WorldWideScience
1

Mutagenicity induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the medicinal plant Plathymenia reticulata Benth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plathymenia reticulata Benth has an anti-inflammatory effect and is capable of neutralizing the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu or Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, probably by precipitating venom proteins (an effect caused by plant tannins. The present study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic activity of P. reticulata by using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test and the micronucleus test in CHO-K1 cells. P. reticulata extract concentrations of 2.84, 5.68, 11.37, and 19.90 mg/plate were assayed by the Ames test using TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 bacterial strains, with (+S9 and without (-S9 metabolic activation. Concentrations of 5, 1.6 and 0.5 ?g/mL of P. reticulata extract were used for the micronucleus test. P. reticulata extract was mutagenic to TA98 (-S9 and showed signs of mutagenic activity in TA97a and TA102 (both -S9 strains. Micronucleus test CBPI values showed that the endogenous metabolic system increased the number of viable cells when compared to the non-activated samples and the micronucleus frequency increased when the cells were treated in the absence of S9. We concluded that P. reticulata extract may present direct mutagenic properties.

A Della Torre

2011-01-01

2

Mutagenicity induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the medicinal plant Plathymenia reticulata Benth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Plathymenia reticulata Benth has an anti-inflammatory effect and is capable of neutralizing the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu or Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, probably by precipitating venom proteins (an effect caused by plant tannins). The present study aimed to eval [...] uate the mutagenic activity of P. reticulata by using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test) and the micronucleus test in CHO-K1 cells. P. reticulata extract concentrations of 2.84, 5.68, 11.37, and 19.90 mg/plate were assayed by the Ames test using TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 bacterial strains, with (+S9) and without (-S9) metabolic activation. Concentrations of 5, 1.6 and 0.5 ?g/mL of P. reticulata extract were used for the micronucleus test. P. reticulata extract was mutagenic to TA98 (-S9) and showed signs of mutagenic activity in TA97a and TA102 (both -S9) strains. Micronucleus test CBPI values showed that the endogenous metabolic system increased the number of viable cells when compared to the non-activated samples and the micronucleus frequency increased when the cells were treated in the absence of S9. We concluded that P. reticulata extract may present direct mutagenic properties.

A, Della Torre; LBL, Albuquerque; NM, Farrapo; Y, Oshima-Franco; MG, Santos; RVS, Tavares; ACD, Rodas; CA, Dal Belo; CRP, Cardoso; EA, Varanda; FC, Groppo; PS, Lopes.

3

REVIEW ON KIRGANELIA RETICULATA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and information on Kirganelia reticulata (Poir Family Euphorbiaceae, a medicinal herb used in the indigenous system of medicine. K. reticulata has been adored in almost all ancient ayurvedic texts for its extraordinary medicinal properties. K. reticulata is annual herbaceous climbing plant with long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties and has utilized for treatment of various ailments including, diuretic, diarrhoea, small pox and astringent. Wild range of chemical compound including, flavanoids, triterpenoids, alkaloids and glycosides have been isolated from the species. Their extracts have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. A compressive review of its ethanomedical uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant is prepared. Particular attention is given to its antibacterial, antiviral, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant effects so that its potential uses can be better evaluated. This review will definitely help for the researchers as well as clinicians dealing with K. reticulata to know its proper usage as this herb is seemed to be highly valuable, possessing many pharmacological / medicinal properties. Keywords: Euphorbiaceae, Kirganelia reticulate, phytochemistry, Pharmacological properties

Amol Kharat

2013-07-01

4

Studies on ?Kinnow? (Citrus reticulata Blanco. Decline in Relation to Soil-Plant Nutritional Status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?Kinnow? decline was studied in relation to soil plant nutritional status under semi arid condition of Hisar (India. There were no differences between the soil pH, electrical conductivity and calcium carbonate of healthy and declining trees. The soil under the healthy trees had significantly higher organic carbon (0.46% than that under declining trees (0.35%. The nutrients viz., N, P, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe in the soil under healthy and declining trees did not differ significantly except K. Leaf N, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe were significantly more in the healthy trees. The deficiency of N, P, Zn and Mn in the leaves of both categories of trees could be attributed to low contents of these nutrients in the soil under healthy and declining trees. Growth, yield and fruit quality were better in healthy trees as compared to declining trees. The yield on kg per tree basis in declining trees reduced (8.43 kg/tree as compared to that in healthy trees (20.74 kg/tree. Low organic carbon, soil N, Zn and Mn content could be associated with the declining problem of ?Kinnow?.

Parveen KUMAR

2011-08-01

5

Bioefficacy of Plumbago zeylanica (Plumbaginaceae) and Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) plant extracts against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicide) and nontarget fish Poecilia reticulata.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a search for natural products that could be used to control the vectors of tropical diseases, extracts of medicinal plants Plumbago zeylanica and Cestrum nocturnum have been tested for larvicidal activity against second, third, and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The LC(50) values of all the extracts in different solvents of both the plants were less than 50 ppm (15.40-38.50 ppm) against all tested larval instars. Plant extracts also affected the life cycle of A. aegypti by inhibition of pupal development and adult emergence with increasing concentrations. The larvicidal stability of the extracts at five constant temperatures (19°C, 22°C, 25°C, 28°C, and 31°C) evaluated against fourth instar larvae revealed that toxicity of both plant extracts increases with increase in temperature. Toxicity studies carried out against fish species Poecilia reticulata, the most common nontarget organism in the habitats of A. aegypti, showed almost nil to meager toxicity at LC(50) and LC(90) doses of the plant extracts. The qualitative analysis of crude extracts of P. Zeylanica and C. nocturnum revealed the presence of bioactive phytochemicals with predominance of plumbagin in P. zeylanica and saponins in C. nocturnum. Partially purified plumbagin from P. zeylanica and saponins from C. nocturnum were obtained, and their presence was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography and biochemical tests. The bioassay experiment of partially purified secondary metabolites showed potent mosquito larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larval form. Therefore, this study explored the safer and effective potential of plant extracts against vector responsible for diseases of public health importance. PMID:21107859

Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Patil, Satish V; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Salunkhe, Rahul B

2011-05-01

6

In vitro regeneration of roots of Phyla nodiflora and Leptadenia reticulata, and comparison of roots from cultured and natural plants for secondary metabolites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adventitious roots, generated using leaf explants of P. nodiflora, and meristem explants of L. reticulata, were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with napthylacetic acid (2 microM) and indole butyric acid (3 microM) respectively. After 30 days, subculturing of roots in liquid MS medium with napthylacetic acid (1.5 microM) for P. nodiflora and indole butyric acid (3 microM) for L. reticulata afforded considerable increase in root mass. HPTLC profiles and microscopic examination of transverse sections of in vitro and naturally grown roots provided information on secondary metabolite accumulation vis-à-vis developmental stages of the root. PMID:12974401

Bhatt, Trupti; Jain, Vandana; Jayathirtha, M G; Banerjee, G; Mishra, S H

2002-12-01

7

Use of an infrared thermometer for assessment of plant water stress in neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In general, water stress causes stomatal closure in citrus, and this leads to higher leaf temperature. Recently, it has been reported that infrared thermometry technique can be used for detecting stomatal closure indirectly to assess plant water stress. Therefore, it was proposed to apply to neck orange. An experiment was arranged as a completely randomized design. There were 3 treatments of watering levels: 1 wellwatering (W1, 2 3-day interval watering (W2, and 3 6-day interval watering (W3 with 6 replicates. Eighteen 2-year-old trees of neck orange were used, and each tree was grown in a container (0.4 m3 filled with mixed media of soil, compost and sand (1:1:1. During 18 days of the experimental period, it was found that leaf water potential and stomatal conductance of the plants in W2 and W3 treatments decreased with the progress of water stress. There was high correlation (r2 = 0.71** between leaf water potential and stomatal conductance as a linear regression (Y = 0.0044X-1.8635. Canopy temperature (Tc and air temperature (Ta of each tree were measured by an infrared thermometer, and Tc-Ta was assessed. At the end of the experimental period, it was found that Tc-Ta was significantly highest in the W3 treatment (3.5ºC followed by the of W2 treatment (2ºC, while it was lowest in the W1 treatment (1ºC. The relationship between Tc-Ta and stomatal conductance was high as polynomial (Y = 0.0002X2 0.0572X+3.9878, r2 = 0.70**. This indicated that stomatal closure or decreasing stomatal conductance caused increasing of Tc-Ta in the leaves. Hence, it suggests that infrared thermometer is a convenient device for the assessment of plant water stress in neck orange.

Sayan Sdoodee

2006-11-01

8

Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae); Constituintes quimicos do caule de Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae) yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes {alpha} and {beta}-amirin, the steroids {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants. (author)

Santos, Rogerio Nunes dos; Silva, Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: mgvsilva@ufc.br; Braz Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais

2008-07-01

9

Constituintes químicos do caule de Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae): Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae) yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes a and b-amir [...] in, the steroids b-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants.

Rogério Nunes dos, Santos; Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos, Silva; Raimundo, Braz Filho.

1979-19-01

10

Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae): CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The phytochemical study of hexane extract from leaves of Salacia crassifolia resulted in the isolation of 3?-palmitoxy-urs-12-ene, 3-oxofriedelane, 3?-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-28-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane, 28,29-dihydroxyfriedelan-3-one, 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid, 3?-hydroxy- [...] olean-9(11):12-diene and the mixture of ?-amirin and ?-amirin. ?-sitosterol, the polymer gutta-percha, squalene and eicosanoic acid were also isolated. The chemical structures of these constituents were established by IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data. Crude extracts and the triterpenes were tested against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis and no activity was observed under the in vitro assay conditions. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol crude extracts, and the constituent 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid and 28,29-dihydroxyfriedelan-3-one showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus sanguinis and Candida albicans.

Vanessa G., Rodrigues; Lucienir P., Duarte; Roqueline R., Silva; Grácia D. F., Silva; Maria O., Mercadante-Simões; Jacqueline A., Takahashi; Bibiane L. G., Matildes; Thaisa H. S., Fonseca; Maria A., Gomes; Sidney A., Vieira Filho.

2015-02-01

11

Antibacterial Activity of Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight. & Arn. (Asclepidaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Leptadenia reticulata of Asclepidaceae family is a shrub, originally property of Petroleum ether, Alcohol & Chloroform extract of L. reticulata. The antimicrobial testing was carried out by "Disc diffusion method". Amongst the tested three extracts, chloroform extract showed high antimicrobial activity against E. coli, alcoholic extract showed high antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while Petroleum ether extract showed antibacterial activity against Klebsilla pneumonae. PMID:22557325

Kalidass, C; Glory, M; Borgio, Francis; Manickam, V S

2009-04-01

12

In vitro efficacy of Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides and Copaifera reticulata against Leishmania chagasi.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the murine monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To determine the IC50 a MTT test (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was performed on promastigotes, and an in situ ELISA assay was conducted on amastigotes. Here, we demonstrate that oleoresin from C. reticulata was effective against both promastigotes (IC50 of 7.88 µg.mL-1) and amastigotes (IC50 of 0.52 µg.mL-1), and neither of the two treatments differed significantly (p > 0.05) from pentamidine (IC50 of 2.149 µg.mL-1) and amphotericin B (IC50 of 9.754 µg.mL-1). Of the three plant oils tested, only oleoresin showed no toxicity toward monocyte, with 78.45% viability after treatment. Inhibition of promastigote and amastigote growth and the lack of cytotoxicity by C. reticulata demonstrate that oleoresin may be a viable option for analyzing the in vivo therapeutic effects of leishmanicidal plants. PMID:23070424

Rondon, Fernanda Cristina Macedo; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Accioly, Marina Parissi; de Morais, Selene Maia; de Andrade-Júnior, Heitor Franco; de Carvalho, Camila Aparecida; Lima, Josemar Coelho; Magalhães, Hilton César Rodrigues

2012-01-01

13

Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae) yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes ? and ?-amirin, the steroids ?-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants. (author)

14

Phyto-chemical evaluation of dried aqueous extract of Jivanti [Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wt. et Arn].  

Science.gov (United States)

Jivanti (Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wt. et Arn) is a well known climber used for its innumerable therapeutic properties like antioxidant, antibacterial, vasodilator, galactogogue, Jivaniya, etc., Its use in veterinary practice is tremendous due to its lactogenic effect. The Ghana (dried aqueous extract) of the whole plant was prepared and evaluated phyto-chemically by subjecting it to various tests like physico-chemical, qualitative analysis; TLC and HPTLC. Qualitative tests revealed the presence of flavonoids and TLC also inferred positive Rf value (0.30), indicating the presence of quercetin in the Ghana. PMID:23723676

Pal, Atanu; Sharma, Parmeshwar P; Pandya, Tarulata N; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Patel, Bhupesh R; Shukla, Vinay J; Ravishankar, B

2012-10-01

15

Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea Regeneração dos braços em duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study compared the arm regeneration frequencies in two different populations of Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825 in São Sebastião, Southeast Brazil and observed arm regeneration between age classes (juvenile and adults and sexes (male and female. From the 1,170 individuals sampled, 1,089 (92.2% showed signs of arm regeneration. The relative frequencies of regenerating arms in the two areas were not different (Baleeiro Isthmus: 91.3% and Grande Beach: 99.5%. Both areas also presented similar values for the number of arms regenerating/individual and in the frequency of regenerating individuals. The major part of the regenerating scars was concentrated in the distal portion of the arm. Sub-lethal predation is most likely the cause to the high rates of arm regeneration in O. reticulata. There was no significant differences in the regeneration rates between females (3.57 ± 1.36 arms regenerating/individual and males (3.47 ± 1.42.Este estudo comparou as frequências de regeneração dos braços de duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825, de São Sebastião, sudeste do Brasil. Além disso, foram observadas diferenças nas frequências de regeneração entre classes etárias (juvenis e adultos e entre machos e fêmeas. Dos 1.170 indivíduos coletados, 1.089 (92,2% mostraram sinais de regeneração nos braços. A frequência relativa de braços em regeneração entre as duas áreas não diferiu significativamente (Istmo do Baleeiro: 91,3% e Praia Grande: 99,5%. Ambas as áreas apresentaram valores semelhantes no número de braços regenerando/indivíduo e na frequência de indivíduos em regeneração. A maior parte das marcas de regeneração concentraram-se na porção distal dos braços, o que indica a influência de predação subletal como a causa principal da regeneração em O. reticulata. Além disso, não houve diferença significativa nos índices de regeneração entre fêmeas (3,57 ± 1,36 braços regenerando/indivíduo e machos (3,47 ± 1,42.

Leonardo Q. Yokoyama

2010-06-01

16

In vitro efficacy of Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides and Copaifera reticulata against Leishmania chagasi Eficácia in vitro de Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides e Copaifera reticulata sobre Leishmania chagasi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the murine monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To determine the IC50 a MTT test (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide was performed on promastigotes, and an in situ ELISA assay was conducted on amastigotes. Here, we demonstrate that oleoresin from C. reticulata was effective against both promastigotes (IC50 of 7.88 µg.mL-1 and amastigotes (IC50 of 0.52 µg.mL-1, and neither of the two treatments differed significantly (p > 0.05 from pentamidine (IC50 of 2.149 µg.mL-1 and amphotericin B (IC50 of 9.754 µg.mL-1. Of the three plant oils tested, only oleoresin showed no toxicity toward monocyte, with 78.45% viability after treatment. Inhibition of promastigote and amastigote growth and the lack of cytotoxicity by C. reticulata demonstrate that oleoresin may be a viable option for analyzing the in vivo therapeutic effects of leishmanicidal plantsO aumento na incidência da Leishmaníase Visceral (LV no Brasil deve-se à ineficácia das medidas de controle da doença. Além disso, não há tratamento efetivo para LV canina com drogas sintéticas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos óleos essenciais de Coriandrum sativum e de Lippia sidoides e do óleo-resina de Copaiferareticulata sobre promastigotas e amastigotas de Leishmania chagasi e analisar o grau de toxicidade sobre células monocíticas murinas RAW 264.7. Para determinar a CI50 sobre promastigotas foi usado teste MTT (brometo de 3-[4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il]-2,5-difeniltetrazólio e sobre amastigotas foi realizado imunoensaio in situ pela técnica de ELISA. Os resultados obtidos comprovaram que o óleo-resina de C. reticulata foi o mais eficaz contra as formas promastigotas (CI50 de 7,88 µg.mL-1 e amastigotas (CI50 de 0,52 µg.mL-1 e em nenhum dos dois testes diferiu do controle pentamidina que obteve CI50 de 2,149 µg.mL-1, no teste sobre promastigotas, e anfotericina B que obteve CI50 de 9,754 µg.mL-1, nos testes com amastigotas (p > 0.05. Quanto à citotoxicidade apenas o óleo-resina não apresentou toxicidade com 78,45% de monócitos viáveis. Os resultados obtidos sobre promastigotas e amastigotas e a ausência de citotoxicidade do óleo-resina de C. reticulata evidenciam que este óleo-resina pode ser viável para a análise de seus efeitos terapêuticos em testes in vivo.

Fernanda Cristina Macedo Rondon

2012-09-01

17

In vitro efficacy of Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides and Copaifera reticulata against Leishmania chagasi / Eficácia in vitro de Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides e Copaifera reticulata sobre Leishmania chagasi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O aumento na incidência da Leishmaníase Visceral (LV) no Brasil deve-se à ineficácia das medidas de controle da doença. Além disso, não há tratamento efetivo para LV canina com drogas sintéticas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos óleos essenciais de Coriandrum sativum e de Li [...] ppia sidoides e do óleo-resina de Copaiferareticulata sobre promastigotas e amastigotas de Leishmania chagasi e analisar o grau de toxicidade sobre células monocíticas murinas RAW 264.7. Para determinar a CI50 sobre promastigotas foi usado teste MTT (brometo de 3-[4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il]-2,5-difeniltetrazólio) e sobre amastigotas foi realizado imunoensaio in situ pela técnica de ELISA. Os resultados obtidos comprovaram que o óleo-resina de C. reticulata foi o mais eficaz contra as formas promastigotas (CI50 de 7,88 µg.mL-1) e amastigotas (CI50 de 0,52 µg.mL-1) e em nenhum dos dois testes diferiu do controle pentamidina que obteve CI50 de 2,149 µg.mL-1, no teste sobre promastigotas, e anfotericina B que obteve CI50 de 9,754 µg.mL-1, nos testes com amastigotas (p > 0.05). Quanto à citotoxicidade apenas o óleo-resina não apresentou toxicidade com 78,45% de monócitos viáveis. Os resultados obtidos sobre promastigotas e amastigotas e a ausência de citotoxicidade do óleo-resina de C. reticulata evidenciam que este óleo-resina pode ser viável para a análise de seus efeitos terapêuticos em testes in vivo. Abstract in english The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils [...] of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the murine monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To determine the IC50 a MTT test (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was performed on promastigotes, and an in situ ELISA assay was conducted on amastigotes. Here, we demonstrate that oleoresin from C. reticulata was effective against both promastigotes (IC50 of 7.88 µg.mL-1) and amastigotes (IC50 of 0.52 µg.mL-1), and neither of the two treatments differed significantly (p > 0.05) from pentamidine (IC50 of 2.149 µg.mL-1) and amphotericin B (IC50 of 9.754 µg.mL-1). Of the three plant oils tested, only oleoresin showed no toxicity toward monocyte, with 78.45% viability after treatment. Inhibition of promastigote and amastigote growth and the lack of cytotoxicity by C. reticulata demonstrate that oleoresin may be a viable option for analyzing the in vivo therapeutic effects of leishmanicidal plants

Fernanda Cristina Macedo, Rondon; Claudia Maria Leal, Bevilaqua; Marina Parissi, Accioly; Selene Maia de, Morais; Heitor Franco de, Andrade-Júnior; Camila Aparecida de, Carvalho; Josemar Coelho, Lima; Hilton César Rodrigues, Magalhães.

2012-09-01

18

Somatic embryogenesis in Citrus sinensis, C. reticulata AND C. nobilis x C. deliciosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of the plant regeneration processes in citrus, through tissue culture, involve indirect somatic embryogenesis. The optimization of these processes is important for the development of in vitro plant improvement and micropropagation studies. Studies to evaluate the effect of different carbohydrates in somatic embryogenesis were conducted using calli from 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata, Blanco, 'Cravo' mandarin (C. reticulata, 'Itaboraí' sweet orange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck., 'Valencia' sweet orange (C. sinensis and 'Kinnow' mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro x C. deliciosa Tenore. The culture medium used was MT supplemented with sucrose, galactose, glucose, maltose or lactose with the following concentrations of 18, 37, 75, 110, and 150 mM. The culture medium used for the maturation of somatic embryos had 0, 15, 29, 44, 58 and 73 mM of sucrose, in presence or absence of 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal. Seventy-three mM of sucrose with 0.1 mg L-1 of GA3 in the presence or absence 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal was also tested. Overall, the carbohydrates galactose or lactose induced a higher number of somatic embryos. Sucrose concentrations of 58 and 73 mM generated a higher number of plantlets from mature embryos of 'Ponkan' mandarin and 'Valencia' sweet orange.

Ricci Adriana Patrícia

2002-01-01

19

Ecophysiological aspects of sun and shade leaves of Ponkan tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) / Aspectos ecofisiológicos de hojas de sol y sombra de Ponkan mandarina (Citrus reticulata Blanco)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Ponkan mandarina (Citrus reticulata) tiene una amplia aceptación por los consumidores debido a varios aspectos: es una fruta colorida, cáscara dulce y fácil de pelar. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la respuesta a la sombra de las plantas de Ponkan mandarina (Citrus reticulata) respecto de [...] sus aspectos ecofisiológicos, de acuerdo con la intensidad relativa de la luz, a fin de evaluar la capacidad de adaptación de esta especie para dar sombra. Las hojas se obtienen de la cubierta superior (sol) y la cubierta inferior (sombra) para la determinación de los aspectos ecofisiológicos. Cortes en las manos se hicieron para la evaluación del espesor de parénquima de empalizada, número de estomas (mm²) y el espesor total de la hoja. Las secciones transversales de la parte media de la licencia se obtuvieron, para la evaluación de la parénquima, utilizando un cuerpo de evidencia, y para el estomática se hicieron cortes en la superficie abaxial. La clorofila se extrajo de las hojas de mandarina Ponkan y posteriormente se mide en espectrofotometría a longitudes de onda de 645nm y 663nm. La relación entre la clorofila a y b tendía a aumentar con una mayor intensidad de luz. El sombreado no afectó a las características anatómicas de las plantas de mandarina Ponkan. Sin embargo, los niveles de clorofila fueron diferentes en "sol" y se va "sombra". Abstract in english The Ponkan tangerine (Citrus reticulata) has wide acceptance by consumers due to several properties; it is a colorful, sweet, and easy to peel fruit. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ecophysiological aspects of the response of plants of Ponkan tangerine to shading, according to relative int [...] ensity of light, in order to assess the adaptability of this species to shade. Leaves were collected from the upper canopy (sun) and lower canopy (shade) to determine the ecophysiological aspects. Cuts were by hand made to assess the thickness of palisade parenchyma, number of stomata (mm²) and total thickness of the leaf. Cross-sections of the middle part of leaves were obtained to assess the parenchyma, using a body-of-evidence, and for the stomata cuts were made on the abaxial surfaces. Chlorophyll was extracted from the leaves of Ponkan Tangerine and subsequently measured in a spectrophotometer at wave lengths 645nm and 663nm The ratio between chlorophyll a and b tended to increase with increased intensity of light. Shading did not affect the anatomical characteristics of Ponkan tangerine plants. However, chlorophyll levels were different in sun and shade leaves.

Eduardo Domingos, Grecco; Luiz Flávio, Vianna Silveira; Victor Luiz, de Souza Lima; José Eduardo, .

2014-11-01

20

Somatic embryogenesis in Citrus sinensis, C. reticulata AND C. nobilis x C. deliciosa / Embriogênese somática em Citrus sinensis, C. reticulata E C. nobilis x C. deliciosa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A maioria dos processos de regeneração de plantas em citros por cultura de tecidos envolve embriogênese somática indireta. A otimização desse processo é importante para o desenvolvimento de trabalhos de melhoramento in vitro e micropropagação. Realizaram-se estudos em calos de tangerina 'Ponkan' (Ci [...] trus reticulata Blanco), tangerina 'Cravo' (C. reticulata), laranja 'Itaboraí' (C. sinensis L. Osbeck.), laranja 'Valência' (C. sinensis) e tangerina 'Kinnow' (C. nobilis Loureiro x C. deliciosa, Tenore) visando avaliar o efeito de diferentes carboidratos na embriogênese somática. Utilizou-se o meio MT acrescido de sacarose, galactose, glicose, maltose e lactose nas concentrações de 18, 37, 75, 110 e 150 mM. O meio de cultura utilizado para a maturação dos embriões somáticos continha sacarose nas concentrações de 0, 15, 29, 44, 58 e 73 mM, na presença ou não de 0,5 g L-1 de carvão ativado; 73 mM de sacarose e GA3 na concentração de 0,1 mg L-1, na presença ou não de 0,5 g L-1 de carvão ativado. O estímulo à embriogênese somática foi mais eficiente em meio de cultura suplementado com lactose e galactose. Quanto à maturação de embriões, os meios de cultura contendo 58 e 73 mM de sacarose foram aqueles que geraram um maior número de plantas em tangerina 'Ponkan' e laranja 'Valência'. Abstract in english Most of the plant regeneration processes in citrus, through tissue culture, involve indirect somatic embryogenesis. The optimization of these processes is important for the development of in vitro plant improvement and micropropagation studies. Studies to evaluate the effect of different carbohydrat [...] es in somatic embryogenesis were conducted using calli from 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata, Blanco), 'Cravo' mandarin (C. reticulata), 'Itaboraí' sweet orange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck.), 'Valencia' sweet orange (C. sinensis) and 'Kinnow' mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro x C. deliciosa Tenore). The culture medium used was MT supplemented with sucrose, galactose, glucose, maltose or lactose with the following concentrations of 18, 37, 75, 110, and 150 mM. The culture medium used for the maturation of somatic embryos had 0, 15, 29, 44, 58 and 73 mM of sucrose, in presence or absence of 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal. Seventy-three mM of sucrose with 0.1 mg L-1 of GA3 in the presence or absence 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal was also tested. Overall, the carbohydrates galactose or lactose induced a higher number of somatic embryos. Sucrose concentrations of 58 and 73 mM generated a higher number of plantlets from mature embryos of 'Ponkan' mandarin and 'Valencia' sweet orange.

Adriana Patrícia, Ricci; Francisco de Assis Alves, Mourão Filho; Beatriz Madalena Januzzi, Mendes; Sonia Maria de Stefano, Piedade.

2002-03-01

21

Antifungal activity of Leptadenia reticulata Wight and Arn. aerial parts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of Leptadenia reticulata Wight and Arn. (Asclepiadaceae were studied for in vitro antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ruantti, Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Trichodermata viride and Trichodermata koningii respectively. The methanolic extract exhibited prominent antifungal activity against all the selected strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the extracts was performed by broth dilution method and the zone of inhibition was studied by agar disc diffusion method at concentrations of 2, 5 and 10mg/ml in DMSO. Cotrimazole (25?g/ml was used as reference control for antifungal studies. Results of MIC study revealed the antifungal activities of the extracts against the tested strains in between concentration ranges 50-400?g/ml. The present study indicates the potential usefulness of L. reticulata aerial parts as antifungal agent.

Keywords: Leptadenia reticulata Wight and Arn., Antifungal activity, Minimum inhibitory concentration, Zone of inhibition, Clotrimazole

M. K. Mishra

2011-04-01

22

Evaluation of aeroponics for clonal propagation of Caralluma edulis, Leptadenia reticulata and Tylophora indica - three threatened medicinal Asclepiads.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study explores the potential of aeroponic system for clonal propagation of Caralluma edulis (Paimpa) a rare, threatened and endemic edible species, Leptadenia reticulata (Jeewanti), a threatened liana used as promoter of health and Tylophora indica (Burm.f.) Merill, a valuable medicinal climber. Experiments were conducted to asses the effect of exogenous auxin (naphthalene acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, indole-3-acetic acid) and auxin concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5gl(-1)) on various root morphological traits of cuttings in the aeroponic chamber. Amongst all the auxins tested, significant effects on the length, number and percentage of rooting was observed in IBA treated nodal cuttings. Cent per cent of the stem cuttings of C. edulis rooted if pre-treated with 2.0 gl(-1) of IBA for 5 min while 97.7 % of the stem cuttings of L. reticulata and 93.33 % of stem cuttings of Tylophora indica rooted with pre-treatment of 3.0 gl(-1) of IBA for 5 min. Presence of at least two leaves on the nodal cuttings of L. reticulata and T. indica was found to be a prerequisite for root induction. In all the species, the number of adventitious roots per cutting and the percentage of cuttings rooted aeroponically were significantly higher than the soil grown stem cuttings. Shoot growth measured in terms of shoot length was significantly higher in cuttings rooted aeroponically as compared to the cuttings rooted under soil conditions. All the plants sprouted and rooted aeroponically survived on transfer to soil. This is the first report of clonal propagation in an aeroponic system for these plants. This study suggests aeroponics as an economic method for rapid root induction and clonal propagation of these three endangered and medicinally important plants which require focused efforts on conservation and sustainable utilization. PMID:25049464

Mehandru, Pooja; Shekhawat, N S; Rai, Manoj K; Kataria, Vinod; Gehlot, H S

2014-07-01

23

Constituintes químicos do caule de Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae): Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd.  

OpenAIRE

The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae) yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes a and b-amirin, the steroids b-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniqu...

Rogério Nunes dos Santos; Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos Silva; Raimundo Braz Filho

2008-01-01

24

EFFECT OF LEPTADENIA RETICULATA LINN ON STRESS MODULATED SEXUAL BEHAVIOR OF MALE RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the day today life the persons living and working in the area were the environmental factors such as chemical, physical, or emotional, stress may adversely affect the testicular functions that is enhancement of testicular germ cell apoptosis will takes place. All the organisms survive by maintaining a dynamic equilibrium with their environment. The organization of this homeostasis exists at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels. But some of the physical, mental, or emotional stress acts as a threat to this equilibrium, So this alteration in the homeostasis by stress will cause decreased libido, changes in the motor activity, increased arousal, vigilance and increased tolerance of pain.So the aim of the present study was to determine whether the Leptadenia reticulata plant methanolic and chloroform extracts in the low 50mg/kg, mid 100mg/kg, high 250mg/kg and a safety 200mg/kg oral dose will overcome the stress induced sexual dysfunction or not. So to evaluate whether the Leptadenia reticulata active constituents have got aphrodisiac as well as infertility treatment activity was assessed by studying the following sexual behavioral parameters, number of mounts, ejaculation latency, intromission interval, number of ejaculations and the histopathological study of testis, will give a clear idea of the study.In this study the obtained results will show that chloroform extract is having more potent aphrodisiac activity when compared to normal, because it has got increased number of mounts, intromission interval, Number of ejaculations and decreased latency of first mount as well as the increase in post ejaculation time shows its potent aphrodisiac in both normal and stressed rats. Significant (P<0.05 weight gain in testis, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, vasdeferens, epididymis, with declined weight gain in adrenal gland indicating HPA/HPG axis regulatory mechanism. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for significant aphrodisiac and male infertility treatment activity with improved testicular performance.

Santosh B. T

2011-10-01

25

Molecular authentication of the Oriental medicines Pericarpium citri reticulatae and Citri unshius pericarpium using SNP markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pericarpium citri reticulatae and Citri unshius pericarpium are important Oriental medicinal materials used in many prescriptions. Among the Citrus species, the dried peels of C. japonica, C. maxima, and C. trifoliata are found to be adulterants and substitutes of Pericarpium citri reticulatae and Citri unshius pericarpium. In order to develop a simple and reliable DNA method for authentication of these two medicinal materials, nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was targeted for molecular analysis. A host of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites were detected among ITS sequences of five Citrus species. From two SNP sites, two modified specific primers were designed for authentication of Pericarpium citri reticulatae and Citri unshius pericarpium using multiplex PCR. The established multiplex allele-specific PCR system was proven to be effective for simultaneous authentication of Pericarpium citri reticulatae and Citri unshius pericarpium. The scheme used in this study could be adapted for determination of the botanical identity and origin of other medicinal materials. PMID:22173103

Wang, Hongtao; Kim, Min-Kyeoung; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Hee-Neoung; Jin, Haizhu; Chen, Jiayu; Yang, Deok-Chun

2012-02-15

26

Cytoprotective and anti-diabetic effects of Derris reticulata aqueous extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study was aimed to investigate pancreatic protective and anti-diabetic activities of the aqueous extract of Derris reticulata stem. First, we evaluated a cytoprotective potential of D. reticulata extract on alloxan-induced damage in vitro. Treatment with D. reticulata extract at the doses of 250 and 500 ?g/ml significantly increased cell viability of the pancreatic ?-cell line RINm5F after exposure of alloxan. The anti-hyperglycemic activity of D. reticulata extract was further studied in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. A significant reduction in blood glucose level along with an increase in body weight was observed in diabetic rats treated with D. reticulata extract at 250 mg/kg body weight for 15 days. Serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels were also significantly decreased compared to diabetic control rats. In accordance with in vitro cytoprotective effect, histopathological examination revealed that pancreatic islet cells of the extract-treated diabetic rat were less damage than those of the untreated diabetic group. In order to find another possible mechanism of action underling hypoglycemic activity, the effect on glucose absorption was examined using everted sac jejunum. The results showed that D. reticulata extract suppressed glucose absorption from small intestine. To corroborate safety use of D. reticulata extract, acute oral toxicity was also conducted in rats. Our results showed that none of the tested doses (250, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg) induced signs of toxicity or mortality after administration of the extract. The results suggested that D. reticulata extract possess anti-diabetic activity, which resulting from its pancreatic cytoprotective effect and inhibition of intestinal glucose absorption. PMID:24849669

Kumkrai, Pakarang; Kamonwannasit, Sirilak; Chudapongse, Nuannoi

2014-09-01

27

Protective Effect against Hydroxyl-induced DNA Damage and Antioxidant Activity of Citri reticulatae Pericarpium  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: As a typical Chinese herbal medicine, Citri reticulatae pericarpium (CRP) possesses various pharmacological effects involved in antioxidant ability. However, its antioxidant effects have not been reported yet. The objective of this work was to investigate its antioxidant ability, then further discuss the antioxidant mechanism. Methods: CRP was extracted by ethanol to obtain ethanol extract of Citri reticulatae pericarpium (ECRP). ECRP was then measured by various antioxidant...

Dongfeng Chen; Yanping Huang; Xican Li

2013-01-01

28

Sesquiterpenes and Other Natural Products from Roldana reticulata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available De Roldana reticulata se aislaron dos 9-oxo-furanoeremofilanos (1, 2), además de senecrassidiol, tirosol, icarisida D2 y rutina; no se detectaron alcaloides pirrolizidínicos, coincidiendo con el patrón químico del género reportado hasta ahora. La actividad anti-inflamatoria de los extractos y produc [...] tos aislados fue evaluada en el modelo de edema de inflamación aguda inducido con TPA. Abstract in english The chemical study of Roldana reticulate led to the isolation of two 9-oxo-furanoeremophilanes (1, 2), together with senecrassidiol, tyrosol, icariside D2, and rutin; no pyrrolizidine alkaloids were detected, in agreement with the chemistry of the genus reported so far. The anti-inflammatory activit [...] y of extracts and isolated products was tested using the TPA model of induced acute inflammation.

Amira, Arciniegas; Jhon, Ironzi Maldonado; Karina, González; Ana L., Pérez-Castorena; José Luis, Villaseñor; Alfonso, Romo de Vivar.

2013-03-01

29

Viscous polysaccharide and starch synthesis in Rhodella reticulata (Porphyridiales, Rhodophyta)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rhodella reticulata Deason, Butler and Rhyne produces copious amounts of a viscous polysaccharide (VP) during growth in batch cultures. The VPs accumulated on the cell surface and in the culture medium once cells ceased growth; starch concurrently accumulated within the cells. Light-saturated {sup 14}C-uptake declined steadily as the cells aged. Net synthesis rates for starch and mucilage were two- and four-fold lower, respectively, in non-growing cells than in growing cells, while the relative partitioning of newly-fixed carbon into these materials was not different. These data suggest that total photosynthetic loading, rather than partitioning into one specific pool, controls cellular synthesis rates. No preferential synthesis of VPs occurred during the stationary phase. The findings have important implications for the commercial production of VPs.

Kroen, W.K.; Ramus, J. (Duke Univ., Beaufort, NC (USA))

1990-06-01

30

Viscous polysaccharide and starch synthesis in Rhodella reticulata (Porphyridiales, Rhodophyta)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rhodella reticulata Deason, Butler and Rhyne produces copious amounts of a viscous polysaccharide (VP) during growth in batch cultures. The VPs accumulated on the cell surface and in the culture medium once cells ceased growth; starch concurrently accumulated within the cells. Light-saturated 14C-uptake declined steadily as the cells aged. Net synthesis rates for starch and mucilage were two- and four-fold lower, respectively, in non-growing cells than in growing cells, while the relative partitioning of newly-fixed carbon into these materials was not different. These data suggest that total photosynthetic loading, rather than partitioning into one specific pool, controls cellular synthesis rates. No preferential synthesis of VPs occurred during the stationary phase. The findings have important implications for the commercial production of VPs

31

Cryptosporidium muris in a reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptosporidium spp. infection in captive exotic mammals was investigated using staining and molecular biological methods. A total of 323 fecal samples from 100 mammalian species (62 Artiodactyla, 33 Rodentia, 3 Perissodactyla, and 2 Paenungultata) in 4 zoological gardens in the Czech Republic was examined. Only in a reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) sample was Cryptosporidium sp. infection detected. The partial small subunit rRNA sequence obtained from the isolate was identical to sequences of Cryptosporidium muris in rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) and Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus). Neonatal BALB/c mice inoculated with 1 x 10(3) fresh oocysts of the C. muris giraffe isolate did not produce a detectable infection. PMID:19685941

Kodádková, A; Kvác, M; Ditrich, O; Sak, B; Xiao, L

2010-02-01

32

Aplicação de ácido giberélico (GA3 em précolheita de tangerina ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata blanco = Application of Gibberelic acid (GA3 on preharvest of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco fruit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O experimento foi instalado em pomar comercial de tangerineira ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata Blanco, enxertadas sobre tangerineira ‘Cleópatra’ (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., em Pratânia, Estado de S??o Paulo, Brasil. Adotouse o delineamento experimental em blocoscasualizados com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos empregados foram: 0 (controle, 5, 10, 15 e 20 mg L1 de ácido giberélico (GA3. A aplicação dos tratamentos foi realizada com atomizador tratorizado. Na mudança de coloração dos frutos, utilizaramse 5,9 litros de solução por planta, com adição de 0,03% de surfatante não iônico com 25% de Alquil fenol poliglicoléter. As análises da qualidade dos frutos foram realizadas aos 13, 45, 75 e 111 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT. Não se verificou influência da aplicação de GA3 na massa fresca dos frutos, no conteúdo de sólidos solúveis totais, na acidez total titulável e “ratio”. No entanto foi observado atraso na colheita de frutos, induzido pelo efeito fisiológico do ácido giberélico. The experiment was carried out in a commercial orchard of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco, grafted on ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., in Pratânia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The utilized experimental design was composed of randomized blocks of four replications. The treatments consisted of: 0 (control,5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L1 of Gibberellic acid (GA3. Atomizer equipment was utilized for the application of the treatments. Each plant received 5.9 liters of solution, in which 0.03% of nonionic surfactant with 25% of alkylphenol ethoxylate was added, in order to change fruit coloration. The analyses of fruit quality were developed on the 13th, 45th, 75th and 111th days after the application of the treatments (DAT. Results showed that the application of GA3 did not affect fruit fresh mass, total soluble solids content, total titulable acidity and ratio. However, a delay in fruit harvesting was verified, which was induced by the physiological effect of Gibberellic acid.

Júnior Cesar Modesto

2006-01-01

33

New host plant and distribution records for Peruvian Tephritinae (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Science.gov (United States)

Distribution and host plant records (all Asteraceae) are reported for 17 species of Tephritinae: Acinia reticulata (stem galls on Tessaria integrifolia); Dracontomyia footei (Baccharis salicifolia); Ensina hyalipennis (Argentina; flowerheads of Sonchus asper); E. longiceps (flowerheads of Hypochaeri...

34

Protective immunization against Tetrahymena sp. infection in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Systemic tetrahymenosis constitutes a serious problem in guppy (Poecilia reticulata) production worldwide and no therapeutic solution is available for this disease. Three immunization trials were conducted, testing the effectiveness of different Tetrahymena preparations applied by intraperitoneal injection (IP) with or without Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) and with or without booster dose. In trial 1, immunization with the pathogenic Tet-NI 6 lysate and live attenuated Tet-NI 1 did not provide significant protection from infection, although infection rates were significantly lower in the Tet-NI 6-immunized group than in controls. In trial 2, mortality in Tet-NI 6 + FCA-immunized fish was 10%, significantly lower than in all other treatment groups, including Tet-NI 6 lysate, live attenuated Tet-NI 1 and controls (77, 67 and 73%, respectively). In trial 3, the lowest mortality rates were obtained in the Tet-NI 6 + FCA + booster-immunized group (15%). These levels were lower but not significantly different from the non-boostered Tet-NI 6-immunized group (28%) and the groups immunized with Tet-NI 1, with and without booster (32 and 34%, respectively). Mortality in these four groups was significantly lower than in controls, including adjuvant- and PBS-injected groups (72 and 81%, respectively). Body homogenates of immunized fish immobilized Tetrahymena in-vitro, as compared to no or very little immobilization in controls. Lysozyme levels in the Tet-NI 6 + FCA + booster group were significantly higher than in all other treatments in trial 2 and controls in trial 3. There was no significant difference in anti-protease activity among the differently immunized fish. We conclude that immunization with Tetrahymena lysates in FCA confers a high degree of protection from infection, suggesting this preparation as a basis for vaccine development. PMID:19490943

Chettri, J Kumar; Leibowitz, M Pimenta; Ofir, R; Zilberg, D

2009-08-01

35

Determination of the Presence of Huanglongbing in Seeds and Movement of the Pathogen in Citrus reticulata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Huanglongbing (HLB also known as citrus greening disease is a fastidious phloem-inhabiting bacterium in the genus Candidatus Liberibacter. Using universal primers, the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence of three strains of the bacterium were obtained by PCR. However there is very little information on seed transmission and HLB pathogen movement to find a way for control or reduce the severity of HLB on the field. The study was conducted to detect HLB pathogen in seeds of Citrus, to determine pathogen movement in citrus seedling after infection and to detect the HLB pathogen in citrus roots. Approach: Seeds of Citrus reticulata cv. Limau Madu were collected from infected orchard and were germinated in screenhouse condition. The seeds of Citrus reticlata cv. L. Madu were planted in screenhouse too for HLB pathogen movement and HLB detection in roots. The seedlings were inoculated using infected grafting methods. Results: HLB was not amplified in new seedlings after germination. HLB moved slowly reaching up to 1.5 cm after 2 weeks, 1.5-4.5 cm after eight weeks and detected on 4.5-9 cm after 14 weeks below the grafting area. HLB was also detected up to 9-15 cm after 16 weeks, 15-24 cm after twenty weeks, 24-28.5 cm after 22 weeks and 28.5-30 cm after 24 weeks below the grafting area. Conclusion: Base on conventional PCR test, HLB disease in citrus is not seed borne and it can reach to the roots 26 weeks after inoculation.

Hajivand Shokrollah

2009-01-01

36

'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) immature fruits storage / Armazenamento de frutos imaturos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito do armazenamento de frutos e concentrações de sacarose no cultivo in vitro de embriões imaturos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) x laranjeira 'Pêra' [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.]. Frutos com 3 a 4 cm de diâmetro foram coletados e coloc [...] ados em sacos pretos de polietileno perfurados e armazenados a 5±1ºC por um período de 135 dias. A cada 15 dias, uma amostra foi retirada, seus embriões foram excisados e inoculados individualmente em tubos de ensaio contendo 15 mL de meio MS acrescido de sacarose (0; 1,5; 3; 6; 12; 18 e 24 g L-1), 0,3 mg L-1 GA3 e 1 g L-1 de carvão ativado. Os tratamentos permaneceram 48 horas no escuro e em seguida foram transferidos para sala de crescimento a 27±1ºC com fotoperíodo de 16 horas e 32 µmol m-2 s-1 de intensidade luminosa. Frutos imaturos podem ser armazenados e posteriormente utilizados na excisão e cultura de embriões. Frutos com 120 dias após a polinização podem ser armazenados por mais de 135 dias sem afetar a viabilidade dos embriões. Observou-se melhor desenvolvimento da parte aérea e sistema radicular de plântulas oriundas de embriões de tangerineira 'Ponkan' x laranjeira 'Pêra' em meio MS com 12-18 g L-1 de sacarose. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of 'Ponkan' mandarin (C. reticulata) x 'Pêra' sweet orange (C. sinensis) immature fruits storage and sucrose concentrations on embryos in vitro culture. Fruits with 3 to 4 cm in diameter were harvested and placed inside black polyethylene bags with lat [...] eral openings and stored at 5±1ºC during 135 days. Every 15 days a sample was removed, its embryos were excised and individually inoculated in test tubes containing 15 mL of MS medium (Murashige & Skoog, 1962) with sucrose (0, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 g L-1) and 0.3 mg L-1 GA3 and 1 g L-1 activated charcoal. Those treatments rested 48 hours in the dark and later in a growth room at 27 ± 1ºC with a 16-h photoperiod and 32 µmol m-2 s-1 light intensity. Immature fruits can be stored for posterior excision and embryos culture. Fruits with 120 days after the pollination can be stored for at most 135 days without damaging the embryos viability. It was observed a better development of the aerial part and root system of plantlets from 'Ponkan' mandarin x 'Pêra' sweet orange embryos in MS medium with 12-18 g L-1 sucrose.

Moacir, Pasqual; Leonardo Ferreira, Dutra; Aparecida Gomes de, Araujo; Milene Alves de, Figueiredo.

1017-10-01

37

'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco immature fruits storage Armazenamento de frutos imaturos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of 'Ponkan' mandarin (C. reticulata x 'Pêra' sweet orange (C. sinensis immature fruits storage and sucrose concentrations on embryos in vitro culture. Fruits with 3 to 4 cm in diameter were harvested and placed inside black polyethylene bags with lateral openings and stored at 5±1ºC during 135 days. Every 15 days a sample was removed, its embryos were excised and individually inoculated in test tubes containing 15 mL of MS medium (Murashige & Skoog, 1962 with sucrose (0, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 g L-1 and 0.3 mg L-1 GA3 and 1 g L-1 activated charcoal. Those treatments rested 48 hours in the dark and later in a growth room at 27 ± 1ºC with a 16-h photoperiod and 32 µmol m-2 s-1 light intensity. Immature fruits can be stored for posterior excision and embryos culture. Fruits with 120 days after the pollination can be stored for at most 135 days without damaging the embryos viability. It was observed a better development of the aerial part and root system of plantlets from 'Ponkan' mandarin x 'Pêra' sweet orange embryos in MS medium with 12-18 g L-1 sucrose.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito do armazenamento de frutos e concentrações de sacarose no cultivo in vitro de embriões imaturos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco x laranjeira 'Pêra' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb.]. Frutos com 3 a 4 cm de diâmetro foram coletados e colocados em sacos pretos de polietileno perfurados e armazenados a 5±1ºC por um período de 135 dias. A cada 15 dias, uma amostra foi retirada, seus embriões foram excisados e inoculados individualmente em tubos de ensaio contendo 15 mL de meio MS acrescido de sacarose (0; 1,5; 3; 6; 12; 18 e 24 g L-1, 0,3 mg L-1 GA3 e 1 g L-1 de carvão ativado. Os tratamentos permaneceram 48 horas no escuro e em seguida foram transferidos para sala de crescimento a 27±1ºC com fotoperíodo de 16 horas e 32 µmol m-2 s-1 de intensidade luminosa. Frutos imaturos podem ser armazenados e posteriormente utilizados na excisão e cultura de embriões. Frutos com 120 dias após a polinização podem ser armazenados por mais de 135 dias sem afetar a viabilidade dos embriões. Observou-se melhor desenvolvimento da parte aérea e sistema radicular de plântulas oriundas de embriões de tangerineira 'Ponkan' x laranjeira 'Pêra' em meio MS com 12-18 g L-1 de sacarose.

Moacir Pasqual

2006-10-01

38

Descripción de los estadios ninfales de Edessa reticulata y Edessa jugata (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Edessinae) para Oaxaca y Veracruz / Description of nynphal states of Edessa reticulata and E. jugata (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Edessinae) from Oaxaca and Veracruz  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se describen e ilustran fotográficamente los estadios ninfales y adultos de Edessa reticulata Dallas para el estado de Oaxaca y E. jugata Westwood para el estado de Veracruz. [...] Abstract in english The nimphal and adult stages of Edessa reticulata Dallas for the state of Oaxaca and E. jugata Westwood for the state of Veracruz are described and illustrated photographically. [...

Guillermina, Ortega-León; Martín Leonel, Zurita-García.

2013-09-01

39

The growth of Neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco scion on seedling and cutting of trifoliate orange hybrid rootstocks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growth of Neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco on seedling and cutting of trifoliate orange hybrid rootstocks was studied at the Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University in order to select the appropriate rootstock. The stem cross section, growth characteristic and isozyme pattern of Neck orange scion were investigated. One-year-old seedlings and cuttings (both with 0.3-0.4 mm stem diameter of Troyer citrange, Swingle citrumelo and Neck orange were used as root stock for grafting with Neck orange scions. The diameter of upper and lower graft union, number of branches and leaves, height, root length, shoot and root dry weight and shoot: root dry weight ratio of grafted plants were measured at 24 weeks after grafting. The results showed that the structure of stem cross section of Troyer citrange and Neck orange i.e. the size of periderm, vascular bundle and pith, were similar to that of Neck orange. The vascular bundle of Swingle citrumelo was larger than that of the two rootstocks. Troyer citrange rootstock gave the best results in all growth parameters of Neck orange. The study of isozymes recorded an extra locus (Est 3 of Swingle citrumelo rootstock occurred in Neck orange at 24 and 48 weeks after grafting.

Thavorat, S.

2003-11-01

40

Anti-fungal activity of Citrus reticulata Blanco essential oil against Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical composition of Citrus reticulata Blanco essential oil was analysed using GC/MS. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (C10H16) constituted the majority (88.96%, w/w) of the total oil. The oils dose-dependently inhibited Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum. The anti-fungal activity of the oils against P. italicum was attributed to citronellol, octanal, citral, decanal, nonanal, ?-pinene, linalool, and ?-terpinene, whereas anti-fungal activity against P. digitatum is attributed to octanal, decanal, nonanal, limonene, citral, ?-terpinene, linalool, and ?-terpineol. The oils altered the hyphal morphology of P. italicum and P. digitatum by causing loss of cytoplasm and distortion of the mycelia. The oils significantly altered extracellular conductivity, the release of cell constituents, and the total lipid content of P. italicum and P. digitatum. The results suggest that C. reticulata Blanco essential oils generate cytotoxicity in P. italicum and P. digitatum by disrupting cell membrane integrity and causing the leakage of cell components. PMID:24491729

Tao, Nengguo; Jia, Lei; Zhou, Haien

2014-06-15

41

DETAILED COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA LINN. AND ANNONA RETICULATA LINN. LEAVES  

OpenAIRE

Annona squamosa Linn. and Annona reticulata Linn. are locally known as Sitaphala and Ramphala respectively both belongs to family Annonaceae. Leaves of both are used in various diseases like suppurant, toothache, anthelmintic commonly. Individually A. squamosa is used in anti diabetic, antispasmodic, dandruff and A. reticulate is used in flatulence and toothache. Till date there is no scientific comparative study has been reported. Pharmacognostical study of A. squamosa shows lysogenous cav...

Jani Switu; Harisha C.R.; Mohaddesi Behzad

2012-01-01

42

Triacylglyceride, antioxidant and antimicrobial features of virgin camellia oleifera, C. reticulata and C. sasanqua oils  

OpenAIRE

Virgin oils obtained from seeds of Camellia oleifera (CO), Camellia reticulata (CR) and Camellia sasanqua (CS) were studied for their triacylglyceride composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Levels of fatty acids determined by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis were similar to those reported for olive oils (82.30%–84.47%; 5.69%–7.78%; 0.26%–0.41% and 8.04%–11.2%, for oleic, linoleic, linolenic and saturated acids, respectively). The CR oil showed the best antioxidan...

María Pilar Vázquez-Tato; Sainz, Mari?a J.; Pilar Vela; Carmen Salinero; Estevinho, Leticia M.; Xesús Feás; Seijas, Julio A.

2013-01-01

43

Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine)  

OpenAIRE

We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III) isolated from a single natural infected Citrus reticulata var. Clementine tree growing in a tree nursery in Manouba (near Tunis Capital). We describe the sequence variability of these viroids from their natural host without using an alternative passage by an indicator host or an artificial inoculation. This work...

Amine Elleuch; Fattouma Djilani Khouaja; Imen Hamdi; Nabiha Bsais; Jean-Pierre Perreault; Mohamed Marrakchi; Hatem Fakhfakh

2006-01-01

44

Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Essential Oil  

OpenAIRE

The chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (PCR) essential oil obtained using an improved Clevenger type apparatus were studied. Among the five different PCRs examined the highest yield of essential oil was found in Chachi 2004 (harvested and stored in 2004) and the lowest in Chachi 2008 (harvested and stored in 2008). Fifty three different volatile compounds were determined, including terpenic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones a...

Bei Gao; Yulong Chen; Mingwei Zhang; Yujuan Xu; Siyi Pan

2011-01-01

45

Impact of expected value on neural activity in rat substantia nigra pars reticulata  

OpenAIRE

The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is thought to serve as the output of the basal ganglia, whereby associative information from striatum influences behavior via disinhibition of downstream motor areas to motivate behavior. Unfortunately, few studies have examined activity in SNr in rats making decisions based on the value of predicted reward similar to those conducted in primates. To fill this void, we recorded from single neurons in SNr while rats performed a choice task in which dif...

Bryden, Daniel W.; Johnson, Emily E.; Diao, Xiayang; Roesch, Matthew R.

2011-01-01

46

Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of citrus jambhiri lush and citrus reticulata blanco essential oils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to investigate the time interval in which we can get maximum concentration of essential oil from the peels of Citrus jambhiri Lush and Citrus reticulata Blanco, to determine the composition of peel oils and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracted oils. It was observed that in case of Citrus jambhiri Lush maximum oil yield (I %) was obtained when fruits were immature (during October). As the fruit samples got matured, the oil yield decreased. In December the oil yield decreased to 0.2 %. In case of Citrus reticulata Blanco maximum oil yield (0.189 %) was obtained during the last week of January. Chemical analysis of essential oils showed that limonene was the most abundant compound (86 %-93 %) followed by alpha terpinene (2 %-4.5 %), beta-pinene(1 0/0-2 %) and nerol (0.5 %-1.5 %). The radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of essential oils were determined by DPPH and linoleic acid test. The essential oil of Citrus jambhiri Lush inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid by 54.98 % and that of Citrus reticulata Blanco inhibited by 49.98 %. Moreover, the essential oils also showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms. (author)

47

Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2) and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed. PMID:22735135

Martins, M L; Marchiori, N; Roumbedakis, K; Lami, F

2012-05-01

48

Utilization of chemically modified citrus reticulata peels for biosorptive removal of acid yellow-73 dye from water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Textile effluents contain several varieties of natural and synthetic dyes, which are non-biodegradable. Acid Yellow-73 is one of them. In this research work, adsorptive removal of this dye was investigated using chemically modified Citrus reticulata peels, in batch mode. It was noted that adsorption of dye on Citrus reticulata peels increased by increasing contact time and decreased in basic pH conditions. Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal models were followed by equilibrium data, but the first isotherm fitted the data better, showing that chemisorption occurred more as compared to physiosorption, showing maximum adsorption capacity 96.46 mg.g-1.L-1. The thermodynamic study showed that adsorption of Acid Yellow-73 on chemically modified Citrus reticulata peels was favorable in nature, following pseudo-second order kinetics. (author)

49

Copper removal from aqueous solution by marine green alga Ulva reticulata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The batch removal of copper (II) ions from aqueous solution under different experimental conditions using Ulva reticulata was investigated in this study. The copper (II) uptake was dependent on initial pH and initial copper concentration, with pH 5.5 being the optimum value. The equilibrium data wer [...] e fitted using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model, with the maximum copper (II) uptake of 74.63 mg/g determined at a pH of 5.5. The Freundlich model regression resulted in high correlation coefficients and the model parameters were largely dependent on initial solution pH. At various initial copper (II) concentrations (250 to 1000 mg/L), sorption equilibrium was attained between 30 and 120 min. The copper (II) uptake by U. reticulata was best described by Pseudo-second order rate model and the rate constant, the initial sorption rate and the equilibrium sorption capacity were also reported. The elution efficiency for copper-desorption from U. reticulata was determined for 0.1 M HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 and CaCl2 at various Solid-to-Liquid ratios (S/L). The solution CaCl2 (0.1 M) in HCl at pH 3 was chosen to be the most suitable copper-desorbing agent. The biomass was also employed in three sorption-desorption cycles with 0.1 M CaCl2 (in HCl, pH 3) as the elutant.

Kuppusamy, Vijayaraghavan; Joseph, Raj Jegan; Kandasamy, Palanivelu; Manickam, Velan.

2004-04-15

50

Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd, Hop stunt viroid (HSVd and Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III isolated from a single natural infected Citrus reticulata var. Clementine tree growing in a tree nursery in Manouba (near Tunis Capital. We describe the sequence variability of these viroids from their natural host without using an alternative passage by an indicator host or an artificial inoculation. This work confirms that naturally occurring viroid infections contain a mixture of sequence variants. These are the first sequences of citrus viroids from Africa.

Amine Elleuch

2006-01-01

51

Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III) isolated from a single natural infected Citrus reticulata var. Clementine tree growing in a tree nursery in Manouba [...] (near Tunis Capital). We describe the sequence variability of these viroids from their natural host without using an alternative passage by an indicator host or an artificial inoculation. This work confirms that naturally occurring viroid infections contain a mixture of sequence variants. These are the first sequences of citrus viroids from Africa.

Amine, Elleuch; Fattouma Djilani, Khouaja; Imen, Hamdi; Nabiha, Bsais; Jean-Pierre, Perreault; Mohamed, Marrakchi; Hatem, Fakhfakh.

52

Efficacy of Citrus reticulata and Mirazid in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid, as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for different cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase; acid phosphatase (AP and 5'- nucleotidase. Liver function enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST; alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were also estimated. Parasitological studies through ova count and worm burden will also be taken into consideration. The results showed a marked reduction in SDH, LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities and a significant increase in G-6-Pase, AP, 5'- nucleotidase, and ALP after S. mansoni infection. A noticeable alteration in LDH subunits were also noticed. Treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all the previous enzyme activities with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden.

Manal A Hamed

2005-11-01

53

Efficacy of Citrus reticulata and Mirazid in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid), as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for di [...] fferent cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH); lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase); acid phosphatase (AP) and 5'- nucleotidase. Liver function enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST); alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also estimated. Parasitological studies through ova count and worm burden will also be taken into consideration. The results showed a marked reduction in SDH, LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities and a significant increase in G-6-Pase, AP, 5'- nucleotidase, and ALP after S. mansoni infection. A noticeable alteration in LDH subunits were also noticed. Treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all the previous enzyme activities with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden.

Manal A, Hamed; Mona H, Hetta.

2005-11-01

54

Effect of Agrobacterium culture and inoculation density on transformation efficiency of a citrange (Citrus reticulata x Poncirus trifoliata).  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of Agrobacterium growth phase and density on transformation of citrus rootstock US-812 (Citrus reticulata x Poncirus trifoliata) epicotyl explants was determined. In the first experiment, Agrobacterium EHA105 containing pBINGUSint was grown in YEP medium to an OD600 of 1 and glycerol sto...

55

Biometria de frutos e sementes e germinação de Plathymenia reticulata benth. e Plathymenia foliolosa benth. (Fabaceae - mimosoideae) / Biometry of fruits and seeds and germination of Plathymenia reticulata benth. and Plathymenia foliolosa benth. (Fabaceae - mimosoideae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo objetivou comparar características biométricas de frutos e sementes e o efeito de diferentes escarificações, temperaturas e luz na germinação de Plathymenia reticulata Benth. e Plathymenia foliolosa Benth. Foram registrados comprimento, largura, espessura, massa da matéria seca e fresca [...] de frutos (n = 100) e sementes (n = 100) de cada espécie. Os diferentes tratamentos foram escarificações mecânica e química e temperaturas (fotoperíodo/nictoperíodo) de 20, 30 e 35/15 °C (12/12 e 0/24) e 25 e 35 °C (12/12). Os frutos de P. foliolosa mostraram-se mais largos, espessos e pesados e as sementes, mais compridas e espessas do que as de P. reticulata. As sementes de ambas as espécies não apresentaram fotoblastismo. A escarificação ácida não aumentou significativamente a germinabilidade das sementes em relação ao grupo-controle, enquanto a escarificação mecânica incrementou significativamente a germinabilidade apenas de P. foliolosa. As germinabilidades a 25 °C das sementes de P. reticulata intactas, escarificadas com ácido e lixa foram, respectivamente, de 55%, 60% e 89%. Para as sementes de P. foliolosa esses valores foram 48%, 37,5% e 83%, respectivamente.Esses resultados apontam limitações na germinação de P. foliolosa impostas pelo tegumento, entretanto o efeito deste restringindo a germinação das sementes intactas decresceu com a elevação da temperatura. Abstract in english This study aimed to compare the biometry of fruits and seeds, as well as the effect of different scarification, temperature and light conditions on the germination of Plathymenia reticulata Benth. and Plathymenia foliolosa Benth. We measured the length, width, thickness, and fresh mass of fruits (n= [...] 100) and seeds (n= 100) of each specie. The different treatments were mechanic and acid scarification, temperatures (photoperiod/nictoperiod) of 20, 30 and 35/15 °C (12/12 and 0/24) and 25 and 35 °C (12/12). P. foliolosa fruits were wider, thickener and heavier. Its seeds are longer and thicker than those of P. reticulata. Seeds of both species were not photosensitive. Acid scarification did not increase significantly the percentage of seed germination of both species, but mechanic scarification increased significantly the percentage of seed germination for P. foliolosa. The percentage of germination at 25 °C of intact seeds of P. reticulata, scarified with acid and with sandpaper was, respectively, 55%, 60% and 89%. For seeds of P. foliolosa values obtained were, respectively, 48%, 37.5% and 83%. These results indicate limitations of germination of P. foliolosa imposed by the tegument but the effect of tegument restringing the germination of intact seeds decrease with the increase of temperature.

Renata de Melo Ferreira, Lopes; Valéria Lúcia de Oliveira, Freitas; José Pires de, Lemos Filho.

2010-10-01

56

Cryptococcus gattii VGII in a Plathymenia reticulata hollow in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the ecology of agents of cryptococcosis in Mato Grosso, without any data regarding to the sources of both agents in the environment. This study aimed to investigate Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans associated with decay in tree hollows within the urban area of three different cities of Mato Grosso. Seventy-two environmental samples collected from 72 living trees in the cities of Cuiabá, Várzea Grande and Chapada dos Guimarães were sampled and analysed. One tree (Plathymenia reticulata, Leguminosae) in the city of Cuiabá yielded 19 colonies identified as C. gattii molecular type VGII. The isolation of C. gattii VGII in the downtown city of Cuiabá is important because it fits in the Northern Macroregion, suggesting expanding and urbanisation of this genotype in different Brazilian cities. PMID:24612138

Anzai, Mariana Caselli; Lazéra, Márcia Dos Santos; Wanke, Bodo; Trilles, Luciana; Dutra, Valéria; de Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus; Nakazato, Luciano; Takahara, Doracilde Terumi; Simi, Walquirya Borges; Hahn, Rosane Christine

2014-07-01

57

Environmental and physiological conditions affecting Tetrahymena sp. infection in guppies, Poecilia reticulata Peters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasitic infections caused by Tetrahymena sp. constitute a serious problem in guppies, Poecilia reticulata. Tetrahymena was isolated from skin lesions of naturally infected guppies in a commercial aquaculture farm, cultured in vitro and used in subsequent experimental infections. In addition to guppies, angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare, platyfish, Xiphophorus maculates, and neontetra, Paracheirodon innesi, were susceptible, whereas tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus xO. aureus) was resistant. The ciliate had a high affinity for dead fish. Skin abrasion did not affect the infection, but fish with gas bubble disease exhibited a significantly higher infection than non-affected fish. Infection was significantly higher when fish were exposed to high levels of ammonia, high organic load and low water temperatures. Under shipment conditions, infection was significantly elevated. Full recovery was achieved at a low fish density. Results suggest that poor environmental and physiological conditions enhance infection with Tetrahymena sp. PMID:16266327

Pimenta Leibowitz, M; Ariav, R; Zilberg, D

2005-09-01

58

DETAILED COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA LINN. AND ANNONA RETICULATA LINN. LEAVES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Annona squamosa Linn. and Annona reticulata Linn. are locally known as Sitaphala and Ramphala respectively both belongs to family Annonaceae. Leaves of both are used in various diseases like suppurant, toothache, anthelmintic commonly. Individually A. squamosa is used in anti diabetic, antispasmodic, dandruff and A. reticulate is used in flatulence and toothache. Till date there is no scientific comparative study has been reported. Pharmacognostical study of A. squamosa shows lysogenous cavity and sparse trichome where as, A. reticulate shows multicellular trichomes filled with tannin and stone cells. The powder characters of A. squamosa are stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate whereas A. reticulate shows pitted stones cells and micro rosettes crystals of calcium oxalate. Annular vessels, lysogenous cavity and paracytic stomata are common characters observed in both the leaves.

Jani Switu

2012-10-01

59

Antipodal Crambescin A2 Homologues from the Marine Sponge Pseudaxinella reticulata. Antifungal Structure-Activity Relationships.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigation of antifungal natural products from the marine sponge Pseudaxinella reticulata from the Bahamas led to the discovery of new crambescin homologues (1, 2) and enantiomers (3, 4) of known natural products. The cyclic-guanidine structures were solved through analysis of 2D NMR, MS-MS, and CD data. The absolute configurations of 1-4 were established as 13R-opposite of known homologues reported from Crambe crambe obtained from the Mediterranean Sea-by comparison of their CD spectra with predicted Cotton effects obtained from DFT calculations. Antifungal activities of 1-4 against the pathogenic strains Candida albicans and Cryptococcus sp. were observed to correlate potency (MIC50 and MIC90) with the length of the alkyl side chain. PMID:25738226

Jamison, Matthew T; Molinski, Tadeusz F

2015-03-27

60

Acute toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin to guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Pallas, 1859).  

Science.gov (United States)

Alpha-cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control pests in domestic, industrial and agricultural situations. Adult male guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata standard test species) were selected for the bioassay experiments. The experiments were performed in four series and the 96-h LC50 value was determined for guppies. The acute toxicity experiments were carried out by static method and behavioral changes in guppies were determined for each alpha-cypermethrin (98% technical grade) concentration. Data obtained from the alpha-cypermethrin investigation were evaluated by the use of probit analysis statistical method and the 96-h LC50 value for guppy was estimated as 9.43 microg/l. PMID:15184001

Yilmaz, Mehmet; Gül, Ali; Erba?li, Kazim

2004-07-01

61

Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Essential Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (PCR essential oil obtained using an improved Clevenger type apparatus were studied. Among the five different PCRs examined the highest yield of essential oil was found in Chachi 2004 (harvested and stored in 2004 and the lowest in Chachi 2008 (harvested and stored in 2008. Fifty three different volatile compounds were determined, including terpenic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters. D-limonene, one of terpenes, was the major constituent in PCR. The antioxidant capacity of PCR essential oil varied considerably with the duration of storage time, and the oil from Chachi 1994 has the strongest ferric-reducing antioxidant power. In addition, the essential oil possessed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, except Streptococcus faecalis, while had no effect on Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae.

Bei Gao

2011-05-01

62

Successful management of acute-onset torticollis in a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2-yr-old male reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) presented with severe midcervical segmental torticollis upon arrival as an incoming shipment. Despite initial medical management, the giraffe developed marked neck sensitivity, focal muscle spasms, and decreased cervical range of motion. Using operant conditioning to assist patient positioning and tolerance to cervical manipulation, a series of manually applied chiropractic treatments were applied to the affected cervical vertebrae in an effort to restore normal cervical mobility. Laser therapy and cervical range of motion exercises were also used to reduce cervical muscle hypertonicity. The combined application of these nontraditional therapies produced marked clinical improvement. This case highlights the potential benefits of combining traditional medical management with chiropractic treatment and physical therapy techniques for management of severe acute-onset torticollis in a giraffe. PMID:23505724

Dadone, Liza I; Haussler, Kevin K; Brown, Greg; Marsden, Melanie; Gaynor, James; Johnston, Matthew S; Garelle, Della

2013-03-01

63

Development and Characterization of Somatic Hybrids of Ulva reticulata Forsskål (×) Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.)Doty  

Science.gov (United States)

Ulvophycean species with diverse trait characteristics provide an opportunity to create novel allelic recombinant variants. The present study reports the development of seaweed variants with improved agronomic traits through protoplast fusion between Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.) Doty and Ulva reticulata Forsskål. A total of 12 putative hybrids were screened based on the variations in morphology and total DNA content over the fusion partners. DNA-fingerprinting by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis confirmed genomic introgression in the hybrids. The DNA fingerprint revealed sharing of parental alleles in regenerated hybrids and a few alleles that were unique to hybrids. The epigenetic variations in hybrids estimated in terms of DNA methylation polymorphism also revealed sharing of methylation loci with both the fusion partners. The functional trait analysis for growth showed a hybrid with heterotic trait (DGR% = 36.7 ± 1.55%) over the fusion partners U. reticulata (33.2 ± 2.6%) and M. oxyspermum (17.8 ± 1.77%), while others were superior to the mid-parental value (25.2 ± 2.2%) (p < 0.05). The fatty acid (FA) analysis of hybrids showed notable variations over fusion partners. Most hybrids showed increased polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) compared to saturated FAs (SFAs) and mainly includes the nutritionally important linoleic acid, ?-linolenic acid, oleic acid, stearidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. The other differences observed include superior cellulose content and antioxidative potential in hybrids over fusion partners. The hybrid varieties with superior traits developed in this study unequivocally demonstrate the significance of protoplast fusion technique in developing improved varients of macroalgae. PMID:25688248

Gupta, Vishal; Kumari, Puja; Reddy, CRK

2015-01-01

64

Development and Characterization of Somatic Hybrids of Ulva reticulata Forsskål (×) Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.)Doty.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ulvophycean species with diverse trait characteristics provide an opportunity to create novel allelic recombinant variants. The present study reports the development of seaweed variants with improved agronomic traits through protoplast fusion between Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.) Doty and Ulva reticulata Forsskål. A total of 12 putative hybrids were screened based on the variations in morphology and total DNA content over the fusion partners. DNA-fingerprinting by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis confirmed genomic introgression in the hybrids. The DNA fingerprint revealed sharing of parental alleles in regenerated hybrids and a few alleles that were unique to hybrids. The epigenetic variations in hybrids estimated in terms of DNA methylation polymorphism also revealed sharing of methylation loci with both the fusion partners. The functional trait analysis for growth showed a hybrid with heterotic trait (DGR% = 36.7 ± 1.55%) over the fusion partners U. reticulata (33.2 ± 2.6%) and M. oxyspermum (17.8 ± 1.77%), while others were superior to the mid-parental value (25.2 ± 2.2%) (p < 0.05). The fatty acid (FA) analysis of hybrids showed notable variations over fusion partners. Most hybrids showed increased polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) compared to saturated FAs (SFAs) and mainly includes the nutritionally important linoleic acid, ?-linolenic acid, oleic acid, stearidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. The other differences observed include superior cellulose content and antioxidative potential in hybrids over fusion partners. The hybrid varieties with superior traits developed in this study unequivocally demonstrate the significance of protoplast fusion technique in developing improved varients of macroalgae. PMID:25688248

Gupta, Vishal; Kumari, Puja; Reddy, Crk

2015-01-01

65

Flutuação populacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton em Citrus deliciosa e no híbrido Murcott Citrus sinensis x Citrus reticulata Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton population fluctuation in Citrus deliciosa and Murcott hybrid Citrus sinensis x Citrus reticulata  

OpenAIRE

O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a dinâmica populacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), o minador-dos-citros, em pomares de tangerineira Citrus deliciosa Tenore variedade Montenegrina e de tangoreiro híbrido "Murcott" Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck X Citrus reticulata Blanco, com manejo orgânico, em Montenegro (29° 68'S e 51° 46'O), Rio Grande do Sul. Foram realizadas amostragens quinzenais de julho de 2001 a junho de 2003. Os brotos coletados fo...

Cristiane Ramos de Jesus; Luiza Rodrigues Redaelli; Fábio Kessler Dal Soglio

2008-01-01

66

Study on the volatile oil contents of Annona glabra L., Annona squamosa L., Annona muricata L. and Annona reticulata L., from Vietnam.  

Science.gov (United States)

The volatile compounds identified from four species of Annona from Vietnam are being reported. The oils were obtained from aliquots of plant samples by steam distillation and subjected to GC and GC-MS analysis. The main compounds of Annona glabra L., were ?-caryophyllene (21.5%) germacrene D (17.7%), ?-cadinol (5.4%) and ?-elemene (5.2%). Annona squamosa L., comprised mainly of ?-pinene (1.0-11.9%), limonene (0.8-11.7%), ?-cubebene (0.5-13.0%), ?-caryophyllene (11.6-24.5%), spathulenol (0.8-9.0%), caryophyllene oxide (1.0-10.6%) and ?-cadinol (3.3-7.8%). The significant constituents of Annona muricata L., were ?-pinene (9.4%), ?-pinene (20.6%), ?-mentha-2,4(8)-diene (9.8%), ?-elemene (9.1%) and germacrene D (18.1%). However, camphene (0.2-6.6%), ?-copaene (2.0-7.3%), ?-elemene (5.9-16.6%), ?-caryophyllene (8.3-14.9%), ?-bisabolene (0.4-10.2%), ?-cadinene (1.7-4.8%) and germacrene D (9.3-22.8%) were the main compounds common to samples of Annona reticulata L. There were significant amounts of sabinene (11.2% and 2.7%; leaf and stem bark) and bicycloelemene (9.6% and 6.1%; stem and bark). PMID:22989376

Thang, T D; Dai, D N; Hoi, T M; Ogunwande, I A

2013-01-01

67

Heat shock transcription factors expression during fruit development and under hot air stress in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) play a role in plant responses to stress. Citrus is an economically important fruit whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed characterization of the Hsf gene family is available for citrus. A genome-wide analysis was carried out in Citrus clementina to identify Hsf genes, named CcHsfs. Eighteen CcHsfs were identified and classified into three main clades (clades A, B and C) according to the structural characteristics and the phylogenetic comparison with Arabidopsis and tomato. MEME motif analysis highlighted the conserved DBD and HR-A/B domains, which were similar to Hsf protein structures in other species. Gene expression analysis in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit identified 14 Hsf genes, named CrHsf, as important candidates for a role in fruit development and ripening, and showed seven genes to be expressed in response to hot air stress. CrHsfB2a and CrHsfB5 were considered to be important regulators of citrate content and showed variation in both developmentally-related and hot air-triggered citrate degradation processes. In summary, the data obtained from this investigation provides the basis for further study to dissect Hsf function during fruit development as well as in response to heat stress and also emphasizes the potential importance of CrHsfs in regulation of citrate metabolism in citrus fruit. PMID:25596345

Lin, Qiong; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Wang, Dengliang; Li, Shaojia; Liu, Chunrong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

2015-04-01

68

Isolation, characterization and antifungal activity of major constituents of the Himalayan lichen Parmelia reticulata Tayl.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antifungal activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Parmelia reticulata was evaluated against soilborne pathogenic fungi, namely, Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, R. bataticola, Fusarium udum, Pythium aphanidermatum and P. debaryanum by poisoned food technique. Maximum antifungal activity was exhibited by hexane and ethyl acetate extracts against most of the test pathogens. Secondary metabolites, namely, (±)-isousnic acid, (±)-protolichesterinic acid, atranorin, evernyl, ethyl hematommate, ethyl orsellinate, methyl hematommate (3-formyl-2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoic acid methyl ester), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3,6-dimethylbenzoic acid, 1-hydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy-8-methyl-xanthen-9-one, baeomycesic acid and salazinic acid, were isolated from the above extracts and identified by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopic methods. When these metabolites were tested for antifungal activity against test pathogens, maximum antifungal activity was exhibited by (±)-protolichesterinic acid against R. solani (ED50=23.09 ?g mL(-1)) and P. debaryanum (ED50=16.07 ?g mL(-1)) and by atranorin against S. rolfsii (ED50=39.70 ?g mL(-1)). The antifungal activity of protolichesterinic acid was found to be comparable to that of hexaconazole, a commercial fungicide. PMID:21351753

Goel, Mayurika; Dureja, Prem; Rani, Archna; Uniyal, Prem L; Laatsch, Hartmut

2011-03-23

69

Crescimento de frutos da tangerineira 'Poncã' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) / Fruit gowth of 'Ponkan' mandarin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de frutos da tangerineira Poncã, desde o pegamento até a colheita dos frutos, em Viçosa - Minas Gerais. O desenvolvimento do fruto seguiu uma curva do tipo sigmóide simples, sendo a fase I compreendida da antese até o 85º dia ap [...] ós o pleno florescimento, com um período de transição na fase II, que foi até o 101º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase II teve início logo após a fase de transição, prolongando-se até o 251º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase III, de amadurecimento do fruto, iniciou-se no 251º dia após o pleno florescimento e prolongou-se até a colheita dos frutos, a qual foi realizada no 276º dia após o pleno florescimento. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit development of Ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Fruit development followed a simple sigmoid curve, with phase I extending from anthesis to the 85th day after full flowering, with a transition period to phase II that lasted up to the 101 [...] st day after full flowering. Phase II began soon after the transition phase, extending up to the 251st day after full flowering. Phase III, fruit ripening, began at the 251st day after full flowering and it was prolonged until harvest, which was carried out at the 276th day after full flowering.

Marlon Dutra Degli, Esposti; Dalmo Lopes de, Siqueira; Paulo Roberto, Cecon.

2008-09-01

70

Parasites pitched against nature: Pitch Lake water protects guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from microbial and gyrodactylid infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY The enemy release hypothesis proposes that in parasite depleted habitats, populations will experience relaxed selection and become more susceptible (or less tolerant) to pathogenic infections. Here, we focus on a population of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) that are found in an extreme environment (the Pitch Lake, Trinidad) and examine whether this habitat represents a refuge from parasites. We investigated the efficacy of pitch in preventing microbial infections in Pitch Lake guppies, by exposing them to dechlorinated water, and reducing gyrodactylid infections on non-Pitch Lake guppies by transferring them to Pitch Lake water. We show that (i) natural prevalence of ectoparasites in the Pitch Lake is low compared to reference populations, (ii) Pitch Lake guppies transferred into aquarium water develop microbial infections, and (iii) experimentally infected guppies are cured of their gyrodactylid infections both by natural Pitch Lake water and by dechlorinated water containing solid pitch. These results indicate a role for Pitch Lake water in the defence of guppies from their parasites and suggest that Pitch Lake guppies might have undergone enemy release in this extreme environment. The Pitch Lake provides an ideal ecosystem for studies on immune gene evolution in the absence of parasites and long-term evolutionary implications of hydrocarbon pollution for vertebrates. PMID:22831751

Schelkle, Bettina; Mohammed, Ryan S; Coogan, Michael P; McMullan, Mark; Gillingham, Emma L; VAN Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Joanne

2012-11-01

71

Selection by parasites in spate conditions in wild Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Gyrodactylids are ubiquitous fish parasites and yet, with the notable exception of Gyrodactylus salaris, few studies have reported the effect of these parasites on host survival in natural populations. Here, we assess the impact of the parasite load of gyrodactylids (G. turnbulli and G. bullatarudis) on the survival and migration of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in their natural habitat of the Aripo River in Trinidad. The recapture rate of males declined by 19% with every additional parasite, a remarkably high figure given that the parasite load in this study ranged from zero to 20 worms. In addition, with an increased number of parasites, males were more prone to be recovered downstream. In contrast, no effect of parasitism was observed in females. The mean parasite load sharply declined after a series of flushing events during heavy seasonal downpours. The parasite load varied significantly between fish depending on their location in the river, and the size of the fish explained variation in parasite load between individuals. The present study indicates that tropical gyrodactylid parasites can play an important role in the ecology of natural fish populations, causing intense bouts of natural selection in guppies during heavy rains in the wet season. PMID:17307185

van Oosterhout, C; Mohammed, R S; Hansen, H; Archard, G A; McMullan, M; Weese, D J; Cable, J

2007-06-01

72

Investigation of LC50, NOEC and LOEC of Glyphosate, Deltamethrin and Pretilachlor in Guppies (Poecilia Reticulata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The presence of pesticides is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran. These toxic substances may accumulate in the food chain and cause serious ecological and health problems. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor as potential dangerous organic pesticides to assess lethal effects of these chemicals agents to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata. Methods: Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate (41% (0, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 25 ppm, deltamethrin (2.5% (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.10 and 0.30 ppm and pretilachlor (50% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm for 96 h and cumulative mortality of the guppies was calculated with 24 h intervals. Results: LC50-96h was 12.01±1.00, 0.08±0.47 and 8.24±0.42 for glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor respectively. The very low LC50 obtained for glyphosate (12.01±1.00 ppm, deltamethrin (0.08±0.47 ppm and pretilachlor (8.24±0.42 ppm indicate that glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor are highly toxic to guppies. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that deltamethrin and glyphosate had the lowest and highest rate of mortality on the guppy respectively.

Ali Sadeghi

2014-09-01

73

Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

2013-02-01

74

Asymmetric reduction of ketones by biocatalysis using clementine mandarin (Citrus reticulata) fruit grown in Annaba or by ruthenium catalysis for access to both enantiomers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biocatalytic reduction of prochiral ketones using freshly ripened clementine mandarin (Citrus reticulata) in aqueous medium is reported. High enantioselectivities were observed, especially for the bioreduction of indanone , tetralone , and thiochromanone with respectively 95%, 99%, and 86% enantiomeric excess (ee). Enantioselective bio- and metal-catalyzed reactions were compared. Chiral ruthenium catalysts afforded good asymmetric inductions (>75% ee) in most cases, enantiomeric excesses depending on the nature of substrate and ligand. N-aminoindanol prolinamide was revealed as the best ligand for most ketones. Interestingly, for several substrates both enantiomers could be obtained using either Citrus reticulata or ruthenium complex. PMID:25482318

Bennamane, Manhel; Zeror, Saoussen; Aribi-Zouioueche, Louisa

2015-03-01

75

Cysteine proteases and acid phosphatases contribute to Tetrahymena spp. pathogenicity in guppies, Poecilia reticulata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Systemic tetrahymenosis caused by the protozoan parasite Tetrahymena spp. is a serious problem in guppy (Poecilia reticulata) farms worldwide. There is no therapeutic solution for the systemic form of this disease. Guppies severely infected with Tetrahymena spp. were imported by a commercial ornamental fish farm and brought to our laboratory. Tetrahymena sp. (Tet-NI) was isolated and in vitro cultured. Isolates maintained in culture for different time periods (as reflected by different numbers of passages in culture) were analyzed-Tet-NI 1, 4, 5 and 6, with Tet-NI 1 being cultured for the longest period (about 15 months, 54 passages) and Tet-NI 6 for the shortest (2.5 months, 10 passages). Controlled internal infection was successfully achieved by IP injection with most isolates, except for Tet-NI 1 which produced no infection. The isolate Tet-NI 6 induced the highest infection rates in internal organs (80% vs. 50% and 64% for Tet-NI 4 and 5, respectively) and mortality rates (67% vs. 20% and 27% for Tet-NI 4 and 5, respectively, and 6.7% for Tet-NI 1). The correlation between pathogenicity and Tetrahymena enzymatic activity was studied. Electrophoretic analyses revealed at least two bands of gelanolytic activity in Tet-NI 4 and 5, three bands in Tet-NI 6, and no activity in Tet-NI 1. Total inhibition of gelanolytic activity was observed after pretreatment of Tet-NI 6 with E-64, a highly selective cysteine protease inhibitor. Using hemoglobin as a substrate, Tet-NI 6 had two bands of proteolytic activity and no bands were observed in Tet-NI 1. A correlation was observed between pathogenicity and acid phosphatase activities (analyzed by commercial fluorescence kit) for Tet-NI 1 and Tet-NI 6. PMID:19720465

Leibowitz, M Pimenta; Ofir, R; Golan-Goldhirsh, A; Zilberg, D

2009-12-01

76

Levodopa enhances synaptic plasticity in the substantia nigra pars reticulata of Parkinson's disease patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parkinson's disease, caused by the loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal projections, is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease characterized by bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor and postural instability. The dopamine precursor levodopa (L-dopa) is the most effective treatment for the amelioration of Parkinson's disease signs and symptoms, but long-term administration can lead to disabling motor fluctuations and L-dopa -induced dyskinesias (LIDs). Studies in rat striatal slices have shown dopamine to be an essential component of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity at the input to the basal ganglia, but dopamine is also released from ventrally projecting dendrites of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) on the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), a major output structure of the basal ganglia. We characterized synaptic plasticity in the SNr using field potentials evoked with a nearby microelectrode (fEPs), in 18 Parkinson's disease patients undergoing implantation of deep brain stimulating (DBS) electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). High frequency stimulation (HFS--four trains of 2 s at 100 Hz) in the SNr failed to induce a lasting change in test fEPs (1 Hz) amplitudes in patients OFF medication (decayed to baseline by 160 s). Following oral L-dopa administration, HFS induced a potentiation of the fEP amplitudes (+29.3% of baseline at 160 s following a plateau). Our findings suggest that extrastriatal dopamine modulates activity-dependent synaptic plasticity at basal ganglia output neurons. Dopamine medication state clearly impacts fEP amplitude, and the lasting nature of the increase is reminiscent of LTP-like changes, indicating that aberrant synaptic plasticity may play a role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. PMID:19050033

Prescott, I A; Dostrovsky, J O; Moro, E; Hodaie, M; Lozano, A M; Hutchison, W D

2009-02-01

77

Triacylglyceride, antioxidant and antimicrobial features of virgin Camellia oleifera, C. reticulata and C. sasanqua Oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Virgin oils obtained from seeds of Camellia oleifera (CO), Camellia reticulata (CR) and Camellia sasanqua (CS) were studied for their triacylglyceride composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Levels of fatty acids determined by ¹H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis were similar to those reported for olive oils (82.30%-84.47%; 5.69%-7.78%; 0.26%-0.41% and 8.04%-11.2%, for oleic, linoleic, linolenic and saturated acids, respectively). The CR oil showed the best antioxidant potential in the three in vitro models tested. With regard to EC?? values (µg/mL), the order in DPPH radical-scavenging was CR (33.48) < CO (35.20) < CS (54.87). Effectiveness in reducing power was CR (2.81) < CO (3.09) < CS (5.32). IC?? for LPO inhibition were 0.37, 0.52 and 0.75 µg/mL for CR, CO and CS, respectively. All the oils showed antimicrobial activity, and exhibited different selectivity and MICs for each microorganism tested (E. coli, B. cereus and C. albicans). B. cereus was the less sensitive species (MIC: 52.083 ± 18.042 for CO; 41.667 ± 18.042 for CR; 104.167 ± 36.084 for CS mg/mL) and the E. coli was the most sensitive to camellia oil's effect. The standard gentamicin presented higher MIC for E. coli (4.2) than the CR (MIC= 2.6) and CO (MIC = 3.9) oils. PMID:23599015

Feás, Xesús; Estevinho, Leticia M; Salinero, Carmen; Vela, Pilar; Sainz, María J; Vázquez-Tato, María Pilar; Seijas, Julio A

2013-01-01

78

Triacylglyceride, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Features of Virgin Camellia oleifera, C. reticulata and C. sasanqua Oils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Virgin oils obtained from seeds of Camellia oleifera (CO, Camellia reticulata (CR and Camellia sasanqua (CS were studied for their triacylglyceride composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Levels of fatty acids determined by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis were similar to those reported for olive oils (82.30%–84.47%; 5.69%–7.78%; 0.26%–0.41% and 8.04%–11.2%, for oleic, linoleic, linolenic and saturated acids, respectively. The CR oil showed the best antioxidant potential in the three in vitro models tested. With regard to EC50 values (µg/mL, the order in DPPH radical-scavenging was CR (33.48 < CO (35.20 < CS (54.87. Effectiveness in reducing power was CR (2.81 < CO (3.09 < CS (5.32. IC50 for LPO inhibition were 0.37, 0.52 and 0.75 µg/mL for CR, CO and CS, respectively. All the oils showed antimicrobial activity, and exhibited different selectivity and MICs for each microorganism tested (E. coli, B. cereus and C. albicans. B. cereus was the less sensitive species (MIC: 52.083 ± 18.042 for CO; 41.667 ± 18.042 for CR; 104.167 ± 36.084 for CS mg/mL and the E. coli was the most sensitive to camellia oil’s effect. The standard gentamicin presented higher MIC for E. coli (4.2 than the CR (MIC= 2.6 and CO (MIC = 3.9 oils.

María Pilar Vázquez-Tato

2013-04-01

79

[Analgesic activity of different nonvolatile extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta Tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire].  

Science.gov (United States)

Different extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire contain mainly secondary metabolites with iridoïd lactonic and glucosidic type, also with triterpine lupan type.The aerial part of each species is crushed, then extracted in methanol by cold maceration, called global extracts. The global extracts will be extracted through various solvents: initially by hexane, then by dichloromethane, after that by ethyl acetate and at the end by buthanol. Each one of the obtained extracts will be used for the following trials: i) Tail flick trial on the rat for central morphine-like analgesic activity; ii) Koster trial on the mouse for peripheral analgesic activity. The evaluation of the central and peripheral analgesic activities for the pre-cited extracts was realized after optimal doses determination of the global extracts activities for both species.The peripheral analgesic activity test on the mouse showed that, for 60 mg/kg intra peritoneum (IP), the hexanic, dichloromethanic, ethyl acetate and butanic extracts have a protection power against abdominal cramp respectively around 89.78%, 81.73%, 70.9% et 69.05% for Nepeta atlantica Ball, and around 89.16%, 82.98%, 71.52% et 70.27% for Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata.Central morphine-like analgesic activity on the rat showed that, for both spices under 60 mg/kg IP, the central analgesic activity effect is significantly for two extracts only: dichloromethane and ethyl acetate. PMID:18937913

Bouidida, El Houcine; Alaoui, Katim; Cherrah, Yahia; Chammache, Malika; Il Idrissi, Abdelkader

2008-01-01

80

Opposite selection on behavioural types by active and passive fishing gears in a simulated guppy Poecilia reticulata fishery.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed whether fishing gear was selective on behavioural traits, such as boldness and activity, and how this was related with a productivity trait, growth. Female guppies Poecilia reticulata were screened for their behaviour on the shy-bold axis and activity, and then tested whether they were captured differently by passive and active fishing gear, here represented by a trap and a trawl. Both gears were selective on boldness; bold individuals were caught faster by the trap, but escaped the trawl more often. Boldness and gear vulnerability showed weak correlations with activity and growth. The results draw attention to the importance of the behavioural dimension of fishing: selective fishing on behavioural traits will change the trait composition of the population, and might eventually affect resilience and fishery productivity. PMID:25619538

Diaz Pauli, B; Wiech, M; Heino, M; Utne-Palm, A C

2015-03-01

81

Citrus Essential Oil of Nigeria Part IV: Volatile Constituents of Leaf Oils of Mandarins (Citrus Reticulata Blanco From Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chemical composition of hydrodistilled oils obtained from the leaves of six Citrus reticulata Blanco (mandarin cultivars grown in Nigeria were examined by GC and GC/MS, the result of their chemical composition were further submitted to cluster analysis. Fifty seven constituents were characterized accounting for 88.2 - 96.7% of the total oils. Sabinene, g -terpinene, P-cymene, d -3-carene and (E- b -ocimene were observed in great variability in all the oils. Other constituents include linalool, myrcene, terpinen-4-ol and cis-sabinenehydrate. In addition, limonene, terpinolene, b -pinene, and a -pinene were also detected in appreciable concentrations. b -sinensal and a -sinensal were isolated by preparative GC and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques.

Adeleke A. Kasali

2010-07-01

82

Surgical resolution of an avulsion fracture of the peroneus tertius origin in a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

A 4-mo-old, 185-kg male giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) was presented due to stifle effusion and lameness of 3-wk duration. Radiographs revealed a fracture of the extensor fossa of the lateral trochlear ridge of the femur at the origin of the peroneus tertius. Under anesthesia, dysfunction of the reciprocal apparatus was documented by flexing the stifle while the tarsus remained extended. An avulsion fracture of the origin of the peroneus tertius and extensor digitorum longus muscle was diagnosed. An exploratory arthroscopy of the femorotibial joint was followed by arthrotomy to excise the large bone fragment from its soft tissue attachments. Because of the fractious temperament of the animal, postoperative care was restricted to stall rest for 3 mo, and no postoperative complications arose. Only a mild residual lameness remained by 6 mo after surgery. PMID:22946420

Quesada, Rolando; Citino, Scott B; Easley, Jeremiah T; Hall, Natalie; Brokken, Mathew T; Brown, Murray P

2011-06-01

83

The use of magnetic resonance imaging to better define hoof pathology in the reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

A 22-yr-old bull giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) with severely altered hoof conformation in both forelimbs was presented for necropsy following acute mortality. Due to multiple challenges that prevented safe immobilization, corrective hoof trimming procedures were never performed on this animal. To better define the extent of the damage of the soft tissue structures and bone within the hoof, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system was used to obtain images of these structures. The MRI study found evidence of severe osteolysis, phalangeal fractures of both forelimbs, and tenosynovitis of several tendon sheaths. These findings help demonstrate the impact that hoof overgrowth can have on internal structures within the hoof. By managing hoof problems early in the course of disease and investing in appropriate facilities that make giraffe immobilization safer, morbidity and mortality associated with hoof disease and overgrowth can potentially be reduced. PMID:25314840

Wakeman, Kyle A; Sanchez, Carlos R; Lung, Nancy P; Hersman, Jake; Barrett, Myra F

2014-09-01

84

Control of the subthalamic innervation of substantia nigra pars reticulata by D1 and D2 dopamine receptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of activating dopaminergic D1 and D2 class receptors of the subthalamic projections that innervate the pars reticulata of the subtantia nigra (SNr) were explored in slices of the rat brain using the whole cell patch-clamp technique. Excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) that could be blocked by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxalene-2,3-dione and D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid were evoked onto reticulata GABAergic projection neurons by local field stimulation inside the subthalamic nucleus in the presence of bicuculline. Bath application of (RS)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride (SKF-38393), a dopaminergic D1-class receptor agonist, increased evoked EPSCs by approximately 30% whereas the D2-class receptor agonist, trans-(-)-4aR-4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a,9-octahydro-5-propyl-1H-pyrazolo(3,4-g)quinoline (quinpirole), reduced EPSCs by approximately 25%. These apparently opposing actions were blocked by the specific D1- and D2-class receptor antagonists: R-(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-1H-3-benzazepinehydrochloride (SCH 23390) and S-(-)-5-amino-sulfonyl-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-methyl]-2-methoxybenzamide (sulpiride), respectively. Both effects were accompanied by changes in the paired-pulse ratio, indicative of a presynaptic site of action. The presynaptic location of dopamine receptors at the subthalamonigral projections was confirmed by mean-variance analysis. The effects of both SKF-38393 and quinpirole could be observed on terminals contacting the same postsynaptic neuron. Sulpiride and SCH 23390 enhanced and reduced the evoked EPSC, respectively, suggesting a constitutive receptor activation probably arising from endogenous dopamine. These data suggest that dopamine presynaptically modulates the subthalamic projection that targets GABAergic neurons of the SNr. Implications of this modulation for basal ganglia function are discussed. PMID:16306171

Ibañez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Hernández, Adán; Florán, Benjamin; Galarraga, Elvira; Tapia, Dagoberto; Valdiosera, Rene; Erlij, David; Aceves, Jorge; Bargas, José

2006-03-01

85

Comportamiento de la producción de lima Tahití (Citrus latifolia Tanaka), injertada sobre el patrón de Mandarina Cleopatra (Citrus reticulata Blanco) y la influencia del virus de la tristeza (CTV) en condiciones del piedemonte del Meta, 1997-2008 / Performance of the production of Tahiti lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) grafted on the pattern of Cleopatra Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and the influence of tristeza virus (CTV) under the piedemont of Meta, 1997-2008  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La lima ácida Tahití (Citrus latifolia T) ocupa el tercer lugar dentro de las especies cítricas cultivadas en Colombia. Sus frutos se consumen en el mercado interno y presenta un creciente mercado de exportación. Entre las enfermedades virales que afectan a los cultivos de cítricos el Virus de la Tr [...] isteza de los Cítricos (CTV) es uno de los más limitantes para la producción y longevidad de las plantas en particular en las de lima Tahití. Este estudio se llevó a cabo bajo las condiciones agroecológicas del Centro de Investigación Corpoica La Libertad, en el piedemonte del departamento del Meta. Las plantas utilizadas se injertaron en vivero en 1996 con yemas provenientes de cultivos comerciales utilizándose como patrón la mandarina Cleopatra (Citrus reticulata Blanco). El cultivo se estableció en campo en 1997, ocupando una extensión de una hectárea, con una densidad de 490 plantas ha-1. Para determinar la producción del cultivo se llevaron registros anuales; y para la incidencia y severidad de la (CTV) se realizaron dos lecturas en las plantas, durante el séptimo y onceavo año después del transplante (addt). En el año 2008 (11 addt) se realizó la descripción de la sintomatología del daño ocasionado por la tristeza de los cítricos en la planta y se realizó el registro fotográfico. La producción de la lima Tahití se inicio en el 3 año después del transplante con 4 t/ha y se incremento anualmente hasta presentar el pico de producción en el 8 año con 62 t/ha, posteriormente decrece hasta obtener 2 t/ha en el año 11. La incidencia de CTV en el año 2003 (6 addt) fue de 16.5 % para un total de 80 plantas afectadas y en el 2008 (11 addt) el 100 % de las plantas estaban afectadas (490 plantas) La severidad del CTV, en el año 2003 fue de 29.4 %, mientras que en el 2008 fue del 84 %. Abstract in english Tahiti limes (Citrus latifolia T) is in third place among the citrus species cultivated in Colombia. Its fruits are consumed in the domestic market and has a growing export market. Among the viral diseases affecting citrus crops Virus Citrus Tristeza (CTV) is one of the most limiting for production [...] and longevity of plants especially in Tahiti lime. This study was carried out under the ecological conditions of the Research Center Corpoica La Libertad, in the foothills of the department of Meta. The plants used in the nursery in 1996 grafted with buds from crops used as standard Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco). The crop field was established in 1997, occupying an area of one hectare, with a density of 490 plants ha-1. To determine crop production took annual records, and the incidence and severity of the (CTV) were two readings in plants, during the seventh and eleventh year after transplantation (addt). In 2008 (11 addt) A description of the symptoms of the damage caused by citrus tristeza in the plant and the photographic record was made. The Tahiti lime production started three years after transplantation with 4 t / ha and increased annually to present the peak of production in the eighth year with 62 t/ha, then decreased until 2 t/ha in year 11. The incidence of CTV in 2003 (6 addt) was 16.5 % for a total of 80 affected plants and in 2008 (11 addt) 100 % of plants were affected (490 plants). The severity of CTV, in the 2003 was 29.4 %, while the reading of 2008 was 84 %.

Julio, Quiroga - Cardona; Francy L, Hernández- Parrado; María del Rosario, Silva- Herrera; Javier O., Orduz-Rodríguez.

2010-06-01

86

Crossing-over between Y chromosomes: another possible source of phenotypic variability in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters  

OpenAIRE

Genetic linkage acting through crossing-over between X and X chromosomes, X and Y chromosomes, and autosomal gene recombination are the most important sources of color pattern polymorphisms in animals. Variability in male color patterns and fin morphologies in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing fish is an example of extreme pattern polymorphism. We explored the possibility that crossing-over between Y chromosomes can also contribute to the high degree of pattern polymorphism in gup...

Valentin Petrescu-mag, I.; Bourne, Godfrey R.

2008-01-01

87

Influence of survival time on the lethal body burden of 2,3,4,5-tetrachloroaniline in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lethal body burden (LBB) of 2,3,4,5-tetrachloroaniline in guppy (Poecilia reticulata), exposed for up to 14 days, has been determined at different aqueous concentrations of the test compound. It was found that the LBB is not constant during these 14 days, declining within the first 48 h to an approximately constant value. It is concluded that LBBs of organic compounds may not always be constant and may depend on survival time. PMID:1815366

de Wolf, W; Opperhuizen, A; Seinen, W; Hermens, J L

1991-12-01

88

Effect of juice extraction methods and processing temperature-time on juice quality of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) during storage  

OpenAIRE

Influence of juice extraction methods and pasteurization temperature and time on quality of mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) juice was studied. The experiment consisted of 65 °C pasteurization temperature with 15, 25 and 35 min holding time; 75 °C with 10, 20 and 30 min and 85 °C with 5, 10 and 15 min holding times and two types of juice extraction methods. The experiment was laid out in factorial completely randomized Design with three replications. Juice extracted with screw typ...

Pareek, Sunil; Paliwal, Ravinder; Mukherjee, Subrata

2010-01-01

89

Different neuronal location of (3H)SCH 23390 binding sites in pars reticulata and pars compacta of the substantia nigra in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The precise neuronal localization of D1 receptors in the substantia nigra has been studied autoradiographically in the rat by measuring the alterations of (3H)SCH 23390 binding site densities in this brain area after 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced destruction of nigro-striatal afferents. 6-OHDA-induced nigral lesion provoked a total loss of (3H)SCH 23390 binding sites in the pars lateralis (but not in the pars reticulata) of the substantia nigra. In contrast, ibotenate-induced striatal lesion caused a large diminution of the (3H)ligand binding site density in the pars reticulata but not in the pars compacta and pars lateralis of the substantia nigra. These results suggest that D1 receptors in the pars compacta or pars lateralis of the substantia nigra are located on the dopaminergic perikarya whereas those D1 receptors present in the pars reticulata of the substantia nigra lie on the terminals of nigral afferents of striatal origin. (author)

90

L-type Ca²? channel activity determines modulation of GABA release by dopamine in the substantia nigra reticulata and the globus pallidus of the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modulation of L-type Ca²?-channel function by dopamine is a major determinant of the rate of action potential firing by striatal medium spiny neurons. However, the role of these channels in modulating GABA release by nerve terminals in the basal ganglia is unknown. We found that depolarization-induced [³H]GABA release in both the substantia nigra reticulata and the external globus pallidus (GPe), was depressed by about 50% by either the selective L-channel dihydropyridine blocker nifedipine or the P/Q channel blocker ?-agatoxin TK. The effects of these blockers were additive and together eliminated about 90% of depolarization-induced [³H]GABA release. In addition, in the substantia nigra reticulata, dihydropyridines prevented both the stimulation of [³H]GABA release produced by dopamine D1 receptor activation and the inhibition caused by D4 receptor activation. In the GP nifedipine blocked the effects of D2 and A2(A) receptor coactivation as well as the effects of activating adenylyl cyclase with forskolin. ?-Agatoxin TK did not interfere with the action of these modulatory agents. The L-type Ca²?-channel agonist BAYK 8644 stimulated GABA release in both substantia nigra reticulata and GP. Because dihydropyridine sensitivity is a key criterion to identify L-type Ca²?-channel activity, our results imply that these channels are determinant of GABA release modulation by dopamine in striatonigral, striatopallidal and pallidonigral terminals. PMID:24505607

Recillas-Morales, S; Sánchez-Vega, L; Ochoa-Sánchez, N; Caballero-Florán, I; Paz-Bermúdez, F; Silva, I; Aceves, J; Erlij, D; Florán, B

2014-01-01

91

L-Type Ca(2+) channel activity determines modulation of GABA release by dopamine in the substantia nigra reticulata and the globus pallidus of the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modulation of L-type Ca(2+)-channel function by dopamine is a major determinant of the rate of action potential firing by striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). However, the role of these channels in modulating GABA release by nerve terminals in the basal ganglia is unknown. We found that depolarization induced [(3)H]GABA release in both the substantia nigra reticulata and the external globus pallidus, was depressed by about 50% by either the selective L-channel dihydropiridine blocker nifedipine or the P/Q channel blocker ?-agatoxin TK. The effects of these blockers were additive and together eliminated about 90% of depolarization induced [(3)H]GABA release. In addition, in the substantia nigra reticulata, dihydropyridines prevented both the stimulation of [(3)H]GABA release produced by dopamine D1 receptor activation and the inhibition caused by D4 receptor activation. In the globus pallidus nifedipine blocked the effects of D2 and A2A receptor coactivation as well as the effects of activating adenylyl cyclase with forskolin. ?-agatoxin TK did not interfere with the action of these modulatory agents. The L-type Ca(2+)-channel agonist BAYK 8644 stimulated GABA release in both substantia nigra reticulata and globus pallidus. Because dihydropiridine sensitivity is a key criteria to identify L-type Ca(2+)-channel activity, our results imply that these channels are determinant of GABA release modulation by dopamine in striatonigral, striatopallidal and pallidonigral terminals. PMID:24513523

Recillas-Morales, Sergio; Sánchez-Vega, Lizzette; Ochoa-Sánchez, Norma; Caballero-Florán, Isaac; Paz-Bermúdez, Francisco; Silva, Isaac; Aceves, Jorge; Erlij, David; Florán, Benjamín

2013-10-26

92

Populational approach in ecophysiological studies: the case of Plathymenia reticulata, a tree from Cerrado and Atlantic Forest Abordagem populacional em estudos ecofisiológicos: o caso de /Plathymenia reticulata/, uma árvore do Cerrado e da Mata Atlântica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The variability of ecophysiological traits among populations can be a result of selection in response to environmental pressure and/or due to random factors, like the genetic drift. The analysis of both genetic and phenotypic variation within populations can lead to better understanding of adaptation in order to colonize different habitats. In the last years we have developed several studies with an widely ecogeographic distributed legume tree species, Plathymenia reticulata, which were focused on identifying specific morphological and physiological traits related to adaptation to the habitats of origin of each studied population. We studied populations from Atlantic Forest, Cerrado and ecotonal sites in relation to phenology, seed morphological traits and their relation with seed dispersion, seed dormancy and germination, and growth traits in a common garden experiment. In several analyzed traits we found high diversity in this species that can explain its occurrence in a broad geographical range. The existence of genetically based differences of traits in an adaptive way among savanna and forest populations suggests a degree of divergence that characterizes the existence of ecotypes from Cerrado and Atlantic Forest. We also pointed future perspectives in studies at population level in evolutionary ecophysiology and implications of these studies for flora conservation and habitat restoration.A variação em características ecofisiológicas entre populações pode ser devido ao resultado da seleção em resposta a pressão ambiental e/ou pode ser devido a fatores aleatórios como a deriva genética. A análise tanto da variação genética quanto da variação fenotípica das populações, pode levar ao melhor conhecimento sobre adaptações necessárias para a ocupação de diferentes ambientes. Nos últimos anos, nós temos desenvolvido diversos estudos com populações de Plathymenia reticulata, uma leguminosa arbórea de ocorrência em ampla extensão ecogeográfica, com o objetivo de identificar características morfológicas e fisiológicas envolvidas na adaptação das populações aos seus ambientes de origem. Populações provenientes da Mata Atlântica, do Cerrado e de áreas ecotonais entre estes biomas foram avaliadas em relação à fenologia, morfologia e germinação de sementes, bem como em relação à características de crescimento de plantas cultivadas em um mesmo ambiente experimental. Em muitas das características analisadas nessa espécie foi encontrada grande diversidade, o que poderia explicar a sua ocorrência em uma ampla extensão geográfica. A existência de diferenças genéticas em características na direção adaptativa entre as populações provenientes de ambientes de savana e florestais sugere a existência de ecótipos de Cerrado e de Mata Atlântica. Nós também apontamos perspectivas futuras para estudos de ecofisiologia evolutiva em nível populacional, bem como implicações desta abordagem para a conservação da flora e restauração de ambientes.

José Pires de Lemos Filho

2008-09-01

93

Atividade antimicrobiana do oleorresina de copaíba (Copaifera reticulata) frente a Staphylococcus coagulase positiva isolados de casos de otite em cães / Antimicrobial activity of copaiba oil (Copaifera reticulata) against coagulase positive Staphylococcus of canine otitis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar o potencial antimicrobiano do oleorresina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke em isolados de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (SCP) provenientes de casos de otite externa em cães. O método de microdiluição em caldo foi utilizado para determinação da concentr [...] ação inibitória mínima (CIM) e concentração bactericida mínima (CBM) de oleorresina de copaíba. Em adição, foi determinado o perfil de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos dos isolados de SCP pelo método de difusão em ágar. Oito classes de antimicrobianos foram usadas para o cálculo de multirresistência antimicrobiana. A determinação da composição química do oleorresina de copaíba foi realizada por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (GC/MS), sendo que ?-cariofileno, ?-bisaboleno e (E)-?-bergamoteno foram os compostos majoritários. O oleorresina de copaíba demonstrou CIM90 de 0,164mg/mL e CBM90 de 1,31mg/mL. A multirresistência foi verificada em 27% das cepas testadas. Os resultados sugerem que o oleorresina de copaíba exerceu atividade bacteriostática e bactericida mesmo em cepas multirresistentes de Staphylococcus coagulase-positiva. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the oleoresin Copaifera reticulata Ducke against Staphylococcus coagulase positive (SCP) isolated from otitis externa in dogs. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the oleores [...] in were determined by broth microdilution method. In addition, we verified the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates of SCP by agar diffusion method. Eight classes of antimicrobial were used to calculate the multidrug resistance. The chemical composition of the oleoresin was performed by gas chromatography coupled to the mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and ?-caryophyllene, ?-bisabolene, and (E)-?-bergamotene were the main compounds found. The copaiba oleoresin showed a MIC90 of 0.164mg/mL and a CBM90 of 1.3mg/mL. The multidrug resistance was found in 27% of the strains tested. The results suggest that copaiba oleoresin has bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity even in multidrug-resistant coagulase-positive strains.

Rosangela E., Ziech; Luana D., Farias; Cláudia, Balzan; Magnos F., Ziech; Berta M., Heinzmann; Osmar A., Lameira; Agueda C. de, Vargas.

2013-07-01

94

Determination of nickel in alcoholic beverages by FAAS after online preconcentration using mandarin peel (Citrus reticulata) as biosorbent  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um método de extração por fase sólida foi desenvolvido para determinação direta de níquel em bebidas alcóolicas. Este método baseia-se na adsorção de níquel em cascas de Citrus reticulata, conhecida como mexerica. O pH de solução, quantidade de adsorvente, vazão da amostra e do eluente, concentração [...] do eluente e efeito de matriz foram investigados usando estratégias de otimização multivariada. Estudos de dessorção foram feitos com HCl 1 mol L-1. As condições ideais de extração foram obtidas usando amostra em pH 6,0, vazão da amostra de 4,3 mL min-1, massa de adsorvente de 50 mg e HCl 1,0 mol L-1 na vazão de 2,0 mL min-1 usado como eluente. Fator de pré-concentração, precisão, limite de detecção (LOD), limite de quantificação (LOQ), índice de consumo e frequência analítica foram estimados como 12, 0,9% (30,0 µg L-1, n = 7), 3,1 µg L-1, 10,3 µg L-1, 0,85 mL e 15 amostras por h, respectivamente. O método foi aplicado em amostras de cachaça e uísque e os resultados para os testes de recuperação foram maiores que 99%. Abstract in english A solid phase extraction method was developed for the direct determination of nickel in alcoholic beverages. This method is based on the adsorption of nickel onto the peel of Citrus reticulata (mandarin orange). The solution pH, amount of adsorbent, sample and eluent flow rates, eluent concentration [...] and matrix effects were investigated using multivariate optimization strategies. Desorption studies were carried out with 1 mol L-1 HCl. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained using a sample pH of 6.0, sample flow rate of 4.3 mL min-1, 50 mg of sorbent mass and 1.0 mol L-1 HCl at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min-1 used as eluent. The preconcentration factor, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), consumption index and sample throughput were estimated as 12, 0.9% (30.0 µg L-1, n = 7), 3.1 µg L-1, 10.3 µg L-1, 0.85 mL and 15 samples per h, respectively. The method was applied to sugar cane spirit and whisky samples and the results for recovery tests were higher than 99%.

Gabriela C., Ribeiro; Luciana M., Coelho; Nívia M. Melo, Coelho.

1072-10-01

95

Community analysis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots of Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus reticulata based on SSU rDNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Morphological observation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species in rhizospheric soil could not accurately reflect the actual AMF colonizing status in roots, while molecular identification of indigenous AMF colonizing citrus rootstocks at present was rare in China. In our study, community of AMF colonizing trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) and red tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) were analyzed based on small subunit of ribosomal DNA genes. Morphological observation showed that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization, spore density, and hyphal length did not differ significantly between two rootstocks. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 173 screened AMF sequences clustered in at least 10 discrete groups (GLO1~GLO10), all belonging to the genus of Glomus Sensu Lato. Among them, GLO1 clade (clustering with uncultured Glomus) accounting for 54.43% clones was the most common in trifoliate orange roots, while GLO6 clade (clustering with Glomus intraradices) accounting for 35.00% clones was the most common in red tangerine roots. Although, Shannon-Wiener indices exhibited no notable differences between both rootstocks, relative proportions of observed clades analysis revealed that composition of AMF communities colonizing two rootstocks varied severely. The results indicated that native AMF species in citrus rhizosphere had diverse colonization potential between two different rootstocks in the present orchards. PMID:25162057

Wang, Peng; Wang, Yin

2014-01-01

96

Disruption of dopaminergic transmission remodels tripartite synapse morphology and astrocytic calcium activity within substantia nigra pars reticulata.  

Science.gov (United States)

The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia circuitry particularly sensitive to pathological dopamine depletion. Indeed, hyperactivity of SNr neurons is known to be responsible for some motor disorders characteristic of Parkinson's disease. The neuronal processing of basal ganglia dysfunction is well understood but, paradoxically, the role of astrocytes in the regulation of SNr activity has rarely been considered. We thus investigated the influence of the disruption of dopaminergic transmission on plastic changes at tripartite glutamatergic synapses in the rat SNr and on astrocyte calcium activity. In 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats, we observed structural plastic changes of tripartite glutamatergic synapses and perisynaptic astrocytic processes. These findings suggest that subthalamonigral synapses undergo morphological changes that accompany the pathophysiological processes of Parkinson's disease. The pharmacological blockade of dopaminergic transmission (with sulpiride and SCH-23390) increased astrocyte calcium excitability, synchrony and gap junction coupling within the SNr, suggesting a functional adaptation of astrocytes to dopamine transmission disruption in this output nucleus. This hyperactivity is partly reversed by subthalamic nucleus high-frequency stimulation which has emerged as an efficient symptomatic treatment for Parkinson's disease. Therefore, our results demonstrate structural and functional reshaping of neuronal and glial elements highlighting a functional plasticity of neuroglial interactions when dopamine transmission is disrupted. GLIA 2015;63:673-683. PMID:25511180

Bosson, Anthony; Boisseau, Sylvie; Buisson, Alain; Savasta, Marc; Albrieux, Mireille

2015-04-01

97

Change of mitotic behavior and ultra structure of 'Fuju' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) stem-apex clones after space flight  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By using conventional squash stain technique and ultrathin sectioning technique, the effects of space flight on mitotic behavior and ultrastructure were studied in the shoot apical meristem of 'Fuju' (Citrus reticulata Blanco), which had been carried by China's seed-breeding satellite, Shijian-8. The results showed that space flight had effect on the mutagenesis of stem-apical meristem. Abnormal mitosis with various degrees had been detected in 13 mutant clones, of which mitotic aberrations in clone '08004' were significantly higher than the others. The aberration rate of numerical abnormalities of chromosomes at metaphase, lagging chromosome, micronucleus, C-spindle, S-spindle and polyarch spindle in the clone '08004' was 0.34%, 0.669%, 0.86%, 0.17%, 1.20% and 1.03%, respectively. The ultrastructure of mesophyll cell in most clones was unchanged, but nucleus chromatin agglutination, chloroplast thylakoid disintegrated, autophagosome appeared, cell vacuolated, plasmolysis and the formation of apoptotic body were found in the clone '08004', suggesting that programmed cell death (PCD) Nevertheless, no change in the mitochondrial structure was observed until terminal phase of PCD. (authors)

98

Temporal change in inbreeding depression in life-history traits in captive populations of guppy (Poecilia reticulata): evidence for purging?  

Science.gov (United States)

Inbreeding depression, which generally affects the fitness of small populations, may be diminished by purging recessive deleterious alleles when inbreeding persists over several generations. Evidence of purging remains rare, especially because of the difficulties of separating the effects of various factors affecting fitness in small populations. We compared the expression of life-history traits in inbred populations of guppy (Poecilia reticulata) with contemporary control populations over 10 generations in captivity. We estimated inbreeding depression as the difference between the two types of populations at each generation. After 10 generations, the inbreeding coefficient reached a maximum value of 0.56 and 0.16 in the inbred and control populations, respectively. Analysing changes in the life-history traits across generations showed that inbreeding depression in clutch size and offspring survival increased during the first four to six generations in the populations from the inbred treatment and subsequently decreased as expected if purging occurred. Inbreeding depression in two other traits was weaker but showed similar changes across generations. The loss of six populations in the inbred treatment indicates that removal of deleterious alleles also occurred by extinction of populations that presumably harboured high genetic load. PMID:21276111

Larsen, L-K; Pélabon, C; Bolstad, G H; Viken, A; Fleming, I A; Rosenqvist, G

2011-04-01

99

Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Children will learn a variety of themes that will teach children about spring and how to grow plants while incorporating core related material. Flowers, The children will learn about different qualities of flowers while learning shapes, counting, and colors. Flowers Gardens, The children will learn how to plant and take care of a garden. Gardens Rain, The children will learn that gardens need rain to grow. Students will also learn about evaporation. Rain Making Rain Story Time Flower Story ...

SRowley

2006-04-28

100

[Acute toxicity and analgesic activity of the global extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire].  

Science.gov (United States)

The global extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire are especially rich in secondary metabolites of the type iridoid lactonique and glucosidique and of type lupane triterpine. The aerial part of each species is crushed, and then extracted by cold maceration in methanol. These total extracts are in the form of suspension in Arabic gum with 5%, they are tested on the mice for the tests of acute toxicity like for the peripheral analgesic activity according to the test of Koster; and also on the rats for the central analgesic activity of the morphine type based on the test "Tail Flick". The acute toxicity evaluation of these extracts follows upon the determination of the lethal amounts 50% of essential oils from these two species, already given it is specified here by the lethal dose 50% (DL50) of 1672 +/- 232 mg/kg with confidence limits [1030 - 2320] mg/kg for Nepeta atlantica and 1401 +/- 97.29 mg/kg with confidence limits [1130 - 1670] mg/kg for Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata. The tests of Koster in the mouse and the "Tail Flik" in the rat showed that the global extracts of the studied species have all two greatly peripheral analgesic activity with an important protection against abdominal cramp 67.91% and 75.53% for 60 mg/kg IP respectively for Nepeta atlantica and Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. Reticulata, which rise up to 90.10% and 92.89% for 120 mg/kg IP. A central morphine like analgesic activity is record with 120 mg/kg IP for the two species. PMID:17243274

Bouidida, El Houcine; Alaoui, Katim; Cherrah, Yahia; Fkih-Tetouani, Souad; Idrissi, Abdelkader Il

2006-01-01

101

The effect of vitamin C on growth factors, survival, reproduction and sex ratio in guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

OpenAIRE

This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid, AA) ongrowth factors, survival, reproductive performance and sex ratio in guppy (Poecilia reticulataPeters,1859). Guppies were divided into 5 treatments with triplicate groups and fed with one of 5 dietsfor 20 weeks. The experimental vitamin C diets were formulated to contain 400, 800, 1200 and 2000 mgAA kg-1 (treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively) with 1 control group. The data obtained from the trial weresub...

Bahareh Mehrad; Mohammad Sudagar

2010-01-01

102

Dopaminergic presynaptic modulation of nigral afferents: its role in the generation of recurrent bursting in substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous work has shown the functions associated with activation of dopamine presynaptic receptors in some substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr afferents: i striatonigral terminals (direct pathway posses presynaptic dopamine D1-class receptors whose action is to enhance inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs and GABA transmission. ii Subthalamonigral terminals posses D1- and D2-class receptors where D1-class receptor activation enhances and D2-class receptor activation decreases excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs. Here we report that pallidonigral afferents posses D2-class receptors (D3 and D4 types that decrease inhibitory synaptic transmission via presynaptic modulation. No action of D1-class agonists was found on pallidonigral synapses. In contrast, administration of D1-receptor antagonists greatly decreased striatonigral IPSCs in the same preparation, suggesting that tonic dopamine levels help in maintaining the function of the striatonigral (direct pathway. When both D3 and D4 type receptors were blocked, pallidonigral IPSCs increased in amplitude while striatonigral connections had no significant change, suggesting that tonic dopamine levels are repressing a powerful inhibition conveyed by pallidonigral synapses (a branch of the indirect pathway. We then blocked both D1- and D2-class receptors to acutely decrease direct pathway (striatonigral and enhance indirect pathways (subthalamonigral and pallidonigral synaptic force. The result was that most SNr projection neurons entered a recurrent bursting firing mode similar to that observed during Parkinsonism in both patients and animal models. These results raise the question as to whether the lack of dopamine in basal ganglia output nuclei is enough to generate some pathological signs of Parkinsonism.

JoseBargas

2011-02-01

103

Associations between trace metals in sediment, water, and guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Peters), from urban streams of Semarang, Indonesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aims to answer the question whether the amount of metal in aquatic biota reflects the concentrations in the sediment and water, and whether the physico-chemical properties of the water and sediment have any influence on the suspected relationship. A study was made of 101 small streams in the city of Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. Data on fish occurrence in 63 streams of the greater Semarang indicated that the guppies did not avoid the highly polluted sites. No significant difference in body weight between sites was found. Significant differences were found in metal body concentrations (Pb and Zn) between fish collected from sites with different degrees of pollution. A significant declining trend of Pb concentrations with increasing organism size was observed, whereas for two other metals, Zn and Cu, the concentrations did not depend on the body weight. Apparently, body concentrations of these two metals are regulated and maintained at a certain concentration. For the relationships between metal concentrations in water, sediment and fish, water and sediment parameters, and fish dry weight, the presence of significant multiple correlations and bivariate correlation (in 17 of 91 pairs of variables) indicated that, in general, abiotic parameters and body size had no influence on the metal flux from sediment to water, and into fish. Results of partial correlation analyses further suggested that metal concentrations in the sediments were the most important factor governing the metal body concentrations of fish. The present study indicates that the guppy Poecilia reticulata from urban streams is a potential bioindicator for urban metal pollution, especially with respect to their (1) spatial distribution over sites of all pollution regimes and (2) variation in metal accumulation levels reflecting the degree of pollution. PMID:10806000

Widianarko, B; Van Gestel, C A; Verweij, R A; Van Straalen, N M

2000-05-01

104

Reproduction potentiated in nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) and guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) by adding a synthetic peptide to their aqueous environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ambient exposure to a short synthetic peptide has enhanced fecundity (number of offspring) in invertebrates and vertebrates, ostensibly by disinhibiting reproduction. In separate experiments, nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) and guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) were exposed via their aqueous environment to a dissolved synthetic hexamer (6mer) peptide, IEPVFT (EPL036), at a concentration of 1??mol l(-1). In the case of the worms, peptide was added to their aqueous buffer daily throughout the experiment (14?days); for the guppies, peptide administration was on the first 15 alternate days in a 50?week experiment. Fecundity rose by 79% among the worms. The number of descendants of the treated guppies was more than four times that of controls by week 26 (103 versus 25, including 72 juveniles versus 6), with 15.4% more estimated biomass in the test tank in total (i.e. including founders). It was deduced that treated females bred earlier, at a smaller size, and had larger brood sizes. The total number of fish in the control tank had caught up by termination, but biomass continued to lag the test tank. There were no overt signs of toxicity among either the worms or the fish. Bioinformatics has been unilluminating in explaining these results in terms, for example, of mimicry of an endogenous regulator. A mass spectrometric campaign to identify a receptor, using murine brain for expediency, proved inconclusive. Molecular modelling in silico indicated unexpectedly that the hexamer EPL036 might be acting as an antagonist, to pro-fecundity effect; that is, as a blocker of an inhibitor. This suggests that there awaits discovery an evolutionarily conserved reproductive inhibitor and its (anti-fecundity) receptor. PMID:25617450

Davies, Keith G; Zimmerman, Brian; Dudley, Ed; Newton, Russell P; Hart, John E

2015-03-01

105

Seasonal simulation of water, salinity and nitrate dynamics under drip irrigated mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and assessing management options for drainage and nitrate leaching  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimation of all water fluxes temporally and spatially within and out of the crop root zone, and evaluation of issues like salinity and nutrient leaching, are necessary to fully appraise the efficiency of irrigation systems. Simulation models can be used to investigate these issues over several seasons when the cost of long term monitoring is prohibitive. Model results can be used to advise growers if improvements are required to various aspects of irrigation system operations. In this study, HYDRUS-2D was used to evaluate data measured during one season in a young mandarin (Citrus reticulata) orchard, irrigated with an intensive surface drip fertigation system. Water contents, salinities, and nitrate concentrations measured weekly in the field were compared with model predictions. The temporal mean absolute error (MAE) values between weekly measured and simulated water contents ranged from 0.01 to 0.04 cm3 cm-3. However, modelling error (MAE) was slightly larger at 10 cm depth (0.04 cm3 cm-3), as compared to greater depths (0.02-0.03 cm3 cm-3). Similarly, the errors were larger in the surface soil layer (25 cm depth) for nitrate-nitrogen, NO3--N (1.52 mmol(c) L-1), as compared to greater depths. The spatial and temporal soil solution salinity (ECsw) and NO3--N data showed accumulation of salts and nitrate within the soil up until day 150 of the simulation (December, 2006), followed by leaching due to high precipitation and over irrigation at later times. Only 49% of applied water was used by the mandarin trees, while 33.5% was leached. On the other hand, the simulation revealed that a significant amount of applied nitrogen (85%) was taken up by the mandarin trees, and the remaining 15% was leached. The results indicate that the irrigation and fertigation schedule needs modifying as there was overwatering from December onwards. Different permutations and combinations of irrigation and fertigation scheduling were evaluated to optimise the water and nitrogen uptake and to reduce their leaching out of the crop root zone. Slightly higher nitrogen uptake (1.73 kg ha-1) was recorded when fertigation was applied second to last hour in an irrigation event, as compared to applying it earlier during an irrigation event. Similarly, a 20% reduction in irrigation and N application produced a pronounced reduction in drainage (28%) and N leaching (46.4%), but it also decreased plant N uptake by 15.8% and water uptake by 4.8%, and increased salinity by 25.8%, as compared to the normal practice. This management would adversely impact the sustainability of this expensive irrigation system. However, reducing only irrigation by 30% during the 2nd half of the crop season (January to August) reduced drainage and N leaching by 37.2% and 50.5%, respectively, and increased N uptake by 6.9%. Such management of irrigation would be quite promising for the sustainability of the entire system. It is concluded that judicious manipulations of irrigation and fertilizer applications can be helpful in designing drip irrigation schedules for perennial horticultural crops to achieve improved efficiency of irrigation and fertigation applications and reduced contamination of receiving water bodies.

Phogat, V.; Skewes, M. A.; Cox, J. W.; Sanderson, G.; Alam, J.; Šim?nek, J.

2014-05-01

106

Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

In this logic activity, students must determine how to represent three quantities using a fixed amount of space (Venn diagram) and objects. The goal is to represent the siblings’ ages, 5,6, and 7, using only ten plants. This resource includes teacher notes with extension suggestions and possible support options.

NRICH team

2012-01-01

107

A new genus and species of Callipogonini, description of the male of Strongylaspis boliviana Monne & Santos-Silva, 2003, and a new distributional record for Chorenta reticulata (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seticeros gen. n. and Seticeros tunupai sp. n. of the tribe Callipogonini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae from Yungas, Bolivia and the male of Strongylaspis boliviana Monne & Santos-Silva, 2003 are described and illustrated. Chorenta aquilus (Thomson, 1865 is transferred to Seticeros gen. n. A new distributional record for Chorenta reticulata (Dalman, 1817 is given.

Robert Perger

2010-06-01

108

Alterações químicas, físicas e físico-químicas da tangerina 'ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco durante o armazenamento refrigerado Chemical, physical and physical-chemical changes on tangerina 'ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco under refrigerated storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo proposto neste trabalho foi o de avaliar as alterações químicas, físicas e físico-químicas da tangerina 'Ponkan' (citrus reticulata Blanco durante o armazenamento refrigerado a 5 ± 2° C e umidade relativa de 85 ± 3% por um período de 28 dias, em dois estádios de maturação (frutos coletados no início da safra; com a casca mais verde e frutos coletados no final da safra com a casca amarela. Os frutos foram coletados com pedúnculo, ao acaso de um pomar comercial com sete anos de idade, localizado no município de Perdões, região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram realizadas duas colheitas, uma no mês de Abril quando os frutos estavam com a casca verde, mas já estavam aptos para o consumo; e outra mais no final da safra no mês de Julho quando os frutos já estavam com a casca bem amarela. Os frutos coletados foram levados ao Laboratório de Bioquímica da Universidade Federal de Lavras, onde foram selecionados 100 (cem frutos de tamanho uniforme e com ausência de injúrias a cada colheita, estes foram lavados com uma solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%, protocolados, pesados, medidos e realizadas as leituras de cor. Os frutos foram então armazenados em refrigerador a 5 ± 2° C e umidade relativa de 85 ± 3% por um período de 28 dias, e as análises foram realizadas nos frutos e no suco dos frutos aos 0, 7 14, 21 e 28 dias de armazenamento. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com 5 repetições de 4 frutos . Os resultados mostraram que quase todas as análises realizadas apresentaram variações significativas. A perda de massa, os diâmetros transversais e longitudinais apresentaram diminuições significativas com os dias de armazenamento refrigerado. Os açúcares também tiveram variações significativas com tendência de aumento com os dias de armazenamento.O pH não apresentou variações significativas. Os teores de Vitamina C não apresentaram variações significativas com os dias de armazenamento refrigerado. A coloração da casca dos frutos foi medida com um colorímetro e foram medidos três variáveis de cor: luminosidade, teor de amarelo e teor de vermelho. Pode-se observar visualmente que os frutos coletados no início da safra apresentaram um ressecamento das vesículas de suco, ou seja, frutos com granulação, principalmente a partir da segunda semana de armazenamento, enquanto os frutos coletados mais maduros com maiores teores de açúcares solúveis foram mais resistentes ao ressecamento interno das vesículas.(análise visual e tátil.This work was aimed to evaluating chemical, physical and physical-chemical changes on tangerine 'Ponkan' (citrus reticulata Blanco during the storage at 5 ± 2° C under relative humidity of 85 ± 3%, for a period of 28 days, in two maturation stadiums (fruits collected at the beginning of the crop; with the greenest peel and yellow peel fruits,, collected by the end of the crop. Fruits with stalf were alleatory collected in a seven-years old commercial orchard, located at Perdões, South area of the State of Minas Gerais. Fruits were collectd twice: on April, when they got a green peel, but they were already edible; and on July, by the end of the crop, when fruits got a very yellow peel. Then fruits were taken to the Laboratory of Biochemistry of the Federal University of Lavras, where a hundred aff them with uniform size and injury were washed with a 1% sodium hypochoride solution, marked, weigthted measured and submitted to color readings. After 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days in a refrigerator at fruits of uniform size and with absence of offenses to each crop, these were washed with a hipoclorito of sodium solution to 1%, recorded, heavy, measured and accomplished the color readings. Then the fruits were stored then in refrigerator at 5 ± 2° C, under relative humidity of 85 ± 3%, fruits as well as thein juice were analysed. The experimental outline used was entirely randomized, with five replicates containig four fruits in each one. Almost all rescelts were significantly depende

Adriana Aparecida Souza Vale

2006-08-01

109

Alterações químicas, físicas e físico-químicas da tangerina 'ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) durante o armazenamento refrigerado / Chemical, physical and physical-chemical changes on tangerina 'ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) under refrigerated storage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo proposto neste trabalho foi o de avaliar as alterações químicas, físicas e físico-químicas da tangerina 'Ponkan' (citrus reticulata Blanco) durante o armazenamento refrigerado a 5 ± 2° C e umidade relativa de 85 ± 3% por um período de 28 dias, em dois estádios de maturação (frutos coletad [...] os no início da safra; com a casca mais verde e frutos coletados no final da safra com a casca amarela). Os frutos foram coletados com pedúnculo, ao acaso de um pomar comercial com sete anos de idade, localizado no município de Perdões, região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram realizadas duas colheitas, uma no mês de Abril quando os frutos estavam com a casca verde, mas já estavam aptos para o consumo; e outra mais no final da safra no mês de Julho quando os frutos já estavam com a casca bem amarela. Os frutos coletados foram levados ao Laboratório de Bioquímica da Universidade Federal de Lavras, onde foram selecionados 100 (cem) frutos de tamanho uniforme e com ausência de injúrias a cada colheita, estes foram lavados com uma solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%, protocolados, pesados, medidos e realizadas as leituras de cor. Os frutos foram então armazenados em refrigerador a 5 ± 2° C e umidade relativa de 85 ± 3% por um período de 28 dias, e as análises foram realizadas nos frutos e no suco dos frutos aos 0, 7 14, 21 e 28 dias de armazenamento. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com 5 repetições de 4 frutos . Os resultados mostraram que quase todas as análises realizadas apresentaram variações significativas. A perda de massa, os diâmetros transversais e longitudinais apresentaram diminuições significativas com os dias de armazenamento refrigerado. Os açúcares também tiveram variações significativas com tendência de aumento com os dias de armazenamento.O pH não apresentou variações significativas. Os teores de Vitamina C não apresentaram variações significativas com os dias de armazenamento refrigerado. A coloração da casca dos frutos foi medida com um colorímetro e foram medidos três variáveis de cor: luminosidade, teor de amarelo e teor de vermelho. Pode-se observar visualmente que os frutos coletados no início da safra apresentaram um ressecamento das vesículas de suco, ou seja, frutos com granulação, principalmente a partir da segunda semana de armazenamento, enquanto os frutos coletados mais maduros com maiores teores de açúcares solúveis foram mais resistentes ao ressecamento interno das vesículas.(análise visual e tátil). Abstract in english This work was aimed to evaluating chemical, physical and physical-chemical changes on tangerine 'Ponkan' (citrus reticulata Blanco) during the storage at 5 ± 2° C under relative humidity of 85 ± 3%, for a period of 28 days, in two maturation stadiums (fruits collected at the beginning of the crop; w [...] ith the greenest peel and yellow peel fruits,, collected by the end of the crop). Fruits with stalf were alleatory collected in a seven-years old commercial orchard, located at Perdões, South area of the State of Minas Gerais. Fruits were collectd twice: on April, when they got a green peel, but they were already edible; and on July, by the end of the crop, when fruits got a very yellow peel. Then fruits were taken to the Laboratory of Biochemistry of the Federal University of Lavras, where a hundred aff them with uniform size and injury were washed with a 1% sodium hypochoride solution, marked, weigthted measured and submitted to color readings. After 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days in a refrigerator at fruits of uniform size and with absence of offenses to each crop, these were washed with a hipoclorito of sodium solution to 1%, recorded, heavy, measured and accomplished the color readings. Then the fruits were stored then in refrigerator at 5 ± 2° C, under relative humidity of 85 ± 3%, fruits as well as thein juice were analysed. The experimental outline used was entirely randomized, with five replicates containig four fruits in each one. Almos

Adriana Aparecida Souza, Vale; Custódio Donizete dos, Santos; Celeste Maria Patto de, Abreu; Angelita Duarte, Corrêa; Juliana Araújo, Santos.

2006-08-01

110

Determination of natural radioactivity and the concentration of heavy metal in tissue of Guppy Fish, Poecilia Reticulata and sediment on urban drawn in Klang, Selangor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study has been carried out to determine the natural radioactivity and concentration of heavy metal in guppy fish, Poecilia Reticulata and sediment sample on urban drawn in Klang, Selangor. Natural radioactivity (U-238, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40) was determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The concentration of heavy metal was determined using Coupled-Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Guppy fish and sediment sample was taken from three different locations in research area. Sample treatment process was starting with separation of impurities in sample. Samples were dried in the oven at 100 degree Celsius in 72 hours, homogenization process, and then samples were filled into counts bottles, sealed and kept for a month to achieved secular equilibrium. The activities found for each location varied. In sediment samples the activity concentration of U-238, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 were in the range of 87.61 ± 13.47 to 180.88 ± 30.50 Bq/ kg, 59.45 ± 9.12 to 88.29 ± 2.73 Bq/ kg, 6.70 ± 3.13 to 8.53 ± 4.90 Bq/ kg and 246.83 ± 12.27 to 495.28 ± 22.30 Bq/ kg. For sediment samples, have 12 elements of heavy metals found are Mg, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Al, As, Ba and Pb. For guppy fish, P. Reticulata have 7 elements of heavy metals achieved found are Mg, K, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Al. Concentration of U-238 and K-40 is higher than the world average value reported by UNSCEAR (2000). Th-232 is below the world average value. From comparative with IAEA (1990) reporcomparative with IAEA (1990) report showed that the concentration of heavy metals in sediment sample was at background level except for As and Pb. For concentration of heavy metal in guppy fish, P. Reticulata showed that the values are highly than value of IAEA-407 report except for Zn and Mn. (author)

111

Flutuação populacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton em Citrus deliciosa e no híbrido Murcott Citrus sinensis x Citrus reticulata / Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton population fluctuation in Citrus deliciosa and Murcott hybrid Citrus sinensis x Citrus reticulata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a dinâmica populacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), o minador-dos-citros, em pomares de tangerineira Citrus deliciosa Tenore variedade Montenegrina e de tangoreiro híbrido "Murcott" Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck X Citrus reticu [...] lata Blanco, com manejo orgânico, em Montenegro (29° 68'S e 51° 46'O), Rio Grande do Sul. Foram realizadas amostragens quinzenais de julho de 2001 a junho de 2003. Os brotos coletados foram examinados em laboratório e submetidos à análise do número de folhas por broto, a da presença ou ausência de minas, do número de minas, dos ovos, das larvas e das pupas de P. citrella. Em ambos os pomares não houve registro de minas de P. citrella no primeiro fluxo de brotação, de agosto a outubro. No ano I, as maiores densidades de minas foram registradas em meados de novembro, início de janeiro e início de abril, em ambos os pomares. No ano II, constataram-se as maiores densidades de minas e larvas em janeiro e em abril, em C. deliciosa, e de dezembro a março em "Murcott". Embora o número médio de brotos registrado tenha sido sempre maior em C. deliciosa, a colonização e o estabelecimento do minador-dos-citros seguiram o mesmo padrão em ambos os pomares. A temperatura mínima e média e a umidade relativa do ar foram os fatores abióticos que apresentaram maior influência no número de minas e de larvas de P. citrella. Abstract in english To evaluate the population dynamics of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), the citrus leafminer, in tangerine Citrus deliciosa Tenore var. Montenegrina and tangor 'Murcott' Citrus sinensis L Osbeck X Citrus reticulata Blanco in organically managed orchards, in Montenegro [...] (29° 68'S e 51° 46'W), RS, fortnightly samples were carried out from July 2001 to June 2003. Sampled shoots were examined in the lab and the number of leaves, presence or absence of mines and the number of mines, eggs, larvae and pupae were recorded. In both orchards there were no records of P. citrella mines in the first leaf flush, from August to October. In the first year, the highest mine densities were recorded in the middle of November, beginning of January and in April for both orchards. In the following year, the highest mine and larval densities were in January and April for C. deliciosa var. Montenegrina and from December to March for 'Murcott'. Although the number of shoots has always been greater in C. deliciosa, the citrus leafminer colonization and establishment followed the same pattern for both orchards. Minimum and medium temperature and relative humidity were the abiotic factors showing the strongest influence in the numbers of P. citrella mines and larvae.

Cristiane Ramos de, Jesus; Luiza Rodrigues, Redaelli; Fábio Kessler, Dal Soglio.

2008-06-01

112

Insetos Sugadores (Sternorrhyncha em Cultivo Orgânico de Tangerina cv. Poncã (Citrus reticulata Blanco: Diversidade, Constância, Freqüência e Flutuação Populacional  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a diversidade, constância, freqüência e a flutuação populacional de insetos sugadores da subordem Sternorrhyncha associados à tangerina cv. Poncã sob o sistema de cultivo orgânico. Os levantamentos foram realizados entre outubro de 2002 e outubro de 2003. Dentre os aleirodídeos, Aleurothrixus floccosus Maskell destacou-se dos demais, com média populacional igual a 74,06%. Aleurotrachelus cruzi Cassino obteve média de 52,6%. Entre as cochonilhas destacaram-se Selenaspidus articulatus (Morgan (23,96% e Pinnaspis aspidistrae (Signoret (19,38%. O psilídeo Diaphorina citri Kuwayama obteve média de 52,6%, sendo a segunda espécie com maior média. Os pulgões Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy e Toxoptera aurantii (Boyer, somente ocorreram em período de brotação e floração, com média populacional de 7,6% e 6,25%, respectivamente. Quanto à diversidade das espécies o período com maior diversidade, ocorreu na 1ª quinzena de setembro de 2003 (H’= 0,964, coincidindo com a menor dominância (D= 0,200, e menor diversidade na 1º quinzena de maio de 2003 (H’= 0,657 e maior dominância (D= 0,522. As espécies constantes foram: A. floccosus (100%, A. cruzi (96%, Coccus viridis (Green (100%, P. aspidistrae (100% e D. citri (100%. As espécies mais freqüentes foram: A. floccosus (30,79% e D. citri (21,87%. Os resultados sugerem que as espécies verificadas possuem a dinâmica populacional em parte influenciada pela competição interespecífica, pois quando há um aumento populacional dos aleirodídeos, há um decréscimo da população das cochonilhas e vice-versa, além dos fatores ambientais, a predação e o parasitismo.Sucker Insects (Sternorrhyncha in Organic Cropping of Tangerine cv. Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco: Diversity, Constancy, Frequency and Populational FluctuationAbstract. The aim of this work was to study the diversity, constancy, frequency and the population fluctuation of the sucker insects of the suborder Sternorrhyncha associated with the tangerine cv. Ponkan cultivated under the organic. The study was conducted from October 2002 to October 2003. Among the whiteflies, Aleurothrixus floccosus Maskell had a population average equivalent to 74.06%. Aleurotrachelus cruzi Cassino reached 52.6%. Among the scale, Selenapidus articulatus Morgan reached 23.96% and Pinnaspis aspidistrae (Signoret 19.38%. The Diaphorina citri Kuwayama average was 52.6%, the second bigger average. The aphids Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy and Toxoptera aurantii (Boyer took place only during the budding and blooming, presenting a population average of 7.6% and 6.25%, respectively. The period in which occurred the largest diversity was the first fifteen days of September 2003 (H’= 0.964, simultaneously to the least dominance (D = 0.200, and in the first fifteen days of May 2003 occurred the least diversity (H’= 0.657 and the largest dominance (D = 0.522. The constant species that were more prominent were: A. floccosus (100%, A. cruzi (96%, Coccus viridis (Green (100%, P. aspidistrae (100% and D. citri (100%. The most frequent species were A. floccosus (30.79% and D. citri (21.87%. To sum up, the results show that all the species studied have a population dynamics in part influenced by the interspecific competition, as there is a population increasing of whiteflies, there is a population decrease of scale and vice-versa, as well as the environmental and predatory factors and the parasitism.

William Costa Rodrigues

2009-08-01

113

Preventive effects of Citrus reticulata essential oil on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats and the mechanism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of essential oil of Citrus reticulata (EOCR on proliferation of human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELFs, and to explore its protective effects on bleomycin (BLM-induced lung fibrosis in rats.METHODS: Routinely cultured HELFs during the logarithmic phase of growth were divided into control and treated groups, and applied for evaluation of inhibitory activity using methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT assay. A rat model of BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis was used for the evaluation of antifibrotic effect of EOCR. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, prednisone group and different doses of EOCR groups. BLM was intratracheally instilled into all the rats except those in the normal group, and EOCR was orally given to BLM-treated rats at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg once per day for four weeks. The rats in the normal group were intratracheally administered the same volume of saline. On the 28th day, rats were sacrificed under anesthesia, and the serum and lung tissues were collected. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activities and malondialdehyde (MDA contents in serum and lung tissues were analyzed with corresponding kits; type ? collagen (Col ? content in lung tissues was evaluated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; pulmonary fibrosis was assessed by lung histology; protein and mRNA expressions of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF in lung tissues were measured with immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization semiquantitative image analyses, respectively.RESULTS: The EOCR at different concentrations displayed inhibitory activity on proliferation of HELFs. In in vivo experiment, the weight gain of the rats in groups treated with EOCR at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg per day was significantly higher than those in the model group at the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day (P?0.05 or P?0.01. The scores of alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis in the groups treated with EOCR at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg per day were significantly lower than those in the model group (P?0.01; the SOD levels in serum and pulmonary tissues of the EOCR (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg groups were markedly increased compared with the model group (P?0.01 , while the MDA levels in both serum and pulmonary tissues were markedly reduced (P?0.05; the Col ? level in pulmonary tissues of the EOCR (100 and 200 mg/kg per day groups were markedly lower than that of the model group (P?0.01; the protein and mRNA expressions of CTGF in the groups treated with EOCR at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg per day were down-regulated compared with the model group (P?0.01.CONCLUSION: The results indicate that EOCR has preventive effects on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. The mechanism may be via adjusting the unbalance of oxidation and antioxidation, down-regulating CTGF protein and mRNA expressions, and reducing collagen deposition and fibrosis.

Xian-mei Zhou

2012-02-01

114

Comparación del "Tabog" (Swinglea glutinosa Merr con el limón "rugoso" (Citrus jambhiri Swingle y la mandarina "Cleopatra" (C. reticulata Swingle como porta-injerto para la lima acida ''Tahiti" (C. aurantifolia Swingle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the C.N.I.-I.C.A. Palmira, fruit trees program the influence of "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa was evaluated as rootstock for acid lime "Tahiti" Citrus aurantifolia, taking into account the following aspects: development and productivility of the trees quality and growth of fruits, demands of nutriments, and resistance or susceptibility to pest and disease; comparing its behavior with the commercial rootstocks rough, lemon C. jambhiri and mandarina, "Cleopatra" C. reticulata.En el C.N.l. Palmira del Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (lCA, se evaluó la influencia del "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa como porta-injerto para la lima "Tahiti " Citrus aurantifolia, teniendo en cuenta los siguientes aspectos: desarrollo y productividad del árbol, calidad y desarrollo de los frutos, exigencias de nutrimentos, resistencia o susceptibilidad a plagas y enfermedades; comparando su comportamiento con los porta-injertos comerciales limón "Rugoso" C. jambhiri y la mandarina "Cleopatra " C. reticulata.

Restrepo C. Orlando

1987-09-01

115

Avaliação da toxicidade aguda e potencial neurotóxico do óleo-resina de copaíba (Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae) / Assessment of the neurotoxic potential and acute toxicity of copaiba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O óleo-resina de copaíba obtido do gênero Copaifera L., Fabaceae, é largamente utilizado na medicina popular como antiinflamatório, antimicrobiano e antitumoral. Porém, informações sobre seu potencial tóxico são escassos na literatura. O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer a toxicidade oral aguda [...] e os possíveis efeitos neurotóxicos relacionados à ingestão do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, em ratas Wistar. O estudo foi conduzido com quinze ratas nulíparas distribuídas nos grupos de doses 300 e 2000 mg/kg pc de óleo-resina administrado por gavagem. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que nestas doses não houve sinais clínicos de toxicidade ou neurotoxicidade, alteração no consumo de ração ou alteração no peso corpóreo. A dose letal aguda foi estimada como maior que 2000 mg/kg pc e classificada como categoria 5, segundo o Guia OECD 423. Estes resultados indicam que existe uma relativa margem de segurança para o uso do óleo-resina de copaíba como agente terapêutico, embora estudos toxicológicos adicionais sejam ainda necessários, principalmente com a administração repetida de baixas doses. Abstract in english Copaiba oil-resin obtained from Copaifera L. genus, Fabaceae, is largely used in popular medicine as antinflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumoral. Information concerning the potential toxicity of this oil is limited in the literature. The goal of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity an [...] d the possible neurotoxic effects related to the ingestion of Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, oil-resin using female Wistar rats. Fifteen nulliparous rats were used and distributed in the experimental groups orally exposed to doses of 300 e 2000 mg/kg bw of oil-resin (gavage). No overt clinical signs of toxicity or neurotoxicity, alteration of food consumption or body weight were observed in the animals at the tested doses. The lethal oral toxicity was estimated to be higher than 2000 mg/kg bw, classified as category 5 according to OECD Guide 423. These results indicate that there is a certain safety margin associated with the use of copaiba as therapeutic agent, although additional toxicological studies are still necessary, mainly using repeated low doses.

Camile Giaretta, Sachetti; Maria Luiza, Fascineli; Juliana Alves, Sampaio; Osmar Alves, Lameira; Eloisa Dutra, Caldas.

2009-12-01

116

Avaliação da toxicidade aguda e potencial neurotóxico do óleo-resina de copaíba (Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae Assessment of the neurotoxic potential and acute toxicity of copaiba  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O óleo-resina de copaíba obtido do gênero Copaifera L., Fabaceae, é largamente utilizado na medicina popular como antiinflamatório, antimicrobiano e antitumoral. Porém, informações sobre seu potencial tóxico são escassos na literatura. O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer a toxicidade oral aguda e os possíveis efeitos neurotóxicos relacionados à ingestão do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, em ratas Wistar. O estudo foi conduzido com quinze ratas nulíparas distribuídas nos grupos de doses 300 e 2000 mg/kg pc de óleo-resina administrado por gavagem. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que nestas doses não houve sinais clínicos de toxicidade ou neurotoxicidade, alteração no consumo de ração ou alteração no peso corpóreo. A dose letal aguda foi estimada como maior que 2000 mg/kg pc e classificada como categoria 5, segundo o Guia OECD 423. Estes resultados indicam que existe uma relativa margem de segurança para o uso do óleo-resina de copaíba como agente terapêutico, embora estudos toxicológicos adicionais sejam ainda necessários, principalmente com a administração repetida de baixas doses.Copaiba oil-resin obtained from Copaifera L. genus, Fabaceae, is largely used in popular medicine as antinflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumoral. Information concerning the potential toxicity of this oil is limited in the literature. The goal of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity and the possible neurotoxic effects related to the ingestion of Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, oil-resin using female Wistar rats. Fifteen nulliparous rats were used and distributed in the experimental groups orally exposed to doses of 300 e 2000 mg/kg bw of oil-resin (gavage. No overt clinical signs of toxicity or neurotoxicity, alteration of food consumption or body weight were observed in the animals at the tested doses. The lethal oral toxicity was estimated to be higher than 2000 mg/kg bw, classified as category 5 according to OECD Guide 423. These results indicate that there is a certain safety margin associated with the use of copaiba as therapeutic agent, although additional toxicological studies are still necessary, mainly using repeated low doses.

Camile Giaretta Sachetti

2009-12-01

117

Indução do florescimento e crescimento de tangerineira 'Poncã' (Citrus reticulata Blanco em função da irrigação e da aplicação de paclobutrazol Flowering induction and vegetative development of 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco by irrigation and paclobutrazol application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP/Câmpus de Botucatu (SP, com o objetivo de avaliar o florescimento fora de época e o crescimento vegetativo da tangerineira 'Poncã'. Nesse contexto, adotou-se o delineamento estatístico em blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas, com duas repetições, na instalação do ensaio. Os dois tratamentos de -0,03 e -0,05 MPa, como potenciais mínimos da água no solo, constituíram as parcelas e as quatro doses de paclobutrazol: 0; 4; 8 e 12 g por planta, nas subparcelas. No segundo ano de pesquisa, foram mantidas as mesmas parcelas e foram aplicadas nas plantas das subparcelas as doses de 0; 500; 1000 e 2000 mg l-1 de paclobutrazol, via foliar. Cada parcela foi constituída de 16 plantas, sendo oito destinadas à avaliação. Utilizou-se, em ambas as combinações, de um tratamento sem irrigação (-0,07 MPa e sem aplicação de paclobutrazol, como testemunha. Foram avaliados parâmetros, como a altura, diâmetro médio, volume e área de projeção da copa e condutância estomática para caracterizar a resposta das plantas aos tratamentos empregados. Concluiu-se que a aplicação do paclobutrazol e a variação do potencial da água no solo não proporcionaram a indução do florescimento fora de época das tangerineiras, e que os níveis de paclobutrazol influenciaram no desenvolvimento das plantas.The aim of this research was to study the flowering out of season in no induction conditions and the vegetative development of 'Ponkan' mandarin by irrigation and paclobutrazol application. The experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences - UNESP/Botucatu, State of São Paulo. The treatments followed a randomized blocks experimental design, being distributed in split-splots, and two replications. Each experimental unit was represented per 16 plants, being 8 destined for the evaluations. The treatments consisted of two soil water potential, -0,03 e -0,05 MPa that constituted the main experimental unit and the paclobutrazol levels that represented the sub units. In the second year of the experiment the units were maintained and it was applied the paclobutrazol: 0; 500; 1000 e 2000 mg L-1, by foliar application, in the plants of the sub units. Both treatments was compared with the treatments without irrigation (control plants: -0,07MPa and whitout paclobutrazol application plants. It was evaluated the following parameters: height, scion diameter medium, scion projection area, scion volume and stomatic condutance showing the plant's response to treatments. It was concluded that the paclobutrazol application and the irrigation did not influence the plant's flowering out of season and that the paclobutrazol levels influenced the growth of 'Ponkan' mandarin plants.

Carlos Henrique dos Santos

2004-04-01

118

Disruptions in aromatase expression in the brain, reproductive behavior, and secondary sexual characteristics in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) induced by tributyltin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although bioaccumulation of tributyltin (TBT) in fish has been confirmed, information on possible effects of TBT on reproductive system of fish is still relatively scarce, particularly at environmentally relevant levels. To evaluate the adverse effects and intrinsic toxicological properties of TBT in male fish, we studied aromatase gene expression in the brain, sex steroid contents, primary and secondary sexual characteristics, and reproductive behavior in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to tributyltin chloride at the nominal concentrations of 5, 50, and 500ng/L for 28 days in a semi-static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay demonstrated that treatment with 50ng/L TBT caused an increase in systemic levels of testosterone of male guppies. Gonopodial index, which showed a positive correlation with testosterone levels, was elevated in the 5ng/L and 50ng/L TBT treated groups. Real-time PCR revealed that TBT exposure had inhibiting effects on expression of two isoforms of guppy aromatase in the brain, and these changes at the molecular levels were associated with a disturbance of reproductive behavior of the individuals, as measured by decreases in frequencies of posturing, sigmoid display, and chase activities when males were paired with females. This study provides the first evidence that TBT can cause abnormalities of secondary sexual characteristics in teleosts and that suppression of reproductive behavior in teleosts by TBT is due to its endocrine-disrupting action as an aromatase inhibitor targeting the nervous system. PMID:25814056

Tian, Hua; Wu, Peng; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

2015-05-01

119

Indução do florescimento e crescimento de tangerineira 'Poncã' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) em função da irrigação e da aplicação de paclobutrazol / Flowering induction and vegetative development of 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) by irrigation and paclobutrazol application  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi conduzido na Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP/Câmpus de Botucatu (SP), com o objetivo de avaliar o florescimento fora de época e o crescimento vegetativo da tangerineira 'Poncã'. Nesse contexto, adotou-se o delineamento estatístico em blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdi [...] vididas, com duas repetições, na instalação do ensaio. Os dois tratamentos de -0,03 e -0,05 MPa, como potenciais mínimos da água no solo, constituíram as parcelas e as quatro doses de paclobutrazol: 0; 4; 8 e 12 g por planta, nas subparcelas. No segundo ano de pesquisa, foram mantidas as mesmas parcelas e foram aplicadas nas plantas das subparcelas as doses de 0; 500; 1000 e 2000 mg l-1 de paclobutrazol, via foliar. Cada parcela foi constituída de 16 plantas, sendo oito destinadas à avaliação. Utilizou-se, em ambas as combinações, de um tratamento sem irrigação (-0,07 MPa) e sem aplicação de paclobutrazol, como testemunha. Foram avaliados parâmetros, como a altura, diâmetro médio, volume e área de projeção da copa e condutância estomática para caracterizar a resposta das plantas aos tratamentos empregados. Concluiu-se que a aplicação do paclobutrazol e a variação do potencial da água no solo não proporcionaram a indução do florescimento fora de época das tangerineiras, e que os níveis de paclobutrazol influenciaram no desenvolvimento das plantas. Abstract in english The aim of this research was to study the flowering out of season in no induction conditions and the vegetative development of 'Ponkan' mandarin by irrigation and paclobutrazol application. The experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences - UNESP/Botucatu, State of São Paulo. T [...] he treatments followed a randomized blocks experimental design, being distributed in split-splots, and two replications. Each experimental unit was represented per 16 plants, being 8 destined for the evaluations. The treatments consisted of two soil water potential, -0,03 e -0,05 MPa that constituted the main experimental unit and the paclobutrazol levels that represented the sub units. In the second year of the experiment the units were maintained and it was applied the paclobutrazol: 0; 500; 1000 e 2000 mg L-1, by foliar application, in the plants of the sub units. Both treatments was compared with the treatments without irrigation (control plants: -0,07MPa) and whitout paclobutrazol application plants. It was evaluated the following parameters: height, scion diameter medium, scion projection area, scion volume and stomatic condutance showing the plant's response to treatments. It was concluded that the paclobutrazol application and the irrigation did not influence the plant's flowering out of season and that the paclobutrazol levels influenced the growth of 'Ponkan' mandarin plants.

Carlos Henrique dos, Santos; Antonio Evaldo, Klar; Hélio, Grassi Filho; João Domingos, Rodrigues; Fernanda Cristina, Pierre.

2004-04-01

120

Histamine H3 receptor activation selectively inhibits dopamine D1 receptor-dependent [3H]GABA release from depolarization-stimulated slices of rat substantia nigra pars reticulata  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The release of [3H]GABA from slices of rat substantia nigra pars reticulata induced by increasing extracellular K+ from 6 to 15 mM in the presence of 10 ?M sulpiride was inhibited by 73±3% by 1 ?M SCH 23390, consistent with a large component of release dependent upon D1 receptor activation. The histamine H3 receptor-selective agonist immepip (1 ?M) and the non-selective agonist histamine (100 ?M) inhibited [3H]GABA release by 78±2 and 80±2%, respectively. The inhibition by both agonists was reversed by the H3 receptor antagonist thioperamide (1 ?M). However, in the presence of 1 ?M SCH 23390 depolarization-induced release of [3H]GABA was not significantly decreased by 1 ?M immepip. In rats depleted of dopamine by pretreatment with reserpine, immepip no longer inhibited control release of [3H]GABA, but in the presence of 1 ?M SKF 38393, which produced a 7±1-fold stimulation of release, immepip reduced the release to a level not statistically different from that in the presence of immepip alone. Immepip (1 ?M) also inhibited the depolarization-induced release of [3H]dopamine from substantia nigra pars reticulata slices, by 38±3%.The evidence is consistent with the proposition that activation of histamine H3 receptors leads to the selective inhibition of the component of depolarization-induced [3H]GABA release in substantia nigra pars retin substantia nigra pars reticulata slices which is dependent upon D1 receptor activation. This appears to be largely an action at the terminals of the striatonigral GABA projection neurons, which may be enhanced by a partial inhibition of dendritic [3H]dopamine release. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

121

Regulation of substantia nigra pars reticulata GABAergic neuron activity by hydrogen peroxide via flufenamic acid-sensitive channels and KATP channels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr GABAergic neurons are key output neurons of the basal ganglia. Given the role of these neurons in motor control, it is important to understand factors that regulate their firing rate and pattern. One potential regulator is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, a reactive oxygen species that is increasingly recognized as a neuromodulator. We used whole-cell current clamp recordings of SNr GABAergic neurons in guinea-pig midbrain slices to determine how H2O2 affects the activity of these neurons and to explore the classes of ion channels underlying those effects. Elevation of H2O2 levels caused an increase in the spontaneous firing rate of SNr GABAergic neurons, whether by application of exogenous H2O2 or amplification of endogenous H2O2 through inhibition of glutathione peroxidase with mercaptosuccinate. This effect was reversed by flufenamic acid, implicating transient receptor potential (TRP channels. Conversely, depletion of endogenous H2O2 by catalase, a peroxidase enzyme, decreased spontaneous firing rate and firing precision of SNr neurons, demonstrating tonic control of firing rate by H2O2. Elevation of H2O2 in the presence of flufenamic acid revealed an inhibition of tonic firing that was prevented by blockade of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP channels with glibenclamide. In contrast to guinea-pig SNr neurons, the dominant effect of H2O2 elevation in mouse SNr GABAergic neurons was hyperpolarization, indicating a species difference in H2O2-dependent regulation. Thus, H2O2 is an endogenous modulator of SNr GABAergic neurons, acting primarily through presumed TRP channels in guinea pig, with additional modulation via KATP channels to regulate SNr output.

MargaretERice

2011-04-01

122

Dopaminergic Control of the Globus Pallidus through Activation of D2 Receptors and Its Impact on the Electrical Activity of Subthalamic Nucleus and Substantia Nigra Reticulata Neurons  

Science.gov (United States)

The globus pallidus (GP) receives dopaminergic afferents from the pars compacta of substantia nigra and several studies suggested that dopamine exerts its action in the GP through presynaptic D2 receptors (D2Rs). However, the impact of dopamine in GP on the pallido-subthalamic and pallido-nigral neurotransmission is not known. Here, we investigated the role of dopamine, through activation of D2Rs, in the modulation of GP neuronal activity and its impact on the electrical activity of subthalamic nucleus (STN) and substantia nigra reticulata (SNr) neurons. Extracellular recordings combined with local intracerebral microinjection of drugs were done in male Sprague-Dawley rats under urethane anesthesia. We showed that dopamine, when injected locally, increased the firing rate of the majority of neurons in the GP. This increase of the firing rate was mimicked by quinpirole, a D2R agonist, and prevented by sulpiride, a D2R antagonist. In parallel, the injection of dopamine, as well as quinpirole, in the GP reduced the firing rate of majority of STN and SNr neurons. However, neither dopamine nor quinpirole changed the tonic discharge pattern of GP, STN and SNr neurons. Our results are the first to demonstrate that dopamine through activation of D2Rs located in the GP plays an important role in the modulation of GP-STN and GP-SNr neurotransmission and consequently controls STN and SNr neuronal firing. Moreover, we provide evidence that dopamine modulate the firing rate but not the pattern of GP neurons, which in turn control the firing rate, but not the pattern of STN and SNr neurons. PMID:25742005

Mamad, Omar; Delaville, Claire; Benjelloun, Wail; Benazzouz, Abdelhamid

2015-01-01

123

Regeneração de plantas após fusão de protoplastos de tangelo 'Page' e toranja 'Lau Tau' Plant regeneration after protoplast fusion of 'Page' tangelo and 'Lau Tau' pummelo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Buscou-se a hibridação somática entre tangelo 'Page' e toranja 'Lau Tau' visando à produção de porta-enxerto semelhante à laranja-azeda, por esta espécie ser considerada um provável híbrido entre C. reticulata e C. grandis. Após isolamento, fusão e cultivo de protoplastos, obtiveram-se brotações que foram enxertadas in vitro, em laranja 'Hamlin'. Dezessete plantas foram aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação. A análise de citometria de fluxo confirmou a constituição diplóide dessas plantas. Marcadores moleculares RAPD das plantas regeneradas apresentaram padrão de bandas similar ao de tangelo 'Page'. Entretanto, todas as plantas apresentaram conformação fenotípica diferente dos genitores.This work aimed to produce somatic hybrid between 'Page' tangelo and 'Lau Tau' pummelo in an attempt to regenerate a similar rootstock to sour orange, because this species is considered a probable hybrid between C. reticulata and C. grandis. After protoplast isolation, fusion and culture regenerated shoots were in vitro grafted on 'Hamlin' sweet orange. Seventeen plants were acclimatized in a greenhouse. Citometric flow analyses revealed that all plants are diploid. RAPD molecular markers of regenerated plants had the same pattern as compared to 'Page' tangelo. However, all plants had phenotypic traits different from both genitors.

Dayse Cristina de Carvalho

2007-08-01

124

Histamine H{sub 3} receptor activation selectively inhibits dopamine D{sub 1} receptor-dependent [{sup 3}H]GABA release from depolarization-stimulated slices of rat substantia nigra pars reticulata  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The release of [{sup 3}H]GABA from slices of rat substantia nigra pars reticulata induced by increasing extracellular K{sup +} from 6 to 15 mM in the presence of 10 {mu}M sulpiride was inhibited by 73{+-}3% by 1 {mu}M SCH 23390, consistent with a large component of release dependent upon D{sub 1} receptor activation. The histamine H{sub 3} receptor-selective agonist immepip (1 {mu}M) and the non-selective agonist histamine (100 {mu}M) inhibited [{sup 3}H]GABA release by 78{+-}2 and 80{+-}2%, respectively. The inhibition by both agonists was reversed by the H{sub 3} receptor antagonist thioperamide (1 {mu}M). However, in the presence of 1 {mu}M SCH 23390 depolarization-induced release of [{sup 3}H]GABA was not significantly decreased by 1 {mu}M immepip. In rats depleted of dopamine by pretreatment with reserpine, immepip no longer inhibited control release of [{sup 3}H]GABA, but in the presence of 1 {mu}M SKF 38393, which produced a 7{+-}1-fold stimulation of release, immepip reduced the release to a level not statistically different from that in the presence of immepip alone. Immepip (1 {mu}M) also inhibited the depolarization-induced release of [{sup 3}H]dopamine from substantia nigra pars reticulata slices, by 38{+-}3%.The evidence is consistent with the proposition that activation of histamine H{sub 3} receptors leads to the selective inhibition of the component of depolarization-induced [{sup 3}H]GABA release in substantia nigra pars reticulata slices which is dependent upon D{sub 1} receptor activation. This appears to be largely an action at the terminals of the striatonigral GABA projection neurons, which may be enhanced by a partial inhibition of dendritic [{sup 3}H]dopamine release. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

Aceves, J. [Departmento de Fisiologia, Biofisica y Neurociencias, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico (Mexico); Young, J.M. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Arias-Montano, J.A.; Floran, B.; Garcia, M. [Departmento de Fisiologia, Biofisica y Neurociencias, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico (Mexico)

1997-06-25

125

Contribution à l'étude de l'écologie et de la biologie des homoptères ravageurs des arbres fruitiers et autres plantes: II. - Influence de la plante-hôte et de sa phénologie sur l'évolution des infestations d'Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Hom.: Aleyrodidae en République du Congo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contribution to the Knowlegde of the Ecology and Biology of Homopterous Pests of Fruit Trees and other Plants: II. - The Influence of the Host Plant and its Phenology on the Evolution of Infestation of Aleurodicus disperses Russell (Hom.: Aleyrodidae in Republic of the Congo. The purpose of this study was to estimate the infestations' frequencies of Aleurodicus dispersus Russell on 20 host plants species. The observations carried out under natural conditions reveal the prominent part taken by host species and its phenology on the seasonal distribution of the infestations. The magnitude of the infestations seems to be correlated with the number of elderly leaves. Furthermore, it has been proved that hosts as Hura crepitans, Persea americana, Acacia auriculoformis, Elaeis guineensis and Eucalyptus alba x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid were very attractive for the laying of A. dispersus, while Mangifera indica, Citrus reticulata, Carica papaya and Dacryodes edulis were less attractive for the whitefly.

Kiyindou, A.

2003-01-01

126

Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (U sus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in U sus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (U opt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg(-1). Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between U crit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced U crit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between U sus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between U sus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high U sus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between U sus and U opt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming economy and optimum speed. PMID:25741285

Svendsen, Jon C; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A; Steffensen, John F

2015-01-01

127

Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport  

Science.gov (United States)

Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; Ucrit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (Usus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in Usus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (Uopt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg?1. Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between Ucrit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced Ucrit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between Usus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between Usus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high Usus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between Usus and Uopt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming economy and optimum speed. PMID:25741285

Svendsen, Jon C.; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.; Steffensen, John F.

2015-01-01

128

Diversity of endophytic bacterial populations and their interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in citrus plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as cultivation-independent techniques. The endophytic communities were assessed in surface-disinfected citrus branches by plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Dominant isolates were characterized by fatty-acid methyl ester analysis as Bacillus pumilus, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter cloacae, Methylobacterium spp. (including Methylobacterium extorquens, M. fujisawaense, M. mesophilicum, M. radiotolerans, and M. zatmanii), Nocardia sp., Pantoea agglomerans, and Xanthomonas campestris. We observed a relationship between CVC symptoms and the frequency of isolation of species of Methylobacterium, the genus that we most frequently isolated from symptomatic plants. In contrast, we isolated C. flaccumfaciens significantly more frequently from asymptomatic plants than from those with symptoms of CVC while P. agglomerans was frequently isolated from tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and sweet-orange (C. sinensis) plants, irrespective of whether the plants were symptomatic or asymptomatic or showed symptoms of CVC. DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total plant DNA resulted in several bands that matched those from the bacterial isolates, indicating that DGGE profiles can be used to detect some endophytic bacteria of citrus plants. However, some bands had no match with any isolate, suggesting the occurrence of other, nonculturable or as yet uncultured, endophytic bacteria. A specific band with a high G+C ratio was observed only in asymptomatic plants. The higher frequency of C. flaccumfaciens in asymptomatic plants suggests a role for this organism in the resistance of plants to CVC. PMID:12324338

Araújo, Welington L; Marcon, Joelma; Maccheroni, Walter; Van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Van Vuurde, Jim W L; Azevedo, João Lúcio

2002-10-01

129

Isolation, screening, characterization, and selection of superior rhizobacterial strains as bioinoculants for seedling emergence and growth promotion of Mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco).  

Science.gov (United States)

Mandarin orange (MO) is an important fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions of the world. A total of 217 morphologically distinct rhizobacteria from MO orchards in 3 states of northeastern India were isolated and analyzed for 4 plant-growth-promoting (PGP) attributes: nitrogen fixation, production of indole acetic acid like substances, solubilization of phosphate, and ability to antagonize pathogenic fungi. Isolates were ranked based on in-vitro-assayed PGP attributes, and 10 superior isolates were selected to test their effect on seedling emergence and seedling growth in a completely randomized pot experiment. These 10 isolates increased seedling emergence over a noninoculated control within 45 days after sowing. Five isolates, namely RCE1, RCE2, RCE3, RCE5, and RCE7, significantly increased shoot length, shoot dry biomass, and root dry biomass of 120-day-old seedlings over the noninoculated control. The beneficial effects of 4 selected strains, namely Enterobacter hormaechei RCE-1, Enterobacter asburiae RCE-2, Enterobacter ludwigii RCE-5, and Klebsiella pneumoniae RCE-7, on growth of the seedlings were visible up to 1 year after their transfer to 8 kg capacity pots. These strains were superior both in terms of in-vitro-assayed PGP attributes and of their beneficial effect in low phosphorus soil and, thus, may be promising bioinoculants for promoting early emergence and growth of MO seedlings. PMID:24498985

Thokchom, Elizabeth; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra

2014-02-01

130

Power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The power plant of simplified construction ensuring to increase the effectivness of transformation of solar and wind power with wide functional possibilities in autonomous work regime was elaborated. The power plant has solar and wind plants, electro generator and accumulating device. Solar plant includes solar transformers with gears of azimuthal-zenithal shadowing for sun, the power plant is supplied with shadowing sensor for sun. Solar and wind plants have been made in the kind of two independent units. The wind wheel of plant is fixed strongly on vertical rotation axle and the disk-multiplicator joined with rotor of electrogenerator is installed. (E.V.Kh.)

131

Poisonous Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

... Workplace Safety & Health Topics NIOSH Share Compartir POISONOUS PLANTS On this Page How Poison Ivy Works U.S. ... this section courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture Plant Identification The old saying " Leaves of three, Let ...

132

Plant toxicology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book comprises a general part on plant biology, the pathway of pollutant accumulation in plants, and the function of plants as pollutant indicators, as well as a specialized section in which pollutants and their effects are classified by origin and type of compound. Finally, indirect damage caused by parasites or radiation effects is gone into. Higher plants and fungi get most of the attention but lichens, mosses and algae are discussed as well. (orig./MG)

133

Plant walkdown  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report covers the following: preparatory steps for performing plant walk-down; the objective of the first plant walk-down; plant walk-down procedures; earthquake screening evaluation; walk-down documentation; second plant walk-down. The following objectives concerning the plant walk-down(s) were achieved. The plant system configuration is verified in order to proceed with event tree and fault tree analyses. Systems interactions, other types of dependencies or plant unique features are identified. he safety related components that are judged to generically possess high capacities (i.e., larger than the earthquake review level) have been verified to contain no weaknesses. Further analyses needed to establish the capacities of remaining safety-related components are identified and necessary field data are obtained. Information on components is obtained to assist in HCLPF (fragility) evaluation and peer review of the seismic margin study

134

Carnivorous Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The animal kingdom may have its egg-laying platypus, but the plant kingdom is not without its own odd twists on taxonomy. If movies like Little Shop of Horrors are any indication, carnivorous plants like the Venus flytrap, sundew, and pitcher plant never fail to spark the imagination. The following set of Web sites presents a brief introduction to carnivorous plants and includes loads of great photos. The first site (1) contains the Galleria Carnivora, a terrific collection of carnivorous plant photographs, compiled by carnivorous plant enthusiast Barry Rice. Rice has created a virtual art museum for these photos, which, together with his tongue-in-cheek commentary, provides a fun way to get acquainted with this diverse group of plants. The second Web site contains another extensive image gallery (presented by Matthias and Oliver Schmidt), this time showing carnivorous plants in their natural habitats (2). The Venus flytrap is the first carnivorous plant many of us encounter. With this next Web site from HowStuffWorks, readers can find out exactly how the flytrap attracts, traps, and digests its insect prey (3). The following site from Indiana University's Roger P. Hangarter offers a cool QuickTime movie of a Venus flytrap in action -- part of the Plants-In-Motion video collection (4). In this appealing and informative Web site (5), Marlis and Dennis Merbach present the Nepenthes (a genus of tropical pitcher plants) of Borneo, the center of Nepenthes diversity. Visitors to the next site will be treated to a beautiful photomicrograph of a sundew plant, entered by Earl Nishiguchi in Nikon's Small World Gallery photo contest (6). Boston's Museum of Science offers an interesting magnified image of a bladderwort, a tiny carnivorous plant found in freshwater (7). And, another Web site from Barry Rice (mentioned above) provides an entertaining look at carnivorous plants on TV and the silver screen, from Attack of the Killer Tomatoes to Minority Report and more (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

135

Screening of promising chemotherapeutic candidates from plants against human adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (III).  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a malignancy of mature peripheral T lymphocytes caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I). In our previous paper, 214 extracts from 162 plants were screened to elucidate the anti-proliferative principles against HTLV-I-infected T-cell lines. In this study, 245 extracts from 182 plants belonging to 61 families were further tested against two HTLV-I-infected T-cell lines (MT-1 and MT-2). Potent anti-proliferative effects were exhibited against MT-1 and MT-2 cells by 52 and 60 of the 245 extracts tested, respectively. Of these, two extracts showed strong inhibitory activity (EC?? values 0.1-1 ?g/mL; +++) against both cells, 7 extracts showed moderate inhibitory activity (EC5?? values 1-10 ?g/mL; ++), and 43 extracts showed weak inhibitory activity (EC?? values 10-100 ?g/mL; +), whereas the remaining extracts did not show any activity (EC?? values >100 ?g/mL; -) against MT-1 cells. On the other hand, 10 extracts showed moderate inhibitory activit and, 48 extracts showed weak inhibitory activity, whereas the remaining extracts did not show any activity against MT-2 cells. Extracts from the aerial parts of Annona reticulata and A. squamosa showed the most potent inhibitory activity and three aporphine alkaloids were isolated from their extracts as the active principles by activity-guided fractionation. PMID:23397239

Nakano, Daisuke; Ishitsuka, Kenji; Kamikawa, Mio; Matsuda, Michika; Tsuchihashi, Ryota; Okawa, Masafumi; Okabe, Hikaru; Tamura, Kazuo; Kinjo, Junei

2013-10-01

136

Annual Plant Reviews : Plant Proteomics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The proteome comprises all protein species resulting from gene expression in a cell, organelle, tissue or organism. By definition, proteomics aims to identify and characterise the expression pattern, cellular location, activity, regulation, post-translational modifications, molecular interactions, three dimensional structures and functions of each protein in a biological system. In plant science, the number of proteome studies is rapidly expanding after the completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence, and proteome analyses of other important or emerging model systems and crop plants are in progress or are being initiated. Proteome analysis in plants is subject to the same obstacles and limitations as in other organisms, but the nature of plant tissues, with their rigid cell walls and complex variety of secondary metabolites, means that extra challenges are involved that may not be faced when analysing other organisms. This volume aims to highlight the ways in which proteome analysis has been used to probe the complexities of plant biochemistry and physiology. It is aimed at researchers in plant biochemistry, genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics who wish to gain an up-to-date insight into plant proteomes, the information plant proteomics can yield and the directions plant proteome research is taking.

2006-01-01

137

Carnivorous Plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

This biology lesson on carnivorous (insectivorous) plants is designed to supplement the textbook in the areas of plant diversity, ecology, and distribution. An introduction provides general background information for use as lecture material by the teacher or as reading and/or study material for students. The introduction also includes…

Canipe, Stephen

138

Plant ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progress is reported in the following areas of research: effects of chromium toxicity on bush bean plants; role of synthetic chelating agents in mineral cycling; use of waste pyrites from mine operations on highly calcareous soil; roots of higher plants as a barrier to translocation of metals; nitrogen cycle in the northern Mohave desert; plant productivity and nutrient interrelationships of perennials; effects of copper, cobalt, cadmium, zinc, nickel, and chromium on growth and mineral concentration in chrysanthemum; plant uptake of 239Pu, 240Pu, and 241Am through roots from soils containing aged fallout materials; estimated inventory of plutonium and uranium radionuclides for vegetation in aged fallout areas; and temperature and water relations and photosynthesis in desert plants

139

Plant Cultures  

Science.gov (United States)

With its radiant colors and well-thought-out design, the Plant Cultures website's primary goal is "to convey the richness and complexity of links between Britain and South Asia, through the story of plants and people". The project covers both the historical and contemporary aspects of Britain and South Asia through a wide range of resources, including historic images, recipes, and other items. Through a series of tabs at the top of the homepage (such as "Themes" and "Stories"), visitors can begin to explore the diverse content offered here. The "Plants" area is a good place to start, as visitors can learn about garlic, henna, holy basil, sugar cane, and 21 other plants. One rather fun area of the site is the Story Library, where visitors can place their own stories regarding the use of different plants, and read those from previous guests.

140

Plant Speciation  

Science.gov (United States)

Like the formation of animal species, plant speciation is characterized by the evolution of barriers to genetic exchange between previously interbreeding populations. Prezygotic barriers, which impede mating or fertilization between species, typically contribute more to total reproductive isolation in plants than do postzygotic barriers, in which hybrid offspring are selected against. Adaptive divergence in response to ecological factors such as pollinators and habitat commonly drives the evolution of prezygotic barriers, but the evolutionary forces responsible for the development of intrinsic postzygotic barriers are virtually unknown and frequently result in polymorphism of incompatibility factors within species. Polyploid speciation, in which the entire genome is duplicated, is particularly frequent in plants, perhaps because polyploid plants often exhibit ecological differentiation, local dispersal, high fecundity, perennial life history, and self-fertilization or asexual reproduction. Finally, species richness in plants is correlated with many biological and geohistorical factors, most of which increase ecological opportunities.

Loren H. Rieseberg (University of British Columbia/Indiana University; Department of Botany/Department of Biology)

2007-08-17

141

Plant Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

The unit is designed to be completed in six or more sessions. The comprehensive curriculum materials contain information for teachers, including activity tips and an overview of the many varied reasons that plant life flourishes in one plot but not another. Students speculate on why plants are more abundant in some areas of the site than others. They list factors that might account for the differences, such as temperature, humidity, light, soil, rainfall, wind, and human or animal activity, and figure out how they can collect more data on these factors. They discuss why it might be important to take a count of all the individual plants in each plot and develop a plan for conducting the field study. A reading selection describes how scientists count plants and gives students tips for conducting their own survey. Students then count plants and record their data. Several optional activities are provided.

142

Plant Hunt  

Science.gov (United States)

In this outdoor activity and game, learners collect and sort leaf samples to determine how many types of plants grow in the activity site. Learners are introduced to the concept of "species" and start to see differences and similarities between the plants around them. Included with the activity instructions is the "Leaf Characteristic Game," as well as ideas for going further with leafy art projects.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1980-01-01

143

Plant Identification  

Science.gov (United States)

This unit on plant identification helps students prepare for their fieldwork by developing their observational skills and introducing them to resources that will help them with plant identification. It's designed to be completed in five or more sessions and has comprehensive curriculum materials information for teachers, including overviews of binomial nomenclature and dichotomous keys. Additionally, a guide to finding local specialists is available online. There are optional activites and information on supplemental resources available on line.

144

Process plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An improved plant is described for utilising the heat produced by a high temperature gas cooled reactor for conducting endothermic chemical processes. One such process is the methane/steam reformer process to produce hydrogen. Difficulties arise in absorbing the substantial amount of heat produced centrally in the reactor in the dispersed process zones of the plant. The plant described has at least one bank of parallel process tubes, with hot gas conduits surrounding the process tubes for heating the tubes. a pair of header pipes is connected to the supply reactants to one end of the process tubes and to accept reacted products from the other end of the tubes, and a second pair of header pipes is connected to supply heating gas to one end of the conduits and to receive the gas from the other end of the process tubes. (UK)

145

Plant intelligence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intelligent behavior is a complex adaptive phenomenon that has evolved to enable organisms to deal with variable environmental circumstances. Maximizing fitness requires skill in foraging for necessary resources (food) in competitive circumstances and is probably the activity in which intelligent behavior is most easily seen. Biologists suggest that intelligence encompasses the characteristics of detailed sensory perception, information processing, learning, memory, choice, optimisation of resource sequestration with minimal outlay, self-recognition, and foresight by predictive modeling. All these properties are concerned with a capacity for problem solving in recurrent and novel situations. Here I review the evidence that individual plant species exhibit all of these intelligent behavioral capabilities but do so through phenotypic plasticity, not movement. Furthermore it is in the competitive foraging for resources that most of these intelligent attributes have been detected. Plants should therefore be regarded as prototypical intelligent organisms, a concept that has considerable consequences for investigations of whole plant communication, computation and signal transduction. PMID:16142448

Trewavas, Anthony

2005-09-01

146

Burdock plant  

Science.gov (United States)

Burdock seeds are curved and there is a kind of hook on one end of the seed. The hook is easily caught on animal fur and the clothing of humans as they pass by. This helps the seeds spread. This is a commensalistic relationship because the burdock plant benefits while the animal or human is neither harmed nor helped.

Michael Becker (None; )

2005-07-03

147

Plant Biotechnology  

OpenAIRE

The first decade of the 21st century has seen an intense debate of the potential contribution of Plant Biotechnology to meeting present and future world demands of food and biomass. The discussion started in 1997 when the first genetically modified (GM) crops were approved by the EPA for commercial production. The debate has been later stimulated by the increasing awareness of the potential effects of global climate change on agricultural production, as the current crops may be poorly adapted...

Khalid Mahmood Khawar; Selma Onarici; Cigdem Alev Ozel; Muhammad Aasim; Allah Bakhsh; Abdul Qayyum Rao

2013-01-01

148

Plant Tissue Culture Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant tissue culture techniques are essential to many types of academic inquiry, as well as to many applied aspects of plant science. Currently, tissue-cultured plants that have been genetically engineered provide insight into plant molecular biology and gene regulation. Plant tissue culture techniques are also central to innovative areas of applied plant science, including plant biotechnology and agriculture. Thus, tissue culture techniques have been, and still are, prominent in academic and applied plant science.

Lorraine Mineo (Lafayette College; )

1989-06-06

149

Bubbling Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Students learn a simple technique for quantifying the amount of photosynthesis that occurs in a given period of time, using a common water plant (Elodea). They can use this technique to compare the amounts of photosynthesis that occur under conditions of low and high light levels. Before they begin the experiment, however, students must come up with a well-worded hypothesis to be tested. After running the experiment, students pool their data to get a large sample size, determine the measures of central tendency of the class data, and then graph and interpret the results.

Engineering K-PhD Program,

150

Plant Physiology  

Science.gov (United States)

Full text of this journal, provided by the American Society of Plant Physiologists, has been made freely available (through the end of 1998) by Stanford University's HighWire Press. Full text is available since January 1998, with selected abstracts and/or table of contents being available for previous issues. The trial period for the journal ends in December 1998. After those dates, the journal will be available only by individual or institutional subscriptions, but access to tables of contents, abstracts, and full text searching will continue to be available to the public.

151

Plant Power  

Science.gov (United States)

In this chemistry challenge, learners identify which plants have the enzyme "catalase" that breaks hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. Multiple fruits and vegetables, both raw and cooked (a few seconds in boiling water, or 30 seconds in the microwave) should be available for testing. Preparation time can be shortened by using a food processor. Background information is provided about enzymes (proteins that act as catalysts), and the specific enzyme catalase, which catalyzes hydrogen peroxide. Since heating destroys enzymes, cooked fruits and vegetables have no catalytic activity.

Sciencenter

2014-08-27

152

Nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.)

153

LNG plant combined with power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs

154

Evaluation of antioxidant effect of Salacia oblonga against aluminum chloride induced visceral toxicity in albino rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Result: The results showed that S. oblonga produced significant (pS. oblonga protects against aluminuminduced oxidative stress, which is an important finding that further reinforces the antioxidant properties of this natural product. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 315-319

S. Nathiya

2014-04-01

155

Investigating Plant Physiology with Wisconsin Fast Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The activities and backgroundinformation in this booklet are designed to support investigations into three primary areas of plant physiology (how plants function): Nutrition, Tropism, and Hormone Response (using gibberellin).

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

156

Effects of flooding on grafted annona plants of different scion/rootstock combinations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Annona atemoya Hort cv. African Pride (AP is highly valued due to its high quality and unique flavor, but highly susceptible to water-logging. Prevalence of root diseases in saturated soils is one of the main problems in production, which restricts the development of AP in south China, where flooding frequently occurs in rainy seasons. However, some annona species, e.g. A. montana, A. glabra and A. muricata, are relatively tolerant to continuous flooding and periodic water-logging conditions, but of limited commercial value. Yet, the potential may exist to increase flood tolerance of commercial annona varieties by the use of flood tolerant rootstocks. An experiment was conducted with the aim to study the effects of continuous or periodical soil flooding on tree performances of four different annona scion/rootstock combinations: AP/AR/G (scion/interstock/rootstock, AR/G (scion/rootstock, AP/AR/M and AR/M, where AP stands for Annona atemoya Hort cv. African Pride, AR for the hybrid of “AP” atemoya × A. reticulata, used as an interstock, G for pond apple (A. glabra, and M for mountain soursop (A. montana. Plant growth, leaf net photosynthetic rates and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were measured regularly after flooding treatments were applied. Flooding treatments reduced shoot extension, leaf production, net photosynthetic rates and maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm in plants of AP/AR/M and AR/M, which displayed wilting within 2 weeks of flooding, with a higher wilting percentage in AP/AR/M than in AR/M. The wilted plants shed all leaves but remained alive and sprouted new but weak shoots after 16 weeks of flooding. Long term flooding did not suppress but enhanced photosynthesis as well as tree growth in AP/AR/G and AR/G, with vigorous growth of adventitious roots. Thus, we suggest the use A. glabra instead of A. montana as a rootstock and AR as an interstock to increase flood tolerance of commercial annona varieties.

Jian-Yun Zhu

2012-03-01

157

Nuclear Power Plant Accidents  

Science.gov (United States)

NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENTS Nuclear power plants have safety and security procedures in place and are closely ... a plume). What are the main dangers of nuclear power plant accidents? Radioactive materials in the plume ...

158

The plant microbiome  

OpenAIRE

Plant genomes contribute to the structure and function of the plant microbiome, a key determinant of plant health and productivity. High-throughput technologies are revealing interactions between these complex communities and their hosts in unprecedented detail.

Turner, Tr; James, Ek; Poole, Ps

2013-01-01

159

Focus Issue: Plant Communication  

Science.gov (United States)

This week’s issues of Science and Science’s STKE focus on plant signaling with an emphasis on volatile organic compounds. Science emphasizes the chemistry of and information encoded by plant volatiles and how plants, plant pathogens, or humans utilize this aromatic information. Articles and resources at STKE highlight the evolution of olfactory signal transduction, describe the biosynthetic and signaling pathways of the plant hormone jasmonate, and provide an animated overview of how the plant hormone auxin regulates gene expression.

Nancy R. Gough (American Association for the Advancement of Science; Science's STKE REV)

2006-02-14

160

THE PLANT ONTOLOGY CONSORTIUM AND PLANT ONTOLOGIES  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of the Plant OntologyTM Consortium is to produce structured controlled vocabularies, arranged in ontologies, that can be applied to plant-based database information even as knowledge of the biology of the relevant plant taxa (e.g., development, anatomy, morphology, genomics, proteomics) is ...

161

Plant Growth Regulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant growth regulators, including auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, and ethylene, are investigated in this learning activity to demonstrate how these chemicals (hormones) affect plant growth and development.

This page authored by Jim Bidlack, University of Central Oklahoma, based on original activities by Long Ashton Research Station, KScience, Cynthia Herbrandson, Kellogg Community College, Ross Koning, Eastern Connecticut State University, and A.G. Scientific, Inc.

162

Arctic plants, frequent flyers?  

Science.gov (United States)

If the climate gets too warm or cold, an animal can walk, fly or swim to a more comfortable habitat. But what about a plant? Although an individual plant is typically stuck in the same place for life, new research suggests that some plant seeds can travel long distances, allowing a plant species to move into a new area.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

2007-06-14

163

Plant Biology Science Projects.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book contains science projects about seed plants that deal with plant physiology, plant ecology, and plant agriculture. Each of the projects includes a step-by-step experiment followed by suggestions for further investigations. Chapters include: (1) "Bean Seed Imbibition"; (2) "Germination Percentages of Different Types of Seeds"; (3)…

Hershey, David R.

164

GCFR plant control system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A plant control system is being designed for a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) demonstration plant. Control analysis is being performed as an integral part of the plant design process to ensure that control requirements are satisfied as the plant design evolves. The load control portion of the plant control system provides stable automatic (closed-loop) control of the plant over the 25% to 100% load range. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate load control system performance. The results show that the plant is controllable at full load with the control system structure selected, but gain scheduling is required to achieve desired performance over the load range.

Estrine, E.A.; Greiner, H.G.

1980-05-01

165

Land Plants Online  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to a growing interest regarding evolutionary relationships of green plants in recent years, Dan Nickrent and Karen Renzaglia--of Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC)--developed Land Plants Online (LPO). LPO was also designed to provide researchers and students with a centralized source for new information resulting from technological advancements in the field. LPO's stated goal "is to bring together, from a variety of disciplines, the available information on evolutionary relationships in land plants including their most likely outgroup, charophycean algae." The heart of LPO is the Phylum Pages, which are organized by Non Vascular plants (Bryophytes), and Vascular Plants (Tracheophytes). The site also includes sections for Phylogenetic Relationships among Land Plants, and Character Matrices for Land Plants. In addition, site visitors will find a collection of general references for basal land plants, contact information for plant specialists, information on SIUC land plant research, and related links.

Nickrent, Daniel Lee

166

Aquatic plant communities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report evaluates the expected responses of aquatic plants to elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO/sub 2/. We include aquatic plants with emergent foliage, as well as submersed macrophytes and microscopic algae and consider both freshwater and marine plants. We review known effects of inorganic carbon on aquatic plants, project the possible effects of a doubling in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ on aquatic plants, and discuss needed research on this problem. 192 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

Wetzel, R.G.; Grace, J.B.

1983-01-01

167

Pathogen Phytosensing: Plants to Report Plant Pathogens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Real-time systems that provide evidence of pathogen contamination in crops can be an important new line of early defense in agricultural centers. Plants possess defense mechanisms to protect against pathogen attack. Inducible plant defense is controlled by signal transduction pathways, inducible promoters and cis-regulatory elements corresponding to key genes involved in defense, and pathogen-specific responses. Identified inducible promoters and cis-acting elements could be utilized in plant sentinels, or ‘phytosensors’, by fusing these to reporter genes to produce plants with altered phenotypes in response to the presence of pathogens. Here, we have employed cis-acting elements from promoter regions of pathogen inducible genes as well as those responsive to the plant defense signal molecules salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene. Synthetic promoters were constructed by combining various regulatory elements supplemented with the enhancer elements from the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter to increase basal level of the GUS expression. The inducibility of each synthetic promoter was first assessed in transient expression assays using Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts and then examined for efficacy in stably transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. Histochemical and fluorometric GUS expression analyses showed that both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants responded to elicitor and phytohormone treatments with increased GUS expression when compared to untreated plants. Pathogen-inducible phytosensor studies were initiated by analyzing the sensitivity of the synthetic promoters against virus infection. Transgenic tobacco plants infected with Alfalfa mosaic virus showed an increase in GUS expression when compared to mock-inoculated control plants, whereas Tobacco mosaic virus infection caused no changes in GUS expression. Further research, using these transgenic plants against a range of different pathogens with the regulation of detectable reporter gene could provide biological evidence to define the functional differences between pathogens, and provide new technology and applications for transgenic plants as phytosensors.

C. Neal Stewart

2008-04-01

168

Cryptosporidium muris in a Reticulated Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 96, ?. 1 (2010), s. 211-212. ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA524/05/0992; GA ?R GP523/07/P117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cryptosporidium muris * Reticulated giraffe * natural infection Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2010

Kodádková, A.; Kvá?, M.; Ditrich, Oleg; Sak, Bohumil; Xiao, L.

2010-01-01

169

Raintree: Tropical Plant Database  

Science.gov (United States)

Hosted by Raintree, the Tropical Plant Database is authored and maintained by Board Certified Naturopath, Ms. Leslie Taylor to provide accurate information about rainforest plants and to help promote rainforest conservation. Including over 300 pages of documentation on rainforest plants and very well-organized, the Tropical Plant Database lists plants by Common name, Botanical name, Ethnic uses, and Action/disorder. The Database File for each plant includes an illustration and information about family, genus, species, common names, plant description, and more. Visitors can link to great illustrations and photos as well as web resources for each plant including Medline Abstracts, W3 TROPICOS Database, Ethnobotany Database, and Phtyochem Database among others. Plant Database File pages include references as well.

170

Better plants through mutations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a public relations film describing problems associated with the genetic improvement of crop plants through induced mutations. Mutations are the ultimate source of genetic variation in plants. Mutation induction is now established as a practical tool in plant breeding. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the IAEA's laboratory at Seibersdorf have supported research and practical implementation of mutation breeding of both seed propagated and vegetatively propagated plants. Plant biotechnology based on in vitro culture and recombinant DNA technology will make a further significant contribution to plant breeding

171

Plant centromere compositions  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

Mach; Jennifer M. (Chicago, IL), Zieler; Helge (Del Mar, CA), Jin; RongGuan (Chesterfield, MO), Keith; Kevin (Three Forks, MT), Copenhaver; Gregory P. (Chapel Hill, NC), Preuss; Daphne (Chicago, IL)

2011-11-22

172

Nuclear Power Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

... cause serious illness or death. Before Before a Nuclear Power Plant Emergency The following are things you ... Executive Office of the President. During During a Nuclear Power Plant Emergency If an accident at a ...

173

Plant tissue culture techniques  

OpenAIRE

Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

Rolf Dieter Illg

1991-01-01

174

Plant/Insect Interactions  

Science.gov (United States)

This list of 12 investigative questions is designed to help students observe how insects interact with plants in their habitat. The one-page printable PDF list includes questions about the insect behavior and the plant characteristics.

175

Plant tissue culture techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

Rolf Dieter Illg

1991-01-01

176

The Plant – Pathogen Interactions  

OpenAIRE

Interaction between plants and their pathogens is complex, involving multifaceted recognition of pathogens by the plants and, on the other hand, subtle evasion from the pathogens. Plants perceive pathogens through direct recognition of common molecular patterns in microbes and direct recognition of effectors or their perturbation on cellular components by the pathogens. Recognition of microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns triggers innate immunity that renders plants resistant to ...

CAHYA PRIHATNA

2009-01-01

177

Evolution of plant breeding  

OpenAIRE

Plant breeding is considered one of the longest ongoing activities undertaken by humans, who select plantsmore productive and useful to themselves and the animals for at least 10,000 years ago. The evolution of civilizationsparalleled the success of plant breeding, although this has not been recognized by the public. The reason may be lack ofunderstanding of what plant breeding encompasses. The concept of plant breeding evolved, depending on the time it wasformulated, but without losing the e...

Hallauer, Arnel R.

2011-01-01

178

Plant and Animal Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Compare and contrast animal cells and plant cells. Use this graphic organizer diagram to help you organize your thoughts while you are looking at each webpage. First go to this link interactive animal and plant cell model and look at both the plant and animal cell models. After you get done with that site go to this site inside a plant and animal cell and take some more ...

Ms. Montgomery

2012-04-04

179

Glutamate Receptors in Plants  

OpenAIRE

Ionotropic glutamate receptors function in animals as glutamate?gated non?selective cation channels. Numerous glutamate receptor?like (GLR) genes have been identified in plant genomes, and plant GLRs are predicted, on the basis of sequence homology, to retain ligand?binding and ion channel activity. Non?selective cation channels are ubiquitous in plant membranes and may function in nutrient uptake, signalling and intra?plant transport. However, there is little evidence for amino a...

Davenport, Romola

2002-01-01

180

The language of plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Precise identification of plants requires consistent use of a well-established binomial nomenclature. This review highlights the basis for the systematic method of naming plants, the importance of its use, and the reasons for nomenclature changes over time. Furthermore, it provides practical tips for the identification of specific plants in the course of managing patients with suspected plant-induced contact dermatitis. PMID:10072341

McGovern, T W

1999-03-01

181

Plant Parts You Eat  

Science.gov (United States)

In this food science activity, learners observe different plant-originated foods. This activity will help learners understand that consumers (including humans) rely on producers, specifically plants and plant parts, for food. This lesson guide includes background information and variation ideas.

2012-06-26

182

Water Desalination Plant  

Science.gov (United States)

Students use a thermal process approach to design, build and test a small-scale desalination plant that is capable of significantly removing the salt content from a saltwater solution. Students use a saltwater circuit to test the efficiency of their model desalination plant and learn how the water cycle is the basis for the thermal processes that drive their desalination plant.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

183

Power Plant Cycling Costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

2012-07-01

184

Plant Systems Biology (editorial)  

Science.gov (United States)

In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

185

Plant Ecology, Abridged  

Science.gov (United States)

After speculating about why plants are more abundant in some areas, students count the plants in their group plots and compare their data. The unit is designed to be completed in three to five sessions. The comprehensive curriculum materials contain information for teachers, including activity tips and an overview of the many varied reasons why plant life flourishes in one plot but not another.

186

Antibodies in Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The expression of antibodies in plants has several promising applications that are currently being developed. Plants are being considered for the large scale production of antibodies needed for medical purposes. The benefit of using plants is that they are able to perform post-translational modifi...

187

The plant pathology of native plant restoration  

Science.gov (United States)

Restoration of ecologically degraded sites will benefit from the convergence of knowledge drawn from such disparate and often compartmentalized (and heretofore not widely considered) areas of research as soil microbial ecology, plant pathology and agronomy. Restoration following biological control w...

188

Safe genetically engineered plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emergfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work

189

The Parasitic Plant Connection  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by Dan Nickrent of the Department of Plant Biology at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, this site offers a wealth of information on parasitic plants. Plants are organized by family, with distribution maps, descriptions, photos, lists of genera, bibliographic references, and DNA sequence information. Nickrent also provides links for sequence information, ribosomal RNA secondary structure diagrams, and multiple sequence alignments to all parasitic flowering plants. Additional resources at the site include contact information for parasitic plant specialists, a list of terms associated with parasitic plants, and related links. While the site is, of course, aimed at Plant Biologists, interested non-specialists may enjoy the numerous photos of beautiful and sometimes extravagant flowers.

190

Plant life management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plant life assessment and extension studies have been performed by numerous companies all over the world. Critical equipment has been identified as well as various degradation mechanisms involved in the plant aging process. Nowadays one has to think what to implement to improve the existing situation in the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). FRAMATOME has undertaken this thought process in order to find the right answers and bring them to utilities facing either critical concern for plant life extension or the problem of management of power plant potential longevity. This is why we prepared a Plant Life Improvement Action Plan, comprising 10 (ten) major items described hereafter using examples of work performed by FRAMATOME for its utility customers desiring to manage the lives of their plants, both in France with EDF and abroad

191

PLANT SCIENCES: Plant Genes on Steroids  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Plants, like animals, use steroid hormones to regulate their development. However, in plants, the steroid hormone is bound by a receptor at the cell surface instead of a nuclear receptor. In a Perspective, Sablowski and Harberd discuss studies published here (He et al.) and elsewhere that provide the missing link between binding of the steroid by its receptor and changes in the expression of target genes.

Robert Sablowski (John Innes Centre; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology)

2005-03-11

192

Safe genetically engineered plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.

2007-10-01

193

Ecology of plant volatiles: taking a plant community perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although plants are sessile organisms, they can modulate their phenotype so as to cope with environmental stresses such as herbivore attack and competition with neighbouring plants. Plant-produced volatile compounds mediate various aspects of plant defence. The emission of volatiles has costs and benefits. Research on the role of plant volatiles in defence has focused primarily on the responses of individual plants. However, in nature, plants rarely occur as isolated individuals but are members of plant communities where they compete for resources and exchange information with other plants. In this review, we address the effects of neighbouring plants on plant volatile-mediated defences. We will outline the various roles of volatile compounds in the interactions between plants and other organisms, address the mechanisms of plant neighbour perception in plant communities, and discuss how neighbour detection and volatile signalling are interconnected. Finally, we will outline the most urgent questions to be addressed in the future. PMID:24689452

Pierik, Ronald; Ballaré, Carlos L; Dicke, Marcel

2014-08-01

194

Conditional sterility in plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

Meagher, Richard B. (Athens, GA); McKinney, Elizabeth (Athens, GA); Kim, Tehryung (Taejeon, KR)

2010-02-23

195

Plant nuclear photorelocation movement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organelle movement and positioning are essential for proper cellular function. A nucleus moves dynamically during cell division and differentiation and in response to environmental changes in animal, fungal, and plant cells. Nuclear movement is well-studied and the mechanisms have been mostly elucidated in animal and fungal cells, but not in plant cells. In prothallial cells of the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris and leaf cells of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana, light induces nuclear movement and nuclei change their position according to wavelength, intensity, and direction of light. This nuclear photorelocation movement shows some common features with the photorelocation movement of chloroplasts, which is one of the best-characterized plant organelle movements. This review summarizes nuclear movement and positioning in plant cells, especially plant-specific nuclear photorelocation movement and discusses the relationship between nuclear photorelocation movement and chloroplast photorelocation movement. PMID:24336444

Higa, Takeshi; Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Wada, Masamitsu

2014-06-01

196

Plant neurobiology and green plant intelligence : science, metaphors and nonsense  

OpenAIRE

This paper analyses the recent debates on the emerging science of plant neurobiology, which claims that the individual green plant should be considered as an intelligent organism. Plant neurobiology tries to use elements from animal physiology as elegant metaphors to trigger the imagination in solving complex plant physiological elements of signalling, internal and external plant communication and whole-plant organisation. Plant neurobiology proposes useful concepts that stimulate discussions...

Struik, P. C.; Yin, X.; Meinke, H.

2008-01-01

197

Flooding and Plant Growth  

OpenAIRE

This Special Issue is based on the 7th Conference of the International Society for Plant Anaerobiosis (ISPA), held in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, 12–16 June 2001. The papers describe and analyse many of the responses that plants display when subjected to waterlogging of the soil or deeper submergence. These responses may be injurious or adaptive, and are discussed at various levels of organizational complexity ranging from ecosystem processes, through individual plants to single cells. The r...

Visser, E. J. W.; Voesenek, L. A. C. J.; Vartapetian, B. B.; Jackson, M. B.

2003-01-01

198

Farming Fast Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

This Farming Fast Plants activity introduces a classroom investigation that is easily adaptable for all grade levels and designed to engageteachers and students as investigators. The activity has the practical outcome of producing an abundant supply of Fast Plants seed for future classroom use and for sharing with other teachers. The central question of the activity is ?How many seeds can your students produce from each seed planted??

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

199

Chubu pilot plant test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electron beam plant for the gas purification has been in operation since November 1992. Currently testing on various flue gas conditions are being conducted. The 94% SO2 and 80% NOx removal efficiency has already been achieved. The plant is operating smoothly. Optimization of the by-product collector, assuring long life of the electron beam window foil, facility control and various tests for practicability of the plant will be conduced. 5 figs, 2 tabs

200

Parts of a Plant  

Science.gov (United States)

Today we will be learning about the parts of a plant. By the end of this project you will answer the essential question: How does a plant get the nutrients it needs to grow? As you go to these websites, write 2 things you have learned about each part of a plant in the rectangles on the word web that I have given you. 1. Go to this website to hear about the different parts of a plant. Do not take the "Test". When ...

Miss Hamilton

2009-10-22

201

The Kuroshio power plant  

CERN Document Server

By outlining a new design or the Kuroshio power plant, new approaches to turbine design, anchorage system planning, deep sea marine engineering and power plant operations and maintenance are explored and suggested. The impact on the local environment, particularly in the face of natural disasters, is also considered to provide a well rounded introduction to plan and build a 30MW pilot power plant. Following a literature review, the six chapters of this book propose a conceptual design by focusing on the plant's core technologies and establish the separate analysis logics for turbine design and

Chen, Falin

2013-01-01

202

Less power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Slovak Republic the number of company power plants decreased as against 2001 by two sources. In present time only 35 companies have their own power plants. The companies Slovnaft, Kappa Sturovo, Slovensky hodvab Senica, Matador Puchov, Maytex Liptovsky MikuIas, Kovohuty Krompachy, Chemko Strazske and some Slovak sugar factories belong to the largest company power plants in force of distributing companies. Installed output of present 35 company sources is 531 MW. The largest of separate power plants as Paroplynovy cyklus Bratislava (218 MW) and VD Zilina (72 MW) belong to independent sources. Total installed output of Slovak sources was 8306 MW in the end of last year

203

Towards plant wires  

CERN Document Server

In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems.

Adamatzky, Andrew

2014-01-01

204

Plant antimicrobial peptides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a component of barrier defense system of plants. They have been isolated from roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves of a wide variety of species and have activities towards phytopathogens, as well as against bacteria pathogenic to humans. Thus, plant AMPs are considered as promising antibiotic compounds with important biotechnological applications. Plant AMPs are grouped into several families and share general features such as positive charge, the presence of disulfide bonds (which stabilize the structure), and the mechanism of action targeting outer membrane structures. PMID:24092498

Nawrot, Robert; Barylski, Jakub; Nowicki, Grzegorz; Broniarczyk, Justyna; Buchwald, Waldemar; Go?dzicka-Józefiak, Anna

2014-05-01

205

Plant integrity: an important factor in plant-pathogen interactions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of plant integrity and of aboveground-belowground defense signaling on plant resistance against pathogens and herbivores is emerging as a subject of scientific research. There is increasing evidence that plant defense responses to pathogen infection differ between whole intact plants and detached leaves. Studies have revealed the importance of aboveground-belowground defense signaling for plant defenses against herbivores, while our studies have uncovered that the roots as well as the plant integrity are important for the resistance of the potato cultivar Sarpo Mira against the hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Furthermore, in the Sarpo Mira–P. infestans interactions, the plant’s meristems, the stalks or both, seem to be associated with the development of the hypersensitive response and both the plant’s roots and shoots contain antimicrobial compounds when the aerial parts of the plants are infected. Here, we present a short overview of the evidence indicating the importance of plant integrity on plant defense responses

Orlowska, Elzbieta Zofia; Llorente, Briardo

2013-01-01

206

How Plants Grow  

Science.gov (United States)

In this biology activity (page 3 of the PDF), learners will explore how plants turn sunlight into food through a process called photosynthesis. Learners will experiment with different growing conditions and observe the effect on plants. Though this activity was created as a pre-visit for a traveling science show, it makes a great stand-alone activity as well!

COSI

2009-01-01

207

Geothermal Power Plant Model  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners make a model of a power plant that uses steam. Learners use simple materials like foil, a tin can, and a pot of water to model a geothermal power plant. Learners use a pinwheel to observe the power produced by the steam. SAFETY NOTE: Adult assistance required.

California Energy Commission

2006-01-01

208

Ocean thermal plant  

Science.gov (United States)

Modular Ocean Thermal-Energy Conversion (OTEC) plant permits vital component research and testing and serves as operational generator for 100 megawatts of electric power. Construction permits evaporators and condensers to be tested in same environment in which they will be used, and could result in design specifications for most efficient plant facilities in future.

Owens, L. J.

1979-01-01

209

Rainforest Plant or Animal?  

Science.gov (United States)

In this craft activity, learners will compare and contrast the major functions of plants and animals. Through discussion, a group vote, and a Venn Diagram (to be filled with pictures), learners will develop their ability to understand the differences between plants and animals. This standards-based activity includes wrap up discussion questions and key vocabulary.

2012-06-26

210

Evolution & Diversity in Plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Summarizes recent findings that help in understanding how evolution has brought about the diversity of plant life that presently exists. Discusses basic concepts of evolution, diversity and classification, the three-line hypothesis of plant evolution, the origin of fungi, and the geologic time table. Included are 31 references. (CW)

Pearson, Lorentz C.

1988-01-01

211

Fast Plants Care  

Science.gov (United States)

This four-page handout explains the key steps to follow when caring for Wisconsin Fast Plants (Brassica rapa) throughout their life cycle, from sowing through harvesting seeds. This handout includes information about the materials needed, methods for tending and caring for your plants, and troubleshooting tips.

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

212

Solar thermal power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)urope. (author)

213

Plant pathogen resistance  

Science.gov (United States)

Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

Greenberg, Jean T; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

2012-11-27

214

Submarine nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The submarine nuclear power plant has revolutionised the strategy and tactics of under-sea warfare. Present day submarine nuclear power plants are discussed, as well as future developments. The endurance, speed, noise and diving depth of nuclear submarines are also outlined. (U.K.)

215

Electrohydrodinamic wind plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention relates to the power engineering field, in particular to the wind plants for electric power production.The plants consists of an aerosol charged generator. including a liquid atomizer and an elec0rocharging system, of a collector and load connection scheme. The aerosol charged generator is placed onto an isolating support, and in the capacity of collector is used the earth

216

Modulating lignin in plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

2013-01-29

217

Power plant chemical technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

NONE

1996-12-01

218

Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

219

Plant names and classification  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter updates one of the same title from Edition 12 of Stearn’s Introductory Biology published in 2011. It reviews binomial nomenclature, discusses three codes of plant nomenclature (the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants...

220

Plants Bioassays: Comet Assay on Higher Plants.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Houston : Studium Press, 2009 - (Sampietro, D.; Narwal, S.), s. 97-108 ISBN 1-933699-42-6 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA521/05/0500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Comet assay * DNA damage * Plants Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

Mukherjee, A.; Gichner, Tomáš

221

Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

To view additional success stories click on the link in the left menu Please click here to report your plant breeding success stories.  Click on TCAP logo to see the Economic impact of USDA-NIFA small grains CAPsThe Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee (SCC 080) is the USDA-sponsored advisory group of representatives from land grant universities.  The Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee represents national plant breeding with a focus on education in the broader sense, including providing information to the public and administrators, and encouraging the development of formal educational opportunities, continuing education, and lifelong learning. Mission: To provide a forum for leadership on issues and opportunities of strategic importance to national core competency in plant breeding research and education Membership: The PBCC members will consist of the representatives of the SCC-080 committee and others by request. 

222

Plant tissue culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plant tissue culture refers to growing and multiplication of cells, tissues and organs of plants on defined solid or liquid media under aseptic and controlled environment. The commercial technology is primarily based on micropropagation, in which rapid proliferation is achieved from tiny stem cuttings, axillary buds, and to a limited extent from somatic embryos, cell clumps in suspension cultures and bioreactors. The cultured cells and tissue can take several pathways. The pathways that lead to the production of true-to-type plants in large numbers are the preferred ones for commercial multiplication. The process of micropropagation is usually divided into several stages i.e., pre-propagation, initiation of explants, subculture of explants for proliferation, shooting and rooting, and hardening. These stages are universally applicable in large-scale multiplication of plants. The delivery of hardened small micropropagated plants to growers and market also requires extra care. (author)

223

Amazing Plants Website  

Science.gov (United States)

Dr. David W. Kramer of The Ohio State University at Mansfield developed this website as an inspiration and resource for teachers and students of plant biology. At this point, the site is primarily a resource for annotated botany-related websites, although Dr. Kramer is in the process of developing an information section on significant flowering plant families. Of special interest to teachers, the website includes a collection of annotated sites submitted by participants in the Teachers Academy. Participants chose sites that had proven useful in their K-8 plant units, and the website categories include Collaborative Learning, Specific Plants, Hands-on Activities, Gardening, and more. The site's main links collection, Botany in Cyberspace, includes an extensive collection of websites under two major categories: Agriculture & Horticulture; and Plant Biology (Botany) & General Biology. This site also links to career information from the Botanical Society of America.

Kramer, David W.

224

Kruemmel nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This short description of the site and the nuclear power plant with information on the presumable effects on the environment and the general public is to provide some data material to the population in a popular form so that the citizens may in form themselves about the plant. In this description which shall be presented to the safety report, the site, the technical design and the operation mode of the nuclear power plant are described. Some problems of the emission and the effects of radioactive materials as well as other issues related to the plant which are of interest to the public are dealt with. The supposed accidents and their handling are discussed. The description shows that the selected site is suitable for both setting-up and operation of the plant without affecting the safety of the people living there and that in admissible burdens of the environment shall not have to be expected. (orig./HP)

225

Coal fired power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermal cycle efficiency, availability, reliability, high load change and startup capabilities are the most important factors influencing the economical operation of a coal-fired power plant. The most effective way of improving the thermal cycle efficiency is to increase the design main steam pressure. Combined gas and steam turbine power plants (combined cycle units) are advanced power plant concepts with a higher thermal cycle efficiency than of usual power plants. In the Federal Republic of Germany there exist three different types of combined cycle units at different development stages: combined cycle with coal fired steam generators in series, combined cycle with supercharged steam generator and combined cycle with atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. Combined cycle technology with integrated coal gasification might be realized in a commercial power plant in the near future.

Waldmann, H.

1980-01-01

226

Theories Behind Plant Tissue Culture  

Science.gov (United States)

When introducing a foreign gene into a target genome in plant tissue, you need to grow the transgenic cell to a complete plant. This is done by plant tissue culture, a biotechnique based on the concept that an organ, tissue or cell of a plant can be manipulated to grow back into a complete plant.

227

Mycoplasma infections of plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants can be infected by two types of wall-less procaryotes, spiroplasmas and mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO), both located intracellularly in the phloem tissues of affected plants. Spiroplasmas have been cultured, characterized and shown to be true members of the class Mollicutes. MLO have not yet been cultured or characterized; they are thought to be mycoplasma-like on the basis of their ultrastructure as seen in situ, their sensitivity to tetracycline and resistance to penicillin. Mycoplasmas can also be found on the surface of plants. These extracellularly located organisms are members of the following genera: Spiroplasma. Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma. The presence of such surface mycoplasmas must not be overlooked when attempts to culture MLO from affected plants are undertaken. Sensitive serological techniques such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can successfully be used to compare the MLO located in the phloem of affected plants with those eventually cultured from the same plants. In California and Morocco periwinkles naturally infected with both Spiroplasma citri and MLO have been reported. With such doubly infected plants, the symptom expression has been that characteristic of the MLO disease (phyllody or stolbur), not that given by S. citri. Only S. citri can be cultured from such plants, but this does not indicate that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease expressed by the plant. In California many nonrutaceous plants have been found to be infected with S. citri. Stubborn affected citrus trees represent an important reservoir of S. citri, and Circulifer tenellus is an active leafhopper vector of S. citri. Hence, it is not surprising that in California MLO-infected fruit trees could also become infected with S. citri but it would not mean that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease. Criteria are discussed that are helpful in distinguishing between MLO infections and S. citri infections. PMID:7287398

Bove, J M

1981-07-01

228

Encapsulation plant at Forsmark  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate report.

Nystroem, Anders

2007-08-15

229

Encapsulation plant at Forsmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate report

230

University of Florida: Aquatic and Wetland Plants and Invasive Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquatic plant enthusiasts will enjoy this image-rich website from the Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants (APIRS) at the University of Florida. The site features images of nearly 400 native and non-native plant species found in Florida. Site visitors can locate plant species by scientific name, common name, and plant type category (e.g. trees, shrubs, vines). Species pages contain several images accompanied by a brief description. Line drawings of numerous plant species are available for viewing as well. In addition, the site offers an Introduction to Native Plants, and an Introduction to Non-Native Invasive Plants.

231

Morphological and physiological features of the species Asimina triloba (L. dunal, introduced as an ornamental plant in Baia Mare (Maramure? county, Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tree species Asimina triloba (L. Dunal, is native to North America. In the area of origin is cultivated, both as food species because the edible fruit, and as ornamental species. Ornamental value derives both from decorative flowers, that open in early spring, and because habitus species. The species is demanding from slightly acidic soils (pH 5.5 to 7.0 and well drained. Seedlings are susceptible to heatstroke and need areas of the sun, but since the second year, vegetate well in bright light conditions [27]. Optimum climate is temperate to subtropical one. The species exhibits unique quality traits for a temperate fruit that are similar to other fruit in the Annonaceae family, including cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill., sugar apple or sweetsop, (A. squamosa L., soursop (A. muricata L., custard apple (A. reticulata L., and atemoya (A. squamosa X A. cherimola, all of which are tropical [2].This study follows the behavior of the species, in particular conditions of the Baia Mare and its surroundings. In this area a fewindividuals were introduced, in order to diversigy the range of species of ornamental plants. In Baia Mare, topoclimate is specifically depression, sheltered by mountains, more atenuated as temperature and winds, than in surrounding areas. As a result ofclimatic conditions, chestnut Castanea sativa, grows in good conditions in Baia Mare. Instead, the area is heavily polluted,especially at ground level. Pollution by heavy metals is a historical being generated by the mining industry.The introduction and use of a new plant species into a new area involves: 1. easy to obtain seed; 2.- maintaining the crown shape habitus and and leaf shape and size, respectively; 3 – determination of optimal physiological parameters. Therefore have been performed, the following experimental determinations: 1. - germination of seed obtained in the particular conditions of the Baia Mare; 2. - some morphomtric characteristics of leaves, in the juveniles of the 1-2 years; 3. – the dynamic of photosynthesis intensity in these plants, during the day, during summer/autumn months.The study results are promising for acclimatization of the species Asimina triloba (L. Dunal in particular conditions of Baia Mare. Morphological and physiological parametres tested are maintaned at similar to those of native habitat, described in the literature.

Beatrice SZILAGYI

2011-11-01

232

The Plant – Pathogen Interactions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interaction between plants and their pathogens is complex, involving multifaceted recognition of pathogens by the plants and, on the other hand, subtle evasion from the pathogens. Plants perceive pathogens through direct recognition of common molecular patterns in microbes and direct recognition of effectors or their perturbation on cellular components by the pathogens. Recognition of microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns triggers innate immunity that renders plants resistant to most potential microbial pathogens. Recognition-dependant immunity in plants largely relies on polymorphism of resistance gene products that confer specificity towards host-specialised pathogens, which, in turn, induces more specific resistance that is effective against host-specialised pathogens. The deployment of effective resistance involves signalling of pathogen recognition through complex signalling cascades, transcriptional reprogramming, and defence-related genes, which all contribute to an arrest of pathogen growth. Our current insights into effector biology and to which the plants respond, provide a detailed information on the evolutionary arms race between plants and their pathogens. These will lead to an improvement of current strategies for crop improvement and protection.

CAHYA PRIHATNA

2009-12-01

233

Experimental mutagenesis in plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Considerable progress has been made in directed or controlled mutagenesis with bacterial systems, the genetic resolving power of which is much greater than that of higher plants. The mutagen specificity in higher plants has been of great interest, and numerous results and observations have been reported. The advances in the culture of plant cells and tissues have created much interest concerning the possibility of inducing and recovering mutants at the cellular level. There are great problems including the failure to regenerate plants from cells in all but a few species. The genetic and cytogenetic instability in the culture of plant tissues is well known, and the most common nuclear change is polyploidy including aneuploidy. The degree of polyploidy increases with calluses or culture age. In rice, the frequency of aneuploidy is greater in the calluses derived from roots than those derived from stem internodes. Polyploid and/or self-incompatible plant species are not as amenable to conventional mutation breeding techniques as diploid, self-fertilizing species. Inducing mutations in somatic tissues creates the problem of chimeras. However, the new cultivars of highly heterozygous, outcrossing, self-incompatible species are produced by combining several different clones. The performance of the progeny of at least 4 generations removed from the polycross of the parent clones is the important factor, and a high amount of heterozygocity is tolerated within cultivars and evocity is tolerated within cultivars and even on the same plants. (Yamashita, S.)

234

Different plants produce different leaves  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants produce leaves to gather sunlight and exchange gases in the environment around them. Plants produce leaves unique to that particular plant species. Leaves can have many different shapes, sizes, and colors.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-06-30

235

PLANT BIOPHYSICS: Forcible Entry  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. When fungal pathogens land on a leaf surface, they can use various mechanisms for entering the plant. Some species form specialized infection structures called appressoria which can generate large pressures and are believed to enter the plant by breaking the leaf surface. Bechinger et al. (page 1896) use an optical waveguide to visualize and quantify the pressures the appressoria exert, and provide the first direct evidence for the ability of appressoria to exert sufficient force for mechanical infection of plants.

Nicholas J. Talbot (University of Exeter; School of Biological Sciences)

1999-09-17

236

ANTIMICROBIAL CONSTITUENTS FROM PLANTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research on medicinal plants showed promising constituents for effective treatment and management of various illnesses. Microbes are commonly found everywhere which causes many diseases to the man kind. Antibiotics available in the markets are often reported of microbial resistance. Scientist realized that the effective life span of any Antibiotic is limited hence new sources from plants need be investigated. A multitude of plant compounds as always promised as a Antimicrobial agents. In this article authors made an attempt to review the constituents which showed potential Antimicrobial activity.

G.Murgananthan

2012-01-01

237

Innate immunity in plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of receptors and signal-transduction components that play a role in plant disease resistance have revealed remarkable similarities with innate immunity pathways in insects and mammals. In plants, specific receptors encoded by disease-resistance genes interact with products of microbial effector genes to activate defence responses. Resistance proteins have been found to have motifs in common with components of immune response pathways in mammals and invertebrates, and to rely on similar downstream signalling components. In the future, the sharing of ideas among plant and animal biologists is likely to broaden our understanding of defence responses in diverse organisms. PMID:11154918

Cohn, J; Sessa, G; Martin, G B

2001-02-01

238

Radiation hormesis in plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with different dose of {gamma}-ray. (author)

Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Byung Hun; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

2000-04-01

239

Plant and Cell Physiology  

Science.gov (United States)

This journal has recently been made available online. The Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists, in combination with Oxford Journals Online, has posted recent issues of the journal Plant and Cell Physiology, an international journal covering original research in the fields of "physiology, biochemistry, biophysics, chemistry, molecular biology, cell biology and gene engineering of plants and micro-organisms." Online coverage includes full-text and abstracts from July 2000 to the present. Note that the electronic version of this journal is free through the end of 2000.

240

Plant Conservation Alliance  

Science.gov (United States)

Housed at the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the Plant Conservation Alliance (PCA) is a consortium of ten federal government agencies and 150 non-federal cooperators (including nonprofit organizations, resources management consultants, soil scientists, biologists, botanists, concerned citizens, gardeners, etc.). Together, Plant Conservation Alliance cooperators work "to solve the problems of native plant extinction and native habitat restoration." The homepage describes how the PCA functions, including general information, an events calendar, and online communication links. Also at the site are project descriptions, publications, and grant/ funding opportunities.

241

Projected electric power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Projections show over 250 steam-electric and hydroelectric units beginning operation within the next 20 years in the US. The coal-fired, nuclear, geothermal, and hydroelectric plants listed in this report will add about 137 GWe (gross) to US electric capacity. Seven new units have begun operation since the last report. Other notable changes include the licensing of several nuclear plants, the removal of 14 coal-fired units from the data base, and the addition of five hydroelectric units. The report describes all known projected plants and lists architect/engineering firms, construction companies, and boiler and turbine/generator manufacturers if they are known

242

Labarge liquid helium plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New applications for helium have resulted in a significant growth in helium demand. This growth has contributed to development of larger, more efficient liquid helium production plants. The liquid helium plant at LaBarge is sized for 4,600 liters per hour of liquid helium production (dewar mass gain basis) using 2 purification/liquefaction plant trains. A liquid nitrogen forecooled refrigerator having a power consumption similar to the liquefier cycle would provide about 10,000 watts of refrigeration at liquid helium temperature. Operating experience with liquid helium production facilities has demonstrated reliable commercial operation. 1 ref., 7 fig

243

Power plant water management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Limited freshwater resources and more stringent environmental wastewater discharge regulations are increasing the importance of water management in power plant design and operation. However, variations in plant makeup water quality and in process needs make integrated water management approaches with multiple recycle/reuse streams complicated and difficult to evaluate. As a result, EPRI has developed several generic microcomputer codes that use site-specific plant data to simplify water balances and to analyze the associated aqueous chemistry for potential process problems. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Micheletti, W. (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (USA))

1989-11-01

244

Plant Physiology Information Website  

Science.gov (United States)

This extensive Plant Physiology Information Website was created by Ross E. Koning, professor of biology at Eastern Connecticut State University. Dr. Koning provides links to lecture notes, lab exercises, and other resources for a variety of his courses including Biology of Plants, Plant Physiology, Principles of Biology, and more. In addition, the site offers a diverse assortment of other resources such as an Elementary Education Energy Workshop handout, a science fair project on lettuce seed germination, and related website links. The site also provides guidelines for CBE, APA, and MLA citation styles.

245

Designing plants for ALARA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Review of the radiation exposure received due to operating and maintaining nuclear plants worldwide can lead to only one conclusion - that there are a very wide range of approaches being used with an even wider range of results. It is clear that in the past reducing the dose to plant personnel has not always been given the highest priority. It is also clear that in order to achieve success in minimizing the dose, almost everyone associated with the design, operation, management and regulation of a nuclear project must be committed and involved. A team approach is very important. Although most of this discussion is related to design improvements, other ''members of the team'' are probably more important than the designers in minimizing the dose. These are plant operators, plant management and the regulators

246

Bioassays with Fast Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Instructional materials for experimenting to learn what will happen to your Fast Plant if you subject it to a 10% liquid detergent solution? Experiment to determine the effects of substances in the environment on living organisms.

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

247

Memristors in plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated electrical circuitry of the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera. The goal was to discover if these plants might have a new electrical component--a resistor with memory. This element was postulated recently and the researchers were looking for its presence in different systems. The analysis was based on cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation of plants by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in plant tissue. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. This study can be a starting point for understanding mechanisms of memory, learning, circadian rhythms, and biological clocks. PMID:24556876

Volkov, Alexander G; Tucket, Clayton; Reedus, Jada; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

2014-01-01

248

Plant Vascular Biology 2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

Ding, Biao

2014-11-17

249

Higher plant cellulose synthases  

OpenAIRE

The sole function of cellulose synthases, which are found in plants bacteria, fungi, and animals, is to produce the biopolymer cellulose. Although no crystal structure has yet been solved, a considerable amount is known about their structure, function and evolution.

Richmond, Todd

2000-01-01

250

Plant stem cell niches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis. PMID:22404469

Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

2012-01-01

251

The Plant Population Explosion  

Science.gov (United States)

Results achieved by researchers in the field of genetic plant engineering are described. However, it is believed that if their efforts were more decentralized, more farmers, especially in developing countries, could benefit and substantial advances made in production. (BL)

Swaminathan, M. S.

1973-01-01

252

Plant science [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Provides citations and some abstracts to the literature on plant science, focusing especially on pathology, symbiosis, biochemistry, genetics, biotechnology, techniques and environmental biology. Major areas of coverage include physiology;

253

Nuclear power plant maintainability.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants. PMID:15676441

Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

1982-09-01

254

ANEUPLOIDY IN HIGHER PLANTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper reviews the significance and frequency of naturally occurring aneuploidy in higher plants. The role and mechanism of induction of aneuploidy by radiation, chemicals, thermal shocks, and self hybridization of polyploids and aneuploids in generating primary and secondary ...

255

Protoplasts and plant viruses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of protoplasts in the study of plant viruses has attracted considerable attention since its inception in the late 1960s. This article is an attempt to assess the current status of protoplasts (primarily) and all cell cultures (in some instances) in studies of virus infection, virus replication, cytopathology, cross-protection, virus resistance, and the use of in vitro methods and genetic engineering to recover virus-resistant plants. These areas of study proved difficult to do entirely with whole plants or plant parts. However, because protoplasts could be synchronously infected with virus, they provided a valuable alternative means of following biochemical and cytological events in relation to the virus growth cycle in a more precise manner than previously possible

256

Power plant chemistry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Review of publications in 1980 in the fields of: Guidelines, operating experience in nuclear power plants, corrosion problems, condensate purification, treatment of service water, preparation and treatment, environmental protection (air and water pollution abatement). (HP)

257

Performance driven plant management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plant maintenance in the regulated electric utility industry, has historically been driven by availability and capacity considerations. Operation's role has been to keep the units on-line and at the maximum load available. With the recent emergence of independently produced power and considerations of further deregulation of electric power production, an increasingly competitive environment is being created. Performance Driven Plant Management focuses on an integrated management approach to operation, engineering and maintenance. The application of the concepts of Performance Driven Plant Management to the electric utility industry becomes one of incorporating the historical management philosophy, built around concerns for availability and capacity, into a more comprehensive framework built around a concern for overall plant effectiveness. 5 refs., 1 tab

258

Plant for Demercurization  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Development, Testing and Transfer to the «PKhZ» OJSC of a New Continuous Operating Full-Scale Industrial Vibro-Vacuum Plant for the Anthropogenic Waste Demercurization, and Organization of the Maintenance Personnel Training

259

Center for Plant Conservation-Plant Conservation Education Aids: Plants in Peril  

Science.gov (United States)

This Plants in Peril website was created by the Center for Plant Conservation as a "guide to exploring biodiversity and rare native plant conservation for middle school educators." The site contains clear, concise informational pages on subjects like What is Biodiversity?, Plants and People, and Challenges of Saving Plants in Peril. Additionally, the site offers teacher guidelines for four plant conservation activities including Biodiversity Dilemmas, Scavenger Hunt, and more. Links are also provided for relevant educator resources and action project ideas.

260

Plant secretome proteomics  

OpenAIRE

The plant secretome refers to the set of proteins secreted out of the plant cell into the surrounding extracellular space commonly referred to as the apoplast. Secreted proteins maintain cell structure and acts in signaling and are crucial for stress responses where they can interact with pathogen effectors and control the extracellular environment. Typically, secreted proteins contain an N-terminal signal peptide and are directed through the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi pathway. However, in p...

Alexandersson, Erik; Ali, Ashfaq; Resjo?, Svante; Andreasson, Erik

2013-01-01

261

Iskenderun: a pioneering plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steag announced in May 2000 that it is to build the 1300 MW coal-fired Iskenderun plant in Turkey. The project is the German company's largest investment to date, and only its second IPP project. Iskenderun will be Turkey's largest hard coal fired plant and is part of a major drive by the country's government to increase generating capacity. 3 figs.

Green, S.

2000-09-01

262

Selection of Transformed Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The low frequency and randomness of transgene integration into host cells, combined with the significant challenges of recovering whole plants from those rare events, makes the use of selectable marker genes routine in plant transformation experiments. For research applications that are unlikely to be grown in the field, strong herbicide- or antibiotic resistance is commonly used. Here we use genes conferring resistance to glufosinate herbicides as an example of a selectable marker in wheat transformation by either Agrobacterium or biolistics.

Jones, Huw D.; Sparks, Caroline A.

263

Understanding plant reproductive diversity  

OpenAIRE

Flowering plants display spectacular floral diversity and a bewildering array of reproductive adaptations that promote mating, particularly outbreeding. A striking feature of this diversity is that related species often differ in pollination and mating systems, and intraspecific variation in sexual traits is not unusual, especially among herbaceous plants. This variation provides opportunities for evolutionary biologists to link micro-evolutionary processes to the macro-evolutionary patterns ...

Barrett, Spencer C. H.

2010-01-01

264

Plant ABC Transporters  

OpenAIRE

ABC transporters constitute one of the largest protein families found in all living organisms. ABC transporters are driven by ATP hydrolysis and can act as exporters as well as importers. The plant genome encodes for more than 100 ABC transporters, largely exceeding that of other organisms. In Arabidopsis, only 22 out of 130 have been functionally analyzed. They are localized in most membranes of a plant cell such as the plasma membrane, the tonoplast, chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisom...

Kong, J.; Park, J.; Choi, H.; Burla, B.; Kretschmar, T.; Lee, Y.; Martinoia, E.

2011-01-01

265

Sex Determination in Plants  

OpenAIRE

Most dioecious plant species are believed to derive from hermaphrodite ancestors. The regulatory pathways that have been modified during evolution of the hermaphrodite ancestors and led to the emergence of dioecious species (with separate sexes) still remain unknown. Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant species harbouring XY sex chromosomes. To identify the molecular mechanisms involved in female organ suppression in male flowers of S. latifolia, we looked for genes potentially involved in t...

Mone?ger, Franc?oise

2007-01-01

266

Animal and Plant Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

What are the similarities and differences between plant cells and animal cells? Use the graphic organizer. Graphic Organizer Go here and look at the diagram. Make notes about the anatomy of an animal cell in your graphic organizer. Anatomy of an Animal Cell Go to this website and explore the typical animal cell. Press start and interact with the model. Typical Animal Cell Take the plant cell tutorial with this link. Interact ...

wlcounts

2012-04-04

267

Nuclear reactor power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nuclear power plant has a main prestressed concrete pressure vessel housing the core, and, in pods, the heat exchangers, low power turbine, circulators, etc., but a separate pressure vessel for the power turbine connected to the main vessel for the supply of working fluid. A greater flexibility of plant layout results, for the position of the turbo-alternator line is independent of the main vessel. (U.S.)

268

Plant Plastid Engineering  

OpenAIRE

Genetic material in plants is distributed into nucleus, plastids and mitochondria. Plastid has a central role of carrying out photosynthesis in plant cells. Plastid transformation is becoming more popular and an alternative to nuclear gene transformation because of various advantages like high protein levels, the feasibility of expressing multiple proteins from polycistronic mRNAs, and gene containment through the lack of pollen transmission. Recently, much progress in plastid engineering has...

Wani, Shabir H.; Haider, Nadia; Kumar, Hitesh; Singh, N. B.

2010-01-01

269

Plant Formate Dehydrogenase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

John Markwell

2005-01-10

270

Cyanogenic glycosides in plants  

OpenAIRE

The presence of cyanogenic glycosides was determined in 70 plant species from the campus of the State University of Londrina, PR, Brazil, and a further 45 plant species from the Forestry Reserve on the Doralice Farm in Ibiporã, PR, Brazil. Of the vegetative species from the State University of Londrina, 7.1% showed cyanogenic glycosides: Manihot esculenta (Euphorbiaceae), Passiflora edulis (Passifloraceae), Macadamia ternifolia (Proteaceae), Prunus persica (Rosaceae) and Beloperone sp (Acant...

Francisco, Ilza A.; Maria Helena Pimenta Pinotti

2000-01-01

271

NMR, water and plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis describes the application of a non-destructive pulsed proton NMR method mainly to measure water transport in the xylem vessels of plant stems and in some model systems. The results are equally well applicable to liquid flow in other biological objects than plants, e.g. flow of blood and other body fluids in human and animals. The method is based on a pulse sequence of equidistant ? pulses in combination with a linear magnetic field gradient. (Auth.)

272

The plant microbiome at work.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants host distinct microbial communities on and inside their tissues designated the plant microbiota. Microbial community profiling enabled the description of the phylogenetic structure of the plant microbiota to an unprecedented depth, whereas functional insights are largely derived from experiments using individual microorganisms. The binary interplay between isolated members of the plant microbiota and host plants ranges from mutualistic to commensalistic and pathogenic relationships. However, how entire microbial communities capable of executing both growth-promoting and growth-compromising activities interfere with plant fitness remains largely unknown. Ultimately, unravelling the net result of microbial activities encoded in the extended plant genome-the plant microbiome-will be key to understanding and exploiting the full yield potential of a crop plant. In this perspective, we summarize first achievements of plant-microbiome research, we discuss future research directions, and we provide ideas for the translation of basic science to application to capitalize on the plant microbiome at work. PMID:25514681

Schlaeppi, Klaus; Bulgarelli, Davide

2015-03-01

273

Plant critical concept  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the effort summarized in this paper is to support O and M cost reduction efforts by focusing resources on components and processes critical to plant performance. This effort will identify where resources on nonplant critical components and processes can be reduced or eliminated. This method will use a functional assessment as the basis for component-specific evaluations and ranking. This effort consists of two stages conducted in series. The first stage is to deterministically identify that set of plant components that are relevant from a plant performance perspective (i.e., safety, economics, reliability). The second stage probabilistically ranks that set of plant components from an importance perspective, where importance pertains to the particular application and is probabilistically weighted. The results of a pilot study identified that only a relatively small set of components are truly critical from an integrated plant performance perspective. These results are consistent with work being conducted at other nuclear power plants, as well as other commercial facilities. Initial implementation of this effort is estimated to reduce O and M costs on the order of $1 million per year. Subsequent applications are anticipated to increase that savings to $4--$5 million per year

274

Power plant siting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Just to keep up with expected demand, the US will need over 500 new power generation units by 1985. Where these power plants will be located is the subject of heated debate among utility officials, government leaders, conservationists, concerned citizens and a multitude of special interest groups. This book offers a balanced review of all of the salient factors that must be taken into consideration in selecting power plant locations. To deal with this enormously complex subject, the authors (1) offer a general overview of the history and reasoning behind present legislation on the state and national levels; (2) describe the many different agencies that have jurisdiction in power plant location, from local water authorities and city councils to state conservation boards and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; and (3) include a state-by-state breakdown of siting laws, regulations and present licensing procedures. Architects, engineers, contractors, and others involved in plant construction and site evaluation will learn of the trade-offs that must be made in balancing the engineering, economic, and environmental impacts of plant location. The book covers such areas as availability of water supplies for generation or cooling; geology, typography, and demography of the proposed site; and even the selection of the fuel best suited for the area. Finally, the authors examine the numerous environmental aspects of power plant siting.

Winter, J.V.; Conner, D.A.

1978-01-01

275

A modular reactor plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a new concept in liquid metal reactors that is being developed by General Electric under contract to the Department of Energy. This concept is called the Modular Reactor Plant. While this effort is not expected to have a near-term impact, it is directed toward three principal issues currently affecting nuclear power in the United States. First, plant costs have escalated to the point where the startup of new plants require large electric rate increases. Second, the cost of new plants coming on-line today vary by as much as a factor of three. And, third, nuclear construction times often exceed the utilities prudent planning cycle. This paper describes how General Electric's Modular Reactor Plant addreses these issues through shop fabrication and assembly, rail shipment to the site for rapid installation of nuclear components and inherent reactor protection. In addition, it is expected the modular reactor plant will reduce the current cost of development and demonstration of liquid metal reactors to an affordable level

276

Haploidization of vegetable plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Haploid plants have been widely introduced into vegetable crops breeding programmes, also in Poland. They can be produced by means of androgenesis in brassicas and pepper, gynogenesis in onion and beetroot, or induced parthenogenesis in vegetables belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. Androgenesis in brassicas can be induced using both anther and microspore cultures. Efficiency of this process, provided the optimal medium composition, depends on conditions for culture initiation (thermal shock is necessary). Around 40% of developing androgenic plants of white cabbage and Brussels sprouts are diploids and after their self-pollination doubled-haploid lines can instantly be produced. Gynogenic development of haploid cells constituting the embryo sac in onion can be induced by a flower bud culture method. Firstly an induction medium is used, followed by a regeneration medium. Almost 90% of obtained plants are haploids and therefore the use of antimitotic agents is necessary in order to double their chromosome number. Induced parthogenesis is being applied in cucumber. Pollen previously exposed to ionising radiation is used for pollination, which causes the development of embryos being subsequently plated on a medium in order to develop haploid plants. Efficiency of the processes leading to the production of haploid plants in every species depends to a high degree on the genotype and growth conditions of donor plants. (author)

277

Plant extracts as radioprotectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author)

278

Plant extracts as radioprotectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

279

Precluding forced plant shutdown  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several operating nuclear plants have been forced to shut down for extended periods because of transient events, equipment failures or information pointing to degradation in programmatic elements such as overall corporate and plant management, material condition, maintenance and design control. The consequent management and programmatic overhauls, and demonstration of plant operational readiness takes a substantial toll on the financial and management health of the owner utility. The accompanying regulatory and political attention makes it difficult, at best, for the utility to be master of its own destiny regarding recovery of the troubled plant. How best can a utility control its own destiny in these circumstances? The preferred approach,of course, is to preclude an unrecognized problem in any of the above-mentioned areas from causing the forced shutdown of a plant. Based on experience at a formerly troubled plant,this paper suggests how to preclude forced shutdown, or if forced into an extended shutdown, how the utility can manage and control its own actions for recovery

280

Designing the Perfect Plant: Activities to Investigate Plant Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant ecology is an important subject that often receives little attention in middle school, as more time during science classes is devoted to plant biology. Therefore, the authors have developed a series of activities, including a card game--Designing the Perfect Plant--to introduce student's to plant ecology and the ecological trade offs…

Lehnhoff, Erik; Woolbaugh, Walt; Rew, Lisa

2008-01-01

281

Biofuelled heating plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to serve as a basis to enable establishment and operation of small and medium-sized bio-fuel plants, district heating plants and local district heating plants. Furthermore, the purpose of this report is to serve as a guideline and basis when realizing projects, from the first concept to established plant. Taking into account all the phases, from selection of heating system, fuel type, selection of technical solutions, authorization request or application to operate a plant, planning, construction and buying, inspection, performance test, take-over and control system of the plant. Another purpose of the report is to make sure that best available technology is used and to contribute to continuous development of the technology. The report deals mainly with bio-fuelled plants in the effect range 0.3 to10 MW. The term 'plant' refers to combined power and heating plants as well as 'simpler' district heating plants. The last-mentioned is also often referred to as 'local heating plant'. In this context, the term bio fuel refers to a wide range of fuel types. The term bio fuel includes processed fractions like powders, pellets, and briquettes along with unprocessed fractions, such as by-products from the forest industry; chips and bark. Bio fuels also include straw, energy crops and cereal waste products, but these have not been expressly studied in this report. The report is structured with appendixes regarding the various phases of the projects,arding the various phases of the projects, with the purpose of serving as a helping handbook, or manual for new establishment, helping out with technical and administrative advice and environmental requirements. Plants of this size are already expanding considerably, and the need for guiding principles for design/technology and environmental requirements is great. These guiding principles should comply with the environmental legislation requirements, and must contain advice and recommendations for bio fuel plants in this effect range, also in reference to the environmental legislation. This means, among other things, that the suggested environmental requirements should be realistic so that they can be fulfilled, but there will also be a strong motive to raise the requirements, but not so high that the new establishment of bio fuelled plants is held back in favour of old-fashioned routine technology or fossil fuels. Concurrent with the expansion of bio fuel plants in Sweden, there is an increasing need for clear and simple practical handling of this type of project in its different phases: The selection of heating system/fuel; The selection of technical solutions; Application or authorization according to environmental legislation; Design and purchasing; Inspection and performance test; Operation and control system. The selection of burning and flue gas cleaning techniques is dependent on the kind of fuel used, and the fuel's moisture content. Pellet burning furnace is the easiest and most developed solution for plants in the smaller range, and grate firing is the best solution for the bigger plants. Pulverized bio fuel burning is not used to a great extent in this particular effect range. Depending on the size and effect of the plant, the plant establishment requires authorization request according to the environmental legislation. The authorization request is different depending on the effect of the plant and the distinction between the two possible kinds is at 10 MW. The term plant size refer to the fuel supplied for all the plant's existing furnaces, which means that several plants need authorization although the effects of the individual bio fuel furnace is lower than 10 MW. An example of an EIA, which is a part of an application or authorization request, is included as an appendix. Flue gas dust cleaning is always required in this effect range. The most frequent cleaning equipment is dynamic separators, (such as multi cyclone batteries), fabric filters, (such as bag filters), and electrical partition filters. Fabric filters or electrical partition filte

282

Plant integrity: An important factor in plant-pathogen interactions  

OpenAIRE

The effect of plant integrity and of aboveground-belowground defense signaling on plant resistance against pathogens and herbivores is emerging as a subject of scientific research. There is increasing evidence that plant defense responses to pathogen infection differ between whole intact plants and detached leaves. Studies have revealed the importance of aboveground-belowground defense signaling for plant defenses against herbivores, while our studies have uncovered that the roots as well as ...

Or?owska, Elz?bieta; Llorente, Briardo; Cvitanich, Cristina

2012-01-01

283

Sellafield MOX plant. Plant safety design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is important to have a general understanding of the UK Regulatory System to understand how a commercial scale MOX facility has been developed and licensed by BNFL in the UK. This note is in two parts: it first describes the major legislation relevant to the licensing and operation of a MOX facility at Sellafield and provides an insight into how it has been interfaced with the UK regulators; in the second part it describes how the BNFL Project arrangements and safety management systems have been developed to address the Companies legal obligations with specific reference to the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP) project

284

Mammalian sex hormones in plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The occurrence of mammalian sex hormones and their physiological role in plants is reviewed. These hormones, such as 17?-estradiol, androsterone, testosterone or progesterone, were present in 60-80% of the plant species investigated. Enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis and conversion were also found in plants. Treatment of the plants with sex hormones or their precursors influenced plant development: cell divisions, root and shoot growth, embryo growth, flowering, pollen tube growth and callus proliferation. The regulatory abilities of mammalian sex hormones in plants makes possible their use in practice, especially in plant in vitro culture

Andrzej Skoczowski

2011-08-01

285

Mammalian sex hormones in plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of mammalian sex hormones and their physiological role in plants is reviewed. These hormones, such as 17beta-estradiol, androsterone, testosterone or progesterone, were present in 60-80% of the plant species investigated. Enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis and conversion were also found in plants. Treatment of the plants with sex hormones or their precursors influenced plant development: cell divisions, root and shoot growth, embryo growth, flowering, pollen tube growth and callus proliferation. The regulatory abilities of mammalian sex hormones in plants makes possible their use in practice, especially in plant in vitro culture. PMID:16044944

Janeczko, Anna; Skoczowski, Andrzej

2005-01-01

286

Plants cultivation in controlled containments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The plants cultivation in controlled containments permits to the - Departement d'Ecophysiologie Vegetale et de Microbiologie (DVEM) - of the CEA to lead several topics of research. The works of DVEM which are based on the molecular labelling, technique adapted to plants, contribute to understand the plant - soil relationships and the plant growth process. In addition, the staff of DVEM study the impact of pollutant heavy metals, existing in the soil, on plants and the plant stress induced by oxygen, light, ionizing radiations,... and defence mechanisms of plants (F. M.)

287

GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

Boyd, Tonya

2013-12-01

288

Obrigheim nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1973 the 345 MW pressurized water nuclear power plant at Obrigheim operated on base load, generating approximately 2.63 TWh, approximately 2.5 TWh of which was supplied to the KWO members. The plant availability for the year was 89.9%. Of the 10.1% non-availability, 6.4% (23 d) was caused by refuelling, including inspection, overhaul and repair operations and routine tests carried out in September 1973. 3.3% was due to stoppages for repairs to a steam generator and the two main cooling pumps, while 0.4% resulted from failures in the electrical section of the plant. The plant was shut down seven times in all, including three scrams. The average core burnup at the end of the fourth cycle (1 September 1973) was 18900 MWd/tU, representing an average burnup of approximately 37500 MWd/tU for a fuel element used in all four cycles. The operating performance of the steam generators and the result of the steam generator inspection carried out during refuelling in 1973 suggest no progressive damage. The quantities of radioactive materials released to the environment in 1973 were well below the officially permitted levels. The availability of the plant from the beginning of pilot operation in 1969 to the end of 1973 was 83.7 %

289

Terrestrial plant methane production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature, ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species. Further, we analyze rates of measured emission of aerobically produced CH4 in pectin and in plant tissues from different studies and argue that pectin is very far from the sole contributing precursor. Hence, scaling up of aerobic CH4 emission needs to take into consideration other potential sources than pectin. Due to the large uncertainties related to effects of stimulating factors, genotypic responses and type of precursors, we conclude that current attempts for upscaling aerobic CH4 into a global budget is insufficient. Thus it is too early to draw the line under the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution ofseveral proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material.

Mikkelsen, Teis NØrgaard; Bruhn, Dan

290

Engineered plant virus resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Virus diseases are among the key limiting factors that cause significant yield loss and continuously threaten crop production. Resistant cultivars coupled with pesticide application are commonly used to circumvent these threats. One of the limitations of the reliance on resistant cultivars is the inevitable breakdown of resistance due to the multitude of variable virus populations. Similarly, chemical applications to control virus transmitting insect vectors are costly to the farmers, cause adverse health and environmental consequences, and often result in the emergence of resistant vector strains. Thus, exploiting strategies that provide durable and broad-spectrum resistance over diverse environments are of paramount importance. The development of plant gene transfer systems has allowed for the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes for novel disease control strategies, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. Genetic engineering offers various options for introducing transgenic virus resistance into crop plants to provide a wide range of resistance to viral pathogens. This review examines the current strategies of developing virus resistant transgenic plants. PMID:25438782

Galvez, Leny C; Banerjee, Joydeep; Pinar, Hasan; Mitra, Amitava

2014-11-01

291

BWR plant analyzer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The BWR Plant Analyzer of BNL has been developed earlier to perform realistic and accurate simulation of normal and severe abnormal transients in BWR power plants at high simulation speeds, low capital and operating costs and with outstanding user conveniences. The simulation capability accomplished by the end of last year encompassed the simulation of transient neutron kinetics, heat conduction in fuel structures and nonequilibrium, nonhomogeneous coolant dynamics in the reactor vessel, further the dynamics and acoustical effects in the steam lines, the dynamics of high- and low-pressure turbines, condensers, feedwater turbines and pumps, the suppression pool and, finally, the control and plant protection systems. The simulation capabilities of the plant analyzer have now been extended from safety analyses to long-term transients which are of interest for training of emergency response personnel. For this purpose, the containment systems are now being included in the simulation. Data transmissions via telephone can now be continued indefinitely. The plant analyzer holds its steady state without drift for at least 20 hours of actual process time

292

Plant chlorophyll content meter  

Science.gov (United States)

A plant chlorophyll content meter is described which collects light reflected from a target plant and separates the collected light into two different wavelength bands. These wavelength bands, or channels, are described as having center wavelengths of 700 nm and 840 nm. The light collected in these two channels are processed using photo detectors and amplifiers. An analog to digital converter is described which provides a digital representation of the level of light collected by the lens and falling within the two channels. A controller provided in the meter device compares the level of light reflected from a target plant with a level of light detected from a light source, such as light reflected by a target having 100% reflectance, or transmitted through a diffusion receptor. The percent of reflection in the two separate wavelength bands from a target plant are compared to provide a ratio which indicates a relative level of plant physiological stress. A method of compensating for electronic drift is described where a sample is taken when a collection lens is covered to prevent light from entering the device. This compensation method allows for a more accurate reading by reducing error contributions due to electronic drift from environmental conditions at the location where a hand-held unit is used.

Spiering, Bruce A. (Inventor); Carter, Gregory A. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

293

AECL's plant Information Technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The competitiveness of the world-wide energy market is a continual driving force for improvements to CANDU performance and lower operating, maintenance, and administration costs. As in other industries, advanced Information Technologies (IT) are changing the way we work and conduct business. The nuclear industry is no different and there exists strong incentives to improve work processes and provide faster and more flexible access to the information needed to effectively manage and maintain nuclear plant assets. AECL has responded to these forces through the development of a vision of integrated IT systems addressing all phases of nuclear plant development and operations. This includes the initial engineering, design, and construction processes as well as support to the long-term operations and maintenance. Integral to the AECL vision is the need for cost-effective engineering and operational configuration management systems, proactive maintenance processes and systems, and advanced plant surveillance and diagnostics. This paper presents the vision and describes the integrated information systems needed to manage both the design basis and operating plant data systems to ensure the cost-effective, long-term viability of CANDU plants. (author)

294

Individual plant examination: Submittal guidance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on a Policy Statement on Severe Accidents Regarding Future Designs and Existing Plants, the performance of a plant examination is requested from the licensee of each nuclear power plant. The plant examination looks for vulnerabilities to severe accidents and cost-effective safety improvements that reduce or eliminate the important vulnerabilities. This document delineates guidance for reporting the results of that plant examination. 38 refs., 2 tabs

295

Fertigation management of potted plants  

OpenAIRE

The horticultural crops considered in this chapter are characterised by the fact that the plants are grown in a restricted volume, like pots, containers, plastic trays or compressed peat blocks. In the market these crops are recognized as potted plants, bedding plants and container grown nursery stock, mostly for ornamental purposes. Another group is the raising of young vegetable and cut flower plants, due to production holdings. Although extremely diverse, all these plants are grown as sing...

Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

2009-01-01

296

PlantDB – a versatile database for managing plant research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Research in plant science laboratories often involves usage of many different species, cultivars, ecotypes, mutants, alleles or transgenic lines. This creates a great challenge to keep track of the identity of experimental plants and stored samples or seeds. Results Here, we describe PlantDB – a Microsoft® Office Access database – with a user-friendly front-end for managing information relevant for experimental plants. PlantDB can hold information about plants of different species, cultivars or genetic composition. Introduction of a concise identifier system allows easy generation of pedigree trees. In addition, all information about any experimental plant – from growth conditions and dates over extracted samples such as RNA to files containing images of the plants – can be linked unequivocally. Conclusion We have been using PlantDB for several years in our laboratory and found that it greatly facilitates access to relevant information.

Gruissem Wilhelm

2008-01-01

297

Engineering of plant chromosomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Engineered minimal chromosomes with sufficient mitotic and meiotic stability have an enormous potential as vectors for stacking multiple genes required for complex traits in plant biotechnology. Proof of principle for essential steps in chromosome engineering such as truncation of chromosomes by T-DNA-mediated telomere seeding and de novo formation of centromeres by cenH3 fusion protein tethering has been recently obtained. In order to generate robust protocols for application in plant biotechnology, these steps need to be combined and supplemented with additional methods such as site-specific recombination for the directed transfer of multiple genes of interest on the minichromosomes. At the same time, the development of these methods allows new insight into basic aspects of plant chromosome functions such as how centromeres assure proper distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells or how telomeres serve to cap the chromosome ends to prevent shortening of ends over DNA replication cycles and chromosome end fusion. PMID:25596821

Mette, Michael Florian; Houben, Andreas

2015-02-01

298

Collective biogas plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papers contributed to the European seminar on collective biogas plants held at Herning, Denmark on October 22-23 under the auspices of the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy (DG XVII) are presented. Within the framework of the THERMIE programme, a network of OPETs (Organizations for the Promotion of Energy Technologies) was set up in order to disseminate information on new energy technologies throughout the European communities. The potential for further implementation of centralized capacity for the conversion of animal manures and other organic wastes to bio-fuels, not only in central and eastern Europe but also in the developing countries, is discussed in addition to the relevant technologies. Actual biomass conversion plants are described and details are given on operational experience and plant management. Agricultural, economic and policy aspects are also dealt with. (AB)

299

Nuclear power plant simulator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nuclear power plant training simulator was developed for the educational and training centre for operating and technical personnel of nuclear power plants in Brno-Lesna, Czechoslovakia. The training facility is a keyboard-controlled partial simulator with communication by means of semigraphical color displays. The heart of the simulator is the central computer system based on a SM-4-20 computer. The simulator also includes the instructor's workplace which is used to control the tuition at the individual trainees' workplaces and to evaluate the results; it consists of a SM 7202 display and a matrix printer. The trainee's workplace consists of two semigraphics color displays based on the SM 50/40-1 microcomputer and of an operating keyboard. Up to now 13 technological systems have been processed for the nuclear power plant simulator, 7 of them can be operated also in demonstration mode and one of them in examination mode. (Z.M.)

300

PLANT SCIENCE: Infectious Heresy  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Leguminous plants, such as peas and soybeans, enter into a symbiotic relationship with soil bacteria called rhizobia. For years it has been the accepted wisdom that Nodulation (Nod) factors secreted by rhizobia enable them to infect a legume and initiate formation of nodules on the host plant's roots. Within these nodules, the bacteria convert free nitrogen to ammonia, which the plant uses for its growth. Giraud et al. provide evidence that overturns this orthodoxy. They determined that the genomes of two strains of legume-nodulating rhizobia do not contain genes that are necessary for the synthesis of Nod factors. This means that these bacteria must have an alternative way of initiating the dialogue that results in legume nodulation.

J. Allan Downie (John Innes Centre; Department of Molecular Microbiology)

2007-06-01

301

Nuclear reactor power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a nuclear-reactor power plant, a steam generator, has pipes connected to the reactor, for circulating a coolant through the steam generator's heat exchange tubes in heat exchange relation with water on the outside of said tubes for vaporizing said water, the coolant during normal operation of said plant being at a substantially higher pressure than the water. The plant also includes a pressurizer and a pressurizer relief tank for receiving liquid from the pressurizer on the occurrence of excess pressure in said pressurizer. The steam generator has discharge piping with a normally-closed valve arrangement to be opened on the occurrence of a rupture in said tubes resulting in flow of coolant into said water in the steam generator so as to permit discharge of any excess liquid in said steam generator into the pressure relief tank. (author)

302

Do Plants Eat?  

Science.gov (United States)

Through a teacher-led discussion, students realize that the food energy plants obtain comes from sunlight via the plant process of photosynthesis. They learn what photosynthesis is, at an age-appropriate level of detail and vocabulary, and then begin to question how we know that photosynthesis occurs, if we cannot see it happening. This prepares students for the associated activity using Elodea, a common water plant suitable to directly observe evidence of photosynthesis. When Elodea is placed in a glass beaker near a good light source, bubbles of oxygen release as products of photosynthesis. By counting the number of bubbles that rise to the surface in a five-minute period, students can compare the photosynthetic activity of Elodea in the presence of high and low light levels.

2014-09-18

303

Uranium uptake by plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper highlights the transport of uranium present in the soil to plants. An increase in the uranium content in soil enhances its transport in various parts of plants. The transport of uranium from the soil to the grain follows the order: black gram>maize>lentil>chick-pea>rice>wheat. In certain vegetables and fruits, this order is: spinach>carrot>radish> brinjal>banana>tomato>beet. In vegetables and fruits, the stem reflects minimum percentage of uranium present in the soil. The uranium transport is appreciably high in arecanut plant. The chances of uranium transport to the human organs, are expected to be more through consumption of crops grown in uranium-rich soil. (author)

304

Oregon Plant Atlas  

Science.gov (United States)

The Oregon Plant Atlas is an excellent online mapping program from the Oregon Flora Project at Oregon State University and the Native Plant Society of Oregon. The program allows visitors to create customized plant distribution maps derived from more than "385,000 records representing 96% of Oregon's 4516 taxa." Atlas users may choose up to six taxa (e.g. species, subspecies) for each map and selected taxa will be displayed at the locations in Oregon where they have been observed or collected. The Atlas offers users a number of base map options including shaded relief, precipitation, ecoregion, and county line maps of Oregon. In addition, Atlas visitors can access detailed information about different specimens by selecting location symbols on the map. The site provides a Help section, and links to other aspects of the Oregon Flora Project as well.

305

Wisconsin Fast Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program was designed to build open education resources and professional learning communities that inspire and support its stated mission: "working with educators and scientists in support of conceptual understanding through science teaching, learning, and research." It's an ambitious goal and this site provides users with a range of information from how to grow fast plants to various activities for the classroom. These Plant Activities can be downloaded by students as a way to explore the world of botany, ecology, and other related fields. Of course visitors will need to look over the How To Grow area which contains detailed information on Growing & Lighting, Flowering, and Seeds & Harvesting. A Grower's Calendar can also be downloaded as a great way to keep track of the growing process.

306

Wind power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vestas builds customized wind power plants using proven technology and standards options. A wind power plant is a standard turbine customized to meet specific demands of a given project. This PowerPoint presentation outlined and described the following options available for wind power plants: tower height, rotor size, grid connection packages, SCADA systems, operation in warm or cold climates, aviation light, sound reduction options and shadow control. It also included two maps illustrating wind and transmission in Canada. The Vestas family of wind turbines include the V80 (1.8 MW), V82 (1.65 MW), V90 (3.0 MW), and V100 expected in 2006. Vestas is a leader in Canada with 38 turbines in operation in Pincher Creek, Alberta, 1 turbine in Murdochville, Quebec and 32 under construction, 3 turbines in Pubnico, Nova Scotia, a V90 prototypes in Prince Edward Island and Alberta, and 83 turbines under construction at Rush Lake, Saskatchewan. tabs., figs.

Bulow, M. [Vestas-Canadian Wind Technology Inc., Kincardine, ON (Canada)

2005-07-01

307

Plant peaks sulfur recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recoveries of 96% have been made in 2-stage Claus units designed to produce 1,000 ltpd of sulfur. Overall recovery at the Ram River plant of Aquitaine Co. Canada, Ltd., is more than 98% after Sulfreen treatment of the Claus tail gas. These results and other development work make it appear that 98% recovery in 4-stage Clause units is within reach. However, where a minimum 98% recovery must be guaranteed, a 2-stage Claus followed by a tail gas unit provides the most positive solution. The Ram River sulfur plant consists of four 1,000-ltpd Claus units, each including a reaction furnace and waste heat boiler, 2 catalytic converters and 3 condensers with integral coalescers. Converter reheat is obtained by automated inline burners. The design features, operating features, and the gas plant are described in detail. (10 refs.)

Martin, J.E.

1973-04-01

308

Trehalose metabolism in plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trehalose is a quantitatively important compatible solute and stress protectant in many organisms, including green algae and primitive plants. These functions have largely been replaced by sucrose in vascular plants, and trehalose metabolism has taken on new roles. Trehalose is a potential signal metabolite in plant interactions with pathogenic or symbiotic micro-organisms and herbivorous insects. It is also implicated in responses to cold and salinity, and in regulation of stomatal conductance and water-use efficiency. In plants, as in other eukaryotes and many prokaryotes, trehalose is synthesized via a phosphorylated intermediate, trehalose 6-phosphate (Tre6P). A meta-analysis revealed that the levels of Tre6P change in parallel with sucrose, which is the major product of photosynthesis and the main transport sugar in plants. We propose the existence of a bi-directional network, in which Tre6P is a signal of sucrose availability and acts to maintain sucrose concentrations within an appropriate range. Tre6P influences the relative amounts of sucrose and starch that accumulate in leaves during the day, and regulates the rate of starch degradation at night to match the demand for sucrose. Mutants in Tre6P metabolism have highly pleiotropic phenotypes, showing defects in embryogenesis, leaf growth, flowering, inflorescence branching and seed set. It has been proposed that Tre6P influences plant growth and development via inhibition of the SNF1-related protein kinase (SnRK1). However, current models conflict with some experimental data, and do not completely explain the pleiotropic phenotypes exhibited by mutants in Tre6P metabolism. Additional explanations for the diverse effects of alterations in Tre6P metabolism are discussed. PMID:24645920

Lunn, John Edward; Delorge, Ines; Figueroa, Carlos María; Van Dijck, Patrick; Stitt, Mark

2014-08-01

309

Nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to improve the safety of a nuclear power plant, to guarantee good accessibility to the components, but also to secure an effective bursting protection a nuclear power plant is proposed whose containment comprises a reactor pressure vessel with bursting resistance and a coolant circuit with components outside the pressure vessel. These predominantly components are cylindrically shaped and enclosed by a pressure resisting, heat insulating cover which, according to the invention, consists of annular segments and is surrounded by external cylinders made of tension-proof material. The annular segments may consist of insulating concrete and be cased. As material for the tension-proof cylinders steel is mentioned. (UWI)

310

Nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to increase the safety of a nuclear power plant with a coolant loop where some components are arranged outside the reactor pressure vessel it is proposed to construct the pressure-tight, heat-insulating shell around these components of insulation-concrete ring segments which may be cased in steel sheets. In addition, the cylindrical components and their concrete shell will be enclosed in steel cylinders. This arrangement increases the plant's reliability in service without reducing the accessibility for repair work. (RW)

311

Power plant effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progress is reported on the following research projects: the impacts of entrainment; comparative thermal responses of largemouth bass from Minnesota-Wisconsin and Tennessee populations; temperature acclimation patterns of juvenile striped bass; effects of cold temperature on the survival and behavior of threadfin shad; field temperature selection by fish; predictive thermoregulation; size-selective predation by bluegills and smallmouth bass; largemouth bass cannibalism; snail production under constant and varying temperature; annual growth pattern of Corbicula manilensis as affected by the Kingston steam plant; comparative temperature-dependent growth rates of bass fry; power plant effect studies on burrowing mayfly populations; largemouth bass modeling; and interception and retention of simulated cooling tower drift

312

Growing Plants Without Soil  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of our agriculture section in class we will be learning about something called Hydroponics. It is an example of how science can help agriculture. We will be planting a plant with a hydroponic system in class, but first I need you to follow the steps below: Step 1: Click on Hydroponics Link and read through the information given you. Step 2: Watch Hydroponics Video Step 3: Fill out the form below using full sentences. Be sure to push the 'submit' button or you will not get credit for this assignment. Form . ...

Mr. Eborn

2012-09-11

313

Thermodynamic solar plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermodynamic solar plants include all techniques aiming at converting the solar radiation into high temperature heat, and then at converting this heat into mechanical or electrical energy through a thermodynamic cycle connected to a power generator. The first step, capture of the solar radiation, requires the use of optical systems and, in most cases, the use of solar concentrators which allow to reach temperatures above 250 deg. C. The hybridization with another heat generation source (fossil or biomass) allows to increase the availability of the solar facilities. The heat is then converted into electricity using classical thermodynamic cycles with efficiencies ranging from 23% to 50%, and above in the case of combined cycles. The immediate efficiency of solar-electricity conversion is comprised between 20% and 30% depending on the technology implemented, and the investment costs are evaluated between 2800 euro/kWe (20-80 MWe plant with cylindro-parabolic collectors and Rankine cycle) and 4000 euro/KWe (40-200 MWe tower plant with combined cycles) but can reach 14000 euro/kWe in the case of a 10-25 kWe parabola-Stirling decentralized plant. The electricity cost ranges from 0.16 to 0.24 euro/kWhe for a big facility and is of about 0.30 euro/kWhe in the case of a parabola-Stirling plant (to be compared with 0.04 euro/kWe in the case of a nuclear power plant). The environmental impact of solar thermal electricity is lower than 20 kg CO2/MWhe and comparabhan 20 kg CO2/MWhe and comparable to the impact of hydro or nuclear power (4 and 6 kg CO2/MWhe, respectively), but much lower than the impact of photovoltaic energy (100 kg CO2/MWhe) or coal combustion (900 kg CO2/MWhe). The time of return on energy (duration of plant operation to produce the energy needed for its fabrication) is of only 5 months and the lifetime of solar concentration facilities is estimated to 25-30 years. This article presents the state-of-the-art of solar plant technologies and their economic aspects (market penetration strategy and R and D efforts). (J.S.)

314

Chemwes Uranium Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chemwes Uranium Plant is located in an area which is underlain to a major extent by pinnacled dolomite. It was decided to adopt a replacement fill for support of light structures in preference to alternatives such as the installation of piles or 'bridging' between pinnacles. The 3 m thick soil 'raft' resulting from the fill replacement technique made it possible to support all but a very small number of foundations upon shallow spread footings or raft slabs. This article describes a replacement fill for support of light structures at the Chemwes Uranium Plant

315

ITER plant systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of a series of documents published by the IAEA that summarize the results of the Conceptual Design Activities for the ITER project, this publication describes the conceptual design of the ITER plant systems, in particular (i) the heat transport system, (ii) the electrical distribution system, (iii) the requirements for radioactive equipment handling, the hot cell, and waste management, (iv) the supply system for fluids and operational chemicals, (v) the qualitative analyses of failure scenarios and methods of burn stability control and emergency shutdown control, (vi) analyses of tokamak building functions and design requirements, (vii) a plant layout, and (viii) site requirements. Refs, figs and tabs

316

Mystery Plant Adaptation  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, students review inheritance with variation. A Virtual Field model has light levels that vary smoothly from top to bottom. A single type of seed grows best in the center of the field, but the model includes variation in the offspring seeds. Since each plant scatters seeds randomly, it happens occasionally that some of these different seeds fall in a location where the light level is just right for it. When this happens the seed will grow into a healthy plant that will produce seeds of its own.

The Concord Consortium

2011-12-11

317

Nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first part of this two part report deals with nuclear power plants in general. It gives a survey of different energy sources and projected consumption for the next 50 years, a survey of the different types of reactors that are in use, the material used (including tensile and mechanical properties), design and construction and control and safety aspects of power reactors. Part two reports on the situation in the Netherlands. This entails the government standpoint and a description of two nuclear power plants, the Dodewaard and the Borssele reactors. Finally, a model study of a pressure chamber is described

318

Nuclear power plant Cattenom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper abstracted compiles and discusses some data and facts on the Cattenom nuclear power plant. It intends to give a realistic impression of a modern French nuclear power plant. The following subjects are dealt with: - general information on the Cattenom project - aspects of reactor safety, including the description and evaluation of the spectacular inundation during the prenuclear test runs - the alleged discrepancy between the licensing value (annually 15 Ci/reactor) and the granted limiting value (annually 3 Ci/reactor, max.) - Cattenom emergency schedules and reactor control systems. (orig./GL)

319

Curvilinear Effects of Invasive Plants on Plant Diversity: Plant Community Invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata  

OpenAIRE

The effects of invasive plants on the species diversity of plant communities are controversial, showing either a positive or negative linear relationship. Based on community data collected from forty 5 m×5 m plots invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata in eight cities across Hainan Island, China, we found S. trilobata decreased plant community diversity once its cover was beyond 10%. We demonstrated that the effects of invasive/native plants on the plant diversity of communities invaded by S. tr...

Qi, Shan-shan; Dai, Zhi-cong; Zhai, De-li; Chen, Si-chong; Si, Chun-can; Huang, Ping; Wang, Rui-ping; Zhong, Qiong-xin; Du, Dao-lin

2014-01-01

320

New Zealand Plant Conservation Network  

Science.gov (United States)

The New Zealand Plant Conservation Network (NZPCN) provides information about native plants and their conservation, focusing primarily on nationally threatened plants and plant communities that require conservation management for their continued survival. The NZPCN web site features a database and search tool for locating information on nationally threatened plant species and lists of species that are regionally uncommon. Users may search for threatened plants, bryophytes, fungi, naturalized (introduced) plants, or animal pests by common name, taxonomic name, conservation status, or family. The information includes taxonomic nomenclature, common name, geographic distribution and habitat, a description, images, conservation status, cultural use or importance, and other data. Other materials at the site include information on New Zealand native plants and threats to native plant life, an archive and bibliography of publications, event announcements and news articles, and information on the organization's membership.

321

Glyphosate metabolism in plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Many soil microbes and plant species metabolically degrade the herbicide glyphosate. The primary degradation routes are by a glyphosate oxidoreductase (GOX) to form aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) as the distinctive metabolite and by a C-P lyase that forms sarcosine as a main metabolite. AMPA app...

322

Thermal power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The patent claims a method to improve intermediate superheating in nuclear power plants with liquid-metal-cooled reactors, so that temperature changes in the steam led from the high-pressure turbine to the intermediate superheater can be taken up. (RW)

323

B Plant hazards assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for B Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific , Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

324

Plant research '76  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Overall objective remains unchanged: to contribute to the knowledge, with strong emphasis on fundamental problems, of how plants function, the roles they play in the environment and energy relations of the world, and how these roles may be optimized for the benefit of mankind. (PCS)

1976-01-01

325

Plant Tissue Culture Studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant tissue culture has developed into a valid botanical discipline and is considered a key area of biotechnology, but it has not been a key component of the science curriculum because of the expensive and technical nature of research in this area. This manual presents a number of activities that are relatively easy to prepare and perform. The…

Smith, Robert Alan

326

Plant Biotech Lab Manual.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book provides laboratory experiments to enhance any food science/botany curriculum. Chapter 1, "Introduction," presents a survey of the techniques used in plant biotechnology laboratory procedures. Chapter 2, "Micronutrition," discusses media and nutritional requirements for tissue culture studies. Chapter 3, "Sterile Seeds," focuses on the…

Tant, Carl

327

Drug from plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the authors make certain general observations and comments concerning the role of photosynthesis in the labeling of natural compounds, as well as some recommendations based on recent results regarding the labeling of a new anti-malaria drug extracted from a plant and originally known to traditional Chinese medicine. (author). 6 refs

328

Nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reflectors of an FBR type reactor are driven at a predetermined speed to simplify a control device for control rods or reflectors, and the power of the FBR type reactor is roughly controlled by the reflectors. Further, actual output of a steam generator is calculated based on steam temperature, steam pressure and steam flow rate by a plant control device and a difference between the calculated output and the feedwater flow rate of a preset output value of the power plant is calculated, to control the feedwater flow rate to the steam generator. Then, the power of the FBR type reactor is controlled by a temperature feedback effect. When actual power of the power plant is greater than the preset power value, the feedwater flow rate to the steam generator is reduced and then the temperature of primary coolants at the inlet of the reactor is raised by way of secondary coolants, an intermediate heat exchanger and primary coolants. As a result, nuclear chain reactions in the reactor core are decreased to reduce the reactor power. The plant control device can finely control the power of the FBR type reactor. (N.H.)

329

Mechanisms in Plant Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This meeting has been held every other year for the past twenty-two years and is the only regularly held meeting focused specifically on plant development. Topics covered included: patterning in developing tissues; short and long distance signaling; differentiation of cell types; the role of epigenetics in development; evolution; growth.

Hake, Sarah [USDA ARS Plant Gene Expression Center

2013-08-21

330

Radiosensitivity in plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report presents a compilation of available data on the sensitivity of plants to ionizing radiation, and provides basic information on methods of determining such sensitivities, or of estimating radiosensitivities by calcuation of the nuclear factors upon which they depend. The scope of the data presented here is necessarily limited to the most generally useful radiobiological end points and to the most commonly-used types of radiation. Many of the factors which influence radiosensitivity, particularly nuclear factors, will be discussed. Emphasis will be upon whole-plant studies done at Brookhaven National Laboratory by A.H. Sparrow and his associates, since these studies are the source of most of the available radiosensitivity data and of all the sensitivity predictions listed here. Data presented here include summaries of experimentally-determined radiosensitivities at various end points for both herbaceous and woody higher plants, and for a few species of ferns and lower plants. The algae and fungi have not been considered here due to space limitations.

Nauman, A F

1979-01-01

331

Power plant at sea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Drilling platforms are rather inefficient when it comes to their own power supply. In view of ecotax and their environmental image, the offshore industry particularly the Norwegians is highly committed to changing this situation. An efficient power plant, specially designed for the offshore industry, might just prove to be the answer to their prayers

332

The Sellafield Drypac plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sellafield Drypac Plant (SDP) is one of the hubs of BNFL's Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) handling strategy. The plant is capable of treating a range of waste materials, including sludges, ion-exchange resins and technological scrap. The main feeds, however, are sludges formed as corrosion products from the long term underwater storage of the cladding from spent Magnox fuel rods. The plant is designed to reduce the required repository storage volume for these sludges by drying and compaction in sacrificial cans. The compacted cans are then grouted into larger drums, which are double skinned and pre-grouted between the two skins. The plant is currently under construction, on schedule, and is expected to commence operation in 2002. Over an operating lifetime of 11 years it will process approximately 12,500 m3 of waste, producing 30,000 drums for repository storage. This is a factor of between two and three fewer than would be required for the principal alternative process, which would involve incorporation of the wastes in cement. As a result, processing time, processing costs and storage requirements will be greatly reduced. The immediate overall cost saving is estimated to be several hundred million pounds, to which must be added un-quantifiable downstream savings from reduced repository construction and operating costs. (author)

333

T Plant hazards assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the T Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

334

Systems of plant protection.  

Science.gov (United States)

A framework for associating pest management with farming systems may be characterized by a cropping index (number of crop cycles per year); a plant species homogeneity rank, described as the degree of monoculture or polyculture and intensity of use of modern, high-yielding varieties versus land races or traditional varieties; intensity of use of synthetic agrochemicals; the availability of societal infrastructure to support agriculture, such as irrigation and roads; and availability of support services such as credit, public/private sector research and extension services. Traditional methods of plant protection in the tribal areas of the Philippines rely heavily on ritual-based cultural practices that recognize the crop calendar and its activities as part of a larger social agenda. Most groundnut growers in West Africa utilize minimal inputs with little infrastructural support but they have often adopted improved varieties. Extensive farming systems with modern inputs are exemplified by wheat in the mid-western USA, where pests are managed mainly through host plant resistance. In intensive farming systems--vegetables in South-East Asia, wheat in The Netherlands and orchards in the USA--crop intensification is greatest and pest problems arising from overuse of pesticides are most noticeable. Unsustainable farming systems evolve if realistic plant protection is not taken into consideration. PMID:8149817

Teng, P S; Savary, S; Revilla, I

1993-01-01

335

Plant biochemistry course, 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provides a brief description of a summer lecture course on metabolic pathways and regulation of flow through these pathways in plants. Descriptions of the 1992 course held at La Jolla,Ca; 1993 course held in Madison, Wis, and plans for the 1994 course projected for East Lansing, MI.

NONE

1993-12-31

336

Pinellas Plant facts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Pinellas Plant, near St. Petersburg, Florida, is wholly owned by the United States Government. It is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by GE Aerospace, Neutron Devices (GEND). This plant was built in 1956 to manufacture neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators built at Neutron Devices consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. Production of these devices has necessitated the development of several uniquely specialized areas of competence and supporting facilities. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology; hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials; plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at Neutron Devices has led directly to the assignment of other weapon application products: the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Other product assignments such as active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator evolved from the plant`s materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life.

NONE

1990-11-01

337

Plant Genebanks: Food Security  

Science.gov (United States)

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article shows how genebanks are like an insurance policy for the future of agriculture, for they: conserve the diversity of plant species, offer resources for breeding of hardier crop varieties, provide food solutions in times of disaster, and safeguard food supplies for future generations.

Geoffrey C. Hawtin and Jeremy Cherfas (International Plant Genetic Resources Institute; )

2003-04-01

338

Animal & Plant Cell Slides  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners make slides of onion cells and their own cheek cells. Use this lab to teach learners how to prepare microscope slides and use a microscope. Learners will also identify differences between plant and animal cells. Note: a microscope is required for this activity, but is not included in the cost of materials.

Mission Science Workshop

2013-01-01

339

Nastic Movements (Plants)  

Science.gov (United States)

The phenomena are a set of different movements and growth in various plants depicted by time lapse video clips. The movement and growth include closing of Venus Flytrap and Mimosa leaves, twining motion of morning glory vines and spiraling and elongation of Arabidopsis flower stems and sunflower seedlings.

340

The Sellafield Drypac plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sellafield Drypac Plant (SDP) is one of the hubs of BNFL's Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) handling strategy. The plant is capable of treating a range of waste materials, including sludges, ion-exchange resins and technological scrap. The main feeds, however, are sludges formed as corrosion products from the long term underwater storage of the cladding from spent Magnox fuel rods. The plant is designed to reduce the required repository storage volume for these sludges by drying and compaction in sacrificial cans. The compacted cans are then grouted into larger drums, which are double skinned and pre-grouted between the two skins. The plant is currently under construction, on schedule, and is expected to commence operation in 2002. Over an operating lifetime of 11 years it will process approximately 12,500 m{sup 3} of waste, producing 30,000 drums for repository storage. This is a factor of between two and three fewer than would be required for the principal alternative process, which would involve incorporation of the wastes in cement. As a result, processing time, processing costs and storage requirements will be greatly reduced. The immediate overall cost saving is estimated to be several hundred million pounds, to which must be added un-quantifiable downstream savings from reduced repository construction and operating costs. (author)

Hough, T.G. [BNFL Risley, Wasrrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

1998-07-01

341

Polar Plants: Unit Outlines  

Science.gov (United States)

This article assembles free resources from the Polar Plants issue of the Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears cyberzine into a unit outline based on the 5E learning cycle framework. Outlines are provided for Grades K-2 and 3-5.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

342

Egg Processing Plant Sanitation  

Science.gov (United States)

Hazard analysis and critical control programs (HACCP) will eventually be required for commercial shell egg processing plants. Sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for HACCP and is based upon current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) as listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Good ...

343

Plant redox proteomics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In common with other aerobic organisms, plants are exposed to reactive oxygen species resulting in formation of post-translational modifications related to protein oxidoreduction (redox PTMs) that may inflict oxidative protein damage. Accumulating evidence also underscores the importance of redox PTMs in regulating enzymatic activities and controlling biological processes in plants. Notably, proteins controlling the cellular redox state, e.g. thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, appear to play dual roles to maintain oxidative stress resistance and regulate signal transduction pathways via redox PTMs. To get a comprehensive overview of these types of redox-regulated pathways there is therefore an emerging interest to monitor changes in redox PTMs on a proteome scale. Compared to some other PTMs, e.g. protein phosphorylation, redox PTMs have received less attention in plant proteome analysis, possibly due to technical challenges such as with maintaining the in vivo redox states of proteins and the lability of certain PTMs, e.g. nitrosylations, during sample preparation and mass spectrometric analysis. The present review article provides an overview of the recent developments in the emerging area of plant redox proteomics.

Navrot, Nicolas; Finnie, Christine

2011-01-01

344

Helium leak finding plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention concerns a helium leak finding plant with a mass spectrometer cell on the suction side of a molecular pump and a mechanical pre-pump, where a test sample or a test sensor is connected between the two pumps. The mechanical pre-pump consists of three successive stages. (orig./HP)

345

Plant Identification, Abridged  

Science.gov (United States)

This unit helps students prepare for their fieldwork by developing their observational skills and introducing them to resources that will help them with plant identification. It's designed to be completed in five or more sessions and has information for teachers, including overviews of binomial nomenclature and dichotomous keys. Additionally, a guide to finding local specialists is available online.

346

Radiosensitivity in plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents a compilation of available data on the sensitivity of plants to ionizing radiation, and provides basic information on methods of determining such sensitivities, or of estimating radiosensitivities by calcuation of the nuclear factors upon which they depend. The scope of the data presented here is necessarily limited to the most generally useful radiobiological end points and to the most commonly-used types of radiation. Many of the factors which influence radiosensitivity, particularly nuclear factors, will be discussed. Emphasis will be upon whole-plant studies done at Brookhaven National Laboratory by A.H. Sparrow and his associates, since these studies are the source of most of the available radiosensitivity data and of all the sensitivity predictions listed here. Data presented here include summaries of experimentally-determined radiosensitivities at various end points for both herbaceous and woody higher plants, and for a few species of ferns and lower plants. The algae and fungi have not been considered here due to space limitations

347

Radiochemistry in nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiochemistry is employed in nuclear power plants not as an end in itself but, among other things, as a main prerequisite of optimum radiation protection. Radiochemical monitoring of various loops provides important information about sources of radioactivity, activity distribution in the plant and its changes. In the light of these analytical findings, plant crews are able to take measures having a positive effect on radiation levels in the plant. The example of a BWR plant is used to show, among other things, how radiochemical analyses helped to reduce radiation levels in a plant and, as a consequence, to decrease clearly radiation exposure of the personnel despite higher workloads. (orig.)

348

Topical Reviews in Plant Physiology  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Society of Plant Physiologists has posted this bare-bones resource "for lecturers and students of plant physiology." It includes several hundred recent references (1992-99) from relevant journals, for example the Annual Review of Biochemistry, Annual Review of Cell Developmental Biology, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, Annual Review of Phytopathology, Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, Photosynthesis Research, Plant Physiology, and Trends in Plant Science. The reference list is presented in chronological order, and, within each year, in alphabetical order. Although no search engine accompanies the reference list, visitors may use their browsers to conduct key word searches.

349

Energy optimization, Sobacken biogas plant  

OpenAIRE

In order to make the biogas plant at Sobacken located 8 km west of Borås more profitable you must become aware of flows at the plant. This not only concerning the incoming waste to the plant but also the use of energy. Since the rebuilding in 2005 of the plant there has been no follow up concerning the energy use. This thesis is meant to clarify the use of electricity and heat at the plant. The work determining the use of energy at Sobacken biogas plant has been done by collecting data from ...

Eriksson, Magnus

2009-01-01

350

Decommissioning of uranium conversion plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since about 20 years have passed after the construction of the uranium conversion plant, most equipments installed have worn out. Liquid wastes stored in lagoons which were generated during the operation of this plant are needed to be treated safely. Therefore, the decommissioning project on the uranium conversion plant was started from 2001. This study is a preliminary step for the decommissioning of the uranium conversion plant. It was reviewed on the plant status overall, especially facility descriptions and operational histories for the installations located inside and outside of the plant and methods of decontamination and of dismantling to the contamination conditions. And some proper options on each main object was proposed

351

Plant functional genomics  

Science.gov (United States)

Functional genome analysis of plants has entered the high-throughput stage. The complete genome information from key species such as Arabidopsis thaliana and rice is now available and will further boost the application of a range of new technologies to functional plant gene analysis. To broadly assign functions to unknown genes, different fast and multiparallel approaches are currently used and developed. These new technologies are based on known methods but are adapted and improved to accommodate for comprehensive, large-scale gene analysis, i.e. such techniques are novel in the sense that their design allows researchers to analyse many genes at the same time and at an unprecedented pace. Such methods allow analysis of the different constituents of the cell that help to deduce gene function, namely the transcripts, proteins and metabolites. Similarly the phenotypic variations of entire mutant collections can now be analysed in a much faster and more efficient way than before. The different methodologies have developed to form their own fields within the functional genomics technological platform and are termed transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and phenomics. Gene function, however, cannot solely be inferred by using only one such approach. Rather, it is only by bringing together all the information collected by different functional genomic tools that one will be able to unequivocally assign functions to unknown plant genes. This review focuses on current technical developments and their impact on the field of plant functional genomics. The lower plant Physcomitrella is introduced as a new model system for gene function analysis, owing to its high rate of homologous recombination.

Holtorf, Hauke; Guitton, Marie-Christine; Reski, Ralf

2002-04-01

352

Curvilinear effects of invasive plants on plant diversity: plant community invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of invasive plants on the species diversity of plant communities are controversial, showing either a positive or negative linear relationship. Based on community data collected from forty 5 m×5 m plots invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata in eight cities across Hainan Island, China, we found S. trilobata decreased plant community diversity once its cover was beyond 10%. We demonstrated that the effects of invasive/native plants on the plant diversity of communities invaded by S. trilobata were curvilinear. These effects, which showed peaks under different degrees of vegetation cover, appeared not only for S. trilobata and all invasive plants, but also for all native plants. Invasive plants primarily had negative effects on plant diversity when they became abundant at a much lower cover level (less than 35%), compared with the native plants (over 60%). Thus, it is necessary to distinguish a range for assessing the effects of plants, especially invasive plants. Our results also confirmed that the invasion intensity of invasive alien plants increased with the intensity of local economic development. We highlight and further discuss the critical importance of curvilinear effects of biological invasion to provide ideas regarding the conservation of local biodiversity and the management of invasive plants. PMID:25426856

Qi, Shan-Shan; Dai, Zhi-Cong; Zhai, De-Li; Chen, Si-Chong; Si, Chun-Can; Huang, Ping; Wang, Rui-Ping; Zhong, Qiong-Xin; Du, Dao-Lin

2014-01-01

353

Curvilinear Effects of Invasive Plants on Plant Diversity: Plant Community Invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of invasive plants on the species diversity of plant communities are controversial, showing either a positive or negative linear relationship. Based on community data collected from forty 5 m×5 m plots invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata in eight cities across Hainan Island, China, we found S. trilobata decreased plant community diversity once its cover was beyond 10%. We demonstrated that the effects of invasive/native plants on the plant diversity of communities invaded by S. trilobata were curvilinear. These effects, which showed peaks under different degrees of vegetation cover, appeared not only for S. trilobata and all invasive plants, but also for all native plants. Invasive plants primarily had negative effects on plant diversity when they became abundant at a much lower cover level (less than 35%), compared with the native plants (over 60%). Thus, it is necessary to distinguish a range for assessing the effects of plants, especially invasive plants. Our results also confirmed that the invasion intensity of invasive alien plants increased with the intensity of local economic development. We highlight and further discuss the critical importance of curvilinear effects of biological invasion to provide ideas regarding the conservation of local biodiversity and the management of invasive plants. PMID:25426856

Zhai, De-Li; Chen, Si-Chong; Si, Chun-Can; Huang, Ping; Wang, Rui-Ping; Zhong, Qiong-Xin; Du, Dao-Lin

2014-01-01

354

Mycorrhizal fungal identity and diversity relaxes plant–plant competition  

OpenAIRE

There is a great interest in ecology to understand the role of soil microbial diversity for plant productivity and coexistence. Recent research has shown increases in species richness of mutualistic soil fungi, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), to be related to increases in aboveground productivity of plant communities. However, the impact of AMF richness on plant–plant interactions has not been determined. Moreover, it is unknown whether species-rich AMF communities can act as insura...

Wagg, C.; Jansa, J.; Stadler, M.; Schmid, B.; Heijden, M. G. A.

2011-01-01

355

Plant responses to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria  

OpenAIRE

Non-pathogenic soilborne microorganisms can promote plant growth, as well as suppress diseases. Plant growth promotion is taken to result from improved nutrient acquisition or hormonal stimulation. Disease suppression can occur through microbial antagonism or induction of resistance in the plant. Several rhizobacterial strains have been shown to act as plant growth-promoting bacteria through both stimulation of growth and induced systemic resistance (ISR), but it is not clear in how far both ...

Loon, L. C.

2007-01-01

356

Energy balances for power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An important aspect of a power plant is its energy balance, i.e. the electrical energy produced by the plant over its overall operation period, compared to the amount of non-renewable energy used to create and build the plant. Tense discussions took place in the past between criticizers and promotors of a given technology, some technologies even being accused of having a negative energy balance. Mostly based on built examples the present study aims at giving objective data for the represented technologies, as follows: a 64 MW hydro power plant in the Alps, with seasonal water storage in a lake; a 60 MW run-of-river high-head hydro power plant in the Alps; two run-of-river low-head hydro power plants in the Swiss Midlands (14 MW and 25 MW respectively); a small 30 kW wind power generator located near the Simplon Pass at 2000 m over sea level, in the Alps; a 3 kW photovoltaic generator in the roof of a single-family house; a 500 kW photovoltaic power plant in the Jura, at 1000 m over sea level; a 0.9 MWel/8.8 MWtherm fossil-fuel co-generation plant near Zuerich; a 200 MW natural-gas-fired gas/vapour turbine power plant; a 300 MW heavy-fuel-fired power plant; a 500 MW coal-fired power plant; and the Leibstadt 990 MW nuclear power plant. The best energy balances are obtained for the hydro power plants, the worst for the Leibstadt nuclear power plant. In between the photovoltaic plants and the fossil-fuel-fired plants are found. The figures differ by d plants are found. The figures differ by more than two orders of magnitude

357

Plant Genetic Resources: Not Just for Plant Breeding Anymore  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System maintains over 480,000 accessions of plant genetic resources from 2,000 genera and 12,400 species. These genetic resources consist of agronomic crops, horticultural crops, fruit and nut crops, medicinal plants, ornamental crops, and other species. Each year...

358

Plant-Microbe Interactions: Chemical Diversity in Plant Defense  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The chemical diversity within the plant kingdom is likely to be a consequence of niche colonization and adaptive evolution. Plant-derived natural products have important functions in defense. They also have broader ecological roles and may in addition participate in plant growth and development.

Pawel Bednarek (Max-Planck-Institut für Züchtungsforschung; Department of Plant Microbe Interactions)

2009-05-08

359

PLANT WATER STATUS INFLUENCES OZONE SENSITIVITY OF BEAN PLANTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies were conducted in a controlled environment chamber to determine the association between plant water status and ozone sensitivity. Bean plants were subjected to various water stress regimes for 4 to 10 days using a semipermeable membrane system which controlled plant water...

360

Predicting nuclear plant capacity factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Frequent or long outages can dramatically hike the per-kilowatt cost of nuclear power plants. But high capacity factors can also improve plant economics by spreading fixed costs over more kilowatt-hours. That's why it's so important for both plant owners and regulators to predict nuclear plant performance; to know what's normal and what's not. Utility analysts have been studying nuclear power plant performance for almost two decades. At Komanoff Energy Associates (KEA) we have assembled a nuclear plant database that spans 26 years of operating experience (1968 through 1993). It covers 111 U.S. nuclear plants, including every full calendar-year of commercial operation by reactors 400 megawatts (MW) or larger, totalling 1,566 reactor-years. To develop our model for predicting nuclear capacity factors, we tested a number of regression formulas, each correlating annual capacity factors with a set of industrywide and plant-specific characteristics

361

Return factors of power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An extension of the return factor to the aggregate return factor is the quotient of the net energy output of a plant over its planned serviceable life, and the cumulated total energy consumption for the fabrication of the plant, the operating equipment and material, and the power plant internal energy consumption for operation. The latter is defined to be the fossil or nuclear fuel consumption of a power plant, evaluated with the primary energy requirement. A table is given showing the return factor, the amortization period in terms of energy, and the aggregate return factor, for a coal-fired power plant, a nuclear power plant, six variants of photovoltaic power plants, and a wind power plant. (orig./DG)

362

Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

... Compartir NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants April 2010 DHHS (NIOSH) Publication Number 2010-118 ... outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison ...

363

Learning to classify land plants  

Science.gov (United States)

There are four main groups of land plants: bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, angiosperms (flowering), and gymnosperms (cone-producing). The four groups are distinguished by structural and reproductive traits.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-13

364

Initiative against nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication of the Initiative of Austrian Nuclear Power Plant Opponents contains articles on radiactive waste dispoasal in Austria and and discusses safety issues of the nuclear power plant 'Zwentendorf'. (kancsar)

365

Plant Closure and Marital Dissolution  

OpenAIRE

Abstract:We estimate the effect of plant closure on divorce using a panel data set comprising more than80,000 married couples in Norway. Plant closure substantially increases the likelihood of maritaldissolution of workers in affected plants. The marriages of husbands originally employed in plantsthat closed between 1995 and 2000 were 11 percent more likely to be dissolved by 2003 thancomparable marriages of husbands in stable plants. Additional analyses suggest that the effect ofplant closur...

Rege, Mari; Telle, Kjetil; Votruba, Mark

2007-01-01

366

Structural features of plant subtilases  

OpenAIRE

Serine proteases of the subtilase family are present in Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya. Many more subtilases are found in plants as compared to other organisms, implying adaptive significance for the expansion of the subtilase gene family in plants. Structural data, however, were hitherto available only for non-plant subtilases. We recently solved the first structure of a plant subtilase, SlSBT3 from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). SlSBT3 is a multidomain enzyme displaying a subtilisin, a Prote...

Rose, R.; Schaller, A.; Ottmann, C.

2010-01-01

367

Reference commercial fusion power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Currently available conceptual designs for commercial fusion power plants are for first generation plants using deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel, and are all functionally similar. This similarity has been used as a basis for defining an envelope of D-T fusion power plant characteristics which encompasses the characteristics of the available designs. A description of this envelope, including general process descriptions, proposed materials uses and a tabulation of numerical ranges of plant parameters is presented in this document

368

Plant Dictionary: Ohio State University  

Science.gov (United States)

An excellent resource in the Ohio State University's WebGarden, provided by OSU's Horticulture and Crop Science is the Plant Dictionary. The Plant Dictionary is a searchable and browsable ornamental plant database of over 1,400 "images and horticultural descriptions for 385 unique species and numerous cultivars." Searching is available on scientific, family, or common name, and a small database of images relating to insects, diseases, or culture of ornamental plants is also available.

369

Reference commercial fusion power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently available conceptual designs for commercial fusion power plants are for first generation plants using deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel, and are all functionally similar. This similarity has been used as a basis for defining an envelope of D-T fusion power plant characteristics which encompasses the characteristics of the available designs. A description of this envelope, including general process descriptions, proposed materials uses and a tabulation of numerical ranges of plant parameters is presented in this document.

Young, J.R.; Gore, B.F.

1976-09-01

370

Plant layout and fire protection in nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fire protection programme for the plants start right from the layout stage. Provision of proper fire barriers around buildings, easy accessibility to the various plant buildings as well as fire station for the fire-fighting equipment/personnel, good house-keeping around the plant inside as well as adjacent to the plant outside, due consideration for fire influence as well as containment approach in the layout of safety systems/equipment help in minimising the damaging effect of fire and prevent its spread. Proper layout goes a long way in ensuring a fire-incident-free plant

371

Wetland Plants and Plant Communities of Minnesota and Wisconsin  

Science.gov (United States)

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPRWC) hosts this new Web resource. Wetland plant ecologists Steve Eggers and Donald Reed wrote this excellent guide to the wetland plants and plant communities of Minnesota and Wisconsin. The guide begins with a key to wetland plant communities (ranging from upland communities to open water areas); a comprehensive list of plant families (using common family names) follows, in which species are appropriately classified; each species description includes (as available) ecological, field, and other information, as well as photographs for identification.

372

PlantsP: Functional Genomics of Plant Phosphorylation  

Science.gov (United States)

Funded by the plant genome program of the National Science Foundation and developed at the University of California-San Diego, PlantsP offers a searchable database for the study of protein kinases and phosphatases. PlantsP is intended to facilitate a "genome wide approach" to discovering the roles of these enzymes in regulating plant function. A number of database and search options are available. Users must fill out a registration form to use PlantsP; registration information is used only to identify comments and annotation submitted to the database and is not shared with other organizations.

373

Plant Biology for Young Children  

OpenAIRE

My Life as a Plant is an activity book targeted toward helping young children see the importance, relevance, and beauty of plants in our daily lives. The book succeeds at introducing children to plant biology in a fun, inquiry-based, and appropriately challenging way.

Coker, Jeffrey Scott; Gorman, Mary

2014-01-01

374

Regulating nutrient allocation in plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

2014-12-09

375

The Chernobyl plant shutdown  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobylsk-1 reactor, operational in september 1977 has been stopped in november 1996; the Chernobylsk-2 reactor started in november 1978 is out of order since 1991 following a fire. The Chernobylsk-3 reactor began in 1981. During the last three years it occurs several maintenance operations that stop it. In june 2000, the Ukrainian authorities decided to stop it definitively on the 15. of december (2000). This file handles the subject. it is divided in four chapters: the first one gives the general context of the plant shutdown, the second chapter studies the supporting projects to stop definitively the nuclear plant, the third chapter treats the question of the sarcophagus, and the fourth and final chapter studies the consequences of the accident and the contaminated territories. (N.C.)

376

Nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To save the amount of heavy oils used in a nuclear power plant by utilizing wasted heat obtained from reactor coolant clean-up systems. Constitution: A regenerative heat exchanger, a nonregenerative heat exchanger for lowering the temperature of coolants to a predetermined level and a clean-up device are provided to a reactor coolant clean-up system that takes out the coolants from the reactor for clean-up. Further, a warm water pipeway is provided for introducing warm water, which is obtained by taking heat from the reactor coolant clean-up system as a heat source, to desired facilities and equipments to be heated in the power plant. (Kawakami, Y.)

377

Nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention provides a nuclear power station capable of reducing the area for equipments in a building and reducing the possibility of an operator's radiation exposure by saving the number of equipments. Namely, most of nuclear power stations comprise a plurality of nuclear power plants. They have such a constitution that charging water or purge water can be supplied to the control rod drives and hydraulic control units of the plurality of nuclear power plants by common use of a control rode driving water supply device. The control rod drive water supply device comprises a condensate storage pool, a control rod driving water pump, a strainer, valves and pipelines connecting them. Since they are commonly used, the area for the equipments can be reduced, and the operation for the inspection/maintenance and the possibility of operator's radiation exposure can be mitigated. (I.S.)

378

Plants with antiviral activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Antiviral drugs are the only medicines currently in use in viral conditions in spite of the described risk of adverse health effects such as phlebitis, hematuria, hypocalcaemia, increased creatinine and, in the worst cases, mutagenicity and teratogenicity. Aim. The purpose of this article is to provide a descriptive overview of global research on the antiviral properties of complementary medicinal plants to treat diseases such as hepatitis, HIV, human papilloma virus, among others. Discussion. Plants continue to provide answers to current public health problems, such as microbial resistance to antibiotics and antifungal agents, or recalcitrant conditions present in Latin America such as malaria and tuberculosis. However, research in this area is still incipient. More studies are needed on pharmacological properties, identification of active ingredients, characterization of therapeutic spectrum and toxicological risks.

Eduardo Orrego Escobar

2013-11-01

379

Plant information network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Through a number of studies and reports over the past several years, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) recently concluded that unless a deliberate and concerted effort was made to systemize the application of computer-aided engineering (CAE) technology to the power plant industry, the likely result will be a fragmented effort negating much of the benefit promised by the technology. To remedy this situation, EPRI sponsored Project RP 2514-3, ''Guidelines For Applying Computer-Aided Engineering Systems to Generating Plant Projects'' and selected Duke Power Company as the project contractor along with Westinghouse Electric Corporation serving in a subcontractor capacity. It is the intent of this project to develop the guidelines for developing and implementing computer-aided engineering such that an integrated implementation results

380

Nuclear plants: global overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: On May 5, 2012, just over a year after the terrible earthquake and tsunami that caused the accident of the nuclear reactors of Fukushima Dai-ichi, the last nuclear reactor in Japan was shut down. In Germany, 17 nuclear plants were in operation before the Fukushima accident, but since then eight of them were shut down. German government planned the decommissioning of the remaining nuclear plants until 2022 and to abandon nuclear energy. In this talk, we will present an overview of current nuclear reactors in the world: in operation, under construction, age of the reactors, shut down, and operating time. It will be discussed issues related to decommissioning and nuclear waste repository. We will also present some details of the reactors in operation at Angra dos Reis. The security issues in view of some major accidents such as Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima will also be addressed. (author)

Okuno, Emico [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

2012-07-01

381

Plant uptake of radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The factors influencing uptake of radionuclides from soils into vegetation are discussed with reference to soil type, radionuclide, plant species and organ, and time since initial contamination. Gaps in knowledge are identified, particularly as highlighted by the unexpected behaviour of radiocaesium in many upland areas of Britain, following deposition after the Chernobyl accident. The importance of resuspended soil for contamination of aerial plant parts is also considered in relation to radionuclide type, vegetation height, and meteorological conditions. The development of an international database by the International Union of Radioecologists for soil to crop transfer factors of radionuclides derived from European experiments is briefly described. This database is now being used for statistical analyses aimed at quantifying the importance of environmental and biological factors in influencing uptake of radionuclides from the soil. (author)

382

Spacecraft power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following types of promising spacecraft power plants (PP) are considered from the engineering point of view: PPs based on hydrogen-oxygen electrochemical generators; regenerative PPs based on hydrogen-oxygen electrochemical generators and water electrolyzers; and also nuclear PPs based on closed cycle gas-turbine converters. The basic parameters are presented for the radioisotopic closed-cycle gas-turbine power plants (CGTPP) of 0.5 to 2.5 kW and 2 to 15 kW power, for the radioisotopic CGTPPs intended for a multiseater orbiting station and communication satellites, and also for the CGTPPs with nuclear reactors both for manned and pilotless spacecrafts. The CGTPPs are noticed to be possessing a long sevice life during continuous operation (up to 5-10 years), and at 5 to 500 (1000) kW, being as reliable as solar battery PPs, thermoelectric or thermionic converters, exhibit considerably better performances with regard to compactness, weight and efficiency

383

Nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To stabilize the reactor core by effectively suppress the reactor thermal power upon partial load operation. Constitution: An additional feedwater heater is disposed to a line connecting the high pressure feedwater heater and the reactor in a re-heating type power plant adapted to introduce a portion of main steams as heating steams to a reheater. Then, the reheater drain tank communicated with the reheater is connected to the feedwater heater and the high pressure feedwater heater by way of conduits respectively, drain are introduced from the reheater drain tank to both of the feedwater heaters as the heating medium for heating feedwater. Further, a valve which is put under On-OFF control depending on the plant load is disposed to both of the conduits so that feedwater temperature is adjusted upon partial load operation to suppress the power up in the reactor. (Sekiya, K.)

384

Steam generating plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reference is made to integral nuclear reactor steam generating plants. Such plants usually have an annular space between the reactor core and the reactor shell, positioned within which are steam generating tube bundles across which coolant fluid from the reactor core is passed. Owing to the limited space available for the tube bundles, however, it is difficult to locate a sufficient number of tubes in the annular space and to make the tubes of sufficient length to allow production of superheated steam. An arrangement is described that allows location of a considerable number of steam generating tubes within the annular space, the tubes being of sufficient length to allow production of sub-boiling water, boiling water, saturated steam, and superheated steam. All the tubes are substantially the same length and stable steam generating conditions are thus ensured. Constructional details are given. (U.K.)

385

Savannah River Plant overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Savannah River Plant (SRP) is located in the state of South Carolina. SRP's primary function is the production of plutonium, tritium, and other special nuclear materials for the national defense, for other governmental uses, and for some civilian purposes. The liquid high-level wastes produced from these operations are shown. Fission products from the separations plants are sent to underground waste storage tanks where the volume and mobility of the wastes are decreased by evaporation. Solid wastes generated by the facilities are sent to a 195-acre burial ground. The beta-gamma and low-level alpha wastes are buried in trenches. TRU wastes estimated to contain > 10 nCi/g are stored retrievably on pads. The long-range plan for managing TRU waste at SRP is shown graphically

386

Ammonia Plant Analysis  

OpenAIRE

The efficient operation of existing plants in the process industry requires their analysis through simulation together with power and heat integration by retrofitting. Pinch Analysis (PA) is a classical procedure to achieve this goal. Yet, a further integration can be obtained reducing the entropy generated in the chemical processes.Ammonia, important as raw material in many process industries, represents the primary feedstock for the nitrogenous fertilizer industry, being produced from its e...

Piyush I Modi, Prof C. G. Bhagchandani

2013-01-01

387

Power plants 2002. Lectures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Main topics of the meeting: Power economy for the Eastern European countries and their economical growth during overtaking by utilities; climatic change by fossil-fuel power plants; deregulation and competition challenges; cogeneration from fossil fuels and renewable energy sources; research programs for advanced energy systems and problems of certification and regulations; power trade and influence on the operators; air pollution and kyoto protocol and climatic change between policy and engineering tasks. (GL)

388

Plant mitochondrial RNA editing.  

Science.gov (United States)

RNA editing affects messenger RNAs and transfer RNAs in plant mitochondria by site-specific exchange of cytidine and uridine bases in both seed and nonseed plants. Distribution of the phenomenon among bryophytes has been unclear since RNA editing has been detected in some but not all liverworts and mosses. A more detailed understanding of RNA editing in plants required extended data sets for taxa and sequences investigated. Toward this aim an internal region of the mitochondrial nad5 gene (1104 nt) was analyzed in a large collection of bryophytes and green algae (Charles). The genomic nad5 sequences predict editing in 30 mosses, 2 hornworts, and 7 simple thalloid and leafy liverworts (Jungermanniidae). No editing is, however, required in seven species of the complex thalloid liverworts (Marchantiidae) and the algae. RNA editing among the Jungermanniidae, on the other hand, reaches frequencies of up to 6% of codons being modified. Predictability of RNA editing from the genomic sequences was confirmed by cDNA analysis in the mosses Schistostega pennata and Rhodobryum roseum, the hornworts Anthoceros husnotii and A. punctatus, and the liverworts Metzgeria conjugata and Moerckia flotoviana. All C-to-U nucleotide exchanges predicted to reestablish conserved codons were confirmed. Editing in the hornworts includes the removal of genomic stop codons by frequent reverse U-to-C edits. Expectedly, no RNA editing events were identified by cDNA analysis in the marchantiid liverworts Ricciocarpos natans, Corsinia coriandra, and Lunularia cruciata. The findings are discussed in relation to models on the phylogeny of land plants. PMID:10093219

Steinhauser, S; Beckert, S; Capesius, I; Malek, O; Knoop, V

1999-03-01

389

Intrachromosomal recombination in plants.  

OpenAIRE

Molecular evidence for intrachromosomal recombination between closely linked DNA repeats within the plant genome is presented. The non-overlapping complementary deletion derivatives of the selectable neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII), when intact conferring kanamycin resistance, were inserted into the genome of Nicotiana tabacum. The functional marker gene was restored with frequencies between 10(-4) and 10(-6) per proliferating cell clone. Prolonged tissue culture prior to kanamycin s...

Peterhans, A.; Schlu?pmann, H.; Basse, C.; Paszkowski, J.

1990-01-01

390

Nuclear plant temperature instrumentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most critical process temperatures in nuclear power plants are measured using resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) and thermocouples. In addition to excellent reliability and accident survivability, nuclear safety-related RTDs are expected to have good calibration and fast dynamic response time, as these characteristics are important to plant safety and economy. In plants where RTDs are installed in thermowells in the primary coolant pipes, response-time requirements have a range of 4.0-8.0 s versus the direct-immersion RTDs installed in bypass loops which have a required response range of 1.0-3.0 s. The variety of problems that can affect the accuracy and response time of RTDs is extensive: dynamic response problems, failure of extension leads, low-insulation resistance, premature failure, wrong calibration tables, loose or bad connections, large EMF effects, open elements, thinning of the platinum wire, lead-wire imbalance, seeping of chemicals from the connection head into the thermowell, cracking of the thermowell, and erroneous indication. The causes of core-exit thermocouples failure can take the form of large calibration shifts, erratic and noisy output, saturated output, accidental reverse connections, and response-time degradation. Several effective methods for detecting RTD and thermocouple performance failure while the plant is operating are available. To detect accuracy problems, the cross-calibration technique is effective for both RTDs and core-exit tis effective for both RTDs and core-exit thermocouples. It involves recording the readings of redundant online RTDs, averaging these readings, and calculating the deviation of each RTD from the average, less any outliers. To detect response time degradation online, the loop current step response (LCSR) test is the most accurate method. However, the noise analysis technique remains the most popular for detecting response time degradation in core-exit thermocouples.

391

Dual RNAs in plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants have remarkable developmental plasticity, and the same genotype can result in different phenotypes depending on environmental variation. Indeed, abiotic stresses or biotic interactions affect organogenesis and post-embryonic growth and significantly affect gene regulation. The large diversity of non-protein-coding RNAs (npcRNAs) and genes containing only short open reading frames that are expressed during plant growth and development, contribute to the regulation of gene expression. Certain npcRNAs code for oligopeptides and may possess additional biological activity linked to the RNA moiety. The ENOD40 gene is a dual RNA that is activated during a symbiotic interaction leading to root nodule organogenesis. Both the oligopeptides encoded by ENOD40 and the structured regions of the ENOD40 RNA have been shown to interact with different proteins in the cell to control enzymatic activities or induce the relocalisation of ribonucleoproteins, respectively. Other npcRNAs encode for small signalling peptides or are the precursors of small RNAs involved in post-transcriptional or transcriptional gene silencing. They may have RNA-related activities or encode peptides (or even larger proteins), and therefore act as dual RNAs. In addition, long natural antisense RNAs with a coding function and a regulatory RNA-mediated action that are expressed in response to abiotic stress in plants have been identified. In certain cases, these RNAs lead to the synthesis of nat-siRNAs, that are small RNAs derived from the overlapping double-stranded RNA region of natural antisense RNAs, which facilitates the silencing of complementary mRNAs. Finally, the advent of deep sequencing technologies has identified a large number of non-protein-coding RNAs in plants, which could be a large reservoir for dual RNAs. PMID:21824505

Bardou, Florian; Merchan, Francisco; Ariel, Federico; Crespi, Martin

2011-11-01

392

Plant and Animal Tissues  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lab activity from the Biotechnology Alliance for Suncoast Biology Educators, students will use a compound microscope to examine a few simple plant and animal tissues and explore the idea of different cell types that specialize in their form and function. Students then submit a set of drawings to demonstrate their learning. The lesson includes background information on different types of tissues, the materials needed, and the procedure.

Keirle, Matt

393

Fast Plants Simulations  

Science.gov (United States)

Description and links to computer simulations that allow students to perform genetic crosses quickly. Students can use these simulations to test their genetic models developed from experiments done in the classroom with actual Fast Plants. These simulations were developed in 2000-2001 by Tom Whitaker and were tested successfully by hundreds of students at Madison West High School in Madison, Wisconsin as part of a new approach to genetics used by the Biology I team.

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

394

Effects on plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of experiments with plants on the effects of low-dose and low-dose rates of low LET radiation are reported. Experiments were conducted on the effects of x and gamma radiation on the production of yellow-green sectors in maize leaves, growth inhibition in germinating seeds of barley, survival and bud production in Saintpaulia, tumor formation in Nicotiana, and pink mutations in Tradescantia stamen hair cells

395

Nuclear Power Plant  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson introduces students to the basics of nuclear energy production. Topics include radioisotope thermoelectric generators, natural decay of radioactive isotopes, and chain reactions. There is also a discussion of how to control a chain reaction and some concepts of reactor design. The lesson includes an activity in which students operate an online simulation of a nuclear power plant, attempting to keep power output as high as possible without losing control of the reaction.

John Pratte

396

Obrigheim nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gross output of the 345MWe pressurized water nuclear power station at Obrigheim, operation on base load, amounted to about 2.57TWh in 1974, the net power fed to the grid being about 2.44TWh. The core was used to its full capacity until 10 May 1974. Thereafter, the reactor was on stretch-out operation with steadily decreasing load until refuelled in August 1974. Plant availability in 1974 amounted to 92.1%. Of the 7.9% non-availability, 7.87% was attributable to the refuelling operation carried out from 16 August to 14 September and to the inspection, overhaul and repair work and the routine tests performed during this period. The plant was in good condition. Only two brief shutdowns occurred in 1974, the total outage time being 21/2 hours. From the beginning of trial operation in March 1969 to the end of 1974, the plant achieved an availability factor of 85.2%. The mean core burnup at the end of the fifth cycle was 19600 MWd/tonne U, with one fuel element that had been used for four cycles achieving a mean burnup of 39000 MWd/tonne U. The sipping test on the fuel elements revealed defective fuel-rods in a prototype plutonium fuel element, a high-efficiency uranium fuel element and a uranium fuel element. The quantities of radioactive substances released to the environment in 1974 were far below the officially permitted values. In july 1974, a reference preparation made up in the nuclear power station in October 1973 was discovered by outsiders on the Obrigheim municipality rubbish tip. The investigations revealed that this reference preparation had very probably been abstracted from the plant in October 1973 and arrived at the rubbish tip in a most irregular manner shortly before its discovery

397

Integrated Gasification SOFC Plant with a Steam Plant  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Steam Turbine (ST) plant is integrated with a gasification plant. Wood chips are fed to the gasification plant to produce biogas and then this gas is fed into the anode side of a SOFC cycle to produce electricity and heat. The gases from the SOFC stacks enter into a burner to burn the rest of the fuel. The offgases after the burner are now used to generate steam in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The generated steam is expanded in a ST to produce additional power. Thus a triple hybrid plant based on a gasification plant, a SOFC plant and a steam plant is presented and studied. The plant is called as IGSS (Integrated Gasification SOFC Steam plant). Different systems layouts are presented and investigated. Electrical efficiencies up to 56% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCC). Plants characteristics are discussed while the plants sizes are defined form the available steam turbine as well as cultivation area.

Rokni, Masoud; Pierobon, Leonardo

2011-01-01

398

Regulatory requirements for desalination plant coupled with nuclear reactor plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A small-to-medium sized reactor has been developed for multi-purposes such as seawater desalination, ship propulsion, and district heating since early 1990s in Korea. Now, the construction of its scaled-down research reactor, equipped with a seawater desalination plant, is planned to demonstrate the safety and performance of the design of the multi-purpose reactor. And the licensing application of the research reactor is expected in the near future. Therefore, a development of regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination plant coupled with a nuclear reactor plant is necessary for the preparation of the forthcoming licensing review of the research reactor. In this paper, the following contents are presented: the design of the desalination plant, domestic and foreign regulatory requirements relevant to desalination plants, and a draft of regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination plant coupled with a nuclear reactor plant

399

Regulatory requirements for desalination plant coupled with nuclear reactor plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A small-to-medium sized reactor has been developed for multi-purposes such as seawater desalination, ship propulsion, and district heating since early 1990s in Korea. Now, the construction of its scaled-down research reactor, equipped with a seawater desalination plant, is planned to demonstrate the safety and performance of the design of the multi-purpose reactor. And the licensing application of the research reactor is expected in the near future. Therefore, a development of regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination plant coupled with a nuclear reactor plant is necessary for the preparation of the forthcoming licensing review of the research reactor. In this paper, the following contents are presented: the design of the desalination plant, domestic and foreign regulatory requirements relevant to desalination plants, and a draft of regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination plant coupled with a nuclear reactor plant.

Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Woong Sik; Jo, Jong Chull; Kim, Hho Jung; Song, Jae Myung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

2005-07-01

400

DNA barcoding for plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA barcoding uses specific regions of DNA in order to identify species. Initiatives are taking place around the world to generate DNA barcodes for all groups of living organisms and to make these data publically available in order to help understand, conserve, and utilize the world's biodiversity. For land plants the core DNA barcode markers are two sections of coding regions within the chloroplast, part of the genes, rbcL and matK. In order to create high quality databases, each plant that is DNA barcoded needs to have a herbarium voucher that accompanies the rbcL and matK DNA sequences. The quality of the DNA sequences, the primers used, and trace files should also be accessible to users of the data. Multiple individuals should be DNA barcoded for each species in order to check for errors and allow for intraspecific variation. The world's herbaria provide a rich resource of already preserved and identified material and these can be used for DNA barcoding as well as by collecting fresh samples from the wild. These protocols describe the whole DNA barcoding process, from the collection of plant material from the wild or from the herbarium, how to extract and amplify the DNA, and how to check the quality of the data after sequencing. PMID:25373752

de Vere, Natasha; Rich, Tim C G; Trinder, Sarah A; Long, Charlotte

2015-01-01

401

Communal biomass conversion plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Coordinating Committee set up by the Danish government in 1986 were given the responsibility of investigating the potentials for biomass conversion plants in Denmark, especially in relation to agricultural, environmental and energy aspects. The results of the Committee's plan of management for this project are presented. This main report covers 13 background reports which deal with special aspects in detail. The report describes the overall plan of management, the demonstration and follow-up programme and the individual biogas demonstration plants. Information gained from these investigations is presented. The current general status, (with emphasis on the technical and economical aspects) and the prospects for the future are discussed. The interest other countries have shown in Danish activities within the field of biogas production is described, and the possibilities for Danish export of technology and know-how in this relation are discussed. It is claimed that Denmark is the first country that has instigated a coordinated development programme for biomass conversion plants. (AB) 24 refs

402

Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) is located in Zarechny, approximately 60 km east of Ekaterinberg along the Trans-Siberian Highway. Zarechny, a small city of approximately 30,000 residents, was built to support BNPP operations. It is a closed city to unescorted visitors. Residents must show identification for entry. BNPP is one of the first and oldest commercial nuclear power plants in Russia and began operations in 1964. As for most nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation, BNPP is operated by Rosenergoatom, which is subordinated to the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom). BNPP is the site of three nuclear reactors, Units 1, 2, and 3. Units 1 and 2, which have been shut-down and defueled, were graphite moderated reactors. The units were shut-down in 1981 and 1989. Unit 3, a BN-600 reactor, is a 600 MW(electric) sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. Unit 3 went on-line in April 1980 and produces electric power which is fed into a distribution grid and thermal power which provides heat to Zarechny. The paper also discusses the SF NIKIET, the Sverdiovsk Branch of NIKIET, Moscow, which is the research and development branch of the parent NIKEIT and is primarily a design institute responsible for reactor design. Central to its operations is a 15 megawatt IVV research reactor. The paper discusses general security and fissile material control and accountability at these two facilities

403

Optimizing plant outages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since their commissioning 15 years ago, Belgian nuclear power plants have shown above average load factors. The improvement of the average annual load factor as a specific objective requires optimizing the outage. Belgian utilities establish a programme of work for the outage taking into account four factors. 1. Duration of outage (direct impact on load factor). The experience gained in Belgium has shown that trying to reduce the outage to less than four weeks is unwise. 2. Required maintenance work (indirect impact on load factor). The list of maintenance activities is dictated on the one hand by technical specifications to assure the safety of the plant and, on the other by a sound maintenance programme to control outage duration. 3. Quality of work (indirect impact on load factor). As most of the work is performed by subcontractors, the choice and qualification of these companies are of prime importance. Close supervision of the work by plant staff and use of control procedures help to achieve better quality results. 4. Constraints to be respected. All these aspects naturally have to be addressed under the constraints of technical specifications, quality control and quality assurance procedures, dose limitation, social laws and budgets. (author)

404

Plant immunity to necrotrophs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants inhabit environments crowded with infectious microbes that pose constant threats to their survival. Necrotrophic pathogens are notorious for their aggressive and wide-ranging virulence strategies that promote host cell death and acquire nutrients for growth and reproduction from dead cells. This lifestyle constitutes the axis of their pathogenesis and virulence strategies and marks contrasting immune responses to biotrophic pathogens. The diversity of virulence strategies in necrotrophic species corresponds to multifaceted host immune response mechanisms. When effective, the plant immune system disarms the infectious necrotroph of its pathogenic arsenal or attenuates its effect, restricting further ingress and disease symptom development. Simply inherited resistance traits confer protection against host-specific necrotrophs (HSNs), whereas resistance to broad host-range necrotrophs (BHNs) is complex. Components of host genetic networks, as well as the molecular and cellular processes that mediate host immune responses to necrotrophs, are being identified. In this review, recent advances in our understanding of plant immune responses to necrotrophs and comparison with responses to biotrophic pathogens are summarized, highlighting common and contrasting mechanisms. PMID:22726121

Mengiste, Tesfaye

2012-01-01

405

Profitability of irradiation plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In any industrial process it is seek an attractive profit from the contractor and the social points of view. The use of the irradiation technology in foods allows keep their hygienically, which aid to food supply without risks for health, an increment of new markets and a losses reduction. In other products -cosmetics or disposable for medical use- which are sterilized by irradiation, this process allows their secure use by the consumers. The investment cost of an irradiation plant depends mainly of the plant size and the radioactive material reload that principally is Cobalt 60, these two parameters are in function of the type of products for irradiation and the selected doses. In this work it is presented the economic calculus and the financial costs for different products and capacities of plants. In general terms is determined an adequate utility that indicates that this process is profitable. According to the economic and commercial conditions in the country were considered two types of credits for the financing of this projects. One utilizing International credit resources and other with national sources. (Author)

406

Aquatic Plant Management Society  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of the Aquatic Plant Management Society (APMS) "are to assist in promoting the management of nuisance aquatic plants, to provide for the scientific advancement of members of the society, to encourage scientific research, to promote university scholarship, and to extend and develop public interest in the aquatic plant science discipline." The APMS website contains information about upcoming and past Annual Meetings, Society Bylaws, APMS membership, and related job opportunities and scholarship funds when available. The site allows visitors to search past issues of the _Journal of Aquatic Management_ by author and keyword, as well as browse Tables of Content for 42 volumes from 1962 to the present. A number of articles from the Journal are available for viewing and download, as well as copies of the APMS newsletter. The site includes a brief Manuscript Preparation Guide for potential Journal contributors. The site also links to websites for eight Regional APMS Chapters located mostly in different states and regions of the United States.

407

Process Experimental Pilot Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was built to convert transuranic contaminated solid waste into a form acceptable for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. There are about 2.0 million cubic ft of transuranic waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the INEL's Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) located at the RWMC will examine this stored transuranic waste to determine if the waste is acceptable for direct shipment to and storage at WIPP, or if it requires shipment to PREPP for processing before shipment to WIPP. The PREPP process shreds the waste, incinerates the shredded waste, and cements (grouts) the shredded incinerated waste in new 55-gal drums. Unshreddable items are repackaged and returned to SWEPP. The process off-gas is cleaned prior to its discharge to the atmosphere, and complies with the effluent standards of the State of Idaho, EPA, and DOE. Waste liquid generated is used in the grouting operation

408

Power plant design model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on the Power Plant Design Model (PPDM) which is an interactive FORTRAN/2020 program with over 15,000 lines of code that allows a user to create an engineering model of a grass roots solid fuel-fired facility capable of generating steam for electrical power generation and/or sale. Capital, operating, and maintenance cost estimates of the modeled plant are also generated. The model's technical output contains complete material and energy balances of all major streams, parasitic power calculations, boiler operating data and a major equipment list. The economic output consists of a capital cost estimate for the plant in a spreadsheet format detailing the material, labor and indirect costs associated with each piece of equipment. The model was intended for use as a marketing tool to replace engineering feasibility studies which are needed to determine the viability of a project. The model provides preliminary economics at a fraction of time and manpower effort normally associated with this task

409

Mycorrhizal fungal identity and diversity relaxes plant-plant competition.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a great interest in ecology in understanding the role of soil microbial diversity for plant productivity and coexistence. Recent research has shown increases in species richness of mutualistic soil fungi, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), to be related to increases in aboveground productivity of plant communities. However, the impact of AMF richness on plant-plant interactions has not been determined. Moreover, it is unknown whether species-rich AMF communities can act as insurance to maintain productivity in a fluctuating environment (e.g., upon changing soil conditions). We tested the impact of four different AMF taxa and of AMF diversity (no AMF, single AMF taxa, and all four together) on competitive interactions between the legume Trifolium pratense and the grass Lolium multiflorum grown under two different soil conditions of low and high sand content. We hypothesized that more diverse mutualistic interactions (e.g., when four AMF taxa are present) can ease competitive effects between plants, increase plant growth, and maintain plant productivity across different soil environments. We used quantitative PCR to verify that AMF taxa inoculated at the beginning of the experiment were still present at the end. The presence of AMF reduced the competitive inequality between the two plant species by reducing the growth suppression of the legume by the grass. High AMF richness enhanced the combined biomass production of the two plant species and the yield of the legume, particularly in the more productive soil with low sand content. In the less productive (high sand content) soil, the single most effective AMF had an equally beneficial effect on plant productivity as the mixture of four AMF. Since contributions of single AMF to plant productivity varied between both soils, higher AMF richness would be required to maintain plant productivity in heterogeneous environments. Overall this work shows that AMF diversity promotes plant productivity and that AMF diversity can act as insurance to sustain plant productivity under changing environmental conditions. PMID:21797158

Wagg, Cameron; Jansa, Jan; Stadler, Marina; Schmid, Bernhard; van der Heijden, Marcel G A

2011-06-01

410

Beaver herbivory on aquatic plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbivores have strong impacts on marine and terrestrial plant communities, but their impact is less well studied in benthic freshwater systems. For example, North American beavers (Castor canadensis) eat both woody and non-woody plants and focus almost exclusively on the latter in summer months, yet their impacts on non-woody plants are generally attributed to ecosystem engineering rather than herbivory. Here, we excluded beavers from areas of two beaver wetlands for over 2 years and demonstrated that beaver herbivory reduced aquatic plant biomass by 60%, plant litter by 75%, and dramatically shifted plant species composition. The perennial forb lizard's tail (Saururus cernuus) comprised less than 5% of plant biomass in areas open to beaver grazing but greater than 50% of plant biomass in beaver exclusions. This shift was likely due to direct herbivory, as beavers preferentially consumed lizard's tail over other plants in a field feeding assay. Beaver herbivory also reduced the abundance of the invasive aquatic plant Myriophyllum aquaticum by nearly 90%, consistent with recent evidence that native generalist herbivores provide biotic resistance against exotic plant invasions. Beaver herbivory also had indirect effects on plant interactions in this community. The palatable plant lizard's tail was 3 times more frequent and 10 times more abundant inside woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus) tussocks than in spatially paired locations lacking tussocks. When the protective foliage of the woolgrass was removed without exclusion cages, beavers consumed nearly half of the lizard's tail leaves within 2 weeks. In contrast, leaf abundance increased by 73-93% in the treatments retaining woolgrass or protected by a cage. Thus, woolgrass tussocks were as effective as cages at excluding beaver foraging and provided lizard's tail plants an associational refuge from beaver herbivory. These results suggest that beaver herbivory has strong direct and indirect impacts on populations and communities of herbaceous aquatic plants and extends the consequences of beaver activities beyond ecosystem engineering. PMID:17180372

Parker, John D; Caudill, Christopher C; Hay, Mark E

2007-04-01

411

Plantas Tintureiras / Dye Plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Existe uma vasta bibliografia, até ao séc. XVIII, sobre plantas produtoras de corantes naturais, sendo que apenas um número limitado foi utilizado no tingimento de têxteis antigos, devido à capacidade de resistência à lavagem e ao desvanecimento. O cultivo de plantas ou a sua existência no mundo sil [...] vestre tiveram uma enorme importância sócio-económica para muitas comunidades espalhadas pelo mundo e pelas intensas trocas comerciais que geraram. A extracção dos corantes era feita a partir de diferentes partes de plantas ou árvores. Nalgumas plantas eram utilizadas as folhas, enquanto noutras se aproveitavam as flores, as raízes, os frutos, troncos ou sementes. Os corantes podiam ser extraídos através de processos complexos que envolviam diversas operações como maceração, destilação, fermentação, decantação, precipitação, filtração, etc. Neste âmbito, são apresentadas algumas das plantas cultivadas em Portugal e em muitos outros países europeus e que foram usadas em tinturaria. Este trabalho pretende ser um contributo para obstar à perda de conhecimentos das condições de cultivo e da forma como se maximizava a produção de corantes. Abstract in english A vast bibliography exists, until the 18th cen-tury, on natural dyes obtained from plants, but only one limited number was used in the dyeing of old textiles, due to capacity of resistance to wash and light fading. The culture of plants or its existence in the wild world had an enormous economical i [...] mportance for many communities spread for the world, and the intense commercial exchanges that had generated. The extraction of dyes was done from different parts of plants or trees. In some plants was used the leaves, others, only the roots, the fruits, trunks or seeds. The dyes could be extracted through complex processes that involved various operations as maceration, distillation, fermentation, decantation, precipitation, filtration, etc. In this scope, some of the plants cultivated in Portugal are presented and in many other European countries and that they had been used on dyeing. This work intends to contribute to the loss knowledge of the conditions of culture and to the form of how it was maximized the production of dyes.

Maria do Carmo, Serrano; Ana Carreira, Lopes; Ana Isabel, Seruya.

2008-12-01

412

Plantas Tintureiras Dye Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Existe uma vasta bibliografia, até ao séc. XVIII, sobre plantas produtoras de corantes naturais, sendo que apenas um número limitado foi utilizado no tingimento de têxteis antigos, devido à capacidade de resistência à lavagem e ao desvanecimento. O cultivo de plantas ou a sua existência no mundo silvestre tiveram uma enorme importância sócio-económica para muitas comunidades espalhadas pelo mundo e pelas intensas trocas comerciais que geraram. A extracção dos corantes era feita a partir de diferentes partes de plantas ou árvores. Nalgumas plantas eram utilizadas as folhas, enquanto noutras se aproveitavam as flores, as raízes, os frutos, troncos ou sementes. Os corantes podiam ser extraídos através de processos complexos que envolviam diversas operações como maceração, destilação, fermentação, decantação, precipitação, filtração, etc. Neste âmbito, são apresentadas algumas das plantas cultivadas em Portugal e em muitos outros países europeus e que foram usadas em tinturaria. Este trabalho pretende ser um contributo para obstar à perda de conhecimentos das condições de cultivo e da forma como se maximizava a produção de corantes.A vast bibliography exists, until the 18th cen-tury, on natural dyes obtained from plants, but only one limited number was used in the dyeing of old textiles, due to capacity of resistance to wash and light fading. The culture of plants or its existence in the wild world had an enormous economical importance for many communities spread for the world, and the intense commercial exchanges that had generated. The extraction of dyes was done from different parts of plants or trees. In some plants was used the leaves, others, only the roots, the fruits, trunks or seeds. The dyes could be extracted through complex processes that involved various operations as maceration, distillation, fermentation, decantation, precipitation, filtration, etc. In this scope, some of the plants cultivated in Portugal are presented and in many other European countries and that they had been used on dyeing. This work intends to contribute to the loss knowledge of the conditions of culture and to the form of how it was maximized the production of dyes.

Maria do Carmo Serrano

2008-12-01

413

CANDU 3 standard plant licensing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detailed standard plant design of a CANDU 3 Reactor, to be licensed in Canada, will be detailed over the next three years. It is based on a Conceptual Safety Report and Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The Atomic Energy Control Board will identify the conditions for acceptance of the standard plant design. The Plant Design will satisfy domestic and export needs, the design envelope has been chosen to accommodate the characteristics of a large number of sites around the world. A standard plant design is essential for making nuclear plant construction competitive. It requires precise commitment by both designer and licensing authority. 6 refs., 2 tabs

414

B plant mission analysis report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report further develops the mission for B Plant originally defined in WHC-EP-0722, ''System Engineering Functions and Requirements for the Hanford Cleanup Mission: First Issue.'' The B Plant mission analysis will be the basis for a functional analysis that breaks down the B Plant mission statement into the necessary activities to accomplish the mission. These activities are the product of the functional analysis and will then be used in subsequent steps of the systems engineering process, such as identifying requirements and allocating those requirements to B Plant functions. The information in this mission analysis and the functional and requirements analysis are a part of the B Plant technical baseline

415

The Plants in the Florilegia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Gottorfer Codex and The Green Florilegium contain a total of more than 1,500 pictures of plants. In this article the botanists who recently identified the plants in the two albums take a look at the works as seen through the eyes of a botanist. Based on their knowledge of the plants behind the pictures the authors shed light on a range of different aspects, e.g. the relationship between figures and real plants and the horticultural background of the plants. They also offer botanical explanations for peculiarities such as double and proliferous flowers.

Arnklit, Folmer; Frederiksen, Signe

2013-01-01

416

RELSIM: RELAP based plant analyzer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

RELSIM Plant Analyzer is a personal computer system based on the RELAP5Mod2 accident analysis code developed under IAEA Regional Project RER/9/004. The plant analyzer readily shows the status of the plant which permits the operator to alter the plant system status in many ways. Through level one screens, level two mimic screens and plot curves, the operator can see what the response will be to the actions taken or to lack of action. The RELSIM Plant Analyzer was used for the evaluation of input, to debug existing input to improve models causing problems, and to evaluate selected accident management strategy expanding emergency operation procedures. (author). 3 figs

417

The year 2000 power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Every utility seeks extended service life from its existing power plants before building new ones. It is not easy to justify a new power plant. The licensing and cost of new plants have become uncertain. In response to these conditions, electric utilities are undertaking plant life-extension studies and, in some cases, reconditioning/upgrading old power plants to significantly increase useful service life. Other technologies like robotics and artificial intelligence/expert systems are also being developed to reduce operating and maintenance (O and M) expenses, to remove workers from potentially hazardous environments, and to reduce plant downtime. Together, these steps represent an interim solution, perhaps providing some relief for the next few decades. However, there are serious physical and economic limits to retrofitting new technology into existing power plants. Some old plants will simply be beyond their useful life and require retirement. In nuclear plants, for instance, retrofit may raise important and time-consuming licensing/safety issues. Based on their robotics and artificial intelligence experience, the authors of this article speculate bout the design of the year 2000 power plant - a power plant they feel will naturally incorporate liberal amounts of robotic and artificial intelligence technologies

418

27 CFR 19.912 - Small plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Small plants. 19.912 Section 19...LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel...Permits § 19.912 Small plants. Persons wishing to establish a small plant shall apply for a...

2010-04-01

419

Heavy Metal Pumps in Plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The long term goal of the funded research is to understand how heavy metals are taken up from the soil and translocated throughout the plant. The potential application of this research is to create plants with better heavy metal uptake systems and thereby improve the ability of these plants to help clean up toxic metals from soils. A rate limiting step is using plant for bioremediation is the normally poor capacity of plants to concentrate toxic metals. Our interest in metal ion transport systems includes those for essential mineral nutrients such as molybdenum, copper, iron, manganese, as well as toxic metals such as cerium, mercury, cesium, cadmium, arsenic and selenium. Understanding the pathways by which toxic metals accumulate in plants will enable the engineering of plants to exclude toxic metals and create healthier food sources, or to extract toxic metals from the soil as a strategy to clean up polluted lands and water.

Harper, J.F.

2000-10-01

420

Fluorine-pollution of plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A survey of the fluorine content of plants and of the environment around a metal processing factory (A) and an aluminum-slug treating factory (B) is described. In the leaves of an indicator plant, gladiolus, the fluorine content was 59 ppm at (A) (compared to 31 ppm in a non-polluted area), with visible damage to the plants. In rice plants planted near factory (B), the fluorine content was 95 ppm with visible damage at the apex and periphery of the leaves (compared to 8 - 8 ppm in rice plants in a non-polluted area). The hydrogen fluoride concentration was below the detection limit of the automatic analyzer; however, the larger fluorine content in plants was probably due to the environmental accumulation of hydrogen distance from the factory.

Tominaga, Y.; Miyamoto, T.

1974-01-01

421

Effects of fluorides on plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fluorine compounds known to be air pollutants, such as hydrogen fluoride and silicon tetrachloride, are highly poisonous to plants even at ppm - ppb levels. As solid microparticles, acidic sodium fluoride and cryolite cause problems by adhering to plant leaves and absorbing into plant bodies. Plants are classified by their susceptibility to hydrogen fluoride: gladiolus, apricot, buckwheat, turnip and Vaccinium vitis-idaea are most susceptible showing slight injury at less than 5 ppb for 7-9 days; maize, pepper, and dahlia are fairly susceptible, followed by azalea, rose, lilac, and alfalfa, then by oak and tomato. Gladiolus is used as an indicator plant. The exposure factor for one species was known. The symptoms of plants exposed to gaseous fluorine compounds are described in detail at various concentrations. The causal mechanism of the injuries due to fluorine compounds is described in detail, with the method of determining the fluorine content of plant parts. 7 references.

Yamazoe, F.

1975-11-01

422

Fast Plants and Families I  

Science.gov (United States)

Description: This is an investigation describing the procedure for looking at a seed pod from a mature Fast Plant with a dry pod by sandwiching the pod between layers of clear tape, then exploring the sibling seeds. Questions that might be considered:- In how many ways can you describe the pod (the mother)? Are the pods from one plant more like each other than they are like the pods from other plants? What about the siblings from a single pod? - Do all the seeds in a pod have the same father? - How much variation is there within and between families of Fast Plants? - How much does the environment affect the variation in Fast Plants, e.g. the number of seeds per pod, style length, plant height, days to first flowering, etc? - Is there any relationship between the length of the seed pod and its position on the maternal plant?

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

423

Myrmecotrophy: Plants fed by ants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two plant genera with tubers specialized for occupation by ants absorb nutrients from waste materials accumulated by the resident colonies. The mineral resources of these host plants are augmented by colony foraging which functions as a second root system. This mutualistic interaction has become known as myrmecotrophy. Many other kinds of plant structure are apparent adaptations to accommodate ant colonies; these include pouches on leaves or petioles and hollow twigs, stems or thorns. Sometimes the ant species residing in these structures are aggressive towards enemies of the host plant and are important for plant defence. Recent research provides some evidence that myrmecotrophy may have a wider role in plant nutrition, at least when subsidizing the costs of plant defence. PMID:21227344

Beattie, A

1989-06-01

424

Construction technique for a chemical plant (I)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book mentions the order of plant construction, building plant and related regulations, basic engineering design data, provide of equipment, plan and management on building plant, quality control, the budget and contract for building plant, public works for building chemical plant like road construction, basic plan and building for a chemical plant, introduction and principle on foundation improvement method, including pile foundation and design for footing, construction and installation for a chemical plant and a rotary machine for a chemical plant.

425

Calcium in plant cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-??Pases and Ca2+/?+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you connect ion conformationally rearranged, thus passing the signal through the chain of intermediaries. The most important function of calcium is its participation in many cell signaling pathways. Channels, pumps, gene expression, synthesis of alkaloids, protective molecules, NO etc. respond to changes in [Ca2+]cyt, while transductors are represented by a number of proteins. The universality of calcium is evident in the study in connection with other signaling systems, such as NO, which is involved in the immune response and is able to control the feedback activity of protein activators channels, producing nitric oxide. Simulation of calcium responses can determine the impact of key level and their regulation, and also depends on the type of stimulus and the effector protein that specifically causes certain changes. Using spatiotemporal modeling, scientists showed that the key components for the formation of Ca2+ bursts are the internal and external surfaces of the nucleus membrane. The research was aimed at understanding of the mechanisms of influence of Ca2+-binding components on Ca2+ oscillations. The simulation suggests the existence of a calcium depot EPR with conjugated lumen of the nucleus which releases its contents to nucleoplasm. With these assumptions, the mathematical model was created and confirmed experimentally. It describes the oscillation of nuclear calcium in root hairs of Medicago truncatula at symbiotic relationship of plants and fungi (rhizobia. Calcium oscillations are present in symbiotic relationships of the cortical layer of plant root cells. Before penetration of bacteria into the cells, slow oscillations of Ca2+ are observed, but with their penetration into the cells the oscillation frequency increases. These processes take place by changing buffer characteristics of the cytoplasm caused by signals from microbes, such as Nod-factor available after penetration of bacteria through the cell wall. Thus, the basic known molecular mechanisms for regulation of calcium homeostasis in plant cells are reviewed. Data presented in the paper is important

V. V. Schwartau

2014-04-01

426

Cyanogenic glycosides in plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A presença de glicosídeos cianogênicos foi testada em 70 espécies de plantas do Campus da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR, Brasil e em 45 espécies de plantas do Remanescente Florestal da Fazenda Doralice, Ibiporã, PR, Brasil. Das espécies vegetais da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, 7,1% apr [...] esentaram glicosídeos cianogênicos: Manihot esculenta (Euphorbiaceae), Passiflora edulis (Passifloraceae), Macadamia ternifolia (Proteaceae), Prunus persica (Rosaceae) e Beloperone sp (Acanthaceae). As primeiras quatro espécies foram consideradas potencialmente cianogênicas no campo. Do Remanescente Florestal da Fazenda Doralice, as espécies vegetais com glicosídeos cianogênicos foram: Holocalix balanseae (Caesalpinaceae), Nectandra megapotamica (Lauraceae), Trichilia casareti (Meliaceae), Trichilia elegans (Meliaceae) e Rapanea umbellata (Myrsinaceae), perfazendo 11,1% das espécies totais analisadas. Somente Holocalix balanseae foi considerada ser potencialmente cianogênica no campo. Abstract in english The presence of cyanogenic glycosides was determined in 70 plant species from the campus of the State University of Londrina, PR, Brazil, and a further 45 plant species from the Forestry Reserve on the Doralice Farm in Ibiporã, PR, Brazil. Of the vegetative species from the State University of Londr [...] ina, 7.1% showed cyanogenic glycosides: Manihot esculenta (Euphorbiaceae), Passiflora edulis (Passifloraceae), Macadamia ternifolia (Proteaceae), Prunus persica (Rosaceae) and Beloperone sp (Acanthaceae).The first four species were considered to be potentially cyanogenic in the field. From the Forestry Reserve on the Doralice Farm, the plant species with cyanogenic glycosides were: Holocalix balanseae (Caesalpinaceae), Nectranda megapotamica (Lauraceae), Trichilia casareti (Meliaceae), Trichilia elegans (Meliaceae) and Rapanea umbellata (Myrsinaceae), making 11.1% of the total species analyzed. Only Holocalix balanseae was considered to be potentially cyanogenic in the field.

Ilza A., Francisco; Maria Helena Pimenta, Pinotti.

427

Cyanogenic glycosides in plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The presence of cyanogenic glycosides was determined in 70 plant species from the campus of the State University of Londrina, PR, Brazil, and a further 45 plant species from the Forestry Reserve on the Doralice Farm in Ibiporã, PR, Brazil. Of the vegetative species from the State University of Londrina, 7.1% showed cyanogenic glycosides: Manihot esculenta (Euphorbiaceae, Passiflora edulis (Passifloraceae, Macadamia ternifolia (Proteaceae, Prunus persica (Rosaceae and Beloperone sp (Acanthaceae.The first four species were considered to be potentially cyanogenic in the field. From the Forestry Reserve on the Doralice Farm, the plant species with cyanogenic glycosides were: Holocalix balanseae (Caesalpinaceae, Nectranda megapotamica (Lauraceae, Trichilia casareti (Meliaceae, Trichilia elegans (Meliaceae and Rapanea umbellata (Myrsinaceae, making 11.1% of the total species analyzed. Only Holocalix balanseae was considered to be potentially cyanogenic in the field.A presença de glicosídeos cianogênicos foi testada em 70 espécies de plantas do Campus da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR, Brasil e em 45 espécies de plantas do Remanescente Florestal da Fazenda Doralice, Ibiporã, PR, Brasil. Das espécies vegetais da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, 7,1% apresentaram glicosídeos cianogênicos: Manihot esculenta (Euphorbiaceae, Passiflora edulis (Passifloraceae, Macadamia ternifolia (Proteaceae, Prunus persica (Rosaceae e Beloperone sp (Acanthaceae. As primeiras quatro espécies foram consideradas potencialmente cianogênicas no campo. Do Remanescente Florestal da Fazenda Doralice, as espécies vegetais com glicosídeos cianogênicos foram: Holocalix balanseae (Caesalpinaceae, Nectandra megapotamica (Lauraceae, Trichilia casareti (Meliaceae, Trichilia elegans (Meliaceae e Rapanea umbellata (Myrsinaceae, perfazendo 11,1% das espécies totais analisadas. Somente Holocalix balanseae foi considerada ser potencialmente cianogênica no campo.

Ilza A. Francisco

2000-01-01

428

Robots and plant safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of robots in the harsh environments in which TELEMAN equipment will have to operate has large benefits, but also some drawbacks. The main benefit is the ability gained to perform tasks where people cannot go, while there is a possibility of inflicting damage to the equipment handled by the robot, and the plant when mobile robots are involved. The paper describes the types of possible damage and the precautions to be taken in order to reduce the frequency of the damaging events. A literature study for the topic only gave some insight into examples, but no means for a systematic treatment of the topic. (au) 16 refs

429

Plant Diversity in Paraguay  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web site contains a database of Paraguayan plant specimens from the Natural History Museum herbarium in London, as well as all records of collections made during a biological inventory of the Mbaracay Forest Nature Reserve (a project funded by the UK government's Darwin Initiative). In addition to the database, which is searchable by taxonomy or geography via convenient dropdown menus, visitors will find detailed background information on the Darwin Initiative, the vegetation of Paraguay, and the Mbaracay Forest Nature Reserve. The site's attractive and well-designed interface is an added bonus.

2003-01-01

430

Nuclear Plant Data Bank  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Plant Data Bank (NPDB) is being developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to assist analysts in the rapid and accurate creation of input decks for reactor transient analysis. The NPDB will reduce the time and cost of the creation or modification of a typical input deck. This data bank will be an invaluable tool in the timely investigation of recent and ongoing nuclear reactor safety analysis. This paper discusses the status and plans for the NPDB development and describes its anticipated structure and capabilities

431

Rounding up plant cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Compared to animal cells, plant cells are typically non-spherical, which may bias morphometric and fluorimetric analyses, including flow cytometry and other approaches used in the study of cellular biodiversity. The morphometric study of cotyledonary cells may serve to distinguish between genotypes, as cell shape is clearly an important issue when assessing flour quality and seed digestibility by animals, being affected by the surface and volume of particles. We devised a shape coefficient that resolves these difficulties with pea (Pisum sativum L., and may find general applicability in cytological studies and for the characterization of biodiversity patterns.

Anne Moessner

2010-01-01

432

Nuclear district heating plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different aspects of nuclear district heating plant (NDHP) use for heat generation in the form of hot water are analyzed. The main NDHP operation peculiarities are considered in brief. The basic requirements for NDHP reactor operation modes are formulated. The principal NDHP flowsheet and its basic equipment are presented and described. A power unit of integral type with 500 MW/430 Gkal/h) low-temperature water-water reactor and 1.5 MPa coolant pressure of the primary circuit is developed. The design peculiarities of this unit, arrangement of the main NDHP vessel and means for providing radiation safety of NDHP personnel and population are described

433

Fast Plants Data Chart  

Science.gov (United States)

This PDF chart provides an organizational guide for recording student data as observations, measures(estimates), counts and descriptions on the growth, development, and reproduction of up to 5 Fast Plants (Rapid Cycling Brassica Rapa or "RBR"), and statistical summaries of the data. Data from individual student charts can be aggregated into class or group data charts or a spreadsheet for further display and analysis. These student data can then serve as the basis a deeper understanding of the nature of phenotypic variation, providing a basis for investigating the inheritance of a target characteristic and examples of its variation.

Williams, Paul H.

434

Mystery Plants Mystery  

Science.gov (United States)

This transfer activity tests student understanding of variation and inheritance. It starts with five flower boxes, as in ?The Virtual Greenhouse,? and three types of seeds with variations in their roots. The flower boxes differ in the amount of water they receive, and students discover which seeds thrive in which environment. Students are then challenged to produce a crop of plants that can grow everywhere in a field by taking advantage of the small variation in root type from one generation to the next.

2012-07-19

435

Aphid-host plant interaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Black bean aphid, Aphis fabae (Homoptera; Aphididae is a serious pest causing crop loss. Plant-aphid interaction is a dynamic system subjected to continual variation and changes. Host plants induce various biochemical and physical defense mechanisms due to aphid feeding. Aphids can overcome plant defenses by enzymatic adaptations and sequestering secondary metabolites produced by the plant within their bodies as a defense against their enemies. Many strategies were developed and evolved by aphids in order to overcome plant defense barriers which allowed them to feed, grow and reproduce on their host plants. This study aimed to aid in better understanding of the effect of altering host plant on specialist and generalist aphid fitness.The influence of plant defense on population development of Aphis fabae was also investigated. Analyses for insect enzymes were also demonstrated in addition to further biochemical studies on host plant defences. Generalists showed different ecological and enzymatic adaptations towards host plants than specialist Aphis fabae. The results were fully discussed in details.

Reham Z. Sadek

2013-06-01

436

Power coal preparation plants abroad  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reviews technological schemes, capacity, grain size, machines and final products of power coal preparation plants abroad and compares them with separation equipment used in Polish power coal preparation plants. The coal preparation plants reviewed are the 1,000 t/h Obed Marsh plant in Canada designed by Humboldt-Wedag (FRG), the 3,000 t/h An Tai Bao plant in China designed by McNally (USA), the 2,000 t/h Paradise and the 250 t/h Pine Mountain plants in USA and the 300 t/h Ayr plant in the UK. A flowsheet of the design of power coal preparation plants preferred in the FRG is presented and described. The RYAN method of 1-0 mm slurry enrichment and a new technology of fine coal enrichment that uses Reichert spirals are shown. Polish domestic coal preparation plants differ from foreign plants by the maximum 200 mm size of the grain fed, by using exclusively DISA separators and jigs for grain size over 0.5 mm and by applying only hydrocyclones for class 0.5-0.2 mm separation. 5 refs.

Drogon, W.

1990-08-01

437

Chemical defense lowers plant competitiveness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both plant competition and plant defense affect biodiversity and food web dynamics and are central themes in ecology research. The evolutionary pressures determining plant allocation toward defense or competition are not well understood. According to the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDB), the relative importance of herbivory and competition have led to the evolution of plant allocation patterns, with herbivore pressure leading to increased differentiated tissues (defensive traits), and competition pressure leading to resource investment towards cellular division and elongation (growth-related traits). Here, we tested the GDB hypothesis by assessing the competitive response of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants with quantitatively different levels of cyanogenesis-a constitutive direct, nitrogen-based defense against herbivores. We used high (HC) and low cyanogenic (LC) genotypes in different competition treatments (intra-genotypic, inter-genotypic, interspecific), and in the presence or absence of insect herbivores (Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis) to quantify vegetative and generative plant parameters (above and belowground biomass as well as seed production). Highly defended HC-plants had significantly lower aboveground biomass and seed production than LC-plants when grown in the absence of herbivores implying significant intrinsic costs of plant cyanogenesis. However, the reduced performance of HC- compared to LC-plants was mitigated in the presence of herbivores. The two plant genotypes exhibited fundamentally different responses to various stresses (competition, herbivory). Our study supports the GDB hypothesis by demonstrating that competition and herbivory affect different plant genotypes differentially and contributes to understanding the causes of variation in defense within a single plant species. PMID:25173086

Ballhorn, Daniel J; Godschalx, Adrienne L; Smart, Savannah M; Kautz, Stefanie; Schädler, Martin

2014-11-01

438

Plant caspase-like proteases in plant programmed cell death  

OpenAIRE

Programmed cell death (PCD) is a genetically-controlled disassembly of the cell. In animal systems, the central core execution switch for apoptotic PCD is the activation of caspases (Cysteine-containing Aspartate-specific proteases). Accumulating evidence in recent years suggests the existence of caspase-like activity in plants and its functional involvement in various types of plant PCD, although no functional homologs of animal caspases were identified in plant genome. In this mini-review, ...

Xu, Qixian; Zhang, Lingrui

2009-01-01

439

Plant sex and the evolution of plant defenses against herbivores  

OpenAIRE

Despite the importance of plant–herbivore interactions to the ecology and evolution of terrestrial ecosystems, the evolutionary factors contributing to variation in plant defenses against herbivores remain unresolved. We used a comparative phylogenetic approach to examine a previously untested hypothesis (Recombination-Mating System Hypothesis) that posits that reduced sexual reproduction limits adaptive evolution of plant defenses against arthropod herbivores. To test this hypothesis we fo...

Johnson, Marc T. J.; Smith, Stacey D.; Rausher, Mark D.

2009-01-01

440

The EDF nuclear power plants: the Chooz B plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

France's nuclear construction programme has changed significantly in recent years. After the setup of units having outputs of 900 and 1 300 MW with three or four units per plant, the current programme is reduced to one unit of 1 400 MW every four years until the year 2 000 and even beyond, depending on the life of the plants presently in service. The present article focuses on the Chooz B plant: - overall project, - reactor building, -coolants, - turbine building (and its structural steelwork)

441

Native plant community response to alien plant invasion and removal  

OpenAIRE

Given the potential ecological impacts of invasive species, removal of alien plants has become an important management challenge and a high priority for environmental managers. To consider that a removal effort has been successful requires both, the effective elimination of alien plants and the restoration of the native plant community back to its historical composition and function. We present a conceptual framework based on observational and experimental data that compares invaded, non-inva...

Andreu, Jara; Vila?, Montserrat

2011-01-01

442

Modelling plant compensatory effects in plant-insect dynamics  

OpenAIRE

Modelling plant-pest interactions is not an obvious task since the involved processes are numerous and complex. We propose a minimal model based on trophic relations and the concept of plant compensation capacity. We only consider three main components in our system: the plant foliar biomass, the compensation capacity, and the pest population. We prove that there exist two threshold parameters, N1 and N2, and show that the system admits different equilibria, which are locally asymptotically s...

Lebon, Audrey; Mailleret, Ludovic; Grognard, Fre?de?ric; Dumont, Yves

2012-01-01

443

Plant life management and maintenance technologies for nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power generation occupying an important position for energy source in Japan and supplying about one third of total electric power usage is now required for further upgrading of its economics under regulation relaxation of electric power business. And, under execution retardation of its new planning plant, it becomes important to operate the already established plants for longer term and to secure their stability. Therefore, technical development in response to the plant life elongation is promoted under cooperation of the Ministry of Economics and Industries, electric power companies, literate, and plant manufacturers. Under such conditions, the Hitachi, Ltd. has progressed some technical developments on check inspection, repairs and maintenance for succession of the already established nuclear power plants for longer term under securing of their safety and reliability. And in future, by proposing the check inspection and maintenance program combined with these technologies, it is planned to exert promotion of maintenance program with minimum total cost from a viewpoint of its plant life. Here were described on technologies exerted in the Hitachi, Ltd. such as construction of plant maintenance program in response to plant life elongation agreeing with actual condition of each plant, yearly change mechanism grasping, life evaluation on instruments and materials necessary for maintenance, adequate check inspection, repairs and exchange, and so forth. (G.K.)rs and exchange, and so forth. (G.K.)

444

Plant life management and maintenance technologies for nuclear power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear power generation occupying an important position for energy source in Japan and supplying about one third of total electric power usage is now required for further upgrading of its economics under regulation relaxation of electric power business. And, under execution retardation of its new planning plant, it becomes important to operate the already established plants for longer term and to secure their stability. Therefore, technical development in response to the plant life elongation is promoted under cooperation of the Ministry of Economics and Industries, electric power companies, literate, and plant manufacturers. Under such conditions, the Hitachi, Ltd. has progressed some technical developments on check inspection, repairs and maintenance for succession of the already established nuclear power plants for longer term under securing of their safety and reliability. And in future, by proposing the check inspection and maintenance program combined with these technologies, it is planned to exert promotion of maintenance program with minimum total cost from a viewpoint of its plant life. Here were described on technologies exerted in the Hitachi, Ltd. such as construction of plant maintenance program in response to plant life elongation agreeing with actual condition of each plant, yearly change mechanism grasping, life evaluation on instruments and materials necessary for maintenance, adequate check inspection, repairs and exchange, and so forth. (G.K.)

Ikegami, Tsukasa; Aoki, Masataka; Shimura, Takao; Kaimori, Kimihiro; Koike, Masahiro [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

2001-02-01

445

plantsUPS: a database of plants' Ubiquitin Proteasome System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The ubiquitin 26S/proteasome system (UPS, a serial cascade process of protein ubiquitination and degradation, is the last step for most cellular proteins. There are many genes involved in this system, but are not identified in many species. The accumulating availability of genomic sequence data is generating more demands in data management and analysis. Genomics data of plants such as Populus trichocarpa, Medicago truncatula, Glycine max and others are now publicly accessible. It is time to integrate information on classes of genes for complex protein systems such as UPS. Results We developed a database of higher plants' UPS, named 'plantsUPS'. Both automated search and manual curation were performed in identifying candidate genes. Extensive annotations referring to each gene were generated, including basic gene characterization, protein features, GO (gene ontology assignment, microarray probe set annotation and expression data, as well as cross-links among different organisms. A chromosome distribution map, multi-sequence alignment, and phylogenetic trees for each species or gene family were also created. A user-friendly web interface and regular updates make plantsUPS valuable to researchers in related fields. Conclusion The plantsUPS enables the exploration and comparative analysis of UPS in higher plants. It now archives > 8000 genes from seven plant species distributed in 11 UPS-involved gene families. The plantsUPS is freely available now to all users at http://bioinformatics.cau.edu.cn/plantsUPS.

Su Zhen

2009-05-01

446

Development plant of operation system for autonomous nuclear plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conceptual study has been done to determine a configuration and functions of an operation system for an autonomous nuclear power plant. In the plant, artificial intelligence (AI) plays major roles as the alternatives of the plant personnels, especially in the events of plant transients and accidents. R and Ds have been started not only to develop the operation system but also to accelerate development of the nuclear plants having higher reliability than those currently under operation. Key issues of the development are developments of knowledge base and inference and modification of neural networks and fuzzy technique for the nuclear plant applications. In parallel with these, development of a building block-type plant simulator and an intelligent operation system are under way. Fruits from these R and Ds are implemented in the operation system so that the system overall performance as well as function of its elementary systems can be validated by the plant simulator. Development of the AI systems are to be conducted with the simulator. The paper presents an outline of the operation system for an autonomous nuclear power plant and R and Ds to support this. (author)

447