in C. nocturnum. Partially purified plumbagin from P. zeylanica and saponins from C. nocturnum were obtained, and their presence was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography and biochemical tests. The bioassay experiment of partially purified secondary metabolites showed potent mosquito larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larval form. Therefore, this study explored the safer and effective potential of plant extracts against vector responsible for diseases of public health importance. PMID:21107859

  1. Biochemical characterization of selected plant species from Brazilian Savannas

    Samantha Salomão Caramori

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the presence of antinutritional compounds such as lectins and trypsin-like inhibitors, polyphenols and tannins, and enzymatic activity of peroxidases and proteases in the seeds of Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá, Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca, Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada, Salacia crassiflora Mart G. Don. (bacupari, and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro. The results suggested that these plants could be used as new source of food.O Cerrado é constituído por inúmeras espécies vegetais com potencial econômico, as quais são utilizadas para os mais variados fins, como medicinal e nutricional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar e quantificar a presença de atividade enzimática de peroxidases e proteases e fatores antinutricionais, como lectinas e inibidores de proteases, além de polifenóis e taninos em algumas espécies nativas do Cerrado. O material vegetal utilizado foram sementes de Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá, Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca, Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada, Salacia crassiflora (Mart. G. Don. (bacupari e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro, coletadas na cidade de Goiânia e municípios de Jataí e Caldas Novas, estado de Goiás. O uso potencial destas plantas e suas enzimas na indústria de alimentos, poderia resultar em aplicações ao aparecimento de novos produtos a partir das matérias-primas tradicionais, além do uso de novas fontes de alimentos.

  2. Safety evaluation of an extract from Salacia oblonga.

    Wolf, B W; Weisbrode, S E

    2003-06-01

    Plant extracts from the Salacia genus have been found to have intestinal alpha-glucosidase inhibitor activity, which may have application to the development of medical foods for people with diabetes. We evaluated the safety of a hot water extract of S. oblonga (salacinol extract) supplemented to or processed into a medical food. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned among one of three treatments: (1) EN-0178 (control, liquid diet), (2) EN-0178+salacinol (as 1 plus 500 mg of salacinol extract per 253 g diet, which was added to product immediately prior to feeding), (3) EN-0195 (as 1 plus 500 mg of salacinol extract per 253 g diet, which was added during product manufacture). After 14 days of free access to dietary treatments, rats were sacrificed, blood collected and organs weighed. Rats consuming salacinol extract had reduced (P <0.05) weight gain and feed intake. The relative (% of body weight) testicular weight was higher (P<0.05) for rats consuming salacinol extract, whereas, the relative liver and spleen weight was lower (P<0.05) for rats consuming salacinol extract. Of the serum chemistries analyzed, blood urea nitrogen and alkaline phosphatase was lower (P<0.05) for rats consuming salacinol extract. No differences in blood hematology were found. We conclude that salacinol extract, in a medical food consumed for 2 weeks in amounts estimated at 10-fold greater than proposed for human intake, did not result in clinical chemistry or histopathologic indications of toxic effects in male Sprague-Dawley rats. PMID:12738192

  3. Physical properties of trans-neptunian binaries (120347) Salacia-Actaea and (42355) Typhon-Echidna

    Stansberry, J. A.; Grundy, W. M.; Mueller, M.; Benecchi, S. D.; Rieke, G. H.; Noll, K. S.; Buie, M. W.; Levison, H. F.; Porter, S. B.; Roe, H. G.

    2012-01-01

    We report new Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer Space Telescope results concerning the physical properties of the trans-neptunian object (TNO) binaries (120347) Salacia-Actaea (formerly 2004 SB60), and (42355) Typhon-Echidna (formerly 2002 CR46). The mass of the (120347) Salacia-Actaea system is 4.

  4. Salacia campestris root bark extract: peroxidase inhibition, antioxidant and antiradical profile

    José Carlos Rebuglio Vellosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS and free radical species have been implicated in initiating or accompanying many diseases in living organisms; there is thus, a continual need for antioxidants molecules to inactivate ROS/free radicals. Many studies of plants crude extracts have demonstrated free-radical scavenging and antioxidant action. Salacia species have long been used, in several countries, as traditional medicines against certain diseases and for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae root bark ethanol extract (ScEtOH was assessed for its ability to scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen species; the results were expressed as percentage inhibition of the active species. ScEtOH was efficient against studied species: DPPH radical (obtained inhibition = 30%, ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1.8±0.8 μg/mL, HOCl (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.1 μg/mL, O2•- (obtained inhibition = 32%, and NO• (obtained inhibition = 18 %. Peroxidase activity inhibition was evaluated through the guaiacol oxidation reaction catalyzed by hemin, HRP and myeloperoxidase (MPO; data showed that ScEtOH at 10 μg/mL led to 54 and 51% of inhibition, respectively, for the hemin and HRP systems. In the MPO system, ScEtOH promoted a 50% inhibition at 8.9 μg/mL, whereas quercetin, a powerful MPO inhibitor, inhibited this system at 1.35 μg/mL.Espécies reativas do oxigênio (ERO e radicais livres estão relacionados ao início ou à exacerbação de muitas doenças em organismos vivos; existindo portanto uma necessidade contínua por moléculas antioxidantes que inativem as ERO e radicais livres. Muitos estudos com extratos brutos de plantas têm demonstrado propriedades antioxidantes e seqüestradoras de radicais livres. Espécies de Salacia são utilizadas, em muitos países, como remédio tradicional contra certas doenças e por suas propriedades antiinflamatórias. Neste estudo, o extrato bruto etanólico da casca da raiz da Salacia

  5. Effects of Salacia oblonga on cardiovascular risk factors in chronic kidney disease patients: A prospective study

    Rana Gopal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to evaluate the effect of the herbal drug Salacia oblonga on reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Sixty patients were randomized in four groups; group A1 = non-diabetic CKD given trial drug Salacia oblonga for six months, group A 2 = non-diabetic CKD intended to receive placebo, group B1 = diabetic CKD treated with Salacia oblonga for six months and group B 2 = diabetic CKD patients intended to receive placebo. Estimation of renal function tests including blood urea, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance was performed at baseline and after that at monthly intervals. Lipid profile, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP were measured at baseline and were repeated at three months and six months. After six months of treatment, Salacia oblonga could reduce the triglyceride levels by 23.66% (P = 0.008 in non-diabetic and by 17.45% (P = 0.01 in diabetic CKD patients. In comparison with placebo, both non-diabetic and diabetic CKD patients treated with Salacia oblonga showed significant reduction in CRP levels (P = 0.002 and 0.03, respectively, while significant reduction in IL-6 (P-value = 0.0003 and serum cholesterol levels (P-value = 0.0001 was seen only in diabetic CKD patients treated with Salacia oblonga. Stabilization of creatinine clearance with Salacia oblonga was observed in both non-diabetic (P = 0.05 and diabetic CKD (P = 0.04 patients in comparison with placebo. Salacia oblonga has significant beneficial effects on lipid profile and markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in CKD patients. Salacia oblonga also seems to have a reno-protective effect, as reflected by stabilization of creatinine clearance at six months in this study.

  6. Antioxidant, antimicrobial activity and in silico PASS prediction of Annona reticulata Linn. root extract

    Jamkhande, Prasad G.; Wattamwar, Amruta S.; Sanjay S. Pekamwar; Prakash G. Chandak

    2014-01-01

    Microbial infections and diseases are frequently associated with several pathogenic strains of bacteria and fungi. Plants of the reticulata genus are a notable source of new therapeutic agents including antioxidant and antimicrobial. This study reports the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic root extract of Annona reticulata Linn. The antioxidant property of extract was evaluated using DPPH free radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide assay. Antibacterial tests were perfor...

  7. Biochemical characterization of selected plant species from Brazilian Savannas

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the presence of antinutritional compounds such as lectins and trypsin-like inhibitors, polyphenols and tannins, and enzymatic activity of peroxidases and proteases in the seeds of Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá), Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca), Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada), Salacia crassiflora Mart G. Don. (bacupari), and Sclero...

  8. Pemanfaatan Ekstrak Etanol Daun Srikaya (Annona reticulata L.) Menggunakan Matriks Nata De Coco Dan Gel Dalam Penyembuhan Luka Sayat

    Purba, Rogabe Uli

    2011-01-01

    One of the plant has a healing effect for injury is Annona reticulata L., family Annonaceae. The aim of this research for making Annona reticulata etanol exract to be nata de coco matrix form and gel wich tested in to injury on back rabbits. Annona reticulata simplex was extracted with etanol for 5 days, serparated, maceration recidue on back for 2 days. Maserat obtained in evavoration with the help rotary evavoration. The extract was trapped in nata de coco matrix with soaking for 24 h...

  9. Assessment of Annona reticulata Linn. leaves fractions for invitro antioxidative effect and antimicrobial potential against standard human pathogenic strains

    Jamkhande, Prasad G.; Wattamwar, Amruta S.; Ashish D. Kankudte; Tidke, Priti S.; Kalaskar, Mohan G.

    2016-01-01

    Since from long time the plant, Annona reticulata Linn. is known for its beneficial effects. Leaves of A. reticulata were screened for phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The shade dried leaves were extracted with methanol and aqueous methanolic extract was partitioned successively with n-butanol, chloroform and acetone solvents. Methanolic extract was subjected to antioxidant screening using DPPH free radical scavenging activity and H2O2 scavenging...

  10. Biochemical studies in Ulva reticulata Forsskal

    Dhargalkar, V.K

    Major metabolites like proteins, carbohydrates and lipids in the alga Ulva reticulata were estimated. Carbohydrate was found to decrease after December which may perhaps be due to the spore formation and extensive growth of the thallus. Protein...

  11. Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae: CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

    Vanessa G. Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical study of hexane extract from leaves of Salacia crassifolia resulted in the isolation of 3β-palmitoxy-urs-12-ene, 3-oxofriedelane, 3β-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-28-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane, 28,29-dihydroxyfriedelan-3-one, 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid, 3β-hydroxy-olean-9(11:12-diene and the mixture of α-amirin and β-amirin. β-sitosterol, the polymer gutta-percha, squalene and eicosanoic acid were also isolated. The chemical structures of these constituents were established by IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data. Crude extracts and the triterpenes were tested against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis and no activity was observed under the in vitro assay conditions. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol crude extracts, and the constituent 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid and 28,29-dihydroxyfriedelan-3-one showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus sanguinis and Candida albicans.

  12. Discrimination of Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach.

    Duan, Li; Guo, Long; Dou, Li-Li; Zhou, Chang-Lin; Xu, Feng-Guo; Zheng, Guo-Dong; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2016-12-01

    Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, mainly including the pericarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco and the pericarp of Citrus reticulata 'Chachi', has been consumed daily as food and dietary supplement for centuries. In this study, GC-MS based metabolomics was employed to compare comprehensively the volatile constituents in Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi'. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis indicated that samples could be distinguished effectively from one another. Fifteen metabolites were finally identified for use as chemical markers in discrimination of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium samples. The antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria of the volatile oil from Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' was investigated preliminarily. PMID:27374515

  13. Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae); Constituintes quimicos do caule de Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae)

    Santos, Rogerio Nunes dos; Silva, Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: mgvsilva@ufc.br; Braz Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais

    2008-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae) yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes {alpha} and {beta}-amirin, the steroids {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants. (author)

  14. Larvicidal activity of oil-resin fractions from the Brazilian medicinal plant Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae Atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina da planta medicinal brasileira Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae sobre o Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

    Heloísa Helena Garcia da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil-resin fractions from Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae were evaluated for larvicidal activity on third larval instars of Aedes aegypti, in searching for alternative control methods for this mosquito. The bioactive fractions were chemically monitored by thin-layer chromatography, ¹H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Bioassays were performed using five repetitions, at a temperature of 28 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 80 ± 5% and light and dark cycles of 12h. Mortality was indicated by darkening of the cephalic capsule after 24h of exposure of the larvae to the solutions. The most active fractions were CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenes and CRM5-7 (labdane diterpenes, which showed LC50 values of 0.2 and 0.8ppm, respectively.A atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae foi avaliada em larvas de 3º estádio de Aedes aegypti, na busca de alternativas para o controle desse mosquito. As frações bioativas foram monitoradas quimicamente através de cromatografia de camada delgada, analisada por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio (¹H e 13C e espectrometria de massas. Os bioensaios foram realizados à temperatura de 28±1°C, 80±5% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 12h, com cinco repetições. A mortalidade foi determinada através do escurecimento da cápsula cefálica, após 24h de exposição das larvas às soluções. As frações mais ativas foram CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenos e CRM5-7 (diterpeno labdano, que mostraram os valores de CL50 de 0,2 e 0,8ppm, respectivamente.

  15. Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Studies on the Leaf and Stem Bark of Annona reticulata Linn.

    Kalyani Pathak; Kamaruz Zaman

    2013-01-01

    The present work was undertaken to establish the pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards of Leaf and Stem bark of Annona reticulata L. It is a highly apparent plant in ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The plant is traditionally used for the treatment of epilepsy, dysentery, cardiac problems, worm infestation, constipation, haemorrhage, antibacterial infection, dysuria, fever, and ulcer . No reports are available on the pharmacognostic nature and phytoche...

  16. Acetogenins from seeds of Annona reticulata.

    Chang, F R; Chen, J L; Chiu, H F; Wu, M J; Wu, Y C

    1998-03-01

    Chromatography of an ethyl acetate extract of seeds of Annona reticulata led to the isolation of a new cytotoxic gamma-lactone acetogenin, cis-/trans-isomurisolenin, along with six known cytotoxic acetogenins, annoreticuin, annoreticuin-9-one, bullatacin, squamocin, cis-/trans-bullatacinone and cis-/trans-murisolinone. Structures of these compounds were established by means of mass and related spectral experiments. Some of the compounds isolated, showed potent cytotoxicities against Hep. 2,2,15, Hep. G2, KB and CCM2, four cancer cell-lines. PMID:9564733

  17. INSECTS ASSOCIED WITH BACUPARI FRUIT, Salacia crassifolia (Mart. PEYR, IN THE SAVANNAHS OF CENTRAL BRAZIL ENTOMOFAUNA ASSOCIADA AOS FRUTOS DO BACUPARI, Salacia folia (MART. PEYR, NOS CERRADOS DO BRASIL CENTRAL

    Ronaldo Veloso Naves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The bacupari (Salacia crassifolia is a native fruit plant of the Brazilian cerrado areas. Although a high fruit fly infestation limits its utilization, it is eaten by animals and humans. Fruits present orange colored pulp, with slightly acid flavour and can be apreciated in natura or juices. The objective of this study was to assay bacupari plant features in Goiás State cerrado and to verify insects associated to bacupari, to determine infestation index and to verify this plant as a natural reservoir of fruit flies for adjacent orchards. Samples were collected during the frutification stage from September to December from 1995 to 1999 on 11 counties in Goiás State. The insects found more often were from Tephritidae (54.22% as Anastrepha sp. (new species, A. zenildae, A. obliqua, A. fraterculus, A. sororcula, A. serpentina. Insects from other families were also identified: Lonchaeidae (Neosilba sp., Muscidae (Atherigona orientalis, Oititidae and their parasitoids: Braconidae (Doryctobracon areolatus, Doryctobracon sp.-new species, Pteromalidae (Dicerataspis flavipes and Figitidae (Eucoilinae - Lopheucoila anastrephae, Aganaspis nordlanderi, A. pelleranoi. Anstrepha sp. and Lonchaeidae, Anastrepha sp. and A. zenildae were found in the same fruit, proving overposition of fruit fly species in the fruit.

    KEY-WORDS: Insecta; native fruit plant; insects population.

    O bacupari, Salacia

  18. Somatic embryogenesis in Citrus sinensis, C. reticulata AND C. nobilis x C. deliciosa

    Ricci Adriana Patrícia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the plant regeneration processes in citrus, through tissue culture, involve indirect somatic embryogenesis. The optimization of these processes is important for the development of in vitro plant improvement and micropropagation studies. Studies to evaluate the effect of different carbohydrates in somatic embryogenesis were conducted using calli from 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata, Blanco, 'Cravo' mandarin (C. reticulata, 'Itaboraí' sweet orange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck., 'Valencia' sweet orange (C. sinensis and 'Kinnow' mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro x C. deliciosa Tenore. The culture medium used was MT supplemented with sucrose, galactose, glucose, maltose or lactose with the following concentrations of 18, 37, 75, 110, and 150 mM. The culture medium used for the maturation of somatic embryos had 0, 15, 29, 44, 58 and 73 mM of sucrose, in presence or absence of 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal. Seventy-three mM of sucrose with 0.1 mg L-1 of GA3 in the presence or absence 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal was also tested. Overall, the carbohydrates galactose or lactose induced a higher number of somatic embryos. Sucrose concentrations of 58 and 73 mM generated a higher number of plantlets from mature embryos of 'Ponkan' mandarin and 'Valencia' sweet orange.

  19. Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Studies on the Leaf and Stem Bark of Annona reticulata Linn.

    Kalyani Pathak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was undertaken to establish the pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards of Leaf and Stem bark of Annona reticulata L. It is a highly apparent plant in ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The plant is traditionally used for the treatment of epilepsy, dysentery, cardiac problems, worm infestation, constipation, haemorrhage, antibacterial infection, dysuria, fever, and ulcer . No reports are available on the pharmacognostic nature and phytochemical studies of the leaf and stem bark , hence, the present study was carried out to investigate the same. All the parameters were studied according to the WHO & Pharmacopoeial guidelines. This parameters will help for correct identification of this plant for the future references.

  20. Morphological, ontogenetic and molecular characterization of Scutellospora reticulata (Glomeromycota)

    De Souza, F.A.; Declerck, S.; Smit, E.; Kowalchuk, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Scutellospora reticulata (CNPAB11) was characterized using morphological, ontogenetic and molecular approaches. Spore ontogenesis was studied using Ri T-DNA transformed carrot roots and observations were compared with those published for eight other, pot-cultur

  1. Antioxidant, antimicrobial activity and in silico PASS prediction of Annona reticulata Linn. root extract

    Prasad G. Jamkhande

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial infections and diseases are frequently associated with several pathogenic strains of bacteria and fungi. Plants of the reticulata genus are a notable source of new therapeutic agents including antioxidant and antimicrobial. This study reports the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic root extract of Annona reticulata Linn. The antioxidant property of extract was evaluated using DPPH free radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide assay. Antibacterial tests were performed using the agar cup method whereas Poison plate method was used to assess sensitivity of fungal strains. The biological potential of major phytoconstituents as antimicrobial agent was screened by new software based tool, PASS. The dose dependent scavenging was observed at concentrations 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 μg/ml which were compared to ascorbic acid. The probable activity (Pa of neoannonin using PASS was found to be 0.541. The extract was significantly active against all strains of bacteria but the largest zone of inhibition was found against B. cereus. Predominant growth reduction was observed in fungi Tricoderma viride and Candida albicans. The results indicate that the extract show potential as a source of new antimicrobial drug and may impart health benefits by its antioxidant property.

  2. Evaluation of Skin Anti-aging Potential of Citrus reticulata Blanco Peel

    Apraj, Vinita D.; Pandita, Nancy S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The peel of Citrus reticulata Blanco is traditionally used as tonic, stomachic, astringent, and carminative. It is also useful in skin care. Objective: To study the anti-aging potential of alcoholic extracts of C. reticulata Blanco peel using in vitro antioxidant and anti-enzyme assays. Materials and Methods: Plant extracts were obtained by Soxhlation (CR HAE- Hot Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata) and maceration method (CR CAE- Cold Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata). Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis was performed. Further, in vitro antioxidant, anti-enzyme, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses were performed. Results: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of CR HAE were found to be higher than CR CAE. EC50 value of CR HAE and CR CAE for 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, Superoxide anion, and 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays were 250.33 ± 40.16 μg/ml and 254.73 ± 15.78 μg/ml, 221.27 ± 11.25 μg/ml and 354.20 ± 23.79 μg/ml, and 59.16 ± 2.17 μg/ml and 59.12 ± 6.21 μg/ml, respectively. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity values for CR HAE and CR CAE were found to be 1243 and 1063 μmoles 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetra methylchromane-2-carboxylic acid equivalent/g of substance, respectively. Anti-collagenase and anti-elastase activities were evaluated for both CR HAE and CR CAE. EC50 values of CR HAE and CR CAE for anti-collagenase and anti-elastase were 329.33 ± 6.38 μg/ml, 466.93 ± 8.04 μg/ml and 3.22 ± 0.24 mg/ml, 5.09 ± 0.30 mg/ml, respectively. CR HAE exhibited stronger anti-collagenase and anti-elastase activity than CR CAE. GC-MS analysis of CR HAE was carried out because CR HAE exhibited higher antioxidant and anti-enzyme potential than CR CAE. Conclusion: C. reticulata peel can be utilized in anti-wrinkle skin care formulations. SUMMARY Skin anti-aging potential of Citrus reticulata Blanco peel was evaluated throughIn vitro antioxidant and anti-enzyme assays

  3. Identification of chemical compounds present in different fractions of Annona reticulata L. leaf by using GC-MS.

    Rout, Soumya P; Kar, Durga M

    2014-01-01

    GC-MS analysis of fractions prepared from hydro-alcoholic extract of Annona reticulata Linn (Family Annonaceae) leaf revealed the presence of 9,10-dimethyltricyclo[4.2.1.1(2,5)]decane-9,10-diol; 4-(1,5-dihydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-2-enyl)but-3-en-2-one; 3,7-dimethyl-6-nonen-1-ol acetate; 9-octadecenamide,(Z)-; glycerine; D-glucose,6-O-α-D-galactopyranosyl-; desulphosinigrin and α-methyl-D-mannopyranoside as few of the major compounds in different fractions. The presence of these compounds in the plant has been identified for the first time. PMID:25050939

  4. Effects of Deltamethrin on Lipase Activity in Guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    Güneş, Elif; Sedat V. Yerli

    2011-01-01

    Effect of the deltamethrin, which is extensively used synthetic pyrethroid, was investigated on the lipase activity of Poecilia reticulata in the present study. One control and five experimental groups were exposed to different concentrations of deltamethrin. Three experiments, including 60 guppies each, were conducted. Titration method was used in order to determine the lipase activity. Lipase activity level in control group was 5 U/min, while it was 2.5 U/min in the highest concentration of...

  5. Antimicrobial activity of Ulva reticulata and its endophytes

    Dhanya, K. I.; Swati, V. I.; Vanka, Kanth Swaroop; Osborne, W. J.

    2016-04-01

    Seaweeds are known to exhibit various antimicrobial properties, since it harbours an enormous range of indigenous bioactive compounds. The emergence of drug resistant strains has directed to the identification of prospective metabolites from seaweed and its endophytes, thereby exploiting the properties in resisting bacterial diseases. The current study was aimed to assess the antimicrobial activity of extracts obtained from Ulva reticulate, for which metabolites of Ulva reticulata and its endophytes were extracted and assessed against human pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis. It was observed that the hexane extract of isolate VITDSJ2 was effective against all the tested pathogens but a significant inhibition was observed for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Further, Gas chromatography coupled with Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed the existence of phenol, 3, 5-bis (1, 1-dimethylethyl) in the crude hexane extract which is well-known to possess antibacterial activity. The effective isolate VITDSJ2 was identified to be the closest neighbour of Pseudomonas stutzeri by phenotypic and genotypic methods. The crude extracts of the seaweed Ulva reticulata was also screened for antibacterial activity and the hexane extract was effective in showing inhibition against all the tested pathogens. The compound in the crude extract of Ulva reticulata was identified as hentriacontane using GC-MS. The extracts obtained from dichloromethane did not show significant activity in comparison with the hexane extracts. Hence the metabolites of Ulva reticulata and the bacterial secondary metabolites of the endophytes could be used in the treatment of bacterial infections.

  6. Agresividad agonística en "Poecilia reticulata" Peters, 1859

    Peña Hernández, Cristhian

    2014-01-01

    [ES] Se observa que la asimetría en talla no es determinante en las interacciones agresivas que tienen lugar entre machos de Poecilia reticulata, aunque éstos se muestra más agresivos cuando los contendientes son de talla similar. Por otro lado, el contexto ambiental condiciona la agresividad desplegada, de modo que la posibilidad de contacto directo entre contendientes incrementa la agresividad. Al contrario, cuando el riesgo de predación es muy elevado la agresiv...

  7. The diet of Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea in southeastern Brazil

    Leonardo Q. Yokoyama

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The ophiuroid Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825 occurs in the sediment-rocky shore interface, under small stones. Its diet is analyzed in this short communication. Specimens were collected at the Praia Grande beach, located on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in July, 2002 and January, 2003. The animals were fixed in 70% ethanol and dissected to obtain their stomach contents. Of the total (35, 77.1% (27 had ingested some kind of food and, among those, 81.4% (22 had more than one item. The mean number of food items per stomach was 1.9. Ophionereis reticulata is an omnivorous species, consuming sediment, green and red algae, and polychaetes.O ofiuróide Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825 ocorre na interface sedimento rocha de costões rochosos, sob pequenas pedras. Alguns aspectos de sua dieta alimentar foram analisados nesta nota. A amostragem foi realizada na Praia Grande, localizada no litoral norte do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os indivíduos, coletados em julho de 2002 e janeiro de 2003, foram fixados em álcool 70% e dissecados para obtenção de seus conteúdos estomacais. Do total (35, 77,1% (27 tinham ingerido algum tipo de alimento, e destes, 81,4% (22 possuíam mais de um item. O número médio de itens alimentares por estômago foi 1,9. Ophionereis reticulata é uma espécie onívora, consumindo sedimento, algas verdes e vermelhas, e poliquetas.

  8. In vitro, In vivo and In silico Antiarthritic studies of Polyprenol from Kirganelia reticulata Baill.

    Shruthi SD

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-IN X-NONE X-NONE Kirganelia reticulata is a medicinal shrub which has been valued for centuries in ayurvedic medicine. In vitro, in vivo and in silico antiarthritic activity of a phytoconstituent, polyprenol isolated from the leaves of Kirganelia reticulata was screened. Various in vitro models such as inhibition of protein denaturation, effect of membrane stabilization and proteinase inhibitory actions were studied. Polyprenol with two different concentrations (100µg/ml and 250µg/ml was used and results were compared with acetyl salicylic acid. The in vivo antiarthritic activity of polyprenol was evaluated against formaldehyde induced arthritis in albino rats. The course of treatment was followed for over and 4 weeks post inoculation period using health, clinical and behavioural methods of study. Estimation of change in body weight was considered as health parameters and clinical observations included paw edema volume, change in the movements was studied in behavioral observations. The effect of polyprenol was compared with standard drug aspirin.  HIF-2α promotes degradative pathways that foster osteoarthritis. The articular cartilage resides in hypoxic, avascular conditions within the synovial joint. Chondrocytes, cells of the articular cartilage are affected by various forms of stress. The biological role of this mediator is clearly understood thus offering new target for inhibiting incurable osteoarthritis. The inhibitory effect of polyprenol was studied using Autodock and efficiency was compared with standard drug in terms of interation and binding. The isolated compound polyprenol showed dose dependent activity which was found to be significant to that of the standard drugs and supports the traditional use of plant for rheumatism.

  9. EFFECT OF LEPTADENIA RETICULATA LINN ON STRESS MODULATED SEXUAL BEHAVIOR OF MALE RATS

    Santosh B. T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the day today life the persons living and working in the area were the environmental factors such as chemical, physical, or emotional, stress may adversely affect the testicular functions that is enhancement of testicular germ cell apoptosis will takes place. All the organisms survive by maintaining a dynamic equilibrium with their environment. The organization of this homeostasis exists at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels. But some of the physical, mental, or emotional stress acts as a threat to this equilibrium, So this alteration in the homeostasis by stress will cause decreased libido, changes in the motor activity, increased arousal, vigilance and increased tolerance of pain.So the aim of the present study was to determine whether the Leptadenia reticulata plant methanolic and chloroform extracts in the low 50mg/kg, mid 100mg/kg, high 250mg/kg and a safety 200mg/kg oral dose will overcome the stress induced sexual dysfunction or not. So to evaluate whether the Leptadenia reticulata active constituents have got aphrodisiac as well as infertility treatment activity was assessed by studying the following sexual behavioral parameters, number of mounts, ejaculation latency, intromission interval, number of ejaculations and the histopathological study of testis, will give a clear idea of the study.In this study the obtained results will show that chloroform extract is having more potent aphrodisiac activity when compared to normal, because it has got increased number of mounts, intromission interval, Number of ejaculations and decreased latency of first mount as well as the increase in post ejaculation time shows its potent aphrodisiac in both normal and stressed rats. Significant (P<0.05 weight gain in testis, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, vasdeferens, epididymis, with declined weight gain in adrenal gland indicating HPA/HPG axis regulatory mechanism. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for significant

  10. Development of seedless fruits mutants in citrus including tangerine (C. reticulata) and pummelo (C. grandis) through induced mutations and biotechnology

    The development of seedless fruit mutants in citrus, including Tangerine (C. reticulata) and Pummelo (C. grandis), through induced mutation and biotechnology was studied at the Gamma Irradiation Service and Nuclear Technology Center, Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center for 4 years (August 2000 to September 2004). The results showed successful induction of mutants with gamma irradiation using both chronic and acute procedures for pot plants, scions and in vitro plantlets of tangerine (Citrus reticulata var. Shogun and Sai Nam Puaeng) and pummelo (Citrus grandis viz. Kao Thong Dee). MS medium with 2 mgL-1 of BA was found to be the most suitable medium for shoot proliferation. The seedlings were sub-cultured at least 4 times, and then they were treated with acute and chronic irradiation. Shoot induction from M1V0 to M1V4 generation was performed in basic MS medium with 2 mgL-1 added BA. Rooting was induced in the M1V4 in halfstrength MS enriched with BA 2 mgL-1. Later, the shoots were excised and grafted on mature plants or the plantlets directly transferred in the field and later the fruits from mature trees were evaluated for seedlessness in M1V4 at Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center. (author)

  11. Influence of GAMMA radiation on morphological changes of Poecilia reticulata

    In our experiment were followed histological changes after gamma-irradiation with dose of 30 Gy in Poecilia reticulata. After radiation shyness and lethargy were observed. The most prominent clinical symptoms observed were emaciation, hampered breathing, ex ophthalmia and hemorrhages. The histological picture found were adequate to these symptoms. The enteritic villi compared with controls were relatively low. Enterocytes taking part on resorption processes were damaged and desquamated on some sites, and the number of microvilli was reduced on their surface. As our earlier findings on rats revealed, the decrease in number of microvilli designates malfunctioning intestinal resorption, which can lead to emaciation. (authors)

  12. Simultaneous Determination of Flavonoids in Different Parts of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ Fruit by High Performance Liquid Chromatography—Photodiode Array Detection

    Yujie Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are important polyphenolic secondary metabolites in plant. Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit are rich in flavonoids and are being used as functional antioxidant ingredients for the treatment of atherosclerosis and cancer, etc. A high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection system was used to analyze five flavonoids, namely, naringin, hesperidin, didymin, tangeretin and nobiletin, in different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a C18 column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a photodiode array detector at 280 nm. The calibration curves for the determination of all analytes showed good linearity over the investigated ranges (R2 > 0.9995. Precision and reproducibility were evaluated by six replicated analyses, and the R.S.D. values were less than 0.9% and 2.7%. The recoveries were between 98.37 and 103.89%. This method is promising to improve the quality control of different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit.

  13. Blond: a regulatory gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859

    Philip Shaddock

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present letter is a response to the paper ?Interallelic interaction between the autosomal Blond and the sex-linked Nigrocaudatus gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata? (Petrescu-Mag et al 2007.

  14. Hepatoprotective activity of Leptadenia reticulata stems against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Amit Kumar Nema

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of stems of L. reticulata showed significant hepatoprotective activity. The ethanolic extract is more potent in hepatoprotection in CCl 4 -indiced liver injury model as compared with aqueous extract.

  15. ACUTE BEHAVIORAL CHANGES IN THE GUPPY (Poecilia reticulata) EXPOSED TO TEMEPHOS

    SELVİ, Mahmut; SARIKAYA, Rabia; Erkoç, Figen

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Temephos  is an organophosphorus  insecticide used to control mosquito, midge and black fly larvae. This  study was aimed to determine the acute toxicity of temephos on behavior of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) were selected for the bioassay experiments. Behavioral changes at each temephos concentration were recorded. The experiments were repeated 3 times. The 96 h acute toxicity range of temephos to adult male guppies was within 10 ...

  16. Low cost freshwater fish pickle using cheap citrus fruit (C. reticulata)

    Chattopadhyay, A. K.; Bandyopadhyay, J.K.; Batthacharyya, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    The juice extracted from a locally abundant cheap variety of citrus fruit namely, Citrus reticulata was utilized for pickling. The paper highlights the trials made to select the optimum concentrations of acetic acid and sodium chloride to be used along with the juice of C. reticulata so as to obtain the best, product. The product can be stored well at room temperature for six months.

  17. In vitro, In vivo and In silico Antiarthritic studies of Polyprenol from Kirganelia reticulata Baill.

    Shruthi SD; Sujan Ganapathy PS; Padmalatha Rai S; Ramachandra YL

    2012-01-01

    Kirganelia reticulata is a medicinal shrub which has been valued for centuries in ayurvedic medicine. In vitro, in vivo and in silico antiarthritic activity of a phytoconstituent, polyprenol isolated from the leaves of Kirganelia reticulata was screened. Various in vitro models such as inhibition of protein denaturation, effect of membrane stabilization and proteinase inhibitory actions were studied. Polyprenol with two different concentrations (100µg/ml and 250µg/ml) was used an...

  18. In vitro antiproliferative activity of Annona reticulata roots on human cancer cell lines

    Suresh, H. M.; B Shivakumar; K.Hemalatha; S S Heroor; Hugar, D. S.; Sambasiva Rao, K. R. S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The phytochemical and pharmacological activities of Annona reticulata components suggest a wide range of clinical application in lieu of cancer chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: Ethanol and aqueous extracts of roots of Annona reticulata Linn were studied for their in vitro antiproliferative activity on A-549 (human lung carcinoma), K-562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia bone marrow), HeLa (human cervix) and MDA-MB (human adenocarcinoma mammary gland) cancer cell lines by MTT...

  19. Crystal structure of a bioactive sesquiterpene isolated from Artemisia reticulata

    A. K. Bauri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H24O2 {systematic name: 1-[6-hydroxy-7-(propan-2-yl-4-methylidene-2,3,3a,4,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-inden-1-yl]ethanone} was isolated from A. reticulata by column chromatography over silica gel by gradient solvent elution. The molecule comprises a bicyclo[4.3.0]nonane ring bearing acetoxy, hydroxy and isopropyl substituents, and an exocyclic double bond on the cyclohexane ring. In the bicyclic skeleton, the cyclohexane ring adopts a chair conformation ring and the cyclopentane ring is in an envelope conformation. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [010]. These chains are cross-linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  20. Seed imbibition and germination of Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Fabaceae affected by mercury: possible role of aquaporins

    Amanda Ávila Cardoso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTStudies that evaluate the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of germination within forest species are needed in order to improve our understanding of such processes. Mercury and dithiothreitol are indicated as important tools in studies that assess the activity of aquaporins during imbibition and germination of seeds. To investigate the alterations caused by mercury inPlathymenia reticulata seedsdifferent doses of mercury were used in the presence and absence of dithiothreitol. Mercury had a dose-dependent effect on the seeds; in the most dilute solutions mercury partially inhibited the imbibition process, whereas in the most concentrated solutions it caused the death of the embryos. A delay in the hydration of the seeds may have caused decreased germination as a result of the reduced functionality of the aquaporins that were oxidized by mercury. In the presence of the reducing agent dithiothreitol, the activity of these proteins was restored and the germination process was re-established. These findings indicate the importance of aquaporins in the imbibition and germination stages of P. reticulataseeds, and they provide a better understanding of these important developmental events in plants.

  1. Efficacy of commercially available products against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infections on guppies Poecilia reticulata.

    Schelkle, Bettina; Snellgrove, Donna; Jones, Lewis L; Cable, Jo

    2015-07-23

    The demand for ornamental fish has led to a steep rise in aquaculture for the hobbyist trade, promoting the emergence, persistence and spread of various infectious diseases. Complete control of disease outbreaks with antibiotics and chemical-based medicines is rare, but plant compounds may herald potential alternatives effective against a range of pathogens. Melafix® and Pimafix® are formulated with the essential oils cajuput (Melaleuca cajuputi) and West Indian bay (Pimenta racemosa) and are marketed against bacterial and fungal infections, respectively. Previous experiments showed high efficacy of emulsified cajuput oil against gyrodactylids; the current study tested Melafix® and Pimafix® and their individual compounds against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting the guppies Poecilia reticulata. In particular, a combination treatment of Melafix® and Pimafix® was highly effective at reducing in vitro survival of parasites from 15 to 2 h and eradicating 95% of gyrodactylids in vivo. The unexpected high efficacy of this combination treatment is likely explained by the high content of terpenes and phenol propanoids in the cajuput and West Indian bay oils, as well as the anti-helminthic properties of the emulsifier Crovol PK 70. Hence, Melafix® and Pimafix® effectively reduce gyrodactylid burdens on fish, increasing the chances of efficient disease control in ornamental fish. PMID:26203884

  2. Induction of seedlessness in kinow (citrus reticulata blanco) with gamma irradiation

    Dormant budwood of KINNOW mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) were subjected to acute exposures of gamma radiations. Doses of 0, 40, 60, 80 and 120 Gy were applied at ambient temperature (25 -+ 2 deg. C) with air as the medium of irradiation. The irradiated and un-irradiated scions were grafted onto 2 years old Citrus jambhiri rootstock already established in the field using the side-graft technique. Based on the bud survival percentage, Ld-50 was found to be 18.5 Gy under field conditions. A sparsely seeded (2 - 8 seeds/fruit) mutant was detected in the mV/sub 1/ progeny of shoots from 20 Gy exposed buds. The induced sparse seedy character was retained by the mV/sub 2/ and mV/sub 3/ propagations. Parent Kinnow contained 18-28 seeds per fruit. The peel of mutant Kinnows was thicker which may protect the fruit during transit and may compensate for the slightly lower juice yield as compared to parent Kinnow. Sparsely seeded mutant Kinnow fruit and plant resembled with the parent kinnow in most of the morphological, physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics. (author)

  3. Assessment of Annona reticulata Linn. leaves fractions for invitro antioxidative effect and antimicrobial potential against standard human pathogenic strains

    Prasad G. Jamkhande

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since from long time the plant, Annona reticulata Linn. is known for its beneficial effects. Leaves of A. reticulata were screened for phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The shade dried leaves were extracted with methanol and aqueous methanolic extract was partitioned successively with n-butanol, chloroform and acetone solvents. Methanolic extract was subjected to antioxidant screening using DPPH free radical scavenging activity and H2O2 scavenging activity. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of extract and fractions were analyzed on eight different clinical bacterial and fungal strains using agar well diffusion method and broth dilution method (MIC and MMC determination. The antioxidant activity showed that the extracts exhibited scavenging effect in concentration-dependent manner. The extract showed potent inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli bacterial strains while in case of fungal strains the maximum effect was observed against Candida blanki. The maximum zone of inhibition of n-butanol, chloroform and acetone fractions was observed against B. subtilis, and E. coli respectively while all fractions exhibited potent inhibitory effect against C. blanki. MIC and MBC values were determined for active samples, methanol extract and chloroform fraction against Staphylococcus aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa which revealed lower MIC and MBC values. The fungal strains Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and C. blanki were used to calculate MIC and MFC values for methanol extract and acetone fraction which demonstrated lower MIC and MFC values. The results provided evidence that the plant is richly supplied with numerous phytoconstituents that might indeed be potential sources of natural antioxidant, antimicrobial agents and supplementary food.

  4. [Analysis on medication rules of state medical master Yan Zhenghua from prescriptions with citri reticulatae pericarpium based on data mining].

    Wu, Jia-Rui; Guo, Wei-Xian; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Bing; Sheng, Xiao-Guang

    2014-02-01

    The prescriptions containing pericarpium citri reticulatae that built by Professor. Yan were collected to build a database based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance assist system. After analyzed by data mining, such as apriori algorithm, the frequency of single medicine, the frequency of drug combination, the association rules between drugs and core drug combinations can be get from the database. Through the analysis of 1 027 prescriptions with pericarpium citri reticulatae, these prescriptions were commonly used to treat stomach aches, cough and other syndromes. The most frequency drug combinations were "Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium-Poria", "Paeoniae Radix Rubra-Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium" and so on. The drug association rules that the confidence was 1 were "Glycyrrhizae Radix ex Rhizoma --> Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium", "Paeoniae Alba Radix-Cyperi Rhizoma --> Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium", "Poria --> Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium", and so on. The drugs in the prescriptions containing pericarpium citri reticulatae that built by Professor Yan mostly had the effects of regulating the flow of Qi and invigorate blood circulation, which reflected the clearly thought when making prescriptions. PMID:25204133

  5. Sobre la identidad de Aegiphila reticulata Mold. ("Verbenaceae") y de Rondeletia pubescens H.B.K. (Rubiaceae)

    Fernández Alonso, José Luis

    1998-01-01

    Se rechaza el binomio Aegiphila reticulata Mold. para el género Aegiphila (verbenaceae), sustentado en una colección estéril del Herbario de la Real Expedición Botánica del Nuevo Reyno de Granada. Se establece la identidad A. reticulata con la especie Rondeletia pubescens H.B.K. (Rubiaceae).

  6. Salacia oblonga root improves postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: Activation of PPAR-α

    Salacia oblonga (SO) root is an Ayurvedic medicine with anti-diabetic and anti-obese properties. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, a nuclear receptor, plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of lipid metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that chronic oral administration of the water extract from the root of SO to Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, a genetic model of type 2 diabetes and obesity, lowered plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol (TC) levels, increased plasma high-density lipoprotein levels and reduced the liver contents of triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and the ratio of fatty droplets to total tissue. By contrast, the extract had no effect on plasma triglyceride and TC levels in fasted ZDF rats. After olive oil administration to ZDF the extract also inhibited the increase in plasma triglyceride levels. These results suggest that SO extract improves postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in ZDF rats. Additionally, SO treatment enhanced hepatic expression of PPAR-α mRNA and protein, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and acyl-CoA oxidase mRNAs in ZDF rats. In vitro, SO extract and its main component mangiferin activated PPAR-α luciferase activity in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and lipoprotein lipase mRNA expression and enzyme activity in THP-1 differentiated macrophages; these effects were completely suppressed by a selective PPAR-α antagonist MK-886. The findings from both in vivo and in vitro suggest that SO extract functions as a PPAR-α activator, providing a potential mechanism for improvement of postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in diabetes and obesity

  7. Unitary synaptic connections among substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons.

    Higgs, Matthew H; Wilson, Charles J

    2016-06-01

    Neurons in substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) are synaptically coupled by local axon collaterals, providing a potential mechanism for local signal processing. Because SNr neurons fire spontaneously, these synapses are constantly active. To investigate their properties, we recorded spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) from SNr neurons in brain slices, in which afferents from upstream nuclei are severed, and the cells fire rhythmically. The sIPSC trains contained a mixture of periodic and aperiodic events. Autocorrelation analysis of sIPSC trains showed that a majority of cells had one to four active unitary inputs. The properties of the unitary IPSCs (uIPSCs) were analyzed for cells with one unitary input, using a model of periodic presynaptic firing and stochastic synaptic transmission. The inferred presynaptic firing rates and coefficient of variation of interspike intervals (ISIs) corresponded well with direct measurements of spiking in SNr neurons. Methods were developed to estimate the success probability, amplitude distributions, and kinetics of the uIPSCs, while removing the contribution from aperiodic sIPSCs. The sIPSC amplitudes were not increased upon release from halorhodopsin silencing, suggesting that most synapses were not depressed at the spontaneous firing rate. Gramicidin perforated-patch recordings indicated that the average reversal potential of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic potentials was -64 mV. Because of the change in driving force across the ISI, the unitary inputs are predicted to have a larger postsynaptic impact when they arrive late in the ISI. Simulations of network activity suggest that this very sparse inhibitory coupling may act to desynchronize the activity of SNr neurons while having only a small effect on firing rate. PMID:26961101

  8. Determination of the Presence of Huanglongbing in Seeds and Movement of the Pathogen in Citrus reticulata

    Hajivand Shokrollah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Huanglongbing (HLB also known as citrus greening disease is a fastidious phloem-inhabiting bacterium in the genus Candidatus Liberibacter. Using universal primers, the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence of three strains of the bacterium were obtained by PCR. However there is very little information on seed transmission and HLB pathogen movement to find a way for control or reduce the severity of HLB on the field. The study was conducted to detect HLB pathogen in seeds of Citrus, to determine pathogen movement in citrus seedling after infection and to detect the HLB pathogen in citrus roots. Approach: Seeds of Citrus reticulata cv. Limau Madu were collected from infected orchard and were germinated in screenhouse condition. The seeds of Citrus reticlata cv. L. Madu were planted in screenhouse too for HLB pathogen movement and HLB detection in roots. The seedlings were inoculated using infected grafting methods. Results: HLB was not amplified in new seedlings after germination. HLB moved slowly reaching up to 1.5 cm after 2 weeks, 1.5-4.5 cm after eight weeks and detected on 4.5-9 cm after 14 weeks below the grafting area. HLB was also detected up to 9-15 cm after 16 weeks, 15-24 cm after twenty weeks, 24-28.5 cm after 22 weeks and 28.5-30 cm after 24 weeks below the grafting area. Conclusion: Base on conventional PCR test, HLB disease in citrus is not seed borne and it can reach to the roots 26 weeks after inoculation.

  9. Biodiesel from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seed oil, a potential non-food feedstock

    Oil extracted from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seeds was investigated as a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was prepared by sodium methoxide-catalyzed transesterification of the oil with methanol. Fuel properties that were determined include cetane numb...

  10. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces wadayamensis Strain A23, an Endophytic Actinobacterium from Citrus reticulata

    de Oliveira, Luciana G; Tormet Gonzalez, Gabriela D.; Samborsky, Markyian; Marcon, Joelma; Araujo, Welington L.; de Azevedo, João Lucio

    2014-01-01

    The actinobacterium Streptomyces wadayamensis A23 is an endophyte of Citrus reticulata that produces the antimycin and mannopeptimycin antibiotics, among others. The strain has the capability to inhibit Xylella fastidiosa growth. The draft genome of S. wadayamensis A23 has ~7.0 Mb and 6,006 protein-coding sequences, with a 73.5% G+C content.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTRACELLULAR GABA IN THE SUBSTANTIA-NIGRA-RETICULATA BY MEANS OF BRAIN MICRODIALYSIS

    TIMMERMAN, W; ZWAVELING, J; WESTERINK, BHC

    1992-01-01

    Brain microdialysis was used to characterize extracellular gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNR) of freely moving rats. The extracellular GABA in the SNR was characterized using acutely implanted probes (4-8 h after surgery; day 1) and chronically implanted probes (

  12. Update on the Role of Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata in the Regulation of Seizures

    Velíšková, Jana; Moshé, Solomon L.

    2006-01-01

    The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) represents an endogenous seizure suppressing system, which may be targeted to develop treatments for generalized or multifocal epilepsies. This review summarizes the region-, age-, and sex-specific features of the SNR-based seizure-controlling network.

  13. In vitro antiproliferative activity of Annona reticulata roots on human cancer cell lines

    H M Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The phytochemical and pharmacological activities of Annona reticulata components suggest a wide range of clinical application in lieu of cancer chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: Ethanol and aqueous extracts of roots of Annona reticulata Linn were studied for their in vitro antiproliferative activity on A-549 (human lung carcinoma, K-562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia bone marrow, HeLa (human cervix and MDA-MB (human adenocarcinoma mammary gland cancer cell lines by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] colorimetric assay. Results: The ethanol extract exhibited a prominent inhibitory effect against A-549, K-562, HeLa and MDA-MB human cancer cell lines at a concentration range between 10 and 40 μg/ml, whereas the aqueous extract showed a lower activity at the same concentration. Simultaneously, the effect of the ethanol extract toward the inhibition of Vero cell line proliferation was lower in comparison with the cancer cell lines. Conclusion: The significant antiproliferative activity of the ethanol extract of Annona reticulata roots against A-549, K-562, HeLa and MDA-MB human cancer cell lines may be attributed toward the collective presence of acetogenins, alkaloids and lower inhibitory effect on Vero cell line, which suggests Annona reticulata be used as a chemopreventive agent in cancer therapy.

  14. Bioactive Guided Fractions of Annona reticulata L. bark: Protection against Liver Toxicity and Inflammation through Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Proinflammatory Cytokines

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Dash, Suvakanta; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Malampati, Sandeep; Kalita, Kasturi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicine is popularized worldwide due to its ability to cure the diseases with lesser or no side effects. North Eastern part of India comes under one of the world biodiversity hotspots which is very rich in traditional herbal medicine. Annona reticulata L. (Annonaceae) is one such plant used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, liver ailments and diabetes by traditional healers. The present study was aimed to scientifically validate this folk knowledge and to develop an herbal remedy through evaluating bioactive guided fractions of A. reticulata (AR) bark against hepatotoxicity and inflammation using in vitro and in vivo models. Results of this study demonstrates that among all fractions of AR bark, methanol extract and its water fraction possess strong anti-oxidant ability and showed protection against CCl4 induced toxicity in HepG2 cell lines and rats. Both the fractions also exhibit dose dependent anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced inflammation in rats. Water fraction showed potent response in the entire tests conducted than methanol extract, which states that polar components of the AR bark methanol extract were responsible for these activities. Further, from the experiments conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action, the results revealed that AR bark showed liver protection and anti-inflammatory response through inhibiting the oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. PMID:27445809

  15. Sequencing and characterization of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata transcriptome

    Rodd F Helen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next-generation sequencing is providing researchers with a relatively fast and affordable option for developing genomic resources for organisms that are not among the traditional genetic models. Here we present a de novo assembly of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata transcriptome using 454 sequence reads, and we evaluate potential uses of this transcriptome, including detection of sex-specific transcripts and deployment as a reference for gene expression analysis in guppies and a related species. Guppies have been model organisms in ecology, evolutionary biology, and animal behaviour for over 100 years. An annotated transcriptome and other genomic tools will facilitate understanding the genetic and molecular bases of adaptation and variation in a vertebrate species with a uniquely well known natural history. Results We generated approximately 336 Mbp of mRNA sequence data from male brain, male body, female brain, and female body. The resulting 1,162,670 reads assembled into 54,921 contigs, creating a reference transcriptome for the guppy with an average read depth of 28×. We annotated nearly 40% of this reference transcriptome by searching protein and gene ontology databases. Using this annotated transcriptome database, we identified candidate genes of interest to the guppy research community, putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and male-specific expressed genes. We also showed that our reference transcriptome can be used for RNA-sequencing-based analysis of differential gene expression. We identified transcripts that, in juveniles, are regulated differently in the presence and absence of an important predator, Rivulus hartii, including two genes implicated in stress response. For each sample in the RNA-seq study, >50% of high-quality reads mapped to unique sequences in the reference database with high confidence. In addition, we evaluated the use of the guppy reference transcriptome for gene expression analyses in

  16. USE OF THE JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES) AND GUPPY (POECILIA RETICULATA) IN CARCINOGENESIS TESTING UNDER NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM PROTOCOLS

    that are economical, sensitive, and scientifically acceptable. Among small fish models, the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) is preeminent for investigating effects of carcinogenic and/or toxic waterborne hazards to humans. The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), although less widely u...

  17. The growth of Neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco scion on seedling and cutting of trifoliate orange hybrid rootstocks

    Thavorat, S.

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco on seedling and cutting of trifoliate orange hybrid rootstocks was studied at the Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University in order to select the appropriate rootstock. The stem cross section, growth characteristic and isozyme pattern of Neck orange scion were investigated. One-year-old seedlings and cuttings (both with 0.3-0.4 mm stem diameter of Troyer citrange, Swingle citrumelo and Neck orange were used as root stock for grafting with Neck orange scions. The diameter of upper and lower graft union, number of branches and leaves, height, root length, shoot and root dry weight and shoot: root dry weight ratio of grafted plants were measured at 24 weeks after grafting. The results showed that the structure of stem cross section of Troyer citrange and Neck orange i.e. the size of periderm, vascular bundle and pith, were similar to that of Neck orange. The vascular bundle of Swingle citrumelo was larger than that of the two rootstocks. Troyer citrange rootstock gave the best results in all growth parameters of Neck orange. The study of isozymes recorded an extra locus (Est 3 of Swingle citrumelo rootstock occurred in Neck orange at 24 and 48 weeks after grafting.

  18. Vulnerability of the mosquito larvae to the guppies (Poecilia reticulata in the presence of alternative preys

    Barnali Manna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The predatory potential of the larvivorous fishes can be affected by the presence of alternative preys. In the present study the predation pattern of the sewage dwelling Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1872 on the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae was evaluated in the presence of alternative preys. Methods: The predation of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by different size groups of P. reticulata fishes was evaluated. In addition to this, the niche breadth (N and diet breadth (B were measured following Manly’s selectivity index (Si as an indicator of variation of such predation pattern in the presence of alternative prey types, like chironomid larvae and tubificid worms.Results: The consumption of IV instar Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by individual P. reticulata ranged between 65 and 84 in a 3 h feeding period and varied with the size of fish (F2, 33 = 34.91; p<0.001. The selectivity coefficient revealed a significantly low preference for the Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae (0.16, CL: 0.05 – 0.27; p< 0.05 compared to the chironomid larvae and tubificid worms, when all the three prey types were present. The niche breadth (N and diet breadth (B ranged from 0.77 to 0.92 and 0.69 to 0.93, respectively. The total consumption of all the prey types varied with the predator density, but the selectivity index for the mosquito larvae was significantly low in all the instances.Interpretation & conclusion: P. reticulata can consume a good number of mosquito larvae, with the consumption rate varying with the body size. P. reticulata fishes exhibit low preference for mosquito larvae as prey in the presence of alternative controphic preys like chironomid larvae and tubificid worms. Though establishment and sustenance of P. reticulata in new habitats will be favoured by the presence of alternative preys, but vulnerability of mosquito larvae may be reduced with availability of multiple preys in natural conditions.

  19. Effect of foliar spray from seaweed liquid fertilizer of Ulva reticulata (Forsk.) on Vigna mungo L. and their elemental composition using SEM- energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis

    G Ganapathy Selvam; K Sivakumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify the effect of seaweed liquied fertilizer (SLF) of Ulva reticulata, as biochemical characteristics of Vigna mungo as well as leaf morphometric analysis such as epidermal and stomata cell variation and distribution of minerals in the leaf. Methods:Experiments were conducted on black gram to study the potential green alga of Ulva reticulata as a biofertilizer. The seeds were sown in soil and SLF were added to soil bed in five different concentrations separately (1%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% w/v). Results: Seaweed extract was applied as a foliar spray, the SLF treated plants show maximum growth in 2% of SLF among the various experimental concentrations as well as control. Biochemical profiles like chlorophyll a and b, protein, sugar and starch were found to be higher at 2%. A significant increase in the number of epidermal and stomata cells were observed in 2% SLF treated plants. Whereas at higher concentrations of SLF such as 4%, 6%, and 8% the values of all the parameters were significantly decreased than in the control group. Further the leaf of 2% SLF treated V. mungo have subjected to Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopic analysis it reveals that thepresence of ten elements in the following order: Ca>P>N>Na>K>Mg>Mn>S>Fe>Zn in treated and Ca>N>P>Na>Mg>Mn>K>Zn>S>Fe in control plant. The data generated from study reveal that SLF of U. reticulatea could be used as foliar spray at low concentration of 2% to maximize the growth and yield of V. mungo and also increase the number of stomata in the leaf. Conclusion:The main objective of study result would be the manorial requirement for organic forming and serve as a cost effective ecofriendliness for sustainable agriculture and environment.

  20. Antibacterial activity of Ulva reticulata from southwest coast of Kanyakumari, India

    Sundaram Ravikumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Ulva reticulata species collected from the Kanyakumari coast of India to determine their potential for bioactivity. Methods: The algal extract was prepared using n-butanol for evaluating the antibacterial activity of Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. Results: It was observed that the n-butanolic extract of the seaweed powder of Ulva reticulata (25–100 mg/mL exerted notable antibacterial activity against tested bacterial strains. The maximum antibacterial activity was exhibited against Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus in all concentrations. Conclusions: The results obtained in the present investigation supported the traditional use of the seaweeds against various infections. However, further investigation has been carried out to elucidate the exact mechanism and isolation of active principle.

  1. Acute toxicity of lanthanum to fish Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata

    Stanislava Mácová

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lanthanides are widely used in industry as well as medicine, where serve as contrast agents in imaging methods and techniques. Due to these facts, lanthanides can become significant pollutants of living environment. In our work, we were focused in investigation of toxicity of lanthanum on juvenile stages of two fish species- Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata and embryonic stages of D. rerio. The 96hLC50 values were 156.33 ± 5.59 mg.l–1 for juvenile D. rerio and 128.38 ± 5.29 mg.l–1 for juvenile P. reticulata. The 144hLC50 for embryonic stages of D. rerio was 152.98 ± 8.06 mg.l–1. Results of toxicity tests indicate possible toxicity of lanthanum in the case of presence in aquatic environment.

  2. Evaluation of skin anti-aging potential of Citrus reticulata blanco peel

    Vinita D Apraj

    2016-01-01

    Abbreviation Used: ECM: Extracellular matrix, UV: Ultra violet, ROS: Reactive Oxygen Species, MMP: Matrix metalloproteinase, Chc: Clostridium histolyticum collagenase, DPPH: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, GC-MS: Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy, RT: Room Temperature, μg GAE/ mg: Microgram Gallic acid equivalent / milligram, W/V: Weight by Volume, μg QE/ mg: Microgram Quercetin equivalent / milligram, CR HAE: Hot Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata Blanco, CR CAE: Cold Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata Blanco, EC50: Half Maximal Effective Concentration, PMS NADH: Phenazine methosulfate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NBT: Nitroblue tetrazolium, DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide, APS: Ammonium Persulphate, AAPH: 2,2 -azobis(2-amidino-propane dihydrochloride, TROLOX: (± 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl chromane-2-carboxylic acid, ORAC: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity, FALGPA: N-[3-(2-Furyl acryloyl]-Leu-Gly-Pro-Ala, SANA: Succinyl-Ala-Ala-Ala-p-nitroanilide, Rf: Retardation Factor, MSD: Mass Selective Detector

  3. Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Ponkan Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco in Response to Asia Citrus Psyllid-Vectored Huanglongbing Infection

    Yun Zhong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, the most destructive citrus disease, can be transmitted by psyllids and diseased budwoods. Although the final symptoms of the two main HLB transmission ways were similar and hard to distinguish, the host responses might be different. In this study, the global gene changes in leaves of ponkan (Citrus reticulata mandarin trees following psyllid-transmission of HLB were analyzed at the early symptomatic stage (13 weeks post inoculation, wpi and late symptomatic stage (26 wpi using digital gene expression (DGE profiling. At 13 wpi, 2452 genes were downregulated while only 604 genes were upregulated in HLB infected ponkan leaves but no pathway enrichment was identified. Gene function analysis showed impairment in defense at the early stage of infection. At late stage of 26 wpi, however, differentially expressed genes (DEGs involved in carbohydrate metabolism, plant defense, hormone signaling, secondary metabolism, transcription regulation were overwhelmingly upregulated, indicating that the defense reactions were eventually activated. The results indicated that HLB bacterial infection significantly influenced ponkan gene expression, and a delayed response of the host to the fast growing bacteria might be responsible for its failure in fighting against the bacteria.

  4. TRIAGEM METABÓLICA POR PKS E NRPS EM ACTINOBACTÉRIAS ENDOFÍTICAS DE Citrus reticulata

    Pedro L. R. da Cruz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides are natural products widely found in bacteria, fungi and plants. The biological activities associated with these metabolites have attracted special attention in biopharmaceutical studies. Polyketide synthases act similarly to fatty acids synthetases and the whole multi-enzymatic set coordinating precursor and extending unit selection and reduction levels during chain growth. Acting in a similarly orchestrated model, non-ribosomal peptide synthetases biosynthesize NRPs. PKSs-I and NRPSs enzymatic modules and domains are collinearly organized with the parent gene sequence. This arrangement allows the use of degenerated PCR primers to amplify targeted regions in the genes corresponding to specific enzymatic domains such as ketosynthases and acyltransferases in PKSs and adenilation domains in NRPSs. Careful analysis of these short regions allows the classifying of a set of organisms according to their potential to biosynthesize PKs and NRPs. In this work, the biosynthetic potential of a set of 13 endophytic actinobacteria from Citrus reticulata for producing PKs and NRP metabolites was evaluated. The biosynthetic profile was compared to antimicrobial activity. Based on the inhibition promoted, 4 strains were considered for cluster analysis. A PKS/NRPS phylogeny was generated in order to classify some of the representative sequences throughout comparison with homologous genes. Using this approach, a molecular fingerprint was generated to help guide future studies on the most promising strains.

  5. The influence of ionizing radiation on the morphology of Poecilia reticulata

    Our investigations focused on morphological changes in Poecilia reticulata irradiated with gamma rays at a dose of 30 Gy. The histological findings corresponded with the clinical symptoms. Lethargy and uncoordinated movements indicated changes in the brain, such as swelling and necrosis of nerve cells. Changes in the small intestine mucosa involved particularly the intestinal villi and enterocytes. These changes resulted in absorption disorders and subsequent emaciation. (authors)

  6. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces wadayamensis Strain A23, an Endophytic Actinobacterium from Citrus reticulata.

    de Oliveira, Luciana G; Tormet Gonzalez, Gabriela D; Samborsky, Markyian; Marcon, Joelma; Araujo, Welington L; de Azevedo, João Lucio

    2014-01-01

    The actinobacterium Streptomyces wadayamensis A23 is an endophyte of Citrus reticulata that produces the antimycin and mannopeptimycin antibiotics, among others. The strain has the capability to inhibit Xylella fastidiosa growth. The draft genome of S. wadayamensis A23 has ~7.0 Mb and 6,006 protein-coding sequences, with a 73.5% G+C content. PMID:24994795

  7. Seed imbibition and germination of Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Fabaceae) affected by mercury: possible role of aquaporins

    Amanda Ávila Cardoso; Eduardo Euclydes de Lima e Borges; Genaina Aparecida de Souza; Cristiane Jovelina da Silva; Raquel Maria de Oliveira Pires; Denise Cunha Fernandes dos Santos Dias

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTStudies that evaluate the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of germination within forest species are needed in order to improve our understanding of such processes. Mercury and dithiothreitol are indicated as important tools in studies that assess the activity of aquaporins during imbibition and germination of seeds. To investigate the alterations caused by mercury inPlathymenia reticulata seedsdifferent doses of mercury were used in the presence and absence of dithiothreitol. ...

  8. Extracts from Annona Muricata L. and Annona Reticulata L. (Annonaceae) Potently and Selectively Inhibit Plasmodium Falciparum

    Yamthe, Lauve; Fokou, Patrick; Mbouna, Cedric; Keumoe, Rodrigue; Ndjakou, Bruno; Djouonzo, Paul; Mfopa, Alvine; Legac, Jennifer; Tsabang, Nole; Gut, Jiri; Rosenthal, Philip; Boyom, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to screen extracts from Annona muricata and Annona reticulata in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum. Crude ethanolic extracts, methylene chloride fractions, aqueous fractions, subfractions and isolated compounds (stigmasterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, lichexanthone, gallic acid and β-sitosterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside) were tested for cytotoxicity on erythrocytes and Human Foreskin Fibroblasts cells and against the W2 strain of P. falciparum in culture. Results indica...

  9. DETAILED COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA LINN. AND ANNONA RETICULATA LINN. LEAVES

    Jani Switu; Harisha C.R.; Mohaddesi Behzad

    2012-01-01

    Annona squamosa Linn. and Annona reticulata Linn. are locally known as Sitaphala and Ramphala respectively both belongs to family Annonaceae. Leaves of both are used in various diseases like suppurant, toothache, anthelmintic commonly. Individually A. squamosa is used in anti diabetic, antispasmodic, dandruff and A. reticulate is used in flatulence and toothache. Till date there is no scientific comparative study has been reported. Pharmacognostical study of A. squamosa shows lysogenous cav...

  10. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of saponified fraction from Annona reticulata L. Bark

    Chavan, Machindra J.; Pravin S. Wakte; Shinde, Devanand B.

    2010-01-01

    The saponified petroleum ether extract (SPE) of the Annona reticulata L. bark were studied for fatty acid composition by GC-MS analysis. Six fatty acids amounting 86.68% of the total contents were identified. The composition of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid was 22.10 % and 64.58 %, respectively. SPE at the doses of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight showed significant central as well as peripheral analgesic, along with anti-inflammatory activity.

  11. Chemical Constituents from the Leaves of Annona reticulata and Their Inhibitory Effects on NO Production

    Ngo Xuan Luong; Bow-Shin Huang; Mei-Lin Yang; Nguyen Huy Hung; Guan-Jhong Huang; Ping-Chung Kuo; Tran Dinh Thang; Tian-Shung Wu

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the chemical investigation of the leaves of Annona reticulata has resulted in the identification of nine compounds, including annonaretin A, (1), a new triterpenoid. The purified compounds were subjected to the examination of their effects on NO inhibition in LPS-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages and most of them exhibited significant NO inhibition, with IC50 values in the range of 48.6 ± 1.2 and 99.8 ± 0.4 μM.

  12. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF GREEN SEAWEED Ulva reticulata COLLECTED FROM TAKALAR WATERS OF SOUTH SULAWESI

    Elmi N. Zainuddin; Marianti A. Manggau; Sartini; Wan Nawi, W.N.F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Seaweeds are the extraordinary sustainable resources in the marine ecosystem which have been used as a source of food, feed and medicine. These marine natural products possess a broad range of activity as antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, cytotoxic and anticancer. Methods Study of antimicrobial activity and TLC-bioautography of green seaweed Ulva reticulata extracts against human pathogenic bacteria and yeast has been done invitro by agar diffusion met...

  13. Intraspecific ecomorphological variations in Poecilia reticulata (Actinopterygii, Cyprinodontiformes): comparing populations of distinct environments

    Fábio T. Mise; Fagner de Souza; João P. A. Pagotto; Erivelto Goulart

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Morphological variations, according to the principles of ecomorphology, can be related to different aspects of the organism way of life, such as occupation of habitats and feeding behavior. The present study sought to examine the intraspecific variation in two populations of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859, that occur in two types of environments, a lotic (Maringá Stream) and a lentic (Jaboti Lake). Due to a marked sexual dimorphism, males and females were analyzed separately. Thus,...

  14. Experimental study to evaluate the pathogenicity of Streptococcus iniae in Guppy (Poecilia reticulata

    Milad Adel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae has emerged as an important fish pathogen over the last decade in farmed rainbow trout in Iran. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenicity of S. iniae in Poecilia reticulata. Atotal of 60 apparently healthy P. reticulata were obtained from ornamental fish pet store and injected intraperitoneally with 1.5×106 cfu of bacteria. For 14 days after challenge, the rate of mortality and clinical signs were recorded. The first clinical signs was observed in challenged fish 48 hrs after injection of S. iniae and first mortality was observed 72 hrs after injection. No significant differences in mortality and clinical signs between both sexes were observed. Streptococcus iniae was collected from internal organs of fishes challenged, and was confirmed using the conventional biochemical tests and PCR. It is concluded that, P. reticulata is susceptible to streptococcosis and can play an important role in transmission of the disease to other ornamental fish species and also cultured fish.

  15. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of citrus jambhiri lush and citrus reticulata blanco essential oils

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time interval in which we can get maximum concentration of essential oil from the peels of Citrus jambhiri Lush and Citrus reticulata Blanco, to determine the composition of peel oils and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracted oils. It was observed that in case of Citrus jambhiri Lush maximum oil yield (I %) was obtained when fruits were immature (during October). As the fruit samples got matured, the oil yield decreased. In December the oil yield decreased to 0.2 %. In case of Citrus reticulata Blanco maximum oil yield (0.189 %) was obtained during the last week of January. Chemical analysis of essential oils showed that limonene was the most abundant compound (86 %-93 %) followed by alpha terpinene (2 %-4.5 %), beta-pinene(1 0/0-2 %) and nerol (0.5 %-1.5 %). The radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of essential oils were determined by DPPH and linoleic acid test. The essential oil of Citrus jambhiri Lush inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid by 54.98 % and that of Citrus reticulata Blanco inhibited by 49.98 %. Moreover, the essential oils also showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms. (author)

  16. Utilization of chemically modified citrus reticulata peels for biosorptive removal of acid yellow-73 dye from water

    Textile effluents contain several varieties of natural and synthetic dyes, which are non-biodegradable. Acid Yellow-73 is one of them. In this research work, adsorptive removal of this dye was investigated using chemically modified Citrus reticulata peels, in batch mode. It was noted that adsorption of dye on Citrus reticulata peels increased by increasing contact time and decreased in basic pH conditions. Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal models were followed by equilibrium data, but the first isotherm fitted the data better, showing that chemisorption occurred more as compared to physiosorption, showing maximum adsorption capacity 96.46 mg.g-1.L-1. The thermodynamic study showed that adsorption of Acid Yellow-73 on chemically modified Citrus reticulata peels was favorable in nature, following pseudo-second order kinetics. (author)

  17. Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea Regeneração dos braços em duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea

    Leonardo Q. Yokoyama

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the arm regeneration frequencies in two different populations of Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825 in São Sebastião, Southeast Brazil and observed arm regeneration between age classes (juvenile and adults and sexes (male and female. From the 1,170 individuals sampled, 1,089 (92.2% showed signs of arm regeneration. The relative frequencies of regenerating arms in the two areas were not different (Baleeiro Isthmus: 91.3% and Grande Beach: 99.5%. Both areas also presented similar values for the number of arms regenerating/individual and in the frequency of regenerating individuals. The major part of the regenerating scars was concentrated in the distal portion of the arm. Sub-lethal predation is most likely the cause to the high rates of arm regeneration in O. reticulata. There was no significant differences in the regeneration rates between females (3.57 ± 1.36 arms regenerating/individual and males (3.47 ± 1.42.Este estudo comparou as frequências de regeneração dos braços de duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825, de São Sebastião, sudeste do Brasil. Além disso, foram observadas diferenças nas frequências de regeneração entre classes etárias (juvenis e adultos e entre machos e fêmeas. Dos 1.170 indivíduos coletados, 1.089 (92,2% mostraram sinais de regeneração nos braços. A frequência relativa de braços em regeneração entre as duas áreas não diferiu significativamente (Istmo do Baleeiro: 91,3% e Praia Grande: 99,5%. Ambas as áreas apresentaram valores semelhantes no número de braços regenerando/indivíduo e na frequência de indivíduos em regeneração. A maior parte das marcas de regeneração concentraram-se na porção distal dos braços, o que indica a influência de predação subletal como a causa principal da regeneração em O. reticulata. Além disso, não houve diferença significativa nos índices de regeneração entre fêmeas (3,57 ± 1,36 braços regenerando

  18. ACUTE TOXICITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK OF FIPRONIL TO GUPPY (POECILIA RETICULATA)

    Gómez-Manrique, W.; Machado-Neto, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    The fipronil is an insecticide that has broad-spectrum of action to insect's control. Due the great volume applied in agriculture, it has the possibility of the fipronil to be leached, to suffer to runoff or drift, being able to reach the aquatic way and to provide danger for the aquatic population. To determine the acute toxicity and fipronil environmental risk on guppy (Poecilia reticulata) 105 adult fishes were exposed at seven concentrations: 0.00, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, 0.1...

  19. Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine

    Amine Elleuch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd, Hop stunt viroid (HSVd and Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III isolated from a single natural infected Citrus reticulata var. Clementine tree growing in a tree nursery in Manouba (near Tunis Capital. We describe the sequence variability of these viroids from their natural host without using an alternative passage by an indicator host or an artificial inoculation. This work confirms that naturally occurring viroid infections contain a mixture of sequence variants. These are the first sequences of citrus viroids from Africa.

  20. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the sesquiterpene fraction from Annona reticulata L. bark.

    Chavan, Machindra J; Wakte, Pravin S; Shinde, Devanand B

    2012-01-01

    The sesquiterpene fraction of Annona reticulata bark was studied by GC/MS. Three major components were identified: copaene (35.40%), patchoulane (13.49%) and 1H-cycloprop(e)azulene (22.77%). The fraction was also screened for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The sesquiterpene fraction at doses 12.5 and 25 mg kg⁻¹ and the unsaponified petroleum ether extract at a dose of 50 mg kg⁻¹ exhibited significant central as well as peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. These activities were comparable with the standard drugs used in the respective experiments. PMID:22007723

  1. Analgesic and antiinflammatory activity of kaur-16-en-19-oic acid from Annona reticulata L. bark.

    Chavan, Machindra J; Kolhe, Dinesh R; Wakte, Pravin S; Shinde, Devanand B

    2012-02-01

    Kaur-16-en-19-oic acid was isolated from the bark of Annona reticulata and studied for its analgesic and antiinflammatory activity. Analgesic activity was assessed using the hot plate test and acetic acid-induced writhing, and the antiinflammatory activity using the carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg, exhibited significant (p < 0.05) analgesic and antiinflammatory activity. These activities were comparable to the standard drugs used, and furthermore the analgesic effect of kaur-16-en-19-oic acid was blocked by naloxone (2 mg/kg) in both analgesic models. PMID:21674631

  2. Chemical Constituents from the Leaves of Annona reticulata and Their Inhibitory Effects on NO Production

    Ngo Xuan Luong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the chemical investigation of the leaves of Annona reticulata has resulted in the identification of nine compounds, including annonaretin A, (1, a new triterpenoid. The purified compounds were subjected to the examination of their effects on NO inhibition in LPS-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages and most of them exhibited significant NO inhibition, with IC50 values in the range of 48.6 ± 1.2 and 99.8 ± 0.4 μM.

  3. Chemical constituents from the leaves of Annona reticulata and their inhibitory effects on NO production.

    Thang, Tran Dinh; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Hung, Nguyen Huy; Huang, Bow-Shin; Yang, Mei-Lin; Luong, Ngo Xuan; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the chemical investigation of the leaves of Annona reticulata has resulted in the identification of nine compounds, including annonaretin A, a new triterpenoid. The purified compounds were subjected to the examination of their effects on NO inhibition in LPS-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages and most of them exhibited significant NO inhibition, with IC₅₀ values in the range of 48.6 ± 1.2 and 99.8 ± 0.4 μM. PMID:23591927

  4. Contrasting Population and Diet Influences on Gut Length of an Omnivorous Tropical Fish, the Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia reticulata.

    Eugenia Zandonà

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity is advantageous for organisms that live in variable environments. The digestive system is particularly plastic, responding to changes in diet. Gut length is the result of a trade-off between maximum nutrient absorption and minimum cost for its maintenance and it can be influenced by diet and by evolutionary history. We assessed variation in gut length of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata as a function of diet, season, ontogeny, and local adaptation. Populations of guppies adapted to different predation levels have evolved different life history traits and have different diets. We sampled guppies from sites with low (LP and high predation (HP pressure in the Aripo and Guanapo Rivers in Trinidad. We collected fish during both the dry and wet season and assessed their diet and gut length. During the dry season, guppies from HP sites fed mostly on invertebrates, while guppies in the LP sites fed mainly on detritus. During the wet season, the diet of LP and HP populations became very similar. We did not find strong evidence of an ontogenetic diet shift. Gut length was negatively correlated with the proportion of invertebrates in diet across fish from all sites, supporting the hypothesis that guppy digestive systems adapt in length to changes in diet. Population of origin also had an effect on gut length, as HP and LP fish maintained different gut lengths even in the wet season, when their diets were very similar and individuals in both types of populations fed mostly on detritus. Thus, both environment and population of origin influenced guppies gut length, but population of origin seemed to have a stronger effect. Our study also showed that, even in omnivorous fish, gut length adapted to different diets, being more evident when the magnitude of difference between animal and plant material in the diet was very large.

  5. 广陈皮DNA条形码的初步研究%Preliminary Study on DNA Barcode of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium from Guangdong

    杨桂玲; 陈晓妮

    2015-01-01

    Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae was from the dry and mature skin of Citrus reticulata Blanco and cultivar. According to different sources of medicinal materials, it can be divided into‘orange’ and‘wide dried tangerine or orange peel’ . Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium from Guangdong from‘Chazhi’ was recognized as Chinese drugs. A method on DNA barcode of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium from Guangdong was established. The trnH-psbA sequences of different samples of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium were analyzed in order to establish DNA barcode of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium from Guangdong. So the trnH-psbA DNA barcode can be used to preliminary identification of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium from Guangdong.%陈皮( Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium )为芸香科植物橘Citrus Reticulata Blanco及其栽培变种的干燥成熟果皮。根据药材来源不同又可分为“陈皮”和“广陈皮”。其中“广陈皮”是变种的茶枝柑果皮,为公认的道地药材。本文拟在分子水平建立广陈皮的DNA条形码,并对来源不同的陈皮样本在trnH-psbA序列进行分析,建立广陈皮的DNA序列。结果表明广陈皮样本与橙类果皮样本之间有明显的差异。因此,判断trnH-psbA序列DNA条形码可用于初步鉴别广陈皮。

  6. CrWSKP1, an SKP1-like Gene, Is Involved in the Self-Incompatibility Reaction of "Wuzishatangju" (Citrus reticulata Blanco).

    Li, Peng; Miao, Hongxia; Ma, Yuewen; Wang, Lu; Hu, Guibing; Ye, Zixing; Zhao, Jietang; Qin, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Plant S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1) genes play crucial roles in plant development and differentiation. However, the role of SKP1 in citrus is unclear. Herein, we described a novel SKP1-like gene, designated as CrWSKP1, from "Wuzishatangju" (Citrus reticulata Blanco). The cDNA sequence of CrWSKP1 is 779 base pairs (bp) and contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 477 bp. The genomic sequence of the CrWSKP1 gene is 1296 bp with two exons and one intron. CrWSKP1 has high identity with SKP1-like genes from other plant species within two conserved regions. Approximately 85% of pollen tubes of self-pollinated CrWSKP1 transgenic tobaccos became twisted at four days after self-pollination. Pollen tube numbers of self-pollinated CrWSKP1 transformants entering into ovules were significantly fewer than that of the control. Seed number of self-pollinated CrWSKP1 transformants was significantly reduced. These results suggested that the CrWSKP1 is involved in the self-incompatibility (SI) reaction of "Wuzishatangju". PMID:26370985

  7. Salacia oblonga root improves cardiac lipid metabolism in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: Modulation of cardiac PPAR-α-mediated transcription of fatty acid metabolic genes

    Excess cardiac triglyceride accumulation in diabetes and obesity induces lipotoxicity, which predisposes the myocytes to death. On the other hand, increased cardiac fatty acid (FA) oxidation plays a role in the development of myocardial dysfunction in diabetes. PPAR-α plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis of lipid metabolism. We have previously demonstrated that the extract from Salacia oblonga root (SOE), an Ayurvedic anti-diabetic and anti-obesity medicine, improves hyperlipidemia in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats (a genetic model of type 2 diabetes and obesity) and possesses PPAR-α activating properties. Here we demonstrate that chronic oral administration of SOE reduces cardiac triglyceride and FA contents and decreases the Oil red O-stained area in the myocardium of ZDF rats, which parallels the effects on plasma triglyceride and FA levels. Furthermore, the treatment suppressed cardiac overexpression of both FA transporter protein-1 mRNA and protein in ZDF rats, suggesting inhibition of increased cardiac FA uptake as the basis for decreased cardiac FA levels. Additionally, the treatment also inhibited overexpression in ZDF rat heart of PPAR-α mRNA and protein and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, acyl-CoA oxidase and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase mRNAs and restored the downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA. These results suggest that SOE inhibits cardiac FA oxidation in ZDF rats. Thus, our findings suggest that improvement by SOE of excess cardiac lipid accumulation and increased cardiac FA oxidation in diabetes and obesity occurs by reduction of cardiac FA uptake, thereby modulating cardiac PPAR-α-mediated FA metabolic gene transcription

  8. Examining the link between personality and laterality in a feral guppy Poecilia reticulata population.

    Irving, E; Brown, C

    2013-08-01

    This study examined whether variation in the strength and direction of lateralization in a detour task was linked with variation in three common personality measurements: boldness, activity and sociability, in a population of wild guppies Poecilia reticulata. Additionally, the aim was to determine whether any consistent correlations between these behavioural traits, known as behavioural syndromes, were present in the study population. The results revealed that all three personality traits were highly repeatable over time in both sexes. Evidence of a complex syndrome in the form of a correlation between boldness, sociability and activity was found; however, this relationship was only present in males. Males that were more active in a familiar environment emerged more quickly from shelter into a novel environment and were more social. In general, male P. reticulata were bold, active and antisocial compared to females, with these differences probably a reflection of opposing life-history strategies. Only a weak link between the strength of cerebral lateralisation and personality was discovered and this was mediated by sex. PMID:23902308

  9. Efficacy of Citrus reticulata and Mirazid in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni

    Manal A Hamed

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid, as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for different cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase; acid phosphatase (AP and 5'- nucleotidase. Liver function enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST; alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were also estimated. Parasitological studies through ova count and worm burden will also be taken into consideration. The results showed a marked reduction in SDH, LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities and a significant increase in G-6-Pase, AP, 5'- nucleotidase, and ALP after S. mansoni infection. A noticeable alteration in LDH subunits were also noticed. Treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all the previous enzyme activities with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden.

  10. Toxicity response of Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae to some agricultural pesticides

    ALIAKBAR HEDAYATI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hedayati A, Tarkhani R, Shadi A. 2012. Mortality response of Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae to some agricultural pesticides. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 6-10. This research was performed to determine and compare acute toxicity of diazinon and deltamethrin as potential dangerous organic pesticides to assess mortality effects of these chemicals to the freshwater guppy Poecilia reticulata. LC50 of 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h was attained by probit analysis by Finney’s and using the maximum-likelihood procedure (SPSS. The 24-96 h LC50 for the diazinon were 40.9±0.98, 33.2±0.84, 23.2±0.74 and 16.8±0.57 ppm respectively. The 24-96 h LC50 for the deltamethrin were 0.297±0.13, 0.236±0.16, 0.204±0.47 and 0.195±0.06 ppm respectively. In the present study, LC50 values indicated that deltamethrin was more toxic than diazinon to this species. LC50 values obtained in the present study were different from the corresponding values that have been published in the literature for other species of fish.

  11. Anti-fungal activity of Citrus reticulata Blanco essential oil against Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum.

    Tao, Nengguo; Jia, Lei; Zhou, Haien

    2014-06-15

    The chemical composition of Citrus reticulata Blanco essential oil was analysed using GC/MS. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (C10H16) constituted the majority (88.96%, w/w) of the total oil. The oils dose-dependently inhibited Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum. The anti-fungal activity of the oils against P. italicum was attributed to citronellol, octanal, citral, decanal, nonanal, β-pinene, linalool, and γ-terpinene, whereas anti-fungal activity against P. digitatum is attributed to octanal, decanal, nonanal, limonene, citral, γ-terpinene, linalool, and α-terpineol. The oils altered the hyphal morphology of P. italicum and P. digitatum by causing loss of cytoplasm and distortion of the mycelia. The oils significantly altered extracellular conductivity, the release of cell constituents, and the total lipid content of P. italicum and P. digitatum. The results suggest that C. reticulata Blanco essential oils generate cytotoxicity in P. italicum and P. digitatum by disrupting cell membrane integrity and causing the leakage of cell components. PMID:24491729

  12. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLLASE ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO L. USING SEAWEED EXTRACT OF ULVA RETICULATA FORSSKAL.

    Ganapathy Selvam G.; Balamurugan M.; Thinakaran T.; Sivakumar K

    2013-01-01

    The effect of seaweed extract prepared from Ulva reticulata on seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyllase activity of Vigna mungo L. was studied. 100% germination was recorded in the seeds treated with lower concentration of seaweed extract. The V. mungo seeds soaked with lower concentrations of the seaweed extracts showed higher rates of germination, while the higher concentrations of the extracts inhibited the germination.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from India.

    Samy, R Perumal

    2005-12-01

    The results of a preliminary antimicrobial screening of the methanol extracts of Zingiber officinale, Asteracantha longifolia, Citrus acida, Salacia microsperma and Tinospora cordifolia are reported. PMID:16229969

  14. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Essential Oil

    Bei Gao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (PCR essential oil obtained using an improved Clevenger type apparatus were studied. Among the five different PCRs examined the highest yield of essential oil was found in Chachi 2004 (harvested and stored in 2004 and the lowest in Chachi 2008 (harvested and stored in 2008. Fifty three different volatile compounds were determined, including terpenic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters. D-limonene, one of terpenes, was the major constituent in PCR. The antioxidant capacity of PCR essential oil varied considerably with the duration of storage time, and the oil from Chachi 1994 has the strongest ferric-reducing antioxidant power. In addition, the essential oil possessed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, except Streptococcus faecalis, while had no effect on Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae.

  15. DETAILED COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA LINN. AND ANNONA RETICULATA LINN. LEAVES

    Jani Switu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Annona squamosa Linn. and Annona reticulata Linn. are locally known as Sitaphala and Ramphala respectively both belongs to family Annonaceae. Leaves of both are used in various diseases like suppurant, toothache, anthelmintic commonly. Individually A. squamosa is used in anti diabetic, antispasmodic, dandruff and A. reticulate is used in flatulence and toothache. Till date there is no scientific comparative study has been reported. Pharmacognostical study of A. squamosa shows lysogenous cavity and sparse trichome where as, A. reticulate shows multicellular trichomes filled with tannin and stone cells. The powder characters of A. squamosa are stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate whereas A. reticulate shows pitted stones cells and micro rosettes crystals of calcium oxalate. Annular vessels, lysogenous cavity and paracytic stomata are common characters observed in both the leaves.

  16. Cryptococcus gattii VGII in a Plathymenia reticulata hollow in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Anzai, Mariana Caselli; Lazéra, Márcia Dos Santos; Wanke, Bodo; Trilles, Luciana; Dutra, Valéria; de Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus; Nakazato, Luciano; Takahara, Doracilde Terumi; Simi, Walquirya Borges; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the ecology of agents of cryptococcosis in Mato Grosso, without any data regarding to the sources of both agents in the environment. This study aimed to investigate Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans associated with decay in tree hollows within the urban area of three different cities of Mato Grosso. Seventy-two environmental samples collected from 72 living trees in the cities of Cuiabá, Várzea Grande and Chapada dos Guimarães were sampled and analysed. One tree (Plathymenia reticulata, Leguminosae) in the city of Cuiabá yielded 19 colonies identified as C. gattii molecular type VGII. The isolation of C. gattii VGII in the downtown city of Cuiabá is important because it fits in the Northern Macroregion, suggesting expanding and urbanisation of this genotype in different Brazilian cities. PMID:24612138

  17. [Studies on chemical structures of two iso-acetogenins from Annona reticulata].

    Yu, J G; Liu, D; Xu, L Z; Yang, S L

    1997-12-01

    Two annonaceous acetogenins: squamone (1) and isoannonareticin (2) have been isolated from the seeds of Annona reticulata L. (Annonaceae). 1 and 2 were shown to be mixtures of 2-epimers by the successful separation of their acetates with preparative TLC, giving: 2,4-cis-squamone diacetate (1a-1), 2,4-trans-squamone diacetate (1a-2), 2,4-cis-isoannonareticin diacetate (2a-1) and 2,4-trans-isoannonareticin diacetate (2a-2). The 2,4-cis-squamone (1-1) and 2,4-trans-isoannonareticin (2-1) are new annonaceous acetogenins. Their structures and relative stereochemistry were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis (1H-1H COSY and NOE). PMID:11596188

  18. In vitro efficacy of Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides and Copaifera reticulata against Leishmania chagasi Eficácia in vitro de Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides e Copaifera reticulata sobre Leishmania chagasi

    Fernanda Cristina Macedo Rondon; Claudia Maria Leal Bevilaqua; Marina Parissi Accioly; Selene Maia de Morais; Heitor Franco de Andrade-Júnior; Camila Aparecida de Carvalho; Josemar Coelho Lima; Hilton César Rodrigues Magalhães

    2012-01-01

    The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the mu...

  19. Heat shock transcription factors expression during fruit development and under hot air stress in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit.

    Lin, Qiong; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Wang, Dengliang; Li, Shaojia; Liu, Chunrong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-04-01

    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) play a role in plant responses to stress. Citrus is an economically important fruit whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed characterization of the Hsf gene family is available for citrus. A genome-wide analysis was carried out in Citrus clementina to identify Hsf genes, named CcHsfs. Eighteen CcHsfs were identified and classified into three main clades (clades A, B and C) according to the structural characteristics and the phylogenetic comparison with Arabidopsis and tomato. MEME motif analysis highlighted the conserved DBD and HR-A/B domains, which were similar to Hsf protein structures in other species. Gene expression analysis in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit identified 14 Hsf genes, named CrHsf, as important candidates for a role in fruit development and ripening, and showed seven genes to be expressed in response to hot air stress. CrHsfB2a and CrHsfB5 were considered to be important regulators of citrate content and showed variation in both developmentally-related and hot air-triggered citrate degradation processes. In summary, the data obtained from this investigation provides the basis for further study to dissect Hsf function during fruit development as well as in response to heat stress and also emphasizes the potential importance of CrHsfs in regulation of citrate metabolism in citrus fruit. PMID:25596345

  20. Whole toxicity removal for industrial and domestic effluents treated with electron beam radiation, evaluated with Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Poecilia reticulata

    Several studies have been performed in order to apply ionizing radiation to treat real complexes effluents from different sources, at IPEN. This paper shows the results of such kind of application devoted to influents and effluents from Suzano Wastewater Treatment Plant, Sao Paulo, Suzano WTP, from SABESP. The purpose of the work was to evaluate the radiation technology according to ecotoxicological aspects. The evaluation was carried out on the toxicity bases which included three sampling sites as follows: complex industrial effluents; domestic sewage mixed to the industrial discharge (GM) and final secondary effluent. The tested-organisms for toxicity evaluation were: the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri, the microcrustacean Daphnia similis and the guppy Poecilia reticulata. The fish tests were applied only for secondary final effluents. The results demonstrated the original acute toxicity levels as well as the efficiency of electron beam for its reduction. An important acute toxicity removal was achieved: from 75% up to 95% with 50 kGy (UNA), 20 kGy (GM) and 5.0 kGy for the final effluent. The toxicity removal was a consequence of several organic solvents decomposed by radiation and acute toxicity reduction was about 95%. When the toxicity was evaluated for fish the radiation efficiency reached from 40% to 60%. The hypothesis tests showed a statistical significant removal in the developed studies condition. No residual hydrogen peroxide was found after 5.0 kGy was applied to final effluent. (author)

  1. Community Analysis of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Roots of Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus reticulata Based on SSU rDNA

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Yin

    2014-01-01

    Morphological observation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species in rhizospheric soil could not accurately reflect the actual AMF colonizing status in roots, while molecular identification of indigenous AMF colonizing citrus rootstocks at present was rare in China. In our study, community of AMF colonizing trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) and red tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) were analyzed based on small subunit of ribosomal DNA genes. Morphological observation sh...

  2. Enhancement of stress resistance of the guppy Poecilia reticulata through feeding with vitamin C supplement

    Lim, L C; Dhert, P.; Chew, W.Y.; Dermaux, V.; Nelis, H.; Sorgeloos, P.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the use of vitamin C supplement in formulated diets and live Artemia juveniles to enhance the stress resistance of the guppy Poecilia reticulata. To evaluate the stress resistance, fish were subjected to osmotic shock in pre-aerated water containing 35 ppt sodium chloride. Ascorbyl acid-poly phosphate and ascorbyl palmitate were used as vitamin C sources for formulated diets and live Artemia juveniles, respectively. Results showed that guppies fed moist formulated diet...

  3. Sex-specific effects of carotenoid intake on the immunological response to allografts in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Grether, Gregory F; Kasahara, Shinji; Kolluru, Gita R.; Edwin L. Cooper

    2004-01-01

    Rarely are the evolutionary origins of mate preferences known, but, recently, the preference of female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) for males with carotenoid-based sexual coloration has been linked to a sensory bias that may have originally evolved for detecting carotenoid-rich fruits. If carotenoids enhance the immune systems of these fishes, as has been suggested for other species, this could explain the origin of the attraction to orange fruits as well as the maintenance of the female pre...

  4. Complex EPSCs Evoked in Substantia Nigra Reticulata Neurons are Disrupted by Repetitive Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus

    Shen, Ke-Zhong; Johnson, Steven W.

    2008-01-01

    Although substantia nigra reticulata (SNR) neurons fire bursts of action potentials during normal movement, excessive burst firing correlates with symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. A major excitatory output from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) to the SNR is thought to provide the synaptic impetus for burst firing in SNR neurons. Using patch pipettes to record from SNR neurons in rat brain slices, we found that a single electrical stimulus delivered to the STN evokes a burst of action potentials....

  5. Citrus Essential Oil of Nigeria Part IV: Volatile Constituents of Leaf Oils of Mandarins (Citrus Reticulata Blanco) From Nigeria

    Adeleke A. Kasali; Oladipupo. A. Lawal; Olatunji T. F. Abanikannda; Abayomi A. Olaniyan; William N. Setzer

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition of hydrodistilled oils obtained from the leaves of six Citrus reticulata Blanco (mandarin) cultivars grown in Nigeria were examined by GC and GC/MS, the result of their chemical composition were further submitted to cluster analysis. Fifty seven constituents were characterized accounting for 88.2 - 96.7% of the total oils. Sabinene, g -terpinene, P-cymene, d -3-carene and (E)- b -ocimene were observed in great variability in all the oils. Other constituents include li...

  6. Neuron-Specific Nuclear Antigen NeuN Is Not Detectable In Gerbil Subtantia Nigra Pars Reticulata

    Kumar, Sanjay S.; Buckmaster, Paul S.

    2007-01-01

    NeuN (Neuronal Nuclei), the neuron-specific marker of nuclear protein is used extensively in histological procedures to identify major cell-types in adult vertebrate nervous systems of a variety of species including rodents and humans. Some notable exceptions (i.e., NeuN-negative neurons) include Purkinje cells in cerebellum, mitral cells in olfactory bulb, and photoreceptors in retina. Here we report that neurons in gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), whose...

  7. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLLASE ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO L. USING SEAWEED EXTRACT OF ULVA RETICULATA FORSSKAL.

    Ganapathy Selvam G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of seaweed extract prepared from Ulva reticulata on seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyllase activity of Vigna mungo L. was studied. 100% germination was recorded in the seeds treated with lower concentration of seaweed extract. The V. mungo seeds soaked with lower concentrations of the seaweed extracts showed higher rates of germination, while the higher concentrations of the extracts inhibited the germination.

  8. Multielemental analysis of mineral nutrients in Nagpur Santra (Citrus reticulata Blanco) leaves by thermal neutron activation analysis

    Mn, Zn, Cu, Na, K, Fe and P have been determined in the Nagpur Santra (Citrus reticulata Blanco) leaves by thermal neutron activation analysis. The irradiated sample was dissolved in aqua regia in the presence of carriers. The β and/or γ activities of the purified elements were measured after radiochemical separations involving solvent extraction and precipitation. The values obtained for the elements are comparable to those reported in literature for Indian citrus leaves. (author)

  9. Induction of Mitochondria Mediated Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells (T-47D) by Annona reticulata L. Leaves Methanolic Extracts.

    Roham, Pratiksha H; Kharat, Kiran R; Mungde, Priyanka; Jadhav, Mahadev A; Makhija, Surinder J

    2016-01-01

    Annona reticulata Linn. (Common name: Bullock's-heart) (Annonaceae family) is a semi-evergreen and small deciduous tree. The extracts of various parts of Annona reticulata L. have been reported as cytotoxic to many cancer cells. Annona reticulata L. leaves' methanolic extract (ARME) was prepared and used against the breast cancer cells. The breast cancer cells (T-47D) viability and IC50 were evaluated by Vybrant® MTT Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Detection of phosphatidylserine on membranes of apoptotic cells was done by Attune flow cytometer. RNA transcripts were quantified in ARME treated and untreated cells. Finally, the Vybrant® FAM Poly Caspases assay kit was used for analysis of polycaspases activity in T-47D cells. The IC50 (5 ± 0.5 µg/mL) of the ARME was found against breast cancer cells (T-47D). The Paclitaxel was used as a control standard drug for the study. The downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax and Bak, and caspases activation suggested induction of apoptosis in T-47D cells by ARME through mitochondrial pathway. The cell cycle halted at G2/M phase in the ARME treated cells. The ARME was found to be effective against Breast cancer cells (T-47D). PMID:26908199

  10. Influence of volatile constituents of fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco on clinically isolated pathogenic microorganisms under In-vitro

    Husain Shahnaz Sultana; Mohammed Ali; Bibhu Prasad Panda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of volatile constituents of fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco on clinically isolated pathogenic microorganisms. Methods: Extraction of volatile oil was carried out by Clevenger’s apparatus. Volatile chemical components were measured by GC-MS. Antimicrobial activity was carried by Agar well diffusion assay with reference to standard fluconazole and tetracycline. Results: The chemical composition of volatile oil of the fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) of Delhi Region was composed mainly monoterpenes (99.1 %) constituting l-limonene (92.4 %), γ-terpene (2.6 %) andβ-phellandrene (1.8 %). The volatile oil showed antibacterial and antifungal activities against the clinically isolated pathogenic microbial strains Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans under in vitro condition. Conclusions: The potential antimicrobial activity of volatile oil present in fruit peels of C. reticulata can be useful for treatment of skin disorder and/or in aroma. Therapy, it can be incorporated into cosmetic formulations.

  11. CONTROL DEMONSTRATION OF THE RICEFIELD BREEDING MOSQUITO ANOPHELES ACONITUS DONITZ IN CENTRAL JAVA, USING POECILIA RETICULATA THROUGH COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION: 2. CULTURING, DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF FISH IN THE FIELD

    Sustriayu Nalim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Suatu percobaan pemberantasan vektor malaria Anopheles aconitus dengan penyebaran ikan pema­kan jentik Poecilia reticulata di sawah telah dilakukan. Untuk memacu peran serta petani, penyebaran ikan P. reticulata dilakukan bersamaan dengan minapadi di mana ikan Cyprinus carpio dipelihara di sawah. Beberapa aspek yang diteliti dalam percobaan ini adalah (1 biologi jentik An. aconitus dan ikan dan (2 cara-cara berkembangbiaknya ikan. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penyebaran An. aconitus di sawah pada umumnya 1/2 — 1 meter dari tepi pematang sawah, daya makan ikan P. reticulata rata rata adalah 119,4 jentik/hari, daya reproduksi rata-rata ikan P. reticulata adalah 109,3 ikan/bulan, daya produksi ikan C. carpio berkisar antara 5000 — 10.000 telur/3 bulan tergantung pada umur ikan betina. Kepadatan ikan P. reticulata 2 ikan/m2 dapat menanggulangi populasi jentik di sawah.

  12. The effects of different predator species on antipredator behavior in the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    Botham, M. S.; Kerfoot, C. J.; Louca, V.; Krause, J.

    2006-09-01

    Different types of predators often elicit different antipredator responses in a common type of prey. Alternatively, some prey species may adopt a general response, which provides limited protection from many different types of predator. The Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, is faced with a wide range of different predators throughout its range and is known to display varying levels of antipredator behavior depending on the predator assemblage. Pike cichlids, Crenicichla frenata, are regarded as the primary aquatic guppy predator in streams in the northern mountain range in Trinidad. As such, they are seen to be responsible for many of the differences in morphology, life history traits, and behavior between guppy populations from areas with few predators and those from areas with many pike cichlids. In this study we investigated how guppies responded when faced with different predator species using three common aquatic predators. We exposed shoals of ten guppies to one out of four treatments: no predator (control), pike cichlid, acara cichlid ( Aequidens pulcher), and wolf fish ( Hoplias malabaricus); and we made behavioral observations on both focal individuals and the shoal as a whole. Guppies showed significantly greater levels of predator inspection and shoaling behavior, foraged less, spent more time in the surface water, and stayed in significantly larger shoals when faced with pike cichlids than in other treatments. We discuss these results in the context of multiple predator effects.

  13. The effects of chronic irradiation on the breeding performance of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Osteichthyes: Teleostei)

    The effects of chronic irradiation on the life-time breeding performance of the small tropical fish, Poecilia reticulata, have been investigated at mean dose-rates of 0.17, 0.40 and 1.27 rad hour-1. The total fecundity was markedly (P<0.001) reduced at all dose-rates owing to a decrease in mean actual brood-size and an increase in temporary and permanent infertility. Minor progressive changes in the interbrood time with age and dose-rate were noted. The neonatal death-rate, incidence of abnormalities, and survival and sex ratio of the offspring were unaffected by irradiation. The brood-size data have been used to derive estimates of the dominant lethal mutation rate which are of the same order as those determined for mammals. Histological studies indicate that functional sterility is not necessarily dependent on the destruction of the gonads, and it is possible that radiation effects on pituitary function are responsible for much of the observed infertility. (author)

  14. Enzymatic Alterations and Genotoxic Effects Produced by Sublethal Concentrations of Organophosphorous Temephos in Poecilia reticulata.

    Pereira, Boscolli Barbosa; de Campos Júnior, Edimar Olegário

    2015-01-01

    The responses of biochemical and genetic parameters were evaluated in tissues of Poecilia reticulata exposed to sublethal and environmentally relevant concentrations of 0.005, 0.01, or 0.02 mg/L of the organophosphorous (OP) pesticide temephos (TE) for 168 h. Activities of enzymes brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and liver carboxylesterase (CbE) were determined. Nuclear abnormalities (NA) and micronucleus (MN) frequency in gill erythrocytes were also measured. No mortality was observed over the experimental period; however, brain AChE activities were decreased significantly in guppies in all TE treatment groups after 72 h of exposure. Hepatic CbE activities of fish were increased in all TE treatment groups at 96, 120, and 144 h of exposure. The frequencies of MN and NA in fish gill erythrocytes displayed a marked rise after 168 h of exposure to concentrations of 0.01 or 0.02 mg/L TE. Thus, determination of these parameters may be employed as potential indices of exposure to TE using this sentinel organism for monitorining. PMID:26252754

  15. Inhibitory synaptic transmission from the substantia nigra pars reticulata to the ventral medial thalamus in mice.

    Kase, Daisuke; Uta, Daisuke; Ishihara, Hiromi; Imoto, Keiji

    2015-08-01

    The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop circuit is involved in variety of motor, association and limbic functions. The basal ganglia receive neural information from various areas of the cerebral cortex and transfer them back to the frontal and motor cortex via the ventral medial (VM), and the anterior-ventral lateral thalamic complex. The projection from the basal ganglia to the thalamus is GABAergic, and, therefore, the output from the basal ganglia cannot directly evoke excitation in the thalamic nuclei. The mechanism underlying the information transfer via the inhibitory projection remains unclear. To address this issue, we recorded electrophysiological properties of nigro-thalamic synapses from the VM neuron. We developed a nigro-thalamic slice preparation, in which the projection from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) to VM nucleus is stored, to enable the selective activation of the projection from the SNr. We characterized synaptic properties and membrane properties of the VM neuron, and developed a VM neuron model to simulate the impacts of SNr inputs on VM neuron activity. Neural simulation suggested that the inhibitory projection from SNr can control neural activity in two ways: a disinhibition from the spontaneous nigral inhibition and a β-band synchronization evoked by combination of excitation and inhibition of SNr activity. PMID:25887794

  16. Effects of methylphenidate on responses to novelty in a teleost fish (Poecilia reticulata).

    De Serrano, Alex R; Fong, Charmaine; Rodd, F Helen

    2016-04-01

    Novelty seeking, the willingness to explore novel stimuli, can have important fitness consequences. The neurotransmitter dopamine has been linked to this behavior in studies on lab animals including rodents and fish; however, few studies have investigated this association in individuals from natural populations. Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) show variation in willingness to explore novel objects and environments, and females tend to show a preference for novel males. In this study, we asked whether we could enhance interest in several types of novel stimuli in lab-reared, female Trinidadian guppies by administering methylphenidate hydrochloride, a stimulant known to increase dopamine levels. We scored their responses to three different types of novelty: novel environments, objects, and males. Treated females showed enhanced exploratory behavior: they traversed relatively more inner squares of the novel environment (open-field test); they spent more time inspecting a novel object; and they showed greater interest in the second male guppy to which they were exposed than control fish. We also found a positive association between our metrics of exploration in the open field and novel object tests. Our other assays suggest that these differences were not the result of increased activity or reduced levels of stress. Therefore, our results suggest that dopamine plays a role in the responsiveness of guppies to novelty; this opens the door to studies of behavioral mechanisms in natural populations. PMID:26792109

  17. Identification of anti-asthmatic compounds in Pericarpium citri reticulatae and evaluation of their synergistic effects

    Qian SHI; Ze LIU; Yang YANG; Peng GENG; Yuan-yuan ZHU; Qi ZHANG; Fang BAI; Gang BAI

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the anti-asthmatic mechanisms of the traditional Chinese medicine Pericarpium citri reticulatae (PCR).Methods: The alkaloid section (AS) of PCR was extracted using an ion exchange resin, separated, and purified into different fractions by semi-preparative HPLC. These fractions were screened for beta2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonistic activity using rat β2AR-transfected CHO-CRE-EGFP cells. AS and its isolated components were characterized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight MS (UPLC/Q-Tof MS) and were evaluated for their spasmolytic and antitussive activities both in vitro and in vivo in a guinea pig model.Results: We demonstrated that the AS component responsible for activating β2AR signaling was synephrine. Both AS and synephrine showed significant spasmolytic effects on acetylcholine chloride (ACh)-induced contractions in isolated guinea pig trachea, and they protected against histamine-induced experimental asthma by prolonging the latent period. We further identified stachydrine as the antitussive component that could significantly reduce citric acid-induced coughing. The combination of these two bioactive compounds had a more potent spasmolytic activity in comparison with the single use of synephrine or stachydrine.Conclusion: We conclude that synephrine and stachydrine are the key components of AS that mediate asthma relief due to their synergism when used in combination.

  18. IDENTIFICATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF POTENTIAL PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM POECILIA RETICULATA (GUPPY

    Aparna Balakrishna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Antagonistic activities against candidate indicator strains, adhesion to mucus and biofilm formation of potential probiotic strains isolated from Poecilia reticulata were evaluated. Four isolated strains (MBTU_PB1, MBTU_PB2, MBTU_PB3 and MBTU_PB4 showed moderate to strong antagonistic activities against the tested five indicator strains (Aeromonas hydrophila1739, Vibrio cholera 3906, Flavobacterium 2495, Acinetobacter 1271 and Alcaligenes 1424 and these isolates were further identified using biochemical tests and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Except the whole cell product, the other three cellular components, namely, heat-killed whole cell product, intracellular product and extracellular product of all the four selected isolates were equally effective, as revealed by the zone of inhibitions to the tested indicator strains. The in vitro adhesion property or the ability of colonization is often considered as a selection criteria for probiotics. All the selected four strains had higher adhesion abilities than the indicator strains. Further, these four strains had the ability to form biofilms on polystyrene surfaces. The in vitro characterization of these four strains suggests possibility of using the isolates, as individual strain or in combination, for probiotic therapy in aquaculture.

  19. Developmental toxicity of copaiba tree (Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae) oleoresin in rat.

    Sachetti, Camile G; de Carvalho, Rosângela R; Paumgartten, Francisco J R; Lameira, Osmar A; Caldas, Eloisa D

    2011-05-01

    The oleoresin of the copaiba tree (Copaifera sp., Fabaceae) is traditionally used in Brazilian herbal medicine to treat a variety of illnesses and symptoms. This study, conducted according to the OECD Guideline 414, provides data on the developmental toxicity of oleoresin from C. reticulata (COPA-R) in rats. Pregnant Wistar rats (25 per dose group) were treated by gavage with COPA-R (0, 500, 1000 and 1250 mg/kg bw/day) on gestation days (GD) 6-19 and Caesarean sections performed on GD20. Implantations, living and dead fetuses and resorptions were recorded. Half of the fetuses from each litter were examined for visceral abnormalities and the remaining were cleared and stained for skeleton evaluation. COPA-R was maternally toxic (reduced food intake and weight gain) and embryotoxic (lower fetal body weight and increased occurrence of fetal skeleton variations) at the two highest doses, but did not cause embryo deaths or fetal malformations at any dose level. The study derived an oral no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for maternal and developmental toxicity induced by COPA-R of 500 mg/kg bw/day. The results suggest that copaiba oleoresin does not pose a health risk to pregnant women when used according to the recommended doses (up to five drops, three times a day). PMID:21266184

  20. The MC1R gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata: Genotypic and phenotypic polymorphisms

    Yokoyama Jun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The guppy (Poecilia reticulata is an important model organism for studying sexual selection; male guppies have complex and conspicuous pigmentation, and female guppies exhibit preferences for males with specific color spots. Understanding the genetic basis underlying pigmentation variation in the guppy is important for exploring the factors causing the maintenance of color polymorphism in wild populations. Findings We focused on the melanic black pigmentation of guppies, and examined genetic variations in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene because variation in this gene is known to contribute to polymorphism of melanin pigmentation in several animal species. The complete coding sequence of the guppy MC1R gene was determined, and two different MC1R alleles (963 and 969 bp were found in wild populations. Ornamental strain guppies with a 963-bp MC1R tended to show less black pigmentation than those with a 969-bp MC1R, although the association between MC1R genotype and black pigmentation disappeared in the F2 offspring. Conclusions The guppy MC1R gene showed variation in the five wild Trinidadian populations we examined, and these populations also differed in terms of allele frequencies. We identified a significant association between black pigmentation and MC1R genotype in fish obtained from aquarium shops. However, the results from F2 families suggest that there are other genes that modify the effects of the MC1R gene.

  1. Investigation of LC50, NOEC and LOEC of Glyphosate, Deltamethrin and Pretilachlor in Guppies (Poecilia Reticulata

    Ali Sadeghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of pesticides is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran. These toxic substances may accumulate in the food chain and cause serious ecological and health problems. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor as potential dangerous organic pesticides to assess lethal effects of these chemicals agents to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata. Methods: Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate (41% (0, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 25 ppm, deltamethrin (2.5% (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.10 and 0.30 ppm and pretilachlor (50% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm for 96 h and cumulative mortality of the guppies was calculated with 24 h intervals. Results: LC50-96h was 12.01±1.00, 0.08±0.47 and 8.24±0.42 for glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor respectively. The very low LC50 obtained for glyphosate (12.01±1.00 ppm, deltamethrin (0.08±0.47 ppm and pretilachlor (8.24±0.42 ppm indicate that glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor are highly toxic to guppies. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that deltamethrin and glyphosate had the lowest and highest rate of mortality on the guppy respectively.

  2. Intraspecific ecomorphological variations in Poecilia reticulata (Actinopterygii, Cyprinodontiformes: comparing populations of distinct environments

    Fábio T. Mise

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Morphological variations, according to the principles of ecomorphology, can be related to different aspects of the organism way of life, such as occupation of habitats and feeding behavior. The present study sought to examine the intraspecific variation in two populations of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859, that occur in two types of environments, a lotic (Maringá Stream and a lentic (Jaboti Lake. Due to a marked sexual dimorphism, males and females were analyzed separately. Thus, the proposed hypotheses were that the populations that occur in distinct environments present morphological differences. The morphological variables were obtained using morphometric measurements and the ecomorphological indexes. The data were summarized in a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (Manova was made to verify significant differences in morphology between the populations. Males and females showed similar ecomorphological patterns according to the environment they occur. In general the population from Maringá Stream had fins with major areas, and the Jaboti Lake population eyes located more dorsally. Additionally, others morphological differences such as wider mouth of the males from Maringá Stream, wider heads on Jaboti Lake females and more protractible mouths on males from Jaboti Lake suggest a set of environmental variables that can possibly influence the ecomorphological patterns of the populations, as the water current, availability of food resources and predation. In summary, the initial hypotheses could be confirmed, evidencing the occurrence of distinct ecomorphotypes in the same species according to the environment type.

  3. Aplicação de ácido giberélico (GA3 em précolheita de tangerina ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata blanco = Application of Gibberelic acid (GA3 on preharvest of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco fruit

    Júnior Cesar Modesto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi instalado em pomar comercial de tangerineira ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata Blanco, enxertadas sobre tangerineira ‘Cleópatra’ (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., em Pratânia, Estado de S��o Paulo, Brasil. Adotouse o delineamento experimental em blocoscasualizados com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos empregados foram: 0 (controle, 5, 10, 15 e 20 mg L1 de ácido giberélico (GA3. A aplicação dos tratamentos foi realizada com atomizador tratorizado. Na mudança de coloração dos frutos, utilizaramse 5,9 litros de solução por planta, com adição de 0,03% de surfatante não iônico com 25% de Alquil fenol poliglicoléter. As análises da qualidade dos frutos foram realizadas aos 13, 45, 75 e 111 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT. Não se verificou influência da aplicação de GA3 na massa fresca dos frutos, no conteúdo de sólidos solúveis totais, na acidez total titulável e “ratio”. No entanto foi observado atraso na colheita de frutos, induzido pelo efeito fisiológico do ácido giberélico. The experiment was carried out in a commercial orchard of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco, grafted on ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., in Pratânia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The utilized experimental design was composed of randomized blocks of four replications. The treatments consisted of: 0 (control,5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L1 of Gibberellic acid (GA3. Atomizer equipment was utilized for the application of the treatments. Each plant received 5.9 liters of solution, in which 0.03% of nonionic surfactant with 25% of alkylphenol ethoxylate was added, in order to change fruit coloration. The analyses of fruit quality were developed on the 13th, 45th, 75th and 111th days after the application of the treatments (DAT. Results showed that the application of GA3 did not affect fruit fresh mass, total soluble solids content, total titulable acidity and ratio. However, a delay in fruit

  4. Use of multi species freshwater bio monitor (MFB) to assess behavioral changes of guppy Poecilia reticulata and freshwater prawn Macrobrachium lanchesteri in response to cadmium

    The Multi species Freshwater Bio monitor (MFB) uses the measurement and analysis of different types of behaviours from different aquatic organisms for monitoring the water quality in freshwater ecosystem. The aim of this study was to determine the specific response of freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium lanchesteri) and guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) to cadmium (Cd) in the laboratory. Different concentrations of Cd were exposed to M. lanchesteri (1 ppb and 10 ppb) and P. reticulata (100 ppb and 560 ppb) and the behavioural changes of the organisms were recorded by MFB for 2 hours. Results showed that the behavioural and ventilation response of M. lanchesteri and P. reticulata increased with increasing exposure concentrations of Cd. Results also showed that the shrimp was more sensitive to Cd than the guppy fish and these local species were suitable as indicator organism for the MFB. (author)

  5. Whole toxicity removal for industrial and domestic effluents treated with electron beam radiation, evaluated with Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Poecilia reticulata; Reducao da toxicidade aguda de efluentes industriais e domesticos tratados por irradiacao com feixe de eletrons, avaliada com as especies Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Poecilia reticulata

    Borrely, Sueli Ivone

    2001-07-01

    Several studies have been performed in order to apply ionizing radiation to treat real complexes effluents from different sources, at IPEN. This paper shows the results of such kind of application devoted to influents and effluents from Suzano Wastewater Treatment Plant, Sao Paulo, Suzano WTP, from SABESP. The purpose of the work was to evaluate the radiation technology according to ecotoxicological aspects. The evaluation was carried out on the toxicity bases which included three sampling sites as follows: complex industrial effluents; domestic sewage mixed to the industrial discharge (GM) and final secondary effluent. The tested-organisms for toxicity evaluation were: the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri, the microcrustacean Daphnia similis and the guppy Poecilia reticulata. The fish tests were applied only for secondary final effluents. The results demonstrated the original acute toxicity levels as well as the efficiency of electron beam for its reduction. An important acute toxicity removal was achieved: from 75% up to 95% with 50 kGy (UNA), 20 kGy (GM) and 5.0 kGy for the final effluent. The toxicity removal was a consequence of several organic solvents decomposed by radiation and acute toxicity reduction was about 95%. When the toxicity was evaluated for fish the radiation efficiency reached from 40% to 60%. The hypothesis tests showed a statistical significant removal in the developed studies condition. No residual hydrogen peroxide was found after 5.0 kGy was applied to final effluent. (author)

  6. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  7. OSTEOCHONDROSIS IN THE DISTAL FEMURS OF AN ADULT RETICULATED GIRAFFE (GIRAFFA CAMELOPARDALIS RETICULATA): MACROSCOPIC, RADIOLOGIC, AND HISTOLOGIC FINDINGS.

    Basu, Christopher; Stoll, Alexander L; Dixon, Jonathon; Molenaar, Fieke Marije; Flach, Edmund; Smith, Ken C

    2016-03-01

    An adult male reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) was presented for postmortem examination. During radiologic examination of the hindlimbs, osseous cyst-like lesions were detected in both medial femoral condyles. These lesions were subsequently examined macroscopically and histologically. The gross appearance suggested a diagnosis of bilateral osteochondrosis that was confirmed with histopathologic examination. This finding has not previously been reported in giraffes. Macroscopic visualization of the major limb joints, including the femorotibial joints, is therefore encouraged in future postmortem examinations of giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis), and further assessment of clinical significance is required. PMID:27010303

  8. In vitro evaluation of adhesion and aggregation abilities of four potential probiotic strains isolated from guppy (Poecilia reticulata

    Aparna Balakrishna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the probiotic-related characteristics of four strains of bacteria isolated from the normal flora of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. In vitro results showed that the strains, namely, MBTU_PB1, MBTU_PB2, MBTU_PB3 and MBTU_PB4 had higher adhesion abilities than the tested indicator strains. However, an association between the cell-surface hydrophobicity and the ability to adhere to the intestinal mucus was not observed for these strains. Further, the selected strains were strongly autoaggregating (autoaggregation percentage ≥ 80 and also showed strain-specific coaggregation abilities with the tested indicator strains.

  9. Spatial discounting of food and social rewards in guppies (Poecilia reticulata

    Nelly eMühlhoff

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In temporal discounting, animals trade off the time to obtain a reward against the quality of a reward, choosing between a smaller reward available sooner versus a larger reward available later. Similar discounting can apply over space, when animals choose between smaller and closer versus larger and more distant rewards. Most studies of temporal and spatial discounting in nonhuman animals use food as the reward, and it is not established whether animals trade off other preferred stimuli in similar ways. Here, we offered female guppies (Poecilia reticulata a spatial discounting task in which we measured preferences for a larger reward as the distance to it increased relative to a closer but smaller reward. We tested whether the fish discounted reward types differently by offering subjects either food items or same-sex conspecifics as rewards. Before beginning the discounting tasks, we conducted validation tests to ensure that subjects equally valued the food and social stimuli in the quantities provided. In the discounting task, subjects switched their preferences from the larger to the smaller reward as the distance to the larger reward increased (spatial discounting, but the pattern and magnitude of discounting did not differ across the two reward types. These findings indicate that guppies show similar patterns of discounting food and social rewards in a spatial task. In an analysis of travel times, however, the fish swam faster to food rewards than to shoaling partners. This difference in travel times implies that fish temporally discounted social rewards less steeply than food rewards. Thus, reward type influences temporal discounting, suggesting a dissociation between temporal and spatial discounting. Our results illustrate how animals adjust choices and travel times depending on both the type of cost (time, distance and benefits (food, social partners.

  10. Low Predictability of Colour Polymorphism in Introduced Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) Populations in Panama

    Martínez, Celestino; Chavarría, Carmen; Sharpe, Diana M. T.; De León, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Colour polymorphism is a recurrent feature of natural populations, and its maintenance has been studied in a range of taxa in their native ranges. However, less is known about whether (and how) colour polymorphism is maintained when populations are removed from their native environments, as in the case of introduced species. We here address this issue by analyzing variation in colour patterns in recently-discovered introduced populations of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) in Panama. Specifically, we use classic colour analysis to estimate variation in the number and the relative area of different colour spots across low predation sites in the introduced Panamanian range of the species. We then compare this variation to that found in the native range of the species under low- and high predation regimes. We found aspects of the colour pattern that were both consistent and inconsistent with the classical paradigm of colour evolution in guppies. On one hand, the same colours that dominated in native populations (orange, iridescent and black) were also the most dominant in the introduced populations in Panama. On the other, there were no clear differences between either introduced-low and native low- and high predation populations. Our results are therefore only partially consistent with the traditional role of female preference in the absence of predators, and suggest that additional factors could influence colour patterns when populations are removed from their native environments. Future research on the interaction between female preference and environmental variability (e.g. multifarious selection), could help understand adaptive variation in this widely-introduced species, and the contexts under which variation in adaptive traits parallels (or not) variation in the native range. PMID:26863538

  11. Study on the volatile oil contents of Annona glabra L., Annona squamosa L., Annona muricata L. and Annona reticulata L., from Vietnam.

    Thang, T D; Dai, D N; Hoi, T M; Ogunwande, I A

    2013-01-01

    The volatile compounds identified from four species of Annona from Vietnam are being reported. The oils were obtained from aliquots of plant samples by steam distillation and subjected to GC and GC-MS analysis. The main compounds of Annona glabra L., were β-caryophyllene (21.5%) germacrene D (17.7%), α-cadinol (5.4%) and β-elemene (5.2%). Annona squamosa L., comprised mainly of α-pinene (1.0-11.9%), limonene (0.8-11.7%), β-cubebene (0.5-13.0%), β-caryophyllene (11.6-24.5%), spathulenol (0.8-9.0%), caryophyllene oxide (1.0-10.6%) and α-cadinol (3.3-7.8%). The significant constituents of Annona muricata L., were α-pinene (9.4%), β-pinene (20.6%), ρ-mentha-2,4(8)-diene (9.8%), β-elemene (9.1%) and germacrene D (18.1%). However, camphene (0.2-6.6%), α-copaene (2.0-7.3%), β-elemene (5.9-16.6%), β-caryophyllene (8.3-14.9%), β-bisabolene (0.4-10.2%), δ-cadinene (1.7-4.8%) and germacrene D (9.3-22.8%) were the main compounds common to samples of Annona reticulata L. There were significant amounts of sabinene (11.2% and 2.7%; leaf and stem bark) and bicycloelemene (9.6% and 6.1%; stem and bark). PMID:22989376

  12. EXTRACELLULAR GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC-ACID IN THE SUBSTANTIA-NIGRA RETICULATA MEASURED BY MICRODIALYSIS IN AWAKE RATS - EFFECTS OF VARIOUS STIMULANTS

    TIMMERMAN, W; WESTERINK, BHC

    1995-01-01

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNR) was challenged by local infusion of various receptor-specific agents to obtain additional information on the physiological significance of extracellular GABA levels as measured by microdialysis in awake rats. No

  13. Opposite selection on behavioural types by active and passive fishing gears in a simulated guppy Poecilia reticulata fishery.

    Diaz Pauli, B; Wiech, M; Heino, M; Utne-Palm, A C

    2015-03-01

    This study assessed whether fishing gear was selective on behavioural traits, such as boldness and activity, and how this was related with a productivity trait, growth. Female guppies Poecilia reticulata were screened for their behaviour on the shy-bold axis and activity, and then tested whether they were captured differently by passive and active fishing gear, here represented by a trap and a trawl. Both gears were selective on boldness; bold individuals were caught faster by the trap, but escaped the trawl more often. Boldness and gear vulnerability showed weak correlations with activity and growth. The results draw attention to the importance of the behavioural dimension of fishing: selective fishing on behavioural traits will change the trait composition of the population, and might eventually affect resilience and fishery productivity. PMID:25619538

  14. Nutritional Evaluation of Raw Materials Entering the Structure to Mixed Fodder for the Specie Poecilia reticulata (Guppy

    Adrian Gruber

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the ornamental pisciculture is a especial emphasis on the exterior shape and color to the fishes, issues that are dependent directly to the structure of compound feeds in relation to the nutritional characteristics of the raw materials.Own research or focused on analyzing the crude chemical composition with Weende scheme (water content and dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, SEN of raw materials can be used in the structure of a compound feeds for the Poecilia reticulata (guppy species, for most of these materials there are no current data in the literature.These materials were analyzed: gelatin, wheat flour, sunflower meal, soybean meal, meal Spirulina platensis, carrot (Daucus carota, Pangasius fillet, Daphnia pulex, grount dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, grount nettle (Urtica dioica and yeast.

  15. Citrus Essential Oil of Nigeria Part IV: Volatile Constituents of Leaf Oils of Mandarins (Citrus Reticulata Blanco From Nigeria

    Adeleke A. Kasali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of hydrodistilled oils obtained from the leaves of six Citrus reticulata Blanco (mandarin cultivars grown in Nigeria were examined by GC and GC/MS, the result of their chemical composition were further submitted to cluster analysis. Fifty seven constituents were characterized accounting for 88.2 - 96.7% of the total oils. Sabinene, g -terpinene, P-cymene, d -3-carene and (E- b -ocimene were observed in great variability in all the oils. Other constituents include linalool, myrcene, terpinen-4-ol and cis-sabinenehydrate. In addition, limonene, terpinolene, b -pinene, and a -pinene were also detected in appreciable concentrations. b -sinensal and a -sinensal were isolated by preparative GC and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques.

  16. The green synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the biological activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Leptadenia reticulata leaf extract

    Kumara Swamy, M.; Sudipta, K. M.; Jayanta, K.; Balasubramanya, S.

    2015-01-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag Nps) was carried out using methanol leaves extract of L. reticulata. Ag Nps were characterized based on the observations of UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. These Ag Nps were tested for antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method against different pathogenic microorganisms and antioxidant activity was performed using DPPH assay. Further, the in vitro cytotoxic effects of Ag Nps were screened against HCT15 cancer cell line and viability of tumor cells was confirmed using MTT ((3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole)) assay. The nuclear condensation was studied using the propidium iodide-staining method. The color change from green to dark brown and the absorbance peak at about 420 nm indicated the formation of nanoparticles. XRD pattern showed characteristic peaks indexed to the crystalline planes (111), (200) and (220) of face-centered cubic silver. The nanoparticles were of spherical shape with varying sizes ranging from 50 to 70 nm. Biosynthesized Ag Nps showed potent antibacterial activity and effective radical scavenging activity. MTT assay revealed a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability. Microscopic observations showed distinct cellular morphological changes indicating unhealthy cells, whereas the control appeared normal. Increase in the number of propidium iodide positive cells were observed in maximum concentration. Methanolic leaf extract of L. reticulata acts as an excellent capping agent for the formation of silver nanoparticles and demonstrates immense biological activities. Hence, these Ag NPs can be used as antibacterial, antioxidant as well as cytotoxic agent in treating many medical complications.

  17. Development and Characterization of Somatic Hybrids of Ulva reticulata Forsskål (× Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.Doty

    Vishal eGupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulvophycean species with diverse trait characteristics provide an opportunity to create novel allelic recombinant variants. The present study reports the development of seaweed variants with improved agronomic traits through protoplast fusion between Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz. Doty and Ulva reticulata Forsskål. A total of 12 putative hybrids were screened based on the variations in morphology and total DNA content over the fusion partners. DNA-fingerprinting by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis confirmed genomic introgression in the hybrids. The DNA fingerprint revealed sharing of parental alleles in regenerated hybrids and a few alleles that were unique to hybrids. The epigenetic variations in hybrids estimated in terms of DNA methylation polymorphism also revealed sharing of methylation loci with both the fusion partners. The functional trait analysis for growth showed a hybrid with heterotic trait (DGR%= 36.7±1.55% over the fusion partners U. reticulata (33.2±2.6% and M. oxyspermum (17.8±1.77%, while others were superior to the mid-parental value (25.2±2.2% (p<0.05. The fatty acid (FA analysis of hybrids showed notable variations over fusion partners. Most hybrids showed increased polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs compared to saturated FAs (SFAs and mainly includes the nutritionally important linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, oleic acid, stearidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. The other differences observed include superior cellulose content and antioxidative potential in hybrids over fusion partners. The hybrid varieties with superior traits developed in this study unequivocally demonstrate the significance of protoplast fusion technique in developing improved varients of macroalgae.

  18. Pathogen infection drives patterns of nutrient resorption in citrus plants.

    Cao, Jirong; Cheng, Chunzhen; Yang, Junjie; Wang, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient resorption processes in the plants infected by pathogen remain poorly understood. Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease of citrus. HLB-pathogen 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' grows specifically in the phloem of hosts and may cause problems in the plant vascular system after infection. Therefore, it brings a great concern about the phloem nutrient transport and nutrient intra-cycling in HLB-affected plants. We investigated the effects of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and resorption in different citrus species (i.e. Citrus reticulata, Citrus limon and Citrus maxima). HLB-pathogen infection had distinctive impacts on nutrient resorption in different species. P resorption efficiency substantially decreased in infected C. reticulata plants relative to the healthy plants in summer, which may account for the marked decrease in the average fruit yield. P resorption was more efficient in infected C. limon plants than in the healthy plants. However, for C. maxima plants, HLB had no significant effects on N:P ratio in live leaves and resorption efficiency as well as on fruit yield. Keeping efficient internal nutrient cycling can be a strategy of citrus species being tolerant to HLB. PMID:26419510

  19. In vitro and in silico studies on the anticancer and apoptosis-inducing activities of the sterols identified from the soft coral, subergorgia reticulata

    Kuniyil Byju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gorgonians and other octocorals are known to possess a huge array of secondary metabolites in which sterols are the major group of secondary metabolites apart from sesquiterpenes and diterpenes, and the bioactive metabolites could show marked biomedical potential for future drug discovery. Objective : This study was intended for the isolation and identification of sterols from the octocoral Subergorgia reticulata and to evaluate the anticancer and apoptosis-inducing activities of the identified sterols through in vitro and in silico approach. Materials and Methods : The organism was collected from Lakshadweep Island. The isolated sterols were identified using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The structure was confirmed by using comparison of their spectra those in National Institute of Standard Technology (NIST library. The apoptosis inducing effect of identified sterols were determined by PASS online prediction. In vitro cytotoxity studies were carried out using Dalton′s lymphoma ascites cells (DLA and the cell viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion method. Results : Six sterols were identified from the soft coral S. reticulata. They are Cholesta-5,22-diene-3ol (3β, Ergosta-5-22-dien-3ol (3β,22E 24S, Cholesterol, 26,26-Dimethyl-5,24(28-ergostadien-3β-ol. β-sitosterol, and Fucosterol. In silico predictions showed that the identified sterols exhibited remarkable apoptosis agonist activity. The probability of apoptosis agonist activity were found maximum for 26,26-Dimethyl-5,24 (28-S. reticulata sterol fractions isolated were found to be having anticancer activity. Conclusions : These findings suggest that S. reticulata contained biologically active sterol compounds that may be useful in the treatment of cancer.

  20. In vitro and in silico studies on the anticancer and apoptosis-inducing activities of the sterols identified from the soft coral, subergorgia reticulata

    Kuniyil Byju; Vattoni Anuradha; Gopalakrishnapai Vasundhara; S. Muraleedharan Nair; N Chandramohana Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gorgonians and other octocorals are known to possess a huge array of secondary metabolites in which sterols are the major group of secondary metabolites apart from sesquiterpenes and diterpenes, and the bioactive metabolites could show marked biomedical potential for future drug discovery. Objective : This study was intended for the isolation and identification of sterols from the octocoral Subergorgia reticulata and to evaluate the anticancer and apoptosis-inducing activities of ...

  1. Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Banet, Amanda I.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Steffensen, John F.; Aarestrup, Kim

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable intraspecific variation in metabolic rates and locomotor performance in aquatic ectothermic vertebrates; however, the mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. Using pregnant Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing teleost, we examined the effects of reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burse-assisted swimming on swimming metabolic rate, standard metabolic rate (MO2std) and prolonged swimming performance (Ucrit). Reproductive traits included repr...

  2. Genetic improvement of variety pattern chromatic Half BlackBlue or Diamond of ornamental fish Guppy (Poecilia reticulata; Peters, 1859) through mass selection

    Carlos Scotto Espinoza

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a standard computerized digitized based on the number of pixels. They found eight characteristic blue color tones in both the body and dorsal fin to be used in the potential for mass selection breeding color pattern of the commercial variety or Half Black-Blue Diamond ornamental fish Guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Ten pairs of sires selected with an average of eighty F1 offspring per couple (Total = 734), were randomly selected twelve male animals more attracti...

  3. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove) and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit)

    OO Johnson; GA Ayoola; T Adenipekun

    2013-01-01

    The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum) and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata) were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity....

  4. Characterization of Chemical Composition of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Volatile Oil by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography with High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Kunming Qin; Lijuan Zheng; Hao Cai; Gang Cao; Yajing Lou; Tulin Lu; Yachun Shu; Wei Zhou; Baochang Cai

    2013-01-01

    Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (Chenpi in Chinese) has been widely used as an herbal medicine in Korea, China, and Japan. Chenpi extracts are used to treat indigestion and inflammatory syndromes of the respiratory tract such as bronchitis and asthma. This thesis will analyze chemical compositions of Chenpi volatile oil, which was performed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-HR-TOFMS). One hundred and sixty-seven co...

  5. Crossing-over between Y chromosomes: another possible source of phenotypic variability in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters

    I. Valentin Petrescu-Mag

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic linkage acting through crossing-over between X and X chromosomes, X and Y chromosomes, and autosomal gene recombination are the most important sources of color pattern polymorphisms in animals. Variability in male color patterns and fin morphologies in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing fish is an example of extreme pattern polymorphism. We explored the possibility that crossing-over between Y chromosomes can also contribute to the high degree of pattern polymorphism in guppies because YY individuals are easily induced in the boratory. However, note that YY individuals are also produced in natural populations. Our results indicated that YY crossing-over was another important source of phenotypic variability - probably because recombination may be possible ver the entire length of Y chromosomes, and at very high frequencies due to high degrees of homology. Thus, crossing-over between Y chromosomes is yet another mechanism that can contribute to extreme pattern polymorphism in the guppy, a popular aquarium and important research model species.

  6. Community Analysis of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Roots of Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus reticulata Based on SSU rDNA

    Peng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological observation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF species in rhizospheric soil could not accurately reflect the actual AMF colonizing status in roots, while molecular identification of indigenous AMF colonizing citrus rootstocks at present was rare in China. In our study, community of AMF colonizing trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. and red tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco were analyzed based on small subunit of ribosomal DNA genes. Morphological observation showed that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM colonization, spore density, and hyphal length did not differ significantly between two rootstocks. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 173 screened AMF sequences clustered in at least 10 discrete groups (GLO1~GLO10, all belonging to the genus of Glomus Sensu Lato. Among them, GLO1 clade (clustering with uncultured Glomus accounting for 54.43% clones was the most common in trifoliate orange roots, while GLO6 clade (clustering with Glomus intraradices accounting for 35.00% clones was the most common in red tangerine roots. Although, Shannon-Wiener indices exhibited no notable differences between both rootstocks, relative proportions of observed clades analysis revealed that composition of AMF communities colonizing two rootstocks varied severely. The results indicated that native AMF species in citrus rhizosphere had diverse colonization potential between two different rootstocks in the present orchards.

  7. Fine scale spatial genetic structure in Pouteria reticulata (Engl. Eyma (Sapotaceae, a dioecious, vertebrate dispersed tropical rain forest tree species

    John W. Schroeder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dioecious tropical tree species often have small flowers and fleshy fruits indicative of small-insect pollination and vertebrate seed dispersal. We hypothesize that seed mediated gene flow should be exceed pollen-mediated gene flow in such species, leading to weak patterns of fine scale spatial genetic structure (SGS. In the present study, we characterize novel microsatellite DNA markers and test for SGS in sapling (N=100 and adult trees (N=99 of the dioecious canopy tree Pouteria reticulata (Sapotaceae in a 50 ha forest dynamics plot on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama. The five genetic markers contained between five and 15 alleles per locus, totaling 51 alleles in the sample population. Significant SGS at local spatial scales (<100m was detected in the sapling (dbh≈1cm and adult (dbh≥20cm size classes, but was stronger in the former (sapling Sp=0.010±0.004, adult Sp=0.006±0.002, suggesting demographic thinning. The degree of SGS was lower than the value expected for non-vertebrate dispersed tropical trees (Sp=0.029, but similar to the average value for vertebrate dispersed tropical trees (Sp=0.009 affirming the dispersal potential of vertebrate dispersed tropical trees in faunally intact forests.

  8. Slight Fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium Improves the Taste (Sugar:Acid Ratio) of Citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. chachiensis) Juice.

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Fu, Manqin; Wen, Jing

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium, which can metabolize citric acid, could be applied in improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice. During fermentation, the strain of L. fermentium can preferentially utilize citric acid of citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis) juice to support the growth without the consumption of sugar. After 6 h of fermentation with L. fermentium at 30 °C, the sugar:acid ratio of citrus juice increased to 22:1 from 12:1, which resulted in that the hedonic scores of sweetness, acidity and overall acceptability of fermented-pasteurized citrus juice were higher than the unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice, the ORAC value and total amino acid showed a reduction, and no significant change (P > 0.05) in the L*, a*, b*, total soluble phenolics and ascorbic acid (Vc) content in the fermented-pasteurized citrus juice was observed as compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Hence, slight fermentation with L. fermentium can be used for improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice with the well retaining of quality. PMID:26447635

  9. Storage Stability of Kinnow Fruit (Citrus reticulata as Affected by CMC and Guar Gum-Based Silver Nanoparticle Coatings

    Syed Wasim Ahmad Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC and guargum-based coatings containing silver nanoparticles was studied on the postharvest storage stability of the kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata cv. Blanco for a period of 120 days (85%–90% relative humidity at 4 °C and 10 °C. Physicochemical and microbiological qualities were monitored after every 15 days of storage. Overall results revealed an increase in total soluble solid (TSS, total sugars, reducing sugars and weight loss but this increase was comparatively less significant in coated fruits stored at 4 °C. Ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity was significantly enhanced in coated fruits stored at 4 °C. Titratable acidity significantly decreased during storage except for coated kinnow stored at 4 °C. In control samples stored at 10 °C, high intensity of fruit rotting and no chilling injury was observed. Total aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria and yeast and molds were noticed in all treatments during storage but the growth was not significant in coated fruits at 4 °C. Kinnow fruit can be kept in good quality after coating for four months at 4 °C and for 2 months at 10 °C.

  10. Change of mitotic behavior and ultra structure of 'Fuju' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) stem-apex clones after space flight

    By using conventional squash stain technique and ultrathin sectioning technique, the effects of space flight on mitotic behavior and ultrastructure were studied in the shoot apical meristem of 'Fuju' (Citrus reticulata Blanco), which had been carried by China's seed-breeding satellite, Shijian-8. The results showed that space flight had effect on the mutagenesis of stem-apical meristem. Abnormal mitosis with various degrees had been detected in 13 mutant clones, of which mitotic aberrations in clone '08004' were significantly higher than the others. The aberration rate of numerical abnormalities of chromosomes at metaphase, lagging chromosome, micronucleus, C-spindle, S-spindle and polyarch spindle in the clone '08004' was 0.34%, 0.669%, 0.86%, 0.17%, 1.20% and 1.03%, respectively. The ultrastructure of mesophyll cell in most clones was unchanged, but nucleus chromatin agglutination, chloroplast thylakoid disintegrated, autophagosome appeared, cell vacuolated, plasmolysis and the formation of apoptotic body were found in the clone '08004', suggesting that programmed cell death (PCD) Nevertheless, no change in the mitochondrial structure was observed until terminal phase of PCD. (authors)

  11. Detection and Estimation of alpha-Amyrin, beta-Sitosterol, Lupeol, and n-Triacontane in Two Medicinal Plants by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography

    Saikat S. Mallick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A normal phase high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC method has been developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of four components, namely, alpha-amyrin, beta-sitosterol, lupeol, and n-triacontane from two medicinally important plants, Leptadenia reticulata Wight & Arn. and Pluchea lanceolata (DC. CB. Clarke. In Ayurveda, both plants have been reported to possess immunomodulatory activity. Chromatographic separation of the four components from the methanolic extracts of whole plant powders of Leptadenia reticulata Wight & Arn. and Pluchea lanceolata (DC. CB. Clarke. was performed on TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 using a suitable mobile phase. The densitometric scanning was done after derivatization at λ = 580 nm for α-amyrin, β-sitosterol, and lupeol, and at 366 nm for n-triacontane. The developed HPTLC method has been validated and used for simultaneous quantitation of the four components from the methanolic extracts of whole plant powders of Leptadenia reticulata Wight & Arn. and Pluchea lanceolata (DC. CB. Clarke. The developed HPTLC method is simple, rapid, and precise and can be used for routine quality control.

  12. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity of copaiba oils from Copaifera cearensis Huber ex Ducke, Copaifera reticulata Ducke and Copaifera multijuga Hayne--a comparative study.

    Veiga Junior, V F; Rosas, E C; Carvalho, M V; Henriques, M G M O; Pinto, Angelo C

    2007-06-13

    Copaiba oil is an oleoresin obtained from the Copaifera L. genus (Leguminoseae) commonly featured in anti-inflammatory recipe prescribed by Amazonian traditional medical practitioners and featured in Europe and North America pharmacopeias of the past. Chemical and anti-inflammatory activity investigations from the copaiba oils obtained from Copaifera multijuga Hayne, Copaifera cearensis Huber ex Ducke and Copaifera reticulata Ducke species have proved that, although similar, these oleoresins possess varied composition and anti-inflammatory activity. Chromatographic studies showed that the main compound among sesquiterpenes was beta-caryophyllene (57.5, 19.7 and 40.9%, respectively), followed by alpha-humulene, alpha-copaene, alpha-bergamotene, delta-cadinene, with different amounts in each oleoresin. Among the diterpenes, copalic acid was the main component from Copaifera multijuga Hayne (6.2%) and was found in all the oleoresins studied. In Copaifera cearensis Huber ex Ducke, clorechinic (11.3%) and hardwickiic acids (6.2%) were the major diterpenes while kaurenoic (3.9%) and kolavenic acids (3.4%) predominated in Copaifera reticulata Ducke. The pharmacologic effects of the three oleoresins were evaluated in vitro by measuring the NO production by murine macrophages and in vivo using the zymosan induced pleurisy model in mice. The Copaiba Oil from Copaifera multijuga Hayne (100 mg/kg) was the most potent, inhibiting both NO production and the pleurisy induced by zymosan. The oleoresins from Copaifera cearensis Huber ex Ducke and Copaifera reticulata Ducke were also able to inhibit NO production and the pleurisy but with less intensity. PMID:17446019

  13. Atividade antimicrobiana do oleorresina de copaíba (Copaifera reticulata) frente a Staphylococcus coagulase positiva isolados de casos de otite em cães

    Rosangela E. Ziech; Luana D. Farias; Cláudia Balzan; Magnos F. Ziech; Berta M. Heinzmann; Osmar A. Lameira; Agueda C. Vargas

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar o potencial antimicrobiano do oleorresina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke em isolados de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (SCP) provenientes de casos de otite externa em cães. O método de microdiluição em caldo foi utilizado para determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e concentração bactericida mínima (CBM) de oleorresina de copaíba. Em adição, foi determinado o perfil de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos dos isolados de SCP pelo m...

  14. Comparação da sensibilidade de Danio rerio, Poecilia reticulata e Xiphophorus helleri a Aeromonas hydrophila e Aeromonas aquariorum

    Chambel Martins, João

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Aquacultura apresentada à ESTM - Escola Superior de Turismo e Tecnologia do Mar do Instituto Politécnico de Leiria Este trabalho teve como objectivo comparar a sensibilidade de três das principais espécies de peixes ornamentais de água doce, Danio rerio, Poecilia reticulata e Xiphophorus helleri, a duas bactérias potencialmente zoonóticas para o Homem, Aeromonas hydprophila (SM 30016) e Aeromonas aquariorum (DSM 18362). De forma a efectuar a injecção intraperi...

  15. The effect of vitamin C on growth factors, survival, reproduction and sex ratio in guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    Bahareh Mehrad; Mohammad Sudagar

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid, AA) ongrowth factors, survival, reproductive performance and sex ratio in guppy (Poecilia reticulataPeters,1859). Guppies were divided into 5 treatments with triplicate groups and fed with one of 5 dietsfor 20 weeks. The experimental vitamin C diets were formulated to contain 400, 800, 1200 and 2000 mgAA kg-1 (treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively) with 1 control group. The data obtained from the trial weresub...

  16. Effect of juice extraction methods and processing temperature-time on juice quality of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) during storage

    Pareek, Sunil; Paliwal, Ravinder; Mukherjee, Subrata

    2010-01-01

    Influence of juice extraction methods and pasteurization temperature and time on quality of mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) juice was studied. The experiment consisted of 65 °C pasteurization temperature with 15, 25 and 35 min holding time; 75 °C with 10, 20 and 30 min and 85 °C with 5, 10 and 15 min holding times and two types of juice extraction methods. The experiment was laid out in factorial completely randomized Design with three replications. Juice extracted with screw type juice e...

  17. Seasonal simulation of water, salinity and nitrate dynamics under drip irrigated mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and assessing management options for drainage and nitrate leaching

    Phogat, V.; Skewes, M. A.; Cox, J. W.; Sanderson, G.; Alam, J.; Šimůnek, J.

    2014-05-01

    Estimation of all water fluxes temporally and spatially within and out of the crop root zone, and evaluation of issues like salinity and nutrient leaching, are necessary to fully appraise the efficiency of irrigation systems. Simulation models can be used to investigate these issues over several seasons when the cost of long term monitoring is prohibitive. Model results can be used to advise growers if improvements are required to various aspects of irrigation system operations. In this study, HYDRUS-2D was used to evaluate data measured during one season in a young mandarin (Citrus reticulata) orchard, irrigated with an intensive surface drip fertigation system. Water contents, salinities, and nitrate concentrations measured weekly in the field were compared with model predictions. The temporal mean absolute error (MAE) values between weekly measured and simulated water contents ranged from 0.01 to 0.04 cm3 cm-3. However, modelling error (MAE) was slightly larger at 10 cm depth (0.04 cm3 cm-3), as compared to greater depths (0.02-0.03 cm3 cm-3). Similarly, the errors were larger in the surface soil layer (25 cm depth) for nitrate-nitrogen, NO3--N (1.52 mmol(c) L-1), as compared to greater depths. The spatial and temporal soil solution salinity (ECsw) and NO3--N data showed accumulation of salts and nitrate within the soil up until day 150 of the simulation (December, 2006), followed by leaching due to high precipitation and over irrigation at later times. Only 49% of applied water was used by the mandarin trees, while 33.5% was leached. On the other hand, the simulation revealed that a significant amount of applied nitrogen (85%) was taken up by the mandarin trees, and the remaining 15% was leached. The results indicate that the irrigation and fertigation schedule needs modifying as there was overwatering from December onwards. Different permutations and combinations of irrigation and fertigation scheduling were evaluated to optimise the water and nitrogen uptake

  18. Sex-specific effects of carotenoid intake on the immunological response to allografts in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Grether, Gregory F; Kasahara, Shinji; Kolluru, Gita R; Cooper, Edwin L

    2004-01-01

    Rarely are the evolutionary origins of mate preferences known, but, recently, the preference of female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) for males with carotenoid-based sexual coloration has been linked to a sensory bias that may have originally evolved for detecting carotenoid-rich fruits. If carotenoids enhance the immune systems of these fishes, as has been suggested for other species, this could explain the origin of the attraction to orange fruits as well as the maintenance of the female preference for orange males. We used the classic immunological technique of tissue grafting to assay a component of the immune response of guppies raised on two different dietary levels of carotenoids. Individual scales were transplanted between pairs of unrelated fishes, creating reciprocal allografts. Transplanted scales were scored on a six-point rejection scale every day for 10 days. Five days later, the same pairs of fishes received a second set of allografts and were scored again. Compared with low-carotenoid-diet males, high-carotenoid-diet males mounted a significantly stronger rejection response to the second allograft but not to the first allograft. High-carotenoid-diet females, however, showed no improvement in graft rejection compared with low-carotenoid-diet females. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence for sex-specific effects of carotenoid consumption on the immune system of a species with carotenoid-based sexual coloration. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the mate preference for carotenoid coloration is maintained by the benefits to females of choosing healthy mates, but they cast doubt on the idea that the benefits of carotenoid consumption, per se, could account for the origin of the preference. The sex-specificity of carotenoid effects on allograft rejection in guppies provides indirect support for the general hypothesis that males pay an immunological cost for sexual ornamentation. PMID:15002770

  19. Abnormal chloride homeostasis in the substancia nigra pars reticulata contributes to locomotor deficiency in a model of acute liver injury.

    Yan-Ling Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Altered chloride homeostasis has been thought to be a risk factor for several brain disorders, while less attention has been paid to its role in liver disease. We aimed to analyze the involvement and possible mechanisms of altered chloride homeostasis of GABAergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr in the motor deficit observed in a model of encephalopathy caused by acute liver failure, by using glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 - green fluorescent protein knock-in transgenic mice. METHODS: Alterations in intracellular chloride concentration in GABAergic neurons within the SNr and changes in the expression of two dominant chloride homeostasis-regulating genes, KCC2 and NKCC1, were evaluated in mice with hypolocomotion due to hepatic encephalopathy (HE. The effects of pharmacological blockade and/or activation of KCC2 and NKCC1 functions with their specific inhibitors and/or activators on the motor activity were assessed. RESULTS: In our mouse model of acute liver injury, chloride imaging indicated an increase in local intracellular chloride concentration in SNr GABAergic neurons. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of KCC2 were reduced, particularly on neuronal cell membranes; in contrast, NKCC1 expression remained unaffected. Furthermore, blockage of KCC2 reduced motor activity in the normal mice and led to a further deteriorated hypolocomotion in HE mice. Blockade of NKCC1 was not able to normalize motor activity in mice with liver failure. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that altered chloride homeostasis is likely involved in the pathophysiology of hypolocomotion following HE. Drugs aimed at restoring normal chloride homeostasis would be a potential treatment for hepatic failure.

  20. Acute toxicity and environmental risk of teflubenzuron to Daphnia magna, Poecilia reticulata and Lemna minor in the absence and presence of sediment.

    Medeiros, Louise S; Souza, Jaqueline P; Winkaler, Elissandra U; Carraschi, Silvia P; Cruz, Claudinei; Souza-Júnior, Severino C; Machado-Neto, Joaquim G

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the acute toxicity of teflubenzuron (1-(3,5-dichloro-2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)urea) (TFB) for Daphnia magna, Lemna minor and Poecilia reticulata, in the absence and presence of sediment; evaluate the effect of sediment on the TFB bioavailability; and to classify this insecticide according to its environmental poisoning risk for agricultural and aquaculture uses. The tests of TFB acute toxicity were conducted in static system in a completely randomized design with increasing TFB concentrations, and a control group. The TFB has been classified according to the estimated values of EC50 and LC50 by its acute toxicity and environmental risk. The sediment significantly reduced toxicity and bioavailability of TFB in water column. Therefore, the insecticide can be classified as being highly toxic to Daphnia magna, which means the agricultural and aquacultural uses of TFB pose a high risk of environmental toxicity to non-target organisms. However, it was practically non-toxic to L. minor and P. reticulata. PMID:23581694

  1. 扁柑种质资源亲缘关系的ISSR分析%ISSR Analysis of Citrus reticulata Bianco cv.Bian Gan Germplasm Resources

    郭丽英; 黄桂香; 何新华; 张树伟; 李峰; 陈虎

    2011-01-01

    为了准确了解广西扁柑资源现状、类型、分类地位及亲缘关系,从而更好地开发利用,本试验对35份柑橘资源,其中包括21份广西扁柑资源、2份越南柑资源及12份近缘的其它柑橘属资源进行ISSR-PCR分析.结果显示:10条引物共扩增出134条DNA片段,其中108条具有多态性,比率为81%.用UPCMA软件进行聚类分析,35份柑橘资源的遗传系数在0.64~1.00之间,在遗传系数为0.80处将35份材料划分为5类,其中所有扁柑类资源均和桠柑、南丰蜜桔聚在一类,初步证明扁柑类资源的分类地位应属于宽皮柑橘类的桔类.各扁柑资源间的相似系数在0.90以上,亲缘关系较近.%This study aimed at accurately understanding of resource status and types, taxonomic status and genetic relationship of Guangxi Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Bian Gan, thus promoting its utilization. Thirty-five accessions of Citrus germplasm,including 21 Guangxi Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Bian Gan species, 2 Vietnam samples and 12 closely related varieties were analysed by using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and the results showed that 134 fragments of DNA were amplified with 10 primers by using 1SSR-PCR, among which 108 (81%) fragments were polymorphic. The genetic distance was analyzed, and a tree diagram constructed by using UPGMA algorithm. The genetic similarity coefficients among the accessions were calculated with NTSYS-pc2.10e software and the values were between 0.64 and 1.00. The 35 materials could be clustered into 5 groups at the similarity coefficient level of 0.80, all Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Bian Gan samples had the greatest genetic similarity with Ponkan and Nanfeng mandarin, indicating that Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Bian Gan was mandarin. Citrus reticulata Blanco CV.Bian Gan had a near relationship because of a high index which was above 0.90.

  2. Study on the extraction of polymethoxylated flavones from Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' of different storage years%不同储存年限广陈皮的多甲氧基黄酮提取研究

    杨宜婷; 罗琥捷; 叶勇树; 廖金花; 李药兰

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of polymethoxylated flavones(PMFs)from Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' was investigated in the present study.The Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' was extracted using distilled water,95% ethanol,steam distillation(SD)and supercritical CO2 fluid extraction(SFE),respectively,and the obtained extracts were then subjected to ultraviolet analysis to evaluate their contents of PMFs.As a result,the content of PMFs(% of dry weigh of the extract)in the SFE extract was highest among the four extracts,followed by that in the ethanol extract.The contents of PMFs in the aqueous extract and SD extract were lower.It is noteworthy that the extractive yield of PMFs(% of dry weigh of the plant)in the ethanol extract was higher than that in the SFE extract due to the higher extractive yield of the ethanol extract.In summary,both 95% ethanol and supercritical CO2 fluid could effectively extract PMFs from Citrus reticulate 'Chachi'.Subsequently,the contents of PMFs in SFE and ethanol extracts obtained from the plants of different storage years were investigated.The result indicated that the contents of PMFs in both SFE and ethanol extracts decreased with the increaseing of the storage years.%采用水、95%乙醇、水蒸汽蒸馏和超临界CO2流体分别提取广陈皮中的多甲氧基黄酮(PMFs),用紫外分光光度法(UV)测定所得提取物中PMFs的含量,并考察了广陈皮的储存年份对提取的影响。结果表明,在四种提取物中,超临界CO2流体萃取产物(SFE提取物)的PMFs含量(以提取物计算)最高,其次为醇提物,水蒸汽蒸馏产物(SD提取物)和水提物中PMFs的含量较低。值得注意的是,由于95%乙醇对广陈皮的提取率较高,醇提物中PMFs的提取率(以药材计算)最高。因此,95%乙醇和超临界CO2流体均能较好地将广陈皮中PMFs提取出来。但是,随着广陈皮的储存年份延长,其95%乙醇提取物和SFE提取物中PMFs的含量均呈下降趋势。

  3. 橘叶黄酮类成分的研究与薄层色谱鉴别%Studies on Flavonoids of Folium Citri Reticulatae and Identification by Thin Layer Chromatography

    汪金玉; 帅欧; 林励; 庄满贤; 苏昭仑; 黄振

    2011-01-01

    [目的]分离、鉴定橘叶中黄酮类成分,并以所得到的黄酮类成分为对照品建立其薄层色谱鉴别方法,为橘叶的质量控制提供科学依据.[方法]以硅胶柱层析法分离橘叶黄酮类成分,采用核磁共振法进行结构鉴定,并以所得黄酮类成分为对照品,对橘叶药材进行硅胶薄层色谱鉴别.[结果]从橘叶中分离得到川陈皮素、5-去甲川陈皮素、橘红素、异橙黄酮,所建立的薄层色谱图斑点清晰,分离度良好.[结论]首次从橘叶中分离得到川陈皮素等4种黄酮类化合物,新建立的橘叶薄层鉴别方法薄层行为良好,适用于橘叶的鉴别.%Objective To separate and identify the flavonoids from Folium Citri Reticulatae, and to establish a thin layer chromatogram ( TLC ) method for the identification of Folium Citri Reticulatae with flavonoids as the reference substance. Methods We separated flavonoids of Folium Citri Reticulatae by silica gel column chromatography and identified their structure by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). With the obtained flavonoids as reference substance, we identified the medicinal material of Folium Citri Reticulatae by silica gel TLC. Results Nobiletin, 5-demethyl nobiletin, tangeretin, and isosinensetin were isolated from Folium Citri Reticulatae successfully. The established thin layer chromatogram spots were clear, with good separation.Conclusion Flavonoids such as nobiletin, 5-demethyl nobiletin, tangeretin, and isosinensetin have been isolated from Folium Citri Reticulatae for the first time. The established TLC method is efficient and suitable for the identification of Folium Citri Reticulatae.

  4. Comportamiento de la producción de lima Tahití (Citrus latifolia Tanaka, injertada sobre el patrón de Mandarina Cleopatra (Citrus reticulata Blanco y la influencia del virus de la tristeza (CTV en condiciones del piedemonte del Meta, 1997-2008

    Julio Quiroga - Cardona

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tahiti limes (Citrus latifolia T is in third place among the citrus species cultivated in Colombia. Its fruits are consumed in the domestic market and has a growing export market. Among the viral diseases affecting citrus crops Virus Citrus Tristeza (CTV is one of the most limiting for production and longevity of plantsespecially in Tahiti lime. This study was carried out under the ecological conditions of the Research Center Corpoica La Libertad, in the foothills of the department of Meta. The plants used in the nursery in 1996 grafted with buds from crops used as standard Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco. The crop fieldwas established in 1997, occupying an area of one hectare, with a density of 490 plants ha-1. To determine crop production took annual records, and the incidence and severity of the (CTV were two readings in plants, during the seventh and eleventh year after transplantation (addt. In 2008 (11 addt A description of thesymptoms of the damage caused by citrus tristeza in the plant and the photographic record was made. The Tahiti lime production started three years after transplantation with 4 t/ ha and increased annually to present the peak of production in the eighth year with 62 t/ ha, then decreased until 2 t/ ha in year 11.The incidence of CTV in 2003 (6 addt was 16.5 % for a total of 80 affected plants and in 2008 (11 addt 100 % of plants were affected (490 plants. The severity of CTV, in the 2003 was 29.4 %, while the reading of 2008 was 84 %.

  5. Determination of natural radioactivity and the concentration of heavy metal in tissue of Guppy Fish, Poecilia Reticulata and sediment on urban drawn in Klang, Selangor

    This study has been carried out to determine the natural radioactivity and concentration of heavy metal in guppy fish, Poecilia Reticulata and sediment sample on urban drawn in Klang, Selangor. Natural radioactivity (U-238, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40) was determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The concentration of heavy metal was determined using Coupled-Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Guppy fish and sediment sample was taken from three different locations in research area. Sample treatment process was starting with separation of impurities in sample. Samples were dried in the oven at 100 degree Celsius in 72 hours, homogenization process, and then samples were filled into counts bottles, sealed and kept for a month to achieved secular equilibrium. The activities found for each location varied. In sediment samples the activity concentration of U-238, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 were in the range of 87.61 ± 13.47 to 180.88 ± 30.50 Bq/ kg, 59.45 ± 9.12 to 88.29 ± 2.73 Bq/ kg, 6.70 ± 3.13 to 8.53 ± 4.90 Bq/ kg and 246.83 ± 12.27 to 495.28 ± 22.30 Bq/ kg. For sediment samples, have 12 elements of heavy metals found are Mg, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Al, As, Ba and Pb. For guppy fish, P. Reticulata have 7 elements of heavy metals achieved found are Mg, K, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Al. Concentration of U-238 and K-40 is higher than the world average value reported by UNSCEAR (2000). Th-232 is below the world average value. From comparative with IAEA (1990) report showed that the concentration of heavy metals in sediment sample was at background level except for As and Pb. For concentration of heavy metal in guppy fish, P. Reticulata showed that the values are highly than value of IAEA-407 report except for Zn and Mn. (author)

  6. Tending Transformation Technology of Low-yielding Camellia reticulata in Tengchong%腾冲红花油茶低产林抚育改造技术

    杨开保; 黄佳聪; 辛成莲; 万晓军

    2012-01-01

    Tending transformation test was conducted on 28hm 39 year old direct seeding forestation and long-term management absent low yielding Camellia reticulata in Tengchong. Through years of experimental research, we have come up with the forest garden governance, density adjustment, treelike adjustment; strengthen soil and water management and pest control tending transformation technologies. Four years after the transformation, the forest quality has greatly improved, tree vigor has recovered, substantial increases have been seen in harvests, and preharvest fruit drops have been contained. The average ripening rate has grown from 19. 93% to 41. 07% ; crude oil yield has risen up to 220. 5kg/hm2, equivalent to 9. 19 times the amount of 24kg/hm2 produced before, and 1. 77 times the amount of 124. 5kg/hm2 for pests and diseases control test. The test results have contributed technical support to the low-yielding Camellia reticulata transformation in Tengchong, the sustainable development of the industry in the old-production area and the improvement of Camellia reticulata yield and quality.%对面积28 hm2、树龄39 a、直播造林且长期失管的腾冲红花油荼低产林开展抚育改造试验.通过多年的试验研究,摸索出林相林园治理、密度调整、树型调整、加强土肥水管理及病虫害防治等抚育改造综合技术.改造后第四年的林分质量明显改善,树势恢复,大幅增产,采前落果得到根本遏制;植株平均结实率由19.93%增加到41.07%,粗油产量达220.5 kg/hm2,为改造前24 kg/hm2的9.19倍,为病虫害试验对照产量124.5 kg/hm2的1.77倍.试验结果为腾冲红花油荼低产林抚育改造,老产区巩固产业持续发展,提高油茶产量和品质提供了技术支特.

  7. Identification of the pathogenic fungus causing brown spot on tangerine( Citrus reticulata CV.Hongjv%红橘褐斑病病原鉴定

    陈昌胜; 黄峰; 程兰; 冯春刚; 黄涛江; 李红叶

    2011-01-01

    自2007年起重庆万州的红橘(Citrus reticulata Blanco,CV.Hongjv)上爆发一种未曾见过的病害,损失严重,因病斑褐色,故被称之为褐斑病.褐斑病贯穿柑橘整个生长季节,主要为害叶片和果实,严重时也为害新梢,引起大量落叶和落果,甚至枝梢枯死.为明确其病原,本研究从病区多个果园采集发病的叶片、果实和枝梢,检查和分离培养发现病组织中广泛存在链格孢菌(Alternaria)和炭疽菌(Colletotrichum).致病性试验证明只有链格孢菌才能引起类似褐斑症状,而炭疽菌和空白对照都不产生任何症状.通过比较研究这些链格孢菌菌株的形态学,培养性状和多聚半乳糖醛酸酶(endoPG)基因的部分序列,可以断定红橘褐斑病的病原为交链格孢菌[A.alternate(Fr.)Keissler].病原性质的确定将为红橘褐斑病发生规律的研究和控制奠定基础.%An unknown disease has been breaking out and causing a great loss on Hongjv (Citrus reticulata Blanco, CV. Hongjv) since 2007 in Wanzhou, Zhongqing, China. The disease was characterized as the brown spot on affected tissues and named "brown spot disease" temporarily. The disease occurs around a growing season and the severe affected leaves and fruits drop quickly. To determine the causing agent, the infected leaves, fruits and shoots were collected from different orchards. Typical conidiospores and cultures of Alternaria and Colletotrichum were always observed and isolated from infected tissues. However, pathogenici-ty test showed that only the isolates of Alternaria were pathogenic to the leaves and fruits of tangerine (Ci. Reticulata CV. Ponkan). Based on the study of morphology, cultural feature and partial sequence of an endopo-lygalacturonase gene (endoPG), the pathogenic Alternaria was identified as A. Alternate (Fr. ) Keissler. The clarification of pathogen would benefit to the study on epidemiology and control of this disease.

  8. [Host plants of Aphis gossypii (Aphididae), vector of virus of Cucumis melo melon (Cucurbitaceae) in Costa Rica].

    Sánchez, M V; Agüero, R; Rivera, C

    2001-03-01

    Plant species associated with commercial melon crops and surrounding areas were examined to identity the natural host plants of Aphis gossypii Glover. The study was conducted in two farms located in different melon production areas and plant life zones of Costa Rica. Plant species diversity, percent coverage and distribution over time were recorded during one year. Differences between locations were observed. A total of 86 plant species (49 families) and 72 plant species (40 families) were identified associated to the crop in farms A and B, respectively. In both farms a total of 24 species plants (16 families) were colonized by A. gossypii and 16 (10 families) are new reports of host plant species for this aphid. The new reports are: Justicia comata, Tetramerium nervosum, Alternanthera pubiflora, Cassia massoni, C. reticulata, Cleome viscosa, C. spinosa, Croton argenteus, Caperonia palustris, Chamaesyce gyssopilopia, Phyllantus amarus, Sida decumbens, Ludwigia erecta, Passiflora foetida, Guazuma ulmifolia and Corchorus orinocensis. PMID:11795159

  9. Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Banet, Amanda I.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen;

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable intraspecific variation in metabolic rates and locomotor performance in aquatic ectothermic vertebrates; however, the mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. Using pregnant Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing teleost, we examined the effects of...... by the total body mass. Results showed that the metabolic rate increased curvilinearly with swimming speed. The slope of the relationship was used as an index of swimming cost. There was no evidence that reproductive traits correlated with swimming cost, MO2std or Ucrit. In contrast, data revealed...... combining BCF swimming and pectoral fin movement over a wide speed range, presumably to support swimming stability and control, is an inefficient swimming behaviour. Finally, transition to burst-assisted swimming was associated with an increase in aerobic metabolic rate. Our study highlights factors other...

  10. Comparación del "Tabog" (Swinglea glutinosa Merr con el limón "rugoso" (Citrus jambhiri Swingle y la mandarina "Cleopatra" (C. reticulata Swingle como porta-injerto para la lima acida ''Tahiti" (C. aurantifolia Swingle

    Restrepo C. Orlando

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available At the C.N.I.-I.C.A. Palmira, fruit trees program the influence of "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa was evaluated as rootstock for acid lime "Tahiti" Citrus aurantifolia, taking into account the following aspects: development and productivility of the trees quality and growth of fruits, demands of nutriments, and resistance or susceptibility to pest and disease; comparing its behavior with the commercial rootstocks rough, lemon C. jambhiri and mandarina, "Cleopatra" C. reticulata.En el C.N.l. Palmira del Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (lCA, se evaluó la influencia del "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa como porta-injerto para la lima "Tahiti " Citrus aurantifolia, teniendo en cuenta los siguientes aspectos: desarrollo y productividad del árbol, calidad y desarrollo de los frutos, exigencias de nutrimentos, resistencia o susceptibilidad a plagas y enfermedades; comparando su comportamiento con los porta-injertos comerciales limón "Rugoso" C. jambhiri y la mandarina "Cleopatra " C. reticulata.

  11. Comparación del "Tabog" (Swinglea glutinosa Merr) con el limón "rugoso" (Citrus jambhiri Swingle) y la mandarina "Cleopatra" (C. reticulata Swingle) como porta-injerto para la lima acida ''Tahiti" (C. aurantifolia Swingle)

    Restrepo C. Orlando; Salazar C. Raúl; Torres M. Rodrigo

    1987-01-01

    At the C.N.I.-I.C.A. Palmira, fruit trees program the influence of "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa was evaluated as rootstock for acid lime "Tahiti" Citrus aurantifolia, taking into account the following aspects: development and productivility of the trees quality and growth of fruits, demands of nutriments, and resistance or susceptibility to pest and disease; comparing its behavior with the commercial rootstocks rough, lemon C. jambhiri and mandarina, "Cleopatra" C. reticulata.En el C.N.l. Palmi...

  12. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport

    Jon C Svendsen; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming spe...

  13. Alterations of physiology and gene expression due to long-term magnesium-deficiency differ between leaves and roots of Citrus reticulata.

    Jin, Xiao-Lin; Ma, Cui-Lan; Yang, Lin-Tong; Chen, Li-Song

    2016-07-01

    Seedlings of Ponkan (Citrus reticulata) were irrigated with nutrient solution containing 0 (Mg-deficiency) or 1mM MgSO4 (control) every two day for 16 weeks. Thereafter, we examined magnesium (Mg)-deficiency-induced changes in leaf and root gas exchange, total soluble proteins and gene expression. Mg-deficiency lowered leaf CO2 assimilation, and increased leaf dark respiration. However, Mg-deficient roots had lower respiration. Total soluble protein level was not significantly altered by Mg-deficiency in roots, but was lower in Mg-deficient leaves than in controls. Using cDNA-AFLP, we obtained 70 and 71 differentially expressed genes from leaves and roots. These genes mainly functioned in signal transduction, stress response, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, cell transport, cell wall and cytoskeleton metabolism, nucleic acid, and protein metabolisms. Lipid metabolism (Ca(2+) signals)-related Mg-deficiency-responsive genes were isolated only from roots (leaves). Although little difference existed in the number of Mg-deficiency-responsive genes between them both, most of these genes only presented in Mg-deficient leaves or roots, and only four genes were shared by them both. Our data clearly demonstrated that Mg-deficiency-induced alterations of physiology and gene expression greatly differed between leaves and roots. In addition, we focused our discussion on the causes for photosynthetic decline in Mg-deficient leaves and the responses of roots to Mg-deficiency. PMID:27163764

  14. Characterization of Chemical Composition of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Volatile Oil by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography with High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Kunming Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (Chenpi in Chinese has been widely used as an herbal medicine in Korea, China, and Japan. Chenpi extracts are used to treat indigestion and inflammatory syndromes of the respiratory tract such as bronchitis and asthma. This thesis will analyze chemical compositions of Chenpi volatile oil, which was performed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-HR-TOFMS. One hundred and sixty-seven components were tentatively identified, and terpene compounds are the main components of Chenpi volatile oil, a significant larger number than in previous studies. The majority of the eluted compounds, which were identified, were well separated as a result of high-resolution capability of the GC × GC method, which significantly reduces, the coelution. β-Elemene is tentatively qualified by means of GC × GC in tandem with high-resolution TOFMS detection, which plays an important role in enhancing the effects of many anticancer drugs and in reducing the side effects of chemotherapy. This study suggests that GC × GC-HR-TOFMS is suitable for routine characterization of chemical composition of volatile oil in herbal medicines.

  15. Chilling Temperature Enhances Ouality Reduction in Postharvest 'Shatangju' ( Citrus reticulata Blanco) Fruit%冷害导致砂糖橘果实品质劣变

    庞学群; 陈燕妮; 黄雪梅; 汪跃华; 胡位荣; 张昭其

    2008-01-01

    将砂糖橘(Citrus reticulata Blanco)果实分别置于1、3、6和9℃下贮藏,比较其贮藏效果及冷害对果实品质的影响.结果表明:砂糖橘最适贮藏温度为6℃,在1~3℃贮藏易发生冷害.冷害导致果实外观品质下降,果肉乙醛和乙醇含量累积,果肉异味,品质下降.1℃贮藏的果实呼吸速率和乙烯释放速率较6℃高,丙二醛(MDA)含量增加,丙酮酸脱羧酶(PDC)和乙醇脱氢酶(ADH)活性大幅度提高.说明在冷害温度下,砂糖橘果肉异味是由于乙醛和乙醇累积产生,而果实呼吸速率的提高与PDC和ADH活性的增加密切相关.

  16. Medicinal plants indicated for flu and colds in the South of Brazil

    Marjoriê da Costa Mendieta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We sought to know the medicinal plants used for flu and colds by farmers from the South of Rio Grande do Sul State and to compare it with scientific evidence. This descriptive study was conducted with 12 farmers living at Ilha dos Marinheiros, in the city of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We used descriptive analysis, comparing the results with the scientific literature. Thirteen plants were cited as used for cold and flu: Achyrocline satureioides, Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata, Citrus sinensis, Gochnatia polymorpha, Illicium verum, Mentha piperita, Mikania sp., Ocimum selloi, Origanum majorana and Verbena sp. Results show popular knowledge meeting scientific evidence for most indications, seen that 84,6% of cited plants are in agreement with the literature. Thus, we emphasize the richness of popular knowledge, the need of its appreciation and constant approximation of health professionals to this knowledge, integrated with science.

  17. Histamine H3 receptor activation selectively inhibits dopamine D1 receptor-dependent [3H]GABA release from depolarization-stimulated slices of rat substantia nigra pars reticulata

    The release of [3H]GABA from slices of rat substantia nigra pars reticulata induced by increasing extracellular K+ from 6 to 15 mM in the presence of 10 μM sulpiride was inhibited by 73±3% by 1 μM SCH 23390, consistent with a large component of release dependent upon D1 receptor activation. The histamine H3 receptor-selective agonist immepip (1 μM) and the non-selective agonist histamine (100 μM) inhibited [3H]GABA release by 78±2 and 80±2%, respectively. The inhibition by both agonists was reversed by the H3 receptor antagonist thioperamide (1 μM). However, in the presence of 1 μM SCH 23390 depolarization-induced release of [3H]GABA was not significantly decreased by 1 μM immepip. In rats depleted of dopamine by pretreatment with reserpine, immepip no longer inhibited control release of [3H]GABA, but in the presence of 1 μM SKF 38393, which produced a 7±1-fold stimulation of release, immepip reduced the release to a level not statistically different from that in the presence of immepip alone. Immepip (1 μM) also inhibited the depolarization-induced release of [3H]dopamine from substantia nigra pars reticulata slices, by 38±3%.The evidence is consistent with the proposition that activation of histamine H3 receptors leads to the selective inhibition of the component of depolarization-induced [3H]GABA release in substantia nigra pars reticulata slices which is dependent upon D1 receptor activation. This appears to be largely an action at the terminals of the striatonigral GABA projection neurons, which may be enhanced by a partial inhibition of dendritic [3H]dopamine release. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. [The introduction of the larvivorous fish Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1895) (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae), a bioregulator of culicids in oxidation ponds and contaminated drainage ditches on the Isla de la Juventud].

    García Avila, I; Koldenkova, L; Santamarina Mijares, A; González Broche, R

    1991-01-01

    The larvivorous fish Poecilla reticulata, internationally known as mosquito larva bioregulators, was introduced in 2 oxidation ponds and 2 ditches containing polluted waters (sewage) without the presence of other fish species, in Isle of Youth, Cuba, in order to control the larva populations of the Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito Say, 1823 in these its main breeding sites. After 2.5 months, such reservoirs were free of mosquito larvae. The fish settled within one year, reaching enough density to be used in other aquatoria. PMID:1801089

  19. Avaliação da toxicidade aguda e potencial neurotóxico do óleo-resina de copaíba (Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae) Assessment of the neurotoxic potential and acute toxicity of copaiba

    Camile Giaretta Sachetti; Maria Luiza Fascineli; Juliana Alves Sampaio; Osmar Alves Lameira; Eloisa Dutra Caldas

    2009-01-01

    O óleo-resina de copaíba obtido do gênero Copaifera L., Fabaceae, é largamente utilizado na medicina popular como antiinflamatório, antimicrobiano e antitumoral. Porém, informações sobre seu potencial tóxico são escassos na literatura. O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer a toxicidade oral aguda e os possíveis efeitos neurotóxicos relacionados à ingestão do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, em ratas Wistar. O estudo foi conduzido com quinze ratas nulíparas distribuídas n...

  20. Comparison of micro RNA (miRNA) Profiles and Some miRNA Target Gene Expression levels in Roots of Non-infected and Huanglongbing-infected Tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv.‘Sanhu’ ) Trees

    Zhong, Yun; Cheng, Chunzhen; Wu, Bo; Bei, Xuejun; Jiang, Bo; Zeng, Jiwu; ZHONG, Guangyan

    2014-01-01

    Solexa sequencing was used to reveal the changes in small RNAome profile in roots of mock-inoculated (CK) and Huanglongbing bacteria-inoculated (HLB) ‘Sanhu’ tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) trees. Results showed that the number of reads of both unique and total sRNAs decreased apparently in roots following infection with HLB. Distribution in length of sRNAs changed also remarkably, showing an increase in 22 nt and 21 nt small RNAs (sRNAs) and a decrease in 24 nt sRNAs in HLB-infected sam...

  1. 暴马丁香花不同花期香气成分1)%Components of Volatile Oil from Flowers of Syringa reticulata var.mandshurica during Different Florescence

    才燕; 董然; 刘晓嘉; 郑恬静

    2015-01-01

    以暴马丁香( Syringa reticulata var.mandshurica)花为试验材料,采用顶空固相微萃取法对其挥发油进行提取,通过GC-MS联用技术对其不同花期的花朵挥发性成分进行分析鉴定,利用峰面积归一化法计算各化合物的相对质量分数。结果表明,暴马丁香花蕾期、盛花期、衰花期花朵中分别分离得到18、27、7个色谱峰,不同时期共鉴定出44种化合物。芳香成分花蕾期α-蒎烯质量分数最高,为24.839%;盛花期cis-β罗勒烯质量分数最高,为15.824%;衰花期苯乙醇质量分数最高,为66.013%。 HS-SPME GC-MS是一种可用于分析不同开花期鲜花香气成分变化的简单可行的分析方法。%An experiment was conducted to study volatile oils extracted from the flowers of Syringa reticulata var.mandshurica by headspace solid-phase microextraction ( SPME) .Chemical constituents were identified by GC-MS.The area normalization method was used for compound quantification .There were 18,27,7 chromatographic peaks separated well in the respective GC total ion current chromatograms of oils in different flowering periods of S.reticulata var.mandshurica, and 44 com-pounds were identified .The major aromas constituent was Copaene and the relative content was 24.839%in the bud peri-od, 1,3,6-Octatriene, 3,7-dimethyl-, (Z)-15.824%in the full-blossom period, Phenylethyl Alcohol 66.013%in the end period from S.reticulata var.mandshurica flowers.Headspace SPME-GC-MS is a simple sampling method for measuring the variations of main constituents in volatile fragrance from fresh flowers during different florescence .

  2. Efecto del ácido giberelico y el método de siembra en la germinación de semillas y crecimiento de plántulas de anona colorada (annona reticulata l.)

    Cartagena Valenzuela, José Régulo; Barreto Osorio, José Dairo

    2012-01-01

    Semillas de anona colorada (Annona reticulata L.), tratadas con AG3 en concentraciones de 5000, 7500 Y 10000 ppm, fueron sembradas en cama y bolsa, con el fin de acelerar la germinación y reducir el tiempo a injertación Las variables dependientes eran germinación, altura y diámetro de plántulas como medidas del crecimiento. Las giberelinas promovieron la germinación, siendo más notable su acción cuando las semillas se colocaron en bolsa; también favorecieron el aumento en longitud y diámetro ...

  3. Efecto del Ácido Giberelico y el Método de Siembra en la Germinación de Semillas y Crecimiento de Plántulas de Anona Colorada (Annona Reticulata L.)

    Cartagena Valenzuela José Régulo; Barreto Osorio José Dairo

    1998-01-01

    Semillas de anona colorada (Annona reticulata L.), tratadas con AG3 en concentraciones de 5000, 7500 Y 10000 ppm, fueron sembradas en cama y bolsa, con el fin de acelerar la germinación y reducir el tiempo a injertación Las variables dependientes eran germinación, altura y diámetro de plántulas como medidas del crecimiento. Las giberelinas promovieron la germinación, siendo más notable su acción cuando las semillas se colocaron en bolsa; también favorecieron el aumento en longitud y diámetro ...

  4. 航天搭载后福橘(Citrus reticulata Blanco)茎尖无性系有丝分裂行为和细胞超微结构的变化

    2012-01-01

    福橘(Citrus reticulata Blanco)茎尖经‘实践八号’育种卫星搭载后,经组织培养获得其再生植株,以此为材料,结合常规压片法与超薄切片技术,研究航天搭载对福橘当代无性系细胞有丝分裂行为及细胞超微结构的影响。

  5. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit

    OO Johnson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity. The microorganisms used include, Staphylococcus aureus isolate, Escherichia coli isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans isolate, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 90028. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs ranged from 9.31×10-13 – 7.88 mg/ml for garlic oil, 0.16 – 2.66 mg/ml for tangerine oil and 5.95×10-31 – 1.24 mg/ml for the essential oil blend. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration indicated that the Garlic oil and Tangerine oil blend was better at inhibiting the tested microorganisms than the individual oils except for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (30.32% as the major component in the garlic oil extract and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha 4-trimethyl (33.38% in the tangerine oil. While the equal volume of the oil blend also revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (15.92% and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha.4-trimethyl (12.02% as the major constituents though in lower concentrations. Hence, the more potent antimicrobial properties demonstrated by the oil blend can be exploited further with a view to generate new effective antimicrobial compounds.

  6. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine‐disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi‐static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long‐term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β‐estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine‐disrupting action. -- Highlights: ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17β‐estradiol levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male

  7. Brain circuit imprints of developmental 17α-Ethinylestradiol exposure in guppies (Poecilia reticulata): persistent effects on anxiety but not on reproductive behaviour.

    Volkova, Kristina; Reyhanian, Nasim; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Olsén, Håkan; Porsch-Hällström, Inger; Hallgren, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    The effects of endocrine disruptors may vary with the timing of exposure. The physiological implications of adult exposure are present during and shortly after exposure while embryonic exposure can imprint changes manifested in adulthood. In this study, guppy (Poecilia reticulata) embryos were exposed to 2 and 20 ng/L of 17α-ethinylestradiol during development via the mother and reared in clean water from gestation until 6 months of age. As adults, fish exposed to 20 ng/L during development showed significantly altered behaviour in the Novel Tank test, where anxiety is determined as the tendency to remain at the bottom upon introduction into an unfamiliar tank. 17α-ethinylestradiol treatment increased the latency time before swimming to the upper half of the tank and decreased the number of transitions to the upper half. In control females the basal stress behaviour responses were significantly higher than in males, as indicated by longer latency period and fewer and shorter visits to the upper half, supporting the importance of gonadal hormones for the behaviour. The anxiety increased, however, with treatment in both sexes, suggesting that the observed response is not entirely due to feminisation of the males. Shoaling behaviour, analysed as tendency to leave a shoal of littermates, was neither sex-differentiated nor changed by treatment. Also male reproductive behaviour, brain aromatase activity and testes histology, previously shown to respond to oestrogen exposure in adult guppy, were unaffected by the developmental treatment. This suggests that the stress system in the guppy is very sensitive to 17α-ethinylestradiol, which possibly causes an early organisational imprint on the brain circuit that regulates stress reactions. PMID:22687331

  8. Regulation of substantia nigra pars reticulata GABAergic neuron activity by hydrogen peroxide via flufenamic acid-sensitive channels and KATP channels

    Christian R Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr GABAergic neurons are key output neurons of the basal ganglia. Given the role of these neurons in motor control, it is important to understand factors that regulate their firing rate and pattern. One potential regulator is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, a reactive oxygen species that is increasingly recognized as a neuromodulator. We used whole-cell current clamp recordings of SNr GABAergic neurons in guinea-pig midbrain slices to determine how H2O2 affects the activity of these neurons and to explore the classes of ion channels underlying those effects. Elevation of H2O2 levels caused an increase in the spontaneous firing rate of SNr GABAergic neurons, whether by application of exogenous H2O2 or amplification of endogenous H2O2 through inhibition of glutathione peroxidase with mercaptosuccinate. This effect was reversed by flufenamic acid, implicating transient receptor potential (TRP channels. Conversely, depletion of endogenous H2O2 by catalase, a peroxidase enzyme, decreased spontaneous firing rate and firing precision of SNr neurons, demonstrating tonic control of firing rate by H2O2. Elevation of H2O2 in the presence of flufenamic acid revealed an inhibition of tonic firing that was prevented by blockade of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP channels with glibenclamide. In contrast to guinea-pig SNr neurons, the dominant effect of H2O2 elevation in mouse SNr GABAergic neurons was hyperpolarization, indicating a species difference in H2O2-dependent regulation. Thus, H2O2 is an endogenous modulator of SNr GABAergic neurons, acting primarily through presumed TRP channels in guinea pig, with additional modulation via KATP channels to regulate SNr output.

  9. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo, E-mail: rusg@ouc.edu.cn

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine‐disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi‐static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long‐term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β‐estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine‐disrupting action. -- Highlights: ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17β‐estradiol levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male

  10. Effect of micronutrients (zn, cu and b) on photosynthetic and fruit yield attributes of citrus reticulata blanco var. kinnow

    In this investigation, influence of foliar application of micronutrients (Zn, Cu and B) was studied on the improvement in photosynthetic and fruit yield attributes of citrus (Kinnow) plants. Experiments were conducted in two districts of Punjab (Sargodha and Toba Tek Singh), Pakistan varying in soil properties and agro-climatic conditions. Plants at both sites were subjected to foliar spray of three different levels (i.e. 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%) of each Zn, Cu and B at three different fruit developmental stages while macronutrients (NPK) were applied at recommended rates as soil amendment. Micronutrients (Zn, Cu and B) application caused a significant improvement in net photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs), Chlorophyll a, b, total, and caroteniods in both the citrus orchards. However, effect of micronutrients i.e. Zn, Cu and B was more pronounced at the levels of 0.3, 0.1 and 0.2%, respectively. These levels of nutrients were also effective in improving fruit yield with better fruit quality. (author)

  11. Rapid screening and identification of compounds with DNA-binding activity from Folium Citri Reticulatae using on-line HPLC-DAD-MS(n) coupled with a post column fluorescence detection system.

    Fu, Qingrong; Zhang, Cangman; Lin, Zongtao; Sun, Hongyang; Liang, Yi; Jiang, Haixiu; Song, Zhiling; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shizhong

    2016-02-01

    To study the interactions between natural compounds and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), a method has been established combining a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-multi-stage mass spectrometer with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)-FLD). The FLD was used to monitor fluorescence intensity of the ethidium bromide-DNA (EB-DNA) complex when a compound separated by HPLC was introduced. This novel method was used to simultaneously obtain the HPLC fingerprint, UV spectra, MS(n) fragments and DNA-binding activity profile of various components in Folium Citri Reticulatae. As a result, 35 compounds were identified, of which 25 were found in the extract of Folium Citri Reticulatae for the first time, and 33 compounds showed DNA-binding activities, with the most active being feruloylhexaric and p-coumaroylhexaric acids. In addition, the precision, stability and reproducibility of this method were validated by two positive controls, quercetin and hesperidin. This new on-line method is accurate, precise and reliable for further high-throughput screening of DNA-binding compounds from food samples and other complex matrices. PMID:26304344

  12. Anti Diabetic Plants Present In West Godavari District Of Andhra Pradesh India- A Short Review.

    Venkata Narasimha Kadali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is considered as one of the chronic disease more prevalent in India and rest of the world. Chronic hyperglycemia leads to the destruction of different organs in the body.There are lots of synthetic drugs present in the market for the treatment of diabetes but they are prone to noxious effects to human systems. Herbs have natural inhibiting potency against various sorts of diseases and they are the ultimate source of bio active compounds which lacks toxic effects. Medicinal plants which have potent anti hyperglycemic effect have been identified and proved experimentally. In this short review an attempt has been made to review some of the medicinal plants such as Annona reticulata, Carica papaya, Coccinia grandis, Moringa oleifera, Murraya koenigi etc., of about 10 species which are proved to be anti diabetic present in the west godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, India.

  13. Alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de Aedes aegypti submetidas ao diterpeno labdano, isolado de Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae, e à uma fração rica em taninos de Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae Ultrastructural alterations in larvae of Aedes aegypti subject to labdane diterpene isolated from Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae and a fraction enriched with tannins of Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae

    Cleyde Ferreira Barreto Valotto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública, em vários países, e tem como principal vetor o Aedes aegypti, mosquito mais adaptado às áreas urbanizadas. Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, as alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de 3º estádio, desse mosquito, causadas pelos larvicidas naturais, um diterpeno labdano, extraído de Copaifera reticulata, e uma fração rica em taninos catéquicos, extraída de Magonia pubescens, evidenciando o mecanismo de ação dessas substâncias. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados com larvas de 3º estádio em solução de 0,9ppm, do diterpeno (3-β-acetoxylabdan-8(17-13-dien-15-óico e de 3,7ppm, da fração majoritária de tanino catéquico de massa molecular 864Da. Obtiveram-se as substâncias através de fracionamentos cromatográficos sucessivos, identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. As larvas que atingiram estado letárgico foram coletadas e dissecadas e seus tubos digestórios fixados, desidratados, emblocados e polimerizados. Cortes ultrafinos foram feitos e contrastados com acetato de uranila 3% e citrato de chumbo, posteriormente, levados ao microscópio eletrônico. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações ultraestruturais provocadas pelos diterpeno e tanino sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti foram vacuolização citoplasmática, desorganização e degeneração celular, mudança estrutural dos microvilos e deslocamento das células da lâmina basal. CONCLUSÕES: O diterpeno e a fração rica em taninos catéquicos provocaram a morte das larvas de Aedes aegypti através da destruição celular no intestino médio.INTRODUCTION: Dengue is an important public health problem in many countries and its main vector Aedes aegypti, is the mosquito most adapted to urban areas. For the first time, the mechanism of action of labdane diterpenoid extracted from Copaifera reticulata and the fraction enriched of catechin tannins

  14. CHANGE OF MITOTIC BEHAVIOR AND ULTRA STRUCTURE OF 'FUJU' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) STEM-APEX CLONES AFTER SPACE FLIGHT%航天搭载后福橘(Citrus reticulata Blanco)茎尖无性系有丝分裂行为和细胞超微结构的变化

    吴如健; 黄镜浩; 温寿星; 蔡子坚; 罗土炎; 陈良锋; 王周文

    2011-01-01

    By using conventional squash stain technique and ultrathin sectioning technique, the effects of space flight on mitotic behavior and ultrastructure were studied in the shoot apical meristem of ‘ Fuju' ( Citrus reticulata Blanco), which had been carried by China' s seed-breeding satellite, Shijian-8. The results showed that space flight had effect on the mutagenesis of stem-apical meristem. Abnormal mitosis with various degrees had been detected in 13 mutant clones, of which mitotic aberrations in clone ‘ 08004' were significantly higher than the others. The aberration rate of numerical abnormalities of chromosomes at metaphase, lagging chromosome, micronucleus, C-spindle, S-spindle and polyarch spindle in the clone ‘08004' was 0.34%, 0.69%, 0.86%, 0.17%, 1.20% and 1.03%, respectively. The ultrastructure of mesophyll cell in most clones was unchanged, but nucleus chromatin agglutination, chloroplast thylakoid disintegrated, autophagosome appeared, cell vacuolated, plasm olysis and the formation of apoptotic body were found in the clone ‘08004’, suggesting that programmed cell death (PCD) Nevertheless, no change in the mitochondrial structure was observed until terminal phase of PCD.%福橘(Citrus reticulata Blanco)茎尖经‘实践八号'育种卫星搭栽后,经组织培养获得其再生植株,以此为材料,结合常规压片法与超薄切片技术,研究航天搭载对福橘当代无性系细胞有丝分裂行为及细胞超微结构的影响.结果表明:航天搭载对福橘茎尖具有诱变作用,所得13个诱变无性系中,有丝分裂过程存在不同程度的异常,其中‘08004'无性系植株的有丝分裂畸变率明显高于其他无性系:中期染色体数目异常畸变率为0.34%,落后染色体畸变率为0.69%,微核畸变率为0.86%;并且有丝分裂过程中纺锤体结构发生异常,可见C-形(0.17%)或S-形纺锤体(1.20%),细胞发生多极分裂(1.03%).绝大多数航天搭载当代无性系

  15. 复方陈皮组合物的降脂减肥作用研究%Study on Anti-obesity Effects of Compound Citrus reticulata Combinations

    刘文志; 卢华杰; 叶晓川; 黄婕; 王龙飞; 刘焱文

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the role of lipid-lowering and losing weight of Compound Citrus reticulata combinations (CPZHW) on the nutritional obese rats. METHODS: The nutritional obesity rat model was established and then divided into 6 groups, i.e. blank control group (constant volume normal saline), model group (constant volume normal saline), atorvastatin group (10 mg·kg‐1) and CPZHW low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose groups(600,300、 150 mg‐·kg~'). They were given drags intragas-trically once a day for 45 consecutive days. The contents of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) as well as glucose tolerance in serum were assayed. The amount of increasing weight, food intake and utilization ratio, Lee's index, body-fat ratio,The epididymal fat pad weight, perirenal fat pad weight and the quantities of fat cell in a view were observed. RESULTS: Compared with model group, the body weight, ratio of body weight-lipid, epi-didymis, perinephric fat-pad of CPZHW high-dose, medium-dose and low-dose groups were decreased significantly (P0.05). CONCLUSION: CPZHW plays the role of lipid-lowering and losing weight on nutritional obese rats.%目的:研究复方陈皮组合物(CPZHW)对营养肥胖型大鼠的降脂减肥作用.方法:喂饲高脂饲料以复制营养性肥胖模型大鼠.实验分为空白对照(等容生理盐水)、模型(等容生理盐水)、阿托伐他汀(10 mg·kg-1)和CPZHW高、中、低剂量(600、300、150mg·kg-1)组,灌胃给药,每天1次,连续45 d.检测血清中甘油三酯(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)的含量和糖耐量,计算体重、摄食量、食物利用率、Lee's指数、脂/体比、附睾、肾周脂肪垫重和脂肪细胞数.结果:与模型组比较,CPZHW高、中、低剂量组体重、脂/体比、附睾、肾周脂肪垫重显著减少(P<0.01或P<0.05),大

  16. Screening of Methanolic Plant Extracts against Larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi in Mysore

    Thirumalapura Krishnaiah Mohankumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of death every year. Vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Nine different locally available medicinally important plants suspected to posse larvicidal property were screened against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anoph­eles stephensi to a series of concentrations of the methanolic extracts.Methods: Susceptibility tests on Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi were conducted using standard WHO methods. The larvae of two mosquito species were exposed to methanolic extracts and mortality counts were made after 24 hours of exposure as per WHO method. Larvae of Ae. aegypti were more susceptible than that of An. stephensi.Results: Among the nine plant species tested, Annona reticulata leaf extract was more effective against Ae. aegypti larvae with LC50 and LC90 values of 95.24 and 262.64 ppm respectively and against An. stephensi larvae 262.71 and 636.94 ppm respectively. The least efficacy was in Cosmos bipinnatus with LC50 and LC90 values of 442.6 and 1225.93 ppm against Ae. aegypti and LC50 and LC90 values of 840.69 and 1334.01 ppm of Thespesia populnea against An. stephensi.Conclusion: The crude methanolic extract of the An. reticulata with good larvicidal efficacy could be considered for further characterization to control mosquito vectors instead of chemical insecticides. High efficacy found in An. re­ticulata extract will be considered for further studies to isolate the bioactive compound.

  17. 成年态南丰蜜橘试管嫁接育苗技术研究%Studies on in vitro Micrografting of Mature Citrus reticulata Blanco‘Kinokuni’ (Tanaka) H. H. Hu

    丁明华; 吉枝单; 涂艺声

    2014-01-01

    为探索适合成年态南丰蜜橘[Citrus reticulata Blanco‘kinokuni’(Tanaka) H. H. Hu]的快速繁殖技术,对其试管茎尖微嫁接育苗进行研究。结果表明,最好的砧木是苦柚种子苗,以腹接方式的成活率最高。嫁接苗接种在MS+GA31 mg L-1+蔗糖75 g L-1的培养基中,暗培养7 d后转入光周期下培养,嫁接成活率达67.78%。不同移栽基质对嫁接苗的成活率影响不显著。嫁接苗与成年态南丰蜜橘再生芽在形态和POD、CAT及SOD同工酶分子表达上均无明显差异。这表明通过试管茎尖微嫁接技术可保持其遗传稳定性。%In order to exploe the rapid propagation of mature Citrus reticulata Blanco‘Kinokuni’ (Tanaka) H. H. Hu, the breeding technology by in vitro micrografting was studied. The results showed that the most suitable rootstock was bitter pomelo [C. maxima (Burm.) Merr. ‘Maxima’] seedling and the side grafting method had the highest survival. The micrografting seedlings cultured in MS medium with 1 mg L-1 GA3 and 75 g L-1 sugar were at ifrst grown in dark for 7 days, then transferred to light with 10 h d-1, which survival cultured after 25 days reached 67.78%. The transplanting substrate had not signiifcant inlfuence on survival of grafting seedlings. Furthermore, there were no obvious differences between grafting seedlings and adventitious buds in morphology, as well as the isozyme expression of POD, CAT and SOD. It was suggested that the in vitro micografting technique could keep the genetic stability of grafted seedlings.

  18. Avaliação da toxicidade aguda e potencial neurotóxico do óleo-resina de copaíba (Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae Assessment of the neurotoxic potential and acute toxicity of copaiba

    Camile Giaretta Sachetti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O óleo-resina de copaíba obtido do gênero Copaifera L., Fabaceae, é largamente utilizado na medicina popular como antiinflamatório, antimicrobiano e antitumoral. Porém, informações sobre seu potencial tóxico são escassos na literatura. O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer a toxicidade oral aguda e os possíveis efeitos neurotóxicos relacionados à ingestão do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, em ratas Wistar. O estudo foi conduzido com quinze ratas nulíparas distribuídas nos grupos de doses 300 e 2000 mg/kg pc de óleo-resina administrado por gavagem. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que nestas doses não houve sinais clínicos de toxicidade ou neurotoxicidade, alteração no consumo de ração ou alteração no peso corpóreo. A dose letal aguda foi estimada como maior que 2000 mg/kg pc e classificada como categoria 5, segundo o Guia OECD 423. Estes resultados indicam que existe uma relativa margem de segurança para o uso do óleo-resina de copaíba como agente terapêutico, embora estudos toxicológicos adicionais sejam ainda necessários, principalmente com a administração repetida de baixas doses.Copaiba oil-resin obtained from Copaifera L. genus, Fabaceae, is largely used in popular medicine as antinflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumoral. Information concerning the potential toxicity of this oil is limited in the literature. The goal of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity and the possible neurotoxic effects related to the ingestion of Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, oil-resin using female Wistar rats. Fifteen nulliparous rats were used and distributed in the experimental groups orally exposed to doses of 300 e 2000 mg/kg bw of oil-resin (gavage. No overt clinical signs of toxicity or neurotoxicity, alteration of food consumption or body weight were observed in the animals at the tested doses. The lethal oral toxicity was estimated to be higher than 2000 mg/kg bw, classified as

  19. A Review of Natural Stimulant and Non-stimulant Thermogenic Agents.

    Stohs, Sidney J; Badmaev, Vladimir

    2016-05-01

    Obesity and overweight are major health issues. Exercise and calorie intake control are recognized as the primary mechanisms for addressing excess body weight. Naturally occurring thermogenic plant constituents offer adjunct means for assisting in weight management. The controlling mechanisms for thermogenesis offer many intervention points. Thermogenic agents can act through stimulation of the central nervous system with associated adverse cardiovascular effects and through metabolic mechanisms that are non-stimulatory or a combination thereof. Examples of stimulatory thermogenic agents that will be discussed include ephedrine and caffeine. Examples of non-stimulatory thermogenic agents include p-synephrine (bitter orange extract), capsaicin, forskolin (Coleus root extract), and chlorogenic acid (green coffee bean extract). Green tea is an example of a thermogenic with the potential to produce mild but clinically insignificant undesirable stimulatory effects. The use of the aforementioned thermogenic agents in combination with other extracts such as those derived from Salacia reticulata, Sesamum indicum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cissus quadrangularis, and Moringa olifera, as well as the use of the carotenoids as lutein and fucoxanthin, and flavonoids as naringin and hesperidin can further facilitate energy metabolism and weight management as well as sports performance without adverse side effects. © 2016 The Authors Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26856274

  20. Radiation processing: An effective quality control tool for hygienization and extending shelf life of a herbal formulation, Amritamehari churnam

    Suchandra Chatterjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amritamehari churnam (AC is an antidiabetic polyherbal formulation constituting of four herbal medicinal plants namely Phyllanthus emblica, Salacia reticulata, Tinospora cordifolia and Curcuma longa. The feasibility of using gamma irradiation at doses between 2.5 and 10 kGy to reduce microbial load and enhance shelf life of this formulation was investigated. The irradiated and non-irradiated products were stored at room temperature (25–32 °C and 50–85% R.H., 1.5 years. Acceptability of the irradiated product was assessed based on sensory, microbial, physical and chemical attributes as well as their antioxidant status. A dose 7.5 kGy was sufficient to maintain microbial quality within acceptable limit up to 18 months of storage. No significant differences in sensory properties were observed between the non-irradiated and irradiated sample. The applied dose did not cause any significant qualitative and quantitative changes in the chemical constituents, antioxidant activities as well as physical properties when measured by EPR spectroscopy.

  1. Pharmacognostical Characterization of an Anti-Diabe tic Polyherbal Formulation

    P P JOHN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Standardization of drugs and formulation is one theessential parameter in today’s drug discovery. Current study includes pharmacognostic study of a polyherbal formulation which comprise of six crude powdered drugs i.e.Acacia catechu, Phyllanthus embellica, Pterocarpus marsupium, Salacia reticulata, Tinospora cordifoliaand Vetiveria zizanioides, which is used locally for diabetes. Morphological, microscopical and physico-chemical studies were done to standardize the plant ingredients and also for the formulation. Current study includes lycopodium spore method, which is one of the most important methods for standardization of individual powder drug and powdered formulations. When combined with various parameters like linearity, specificity, precision, repeatability and accuracy, the method become a powerful tool to uncover and check even a very small amount of adulteration in a large extent. Mean value for the identifying characters in the mixture was near to one-sixth as compared to the drug when they were individually studied, vindicating our assumption that after mixing the ratio remained intact in the formulation. Thus, this method can be used for finding the exact ratio of drugs in any formulation in near future. All the result of the study could be useful in setting some diagnostic indices for the identification and preparation of a monograph of the drugs. The developed technique will be useful for standardization of different formulations also.

  2. A Comparative Study on the Toxicity of a Synthetic Pyrethroid, Deltamethrin and a Neem Based Pesticide, Azadirachtin to Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae)

    Stalin, S. Israel; S. Kiruba; Das, S. Sam Manohar

    2008-01-01

    Addition of pollutants changes the natural qualities of water. Pesticides in agricultural runoff affect fish and other aquatic organisms. Fish are common indicators of water pollution status. This study was done to check whether plant based pesticides are less toxic to fish and other non-target organisms, compared to chemical pesticides. Bioassays of a natural pesticide of plant origin (Azadirachtin) and a synthetic pyrethroid, deltamethrin were separately done on a freshwater teleost, Poecil...

  3. Efecto del Ácido Giberelico y el Método de Siembra en la Germinación de Semillas y Crecimiento de Plántulas de Anona Colorada (Annona Reticulata L.

    Cartagena Valenzuela José Régulo

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Semillas de anona colorada (Annona reticulata L., tratadas con AG3 en concentraciones de 5000, 7500 Y 10000 ppm, fueron sembradas en cama y bolsa, con el fin de acelerar la germinación y reducir el tiempo a injertación Las variables dependientes eran germinación, altura y diámetro de plántulas como medidas del crecimiento. Las giberelinas promovieron la germinación, siendo más notable su acción cuando las semillas se colocaron en bolsa; también favorecieron el aumento en longitud y diámetro de las plántulas, expresión que fue más evidente en aquellas que crecieron en cama. No obstante la sensibilidad del anón a las giberelinas, esta no se considera una alternativa que permita a los viveristas disponer de patrones en un lapso más corto.

  4. 除草剂胺磺灵(Oryzalin)诱导椪柑四倍体的研究%Study on Induction of Tetraploid Citrus reticulata Blanco cv.Ponkan Using Herbicide Oryzalin

    何建; 冯焱; 陈克玲; 李洪雯; 关斌; 王建辉

    2011-01-01

    以椪柑枝条为外植体,建立其无菌离体快繁体系,利用除草剂Oryza1in为诱变剂进行椪柑四倍体诱变处理,研究胺磺灵Oryzalin不同浓度和不同处理时间对椪柑四倍体诱导效果的影响,结果表明:椪柑四倍体诱导的最佳处理条件为40 mg/L浓度的Oryzalin浸泡茎段2d,诱导率最高为13.3%.%A study of inducing tetraploid by treating in vitro stem segment of Citrus reticutata Blanco cv. Ponkan was carried out under different concentrations of herbicide Oryzalin solution and different treated durations. The results showed that the highest induction rate of tetraploid Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan was 13.3 % by treatment with 40 mg/L Oryzalin solution for 2 days.

  5. NFLUENCE OF SOME REGULATORY MEASURES ON THREE HORMONES IN MANDARIN ( CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO)%几种调控措施对宽皮柑桔3种激素含量的影响

    周俊辉

    2005-01-01

    试验以15 a生本地早(Citrus reticulata Blanco)为材料,研究了5种调控措施对柑桔树叶片和芽的3种激素含量的影响.结果表明:叶片作测定对象时只有GA1/3的趋势明显,在iPAs和ABA上反映的信息是凌乱的,而芽子则能很好地反映出3种激素的水平和动态.在抑花措施中,GA3处理显著地提高了GA1/3含量,显著地降低了iPAs特别是ABA的含量;6-BA处理提高了iPAs含量,降低了ABA的含量;促花措施中,环割和PP333处理均降低了GA1/3含量,提高了iPAs和ABA的含量,PDJ-B处理在程度上不及前2者.

  6. Cybrids between Dancy tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanca) and Ruby Red grapefruit (C. paradisi Mafc.) for improvement of citrus fruit traits [abstract

    In cybridization, new combinations of nuclear and cytoplasmic genes result in a unique genotype that may bring cellular, physical, physiological and biochemical changes to the plant. This has been demonstrated in cybrids generated from the fusion of citrus protoplasts in two independent experiments....

  7. Development and reproduction of Panonychus citri (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) on different species and varieties of citrus plants.

    Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Bordini, Gabriela Pavan; Franco, Aline Aparecida; de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-12-01

    The species and varieties of citrus plants that are currently grown can favor the population growth of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) and alter the pest management programs in citrus groves. In this study we evaluated, in the laboratory, the development and reproduction of P. citri and estimated its life table parameters when reared on four varieties of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Valencia, Pera, Natal, and Hamlin), one variety of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Ponkan) and one variety of Citrus limon (L.) Burm. (Sicilian). The incubation period and egg viability were not affected by the host plant. However, the development and survival of the immature stage were significantly lower on Hamlin orange than on Valencia, Pera and Natal oranges, Ponkan mandarin and Sicilian lemon. The fecundity and oviposition period of females were lower on Hamlin orange than on the other hosts. Mites reared on Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon had a higher net reproductive rate (R 0 ), intrinsic growth rate (r) and finite rate of increase (λ), and a shorter interval between generations (T) than on Pera, Natal and Hamlin oranges and Ponkan mandarin. On the other hand, mites reared on Hamlin orange had the lowest R 0 , r and λ and the highest T among the hosts. Based on the results obtained we recommend that for Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon, the mite monitoring programs should be more intense to detect the initial infestation of pest, avoiding the damage in plants and the increase in production costs. PMID:26459376

  8. Community structure and species diversity of Hopea reticulata forest in Ganshiling, Hainan Island%海南岛甘什岭无翼坡垒林群落结构与物种多样性

    毛超; 漆良华; 刘琦蕊; 张宇

    2014-01-01

    根据样方调查,对海南岛甘什岭无翼坡垒(Hopea reticulata)林群落的物种组成与物种多样性进行了分析.结果表明:(1)海南甘什岭无翼坡垒林群落有维管植物163种,隶属于64科128属,其中DBH≥1 cm的乔木有90种,隶属于40科66属;灌木有29种,隶属于17科24属;草本有21种,隶属于14科20属;DBH≥1 cm的木质藤本有25种,隶属于18科23属.(2)由物种分布频度分析可知,群落的建群种和优势种比例最低.(3)群落的Margalef丰富度指数为27.038,Shannon指数为3.647,Simpson指数为0.944,Pielou均匀度指数为0.716,生态优势度为0.054,与其他热带群落相比,该群落各项多样性指数均较低.(4)群落各层次的Margalef丰富度指数和Shannon指数表现为乔木层>灌木层>层间植物>草本层,Simpson指数和Pielou均匀度指数均表现为乔木层>层间植物>灌木层>草本层,生态优势度表现为草本层>灌木层>层间植物>乔木层.

  9. The molecular basis of color vision in colorful fish: Four Long Wave-Sensitive (LWS opsins in guppies (Poecilia reticulata are defined by amino acid substitutions at key functional sites

    Ward Pam R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparisons of functionally important changes at the molecular level in model systems have identified key adaptations driving isolation and speciation. In cichlids, for example, long wavelength-sensitive (LWS opsins appear to play a role in mate choice and male color variation within and among species. To test the hypothesis that the evolution of elaborate coloration in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata is also associated with opsin gene diversity, we sequenced long wavelength-sensitive (LWS opsin genes in six species of the family Poeciliidae. Results Sequences of four LWS opsin genes were amplified from the guppy genome and from mRNA isolated from adult guppy eyes. Variation in expression was quantified using qPCR. Three of the four genes encode opsins predicted to be most sensitive to different wavelengths of light because they vary at key amino acid positions. This family of LWS opsin genes was produced by a diversity of duplication events. One, an intronless gene, was produced prior to the divergence of families Fundulidae and Poeciliidae. Between-gene PCR and DNA sequencing show that two of the guppy LWS opsins are linked in an inverted orientation. This inverted tandem duplication event occurred near the base of the poeciliid tree in the common ancestor of Poecilia and Xiphophorus. The fourth sequence has been uncovered only in the genus Poecilia. In the guppies surveyed here, this sequence is a hybrid, with the 5' end most similar to one of the tandem duplicates and the 3' end identical to the other. Conclusion Enhanced wavelength discrimination, a possible consequence of opsin gene duplication and divergence, might have been an evolutionary prerequisite for color-based sexual selection and have led to the extraordinary coloration now observed in male guppies and in many other poeciliids.

  10. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport.

    Svendsen, Jon C; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A; Steffensen, John F

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (U sus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in U sus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (U opt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg(-1). Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between U crit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced U crit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between U sus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between U sus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high U sus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between U sus and U opt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming

  11. Effects of different host plants, host plant maturity and intact host plants versus detached host plant stems on the survival of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama%不同离体寄主及其成熟度对亚洲柑桔木虱存活的影响

    吴丰年; 岑伊静; 梁广文

    2015-01-01

    【目的】亚洲柑桔木虱Diaphorina citri Kuwayama的虫口密度及活动与柑桔黄龙病的田间传播、流行有十分密切的关系,寻找合适的室内饲养条件能够便于观察和研究其生物学特性和传病机制。【方法】本文以九里香Murraya exotica (L.) Mant.、酸桔Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka和马水桔Citrus reticulata Blanco. cv. Mashuiju 3种寄主植物不同成熟度离体梢为研究材料,(1)比较亚洲柑桔木虱卵分别在3种寄主植株和离体嫩梢上的孵化率;(2)比较3种寄主不同成熟度离体梢对各龄若虫存活率和蜕皮的影响;(3)比较3种寄主不同成熟度离体梢对成虫存活率的影响。【结果】(1)亚洲柑桔木虱在植株嫩梢上卵的孵化率高于离体嫩梢,九里香表现最明显;(2)低龄若虫在叶片未完全展开的离体嫩梢上存活率最高,而高龄若虫在完全展开的嫩梢上最高;(3)用离体成熟梢饲养柑桔木虱成虫存活率高于离体嫩梢,酸桔和马水桔离体梢饲养的存活率较九里香高。【结论】用寄主植物离体梢饲养的亚洲柑桔木虱卵孵化率和若虫、成虫存活率都较高而且较稳定,该方法可用于这种木虱的室内繁殖中。%Objectives] The density and movements of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) are strongly associated with the spread and epidemics of Huanglongbing (HLB). Finding suitable conditions for rearing D. citri are essential for observation of the biological characteristics of, and research on, the HLB transmission mechanism. [Methods] Entire host plants and detached shoots of 3 host species, Murraya exotica (L.) Mant., Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka and Citrus reticulata Blanco. cv. Mashuiju at different stages of maturity were used as host materials to compare the effects of these treatments on 1) psyllid egg hatch rate, 2) the survival and molting of psyllid nymphs, 3) the survival of psyllid adults

  12. Plant physiology

    Duca, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of plant physiology: plant cell physiology, water regime of plants, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition, plant respiration, plant growth and development, movements in plants, signal perception and transduction etc. It focuses on the fundamental principles of plant physiology and biochemistry from the molecular level to whole plants, on the mechanisms of plant-environment interactions. The book is intended for students (biologists, physiologists, biochemists, biophysicists, ecologists, geneticists), teachers and researchers. Particular emphasis is given to recent research advances made on national and international levels, as well as to personal experimental results of the author that are relevant for a deeper understanding of processes and for practical implementation of gained knowledge. An essential amount of illustrative material (graphics, images, schemes, illustrations) completes the text and supplies additional information in an accessible manner. At the end of each chapter...

  13. 椪柑上胚轴离体培养与植株再生研究初报%Study on In Vitro Culture and Plant Regeneration in Citrus Reticulata Blanco Epicotyl

    鲁旭东; 刘华英; 萧浪涛

    2006-01-01

    椪柑无菌苗上胚轴为实验材料进行离体培养,研究了不同种类的激素及其组合对椪柑上胚轴出芽及再生芽生根的影响.结果表明:在MT+6-BA2mg/L培养基上,上胚轴垂直接种时,出芽率可达100%.在MT培养基上单独使用ABA0.2 mg/L、GA30.4 mg/L或GA30.4 mg/L+6-BA2 mg/L对芽再生均有一定的抑制作用,但ABA0.2 mg/L+6-BA2 mg/L则对芽再生有一定的促进作用.1/2MT+NAA0.5 mg/L对再生芽生根效果最好,生根率为87.5%.

  14. Chronic L-DOPA administration increases the firing rate but does not reverse enhanced slow frequency oscillatory activity and synchronization in substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons from 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats.

    Aristieta, A; Ruiz-Ortega, J A; Miguelez, C; Morera-Herreras, T; Ugedo, L

    2016-05-01

    The pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) and of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) is associated with dysfunctional neuronal activity in several nuclei of the basal ganglia. Moreover, high levels of oscillatory activity and synchronization have also been described in both intra- and inter-basal ganglia nuclei and the cerebral cortex. However, the relevance of these alterations in the motor symptomatology related to Parkinsonism and LID is not fully understood. Recently, we have shown that subthalamic neuronal activity correlates with axial abnormal movements and that a subthalamic nucleus (STN) lesion partially reduces LID severity as well as the expression of some striatal molecular modifications. The aim of the present study was to assess, through single-unit extracellular recording techniques under urethane anaesthesia, neuronal activity of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and its relationship with LID and STN hyperactivity together with oscillatory and synchronization between these nuclei and the cerebral cortex in 6-OHDA-lesioned and dyskinetic rats. Twenty-four hours after the last injection of L-DOPA the firing rate and the inhibitory response to an acute challenge of L-DOPA of SNr neurons from dyskinetic animals were increased with respect to those found in intact and 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the mean firing rate of SNr neurons and the severity of the abnormal movements (limb and orolingual subtypes). There was also a significant correlation between the firing activity of SNr and STN neurons recorded from dyskinetic rats. In addition, low frequency band oscillatory activity and synchronization both within the SNr or STN and with the cerebral cortex were enhanced in 6-OHDA-lesioned animals and not or slightly affected by chronic treatment with L-DOPA. Altogether, these results indicate that neuronal SNr firing activity is relevant in dyskinesia and may be driven by STN hyperactivity. Conversely

  15. Alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de Aedes aegypti submetidas ao diterpeno labdano, isolado de Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae, e à uma fração rica em taninos de Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae

    Cleyde Ferreira Barreto Valotto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública, em vários países, e tem como principal vetor o Aedes aegypti, mosquito mais adaptado às áreas urbanizadas. Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, as alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de 3º estádio, desse mosquito, causadas pelos larvicidas naturais, um diterpeno labdano, extraído de Copaifera reticulata, e uma fração rica em taninos catéquicos, extraída de Magonia pubescens, evidenciando o mecanismo de ação dessas substâncias. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados com larvas de 3º estádio em solução de 0,9ppm, do diterpeno (3-β-acetoxylabdan-8(17-13-dien-15-óico e de 3,7ppm, da fração majoritária de tanino catéquico de massa molecular 864Da. Obtiveram-se as substâncias através de fracionamentos cromatográficos sucessivos, identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. As larvas que atingiram estado letárgico foram coletadas e dissecadas e seus tubos digestórios fixados, desidratados, emblocados e polimerizados. Cortes ultrafinos foram feitos e contrastados com acetato de uranila 3% e citrato de chumbo, posteriormente, levados ao microscópio eletrônico. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações ultraestruturais provocadas pelos diterpeno e tanino sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti foram vacuolização citoplasmática, desorganização e degeneração celular, mudança estrutural dos microvilos e deslocamento das células da lâmina basal. CONCLUSÕES: O diterpeno e a fração rica em taninos catéquicos provocaram a morte das larvas de Aedes aegypti através da destruição celular no intestino médio.

  16. Poisonous Plants

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  17. Early Performance of Duong Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco on Three Rootstock under Acid Sulfate Soil Fields at Mekong Delta of Vietnam

    Khoe Thi Le

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract About 1.6 billion hectare area of acid sulfate soils is at Mekong Delta of Vietnam, and Duong mandarin fruits are valued for the fresh market due to the easy peeling, attractive flavor, and health and nutritional properties; thereby, the investigation on early performance of Duong mandarin on three rootstock under acid sulfate soil fields (pH below 4 at Mekong Delta of Vietnam was undertaken from 2009 to 2012 for determination of the most promising scion stock combination of Duong mandarin, which introduced to growers for expanding citrus production to increase in income of farmers, and helping to use the sustainable and efficient land resource at acid sulfate soil region of Mekong Delta. Primary results showed that Duong mandarin grafted on Mat orange, Tau lemon and Carrizo citrange were significant differenence in vegetative parameters, fruit yield and quality. It proved that Duong mandarin trees grafted on Tau lemon were better growth and development on acid sulfate soil fields with below 4 pH in soil and water suspension of 1:2.5 ratio as compared to those grafted on Mat orange and Carrizo citrange rootstocks; whereby, that induced trees with 171.48 cm height, 6.65 m3 canopy volume and 51.84 mm trunk diameter, 1.08 scion/ stock ratio in third year after growing. Moreover, Duong mandarin trees grafted on Tau lemon were with spreading growth performance. In regarding to fruit yield and quality, Duong mandarin trees grafted on Tau lemon produced highest fruit yield of 9.21 kg per tree per year in third year after planting, and fruit with 115.30g weight, 8.85 brix juice, thinner and somewhat easy peel rind. 

  18. Manufacturing Plants

    2010-01-01

    China starts to produce vegetables and fruits in a factory sunshine,air and soil are indispensable for green plants. This might be axiomatic but not in a plant factory. By creating a plant factory,scientists are trying to grow plants where natural elements are deficient or absent,such as deserts, islands,water surfaces,South and North poles and space,as well as in human habitats such as skyscrapers in modern cities.

  19. Manufacturing Plants

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Sunshine, air and soil are indispensable for green plants. This might be axi-omatic but not in a plant factory. By creating a plant factory, scientists are trying to grow plants where natural elements are deficient or absent, such as deserts,islands, water surfaces, South and North poles and space, as well as in human habi-tats such as skyscrapers in modern cities.

  20. Aquatic plants

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  1. Medicinal Plants.

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  2. Evaluations of larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts to Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and other effects on a non target fish

    SUWANNEE PROMSIRI; AMARA NAKSATHIT; MALEEYA KRUATRACHUE; USAVADEE THAVARA

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the effects of the extracts of 112 medicinal plant species, collected from the southern part of Thailand, on Aedes aegypti. Studies on larvicidal properties of plant extracts against the fourth instar larvae revealed that extracts of 14 species showed evidence of larvicidal activity. Eight out of the 14 plant species showed 100% mosquito larvae mortality. The LC50 values were less than 100μg/mL (4.1μg/ mL-89.4μg/mL). Six plant species were comparatively more effective against the fourth instar larvae at very low concentrations. These extracts demonstrated no or very low toxicity to guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata), which was selected to represent most common non-target organism found in habitats of Ae. aegypti, at concentrations active to mosquito larvae. Three medicinal plants with promising larvicidal activity, having LC50 and LC90 values being 4.1 and 16.4μg/mL for Mammea siamensis, 20.2 and 34.7μg/mL for Anethum graveolens and 67.4 and 110.3 μg/mL for Annona muricata, respectively, were used to study the impact of the extracts on the life cycle of Ae. aegypti. These plants affected pupal and adult mortality and also affected the reproductive potential of surviving adults by reducing the number of eggs laid and the percentage of egg hatchability. When each larval stage was treated with successive extracts at the LC50 value, the first instar larvae were found to be very susceptible to A. muricata and the second instar larvae were found to be susceptible to A. graveolens, while the third and fourth instar larvae were found to be susceptible to M. siamensis. These extracts delayed larval development and inhibited adult emergence and had no adverse effects on P.reticulata at LC50 and LC90 values, except for the M. siamensis extract at its LC50 value.

  3. Indução do florescimento e crescimento de tangerineira 'Poncã' (Citrus reticulata Blanco em função da irrigação e da aplicação de paclobutrazol Flowering induction and vegetative development of 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco by irrigation and paclobutrazol application

    Carlos Henrique dos Santos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP/Câmpus de Botucatu (SP, com o objetivo de avaliar o florescimento fora de época e o crescimento vegetativo da tangerineira 'Poncã'. Nesse contexto, adotou-se o delineamento estatístico em blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas, com duas repetições, na instalação do ensaio. Os dois tratamentos de -0,03 e -0,05 MPa, como potenciais mínimos da água no solo, constituíram as parcelas e as quatro doses de paclobutrazol: 0; 4; 8 e 12 g por planta, nas subparcelas. No segundo ano de pesquisa, foram mantidas as mesmas parcelas e foram aplicadas nas plantas das subparcelas as doses de 0; 500; 1000 e 2000 mg l-1 de paclobutrazol, via foliar. Cada parcela foi constituída de 16 plantas, sendo oito destinadas à avaliação. Utilizou-se, em ambas as combinações, de um tratamento sem irrigação (-0,07 MPa e sem aplicação de paclobutrazol, como testemunha. Foram avaliados parâmetros, como a altura, diâmetro médio, volume e área de projeção da copa e condutância estomática para caracterizar a resposta das plantas aos tratamentos empregados. Concluiu-se que a aplicação do paclobutrazol e a variação do potencial da água no solo não proporcionaram a indução do florescimento fora de época das tangerineiras, e que os níveis de paclobutrazol influenciaram no desenvolvimento das plantas.The aim of this research was to study the flowering out of season in no induction conditions and the vegetative development of 'Ponkan' mandarin by irrigation and paclobutrazol application. The experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences - UNESP/Botucatu, State of São Paulo. The treatments followed a randomized blocks experimental design, being distributed in split-splots, and two replications. Each experimental unit was represented per 16 plants, being 8 destined for the evaluations. The treatments consisted of two soil water potential, -0,03 e -0

  4. Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.

    Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2003-08-01

    Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host plant associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native plant species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host plant species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications. PMID:14503581

  5. Screening for estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of plants growing in Egypt and Thailand

    Ali M El-Halawany

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a growing demand for the discovery of new phytoestrogens to be used as a safe and effective hormonal replacement therapy. Materials and Methods: The methanol extracts of 40 plants from the Egyptian and Thailand folk medicines were screened for their estrogen agonist and antagonist activities. The estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects of the tested extracts were carried out using the yeast two-hybrid assay system expressing ERα and ERβ. In addition, all the extracts were subjected to a naringinase treatment and retested for their estrogenic activity. Results: The methanol extracts of Derris reticulata and Dracaena lourieri showed the most potent estrogenic activity on both estrogen-receptor subtypes, while, the methanol extracts of Butea monosperma, Erythrina fusca, and Dalbergia candenatensis revealed significant estrogenic activity on ERβ only. Nigella sativa, Sophora japonica, Artabotrys harmandii, and Clitorea hanceana showed estrogenic effect only after naringinase treatment. The most potent antiestrogenic effect was revealed by Aframomum melegueta, Dalbergia candenatensis, Dracena loureiri, and Mansonia gagei.

  6. Planting Trees

    Relf, Diane

    2009-01-01

    The key aspects in planning a tree planting are determining the function of the tree, the site conditions, that the tree is suited to site conditions and space, and if you are better served by a container-grown. After the tree is planted according to the prescribed steps, you must irrigate as needed and mulch the root zone area.

  7. Plant Behavior

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are a huge and diverse group of organisms, ranging from microscopic marine phytoplankton to enormous terrestrial trees epitomized by the giant sequoia: 300 feet tall, living 3000 years, and weighing as much as 3000 tons. For this plant issue of "CBE-Life Sciences Education," the author focuses on a botanical topic that most…

  8. Plant Identification.

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of 12 Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on plants. The bulletins include these titles: The Parade of Spring Wild Flowers, Wild Flowers of Our Prairies, Seeds and How They Travel, Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants, The Forest Community, Common Trees and Their…

  9. Preventive effects of Citrus reticulata essential oil on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats and the mechanism%陈皮挥发油对大鼠肺纤维化的干预作用

    周贤梅; 赵阳; 何翠翠; 李建新

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究陈皮挥发油(essential oil extracted from Citrus reticulata,EOCR)对人胚肺成纤维细胞(human embryonic lung fibroblast,HELF)增殖的影响,以及对博莱霉素诱导的大鼠肺纤维化模型的干预作用,并探讨其作用机制.方法:将HELF传代培养,待细胞进入对数生长期后进行实验,采用四甲基偶氮唑盐比色法测定不同浓度陈皮挥发油对HELF增殖的影响.大鼠随机分为正常组、模型组、强的松组、陈皮挥发油25 mg(EOCR-25)组、陈皮挥发油50 mg(EOCR-50)组、陈皮挥发油100 mg(EOCR-100)组和陈皮挥发油200 mg(EOCR-200)组.除正常组外,其余各组气管内注入博来霉素建立大鼠肺纤维化模型.建模后除正常组、模型组两组大鼠外,其余各组大鼠分别给予相应药物灌胃.各组大鼠于实验第28天处死并留取血清和肺组织.分光光度法测定血清和肺组织超氧化物岐化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)及丙二醛(malondialdehyde,MDA)含量;双抗夹心酶联免疫吸附法测定肺组织Ⅰ型胶原蛋白(type Ⅰ collagen,ColⅠ)含量;根据积分量表对肺组织病理学变化进行半定量分析;免疫组织化学和原位杂交法检测肺组织中结缔组织生长因子( connective tissue growth factor,CTGF)蛋白及mRNA表达,并进行图像半定量分析.结果:不同浓度EOCR均可抑制HELF的增殖.建模后第7、14、21、28天时,EOCR-50、EOCR-100和EOCR-200组大鼠体质量增幅较模型组显著增加(P<0.05或P<0.01);EOCR-100和EOCR-200组肺泡炎、肺纤维化积分显著低于模型组(P<0.01);EOCR-50、EOCR-100和EOCR-200组血清及肺组织SOD活性显著高于模型组(P<0.01);EOCR-50、EOCR-100和EOCR-200组血清及肺组织MDA含量显著低于模型组(P<0.05);EOCR-100和EOCR-200组肺组织Col Ⅰ含量显著低于模型组(P<0.01),肺组织CTGF 蛋白及mRNA表达量显著低于模型组(P<0.01).结论:陈皮挥发油对博莱霉素诱导所致大鼠肺纤

  10. Antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus reticulata peel

    Tumbas Vesna T.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandarin peel, a waste product coming from juice production, was extracted by conventional extraction with 70% acetone. Content of flavonoids in mandarin peel extract (MPE was determined by HPLC. Hesperidin was the most dominant flavonoid. Free radical scavenging activity of MPE on stable DPPH radicals and reactive hydroxyl radicals was also evaluated. EC50 value determined in spectrophotometrical DPPH radical assay was 0.179 mg/ml, while this value in ESR spin trapping hydroxyl radical assay was 0.415 mg/ml. Also, MPE showed protective effects in stabilising sunflower oil during accelerated storage. The results indicated that mandarin peel can be a valuable source of natural antioxidants.