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Effects of the Sri Lankan medicinal plant, Salacia reticulata, in rheumatoid arthritis  

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Salacia reticulata is a native plant of Sri Lanka. In the traditional medicine of Sri Lanka and India, Salacia reticulata bark is considered orally effective in the treatment of rheumatism, gonorrhea, skin disease and diabetes. We have investigated, both in vivo and in vitro, whether the leaf of Salacia reticulata (SRL) can ameliorate collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) in mice as the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) model. The mice were fed a lard containing chow diet (AIN-93G) or the same d...

Sekiguchi, Yuusuke; Mano, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Sachie; Shimizu, Jun; Wada, Masahiro

2010-01-01

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Role of medicinal plant Salacia Reticulata in the management of Type II Diabetic Subjects  

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Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading causes of death and ranks third among the chronic diseases. Recent studies have shown that up to 10 % of India's urban population and 2 % of the rural population above the age of 15 years have diabetes and WHO had declared India as the diabetic capital of the world. India has wealth of medicinalplants, and these plants have credited to the development of therapeutic agents for various ailments and diseases. Hark of Salacia Reticulata was screened for its hypoglycemic and hypo-lipidaemic effect. A- total of 60 type II diabetics were enrolled, consisting of experimental group 30 and control group 30. Experimental group received 2 grams of Kadalazhinjil powder daily for a period of 90 days and control group did not receive any supplements. Blood glucose levels before and after medications were estimated in both groups at baseline and at 90 days. There was insignificant reduction in fasting blood glucose, HbA1 c and lipid levels at the end of 90 days in the supplemented group. The experimental group showed encouraging results which call for long term supplementation in Diabetes Mellitus.

Radha, R.; Amrithaveni, M.

2009-01-01

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Adverse pregnancy outcome in rats following exposure to a Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) root extract  

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The root extract of Salacia reticulata Wight (family: Celastraceae) is used in Sri Lanka by traditional practitioners as a herbal therapy for glycemic control even during pregnancy. It is recognized that some clinically used antidiabetic drugs have harmful effects on pregnancy but the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on reproductive outcome is unknown and deserves examination. We determined the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on the reproductive outcome of Wistar rats (250-...

2003-01-01

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Adverse pregnancy outcome in rats following exposure to a Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) root extract  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The root extract of Salacia reticulata Wight (family: Celastraceae) is used in Sri Lanka by traditional practitioners as a herbal therapy for glycemic control even during pregnancy. It is recognized that some clinically used antidiabetic drugs have harmful effects on pregnancy but the effects of the [...] S. reticulata root extract on reproductive outcome is unknown and deserves examination. We determined the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on the reproductive outcome of Wistar rats (250-260 g) when administered orally (10 g/kg) during early (days 1-7) and mid- (days 7-14) pregnancy. The root extract significantly (P

W.D., Ratnasooriya; J.R.A.C., Jayakody; G.A.S., Premakumara.

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Adverse pregnancy outcome in rats following exposure to a Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) root extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

The root extract of Salacia reticulata Wight (family: Celastraceae) is used in Sri Lanka by traditional practitioners as a herbal therapy for glycemic control even during pregnancy. It is recognized that some clinically used antidiabetic drugs have harmful effects on pregnancy but the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on reproductive outcome is unknown and deserves examination. We determined the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on the reproductive outcome of Wistar rats (250-260 g) when administered orally (10 g/kg) during early (days 1-7) and mid- (days 7-14) pregnancy. The root extract significantly (Preticulata root extract can be hazardous to successful pregnancy in women and should not be used in pregnancy complicated by diabetes. PMID:12845381

Ratnasooriya, W D; Jayakody, J R A C; Premakumara, G A S

2003-07-01

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Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor from Kothala-himbutu (Salacia reticulata WIGHT).  

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A polyhydroxylated cyclic 13-membered sulfoxide (1) was isolated from an aqueous extract of Kothala-himbutu ( Salacia reticulata WIGHT). The structure of compound 1 was elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR and APCI-MS methods. The alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of compound 1 (IC 50: maltase, 0.227 microM; sucrase, 0.186 microM; isomaltase, 0.099 microM) was much greater than the inhibitory activity of salacinol and kotalanol, which were previously isolated from Kothala-himbutu. PMID:18547114

Ozaki, Sei; Oe, Hiromi; Kitamura, Shinichi

2008-06-01

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Purified Methanolic Extract of Salacia reticulata Wight. Ameliorates Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Alterations in Rats Fed High Fructose Diet  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried-out to investigate the insulin sensitizing activity of purified methanolic extract of salacia reticulata roots in fructose-fed rats, a well-known model of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Feeding fructose enriched diet caused a hyperinsulinemic state and increased insulin resistance index with statistically significant increase in fasting triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. Fructose fed rats also exhibited glucose intolerance when tested by oral glucose tolerance test as indicated by increase in total area under curve of blood glucose. Dietary supplementation of purified methanolic extract of Salacia reticulata (0.4 g/100 g of feed significantly reversed the fructose diet-induced metabolic alterations in rats and also improved glucose intolerance. The effect of purified methanolic extract of Salacia reticulata was comparable to that of rosiglitazone, a known insulin sensitizer. Acarbose, a marketed ?-glucosidase inhibitor failed to reverse the metabolic alterations caused by fructose enriched diet in rats. The finding proves probable mechanism of action of Salacia reticulata and further validates scientific basis of its usage in the management of various metabolic disorders including diabetes.

S.K. Mitra

2010-01-01

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Anti-proliferative effects of Salacia reticulata leaves hot-water extract on interleukin-1?-activated cells derived from the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis model mice  

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Abstract Background Salacia reticulata (SR) is a plant native to Sri Lanka. In ayurvedic medicine, SR bark preparations, taken orally, are considered effective in the treatment of rheumatism and diabetes. We investigated the ability of SR leaves (SRL) to inhibit in vitro the interleukin-1? (IL-1?)-activated proliferation of synoviocyte-like cells derived from rheumatoid arthritis model mice. Findings Inflammatory synovial tissues were harvest...

Sekiguchi Yuusuke; Mano Hiroshi; Nakatani Sachie; Shimizu Jun; Kobata Kenji; Wada Masahiro

2012-01-01

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Adverse pregnancy outcome in rats following exposure to a Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae root extract  

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Full Text Available The root extract of Salacia reticulata Wight (family: Celastraceae is used in Sri Lanka by traditional practitioners as a herbal therapy for glycemic control even during pregnancy. It is recognized that some clinically used antidiabetic drugs have harmful effects on pregnancy but the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on reproductive outcome is unknown and deserves examination. We determined the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on the reproductive outcome of Wistar rats (250-260 g when administered orally (10 g/kg during early (days 1-7 and mid- (days 7-14 pregnancy. The root extract significantly (P<0.05 enhanced post-implantation losses (control vs treatment: early pregnancy, 4.7 ± 2.4 vs 49.3 ± 13%; mid-pregnancy, 4.7 ± 2.4 vs 41.7 ± 16.1%. Gestational length was unaltered but the pups born had a low birth weight (P<0.05 (early pregnancy, 6.8 ± 0.1 vs 5.3 ± 0.1 g; mid-pregnancy, 6.8 ± 0.1 vs 5.0 ± 0.1 g and low birth index (P<0.05 (early pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 50.7 ± 12.9%; mid-pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 58.3 ± 16.1%, fetal survival ratio (P<0.05 (early pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 50.7 ± 12.9; mid-pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 58.3 ± 16.1, and viability index (P<0.05 (early pregnancy, 94.9 ± 2.6 vs 49.5 ± 12.5%; mid-pregnancy, 94.9 ± 2.6 vs 57.1 ± 16.1%. However, the root extract was non-teratogenic. We conclude that the S. reticulata root extract can be hazardous to successful pregnancy in women and should not be used in pregnancy complicated by diabetes.

W.D. Ratnasooriya

2003-07-01

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Kotalanol, a potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor with thiosugar sulfonium sulfate structure, from antidiabetic ayurvedic medicine Salacia reticulata.  

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A potent natural alpha-glucosidase inhibitor called kotalanol has been isolated from an antidiabetic traditional Ayurvedic medicine, the roots and stems of Salacia reticulata Wight, through bioassay-guided separation. The structure of kotalanol was elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence to be the inner salt comprised of 1-deoxyheptosyl-3-sulfate anion and 1-deoxy-4-thio-D-arabinofuranosyl sulfonium cation. Kotalanol was found to show more potent inhibitory activity against sucrase than salacinol and acarbose. PMID:9734318

Yoshikawa, M; Murakami, T; Yashiro, K; Matsuda, H

1998-08-01

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The effects of Salacia reticulata on anti-cellular oxidants and melanogenesis inhibition in alpha-MSH-stimulated and UV irradiated B16 melanoma cells.  

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The purposes of this study were to investigate the inhibitory effects of Salacia reticulata Tul. root extract on cellular oxidants and melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells. Cells treated with non-toxic doses of S. reticulata root extract were investigated for their effects on melanogenesis, cellular tyrosinase activity and cellular oxidant scavenging activity. The results indicated that S. reticulata extract inhibited melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in alpha-MSH-induced or UV-irradiated B16 melanoma cells in a dose dependent manner. Additionally, the extract also exhibited anti-cellular oxidants in UV-induced radical melanoma cells. Altogether, these results suggested that S. reticulata root extract has roles in suppression of melanogenesis and oxidant inhibition. S. reticulata root extract may be a potential source for the development of pharmaceutical products for treatment of skin hyperpigmentation disorders. PMID:24868882

Suwannalert, Prasit; Kariya, Ryusho; Suzu, Ikuko; Okada, Seiji

2014-04-01

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Absolute stereostructure of potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, Salacinol, with unique thiosugar sulfonium sulfate inner salt structure from Salacia reticulata.  

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A most potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor named salacinol has been isolated from an antidiabetic Ayurvedic traditional medicine, Salacia reticulata WIGHT, through bioassay-guided separation. The absolute stereostructure of salacinol was determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence, which included the alkaline degradation of salacinol to 1-deoxy-4-thio-D-arabinofuranose and the X-ray crystallographic analysis, to be the unique spiro-like configuration of the inner salt comprised of 1-deoxy-4-thio-D-arabinofuranosyl sulfonium cation and 1'-deoxy-D-erythrosyl-3'-sulfate anion. Salacinol showed potent inhibitory activities on several alpha-glucosidases, such as maltase, sucrase, and isomaltase, and the inhibitory effects on serum glucose levels in maltose- and sucrose-loaded rats (in vivo) were found to be more potent than that of acarbose, a commercial alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. PMID:11886816

Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Morikawa, Toshio; Matsuda, Hisashi; Tanabe, Genzoh; Muraoka, Osamu

2002-05-01

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Hepatoprotective and antioxidative properties of Salacia reticulata: preventive effects of phenolic constituents on CCl4-induced liver injury in mice.  

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The hepatoprotective effects of the hot water (SRHW) and methanolic (SRM) extracts from the roots and stems of Salacia reticulata were examined using an oxidative stress-induced liver injury model. Both SRHW and SRM extracts (400 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly suppressed the increase in glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activities in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated mice. These extracts also inhibited CCl4-induced thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBA-RS) formation, which indicates increased lipid peroxidation in the liver. A good correlation (r=0.945, preticulata were examined. Mangiferin, (-)-4'-O-methylepigallocatechin, and (-)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-(-)-4'-O-methylepigallocatechin, which a principal phenolic compounds, showed potent scavenging activity on DPPH radicals and their concentrations required for 50% reduction of 40 microM DPPH radicals were 5.9, 10, and 3.2 microM, respectively. On the other hand, against the CCl4-induced serum GOT and GPT elevations and TBA-RS formation in mice, mangiferin and (-)-4'-O-methylepigallocatechin showed potent activity at a dose of 100 mg/kg, but (-)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-(-)-4'-O-methylepigallocatechin did not. These results suggest that the antioxidative activity of the principal phenolic compounds is involved in the hepatoprotective activity of S. reticulata. PMID:11824561

Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Nishida, Norihisa; Matsuda, Hisashi

2002-01-01

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Anti-proliferative effects of Salacia reticulata leaves hot-water extract on interleukin-1?-activated cells derived from the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis model mice  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Salacia reticulata (SR is a plant native to Sri Lanka. In ayurvedic medicine, SR bark preparations, taken orally, are considered effective in the treatment of rheumatism and diabetes. We investigated the ability of SR leaves (SRL to inhibit in vitro the interleukin-1? (IL-1?-activated proliferation of synoviocyte-like cells derived from rheumatoid arthritis model mice. Findings Inflammatory synovial tissues were harvested from type II collagen antibody-induced arthritic mice. From these tissues, a synoviocyte-like cell line was established and named MTS-C H7. To determine whether SRL can suppress cell proliferation and gene expression in MTS-C H7 cells, fractionation of the SRL hot-water extract was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, liquid-liquid extraction, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, and protease digestion. The 50% inhibitory concentration of the SRL hot-water extract against MTS-C H7 cells proliferation was ~850??g/mL. Treatment with a low dose (25??g dry matter per millilitre of the extract inhibited IL-1?-induced cell proliferation and suppressed the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP genes in MTS-C H7 cells. Various polyphenolic fractions obtained from HPLC and the fractions from liquid-liquid extraction did not affect cell proliferation. Only the residual water sample from liquid-liquid extraction significantly affected cell proliferation and the expression of MMP genes. The results of SDS-PAGE and protease digestion experiment showed that low molecular weight proteins present in SRL inhibited the IL-1?-activated cell proliferation. Conclusions We surmised that the residual water fraction of the SRL extract was involved in the inhibition of IL-1?-activated cell proliferation and regulation of mRNA expression in MTS-C H7 cells. In addition, we believe that the active ingredients in the extract are low molecular weight proteins.

Sekiguchi Yuusuke

2012-04-01

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Mutagenicity induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the medicinal plant Plathymenia reticulata Benth  

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Plathymenia reticulata Benth has an anti-inflammatory effect and is capable of neutralizing the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu or Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, probably by precipitating venom proteins (an effect caused by plant tannins). The present study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic activity of P. reticulata by using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test) and the micronucleus test in CHO-K1 cells. P. reticulata extract concentrations of 2.84, 5.68, 11...

Della Torre, A.; Lbl, Albuquerque; Nm, Farrapo; Oshima-franco, Y.; Mg, Santos; Rvs, Tavares; Acd, Rodas; Ca, Dal Belo; Crp, Cardoso; Ea, Varanda; Fc, Groppo; Ps, Lopes

2011-01-01

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Mutagenicity induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the medicinal plant Plathymenia reticulata Benth  

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Full Text Available Plathymenia reticulata Benth has an anti-inflammatory effect and is capable of neutralizing the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu or Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, probably by precipitating venom proteins (an effect caused by plant tannins. The present study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic activity of P. reticulata by using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test and the micronucleus test in CHO-K1 cells. P. reticulata extract concentrations of 2.84, 5.68, 11.37, and 19.90 mg/plate were assayed by the Ames test using TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 bacterial strains, with (+S9 and without (-S9 metabolic activation. Concentrations of 5, 1.6 and 0.5 ?g/mL of P. reticulata extract were used for the micronucleus test. P. reticulata extract was mutagenic to TA98 (-S9 and showed signs of mutagenic activity in TA97a and TA102 (both -S9 strains. Micronucleus test CBPI values showed that the endogenous metabolic system increased the number of viable cells when compared to the non-activated samples and the micronucleus frequency increased when the cells were treated in the absence of S9. We concluded that P. reticulata extract may present direct mutagenic properties.

A Della Torre

2011-01-01

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REVIEW ON KIRGANELIA RETICULATA  

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In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and information on Kirganelia reticulata (Poir) Family Euphorbiaceae, a medicinal herb used in the indigenous system of medicine. K. reticulata has been adored in almost all ancient ayurvedic texts for its extraordinary medicinal properties. K. reticulata is annual herbaceous climbing plant with long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries e...

2013-01-01

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REVIEW ON KIRGANELIA RETICULATA  

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Full Text Available In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and information on Kirganelia reticulata (Poir Family Euphorbiaceae, a medicinal herb used in the indigenous system of medicine. K. reticulata has been adored in almost all ancient ayurvedic texts for its extraordinary medicinal properties. K. reticulata is annual herbaceous climbing plant with long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties and has utilized for treatment of various ailments including, diuretic, diarrhoea, small pox and astringent. Wild range of chemical compound including, flavanoids, triterpenoids, alkaloids and glycosides have been isolated from the species. Their extracts have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. A compressive review of its ethanomedical uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant is prepared. Particular attention is given to its antibacterial, antiviral, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant effects so that its potential uses can be better evaluated. This review will definitely help for the researchers as well as clinicians dealing with K. reticulata to know its proper usage as this herb is seemed to be highly valuable, possessing many pharmacological / medicinal properties. Keywords: Euphorbiaceae, Kirganelia reticulate, phytochemistry, Pharmacological properties

Amol Kharat

2013-07-01

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Comparative Evaluation of Antihyperglycaemic Effect of Various Parts of Salacia chinensis L.  

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Full Text Available Salacia chinensis L. (Saptrangi belongs to the family Hippocrateaceae. The plant extracts have been evaluated for number of activities like anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, sedative and neuromuscular. In traditional medicine, this plant has been used in the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, methanolic extracts of leaf, stem and root of Salacia chinensis were tested for antihyperglycaemic activities in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Glibenclamide (500 ?g kg-1 was used as the reference drug. Results showed that the methanolic extracts of leaf, stem and root exhibited antihyperglycaemic effect. Methanolic extracts of root exhibited better activity followed by stem and leaf which were equally effective.

A. Martha Leema Rose

2013-01-01

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Salacia root, a unique Ayurvedic medicine, meets multiple targets in diabetes and obesity.  

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In many traditional schools of medicine it is claimed that a balanced modulation of several targets can provide a superior therapeutic effect and decrease in side effect profile compared to a single action from a single selective ligand, especially in the treatment of certain chronic and complex diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. Diabetes and obesity have a multi-factorial basis involving both genetic and environmental risk factors. A wide array of medicinal plants and their active constituents play a role in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Salacia roots have been used in Ayurvedic medicine for diabetes and obesity since antiquity, and have been extensively consumed in Japan, the United States and other countries as a food supplement for the prevention of obesity and diabetes. Recent pharmacological studies have demonstrated that Salacia roots modulate multiple targets: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha-mediated lipogenic gene transcription, angiotensin II/angiotensin II type 1 receptor, alpha-glucosidase, aldose reductase and pancreatic lipase. These multi-target actions may mainly contribute to Salacia root-induced improvement of type 2 diabetes and obesity-associated hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and related cardiovascular complications seen in humans and rodents. The results of bioassay-guided identification indicate that mangiferin, salacinol, kotalanol and kotalagenin 16-acetate are at least in part responsible for these multi-target regulatory activities of Salacia roots. The evidence suggests that this unique traditional medicine fulfills a multiple-target strategy in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and obesity. Although toxicological studies have suggested minimal adverse effects of the herbal medicine in rodents, a clinical trial is crucial to further confirm the safety of Salacia roots. In addition, further mechanistic studies are necessary in order to allow a better understanding of how use of Salacia root may interact with other therapeutic interventions. PMID:18433791

Li, Yuhao; Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Yamahara, Johji

2008-05-23

 
 
 
 
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PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND HPTLC PROFILING OF EXTRACTS OF SALACIA OBLONGA  

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Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Plants of medicinal importance though are quite well known among the Ayurvedic practitioners since years, yet many of them have not been standardized, validated and documented completely. Among such medicinally valuable plants, Salacia holds a place as an effective antidiabetic herb and many species of this plant are in use as anti-diabetics. The present study reports the phytochemical analysis of one of its species Salacia oblonga (SO (roots and stems, belonging to the family Celastraceae (bittersweet, through various biochemical and chromatographic methods. TLC and HPTLC analysis of six different extracts of SO revealed numerous bands, indicating the presence of diverse groups of phytocompounds, many of them are assumed to contribute significantly to its antioxidant activity as well as, other biological activities. This type of analysis can help in fingerprint profiling of the plant and its various species. The identification and characterization of the phytocompounds can further help in finding out molecular targets/mechanism of action of the constituents of this herb that are responsible for its biological activities.

Sujata Basu, Mamta Pant and Rachana*

2013-04-01

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Biochemical characterization of selected plant species from Brazilian Savannas  

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Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the presence of antinutritional compounds such as lectins and trypsin-like inhibitors, polyphenols and tannins, and enzymatic activity of peroxidases and proteases in the seeds of Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá, Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca, Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada, Salacia crassiflora Mart G. Don. (bacupari, and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro. The results suggested that these plants could be used as new source of food.O Cerrado é constituído por inúmeras espécies vegetais com potencial econômico, as quais são utilizadas para os mais variados fins, como medicinal e nutricional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar e quantificar a presença de atividade enzimática de peroxidases e proteases e fatores antinutricionais, como lectinas e inibidores de proteases, além de polifenóis e taninos em algumas espécies nativas do Cerrado. O material vegetal utilizado foram sementes de Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá, Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca, Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada, Salacia crassiflora (Mart. G. Don. (bacupari e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro, coletadas na cidade de Goiânia e municípios de Jataí e Caldas Novas, estado de Goiás. O uso potencial destas plantas e suas enzimas na indústria de alimentos, poderia resultar em aplicações ao aparecimento de novos produtos a partir das matérias-primas tradicionais, além do uso de novas fontes de alimentos.

Samantha Salomão Caramori

2004-06-01

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Conservation and Multiplication of Endangered Plants :1. Leptophonia Reticulata (Retz.) Wight. & Arn  

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The present communication deals with the vegetative propagation through air layering technique in L. reticluata, know as Jivanti in Ayurvedic medicinal plant, The results reveal tat ceradik treated twigs produced profuse and earl rooting with higher survival percentage

2001-01-01

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Conservation and multiplication of endangered plants :1. Leptophonia reticulata (retz.) wight. & arn.  

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The present communication deals with the vegetative propagation through air layering technique in L. reticluata, know as Jivanti in Ayurvedic medicinal plant, The results reveal tat ceradik treated twigs produced profuse and earl rooting with higher survival percentage. PMID:22557015

Shukla, J K; Kasera, P K; Chawan, D D

2001-01-01

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Studies on ?Kinnow? (Citrus reticulata Blanco. Decline in Relation to Soil-Plant Nutritional Status  

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Full Text Available ?Kinnow? decline was studied in relation to soil plant nutritional status under semi arid condition of Hisar (India. There were no differences between the soil pH, electrical conductivity and calcium carbonate of healthy and declining trees. The soil under the healthy trees had significantly higher organic carbon (0.46% than that under declining trees (0.35%. The nutrients viz., N, P, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe in the soil under healthy and declining trees did not differ significantly except K. Leaf N, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe were significantly more in the healthy trees. The deficiency of N, P, Zn and Mn in the leaves of both categories of trees could be attributed to low contents of these nutrients in the soil under healthy and declining trees. Growth, yield and fruit quality were better in healthy trees as compared to declining trees. The yield on kg per tree basis in declining trees reduced (8.43 kg/tree as compared to that in healthy trees (20.74 kg/tree. Low organic carbon, soil N, Zn and Mn content could be associated with the declining problem of ?Kinnow?.

Parveen KUMAR

2011-08-01

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Palinotaxonomia de espécies brasileiras de Salacia L. (Hippocrateaceae Palynotaxonomy of the Brazilian species of Salacia L. (Hippocrateaceae  

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Full Text Available O estudo palinotaxonômico de Salacia L. teve como objetivo contribuir para a melhor caracterização, circunscrição e delimitação deste gênero. Os grãos de pólen de 21 espécies de Salacia foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados sob microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. A análise sob MEV foi utilizada visando a elucidação de dúvidas sobre a ornamentação da exina. Constatou-se que os grãos de pólen são predominantemente de tamanho médio, reticulados a microrreticulados, 3-colporados, geralmente com uma característica área apertural proeminente. Salacia é um gênero estenopolínico. Entretanto, o pólen permitiu a confecção da chave polínica e a separação de diferentes espécies ou grupo de espécies de Salacia com base nos resultados obtidos sob microscopia de luz. O presente trabalho confirmou, por meio dos grãos de pólen, a circunscrição e a delimitação genérica da Hippocrateaceae da América do Sul.The palynotaxonomic study of Salacia L. aimed to contribute to a better characterization as well as the circumscription and delimitation of this genus. The pollen grains of 21 species of the Salacia were studied. The pollen material was acetolyzed, measured, described and illustrated with photo or eletronmicrography (SEM. The analysis in SEM was used in order to elucidate the exine sculpture. The data obtained were statiscally analysed according to sample sizes. The pollen grains of Salacia are generally of medium size, oblate-spheroidal, reticulate to microreticulate, 3-colporate predominantly with a characteristic prominent apertural area. Salacia is a stenopalynous genus. However it was possible to make pollinic key with the results here obtained in light microscopy, and to segregate Salacia species or group of species using pollen characters. The present work has corroborated, by means of the pollen grains, the circumscription and generic delimitation concerning the Hippocrateaceae of South America.

VANIA GONÇALVES-ESTEVES

2000-12-01

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Palinotaxonomia de espécies brasileiras de Salacia L. (Hippocrateaceae) / Palynotaxonomy of the Brazilian species of Salacia L. (Hippocrateaceae)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O estudo palinotaxonômico de Salacia L. teve como objetivo contribuir para a melhor caracterização, circunscrição e delimitação deste gênero. Os grãos de pólen de 21 espécies de Salacia foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados sob microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de varredura ( [...] MEV). A análise sob MEV foi utilizada visando a elucidação de dúvidas sobre a ornamentação da exina. Constatou-se que os grãos de pólen são predominantemente de tamanho médio, reticulados a microrreticulados, 3-colporados, geralmente com uma característica área apertural proeminente. Salacia é um gênero estenopolínico. Entretanto, o pólen permitiu a confecção da chave polínica e a separação de diferentes espécies ou grupo de espécies de Salacia com base nos resultados obtidos sob microscopia de luz. O presente trabalho confirmou, por meio dos grãos de pólen, a circunscrição e a delimitação genérica da Hippocrateaceae da América do Sul. Abstract in english The palynotaxonomic study of Salacia L. aimed to contribute to a better characterization as well as the circumscription and delimitation of this genus. The pollen grains of 21 species of the Salacia were studied. The pollen material was acetolyzed, measured, described and illustrated with photo or e [...] letronmicrography (SEM). The analysis in SEM was used in order to elucidate the exine sculpture. The data obtained were statiscally analysed according to sample sizes. The pollen grains of Salacia are generally of medium size, oblate-spheroidal, reticulate to microreticulate, 3-colporate predominantly with a characteristic prominent apertural area. Salacia is a stenopalynous genus. However it was possible to make pollinic key with the results here obtained in light microscopy, and to segregate Salacia species or group of species using pollen characters. The present work has corroborated, by means of the pollen grains, the circumscription and generic delimitation concerning the Hippocrateaceae of South America.

VANIA, GONÇALVES-ESTEVES; THEREZINHA SANT’ANNA, MELHEM.

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The Ayurvedic Medicine Salacia oblonga Attenuates Diabetic Renal Fibrosis in Rats: Suppression of Angiotensin II/AT1 Signaling  

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In human diabetic nephropathy, the extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease; fibrosis is closely correlated with renal dysfunction. Although a wide array of medicinal plants play a role in the prevention and treatment of diabetes, there are few reports of the application of herbal medicines in amelioration of renal fibrosis, or the underlying mechanisms by which such benefits are mediated. The efficacy of the Ayurvedic antidiabetic medicine Salacia...

He, Lan; Qi, Yanfei; Rong, Xianglu; Jiang, Jianmin; Yang, Qinglin; Yamahara, Johji; Murray, Michael; Li, Yuhao

2011-01-01

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Biochemical characterization of selected plant species from Brazilian Savannas  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O Cerrado é constituído por inúmeras espécies vegetais com potencial econômico, as quais são utilizadas para os mais variados fins, como medicinal e nutricional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar e quantificar a presença de atividade enzimática de peroxidases e proteases e fatores antinutricion [...] ais, como lectinas e inibidores de proteases, além de polifenóis e taninos em algumas espécies nativas do Cerrado. O material vegetal utilizado foram sementes de Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá), Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca), Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada), Salacia crassiflora (Mart.) G. Don. (bacupari) e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro), coletadas na cidade de Goiânia e municípios de Jataí e Caldas Novas, estado de Goiás. O uso potencial destas plantas e suas enzimas na indústria de alimentos, poderia resultar em aplicações ao aparecimento de novos produtos a partir das matérias-primas tradicionais, além do uso de novas fontes de alimentos. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the presence of antinutritional compounds such as lectins and trypsin-like inhibitors, polyphenols and tannins, and enzymatic activity of peroxidases and proteases in the seeds of Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbar [...] il (jatobá), Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca), Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada), Salacia crassiflora Mart G. Don. (bacupari), and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro). The results suggested that these plants could be used as new source of food.

Caramori, Samantha Salomão; Lima, Claudinei Sousa; Fernandes, Kátia Flávia.

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Use of an infrared thermometer for assessment of plant water stress in neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco  

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Full Text Available In general, water stress causes stomatal closure in citrus, and this leads to higher leaf temperature. Recently, it has been reported that infrared thermometry technique can be used for detecting stomatal closure indirectly to assess plant water stress. Therefore, it was proposed to apply to neck orange. An experiment was arranged as a completely randomized design. There were 3 treatments of watering levels: 1 wellwatering (W1, 2 3-day interval watering (W2, and 3 6-day interval watering (W3 with 6 replicates. Eighteen 2-year-old trees of neck orange were used, and each tree was grown in a container (0.4 m3 filled with mixed media of soil, compost and sand (1:1:1. During 18 days of the experimental period, it was found that leaf water potential and stomatal conductance of the plants in W2 and W3 treatments decreased with the progress of water stress. There was high correlation (r2 = 0.71** between leaf water potential and stomatal conductance as a linear regression (Y = 0.0044X-1.8635. Canopy temperature (Tc and air temperature (Ta of each tree were measured by an infrared thermometer, and Tc-Ta was assessed. At the end of the experimental period, it was found that Tc-Ta was significantly highest in the W3 treatment (3.5ºC followed by the of W2 treatment (2ºC, while it was lowest in the W1 treatment (1ºC. The relationship between Tc-Ta and stomatal conductance was high as polynomial (Y = 0.0002X2 0.0572X+3.9878, r2 = 0.70**. This indicated that stomatal closure or decreasing stomatal conductance caused increasing of Tc-Ta in the leaves. Hence, it suggests that infrared thermometer is a convenient device for the assessment of plant water stress in neck orange.

Sayan Sdoodee

2006-11-01

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Salacia campestris root bark extract: peroxidase inhibition, antioxidant and antiradical profile  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Espécies reativas do oxigênio (ERO) e radicais livres estão relacionados ao início ou à exacerbação de muitas doenças em organismos vivos; existindo portanto uma necessidade contínua por moléculas antioxidantes que inativem as ERO e radicais livres. Muitos estudos com extratos brutos de plantas têm [...] demonstrado propriedades antioxidantes e seqüestradoras de radicais livres. Espécies de Salacia são utilizadas, em muitos países, como remédio tradicional contra certas doenças e por suas propriedades antiinflamatórias. Neste estudo, o extrato bruto etanólico da casca da raiz da Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae) foi avaliado quanto à sua habilidade em seqüestrar radicais livres e espécies reativas do oxigênio; os resultados são expressos como porcentagem de inibição das espécies ativas. ScEtOH mostrou-se eficiente frente as espécies estudadas: radical DPPH (inibição obtida = 30%), ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1,8±0,8 ?g/mL), HOCl (IC50 = 1,7 ± 0,1 ?g/mL), O2•- (inibição obtida = 32%), and NO• (inibição obtida = 18%). A inibição da atividade peroxidásica foi avaliada através da oxidação do guaiacol catalisada pela hemina, HRP e mieloperoxidase (MPO); os dados mostram que 10 ?g/mL de ScEtOH promovem 54 e 51% de inibição, respectivamente para os sistemas da hemina e da HRP. No sistema da MPO, ScEtOH promoveu 50% de inibição na dose de 8,9 ?g/mL, enquanto a quercetina, um potente inibidor da MPO promoveu tal inibição com 1,35 ?g/mL. Abstract in english Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radical species have been implicated in initiating or accompanying many diseases in living organisms; there is thus, a continual need for antioxidants molecules to inactivate ROS/free radicals. Many studies of plants crude extracts have demonstrated free-radica [...] l scavenging and antioxidant action. Salacia species have long been used, in several countries, as traditional medicines against certain diseases and for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae) root bark ethanol extract (ScEtOH) was assessed for its ability to scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen species; the results were expressed as percentage inhibition of the active species. ScEtOH was efficient against studied species: DPPH radical (obtained inhibition = 30%), ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1.8±0.8 ?g/mL), HOCl (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.1 ?g/mL), O2•- (obtained inhibition = 32%), and NO• (obtained inhibition = 18 %). Peroxidase activity inhibition was evaluated through the guaiacol oxidation reaction catalyzed by hemin, HRP and myeloperoxidase (MPO); data showed that ScEtOH at 10 ?g/mL led to 54 and 51% of inhibition, respectively, for the hemin and HRP systems. In the MPO system, ScEtOH promoted a 50% inhibition at 8.9 ?g/mL, whereas quercetin, a powerful MPO inhibitor, inhibited this system at 1.35 ?g/mL.

José Carlos Rebuglio, Vellosa; Najeh Maissar, Khalil; Vânia Ortega, Gutierres; Vânia Aparecida de Freitas Formenton Macedo dos, Santos; Maysa, Furlan; Iguatemy Lourenço, Brunetti; Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria, Oliveira.

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Salacia campestris root bark extract: peroxidase inhibition, antioxidant and antiradical profile  

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Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS and free radical species have been implicated in initiating or accompanying many diseases in living organisms; there is thus, a continual need for antioxidants molecules to inactivate ROS/free radicals. Many studies of plants crude extracts have demonstrated free-radical scavenging and antioxidant action. Salacia species have long been used, in several countries, as traditional medicines against certain diseases and for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae root bark ethanol extract (ScEtOH was assessed for its ability to scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen species; the results were expressed as percentage inhibition of the active species. ScEtOH was efficient against studied species: DPPH radical (obtained inhibition = 30%, ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1.8±0.8 ?g/mL, HOCl (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.1 ?g/mL, O2•- (obtained inhibition = 32%, and NO• (obtained inhibition = 18 %. Peroxidase activity inhibition was evaluated through the guaiacol oxidation reaction catalyzed by hemin, HRP and myeloperoxidase (MPO; data showed that ScEtOH at 10 ?g/mL led to 54 and 51% of inhibition, respectively, for the hemin and HRP systems. In the MPO system, ScEtOH promoted a 50% inhibition at 8.9 ?g/mL, whereas quercetin, a powerful MPO inhibitor, inhibited this system at 1.35 ?g/mL.Espécies reativas do oxigênio (ERO e radicais livres estão relacionados ao início ou à exacerbação de muitas doenças em organismos vivos; existindo portanto uma necessidade contínua por moléculas antioxidantes que inativem as ERO e radicais livres. Muitos estudos com extratos brutos de plantas têm demonstrado propriedades antioxidantes e seqüestradoras de radicais livres. Espécies de Salacia são utilizadas, em muitos países, como remédio tradicional contra certas doenças e por suas propriedades antiinflamatórias. Neste estudo, o extrato bruto etanólico da casca da raiz da Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae foi avaliado quanto à sua habilidade em seqüestrar radicais livres e espécies reativas do oxigênio; os resultados são expressos como porcentagem de inibição das espécies ativas. ScEtOH mostrou-se eficiente frente as espécies estudadas: radical DPPH (inibição obtida = 30%, ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1,8±0,8 ?g/mL, HOCl (IC50 = 1,7 ± 0,1 ?g/mL, O2•- (inibição obtida = 32%, and NO• (inibição obtida = 18%. A inibição da atividade peroxidásica foi avaliada através da oxidação do guaiacol catalisada pela hemina, HRP e mieloperoxidase (MPO; os dados mostram que 10 ?g/mL de ScEtOH promovem 54 e 51% de inibição, respectivamente para os sistemas da hemina e da HRP. No sistema da MPO, ScEtOH promoveu 50% de inibição na dose de 8,9 ?g/mL, enquanto a quercetina, um potente inibidor da MPO promoveu tal inibição com 1,35 ?g/mL.

José Carlos Rebuglio Vellosa

2009-03-01

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Biochemical characterization of selected plant species from Brazilian Savannas  

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The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the presence of antinutritional compounds such as lectins and trypsin-like inhibitors, polyphenols and tannins, and enzymatic activity of peroxidases and proteases in the seeds of Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá), Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca), Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada), Salacia crassiflora Mart G. Don. (bacupari), and Scle...

Samantha Salomão Caramori; Claudinei Sousa Lima; Kátia Flávia Fernandes

2004-01-01

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Additional Coumarins from Kielmeyera reticulata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Do extrato hexânico e da fase extraída com diclorometano do extrato metanólico de Kielmeyera reticulata foram isoladas três novas 4-fenilcumarinas, 5,7-diidroxi-6-(2'-hidroxi-3'-metil-3'-butenil)-8-(4"-cinamoil-3"-metil-1"-oxobutil)-4-fenilcumarina, 7-hidroxi-8-(4"-cinamoil-3"-metil-1" -oxobutil)-2' [...] -(2-hidroxiisopropil)diidrofurano (5',4':5,6)-4-fenilcumarina e 5,7-diidroxi-8-(4"-cinamoil-3"-metil-1"-oxobutil)-4-fenilcumarina, além das substâncias já conhecidas, 7-hidroxi-8-(4"-cinamoil-3"-metil-1"-oxobutil)-2',2'-dimetilpirano(6',5':5,6)-4- n-propilcumarina, 5-hidroxi-6-(4"-cinamoil-3"-metil-1"-oxobutil)-2',2'-dimetilpirano(6',5':7,8)-4- n-propilcumarina, ?-tocotrienol e 2,3-metilenodioxixantona. Abstract in english Three new 4-phenylcoumarins, 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(2'-hydroxy-3'-methyl-3'-butenyl)-8-(4" -cinnamoyl-3"-methyl-1"-oxobutyl)-4-phenylcoumarin, 7-hydroxy-8-(4"-cinnamoyl-3"-methyl-1" -oxobutyl)-2'-(2-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano(5',4':5,6)-4-phenylcoumarin, and 5,7-dihydroxy-8-(4"-cinnamoyl-3"-methyl-1" [...] -oxobutyl)-4-phenylcoumarin, along with the known 4-n-propylcoumarins, 7-hydroxy-8-(4"-cinnamoyl-3"-methyl-1"-oxobutyl)-2',2'-dimethylpyrano (6',5':5,6)-4-n-propylcoumarin, 5-hydroxy-6-(4"-cinnamoyl-3"-methyl-1"-oxobutyl)-2',2' -dimethylpyrano(6',5':7,8)-4-n-propylcoumarin, the xanthone, 2,3-methylenedioxyxanthone and ?-tocotrienol were isolated from the organic extracts of Kielmeyera reticulata stems .

Cruz, Frederico G.; Moreira, Luciana de M.; Santos, Nelson A. S.; Guedes, Maria L. S..

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Constituintes químicos do caule de Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae: Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd.  

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Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes a and b-amirin, the steroids b-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants.

Rogério Nunes dos Santos

2008-01-01

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Social networks in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

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Social network theory is used to elicit details of the social structure of a population of free-ranging guppies, Poecilia reticulata. They were found to have a complex and highly structured social network, which exhibited characteristics consistent with the 'small world' phenomenon. Stable partner associations between individuals were observed, a finding that fulfils the basic prerequisite for the evolution of reciprocal altruism. The findings are discussed in relation to the ecology and evol...

Croft, Darren P.; Krause, Jens; James, Richard

2004-01-01

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Phytochemical Investigation of Water Soluble Phytoconstituents of Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight & Arn  

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Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight & Arn, referred to as ‘Jivanti’ in ayurvedic texts, is held in high esteem in terms of its medicinal value. Apart from terpenoids and sterols, very few of the phytochemicals are reported in literature, especially water soluble constituents. In the present work, three flavonoids apart from those previously reported, have been identified occurring as O-glycosides. A flavone occurring as C-glycoside has also been identified in the plant. The analysis for f...

2010-01-01

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Phyto-chemical evaluation of dried aqueous extract of Jivanti [Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wt. et Arn  

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Jivanti (Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wt. et Arn) is a well known climber used for its innumerable therapeutic properties like antioxidant, antibacterial, vasodilator, galactogogue, Jivaniya, etc., Its use in veterinary practice is tremendous due to its lactogenic effect. The Ghana (dried aqueous extract) of the whole plant was prepared and evaluated phyto-chemically by subjecting it to various tests like physico-chemical, qualitative analysis; TLC and HPTLC. Qualitative tests revealed the p...

Pal, Atanu; Sharma, Parmeshwar P.; Pandya, Tarulata N.; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Patel, Bhupesh R.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.

2012-01-01

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Antibacterial Activity of Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight. & Arn. (Asclepidaceae).  

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Leptadenia reticulata of Asclepidaceae family is a shrub, originally property of Petroleum ether, Alcohol & Chloroform extract of L. reticulata. The antimicrobial testing was carried out by "Disc diffusion method". Amongst the tested three extracts, chloroform extract showed high antimicrobial activity against E. coli, alcoholic extract showed high antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while Petroleum ether extract showed antibacterial activity against Klebsilla pneumonae. PMID:22557325

Kalidass, C; Glory, M; Borgio, Francis; Manickam, V S

2009-04-01

 
 
 
 
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Antibacterial Activity of Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight. & Arn. (Asclepidaceae)  

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Leptadenia reticulata of Asclepidaceae family is a shrub, originally property of Petroleum ether, Alcohol & Chloroform extract of L. reticulata. The antimicrobial testing was carried out by “Disc diffusion method”. Amongst the tested three extracts, chloroform extract showed high antimicrobial activity against E. coli, alcoholic extract showed high antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while Petroleum ether extract showed antibacterial activity against Klebsilla pneumonae

2009-01-01

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EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF IPOMEA CARNEA LEAVES ON GUPPY, POECILIA RETICULATA (PETERS  

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Full Text Available Ipomea carnea is a toxic plant causes severe damage to intestine, liver and kidney. In the present investigation ethanolic extract of I. carnea leaves was tested for its toxicity against fresh water fish guppy Poecilia reticulata using 0.025, 0.050, 0.075 and 0.1 mg/ml concentrations. The experiment was run in triplicate along with suitable control. Ethanolic extract of Ipomea carnea leaves showed toxic effect, causes mortality in guppy fishes. All concentrations of ethanolic extracts of I. carnea leaves were found toxic. Mortality of fishes increases with increase of time and concentrations. The 0.1mg/ml concentration of ethanolic extract of I. carnea leaves showed three times higher mortality than control in guppy fishes, Poecilia reticulata Peters. Further study is needed to isolate toxic principles present in I. carnea leaves and to be studied separately against guppy fishes to determine their toxicity.

D. D. Wanule and J. V. Balkhande

2012-06-01

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Molecular features of fossil organic matter in remains of the Lower Cretaceous fern Weichselia reticulata from Przenosza basement (Poland)  

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Przenosza (Western Carpathians, Poland) is an important palaeobotanical Cretaceous basement site with morphologically well-preserved plant remains. Both the morphology of the macro remains and microscopic examination of isolated plant cuticles reveal species typical of coastal swampy palaeoenvironments, mainly the fern Weichselia reticulata. After isolation of the plant remains, preliminary characterisation of the fossil organic matter was carried out using cross-polarization, mag...

Almendros, G.; Zancada, M. C.; Gonza?lez-vila, Francisco Javier; Lesiak, M. A.; A?lvarez Ramis, Concepcio?n

2005-01-01

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ENTOMOFAUNA ASSOCIADA AOS FRUTOS DO BACUPARI, Salacia folia (MART. PEYR, NOS CERRADOS DO BRASIL CENTRAL INSECTS ASSOCIED WITH BACUPARI FRUIT, Salacia crassifolia (Mart. PEYR, IN THE SAVANNAHS OF CENTRAL BRAZIL  

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Full Text Available

O bacupari, Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Peyr, (Hippocrateaceae é uma frutífera nativa da região dos cerrados, utilizada pela fauna e também pela população da região, embora seus frutos sejam muito atacados pelas moscas-das-frutas, e por isso seu consumo fica limitado. De polpa branca à alaranjada, de sabor levemente ácido e muito agradável os frutos dessa espécie podem ser consumidos ao natural ou na forma de sucos. Neste trabalho apresenta-se um levantamento da entomofauna associada aos frutos do bacupari, coletados em 11 municípios da região dos cerrados no Estado de Goiás, no período de setembro de 1995 a dezembro de 1999. No Laboratório de Entomologia da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, esses frutos foram, inicialmente, contados e pesados e, posteriormente, acondicionados em caixas de polipropileno com areia úmida para obtenção de pupários e insetos adultos. Tephritidae foi a família mais freqüente nos frutos do bacupari, com 54,22% dos insetos coletados. Nessa família foram registradas as espécies Anastrepha sp. (espécie nova em fase de descrição, A. zenildae, A. obliqua, A. fraterculus, A. sororcula e A. serpentina. Na família Lonchaeidae foi coletada Neosilba sp., em Muscidae, Atherigona orientalis e espécimes da família Oititidae. Dessas moscas foram obtidos os parasitóides Doryctobracon sp. (espécie nova, D. areolatus, Dicerataspis flavipes, Lopheucoila anastrephae, Aganaspis nordlanderi e A. pelleranoi. Foram coletados isoladamente no mesmo fruto exemplares de Anastrepha sp. e Lonchaeidae e Anastrepha sp. e A. zenildae comprovando a sobreposição dessas espécies por fruto.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Insecta; frutífera nativa; levantamento populacional.

The bacupari (Salacia crassifolia is a native fruit plant of the Brazilian cerrado areas. Although a high fruit fly infestation limits its utilization, it is eaten by animals and humans. Fruits present orange colored pulp, with slightly acid flavour and can be apreciated in natura or juices. The objective of this study was to assay bacupari plant features in Goiás State cerrado and to verify insects associated to bacupari, to determine infestation index and to verify this plant as a natural reservoir of fruit flies for adjacent orchards. Samples were collected during the frutification stage from September to December from 1995 to 1999 on 11 counties in Goiás State. The insects found more often were from Tephritidae (54.22% as Anastrepha sp. (new species, A. zenildae, A. obliqua, A. fraterculus, A. sororcula, A. serpentina. Insects from other families were also identified: Lonchaeidae (Neosilba sp., Muscidae (Atherigona orientalis, Oititidae and their p

Juracy Rocha Braga Filho

2007-09-01

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Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) Regeneração dos braços em duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea)  

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This study compared the arm regeneration frequencies in two different populations of Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825) in São Sebastião, Southeast Brazil and observed arm regeneration between age classes (juvenile and adults) and sexes (male and female). From the 1,170 individuals sampled, 1,089 (92.2%) showed signs of arm regeneration. The relative frequencies of regenerating arms in the two areas were not different (Baleeiro Isthmus: 91.3% and Grande Beach: 99.5%). Both areas also presen...

Yokoyama, Leonardo Q.; Amaral, Antonia Ceci?lia Z.

2010-01-01

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Phyto-chemical evaluation of dried aqueous extract of Jivanti [Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wt. et Arn].  

Science.gov (United States)

Jivanti (Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wt. et Arn) is a well known climber used for its innumerable therapeutic properties like antioxidant, antibacterial, vasodilator, galactogogue, Jivaniya, etc., Its use in veterinary practice is tremendous due to its lactogenic effect. The Ghana (dried aqueous extract) of the whole plant was prepared and evaluated phyto-chemically by subjecting it to various tests like physico-chemical, qualitative analysis; TLC and HPTLC. Qualitative tests revealed the presence of flavonoids and TLC also inferred positive Rf value (0.30), indicating the presence of quercetin in the Ghana. PMID:23723676

Pal, Atanu; Sharma, Parmeshwar P; Pandya, Tarulata N; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Patel, Bhupesh R; Shukla, Vinay J; Ravishankar, B

2012-10-01

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Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae) yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes ? and ?-amirin, the steroids ?-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants. (author)

2008-01-01

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Pollution Effect on the Cambial Structure of Citrus reticulata var. tangelos  

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This study includes investigation of the effect of pollution (radiations and coal-smoke) on the structure of vascular cambium of Citrus reticulata var. tangelos of family Rutaceae. The results obtained from the observations clearly shows that the plants under investigation shows a retarded radial growth under the influence of radiations as the length of fusiform initials reduces from 240 ?m under normal condition to 204 ?m under irradiated condition while the width of fusiform...

Khan, Moin A.; Badruzzaman Siddiqui, M.; Saima Bhat; Danish Shahab

2007-01-01

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Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) / Regeneração dos braços em duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo comparou as frequências de regeneração dos braços de duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825), de São Sebastião, sudeste do Brasil. Além disso, foram observadas diferenças nas frequências de regeneração entre classes etárias (juvenis e adultos) e entre machos e fêmeas. Dos 1 [...] .170 indivíduos coletados, 1.089 (92,2%) mostraram sinais de regeneração nos braços. A frequência relativa de braços em regeneração entre as duas áreas não diferiu significativamente (Istmo do Baleeiro: 91,3% e Praia Grande: 99,5%). Ambas as áreas apresentaram valores semelhantes no número de braços regenerando/indivíduo e na frequência de indivíduos em regeneração. A maior parte das marcas de regeneração concentraram-se na porção distal dos braços, o que indica a influência de predação subletal como a causa principal da regeneração em O. reticulata. Além disso, não houve diferença significativa nos índices de regeneração entre fêmeas (3,57 ± 1,36 braços regenerando/indivíduo) e machos (3,47 ± 1,42). Abstract in english This study compared the arm regeneration frequencies in two different populations of Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825) in São Sebastião, Southeast Brazil and observed arm regeneration between age classes (juvenile and adults) and sexes (male and female). From the 1,170 individuals sampled, 1,089 (9 [...] 2.2%) showed signs of arm regeneration. The relative frequencies of regenerating arms in the two areas were not different (Baleeiro Isthmus: 91.3% and Grande Beach: 99.5%). Both areas also presented similar values for the number of arms regenerating/individual and in the frequency of regenerating individuals. The major part of the regenerating scars was concentrated in the distal portion of the arm. Sub-lethal predation is most likely the cause to the high rates of arm regeneration in O. reticulata. There was no significant differences in the regeneration rates between females (3.57 ± 1.36 arms regenerating/individual) and males (3.47 ± 1.42).

Leonardo Q., Yokoyama; Antonia Cecília Z., Amaral.

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Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea Regeneração dos braços em duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea  

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Full Text Available This study compared the arm regeneration frequencies in two different populations of Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825 in São Sebastião, Southeast Brazil and observed arm regeneration between age classes (juvenile and adults and sexes (male and female. From the 1,170 individuals sampled, 1,089 (92.2% showed signs of arm regeneration. The relative frequencies of regenerating arms in the two areas were not different (Baleeiro Isthmus: 91.3% and Grande Beach: 99.5%. Both areas also presented similar values for the number of arms regenerating/individual and in the frequency of regenerating individuals. The major part of the regenerating scars was concentrated in the distal portion of the arm. Sub-lethal predation is most likely the cause to the high rates of arm regeneration in O. reticulata. There was no significant differences in the regeneration rates between females (3.57 ± 1.36 arms regenerating/individual and males (3.47 ± 1.42.Este estudo comparou as frequências de regeneração dos braços de duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825, de São Sebastião, sudeste do Brasil. Além disso, foram observadas diferenças nas frequências de regeneração entre classes etárias (juvenis e adultos e entre machos e fêmeas. Dos 1.170 indivíduos coletados, 1.089 (92,2% mostraram sinais de regeneração nos braços. A frequência relativa de braços em regeneração entre as duas áreas não diferiu significativamente (Istmo do Baleeiro: 91,3% e Praia Grande: 99,5%. Ambas as áreas apresentaram valores semelhantes no número de braços regenerando/indivíduo e na frequência de indivíduos em regeneração. A maior parte das marcas de regeneração concentraram-se na porção distal dos braços, o que indica a influência de predação subletal como a causa principal da regeneração em O. reticulata. Além disso, não houve diferença significativa nos índices de regeneração entre fêmeas (3,57 ± 1,36 braços regenerando/indivíduo e machos (3,47 ± 1,42.

Leonardo Q. Yokoyama

2010-06-01

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Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Some Nigerian Medicinal Plant Extracts  

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The present research evaluates the DPPH radical scavenging, total antioxidant activities, reducing power and total contents of phenolic compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of five Nigerian medicinal plants (Dalbergia saxatilis Hook.f. (Papilionacae), Ekebergia senegalensis A.Juss.(Meliaceae), Hymenocardia acida Tul. (Hymenocardiaceae), Icacina tricantha Oliv. (Icacinaceae) and Salacia pallescens Oliv.(Celastraceae). Total phenols were analysed according to...

Sofidiya, M. O.; Odukoya, O. A.; Familoni, O. B.; Inya-agha, S. I.

2006-01-01

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In vitro efficacy of Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides and Copaifera reticulata against Leishmania chagasi / Eficácia in vitro de Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides e Copaifera reticulata sobre Leishmania chagasi  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O aumento na incidência da Leishmaníase Visceral (LV) no Brasil deve-se à ineficácia das medidas de controle da doença. Além disso, não há tratamento efetivo para LV canina com drogas sintéticas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos óleos essenciais de Coriandrum sativum e de Li [...] ppia sidoides e do óleo-resina de Copaiferareticulata sobre promastigotas e amastigotas de Leishmania chagasi e analisar o grau de toxicidade sobre células monocíticas murinas RAW 264.7. Para determinar a CI50 sobre promastigotas foi usado teste MTT (brometo de 3-[4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il]-2,5-difeniltetrazólio) e sobre amastigotas foi realizado imunoensaio in situ pela técnica de ELISA. Os resultados obtidos comprovaram que o óleo-resina de C. reticulata foi o mais eficaz contra as formas promastigotas (CI50 de 7,88 µg.mL-1) e amastigotas (CI50 de 0,52 µg.mL-1) e em nenhum dos dois testes diferiu do controle pentamidina que obteve CI50 de 2,149 µg.mL-1, no teste sobre promastigotas, e anfotericina B que obteve CI50 de 9,754 µg.mL-1, nos testes com amastigotas (p > 0.05). Quanto à citotoxicidade apenas o óleo-resina não apresentou toxicidade com 78,45% de monócitos viáveis. Os resultados obtidos sobre promastigotas e amastigotas e a ausência de citotoxicidade do óleo-resina de C. reticulata evidenciam que este óleo-resina pode ser viável para a análise de seus efeitos terapêuticos em testes in vivo. Abstract in english The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils [...] of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the murine monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To determine the IC50 a MTT test (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was performed on promastigotes, and an in situ ELISA assay was conducted on amastigotes. Here, we demonstrate that oleoresin from C. reticulata was effective against both promastigotes (IC50 of 7.88 µg.mL-1) and amastigotes (IC50 of 0.52 µg.mL-1), and neither of the two treatments differed significantly (p > 0.05) from pentamidine (IC50 of 2.149 µg.mL-1) and amphotericin B (IC50 of 9.754 µg.mL-1). Of the three plant oils tested, only oleoresin showed no toxicity toward monocyte, with 78.45% viability after treatment. Inhibition of promastigote and amastigote growth and the lack of cytotoxicity by C. reticulata demonstrate that oleoresin may be a viable option for analyzing the in vivo therapeutic effects of leishmanicidal plants

Rondon, Fernanda Cristina Macedo; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Accioly, Marina Parissi; Morais, Selene Maia de; Andrade-Júnior, Heitor Franco de; Carvalho, Camila Aparecida de; Lima, Josemar Coelho; Magalhães, Hilton César Rodrigues.

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Avaliação citotóxica em três linhagens de células tumorais das frações obtidas da casca do caule de Salacia crassifolia (MART. ex. Schult.) G. Dom. (Celastraceae) / Assessment of cytotoxicity in three tumor cell lines of the fractions attained from the stem bark of Salacia crassifolia (Mart. ex. Schult.) G. Dom (Celastraceae)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A utilização de plantas pela humanidade com fins medicinais é uma das formas mais antigas para tratamento, cura e prevenção de doenças, dentre elas o câncer, cujas espécies vegetais são encontradas em elevada diversidade no ecossistema. Com essa perspectiva, se optou por um arbusto típico do Cerrado [...] , Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae), para um screening inicial na determinação do potencial citotóxico desta espécie in vitro. Na medicina popular, S. crassifolia é utilizada no tratamento de problemas renais, tosse crônica, dores de cabeça, cicatrizantes, ulcerogênicas e na terapia da malaria. As frações: hidroalcoólica (SCCcM-W), diclorometânica(SCCcM-D), hexânica (SCCcM-H) e acetato de etila (SCCcM-A) da casca do caule foram submetidas a testes de citotoxicidade in vitro frente às linhagens MDA-MB-435(melanoma), HCT-8 (cólon-humano) e SF-295 (sistema nervoso central) utilizando o método colorimétrico MTT. As frações hexânica (SCCcM-H) e de acetato de etila(SCCcM-A) foram aquelas que proporcionaram citotoxicidade significativas frente às células tumorais analisadas. Abstract in english For millennia humans have been using plants for medicinal purposes to treat, cure, or prevent diseases, including cancer. Brazilian ecosystem has a high diversity of plant species. From this perspective, a species found in the Cerrado, Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae), was selected, for an initial [...] screening to determine the cytotoxic potential of this species "in vitro". S. crassifolia has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat kidney diseases, chronic cough, headaches, healing, ulcerogenic, and for treatment of malaria. The fractions: hydroalcoholic (SCCcM-W), dichloromethane(SCCcM-D), hexane (SCCcM-H) and ethyl acetate (SCCcM-A) from the stem bark were tested for cytotoxicity "in vitro" to within MDA -MB-435(melanoma), HCT-8 (human-colon), and SF-295 (CNS) using the MTT colorimetric method. The hexane (SCCcM-H) and ethyl acetate (SCCcM-A) fractions were those that provided significant cytotoxicity against analyzed tumor cells.

Rodrigues de Oliveira, Clayton; Severo Menezes, Antânio Calos; de Moraes, Manoel O.; de Melo Vieira, Letícia; Gomes Pereira, Adriana; Silva Lima, Rosa; dos Santos, Mirley Luciene.

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Somatic embryogenesis in Citrus sinensis, C. reticulata AND C. nobilis x C. deliciosa  

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Full Text Available Most of the plant regeneration processes in citrus, through tissue culture, involve indirect somatic embryogenesis. The optimization of these processes is important for the development of in vitro plant improvement and micropropagation studies. Studies to evaluate the effect of different carbohydrates in somatic embryogenesis were conducted using calli from 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata, Blanco, 'Cravo' mandarin (C. reticulata, 'Itaboraí' sweet orange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck., 'Valencia' sweet orange (C. sinensis and 'Kinnow' mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro x C. deliciosa Tenore. The culture medium used was MT supplemented with sucrose, galactose, glucose, maltose or lactose with the following concentrations of 18, 37, 75, 110, and 150 mM. The culture medium used for the maturation of somatic embryos had 0, 15, 29, 44, 58 and 73 mM of sucrose, in presence or absence of 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal. Seventy-three mM of sucrose with 0.1 mg L-1 of GA3 in the presence or absence 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal was also tested. Overall, the carbohydrates galactose or lactose induced a higher number of somatic embryos. Sucrose concentrations of 58 and 73 mM generated a higher number of plantlets from mature embryos of 'Ponkan' mandarin and 'Valencia' sweet orange.

Ricci Adriana Patrícia

2002-01-01

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Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Studies on the Leaf and Stem Bark of Annona reticulata Linn.  

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Full Text Available The present work was undertaken to establish the pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards of Leaf and Stem bark of Annona reticulata L. It is a highly apparent plant in ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The plant is traditionally used for the treatment of epilepsy, dysentery, cardiac problems, worm infestation, constipation, haemorrhage, antibacterial infection, dysuria, fever, and ulcer . No reports are available on the pharmacognostic nature and phytochemical studies of the leaf and stem bark , hence, the present study was carried out to investigate the same. All the parameters were studied according to the WHO & Pharmacopoeial guidelines. This parameters will help for correct identification of this plant for the future references.

Kalyani Pathak

2013-01-01

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Sesquiterpenes and Other Natural Products from Roldana reticulata  

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Full Text Available De Roldana reticulata se aislaron dos 9-oxo-furanoeremo- filanos (1, 2, además de senecrassidiol, tirosol, icarisida D2 y rutina; no se detectaron alcaloides pirrolizidínicos, coincidiendo con el patrón químico del género reportado hasta ahora. La actividad anti-inflamatoria de los extractos y productos aislados fue evaluada en el modelo de edema de inflamación aguda inducido con TPA.

Josu00E9 Luis Villaseu00F1or

2013-01-01

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The diet of Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) in southeastern Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O ofiuróide Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825) ocorre na interface sedimento rocha de costões rochosos, sob pequenas pedras. Alguns aspectos de sua dieta alimentar foram analisados nesta nota. A amostragem foi realizada na Praia Grande, localizada no litoral norte do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os [...] indivíduos, coletados em julho de 2002 e janeiro de 2003, foram fixados em álcool 70% e dissecados para obtenção de seus conteúdos estomacais. Do total (35), 77,1% (27) tinham ingerido algum tipo de alimento, e destes, 81,4% (22) possuíam mais de um item. O número médio de itens alimentares por estômago foi 1,9. Ophionereis reticulata é uma espécie onívora, consumindo sedimento, algas verdes e vermelhas, e poliquetas. Abstract in english The ophiuroid Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825) occurs in the sediment-rocky shore interface, under small stones. Its diet is analyzed in this short communication. Specimens were collected at the Praia Grande beach, located on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in July, 2002 and [...] January, 2003. The animals were fixed in 70% ethanol and dissected to obtain their stomach contents. Of the total (35), 77.1% (27) had ingested some kind of food and, among those, 81.4% (22) had more than one item. The mean number of food items per stomach was 1.9. Ophionereis reticulata is an omnivorous species, consuming sediment, green and red algae, and polychaetes.

Leonardo Q., Yokoyama; Antonia C. Z., Amaral.

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The diet of Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea in southeastern Brazil  

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Full Text Available The ophiuroid Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825 occurs in the sediment-rocky shore interface, under small stones. Its diet is analyzed in this short communication. Specimens were collected at the Praia Grande beach, located on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in July, 2002 and January, 2003. The animals were fixed in 70% ethanol and dissected to obtain their stomach contents. Of the total (35, 77.1% (27 had ingested some kind of food and, among those, 81.4% (22 had more than one item. The mean number of food items per stomach was 1.9. Ophionereis reticulata is an omnivorous species, consuming sediment, green and red algae, and polychaetes.O ofiuróide Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825 ocorre na interface sedimento rocha de costões rochosos, sob pequenas pedras. Alguns aspectos de sua dieta alimentar foram analisados nesta nota. A amostragem foi realizada na Praia Grande, localizada no litoral norte do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os indivíduos, coletados em julho de 2002 e janeiro de 2003, foram fixados em álcool 70% e dissecados para obtenção de seus conteúdos estomacais. Do total (35, 77,1% (27 tinham ingerido algum tipo de alimento, e destes, 81,4% (22 possuíam mais de um item. O número médio de itens alimentares por estômago foi 1,9. Ophionereis reticulata é uma espécie onívora, consumindo sedimento, algas verdes e vermelhas, e poliquetas.

Leonardo Q. Yokoyama

2008-09-01

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Antifungal activity of Leptadenia reticulata Wight and Arn. aerial parts  

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The petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of Leptadenia reticulata Wight and Arn. (Asclepiadaceae) were studied for in vitro antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ruantti, Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Trichodermata viride and Trichodermata koningii respectively. The methanolic extract exhibited prominent antifungal activity against all the selected strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract...

2011-01-01

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EXOCRINE PANCREATIC CARCINOGENESIS IN THE GUPPY (POECILIA RETICULATA).  

Science.gov (United States)

Exocrine pancreatic neoplasms developed in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) following exposure to the direct acting carcinogen, methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM-Ac). Fish 6- to 10-days old were exposed to nominal, nontoxic concentrations of 4 and 10 mg MAM-Ac/L for 2 hr and then t...

 
 
 
 
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EXOCRINE PANCREATIC CARCINOGENESIS IN THE GUPPY POECILIA RETICULATA  

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Exocrine pancreatic neoplasms developed in the guppy Poecilia reticulata following exposure to the direct acting carcinogen, methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM-Ac). Fish 6- to 10-days old were exposed to nominal, nontoxic concentrations of 4 and 10 mg MAM-Ac 1-1 for 2 h and then tr...

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Somatic embryogenesis in Citrus sinensis, C. reticulata AND C. nobilis x C. deliciosa / Embriogênese somática em Citrus sinensis, C. reticulata E C. nobilis x C. deliciosa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A maioria dos processos de regeneração de plantas em citros por cultura de tecidos envolve embriogênese somática indireta. A otimização desse processo é importante para o desenvolvimento de trabalhos de melhoramento in vitro e micropropagação. Realizaram-se estudos em calos de tangerina 'Ponkan' (Ci [...] trus reticulata Blanco), tangerina 'Cravo' (C. reticulata), laranja 'Itaboraí' (C. sinensis L. Osbeck.), laranja 'Valência' (C. sinensis) e tangerina 'Kinnow' (C. nobilis Loureiro x C. deliciosa, Tenore) visando avaliar o efeito de diferentes carboidratos na embriogênese somática. Utilizou-se o meio MT acrescido de sacarose, galactose, glicose, maltose e lactose nas concentrações de 18, 37, 75, 110 e 150 mM. O meio de cultura utilizado para a maturação dos embriões somáticos continha sacarose nas concentrações de 0, 15, 29, 44, 58 e 73 mM, na presença ou não de 0,5 g L-1 de carvão ativado; 73 mM de sacarose e GA3 na concentração de 0,1 mg L-1, na presença ou não de 0,5 g L-1 de carvão ativado. O estímulo à embriogênese somática foi mais eficiente em meio de cultura suplementado com lactose e galactose. Quanto à maturação de embriões, os meios de cultura contendo 58 e 73 mM de sacarose foram aqueles que geraram um maior número de plantas em tangerina 'Ponkan' e laranja 'Valência'. Abstract in english Most of the plant regeneration processes in citrus, through tissue culture, involve indirect somatic embryogenesis. The optimization of these processes is important for the development of in vitro plant improvement and micropropagation studies. Studies to evaluate the effect of different carbohydrat [...] es in somatic embryogenesis were conducted using calli from 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata, Blanco), 'Cravo' mandarin (C. reticulata), 'Itaboraí' sweet orange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck.), 'Valencia' sweet orange (C. sinensis) and 'Kinnow' mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro x C. deliciosa Tenore). The culture medium used was MT supplemented with sucrose, galactose, glucose, maltose or lactose with the following concentrations of 18, 37, 75, 110, and 150 mM. The culture medium used for the maturation of somatic embryos had 0, 15, 29, 44, 58 and 73 mM of sucrose, in presence or absence of 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal. Seventy-three mM of sucrose with 0.1 mg L-1 of GA3 in the presence or absence 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal was also tested. Overall, the carbohydrates galactose or lactose induced a higher number of somatic embryos. Sucrose concentrations of 58 and 73 mM generated a higher number of plantlets from mature embryos of 'Ponkan' mandarin and 'Valencia' sweet orange.

Adriana Patrícia, Ricci; Francisco de Assis Alves, Mourão Filho; Beatriz Madalena Januzzi, Mendes; Sonia Maria de Stefano, Piedade.

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Beneficial effects of mangiferin isolated from Salacia chinensis on biochemical and hematological parameters in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salacia chinensis L. is a traditional Southeast Asian herbal medicine and used in the treatment of diabetes. To investigate the antidiabetic properties of mangiferin from Salacia chinensis and its beneficial effect on toxicological and hematological parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Mangiferin was orally treated with the dose of 40 mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days to diabetic rats. Biochemical (blood glucose, uric acid, urea and creatinine), toxicological (AST, ALT and ALP) and hematological parameters (red and white blood cells) and their functional indices were evaluated in diabetic treated groups with mangiferin and glibenclamide. Mangiferin treated diabetic rats significantly (pmangiferin in diabetic rats. Similarly, the levels of red blood, white blood cells and their functional indices were significantly improved through the administration of mangiferin. Thus, our results indicate that mangiferin present in S. chinensis possesses antidiabetic properties and nontoxic nature against chemically induced diabetic rats. Further experimental investigations are warrant to make use of its relevant therapeutic effect to substantiate its ethno-medicinal usage. PMID:24374436

Sellamuthu, Periyar Selvam; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Kandasamy, Murugesan

2014-01-01

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Antifungal activity of Leptadenia reticulata Wight and Arn. aerial parts  

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Full Text Available

The petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of Leptadenia reticulata Wight and Arn. (Asclepiadaceae were studied for in vitro antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ruantti, Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Trichodermata viride and Trichodermata koningii respectively. The methanolic extract exhibited prominent antifungal activity against all the selected strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the extracts was performed by broth dilution method and the zone of inhibition was studied by agar disc diffusion method at concentrations of 2, 5 and 10mg/ml in DMSO. Cotrimazole (25?g/ml was used as reference control for antifungal studies. Results of MIC study revealed the antifungal activities of the extracts against the tested strains in between concentration ranges 50-400?g/ml. The present study indicates the potential usefulness of L. reticulata aerial parts as antifungal agent.

Keywords: Leptadenia reticulata Wight and Arn., Antifungal activity, Minimum inhibitory concentration, Zone of inhibition, Clotrimazole

M. K. Mishra

2011-04-01

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EFFECT OF LEPTADENIA RETICULATA LINN ON STRESS MODULATED SEXUAL BEHAVIOR OF MALE RATS  

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Full Text Available In the day today life the persons living and working in the area were the environmental factors such as chemical, physical, or emotional, stress may adversely affect the testicular functions that is enhancement of testicular germ cell apoptosis will takes place. All the organisms survive by maintaining a dynamic equilibrium with their environment. The organization of this homeostasis exists at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels. But some of the physical, mental, or emotional stress acts as a threat to this equilibrium, So this alteration in the homeostasis by stress will cause decreased libido, changes in the motor activity, increased arousal, vigilance and increased tolerance of pain.So the aim of the present study was to determine whether the Leptadenia reticulata plant methanolic and chloroform extracts in the low 50mg/kg, mid 100mg/kg, high 250mg/kg and a safety 200mg/kg oral dose will overcome the stress induced sexual dysfunction or not. So to evaluate whether the Leptadenia reticulata active constituents have got aphrodisiac as well as infertility treatment activity was assessed by studying the following sexual behavioral parameters, number of mounts, ejaculation latency, intromission interval, number of ejaculations and the histopathological study of testis, will give a clear idea of the study.In this study the obtained results will show that chloroform extract is having more potent aphrodisiac activity when compared to normal, because it has got increased number of mounts, intromission interval, Number of ejaculations and decreased latency of first mount as well as the increase in post ejaculation time shows its potent aphrodisiac in both normal and stressed rats. Significant (P<0.05 weight gain in testis, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, vasdeferens, epididymis, with declined weight gain in adrenal gland indicating HPA/HPG axis regulatory mechanism. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for significant aphrodisiac and male infertility treatment activity with improved testicular performance.

Santosh B. T

2011-10-01

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Occurrence of Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida in Immatures of Kempnyia reticulata (Enderlein (Insecta: Plecoptera: Perlidae Primeiro Registro de Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida em Imaturos de Kempnyia reticulata (Enderlein (Plecoptera: Perlidae  

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Full Text Available First register of Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida in immature of Kempnyia reticulata (Enderlein (Plecoptera: Perlidae. The insects were collected in rivers of Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia, Santa Teresa, Espirito Santo, Brazil.Primeiro registro de Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida em imaturos de Kempnyia reticulata (Enderlein (Plecoptera: Perlidae. Os insetos foram coletados em um riacho da Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia, Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brasil.

Fernanda Avelino-Capistrano

2013-04-01

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Metacestodes of Glossocercus auritus (Cyclophyllidea, Gryporhynchidae) in Poecilia reticulata (Pisces, Poeciliidae) from Brazil Metacestoides de Glossocercus auritus (Cyclophyllidea, Gryporhynchidae) em Poecilia reticulata (Pisces, Poeciliidae) no Brasil  

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Studies on fish parasites in Pampulha dam, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, found specimens of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 harboring natural infection by larval stages of tapeworms. A total of 250 specimens of P. reticulata were collected and analyzed between February and August 2010, of which 23 were found infected (prevalence 9.2%) with one metacestode each (mean intensity 1, mean abundance 0.09). The analyses of the parasites, particularly the morphology of rostellar hooks, made ...

Hudson Alves Pinto; Alan Lane Melo

2011-01-01

68

Effect of Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils on Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production on Asparagus racemosus.  

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Essential oils extracted from Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus were tested in vitro against the toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus, isolated from the tuberous roots of Asparagus racemosus, used in preparation of herbal drugs. The essential oils completely inhibited the growth of A. flavus at 750 ppm and also exhibited a broad fungitoxic spectrum against nine additional fungi isolated from the roots. Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils completely inhibited aflatoxin B(1) production at 750 and 500 ppm, respectively. During in vivo investigation, the incidence of fungi and aflatoxin B(1) production decreased considerably in essential oil-treated root samples. The findings thus indicate possible exploitation of the essential oils as effective inhibitor of aflatoxin B(1) production and as post-harvest fungitoxicant of traditionally used plant origin for the control of storage fungi. These essential oils may be recommended as plant-based antifungals as well as aflatoxin B(1) suppressors in post-harvest processing of herbal samples. PMID:20401550

Singh, Priyanka; Shukla, Ravindra; Kumar, Ashok; Prakash, Bhanu; Singh, Shubhra; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

2010-09-01

69

Aerial Jumping in the Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

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Many fishes are able to jump out of the water and launch themselves into the air. Such behavior has been connected with prey capture, migration and predator avoidance. We found that jumping behavior of the guppy Poecilia reticulata is not associated with any of the above. The fish jump spontaneously, without being triggered by overt sensory cues, is not migratory and does not attempt to capture aerial food items. Here, we use high speed video imaging to analyze the kinematics of the jumping b...

Soares, Daphne; Bierman, Hilary S.

2013-01-01

70

Arthroscopic surgery in a reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

An 8-mo-old captive male reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) developed an acute lameness (grade IV/V) of the right forelimb, with swelling of the metacarpophalangeal joint. A traumatic injury was suspected based on clinical, radiographic, and arthroscopic evaluation. Several abnormalities were identified arthroscopically, including synovitis, cartilage damage, and an osteochondral fragment. Medial collateral ligament damage was also suspected based on radiographic evaluation. Arthroscopy provided a means of diagnosis and treatment of the abnormalities identified. The lameness in this giraffe resolved within 6 wk following arthroscopic surgery. PMID:10572867

Radcliffe, R M; Turner, T A; Radcliffe, C H; Radcliffe, R W

1999-09-01

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Influence of GAMMA radiation on morphological changes of Poecilia reticulata  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In our experiment were followed histological changes after gamma-irradiation with dose of 30 Gy in Poecilia reticulata. After radiation shyness and lethargy were observed. The most prominent clinical symptoms observed were emaciation, hampered breathing, ex ophthalmia and hemorrhages. The histological picture found were adequate to these symptoms. The enteritic villi compared with controls were relatively low. Enterocytes taking part on resorption processes were damaged and desquamated on some sites, and the number of microvilli was reduced on their surface. As our earlier findings on rats revealed, the decrease in number of microvilli designates malfunctioning intestinal resorption, which can lead to emaciation. (authors)

2006-05-01

72

Aerial jumping in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Many fishes are able to jump out of the water and launch themselves into the air. Such behavior has been connected with prey capture, migration and predator avoidance. We found that jumping behavior of the guppy Poecilia reticulata is not associated with any of the above. The fish jump spontaneously, without being triggered by overt sensory cues, is not migratory and does not attempt to capture aerial food items. Here, we use high speed video imaging to analyze the kinematics of the jumping behavior P. reticulata. Fish jump from a still position by slowly backing up while using its pectoral fins, followed by strong body trusts which lead to launching into the air several body lengths. The liftoff phase of the jump is fast and fish will continue with whole body thrusts and tail beats, even when out of the water. This behavior occurs when fish are in a group or in isolation. Geography has had substantial effects on guppy evolution, with waterfalls reducing gene flow and constraining dispersal. We suggest that jumping has evolved in guppies as a behavioral phenotype for dispersal. PMID:23613883

Soares, Daphne; Bierman, Hilary S

2013-01-01

73

Simultaneous Determination of Flavonoids in Different Parts of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ Fruit by High Performance Liquid Chromatography—Photodiode Array Detection  

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Full Text Available Flavonoids are important polyphenolic secondary metabolites in plant. Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit are rich in flavonoids and are being used as functional antioxidant ingredients for the treatment of atherosclerosis and cancer, etc. A high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection system was used to analyze five flavonoids, namely, naringin, hesperidin, didymin, tangeretin and nobiletin, in different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a C18 column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a photodiode array detector at 280 nm. The calibration curves for the determination of all analytes showed good linearity over the investigated ranges (R2 > 0.9995. Precision and reproducibility were evaluated by six replicated analyses, and the R.S.D. values were less than 0.9% and 2.7%. The recoveries were between 98.37 and 103.89%. This method is promising to improve the quality control of different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit.

Yujie Zhang

2010-08-01

74

Environmental factors influencing adult sex ratio in Poecilia reticulata: laboratory experiments.  

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The potential causes of adult sex ratio variation in guppies Poecilia reticulata were tested in laboratory experiments that evaluated the mortality rates of male and female P. reticulata exposed to potential predators (Hart's rivulus Rivulus hartii and freshwater prawns Macrobrachium crenulatum) and to different resource levels. Poecilia reticulata mortality increased in the presence of R. hartii and M. crenulatum, and low resource levels had an effect on mortality only in the presence of M. crenulatum. Rivulus hartii preyed more often on male than on female P. reticulata, and this sex-biased predation was not simply the result of males being smaller than females. In contrast, no sex-biased mortality was attributable to M. crenulatum or low resource levels. PMID:21967582

McKellar, A E; Hendry, A P

2011-10-01

75

Blond: a regulatory gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859  

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Full Text Available The present letter is a response to the paper ?Interallelic interaction between the autosomal Blond and the sex-linked Nigrocaudatus gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata? (Petrescu-Mag et al 2007.

Philip Shaddock

2008-12-01

76

Blond: a regulatory gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859)  

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The present letter is a response to the paper ?Interallelic interaction between the autosomal Blond and the sex-linked Nigrocaudatus gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)? (Petrescu-Mag et al 2007).

Philip Shaddock

2008-01-01

77

Protective Effect against Hydroxyl-induced DNA Damage and Antioxidant Activity of Citri reticulatae Pericarpium  

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Purpose: As a typical Chinese herbal medicine, Citri reticulatae pericarpium (CRP) possesses various pharmacological effects involved in antioxidant ability. However, its antioxidant effects have not been reported yet. The objective of this work was to investigate its antioxidant ability, then further discuss the antioxidant mechanism. Methods: CRP was extracted by ethanol to obtain ethanol extract of Citri reticulatae pericarpium (ECRP). ECRP was then measured by various antioxidant methods,...

2013-01-01

78

Biochemical Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of the Green Alga Ulva reticulata  

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U. reticulata belonging to the class of Chlorophyceae that had been collected from Vellar estuary, southeast coast of India. Water contents of the U. reticulata was found as 75.33%. Carbohydrate, protein and lipid contents have been estimated as 50.248, 8.484, 19.98 and 1.7% of the dry sample correspondingly. The analysis of fatty acids by gas chromatography revealed the presence of m...

Annian Shanmugam; Chendur Palpandi

2008-01-01

79

Isolation Bacterial Symbiont from Ulva reticulata and Caulerpa racemosa as Candidate of Antimicrobial Producer  

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Isolation of bacterial symbionts from Ulva reticulata and Caulerpa racemosa was performed by crowded plate technique method using marine agar media. The purpose of this study was to search for antimicrobial-producing bacterial symbiont in green alga Ulva reticulata and Caulerpa racemosa from Takalar Coast, South Sulawesi. The isolates of bacterial symbiont were fermented in production media for seven days at 37oC. Antimicrobial activity was done by agar diffusion method using Bacillus subti...

Sartini; Suryadi; Nur Afni; Ayu Permata Sari

2013-01-01

80

Colonic obstruction in three captive reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatal colonic obstructions were diagnosed in three captive, adult, reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). Clinical presentations varied, but all cases displayed decreased activity, anorexia, and considerably decreased fecal production, consistent with intestinal obstruction. Case 1 was diagnosed at necropsy with a phytobezoar obstructing the spiral colon. Case 2 was diagnosed at necropsy with a fecal impaction of the colon. Case 3 was diagnosed during surgery with colonic ileus. Cases 2 and 3 underwent surgical intervention but were markedly compromised by the time of surgery and died during surgery or 24 hr postoperatively. Gastrointestinal obstruction, requiring aggressive supportive care and early surgical intervention, should be considered in giraffe in which anorexia and substantially decreased fecal production are observed. Abdominal exploratory surgery will likely be necessary for diagnosis and treatment. Based on a small number of cases, gastrointestinal obstruction has a poor prognosis in giraffe. PMID:19368259

Davis, Michelle R; Langan, Jennifer N; Mylniczenko, Natalie D; Benson, Keith; Lamberski, Nadine; Ramer, Jan

2009-03-01

 
 
 
 
81

Cryptosporidium muris in a reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptosporidium spp. infection in captive exotic mammals was investigated using staining and molecular biological methods. A total of 323 fecal samples from 100 mammalian species (62 Artiodactyla, 33 Rodentia, 3 Perissodactyla, and 2 Paenungultata) in 4 zoological gardens in the Czech Republic was examined. Only in a reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) sample was Cryptosporidium sp. infection detected. The partial small subunit rRNA sequence obtained from the isolate was identical to sequences of Cryptosporidium muris in rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) and Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus). Neonatal BALB/c mice inoculated with 1 x 10(3) fresh oocysts of the C. muris giraffe isolate did not produce a detectable infection. PMID:19685941

Kodádková, A; Kvác, M; Ditrich, O; Sak, B; Xiao, L

2010-02-01

82

Viscous polysaccharide and starch synthesis in Rhodella reticulata (Porphyridiales, Rhodophyta)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rhodella reticulata Deason, Butler and Rhyne produces copious amounts of a viscous polysaccharide (VP) during growth in batch cultures. The VPs accumulated on the cell surface and in the culture medium once cells ceased growth; starch concurrently accumulated within the cells. Light-saturated 14C-uptake declined steadily as the cells aged. Net synthesis rates for starch and mucilage were two- and four-fold lower, respectively, in non-growing cells than in growing cells, while the relative partitioning of newly-fixed carbon into these materials was not different. These data suggest that total photosynthetic loading, rather than partitioning into one specific pool, controls cellular synthesis rates. No preferential synthesis of VPs occurred during the stationary phase. The findings have important implications for the commercial production of VPs

1990-01-01

83

Acute toxic effects of fenpyroximate acaricide on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859).  

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Fenpyroximate (FP), an acaricide, is widely used in the prevention of acarids (mites) in fruit plant gardens. In this study, the acute toxic effects of different concentrations of FP were investigated using adult guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859). Guppy adults were exposed to a range of FP concentrations (25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 µg/L) during 48 h. Static method, which is one of the acute toxicity experiments, has been used in this study. According to probit analysis, the 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) value of FP at 26°C was found to be 72.821 µg/L. Sublethal exposures were predetermined based on 48-h LC50 value. Guppies were exposed to low concentrations (15, 25, and 50 µg/L) of FP for 48 h. Signs of paralysis and behavior deformations were monitored every 12 h in a number of live and dead adults. Low concentrations of FP were also responsible for erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, and being lethargic. Liver histology revealed several pathological damages including congestion, picnotic nucleus, sinusoidal dilatation, increase in melanomacrophagic centers, and endothelial degeneration. Finally, the toxicity test results provided 48-h LC50 value for FP, and low concentrations of FP can be highly detrimental to guppy adults with clear evidence of behavioral and histologic effects. PMID:22508399

Do?an, Nesli; Yaz?c?, Zehra; ?i?man, Turgay; A?kin, Hakan

2013-09-01

84

Aplicação de ácido giberélico (GA3 em précolheita de tangerina ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata blanco = Application of Gibberelic acid (GA3 on preharvest of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco fruit  

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Full Text Available O experimento foi instalado em pomar comercial de tangerineira ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata Blanco, enxertadas sobre tangerineira ‘Cleópatra’ (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., em Pratânia, Estado de S??o Paulo, Brasil. Adotouse o delineamento experimental em blocoscasualizados com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos empregados foram: 0 (controle, 5, 10, 15 e 20 mg L1 de ácido giberélico (GA3. A aplicação dos tratamentos foi realizada com atomizador tratorizado. Na mudança de coloração dos frutos, utilizaramse 5,9 litros de solução por planta, com adição de 0,03% de surfatante não iônico com 25% de Alquil fenol poliglicoléter. As análises da qualidade dos frutos foram realizadas aos 13, 45, 75 e 111 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT. Não se verificou influência da aplicação de GA3 na massa fresca dos frutos, no conteúdo de sólidos solúveis totais, na acidez total titulável e “ratio”. No entanto foi observado atraso na colheita de frutos, induzido pelo efeito fisiológico do ácido giberélico. The experiment was carried out in a commercial orchard of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco, grafted on ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., in Pratânia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The utilized experimental design was composed of randomized blocks of four replications. The treatments consisted of: 0 (control,5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L1 of Gibberellic acid (GA3. Atomizer equipment was utilized for the application of the treatments. Each plant received 5.9 liters of solution, in which 0.03% of nonionic surfactant with 25% of alkylphenol ethoxylate was added, in order to change fruit coloration. The analyses of fruit quality were developed on the 13th, 45th, 75th and 111th days after the application of the treatments (DAT. Results showed that the application of GA3 did not affect fruit fresh mass, total soluble solids content, total titulable acidity and ratio. However, a delay in fruit harvesting was verified, which was induced by the physiological effect of Gibberellic acid.

Júnior Cesar Modesto

2006-01-01

85

ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF LEAF EXTRACTS FROM KIRGANELIA RETICULATA BAILL  

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Full Text Available The in vitro antibacterial activity of crude methanolic, chloroform and hexane extracts of the leaves of Kirganelia reticulata (Euphorbiaceae were investigated. Susceptibility of some Gram-negative organisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Gram-positive organism (Staphylococcus aureus were tested. Agar well diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to determine the minimum antibacterial activity against all the tested microorganisms. The extracts exhibited antibacterial activities with zones of inhibition ranging from 9.07 - 30.10 mm, 8.17 - 24.57 mm and 5.60 - 14.67 mm for methanol, chloroform and hexane extracts respectively. Screening of crude extracts showed notable minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC at concentrations of 100 to 6.25 mgml-1. The organisms were more sensitive to the methanolic extract of the leaves, where as extracts from other solvents like chloroform and hexane showed moderate to weak activity respectively. Similar results have been showed in MIC and MBC.

Shruthi SD

2010-08-01

86

[Analysis on component difference in Citrus reticulata before and after being processed with salt by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS].  

Science.gov (United States)

To analyze components of Citrus reticulata and salt-processed C. reticulata by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS), and compared the changes in components before and after being processed with salt. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were adopted to analyze the difference in fingerprint between crude and processed C. reticulata, showing increased content of eriocitrin, limonin, nomilin and obacunone increase in salt-processed C. reticulata. Potential chemical markers were identified as limonin, obacunone and nomilin, which could be used for distinguishing index components of crude and processed C. reticulata. PMID:24199563

Zeng, Rui; Fu, Juan; Wu, La-Bin; Huang, Lin-Fang

2013-07-01

87

Salacia oblonga root improves postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: Activation of PPAR-?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salacia oblonga (SO) root is an Ayurvedic medicine with anti-diabetic and anti-obese properties. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-?, a nuclear receptor, plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of lipid metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that chronic oral administration of the water extract from the root of SO to Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, a genetic model of type 2 diabetes and obesity, lowered plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol (TC) levels, increased plasma high-density lipoprotein levels and reduced the liver contents of triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and the ratio of fatty droplets to total tissue. By contrast, the extract had no effect on plasma triglyceride and TC levels in fasted ZDF rats. After olive oil administration to ZDF the extract also inhibited the increase in plasma triglyceride levels. These results suggest that SO extract improves postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in ZDF rats. Additionally, SO treatment enhanced hepatic expression of PPAR-? mRNA and protein, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and acyl-CoA oxidase mRNAs in ZDF rats. In vitro, SO extract and its main component mangiferin activated PPAR-? luciferase activity in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and lipoprotein lipase mRNA expression and enzyme activity in THP-1 differentiated macrophages; these effects were completely suppressed by a selective PPAR-? antagonist MK-886. The findings from both in vivo and in vitro suggest that SO extract functions as a PPAR-? activator, providing a potential mechanism for improvement of postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in diabetes and obesity

2006-02-01

88

The Effects of Gokshura, Tribulus terrestris on Sex Reversal of Guppy, Poecilia reticulata  

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Full Text Available This study examined the effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT on sex reversal in guppy, Poecilia reticulata. The objective of this study was to introduce a new environmentally friendly method for masculinization in P. reticulata. Since male guppy has higher commercial value than female. TT is a natural, non-toxic herb which helps enhance testosterone levels in human and animals. It was prepared in a laboratory in France. Different concentration (0.0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 g L-1 of TT was investigated for sex reversal in the Poecilia reticulata. TT extract was administered by immersion of newly born offspring once weekly for two months. Among the dosages used in the present study 0.15 g L-1 TT was the most effective dosage that ensured maximum male ratio (80%, p<0.01. Although, sex ratios of 0.05 and 0.1 g L-1 TT were not significantly different from the expected 1:1 ratio, in these two groups treatment with TT also result in higher number of males (58.25 and 59.77%, respectively, than control (p>0.05. Total survival rates in all treatments and control were uniformly high ranging from 83 to 87% (p>0.05. It is concluded that TT has no negative effect on survival rate of P. reticulata. All groups of TT-treated fish exhibited successful growth acceleration comparing to the control group, but only TT treatment at the concentration of 0.15 and 0.1 g L-1 TT significantly improved growth rate of P. reticulata (p<0.01. Histological examinations revealed that testes of fish treated with TT-extract contained all stages of spermatogenesis. Sex reversal in P. reticulata demonstrated that TT treated new-born progenies showed successful sex reversal, spermatogenesis and better growth rate than untreated progenies.

Oehriban cek

2007-01-01

89

Vulnerability of the mosquito larvae to the guppies (Poecilia reticulata in the presence of alternative preys  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: The predatory potential of the larvivorous fishes can be affected by the presence of alternative preys. In the present study the predation pattern of the sewage dwelling Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1872 on the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae was evaluated in the presence of alternative preys. Methods: The predation of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by different size groups of P. reticulata fishes was evaluated. In addition to this, the niche breadth (N and diet breadth (B were measured following Manly’s selectivity index (Si as an indicator of variation of such predation pattern in the presence of alternative prey types, like chironomid larvae and tubificid worms.Results: The consumption of IV instar Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by individual P. reticulata ranged between 65 and 84 in a 3 h feeding period and varied with the size of fish (F2, 33 = 34.91; p<0.001. The selectivity coefficient revealed a significantly low preference for the Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae (0.16, CL: 0.05 – 0.27; p< 0.05 compared to the chironomid larvae and tubificid worms, when all the three prey types were present. The niche breadth (N and diet breadth (B ranged from 0.77 to 0.92 and 0.69 to 0.93, respectively. The total consumption of all the prey types varied with the predator density, but the selectivity index for the mosquito larvae was significantly low in all the instances.Interpretation & conclusion: P. reticulata can consume a good number of mosquito larvae, with the consumption rate varying with the body size. P. reticulata fishes exhibit low preference for mosquito larvae as prey in the presence of alternative controphic preys like chironomid larvae and tubificid worms. Though establishment and sustenance of P. reticulata in new habitats will be favoured by the presence of alternative preys, but vulnerability of mosquito larvae may be reduced with availability of multiple preys in natural conditions.

Barnali Manna

2008-08-01

90

Cabra reticulata sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), a new sand-dwelling dinoflagellate from the Atlantic Ocean  

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A new sand-dwelling dinoflagellate species, Cabra reticulata sp. nov., is described from sandy habitats in the south of Brittany (northwestern France). This new species possesses the characteristics of the 'unusual' genus, Cabra Murray et Patterson. The thecal plate formula is Po Pt 3' 1a 4'' 'x' 3c ?s 5''' 1'''' (or alternatively interpreted as Po Pt 4' 0a 4'' 'x' 3c ?s 5''' 1''''). Because of the strong lateral compression, cells of C. reticulata are frequently seen laterally and have a pol...

2009-01-01

91

HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN POECILIA RETICULATA AFTER INTERACTION OF IONIZING RADIATION AND ZINC SULFID  

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Full Text Available In our experiment we have studied interaction of ionizing radiation and zinc at Poecilia reticulata. Fish were irradiated with a 20 Gy of gamma-rays. Zinc sulphate in concentration 25 mg.l-1 was added to water in aquarium. Food intake, clinicl symptoms and histological changes were followed after gamma-irradiation and zinc sulfid in guppy Poecilia reticulata. In the first days timidity and lethargy were observed. The most prominent clinical symptoms observed were emaciation, hampered breathing and haemorrhages. Histological findings corresponded with these symptoms.doi:10.5219/228

Michaela Špalková

2012-12-01

92

'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) immature fruits storage / Armazenamento de frutos imaturos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito do armazenamento de frutos e concentrações de sacarose no cultivo in vitro de embriões imaturos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) x laranjeira 'Pêra' [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.]. Frutos com 3 a 4 cm de diâmetro foram coletados e coloc [...] ados em sacos pretos de polietileno perfurados e armazenados a 5±1ºC por um período de 135 dias. A cada 15 dias, uma amostra foi retirada, seus embriões foram excisados e inoculados individualmente em tubos de ensaio contendo 15 mL de meio MS acrescido de sacarose (0; 1,5; 3; 6; 12; 18 e 24 g L-1), 0,3 mg L-1 GA3 e 1 g L-1 de carvão ativado. Os tratamentos permaneceram 48 horas no escuro e em seguida foram transferidos para sala de crescimento a 27±1ºC com fotoperíodo de 16 horas e 32 µmol m-2 s-1 de intensidade luminosa. Frutos imaturos podem ser armazenados e posteriormente utilizados na excisão e cultura de embriões. Frutos com 120 dias após a polinização podem ser armazenados por mais de 135 dias sem afetar a viabilidade dos embriões. Observou-se melhor desenvolvimento da parte aérea e sistema radicular de plântulas oriundas de embriões de tangerineira 'Ponkan' x laranjeira 'Pêra' em meio MS com 12-18 g L-1 de sacarose. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of 'Ponkan' mandarin (C. reticulata) x 'Pêra' sweet orange (C. sinensis) immature fruits storage and sucrose concentrations on embryos in vitro culture. Fruits with 3 to 4 cm in diameter were harvested and placed inside black polyethylene bags with lat [...] eral openings and stored at 5±1ºC during 135 days. Every 15 days a sample was removed, its embryos were excised and individually inoculated in test tubes containing 15 mL of MS medium (Murashige & Skoog, 1962) with sucrose (0, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 g L-1) and 0.3 mg L-1 GA3 and 1 g L-1 activated charcoal. Those treatments rested 48 hours in the dark and later in a growth room at 27 ± 1ºC with a 16-h photoperiod and 32 µmol m-2 s-1 light intensity. Immature fruits can be stored for posterior excision and embryos culture. Fruits with 120 days after the pollination can be stored for at most 135 days without damaging the embryos viability. It was observed a better development of the aerial part and root system of plantlets from 'Ponkan' mandarin x 'Pêra' sweet orange embryos in MS medium with 12-18 g L-1 sucrose.

Moacir, Pasqual; Leonardo Ferreira, Dutra; Aparecida Gomes de, Araujo; Milene Alves de, Figueiredo.

93

Mutational changes in the courtship activity of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) after X-irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The courtship activity of male F2 descendants of irradiated and control guppies, Poecilia reticulata, of the inbred strain Istanbul was compared. The results of Spieser and Schroeder (1978), who found a decrease in courtship activity of descendants of irradiated guppies, were confirmed under more natural conditions

1980-01-01

94

Cycloartanes, protolimonoids, a pregnane and a new ergostane from Trichilia reticulata.  

Science.gov (United States)

The new ergostane steroid ergosta-5,24(24')-diene-3beta,4beta,22R-triol (1), a pregnane, (E)-volkendusin, characterised as the diacetate (3), cycloartanes 4-6 and protolimonoids 7-9 were obtained from the leaves and twigs of Trichilia reticulata. PMID:11833620

Harding, W W; Jacobs, H; Lewis, P A; McLean, S; Reynolds, W F

2001-01-01

95

PROLIFERATIVE LESIONS IN SWIMBLADDER OF JAPANESE MEDAKA ORYZIAS LATIPES AND GUPPY POECILIA RETICULATA  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirteen cases of proliferative lesions of the swimbladder were encountered in Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes and guppy Poecilia reticulata from about 10,000 medaka and 5,000 guppies used in carcinogenicity tests and histologically examined. Two of the four cases from medaka and...

96

Molecular and Biological Characterization of a Cryptosporidium molnari-Like Isolate from a Guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

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Histological, morphological, genetic, and phylogenetic analyses of a Cryptosporidium molnari-like isolate from a guppy (Poecilia reticulata) identified stages consistent with those of C. molnari and revealed that C. molnari is genetically very distinct from all other species of Cryptosporidium. This study represents the first genetic characterization of C. molnari.

Ryan, Una; O Hara, Amanda; Xiao, Lihua

2004-01-01

97

Yield and fruit quality of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco as influenced by evaporation based drip irrigation schedules  

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Full Text Available To identify the critical stages of irrigation water requirement of bearing Nagpur mandarin through drip irrigation system a field experiment was conducted on 7-9 years old bearing Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco based on evaporation replenishment (ER irrigation scheduling during 2009-12. The plant growing period was divided into 6 stages, 2 months each, starting from January to December and the effect on water use, tree growth, fruit yield and quality was studied. The irrigation water quantity given per day per plant under different treatments in various months varied from 21.3-158.5 liters per plant, 17.5-153.4 liters per plant and 20.9-164.5 liters per plant in different months during 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12. The highest quantity of water was applied under the irrigation scheduled at 80 % evaporation replenishment (ER treatment and it varied from 46.8-164.5 liters per plant in 2009-12. The average mandarin plant height was 4.57-4.83 m, stock girth was 51.5-56.3 cm and canopy volume 62.4-71.2 m3. The only canopy volume was found significant among the various scheduling treatments. The fruit yield and quality was significantly affected under various evaporation replenishment (ER based drip irrigation scheduling treatments. The highest fruit yield (17.25 and 21.48 tones per ha higher TSS, juice percentage and lower acidity was observed under irrigation at 80 % ER in stages I-V and 30 % ER in stage VI during the study period. The highest TSS to acidity ratio (12.7 and 12.4 was found in the irrigation schedule with 80 % ER in stages I-V and 30 % ER in stage VI during 2010-12.

Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

2013-03-01

98

Sequencing and characterization of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata transcriptome  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Next-generation sequencing is providing researchers with a relatively fast and affordable option for developing genomic resources for organisms that are not among the traditional genetic models. Here we present a de novo assembly of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata transcriptome using 454 sequence reads, and we evaluate potential uses of this transcriptome, including detection of sex-specific transcripts and deployment as a reference for gene expression analysis in guppies and a related species. Guppies have been model organisms in ecology, evolutionary biology, and animal behaviour for over 100 years. An annotated transcriptome and other genomic tools will facilitate understanding the genetic and molecular bases of adaptation and variation in a vertebrate species with a uniquely well known natural history. Results We generated approximately 336 Mbp of mRNA sequence data from male brain, male body, female brain, and female body. The resulting 1,162,670 reads assembled into 54,921 contigs, creating a reference transcriptome for the guppy with an average read depth of 28×. We annotated nearly 40% of this reference transcriptome by searching protein and gene ontology databases. Using this annotated transcriptome database, we identified candidate genes of interest to the guppy research community, putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and male-specific expressed genes. We also showed that our reference transcriptome can be used for RNA-sequencing-based analysis of differential gene expression. We identified transcripts that, in juveniles, are regulated differently in the presence and absence of an important predator, Rivulus hartii, including two genes implicated in stress response. For each sample in the RNA-seq study, >50% of high-quality reads mapped to unique sequences in the reference database with high confidence. In addition, we evaluated the use of the guppy reference transcriptome for gene expression analyses in a congeneric species, the sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna. Over 40% of reads from the sailfin molly sample aligned to the guppy transcriptome. Conclusions We show that next-generation sequencing provided a reliable and broad reference transcriptome. This resource allowed us to identify candidate gene variants, SNPs in coding regions, and sex-specific gene expression, and permitted quantitative analysis of differential gene expression.

Rodd F Helen

2011-04-01

99

Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 e Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 de peixes ornamentais de água doce no Brasil  

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In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2)...

Ml, Martins; Marchiori, N.; Roumbedakis, K.; Lami, F.

2012-01-01

100

Descripción de los estadios ninfales de Edessa reticulata y Edessa jugata (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Edessinae) para Oaxaca y Veracruz / Description of nynphal states of Edessa reticulata and E. jugata (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Edessinae) from Oaxaca and Veracruz  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se describen e ilustran fotográficamente los estadios ninfales y adultos de Edessa reticulata Dallas para el estado de Oaxaca y E. jugata Westwood para el estado de Veracruz. [...] Abstract in english The nimphal and adult stages of Edessa reticulata Dallas for the state of Oaxaca and E. jugata Westwood for the state of Veracruz are described and illustrated photographically. [...

Guillermina, Ortega-León; Martín Leonel, Zurita-García.

 
 
 
 
101

USE OF THE JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES) AND GUPPY (POECILIA RETICULATA) IN CARCINOGENESIS TESTING UNDER NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM PROTOCOLS  

Science.gov (United States)

that are economical, sensitive, and scientifically acceptable. Among small fish models, the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) is preeminent for investigating effects of carcinogenic and/or toxic waterborne hazards to humans. The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), although less widely u...

102

Mutagenicity and genotoxicity in gill erythrocyte cells of Poecilia reticulata exposed to a glyphosate formulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poecilia reticulata were exposed to herbicide Roundup Transorb(®) for micronucleus test, nuclear abnormalities and comet assay. The exposure-concentrations were based on CL50-96 h following 0, 1.41, 2.83, 4.24 and 5.65 ?L L(-1) for 24 h. Micronucleus and comets were significantly increased in the gill erythrocyte cells after herbicide exposure compared with the non-exposed group. Results showed a gradual increase in the number of damaged cells, indicating a concentration-dependent effect and that this herbicide was mutagenic and genotoxic to P. reticulata and this effect could be attributed to a combination of compounds contained in the formulation with the active ingredient glyphosate. PMID:24042842

De Souza Filho, José; Sousa, Caio César Neves; Da Silva, Cláudio Carlos; De Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

2013-11-01

103

Anti-fungal activity of Citrus reticulata Blanco essential oil against Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum.  

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The chemical composition of Citrus reticulata Blanco essential oil was analysed using GC/MS. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (C10H16) constituted the majority (88.96%, w/w) of the total oil. The oils dose-dependently inhibited Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum. The anti-fungal activity of the oils against P. italicum was attributed to citronellol, octanal, citral, decanal, nonanal, ?-pinene, linalool, and ?-terpinene, whereas anti-fungal activity against P. digitatum is attributed to octanal, decanal, nonanal, limonene, citral, ?-terpinene, linalool, and ?-terpineol. The oils altered the hyphal morphology of P. italicum and P. digitatum by causing loss of cytoplasm and distortion of the mycelia. The oils significantly altered extracellular conductivity, the release of cell constituents, and the total lipid content of P. italicum and P. digitatum. The results suggest that C. reticulata Blanco essential oils generate cytotoxicity in P. italicum and P. digitatum by disrupting cell membrane integrity and causing the leakage of cell components. PMID:24491729

Tao, Nengguo; Jia, Lei; Zhou, Haien

2014-06-15

104

Population differentiation and sexual isolation among Poecilia reticulata (the guppy) populations  

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Guppy populations in Trinidad have been a model for studies of evolutionary ecology and sexual selection. This thesis extends these studies to examine the phylogeographic history of Poecilia reticulata Peters (the guppy), and to test whether patterns of parallel morphological divergence seen in Trinidad extend across the natural range. In Chapter 1, phylogenetic, nested clade, and population genetic analyses of nuclear (X-src) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences were used to investigate p...

Alexander, Heather Jane

2007-01-01

105

Sequencing and characterization of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) transcriptome  

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Abstract Background Next-generation sequencing is providing researchers with a relatively fast and affordable option for developing genomic resources for organisms that are not among the traditional genetic models. Here we present a de novo assembly of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) transcriptome using 454 sequence reads, and we evaluate potential uses of this transcriptome, including detection of sex-specific transcripts and deployment as a reference for g...

Fraser Bonnie A; Weadick Cameron J; Janowitz Ilana; Helen, Rodd F.; Hughes Kimberly A

2011-01-01

106

Joint toxicity of mixtures of groups of organic aquatic pollutants to the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

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In this study acute lethal concentrations (LC50) to the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) were determined for mixtures of 4 groups of aquatic pollutants. The groups were composed of 11 nonreactive, nonionized organic chemicals, 11 chloroanilines, 11 chlorophenols, and 9 reactive organic halides. Earlier studies indicated that the joint toxicity within each of these groups was concentration additive, probably because of a similar mode of action. The joint toxicity of combinations of one representati...

Hermens, J. L. M.; Leeuwangh, Peter; Musch, Aalt

1985-01-01

107

Insemination efficiency of two alternative male mating tactics in the guppy Poecilia reticulata  

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In this study we compared the insemination efficiency of two alternative mating tactics (courtship and sneak mating) in the guppy Poecilia reticulata by quantifying the number of sperm delivered during a copulation. During a single copulation, guppies delivered between zero and 92% of the sperm available, as determined by mechanically stripping the males' sperm reserve at rest. The absolute number of sperm delivered after courtship was three times larger than that delivered through sneak mati...

Pilastro, A.; Bisazza, A.

1999-01-01

108

Chemical Constituents from the Leaves of Annona reticulata and Their Inhibitory Effects on NO Production  

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In the present study, the chemical investigation of the leaves of Annona reticulata has resulted in the identification of nine compounds, including annonaretin A, (1), a new triterpenoid. The purified compounds were subjected to the examination of their effects on NO inhibition in LPS-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages and most of them exhibited significant NO inhibition, with IC50 values in the range of 48.6 ± 1.2 and 99.8 ± 0.4 ?M.

Tran Dinh Thang; Ping-Chung Kuo; Guan-Jhong Huang; Nguyen Huy Hung; Bow-Shin Huang; Mei-Lin Yang; Ngo Xuan Luong; Tian-Shung Wu

2013-01-01

109

Evaluation of progesterone levels in feces of captive reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

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Fresh fecal samples were collected from seven adult female reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). Samples were collected for several weeks before, during, and for a few weeks after gestation. Fecal samples were analyzed for progesterone levels by radioimmunoassay. There were significant differences in progesterone levels between pregestational and gestational samples and between gestational and postgestational samples. These results demonstrate that fecal progesterone levels are useful in determining pregnant versus nonpregnant reticulated giraffe. PMID:17319123

Dumonceaux, Genevieve A; Bauman, Joan E; Camilo, Gerardo R

2006-09-01

110

Interface between culturally based preferences and genetic preferences: female mate choice in Poecilia reticulata.  

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The relative contribution of genetic and socio-cultural factors in the shaping of behavior is of fundamental importance to biologists and social scientists, yet it has proven to be extremely difficult to study in a controlled, experimental fashion. Here I describe experiments that examined the strength of genetic and cultural (imitative) factors in determining female mate choice in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Female guppies from the Paria River in Trinidad have a genetic, heritable prefer...

Dugatkin, L. A.

1996-01-01

111

Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Essential Oil  

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The chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (PCR) essential oil obtained using an improved Clevenger type apparatus were studied. Among the five different PCRs examined the highest yield of essential oil was found in Chachi 2004 (harvested and stored in 2004) and the lowest in Chachi 2008 (harvested and stored in 2008). Fifty three different volatile compounds were determined, including terpenic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones a...

Bei Gao; Yulong Chen; Mingwei Zhang; Yujuan Xu; Siyi Pan

2011-01-01

112

Efficacy of Citrus reticulata and Mirazid in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni  

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This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid), as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for different cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH); lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase); acid phosphatase (AP) and 5'- nucleotidase. L...

2005-01-01

113

Protective Effect against Hydroxyl-induced DNA Damage and Antioxidant Activity of Citri reticulatae Pericarpium  

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Full Text Available Purpose: As a typical Chinese herbal medicine, Citri reticulatae pericarpium (CRP possesses various pharmacological effects involved in antioxidant ability. However, its antioxidant effects have not been reported yet. The objective of this work was to investigate its antioxidant ability, then further discuss the antioxidant mechanism. Methods: CRP was extracted by ethanol to obtain ethanol extract of Citri reticulatae pericarpium (ECRP. ECRP was then measured by various antioxidant methods, including DNA damage assay, DPPH assay, ABTS assay, Fe3+-reducing assay and Cu2+-reducing assay. Finally, the content of total flavonoids was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. Results: Our results revealed that ECRP could effectively protect against hydroxyl-induced DNA damage (IC50 944.47±147.74 ?g/mL. In addition, it could also scavenge DPPH· radical (IC50349.67±1.91 ?g/mL and ABTS+• radical (IC5011.33±0.10 ?g/mL, reduce Fe3+ (IC50 140.95±2.15 ?g/mL and Cu2+ (IC50 70.46±1.77 ?g/mL. Chemical analysis demonstrated that the content of total flavonoids in ECRP was 198.29±12.24 mg quercetin/g. Conclusion: Citri reticulatae pericarpium can effectively protect against hydroxyl-induced DNA damage. One mechanism of protective effect may be radical-scavenging which is via donating hydrogen atom (H·, donating electron (e. Its antioxidant ability can be mainly attributed to the flavonoids, especially hesperidin and narirutin.

Dongfeng Chen

2013-02-01

114

Effect of Citrus reticulata on Serum Protein Fractions of Mice After Schistosoma mansoni Infection  

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Full Text Available The effect of the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata roots or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid were studied as new antischistosomal drugs. The total protein and the different serum proteins namely albumin, prealbumin, ?-lipoproteins, macroglobulins, ?-1-acid glycoprotein, ?-1-antitrypsin, cholinesterase, ceruloplasmin, haemopexin, haptoglobin, transferrin and lipoprotein were measured in both infected and treated mice. Also, liver function parameters; AST, ALT, ALP and total bilirubin were studied in the different mice groups. Besides, the parasitological parameters, egg count and worm burden were estimated. The results showed a significant reduction in all protein fraction concentrations in S. mansoni infected mice and elevation in the liver function parameters AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin. Citrus reticulata extract and mirazid showed an improvement in all the previous parameters which confirmed the medical importance and curative effects of C. reticulata and mirazid against S. mansoni infection. Also, the results showed a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden.

Nagy-Saba El-Rigal

2006-01-01

115

Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of citrus jambhiri lush and citrus reticulata blanco essential oils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to investigate the time interval in which we can get maximum concentration of essential oil from the peels of Citrus jambhiri Lush and Citrus reticulata Blanco, to determine the composition of peel oils and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracted oils. It was observed that in case of Citrus jambhiri Lush maximum oil yield (I %) was obtained when fruits were immature (during October). As the fruit samples got matured, the oil yield decreased. In December the oil yield decreased to 0.2 %. In case of Citrus reticulata Blanco maximum oil yield (0.189 %) was obtained during the last week of January. Chemical analysis of essential oils showed that limonene was the most abundant compound (86 %-93 %) followed by alpha terpinene (2 %-4.5 %), beta-pinene(1 0/0-2 %) and nerol (0.5 %-1.5 %). The radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of essential oils were determined by DPPH and linoleic acid test. The essential oil of Citrus jambhiri Lush inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid by 54.98 % and that of Citrus reticulata Blanco inhibited by 49.98 %. Moreover, the essential oils also showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms. (author)

2009-10-01

116

Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Some Nigerian Medicinal Plant Extracts  

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Full Text Available The present research evaluates the DPPH radical scavenging, total antioxidant activities, reducing power and total contents of phenolic compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of five Nigerian medicinal plants (Dalbergia saxatilis Hook.f. (Papilionacae, Ekebergia senegalensis A.Juss.(Meliaceae, Hymenocardia acida Tul. (Hymenocardiaceae, Icacina tricantha Oliv. (Icacinaceae and Salacia pallescens Oliv.(Celastraceae. Total phenols were analysed according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Each sample under assay condition, showed a dose-dependent effect both on free radical scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH and also on Fe3+ reducing power. The antioxidant activity of the plant extracts with the DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power method, were in the order Hymenocardia> Ekebergia> Salacia> Icacina> Dalbergia. H. acida and E. senegalensis possess very high radical scavenging activity in both assays. Potency of H. acida extract was of the same magnitude as that of reference ?-tocopherol. Total phenols in all the samples expressed as GAE (Gallic Acid Equivalent varied from 1.83 to 15.47mg g-1 of dry plant material. Total antioxidant activities correlated with total phenols (R2 = 0.6640 an indication that 66% of the antioxidant capacity of these extracts results from contribution of phenolic compounds. A linear positive relationship existed between the reducing power and total phenolics of the tested plant extracts (R2 = 0.9564.

M.O. Sofidiya

2006-01-01

117

Efecto anabólico y androgénico del esteroide acetato de trembolona en el guppy (Poecilia reticulata) / Anabolic and androgenic effect of steroid trenbolone acetate on guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se investigó el efecto del esteroide semisintético acetato de trembolona (ATB) en el pez de ornato Poecilia reticulata (guppy). Especímenes juveniles de 30 días de edad fueron tratados con el esteroide a dosis de 300 mg/kg de alimento durante 60 días. Al término del tratamiento, 40 días después, se [...] estimó el efecto residual del esteroide. Se analizó la sobrevivencia, la proporción de peces masculinizados, así como el efecto anabólico. Los resultados indicaron que el ATB es eficaz para inducir la masculinización, a diferencia del grupo testigo, donde se registraron 32% de machos. Asimismo, el ATB tuvo un efecto anabólico, ya que los peces tratados mostraron mayor peso y talla e incremento de la aleta caudal. El esteroide no causó daño en la población tratada, al sobrevivir 93.3% de los peces, comparado con 83% del grupo testigo. Abstract in english The effect of semi-synthetic steroid trenbolone acetate (TBA) on the ornamental fish Poecilia reticulata (guppy) was studied. The steroid at a dose of 300 mg/kg feed was administered to 30 days old juvenile specimens during 60 days. Forty days after treatment was ended, an evaluation aimed to determ [...] ine the steroid residual effect was undertaken. Survival, masculinization ratio and the drug anabolic effect were analyzed. Results showed TBA to be effective to induce masculinization, differing (P

Héctor, Salgado Zamora; Aída, Azpeitia Hernández; Samuel, Marañón Herrera; Eduardo, Maya Peña.

118

Neonauclea reticulata (Havil.) Merr Stimulates Skin Regeneration after UVB Exposure via ROS Scavenging and Modulation of the MAPK/MMPs/Collagen Pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we investigated whether the protective effects of Neonauclea reticulata water extract against ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation in human skin fibroblast cell cultures (Hs68) are governed by its ability to protect against oxidative stress and expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We found that Neonauclea reticulata extract exhibited DPPH scavenging activity and inhibited AAPH-induced haemolysis of erythrocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also found that pretreatment of fibroblasts with Neonauclea reticulata water extract resulted in markedly lower levels of MMP-1, -3, and -9 expressions. Furthermore, our results indicate that Neonauclea reticulata extract inhibits the expression of MMPs by inhibiting ERK, JNK, and p38 phosphorylation. Our results also demonstrate that treatment with Neonauclea reticulata extract protects against UVB-induced depletion of collagen. In addition, Neonauclea reticulata extract did not have a cytotoxic effect. These findings indicate that the antioxidant activity of Neonauclea reticulata extract resulted in inhibition of MMP-1, -3, and -9 expressions and in increased levels of collagen activity. Our results suggest that Neonauclea reticulata extract can protect against photoaging. PMID:23843873

Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Chen, Hsin-Chun; Chiu, Hua-Hsien; Chen, Chien-Wen; Wang, Ssu-Meng; Wen, Kuo-Ching

2013-01-01

119

Comportamento fisiológico de sementes de tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco submetidas à desidratação Physiological performance of tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco seeds submitted to dehydration  

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Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi o de estudar os efeitos imediatos da desidratação sobre o comportamento fisiológico das sementes de tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Cleópatra. Assim, sementes extraídas manualmente de frutos maduros foram lavadas em água corrente e drenadas à sombra. Em seguida, uma porção representativa de sementes foi removida a fim de constituir o tratamento com o maior grau de umidade (49% a ser estudado. As sementes remanescentes foram submetidas à desidratação em equipamento com circulação forçada de ar (28±2°C, visando à obtenção dos tratamentos (39; 32; 24; 13; 10 e 7% H2O referentes aos demais graus de umidade desejados. Foram realizadas avaliações do grau de umidade, da germinação, da taxa e da velocidade de emergência das plântulas, dos comprimentos da raiz, do hipocótilo e da plântula. Concluiu-se que o potencial fisiológico das sementes, considerando o intervalo de 49 a 7% para o grau de umidade, é favorecido pela desidratação até 39% H2O.The objective of this research was to study the immediate effects of dehydration on the physiological performance of 'Cleopatra' tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco seeds. Seeds were hand extracted from mature fruits, washed in running water and then drained in the shade. Following that, a representative portion of the seeds was removed so as to constitute the treatment containing the highest water content (49% to be studied. The remaining seeds were submitted to dehydration in an equipment with forced air flow (28º±2ºC in order to obtain the treatments (39; 32; 24; 13; 10 and 7% H2O relative to the other moisture contents desired. Evaluations were made of the moisture level, the germination, the seedling emergence, and root, hypocotyl and seedling length. It was concluded that the physiological potential of the seeds, considering the interval of 49 to 7% moisture content, is favored by dehydration to 39% H2O.

Leila Martins

2006-04-01

120

Lethal effect of X-rays on penguin fish varieties, Poecilia reticulata Peters and Brachydanio rerio (Hamilton-Buchanan)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was made of a single effect of X-radiation on two penguin fish varieties (Poecilia reticulata and Brachydanio rerio). The comparison of the design data with empirical ones, using ?2 as a criterion, has demonstrated their good concordance in all studied fish groups. The average values of LD50/30 are from 18.844 to 23.848 Gy. These values are lower for females of both varieties. A larger dispersion of tolerance distributions in B. rerio, as compared to P. reticulata, is indicative of a higher variability in their individual X-radiation sensitivity. The genetic basis for different radiosensitivity is suggested

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Biosorption of copper, cobalt and nickel by marine green alga Ulva reticulata in a packed column.  

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Biosorption of copper, cobalt and nickel by marine green alga Ulva reticulata were investigated in a packed bed up-flow column. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of important design parameters such as bed height and flow rate. At a bed height of 25 cm, the metal-uptake capacity of U. reticulata for copper, cobalt and nickel was found to be 56.3+/-0.24, 46.1+/-0.07 and 46.5+/-0.08 mgg(-1), respectively. The Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model was used to analyze the experimental data. The computed sorption capacity per unit bed volume (N0) was 2580, 2245 and 1911 mgl(-1) for copper, cobalt and nickel, respectively. The rate constant (K(a)) was recorded as 0.063, 0.081 and 0.275 lmg(-1)h(-1) for copper, cobalt and nickel, respectively. In flow rate experiments, the results confirmed that the metal uptake capacity and the metal removal efficiency of U. reticulata decreased with increasing flow rate. The Thomas model was used to fit the column biosorption data at different flow rates and model constants were evaluated. The column regeneration studies were carried out for three sorption-desorption cycles. The elutant used for the regeneration of the biosorbent was 0.1 M CaCl2 at pH 3 adjusted using HCl. For all the metal ions, a decreased breakthrough time and an increased exhaustion time were observed as the regeneration cycles progressed, which also resulted in a broadened mass transfer zone. The pH variations during both sorption and desorption process have been reported. PMID:15924962

Vijayaraghavan, K; Jegan, J; Palanivelu, K; Velan, M

2005-07-01

122

Copper removal from aqueous solution by marine green alga Ulva reticulata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The batch removal of copper (II) ions from aqueous solution under different experimental conditions using Ulva reticulata was investigated in this study. The copper (II) uptake was dependent on initial pH and initial copper concentration, with pH 5.5 being the optimum value. The equilibrium data wer [...] e fitted using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model, with the maximum copper (II) uptake of 74.63 mg/g determined at a pH of 5.5. The Freundlich model regression resulted in high correlation coefficients and the model parameters were largely dependent on initial solution pH. At various initial copper (II) concentrations (250 to 1000 mg/L), sorption equilibrium was attained between 30 and 120 min. The copper (II) uptake by U. reticulata was best described by Pseudo-second order rate model and the rate constant, the initial sorption rate and the equilibrium sorption capacity were also reported. The elution efficiency for copper-desorption from U. reticulata was determined for 0.1 M HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 and CaCl2 at various Solid-to-Liquid ratios (S/L). The solution CaCl2 (0.1 M) in HCl at pH 3 was chosen to be the most suitable copper-desorbing agent. The biomass was also employed in three sorption-desorption cycles with 0.1 M CaCl2 (in HCl, pH 3) as the elutant.

Vijayaraghavan, Kuppusamy; Raj Jegan, Joseph; Palanivelu, Kandasamy; Velan, Manickam.

123

Uptake of Carrier-free 137Cs by Ramalina reticulata 1  

Science.gov (United States)

The uptake of carrier-free 137Cs by Ramalina reticulata Kremp. does not appear to be directly linked to metabolism. The results indicate the presence of a barrier to entry of 137Cs. The barrier is stabilized by Ca ions. Removal of Ca by pretreatment of the tissue in monovalent salt solutions increases the uptake of 137Cs. Uptake under anaerobiosis is also greater than normal, but in this case, Ca displaced from the barrier membrane is not lost from the tissue and normal permeability is rapidly re-established when aerobic conditions are restored. Under anaerobiosis Ca2+ increases damage to the respiratory mechanism presumably by increasing retention of toxic products.

Handley, Raymond; Overstreet, Roy

1968-01-01

124

Acute Toxicity of Premium Motor Spirit to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859  

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Full Text Available Static bioassays were made to determine acute toxicity of premium motor spirit on poecilia reticulata. Lethal doses of the oil were determined using LC50 software programmes based on Finneys probit statistical method. The 96 LC50 value of the oil for guppy was estimated as 1.69 (1.13-2.43 mg L-1. The fish exhibited behavioural changes in the form of aggression, rapid gulping of water, increased opercular movement and abnormal swimming movements. The significance of this sublethal effect particularly as a stress indicator of petrol oil contamination was discussed.

J .K. Saliu

2007-01-01

125

Serial tranquilization of a reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) using xylazine.  

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A 5-yr-old captive-born reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) was tranquilized with i.m. xylazine 34 times in a 39-day period to allow nursing by her calf. Xylazine administered at approximately 0.16 mg/kg i.m. provided adequate sedation of the dam without detrimental side effects to the dam or the calf. While the dam was sedated, the calf was able to ingest adequate amounts of milk to produce acceptable weight gains until he was consistently eating solid foods. PMID:9279408

Fischer, M T; Miller, R E; Houston, E W

1997-06-01

126

Teratoma of the umbilical cord in a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

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A 12-year-old pregnant female giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) died approximately 2 months prior to her anticipated parturition date. At necropsy, a mass measuring approximately 20 x 36 x 20 cm was observed, attached to the umbilical cord, the latter being otherwise normal in appearance. Histologically, the mass contained 3 germinal tissue components with areas of squamous epithelium, respiratory epithelium, primitive neural tissues, glial tissue, peripheral nerve, adipose tissue, cartilage, and smooth muscle. Based on these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a teratoma originating from the umbilical cord. This is possibly the second reported case of umbilical cord teratoma in animals. PMID:17317797

Murai, A; Yanai, T; Kato, M; Yonemaru, K; Sakai, H; Masegi, T

2007-03-01

127

Toxicity response of Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae to some agricultural pesticides  

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Full Text Available Hedayati A, Tarkhani R, Shadi A. 2012. Mortality response of Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae to some agricultural pesticides. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 6-10. This research was performed to determine and compare acute toxicity of diazinon and deltamethrin as potential dangerous organic pesticides to assess mortality effects of these chemicals to the freshwater guppy Poecilia reticulata. LC50 of 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h was attained by probit analysis by Finney’s and using the maximum-likelihood procedure (SPSS. The 24-96 h LC50 for the diazinon were 40.9±0.98, 33.2±0.84, 23.2±0.74 and 16.8±0.57 ppm respectively. The 24-96 h LC50 for the deltamethrin were 0.297±0.13, 0.236±0.16, 0.204±0.47 and 0.195±0.06 ppm respectively. In the present study, LC50 values indicated that deltamethrin was more toxic than diazinon to this species. LC50 values obtained in the present study were different from the corresponding values that have been published in the literature for other species of fish.

ALIAKBAR HEDAYATI

2012-03-01

128

Examining the link between personality and laterality in a feral guppy Poecilia reticulata population.  

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This study examined whether variation in the strength and direction of lateralization in a detour task was linked with variation in three common personality measurements: boldness, activity and sociability, in a population of wild guppies Poecilia reticulata. Additionally, the aim was to determine whether any consistent correlations between these behavioural traits, known as behavioural syndromes, were present in the study population. The results revealed that all three personality traits were highly repeatable over time in both sexes. Evidence of a complex syndrome in the form of a correlation between boldness, sociability and activity was found; however, this relationship was only present in males. Males that were more active in a familiar environment emerged more quickly from shelter into a novel environment and were more social. In general, male P. reticulata were bold, active and antisocial compared to females, with these differences probably a reflection of opposing life-history strategies. Only a weak link between the strength of cerebral lateralisation and personality was discovered and this was mediated by sex. PMID:23902308

Irving, E; Brown, C

2013-08-01

129

Efficacy of Citrus reticulata and Mirazid in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid), as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for di [...] fferent cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH); lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase); acid phosphatase (AP) and 5'- nucleotidase. Liver function enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST); alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also estimated. Parasitological studies through ova count and worm burden will also be taken into consideration. The results showed a marked reduction in SDH, LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities and a significant increase in G-6-Pase, AP, 5'- nucleotidase, and ALP after S. mansoni infection. A noticeable alteration in LDH subunits were also noticed. Treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all the previous enzyme activities with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden.

Manal A, Hamed; Mona H, Hetta.

130

Efficacy of Citrus reticulata and Mirazid in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni.  

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This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid), as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for different cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH); lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase); acid phosphatase (AP) and 5'- nucleotidase. Liver function enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST); alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also estimated. Parasitological studies through ova count and worm burden will also be taken into consideration. The results showed a marked reduction in SDH, LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities and a significant increase in G-6-Pase, AP, 5'- nucleotidase, and ALP after S. mansoni infection. A noticeable alteration in LDH subunits were also noticed. Treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all the previous enzyme activities with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden. PMID:16410968

Hamed, Manal A; Hetta, Mona H

2005-11-01

131

Efficacy of Citrus reticulata and Mirazid in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni  

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Full Text Available This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid, as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for different cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase; acid phosphatase (AP and 5'- nucleotidase. Liver function enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST; alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were also estimated. Parasitological studies through ova count and worm burden will also be taken into consideration. The results showed a marked reduction in SDH, LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities and a significant increase in G-6-Pase, AP, 5'- nucleotidase, and ALP after S. mansoni infection. A noticeable alteration in LDH subunits were also noticed. Treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all the previous enzyme activities with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden.

Manal A Hamed

2005-11-01

132

Chemical and pharmacognostical characterization of two Malaysian plants both known as Ajisamat  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Ajisamat, an herb commonly used as an aphrodisiac in the Malaysian traditional medicine, corresponds to two different species from different families - Salacia macrophylla Blume, Celastraceae, and Prismatomeris glabra (Korth.) Valeton, Rubiaceae. Macromorphological inspection of the vegetative parts [...] both plants reveals only a slight difference in the arrangement of the petioles. Microscopic investigation of the plants roots used as crude drugs revealed however distinctive anatomical features. Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and banded paratracheal parenchyma are characteristics of S. macrophylla while P. glabra displays an abundance as crystals. Other features such as vessels diameters and arrangements are also of diagnostic importance. Some of these characters were also identified in the powder of thes e plant materials and proposed for diagnostic purpose. The values for extraction of ethanol and water as well as total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash and sulfated ash were determined for both plants. Phytochemical studies were carried out on hexane and chloroform extracts of S. macrophylla and methanolic extract of P. glabra. S. macrophylla was shown to contain highly oxidized pentacyclic triterpenes while P. glabra contains anthraquinones. The pharmacognostical and hytochemical information can be utilised as the identification tools for Salacia macrophylla and Prismatomeris glabra

Mohamad, Tengku Azlan S. Tengku; Naz, Humera; Jalal, Ratni S.; Hussin, Khatijah; Rahman, Mohd R. Abd; Adam, Aishah; Weber, Jean-Frederic F..

133

Comportamento fisiológico de sementes de tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco) submetidas à desidratação / Physiological performance of tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) seeds submitted to dehydration  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desta pesquisa foi o de estudar os efeitos imediatos da desidratação sobre o comportamento fisiológico das sementes de tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Cleópatra). Assim, sementes extraídas manualmente de frutos maduros foram lavadas em água corrente e drenadas à sombra. Em seguid [...] a, uma porção representativa de sementes foi removida a fim de constituir o tratamento com o maior grau de umidade (49%) a ser estudado. As sementes remanescentes foram submetidas à desidratação em equipamento com circulação forçada de ar (28±2°C), visando à obtenção dos tratamentos (39; 32; 24; 13; 10 e 7% H2O) referentes aos demais graus de umidade desejados. Foram realizadas avaliações do grau de umidade, da germinação, da taxa e da velocidade de emergência das plântulas, dos comprimentos da raiz, do hipocótilo e da plântula. Concluiu-se que o potencial fisiológico das sementes, considerando o intervalo de 49 a 7% para o grau de umidade, é favorecido pela desidratação até 39% H2O. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to study the immediate effects of dehydration on the physiological performance of 'Cleopatra' tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) seeds. Seeds were hand extracted from mature fruits, washed in running water and then drained in the shade. Following that, a represen [...] tative portion of the seeds was removed so as to constitute the treatment containing the highest water content (49%) to be studied. The remaining seeds were submitted to dehydration in an equipment with forced air flow (28º±2ºC) in order to obtain the treatments (39; 32; 24; 13; 10 and 7% H2O) relative to the other moisture contents desired. Evaluations were made of the moisture level, the germination, the seedling emergence, and root, hypocotyl and seedling length. It was concluded that the physiological potential of the seeds, considering the interval of 49 to 7% moisture content, is favored by dehydration to 39% H2O.

Leila, Martins; Walter Rodrigues da, Silva.

134

Salacia oblonga root improves cardiac lipid metabolism in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: Modulation of cardiac PPAR-?-mediated transcription of fatty acid metabolic genes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Excess cardiac triglyceride accumulation in diabetes and obesity induces lipotoxicity, which predisposes the myocytes to death. On the other hand, increased cardiac fatty acid (FA) oxidation plays a role in the development of myocardial dysfunction in diabetes. PPAR-? plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis of lipid metabolism. We have previously demonstrated that the extract from Salacia oblonga root (SOE), an Ayurvedic anti-diabetic and anti-obesity medicine, improves hyperlipidemia in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats (a genetic model of type 2 diabetes and obesity) and possesses PPAR-? activating properties. Here we demonstrate that chronic oral administration of SOE reduces cardiac triglyceride and FA contents and decreases the Oil red O-stained area in the myocardium of ZDF rats, which parallels the effects on plasma triglyceride and FA levels. Furthermore, the treatment suppressed cardiac overexpression of both FA transporter protein-1 mRNA and protein in ZDF rats, suggesting inhibition of increased cardiac FA uptake as the basis for decreased cardiac FA levels. Additionally, the treatment also inhibited overexpression in ZDF rat heart of PPAR-? mRNA and protein and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, acyl-CoA oxidase and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase mRNAs and restored the downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA. These results suggest that SOE inhibits cardiac FA oxidation in ZDF rats. Thus, our findings suggest that improvement by SOE of excess cardiac lipid accumulation and increased cardiac FA oxidation in diabetes and obesity occurs by reduction of cardiac FA uptake, thereby modulating cardiac PPAR-?-mediated FA metabolic gene transcription

2006-01-01

135

EFECTOS ECOTOXICOLOGICOS DEL CARTAP SOBRE POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE Y PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE ECOTOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CARTAP ON POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE AND PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE  

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Full Text Available Se evaluó el impacto ecotoxicológico del insecticida carbámico cartap (1,3 di (carbamoytio-2-dimetiloaminopropano usado para el control de plagas agrícolas y como molusquicida de vectores de importancia en Salud Pública, sobre dos especies de peces del ecosistema acuático continental: Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859 "guppy" (Poecilidae y Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936 ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae. Ellos fueron utilizados como organismos no destinatarios en ensayos de corta duración, para determinar el impacto toxicológico del cartap. Para ambas especies de peces se evaluó el porcentaje de mortalidad, y dos respuestas subletales: el incremento del movimiento opercular y el nado extraño. A 3 h de exposición para P. reticulata, se encontró un valor de CL50 (Concentración letal media de 6,75 mg•L-1 y valores de CE50 (Concentración efectiva media de The ecotoxicological impact of the carbamate insecticide cartap (1,3 di (carbamoythio-2-dimethyloaminopropan used for agriculture pests and as mollusquicide of vectors of Public Health importance was evaluated, on two fish species of the continental aquatic ecosystem. Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859 ``guppy" (Poecilidae and Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936 ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae were employed as non-target organisms in assays of short duration to determine the toxicological impact of cartap. For both fish, percentage of mortality and two sublethal responses: increase of opercula movement and strange swim, were evaluated. In P. reticulata after 3 h exposure it was found a LC50 (mean Lethal Concentration of 6.75 mg'•L-1 and values of EC50 (mean Effective Concentration of <7.55 and <8.16 mg•L-1 as speed up of opercula movement and strange swim, respectively. For P. innesi, it was found an LC50 value of <0.02 mg•L-1 and values of EC50 of <0.01 and <0.03 mg•L-1, as speed up of opercula movement and strange swim, respectively. P. innesi was more sensitive to cartap than P. reticulata. Risk Quotients (RQ to evaluate environmental risk (ERA of this insecticide on aquatic ecosystem were calculated, indicating that P. innesi was more accurate than P. reticulata as ecotoxicological tool to evaluate cartap.

Jose Iannacone

2007-01-01

136

Neonauclea reticulata (Havil.) Merr Stimulates Skin Regeneration after UVB Exposure via ROS Scavenging and Modulation of the MAPK/MMPs/Collagen Pathway  

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In this study, we investigated whether the protective effects of Neonauclea reticulata water extract against ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation in human skin fibroblast cell cultures (Hs68) are governed by its ability to protect against oxidative stress and expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We found that Neonauclea reticulata extract exhibited DPPH scavenging activity and inhibited AAPH-induced haemolysis of erythrocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also found that pret...

Hsiu-Mei Chiang; Hsin-Chun Chen; Hua-Hsien Chiu; Chien-Wen Chen; Ssu-Meng Wang; Kuo-Ching Wen

2013-01-01

137

Root activity in kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata) using 32P in submontane Himalayan region of India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution pattern of root activity of 5-year old Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) trees was determined by the 32P soil-injection technique. The 32P solution was injected into the soil at lateral distances of 30, 60, 90 and 120 cm from the tree trunk at 15, 30, 60 and 90 cm depths and its uptake was determined in half and fully-expanded leaves at weekly intervals for 5 weeks. The maximum specific activity was noted at 14 days of injection, which decreased thereafter. The relative root activity was maximum at 30 cm depth at a radial distance of 90-120 cm from tree trunk in both the types of leaves. About 60% of the root activity was confined to this zone. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

1992-11-01

138

Cloning and expression analysis of a prion protein encoding gene in guppy ( Poecilia reticulata)  

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The full length cDNA of a prion protein (PrP) encoding gene of guppy ( Poecilia reticulata) and the corresponding genomic DNA were cloned. The cDNA was 2245 bp in length and contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1545 bp encoding a protein of 515 amino acids, which held all typical structural characteristics of the functional PrP. The cloned genomic DNA fragment corresponding to the cDNA was 3720 bp in length, consisting of 2 introns and 2 exons. The 5' untranslated region of cDNA originated from the 2 exons, while the ORF originated from the second exon. Although the gene was transcribed in diverse tissues including brain, eye, liver, intestine, muscle and tail, its transcript was most abundant in the brain. In addition, the transcription of the gene was enhanced by 5 salinity, implying that it was associated with the response of guppy to saline stress.

Wu, Suihan; Wei, Qiwei; Yang, Guanpin; Wang, Dengqiang; Zou, Guiwei; Chen, Daqing

2008-11-01

139

Influence of the protein quantity from combined fodder on the corporal development of guppy (Poecilia reticulata  

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Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the effects of various concentrations of protein premixtures onthe growth in length and weight of adult specimens of ornamental fish Poecilia reticulata, bred incaptivity. Of this consideration, the experiment was set up with six groups: R1, R2, R3, TG, TP and TD,which were fed differently as follows: R1 with mixed fodder containing 30% CP (crude protein, ownrecipe; R2 with mixed fodder containing 30% GP, own recipe; R3 with mixed fodder containing 30%CP, own recipe; TG with Troco Grower fodder containing 43% CP; TP with Troco Prim fodder containing44% CP; TD with Tetra Discus fodder containing 48% CP. The research was conducted over a period ofthree months in which there have been followed the length and weight, to determine body indices(average increase of the weight gain, Fulton index and average weight ratio multiplier.

Adrian Gruber

2013-03-01

140

Efecto anabólico y androgénico del esteroide acetato de trembolona en el guppy (Poecilia reticulata  

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Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto del esteroide semisintético acetato de trembolona (ATB en el pez de ornato Poecilia reticulata (guppy. Especímenes juveniles de 30 días de edad fueron tratados con el esteroide a dosis de 300 mg/kg de alimento durante 60 días. Al término del tratamiento, 40 días después, se estimó el efecto residual del esteroide. Se analizó la sobrevivencia, la proporción de peces masculinizados, así como el efecto anabólico. Los resultados indicaron que el ATB es efi caz para inducir la masculinización, a diferencia del grupo testigo, donde se registraron 32% de machos. Asimismo, el ATB tuvo un efecto anabólico, ya que los peces tratados mostraron mayor peso y talla e incremento de la aleta caudal. El esteroide no causó daño en la población tratada, al sobrevivir 93.3% de los peces, comparado con 83% del grupo testigo

Héctor Salgado Zamora

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Accumulation of dieldrin in an alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), Daphnia magna, and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

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Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Poecilia reticulata accumulated dieldrin directly from water; average concentration factors (concentration in organism, dry weight, divided by concentration in water) were 1282 for the alga, 13,954 for D. magna, and 49,307 (estimated) for the guppy. The amount accumulated by each species at equilibrium (after about 1.5, 3-4, and 18 days, respectively) was directly proportional to the concentration of dieldrin in the water. Daphnia magna and guppies accumulated more dieldrin from water than from food that had been exposed to similar concentrations in water. When guppies were fed equal daily rations of D. magna containing different concentrations of insecticide, the amounts of dieldrin accumulated by the fish were directly proportional to the concentration in D. magna; when two lots of guppies were fed different quantities of D. magna (10 and 20 organisms per day) containing identical concentrations of dieldrin, however, the amounts accumulated did not differ substantially.

Reinert, Robert E.

1972-01-01

142

Sexual conflict and the function of genitalic claws in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).  

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Poeciliid fish, freshwater fish with internal fertilization, are known for the diversity of structures on the male intromittent organ, the gonopodium. Prominent among these, in some species, is a pair of claws at its tip. We conducted a manipulative study of these claws in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, to determine if these aid in transferring sperm to resistant females. We compared the sperm transfer rates of clawed versus surgically declawed males attempting to mate with either receptive or unreceptive (i.e. resistant) females. Our analyses demonstrate that the gonopodial claws function to increase sperm transfer to unreceptive females during uncooperative matings but not during receptive matings. Up to threefold more sperm were transferred to unreceptive females by clawed than declawed males. These data suggest that the claw is a sexually antagonistic trait, functioning to aid in transferring sperm to resistant females, and implicate sexual conflict as a selective force in the diversification of the gonopodium in the Poeciliidae. PMID:23883572

Kwan, Lucia; Cheng, Yun Yun; Rodd, F Helen; Rowe, Locke

2013-10-23

143

Successful management of acute-onset torticollis in a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2-yr-old male reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) presented with severe midcervical segmental torticollis upon arrival as an incoming shipment. Despite initial medical management, the giraffe developed marked neck sensitivity, focal muscle spasms, and decreased cervical range of motion. Using operant conditioning to assist patient positioning and tolerance to cervical manipulation, a series of manually applied chiropractic treatments were applied to the affected cervical vertebrae in an effort to restore normal cervical mobility. Laser therapy and cervical range of motion exercises were also used to reduce cervical muscle hypertonicity. The combined application of these nontraditional therapies produced marked clinical improvement. This case highlights the potential benefits of combining traditional medical management with chiropractic treatment and physical therapy techniques for management of severe acute-onset torticollis in a giraffe. PMID:23505724

Dadone, Liza I; Haussler, Kevin K; Brown, Greg; Marsden, Melanie; Gaynor, James; Johnston, Matthew S; Garelle, Della

2013-03-01

144

DETAILED COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA LINN. AND ANNONA RETICULATA LINN. LEAVES  

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Full Text Available Annona squamosa Linn. and Annona reticulata Linn. are locally known as Sitaphala and Ramphala respectively both belongs to family Annonaceae. Leaves of both are used in various diseases like suppurant, toothache, anthelmintic commonly. Individually A. squamosa is used in anti diabetic, antispasmodic, dandruff and A. reticulate is used in flatulence and toothache. Till date there is no scientific comparative study has been reported. Pharmacognostical study of A. squamosa shows lysogenous cavity and sparse trichome where as, A. reticulate shows multicellular trichomes filled with tannin and stone cells. The powder characters of A. squamosa are stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate whereas A. reticulate shows pitted stones cells and micro rosettes crystals of calcium oxalate. Annular vessels, lysogenous cavity and paracytic stomata are common characters observed in both the leaves.

Jani Switu

2012-10-01

145

Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Essential Oil  

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Full Text Available The chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (PCR essential oil obtained using an improved Clevenger type apparatus were studied. Among the five different PCRs examined the highest yield of essential oil was found in Chachi 2004 (harvested and stored in 2004 and the lowest in Chachi 2008 (harvested and stored in 2008. Fifty three different volatile compounds were determined, including terpenic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters. D-limonene, one of terpenes, was the major constituent in PCR. The antioxidant capacity of PCR essential oil varied considerably with the duration of storage time, and the oil from Chachi 1994 has the strongest ferric-reducing antioxidant power. In addition, the essential oil possessed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, except Streptococcus faecalis, while had no effect on Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae.

Bei Gao

2011-05-01

146

Investigation of Acute Toxicity of Pirimiphos-Methyl (Actellic®, 25%EC on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859  

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Full Text Available Pirimiphos-methyl is a broad spectrum organophosphate insecticide and potential toxic pollutant in aquatic ecosystems. The acute toxicity of Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic® was investigated using Guppy (Poecilia reticulata in a 96 h static renewal laboratory bioassay. Based on probit analysis, the LC50 was 0.026, 0.024, 0.022 and 0.019 ml L-1 at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA showed that there was significant difference (p<0.05 in the quantal response (mortality of P. reticulata to different concentrations of Actellic at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure. Actellic insecticide is toxic to fish; therefore its indiscriminate use in aquatic environment should be discouraged.

M.O. Lawal

2010-01-01

147

Whole toxicity removal for industrial and domestic effluents treated with electron beam radiation, evaluated with Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Poecilia reticulata  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several studies have been performed in order to apply ionizing radiation to treat real complexes effluents from different sources, at IPEN. This paper shows the results of such kind of application devoted to influents and effluents from Suzano Wastewater Treatment Plant, Sao Paulo, Suzano WTP, from SABESP. The purpose of the work was to evaluate the radiation technology according to ecotoxicological aspects. The evaluation was carried out on the toxicity bases which included three sampling sites as follows: complex industrial effluents; domestic sewage mixed to the industrial discharge (GM) and final secondary effluent. The tested-organisms for toxicity evaluation were: the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri, the microcrustacean Daphnia similis and the guppy Poecilia reticulata. The fish tests were applied only for secondary final effluents. The results demonstrated the original acute toxicity levels as well as the efficiency of electron beam for its reduction. An important acute toxicity removal was achieved: from 75% up to 95% with 50 kGy (UNA), 20 kGy (GM) and 5.0 kGy for the final effluent. The toxicity removal was a consequence of several organic solvents decomposed by radiation and acute toxicity reduction was about 95%. When the toxicity was evaluated for fish the radiation efficiency reached from 40% to 60%. The hypothesis tests showed a statistical significant removal in the developed studies condition. No residual hydrogen peroxide was found after 5.0 kGy was applied to final effluent. (author)

2001-01-01

148

Acute Toxicity of Premium Motor Spirit to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859)  

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Static bioassays were made to determine acute toxicity of premium motor spirit on poecilia reticulata. Lethal doses of the oil were determined using LC50 software programmes based on Finneys probit statistical method. The 96 LC50 value of the oil for guppy was estimated as 1.69 (1.13-2.43) mg L-1. The fish exhibited behavioural changes in the form of aggression, rapid gulping of water, increased opercular movement and abnormal swimming movements. The si...

Saliu, J. K.

2007-01-01

149

Pigment Pattern Formation in the Guppy, Poecilia reticulata, Involves the Kita and Csf1ra Receptor Tyrosine Kinases  

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Males of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) vary tremendously in their ornamental patterns, which are thought to have evolved in response to a complex interplay between natural and sexual selection. Although the selection pressures acting on the color patterns of the guppy have been extensively studied, little is known about the genes that control their ontogeny. Over 50 years ago, two autosomal color loci, blue and golden, were described, both of which play a decisive role in the formation of t...

Kottler, Verena A.; Fadeev, Andrey; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

2013-01-01

150

Complex EPSCs Evoked in Substantia Nigra Reticulata Neurons are Disrupted by Repetitive Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus  

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Although substantia nigra reticulata (SNR) neurons fire bursts of action potentials during normal movement, excessive burst firing correlates with symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. A major excitatory output from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) to the SNR is thought to provide the synaptic impetus for burst firing in SNR neurons. Using patch pipettes to record from SNR neurons in rat brain slices, we found that a single electrical stimulus delivered to the STN evokes a burst of action potential...

2008-01-01

151

DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLLASE ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO L. USING SEAWEED EXTRACT OF ULVA RETICULATA FORSSKAL.  

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Full Text Available The effect of seaweed extract prepared from Ulva reticulata on seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyllase activity of Vigna mungo L. was studied. 100% germination was recorded in the seeds treated with lower concentration of seaweed extract. The V. mungo seeds soaked with lower concentrations of the seaweed extracts showed higher rates of germination, while the higher concentrations of the extracts inhibited the germination.

Ganapathy Selvam G.

2013-01-01

152

Genetically and environmentally mediated divergence in lateral line morphology in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

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Fish and other aquatic vertebrates use their mechanosensory lateral line to detect objects and motion in their immediate environment. Differences in lateral line morphology have been extensively characterized among species; however, intraspecific variation remains largely unexplored. In addition, little is known about how environmental factors modify development of lateral line morphology. Predation is one environmental factor that can act both as a selective pressure causing genetic differences between populations, and as a cue during development to induce plastic changes. Here, we test whether variation in the risk of predation within and among populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) influences lateral line morphology. We compared neuromast arrangement in wild-caught guppies from distinct high- and low-predation population pairs to examine patterns associated with differences in predation pressure. To distinguish genetic and environmental influences, we compared neuromast arrangement in guppies from different source populations reared with and without exposure to predator chemical cues. We found that the distribution of neuromasts across the body varies between populations based on both genetic and environmental factors. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate variation in lateral line morphology based on environmental exposure to an ecologically relevant stimulus. PMID:23619409

Fischer, Eva K; Soares, Daphne; Archer, Kathryn R; Ghalambor, Cameron K; Hoke, Kim L

2013-08-15

153

The effects of chronic irradiation on the breeding performance of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Osteichthyes: Teleostei)  

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The effects of chronic irradiation on the life-time breeding performance of the small tropical fish, Poecilia reticulata, have been investigated at mean dose-rates of 0.17, 0.40 and 1.27 rad hour-1. The total fecundity was markedly (P<0.001) reduced at all dose-rates owing to a decrease in mean actual brood-size and an increase in temporary and permanent infertility. Minor progressive changes in the interbrood time with age and dose-rate were noted. The neonatal death-rate, incidence of abnormalities, and survival and sex ratio of the offspring were unaffected by irradiation. The brood-size data have been used to derive estimates of the dominant lethal mutation rate which are of the same order as those determined for mammals. Histological studies indicate that functional sterility is not necessarily dependent on the destruction of the gonads, and it is possible that radiation effects on pituitary function are responsible for much of the observed infertility. (author)

1977-01-01

154

Norethindrone-induced masculinization and progeny testing in guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859).  

Science.gov (United States)

Norethindrone(NE) was evaluated for its efficacy on alteration of sex ratio of P. reticulata. Either the young fry or the brooders and the resultant fry were fed a commercial diet incorporated with NE at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg kg(-1) diet (ppm) for 30-40 d in rectangular glass aquaria; this was followed by 40-60 d rearing on NE-free diet in out-door concrete tanks. In general, the androgen treatment altered sex ratio, leading to the production of a dose dependent increase in the percentage of males. The oral administration of the steroid at 75 ppm for 40 d or 100 ppmfor 30 or 40 d to first feeding fry, yielded 100% males. On the other hand, NE administration to brooders before parturition and the resultant fry also produced an all-male population of guppy. The sex ratio of the untreated control was almost 1:1. The survival of fish in all the trials was high, ranging between 67 and 100%. Mating masculinized males ("XX" male) with normal female resulted in an all-female progeny, while crossing normal male (XY) from treatment groups with normal female sired normal sex ratio (1:1), elucidating XX-XY sex determination system in the guppy. PMID:24669666

Basavaraja, N; Chandrashekhara, B H; Ahamad, Rather Mansoor

2014-03-01

155

The MC1R gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata: Genotypic and phenotypic polymorphisms  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The guppy (Poecilia reticulata is an important model organism for studying sexual selection; male guppies have complex and conspicuous pigmentation, and female guppies exhibit preferences for males with specific color spots. Understanding the genetic basis underlying pigmentation variation in the guppy is important for exploring the factors causing the maintenance of color polymorphism in wild populations. Findings We focused on the melanic black pigmentation of guppies, and examined genetic variations in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene because variation in this gene is known to contribute to polymorphism of melanin pigmentation in several animal species. The complete coding sequence of the guppy MC1R gene was determined, and two different MC1R alleles (963 and 969 bp were found in wild populations. Ornamental strain guppies with a 963-bp MC1R tended to show less black pigmentation than those with a 969-bp MC1R, although the association between MC1R genotype and black pigmentation disappeared in the F2 offspring. Conclusions The guppy MC1R gene showed variation in the five wild Trinidadian populations we examined, and these populations also differed in terms of allele frequencies. We identified a significant association between black pigmentation and MC1R genotype in fish obtained from aquarium shops. However, the results from F2 families suggest that there are other genes that modify the effects of the MC1R gene.

Yokoyama Jun

2011-02-01

156

The effects of different predator species on antipredator behavior in the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata  

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Different types of predators often elicit different antipredator responses in a common type of prey. Alternatively, some prey species may adopt a general response, which provides limited protection from many different types of predator. The Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, is faced with a wide range of different predators throughout its range and is known to display varying levels of antipredator behavior depending on the predator assemblage. Pike cichlids, Crenicichla frenata, are regarded as the primary aquatic guppy predator in streams in the northern mountain range in Trinidad. As such, they are seen to be responsible for many of the differences in morphology, life history traits, and behavior between guppy populations from areas with few predators and those from areas with many pike cichlids. In this study we investigated how guppies responded when faced with different predator species using three common aquatic predators. We exposed shoals of ten guppies to one out of four treatments: no predator (control), pike cichlid, acara cichlid ( Aequidens pulcher), and wolf fish ( Hoplias malabaricus); and we made behavioral observations on both focal individuals and the shoal as a whole. Guppies showed significantly greater levels of predator inspection and shoaling behavior, foraged less, spent more time in the surface water, and stayed in significantly larger shoals when faced with pike cichlids than in other treatments. We discuss these results in the context of multiple predator effects.

Botham, M. S.; Kerfoot, C. J.; Louca, V.; Krause, J.

2006-09-01

157

Direct and indirect ecosystem effects of evolutionary adaptation in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

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Ecological and evolutionary processes may interact on the same timescale, but we are just beginning to understand how. Several studies have examined the net effects of adaptive evolution on ecosystem properties. However, we do not know whether these effects are confined to direct interactions or whether they propagate further through indirect ecological pathways. Even less well understood is how the combination of direct and indirect ecological effects of the phenotype promotes or inhibits evolutionary change. We coupled mesocosm experiments and ecosystem modeling to evaluate the ecological effects of local adaptation in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The experiments show that guppies adapted to life with and without predators alter the ecosystem directly through differences in diet. The ecosystem model reveals that the small total indirect effect of the phenotype observed in the experiments is likely a combination of several large indirect effects that act in opposing directions. The model further suggests that these indirect effects can reverse the direction of selection that direct effects alone exert back on phenotypic variation. We conclude that phenotypic divergence can have major effects deep in the web of indirect ecological interactions and that even small total indirect effects can radically change the dynamics of adaptation. PMID:22766929

Bassar, Ronald D; Ferriere, Regis; López-Sepulcre, Andrés; Marshall, Michael C; Travis, Joseph; Pringle, Catherine M; Reznick, David N

2012-08-01

158

Efficacy of garlic based treatments against monogenean parasites infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata (Peters)).  

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Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a well-known spice which also possesses anti-microbial and anti-parasitical properties. The current work aimed to test the efficacy of garlic-based treatments against infection with monogenean sp. in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Clipped sections of tail fins of guppies heavily infected with Gyrodactylus turnbulli were exposed to aqueous garlic extract (7.5 to 30 mL L(-1)) and visually observed under a dissecting microscope. Results revealed that exposure to garlic caused detachment of parasite and cessation of movement indicating death. A positive correlation was seen between garlic concentration and time to detachment and death of parasites, which, at the highest concentration of 30 mL L(-1), occurred at 4.1 and 8.6 min, respectively. Bathing in aqueous garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) was tested in guppies infected with G. turnbulli. Prior acute toxicity tests revealed the maximum tolerance levels of guppies to garlic extract to be 12.5 mL L(-1) for 1h. Bathing of infected fish in garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) significantly (pguppy. PMID:24598083

Fridman, S; Sinai, T; Zilberg, D

2014-06-16

159

VARIATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF FRUIT PEELS OF CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO BY PHYSICAL EFFECTS  

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Full Text Available The chemical composition of volatile oil of the fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae of Delhi Region has been studied under different physical factors. The oil was composed mainly monoterpenes (99.1 % constituting l-limonene (92.4 %, ?-terpene (2.6 % and ?-phellandrene (1.8 %. The volatile oil after heating at 110?C for 24 hours, exposing to sunlight for 48 hours and UV light for 24 hours and after treatment with silica gel and alumina neutral for 24 hours contained the above three major components in varied amounts. ?-Pinene, ?-phellandrene, l-limonene, ?- terpinene and l-linalool were detected in all oil samples. ?-Thujene and trans-?-caryophyllene were produced when the oil was treated with silica gel for 24 hours. Trans-Verbenol was determined when the oil was heated at 110?C for 24 hours and exposed to sunlight for 48 hours. Terpen-4-ol disappeared in all the samples except exposition to the sunlight. Cis-?-farnesene, present in the fruit peels in trace amount, was not detected in other oil samples after impact of physical factors.

Ali Mohammed

2011-06-01

160

EFECTOS ECOTOXICOLOGICOS DEL CARTAP SOBRE POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE) Y PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE) / ECOTOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CARTAP ON POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE) AND PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el impacto ecotoxicológico del insecticida carbámico cartap (1,3 di (carbamoytio)-2-dimetiloaminopropano) usado para el control de plagas agrícolas y como molusquicida de vectores de importancia en Salud Pública, sobre dos especies de peces del ecosistema acuático continental: Poecilia ret [...] iculata (Peters 1859) "guppy" (Poecilidae) y Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936) ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae). Ellos fueron utilizados como organismos no destinatarios en ensayos de corta duración, para determinar el impacto toxicológico del cartap. Para ambas especies de peces se evaluó el porcentaje de mortalidad, y dos respuestas subletales: el incremento del movimiento opercular y el nado extraño. A 3 h de exposición para P. reticulata, se encontró un valor de CL50 (Concentración letal media) de 6,75 mg•L-1 y valores de CE50 (Concentración efectiva media) de Abstract in english The ecotoxicological impact of the carbamate insecticide cartap (1,3 di (carbamoythio)-2-dimethyloaminopropan) used for agriculture pests and as mollusquicide of vectors of Public Health importance was evaluated, on two fish species of the continental aquatic ecosystem. Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1 [...] 859) ``guppy" (Poecilidae) and Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936) ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae) were employed as non-target organisms in assays of short duration to determine the toxicological impact of cartap. For both fish, percentage of mortality and two sublethal responses: increase of opercula movement and strange swim, were evaluated. In P. reticulata after 3 h exposure it was found a LC50 (mean Lethal Concentration) of 6.75 mg'•L-1 and values of EC50 (mean Effective Concentration) of

Jose, Iannacone; Roxana, Onofre; Olga, Huanqui.

 
 
 
 
161

Whole toxicity removal for industrial and domestic effluents treated with electron beam radiation, evaluated with Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Poecilia reticulata; Reducao da toxicidade aguda de efluentes industriais e domesticos tratados por irradiacao com feixe de eletrons, avaliada com as especies Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Poecilia reticulata  

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Several studies have been performed in order to apply ionizing radiation to treat real complexes effluents from different sources, at IPEN. This paper shows the results of such kind of application devoted to influents and effluents from Suzano Wastewater Treatment Plant, Sao Paulo, Suzano WTP, from SABESP. The purpose of the work was to evaluate the radiation technology according to ecotoxicological aspects. The evaluation was carried out on the toxicity bases which included three sampling sites as follows: complex industrial effluents; domestic sewage mixed to the industrial discharge (GM) and final secondary effluent. The tested-organisms for toxicity evaluation were: the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri, the microcrustacean Daphnia similis and the guppy Poecilia reticulata. The fish tests were applied only for secondary final effluents. The results demonstrated the original acute toxicity levels as well as the efficiency of electron beam for its reduction. An important acute toxicity removal was achieved: from 75% up to 95% with 50 kGy (UNA), 20 kGy (GM) and 5.0 kGy for the final effluent. The toxicity removal was a consequence of several organic solvents decomposed by radiation and acute toxicity reduction was about 95%. When the toxicity was evaluated for fish the radiation efficiency reached from 40% to 60%. The hypothesis tests showed a statistical significant removal in the developed studies condition. No residual hydrogen peroxide was found after 5.0 kGy was applied to final effluent. (author)

Borrely, Sueli Ivone

2001-07-01

162

Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

2013-02-01

163

Cell proliferation and growth-associated protein 43 expression in the olfactory epithelium in Poecilia reticulata after copper solution exposure  

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This study investigated the regeneration in the olfactory mucosa of the teleostean fish Poecilia reticulata when returned to dechlorinated tap water after 4-day exposure to 30 ?g/L of Cu2+. The regeneration process in the olfactory tissue was examined in fishes at 0, 3, 6 and 10 days of recovery in well water. Jade B staining permitted to evaluate the rate of the damage which was especially extended to olfactory neurons. Immediately after the end of exposure, a massive mitotic activity in the...

2006-01-01

164

Triacylglyceride, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Features of Virgin Camellia oleifera, C. reticulata and C. sasanqua Oils  

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Full Text Available Virgin oils obtained from seeds of Camellia oleifera (CO, Camellia reticulata (CR and Camellia sasanqua (CS were studied for their triacylglyceride composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Levels of fatty acids determined by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis were similar to those reported for olive oils (82.30%–84.47%; 5.69%–7.78%; 0.26%–0.41% and 8.04%–11.2%, for oleic, linoleic, linolenic and saturated acids, respectively. The CR oil showed the best antioxidant potential in the three in vitro models tested. With regard to EC50 values (µg/mL, the order in DPPH radical-scavenging was CR (33.48 < CO (35.20 < CS (54.87. Effectiveness in reducing power was CR (2.81 < CO (3.09 < CS (5.32. IC50 for LPO inhibition were 0.37, 0.52 and 0.75 µg/mL for CR, CO and CS, respectively. All the oils showed antimicrobial activity, and exhibited different selectivity and MICs for each microorganism tested (E. coli, B. cereus and C. albicans. B. cereus was the less sensitive species (MIC: 52.083 ± 18.042 for CO; 41.667 ± 18.042 for CR; 104.167 ± 36.084 for CS mg/mL and the E. coli was the most sensitive to camellia oil’s effect. The standard gentamicin presented higher MIC for E. coli (4.2 than the CR (MIC= 2.6 and CO (MIC = 3.9 oils.

María Pilar Vázquez-Tato

2013-04-01

165

Spatial discounting of food and social rewards in guppies (Poecilia reticulata  

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Full Text Available In temporal discounting, animals trade off the time to obtain a reward against the quality of a reward, choosing between a smaller reward available sooner versus a larger reward available later. Similar discounting can apply over space, when animals choose between smaller and closer versus larger and more distant rewards. Most studies of temporal and spatial discounting in nonhuman animals use food as the reward, and it is not established whether animals trade off other preferred stimuli in similar ways. Here, we offered female guppies (Poecilia reticulata a spatial discounting task in which we measured preferences for a larger reward as the distance to it increased relative to a closer but smaller reward. We tested whether the fish discounted reward types differently by offering subjects either food items or same-sex conspecifics as rewards. Before beginning the discounting tasks, we conducted validation tests to ensure that subjects equally valued the food and social stimuli in the quantities provided. In the discounting task, subjects switched their preferences from the larger to the smaller reward as the distance to the larger reward increased (spatial discounting, but the pattern and magnitude of discounting did not differ across the two reward types. These findings indicate that guppies show similar patterns of discounting food and social rewards in a spatial task. In an analysis of travel times, however, the fish swam faster to food rewards than to shoaling partners. This difference in travel times implies that fish temporally discounted social rewards less steeply than food rewards. Thus, reward type influences temporal discounting, suggesting a dissociation between temporal and spatial discounting. Our results illustrate how animals adjust choices and travel times depending on both the type of cost (time, distance and benefits (food, social partners.

JeffreyRStevens

2011-04-01

166

Use of artificial sediment to assess toxicity of chromium on Chironomus xanthus, Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata / Utilização de sedimento artificial na avaliação da toxicidade do cromo sobre Chironomus xanthus, Danio rerio e Poecilia reticulata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Sedimentos artificiais com formulações simples foram utilizados para avaliar a toxicidade do Cr em C. xanthus, D. rerio e P. reticulata. MÉTODOS: Os organismos foram expostos a duas formulações: sem matéria orgânica (S0) e com 1% de matéria orgânica (SIII), contaminadas com Cr nas concentr [...] ações de 90; 180; 360; 720 e 1440 mg/kg para os ensaios com C. xanthus e 375; 750; 1500 e 3000 mg/kg para os ensaios com peixes. RESULTADOS: Os resultados dos ensaios agudos demonstraram uma redução de até quatro vezes na toxicidade frente à presença de matéria orgânica detrital biodegradável (MO). C. xanthus apresentou maior sensibilidade ao metal em relação aos peixes. A redução na toxicidade do Cr frente à presença de MO foi verificada nos valores de CL50, que estiveram mais elevados nos em SIII (C. xanthus = 1234,43 mg/kg ; D. rerio = 2263,54 m/kg e P. reticulata = 2244,48 mg/kg) em relação à S0 (C. xanthus = 340,56 mg/kg; D. rerio = 1731,04 mg/kg e P. reticulata = 1733,55 mg/kg). CONCLUSÕES: Os sedimentos artificiais com formulações simples foram satisfatórios na avaliação da toxicidade e asseguram resultados confiáveis em estudos ecotoxicológicos Abstract in english AIM: Artificial sediments with simple formulations were used to assess the toxicity of Cr to C. xanthus, D. rerio and P. reticulata. METHODS: The organisms were exposed to two sediment formulations: one without organic matter (S0) and one with 1% organic matter (SIII), both contaminated with Cr at c [...] oncentrations of 90, 180, 360, 720 and 1440 mg/kg for the assays with C. xanthus, and 375, 750, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg for those with the two fish species. Chromium was obtained from the potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). RESULTS: The results of the acute toxicity tests demonstrated a reduction of up to four times in toxicity with the presence of OM, consisting of biodegradable detritus, even at the low concentration used (1%), and that C. xanthus was most sensitive to the metal. The reduction in the chromium toxicity was indicated by the LC50 values, which were higher in SIII (1234.43 mg/kg; 2263.54 m/kg; 2244.48 mg/kg) than in S0 (340.56 mg/kg; 1731.04 mg/kg; 1733.55 mg/kg) for C. xanthus, D. rerio and P. reticulata, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Because of the repeatability of the results obtained, the artificial sediments with simple formulations were satisfactory to assess toxicity and can thus provide reliable results in ecotoxicological studies

Aline Fernanda, Campagna; Beatriz Kawamura, Rodrigues; Roberta Corrêa, Nogueirol; Nelsy Fenerich, Verani; Evaldo Luiz Gaeta, Espíndola; Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú, Alleoni.

167

Antidiabetic principles of natural medicines. IV. Aldose reductase and qlpha-glucosidase inhibitors from the roots of Salacia oblonga Wall. (Celastraceae): structure of a new friedelane-type triterpene, kotalagenin 16-acetate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aqueous methanolic extract of an Indian natural medicine, the roots of Salacia oblonga Wall. (Celastraceae), was found to show inhibitory activity on the increase in serum glucose level in sucrose- and maltose-loaded rats. The water-soluble and ethyl acetate-soluble portions from the aqueous methanolic extract showed inhibitory activities on alpha-glucosidase and aldose reductase, respectively. From the water-soluble portion, potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, salacinol and kotalanol, were isolated, together with nine sugar related components, while a new friedelane-type triterpene, kotalagenin 16-acetate, was isolated from the ethyl acetate-soluble portion along with known diterpenes and triterpenes. The structure of kotalagenin 16-acetate was elucidated on the basis of physicochemical evidence. Principal components from this natural medicine were examined in terms of inhibitory activity on aldose reductase, and the diterpene and triterpene constituents, including the new kotalagenin 16-acetate, were found to be responsible components for the inhibitory activity on aldose reductase. PMID:10748716

Matsuda, H; Murakami, T; Yashiro, K; Yamahara, J; Yoshikawa, M

1999-12-01

168

Nutritional Evaluation of Raw Materials Entering the Structure to Mixed Fodder for the Specie Poecilia reticulata (Guppy  

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Full Text Available In the ornamental pisciculture is a especial emphasis on the exterior shape and color to the fishes, issues that are dependent directly to the structure of compound feeds in relation to the nutritional characteristics of the raw materials.Own research or focused on analyzing the crude chemical composition with Weende scheme (water content and dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, SEN of raw materials can be used in the structure of a compound feeds for the Poecilia reticulata (guppy species, for most of these materials there are no current data in the literature.These materials were analyzed: gelatin, wheat flour, sunflower meal, soybean meal, meal Spirulina platensis, carrot (Daucus carota, Pangasius fillet, Daphnia pulex, grount dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, grount nettle (Urtica dioica and yeast.

Adrian Gruber

2011-05-01

169

Citrus Essential Oil of Nigeria Part IV: Volatile Constituents of Leaf Oils of Mandarins (Citrus Reticulata Blanco From Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The chemical composition of hydrodistilled oils obtained from the leaves of six Citrus reticulata Blanco (mandarin cultivars grown in Nigeria were examined by GC and GC/MS, the result of their chemical composition were further submitted to cluster analysis. Fifty seven constituents were characterized accounting for 88.2 - 96.7% of the total oils. Sabinene, g -terpinene, P-cymene, d -3-carene and (E- b -ocimene were observed in great variability in all the oils. Other constituents include linalool, myrcene, terpinen-4-ol and cis-sabinenehydrate. In addition, limonene, terpinolene, b -pinene, and a -pinene were also detected in appreciable concentrations. b -sinensal and a -sinensal were isolated by preparative GC and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques.

Adeleke A. Kasali

2010-07-01

170

Rapid resolution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry method for identification of chemical constituents in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (CRP) is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese medicines with great medicinal and dietary values. In this work, we developed an approach utilising rapid resolution liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-ESI-MS/MS) for the identification and profiling of chemical composition in CRP. On the basis of RRLC retention times, cochromatography with available authentic standards, mass spectral fragmentation patterns and literature information, a total of 41 chemical compounds, including 4 flavone-C-glycosides, 7 flavonoid-O-glycosides and 19 polymethoxyflavones were unambiguously identified or tentatively characterised in CRP. The occurrence of 1 flavone-C-glycoside and 3 cyclic peptides in particular has not yet been described. The results indicated that the developed method could serve as a rapid, effective tool for structural characterisation of chemical constituents in CRP. PMID:23122103

Zheng, Guo-Dong; Zhou, Ping; Yang, Hua; Li, Yue-Shan; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

2013-01-15

171

Surgical resolution of an avulsion fracture of the peroneus tertius origin in a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

A 4-mo-old, 185-kg male giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) was presented due to stifle effusion and lameness of 3-wk duration. Radiographs revealed a fracture of the extensor fossa of the lateral trochlear ridge of the femur at the origin of the peroneus tertius. Under anesthesia, dysfunction of the reciprocal apparatus was documented by flexing the stifle while the tarsus remained extended. An avulsion fracture of the origin of the peroneus tertius and extensor digitorum longus muscle was diagnosed. An exploratory arthroscopy of the femorotibial joint was followed by arthrotomy to excise the large bone fragment from its soft tissue attachments. Because of the fractious temperament of the animal, postoperative care was restricted to stall rest for 3 mo, and no postoperative complications arose. Only a mild residual lameness remained by 6 mo after surgery. PMID:22946420

Quesada, Rolando; Citino, Scott B; Easley, Jeremiah T; Hall, Natalie; Brokken, Mathew T; Brown, Murray P

2011-06-01

172

Two new steroidal saponins, hylodoside A and novaeguinoside Y, from the starfish Leptasterias hylodes reticulata and Culcita novaeguineae (juvenile).  

Science.gov (United States)

New steroid glycosides, hylodoside A (1) and novaeguinoside Y (2), along with previously known polyhydroxylated steroids (3-7) were isolated from the ethanolic extracts of the starfish Leptasterias hylodes reticulata and Culcita novaeguineae (juvenile). The structures have been elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR spectra (1H, 13C, DEPT, COSY-45, 1D-TOCSY, HSQCGP, ROESY, HSQC and HMBCGP) and mass spectrometry. Compound 3 was shown to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus up to 10% from the control at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. Steroids 1, 2 and 5 showed moderate hemolytic activity in the mouse erythrocytes assay. Compounds 3, 4 and 6 displayed pH-depended hemolytic properties. PMID:21213970

Levina, Eleonora V; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Martyyas, Ekaterina A; Stonik, Valentin A

2010-11-01

173

Capacidad Larvívora del Gold Fish (Carassius auratus auratus) y del Guppy Salvaje (Poecilia reticulata) Sobre Larvas de Aedes aegypti en Condiciones de Laboratorio / Larvivorous Capacity of the Gold Fish (Carassius auratus auratus) and the Wild Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) on Larvaes of Aedes aegypti in Laboratory Conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El control biológico de vectores de importancia médica se presenta como una alternativa al uso de plaguicidas. La utilización de peces larvívoros se promueve como una nueva estrategia para el control de vectores. El propósito de este estudio es evaluar el potencial de dos especies ícticas para el co [...] ntrol biológico de mosquitos Aedes aegypti (principal vector del dengue) en condiciones de laboratorio. Un creciente número de larvas de A. aegypti en estadíos I, II y III (n: 25, 50 y 100) fueron colocados en acuarios con goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) y guppys salvajes (Poecilia reticulata). Se cuantificó la relación peso corporal/larvas ingeridas/hora en diez ensayos. La especie Poecilia reticulata reflejó una mayor (P Abstract in english The biological control of vectors of medical importance is presented as an alternative to the use of plaguicides. The utilization of larvivorous fishes is promoted as a new strategy for the control of vectors. The proposal of this study is to evaluate the potential of two species of fishes for the b [...] iological control of mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (main vector of Dengue) under laboratory conditions. A growing number of larvaes in stages I, II and III of A. aegypti (n: 25, 50 and 100) was placed in aquariums with goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and wild guppys (Poecilia reticulata). The ratio body weight/eliminated larvaes/hour was quantified in ten assays. The species Poecilia reticulata had a higher (P

Nereida, Valero; Eddy, Meleán; Mery, Maldonado; Milagros, Montiel; Yraima, Larreal; Luz Marina, Espina.

174

Investigation of Acute Toxicity of Pirimiphos-Methyl (Actellic®, 25%EC) on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859)  

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Pirimiphos-methyl is a broad spectrum organophosphate insecticide and potential toxic pollutant in aquatic ecosystems. The acute toxicity of Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic®) was investigated using Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) in a 96 h static renewal laboratory bioassay. Based on probit analysis, the LC50 was 0.026, 0.024, 0.022 and 0.019 ml L-1 at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that there was significant ...

Lawal, M. O.; Samuel, O. B.

2010-01-01

175

Crossing-over between Y chromosomes: another possible source of phenotypic variability in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters  

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Genetic linkage acting through crossing-over between X and X chromosomes, X and Y chromosomes, and autosomal gene recombination are the most important sources of color pattern polymorphisms in animals. Variability in male color patterns and fin morphologies in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing fish is an example of extreme pattern polymorphism. We explored the possibility that crossing-over between Y chromosomes can also contribute to the high degree of pattern polymorphism...

Valentin Petrescu-mag, I.; Bourne, Godfrey R.

2008-01-01

176

ESTs and EST-linked polymorphisms for genetic mapping and phylogenetic reconstruction in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The guppy, Poecilia reticulata, is a well-known model organism for studying inheritance and variation of male ornamental traits as well as adaptation to different river habitats. However, genomic resources for studying this important model were not previously widely available. Results With the aim of generating molecular markers for genetic mapping of the guppy, cDNA libraries were constructed from embryos and different adult organs ...

Dreyer Christine; Hoffmann Margarete; Lanz Christa; Willing Eva-Maria; Riester Markus; Warthmann Norman; Sprecher Andrea; Tripathi Namita; Henz Stefan R; Weigel Detlef

2007-01-01

177

Influence of survival time on the lethal body burden of 2,3,4,5-tetrachloroaniline in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lethal body burden (LBB) of 2,3,4,5-tetrachloroaniline in guppy (Poecilia reticulata), exposed for up to 14 days, has been determined at different aqueous concentrations of the test compound. It was found that the LBB is not constant during these 14 days, declining within the first 48 h to an approximately constant value. It is concluded that LBBs of organic compounds may not always be constant and may depend on survival time. PMID:1815366

de Wolf, W; Opperhuizen, A; Seinen, W; Hermens, J L

1991-12-01

178

CONTROL DEMONSTRATION OF THE RICEFIELD BREEDING MOSQUITO ANOPHELES ACONITUS DONITZ IN CENTRAL JAVA, USING; POECILIA RETICULATA THROUGH COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION : 1. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND CONCEPT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Penelitian dilakukan untuk menjajagi cara memberantas vektor malaria Anopheles aconitus di sawah dengan ikan pemakan jentik Poecilia reticulata. Dalam penelitian ini terlihat bahwa dalam pelaksanaan program pemberantasan ini, partisipasi petani untuk mina padi dapat digalakkan melalui rapat kelompok tani. Program mina padi menye­diakan tempat hidup bagi ikan pemakan jentik. Rencana pelaksanaan program ini serta cara penggalakan   petani dibicarakan dalam makalah ini.

Arief Haliman

2012-09-01

179

Effect of Citrus reticulata on Serum Protein Fractions of Mice After Schistosoma mansoni Infection  

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The effect of the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata roots or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid) were studied as new antischistosomal drugs. The total protein and the different serum proteins namely albumin, prealbumin, ?-lipoproteins, macroglobulins, ?-1-acid glycoprotein, ?-1-antitrypsin, cholinesterase, ceruloplasmin, haemopexin, haptoglobin, transferrin and lipoprotein were measured in both infected and treated mice. Also, liver func...

2006-01-01

180

Populational approach in ecophysiological studies: the case of Plathymenia reticulata, a tree from Cerrado and Atlantic Forest / Abordagem populacional em estudos ecofisiológicos: o caso de /Plathymenia reticulata/, uma árvore do Cerrado e da Mata Atlântica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A variação em características ecofisiológicas entre populações pode ser devido ao resultado da seleção em resposta a pressão ambiental e/ou pode ser devido a fatores aleatórios como a deriva genética. A análise tanto da variação genética quanto da variação fenotípica das populações, pode levar ao me [...] lhor conhecimento sobre adaptações necessárias para a ocupação de diferentes ambientes. Nos últimos anos, nós temos desenvolvido diversos estudos com populações de Plathymenia reticulata, uma leguminosa arbórea de ocorrência em ampla extensão ecogeográfica, com o objetivo de identificar características morfológicas e fisiológicas envolvidas na adaptação das populações aos seus ambientes de origem. Populações provenientes da Mata Atlântica, do Cerrado e de áreas ecotonais entre estes biomas foram avaliadas em relação à fenologia, morfologia e germinação de sementes, bem como em relação à características de crescimento de plantas cultivadas em um mesmo ambiente experimental. Em muitas das características analisadas nessa espécie foi encontrada grande diversidade, o que poderia explicar a sua ocorrência em uma ampla extensão geográfica. A existência de diferenças genéticas em características na direção adaptativa entre as populações provenientes de ambientes de savana e florestais sugere a existência de ecótipos de Cerrado e de Mata Atlântica. Nós também apontamos perspectivas futuras para estudos de ecofisiologia evolutiva em nível populacional, bem como implicações desta abordagem para a conservação da flora e restauração de ambientes. Abstract in english The variability of ecophysiological traits among populations can be a result of selection in response to environmental pressure and/or due to random factors, like the genetic drift. The analysis of both genetic and phenotypic variation within populations can lead to better understanding of adaptatio [...] n in order to colonize different habitats. In the last years we have developed several studies with an widely ecogeographic distributed legume tree species, Plathymenia reticulata, which were focused on identifying specific morphological and physiological traits related to adaptation to the habitats of origin of each studied population. We studied populations from Atlantic Forest, Cerrado and ecotonal sites in relation to phenology, seed morphological traits and their relation with seed dispersion, seed dormancy and germination, and growth traits in a common garden experiment. In several analyzed traits we found high diversity in this species that can explain its occurrence in a broad geographical range. The existence of genetically based differences of traits in an adaptive way among savanna and forest populations suggests a degree of divergence that characterizes the existence of ecotypes from Cerrado and Atlantic Forest. We also pointed future perspectives in studies at population level in evolutionary ecophysiology and implications of these studies for flora conservation and habitat restoration.

José Pires de, Lemos Filho; Maíra Figueiredo, Goulart; Maria Bernadete, Lovato.

 
 
 
 
181

Atividade antimicrobiana do oleorresina de copaíba (Copaifera reticulata) frente a Staphylococcus coagulase positiva isolados de casos de otite em cães / Antimicrobial activity of copaiba oil (Copaifera reticulata) against coagulase positive Staphylococcus of canine otitis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar o potencial antimicrobiano do oleorresina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke em isolados de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (SCP) provenientes de casos de otite externa em cães. O método de microdiluição em caldo foi utilizado para determinação da concentr [...] ação inibitória mínima (CIM) e concentração bactericida mínima (CBM) de oleorresina de copaíba. Em adição, foi determinado o perfil de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos dos isolados de SCP pelo método de difusão em ágar. Oito classes de antimicrobianos foram usadas para o cálculo de multirresistência antimicrobiana. A determinação da composição química do oleorresina de copaíba foi realizada por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (GC/MS), sendo que ?-cariofileno, ?-bisaboleno e (E)-?-bergamoteno foram os compostos majoritários. O oleorresina de copaíba demonstrou CIM90 de 0,164mg/mL e CBM90 de 1,31mg/mL. A multirresistência foi verificada em 27% das cepas testadas. Os resultados sugerem que o oleorresina de copaíba exerceu atividade bacteriostática e bactericida mesmo em cepas multirresistentes de Staphylococcus coagulase-positiva. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the oleoresin Copaifera reticulata Ducke against Staphylococcus coagulase positive (SCP) isolated from otitis externa in dogs. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the oleores [...] in were determined by broth microdilution method. In addition, we verified the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates of SCP by agar diffusion method. Eight classes of antimicrobial were used to calculate the multidrug resistance. The chemical composition of the oleoresin was performed by gas chromatography coupled to the mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and ?-caryophyllene, ?-bisabolene, and (E)-?-bergamotene were the main compounds found. The copaiba oleoresin showed a MIC90 of 0.164mg/mL and a CBM90 of 1.3mg/mL. The multidrug resistance was found in 27% of the strains tested. The results suggest that copaiba oleoresin has bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity even in multidrug-resistant coagulase-positive strains.

Ziech, Rosangela E.; Farias, Luana D.; Balzan, Cláudia; Ziech, Magnos F.; Heinzmann, Berta M.; Lameira, Osmar A.; Vargas, Agueda C. de.

182

Fecundidad,fertilidad e índice gonadosomático de Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poeciliidae)en Heredia,Costa Rica  

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Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Entre setiembre y noviembre de 1998 se determinó la fecundidad,fertilidad e índice gonadosomático de Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859),a partir de especímenes recolectados en un estanque en Santo Domingo de Heredia,Costa Rica.Las hembras presentaron una longitud total promedio de 34.43 ± 7.26 mm con [...] un ámbito entre 17.80 y 51.50 mm y un peso total promedio de 0.69 ± 0.48 g,con un ámbito entre 0.06 y 2.32 g.Se determinó que esta especie presenta superfetación,matrotrofía y se mantuvo sexualmente activa durante todo el período de estudio.La fertilidad se rigió por la ecuación F =0.527e0.1171Lt (r² =0.9404)y con una fertilidad promedio para la población de 56.1 ± 43.6,con un ámbito entre 7.98 y 197.58 (huevos +embriones).La fecundidad se rigió por la ecuación Fo = 0.695e0.1076 Lt (r² =0.9376)con una fecundidad promedio para la población de 48.95 ± 35.99, con un ámbito entre 6.98 y 178.99 (ovocitos +óvulos). El índice gonadosomático en hembras se rigió por la ecuación IGS =0.0014e 0.134 Lt (r 2 =0.8581)y se encontró un índice gonadosomático promedio de 0.25 ± 0.27%con un ámbito entre 0.02 y 1.31%. Abstract in english Fertility,fecundity and gonadosomatic index of Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poeciliidae)in Heredia,Costa Rica.Between September and November of 1998,1 432 females of Poecilia reticulata were collected in a pond in Santo Domingo,Heredia,Costa Rica.The average total length of females was 34.43 ± 7.26 m [...] m (range 17.80 and 51.50 mm)and the average total weight of 0.69 ± 0.48 g (range 0.06 and 2.32 g). This species is a viviparous matrotrofic and the specimens were sexually mature.The total length-fertility relationship was F =0.527e 0.1171Lt (r² =0.9404).The average fertility was 56.1 ± 43.6 (eggs +embryos)(range 8.0 and 197.6).The total length-fecundity relationship was Fo =0.695e0.1076 Lt (r² =0.9376).The average fecundity was of 49.0 ± 36.0 (oocytes +ova)(range 7.0 and 179.0).The total length-gonadosomatic index relationship was IGS =0.0014 e0.134 Lt (r² =0.8581).The average gonadosomatic index was 0.25 ± 0.27%(range 0.02 and 1.31%).Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4):945-950.Epub 2005 Jun 24.

Mario, Urriola Hernández; Jorge, Cabrera Peña; Maurizio, Protti Quesada.

183

Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

In this logic activity, students must determine how to represent three quantities using a fixed amount of space (Venn diagram) and objects. The goal is to represent the siblingsâ ages, 5,6, and 7, using only ten plants. This resource includes teacher notes with extension suggestions and possible support options.

Team, Nrich

2012-01-01

184

Additional insights on the bastadins: isolation of analogues from the sponge Ianthella cf. reticulata and exploration of the oxime configurations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of this study is on the bastadin class of bromotyrosine derivatives, commonly isolated from Ianthella marine sponges, and is the first report on the secondary metabolites from Ianthella cf. reticulata. Two new bastadins were isolated, (E,Z)-bastadin 19 (1a), a diastereoisomer of the known (E,E)-bastadin 19 (1b), and dioxepine bastadin 3 (2), an unusual dibenzo-1,3-dioxepine. A bastadin NMR database was created and assisted in the structure determination of 1b and 2 and the rapid dereplication of 10 other known compounds including bastadins 2-9 (3-10), 13 (11), and 19 (1a). The geometry of the 2-(hydroxyimino)-N-alkylamide chains, a chemical feature present in all bastadins, was further probed, and new insights regarding the natural oxime configuration are discussed. Bastadins possessing (E,Z)-, (Z,E)-, or (E,E)-dioxime configurations could be artifacts of isolation or storage in solution. Therefore, this point was explored by photochemical and thermal isomerization studies, as well as molecular mechanics calculations. Bastadins 13 (11) and 19 (1a) exhibited moderate inhibition against Trypanosoma brucei, and bastadin 4 (5) was cytotoxic to HCT-116 colon cancer cells. PMID:20102170

Calcul, Laurent; Inman, Wayne D; Morris, Alexi A; Tenney, Karen; Ratnam, Joseline; McKerrow, James H; Valeriote, Frederick A; Crews, Phillip

2010-03-26

185

Study on the toxicity of sodium bromide to different fresh water organisms. [Scenedesmus pannonicus; Daphnia magna; Poecilia reticulata; Oryzias latipas  

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The toxicity of sodium bromide for fresh water organisms was tested using algae (Scenedesmus pannonicus), crustaceans (Daphnia magna) and fish (Poecilia reticulata and Oryzias latipes). Depending on the species tested, the acute toxicity varied from 44 to 5800 mg Br-/litre (EC50 values) and the No Observed Effect Concentrations (NOEC values) in the long-term tests varied from 7.8 to 250 mg Br-/litre. Bromide ion markedly impaired reproduction in both crustaceans and fish. Histologically no effects were observed in the long-term test with Oryzias, but in the reproduction test with Poecilia, hyperplasia of the thyroid, atrophy and degeneration of the musculature and regressive changes in the female reproductive tract were observed. As a criterion of water quality, 1 mg Br-/litre has been proposed, on the basis of reproductive performance in the Poecilia test. The concentrations found in surface water frequently exceed this value and sometimes reach levels at which acute effects on water organisms can be expected.

Canton, J.H.; Wester, P.W.; Mathijssen-Spiekman, E.A.

1983-08-01

186

Pigment pattern formation in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, involves the Kita and Csf1ra receptor tyrosine kinases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Males of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) vary tremendously in their ornamental patterns, which are thought to have evolved in response to a complex interplay between natural and sexual selection. Although the selection pressures acting on the color patterns of the guppy have been extensively studied, little is known about the genes that control their ontogeny. Over 50 years ago, two autosomal color loci, blue and golden, were described, both of which play a decisive role in the formation of the guppy color pattern. Orange pigmentation is absent in the skin of guppies with a lesion in blue, suggesting a defect in xanthophore development. In golden mutants, the development of the melanophore pattern during embryogenesis and after birth is affected. Here, we show that blue and golden correspond to guppy orthologs of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor a (csf1ra; previously called fms) and kita. Most excitingly, we found that both genes are required for the development of the black ornaments of guppy males, which in the case of csf1ra might be mediated by xanthophore-melanophore interactions. Furthermore, we provide evidence that two temporally and genetically distinct melanophore populations contribute to the adult camouflage pattern expressed in both sexes: one early appearing and kita-dependent and the other late-developing and kita-independent. The identification of csf1ra and kita mutants provides the first molecular insights into pigment pattern formation in this important model species for ecological and evolutionary genetics. PMID:23666934

Kottler, Verena A; Fadeev, Andrey; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

2013-07-01

187

ESTs and EST-linked polymorphisms for genetic mapping and phylogenetic reconstruction in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The guppy, Poecilia reticulata, is a well-known model organism for studying inheritance and variation of male ornamental traits as well as adaptation to different river habitats. However, genomic resources for studying this important model were not previously widely available. Results With the aim of generating molecular markers for genetic mapping of the guppy, cDNA libraries were constructed from embryos and different adult organs to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs. About 18,000 ESTs were annotated according to BLASTN and BLASTX results and the sequence information from the 3' UTRs was exploited to generate PCR primers for re-sequencing of genomic DNA from different wild type strains. By comparison of EST-linked genomic sequences from at least four different ecotypes, about 1,700 polymorphisms were identified, representing about 400 distinct genes. Two interconnected MySQL databases were built to organize the ESTs and markers, respectively. A robust phylogeny of the guppy was reconstructed, based on 10 different nuclear genes. Conclusion Our EST and marker databases provide useful tools for genetic mapping and phylogenetic studies of the guppy.

Tripathi Namita

2007-08-01

188

The effect of vitamin C on growth factors, survival, reproduction and sex ratio in guppy (Poecilia reticulata  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid, AA ongrowth factors, survival, reproductive performance and sex ratio in guppy (Poecilia reticulataPeters,1859. Guppies were divided into 5 treatments with triplicate groups and fed with one of 5 dietsfor 20 weeks. The experimental vitamin C diets were formulated to contain 400, 800, 1200 and 2000 mgAA kg-1 (treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively with 1 control group. The data obtained from the trial weresubjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA to test for effects of dietary treatments. In vitamin Ctreatments the body weight increase (BWI, percent body weight increase (PBWI, specific growth rate(SGR, daily growth rate (DGR and reproductive performance of guppies were increased significantlywith increasing the levels of vitamin C (P<0.05 and highest BWI, PBWI, SGR and DGR were observed intreatment 4. There were no significant differences in sex ratio observed between the treatments. Insurvival rate there was significant difference between treatment 2 with treatments 1, 3 and control(P<0.05. This study indicates that BWI, PBWI, SGR and DGR and reproductive performance can beimproved by dietary vitamin C supplementation and also may be concluded that the vitamin Crequirement of guppies fish for optimum growth and reproductive performance is 2000 mg/kg of drydiet.

Bahareh Mehrad

2010-11-01

189

In vitro and in vivo efficacy of garlic compounds against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional compounds used to treat fish diseases in aquaculture and the ornamental fish industry (such as formalin and malachite green) can be more toxic to the hosts than their parasites. With the reviviscence in the use of herbal products, various botanicals have been heralded as cures for particular pathogens, but the efficacy of these compounds for parasitic worms is questionable. Here, we tested a range of garlic (Allium sativum) products against a major aquarium pathogen, Gyrodactylus turnbulli, infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). All garlic products significantly reduced parasite mean survival time in vitro, from 13 h to <1 h. In fully randomised trials, the number of parasites was also significantly reduced on infected fish exposed to garlic from different sources. Two garlic treatments (minced and granule forms) reduced worm burdens by 66% and 75% after three doses, whereas Chinese freeze-dried garlic and allyl disulphide were 95% effective after a single application. In fact, Chinese freeze dried garlic was equally effective as Levamisole, a licensed livestock dewormer that is highly effective against G. turnbulli but not routinely prescribed for use in fish; hence, garlic may be a potential alternative treatment for gyrodactylosis. PMID:24074607

Schelkle, Bettina; Snellgrove, Donna; Cable, Joanne

2013-11-15

190

Multiple pigment cell types contribute to the black, blue, and orange ornaments of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

The fitness of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) highly depends on the size and number of their black, blue, and orange ornaments. Recently, progress has been made regarding the genetic mechanisms underlying male guppy pigment pattern formation, but we still know little about the pigment cell organization within these ornaments. Here, we investigate the pigment cell distribution within the black, blue, and orange trunk spots and selected fin color patterns of guppy males from three genetically divergent strains using transmission electron microscopy. We identified three types of pigment cells and found that at least two of these contribute to each color trait. Further, two pigment cell layers, one in the dermis and the other in the hypodermis, contribute to each trunk spot. The pigment cell organization within the black and orange trunk spots was similar between strains. The presence of iridophores in each of the investigated color traits is consistent with a key role for this pigment cell type in guppy color pattern formation. PMID:24465632

Kottler, Verena A; Koch, Iris; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

2014-01-01

191

Sex-specific control of flurothyl-induced tonic-clonic seizures by the substantia nigra pars reticulata during development.  

Science.gov (United States)

The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) plays an important age- and sex-specific role in control of clonic seizures. Its involvement in control of tonic-clonic seizures is contradictory. We investigated the role of the SNR in the tonic-clonic seizures induced in male, female and neonatally castrated male rats using flurothyl. In adult female rats, vaginal impedance determined the changes in progesterone/estrogen ratio. Rats at various postnatal ages received infusions of muscimol or vehicle in the SNRanterior or SNRposterior. Furthermore, in 15-day-old (P15) and adult male rats, ZAPA (a GABA(A) receptor agonist) or AP7 (an NMDA receptor antagonist) was infused. The developmental profile of tonic-clonic seizure threshold differed between male and female rats possibly due to early postnatal testosterone surge in male rats. On the other hand, changing estrogen/progesterone ratio in cycling adult female rats had no effect on seizure threshold. Intranigral muscimol had proconvulsant effects on tonic-clonic seizures only in immature rats, and this effect was dependent on the perinatal testosterone surge. ZAPA had anticonvulsant effects in P15 rats but was not effective in adult rats. Only AP7 had anticonvulsant effects in both adult and P15 rats. Results indicate that thresholds for flurothyl-induced tonic-clonic seizures develop under the control of postnatal testosterone. Although GABAergic inhibition in the SNR affects tonic-clonic seizures in developing rats, only the NMDA antagonist had consistent anticonvulsant effects throughout development. PMID:16730708

Velísek, Libor; Velísková, Jana; Giorgi, Filippo S; Moshé, Solomon L

2006-09-01

192

Cell proliferation and growth-associated protein 43 expression in the olfactory epithelium in Poecilia reticulata after copper solution exposure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the regeneration in the olfactory mucosa of the teleostean fish Poecilia reticulata when returned to dechlorinated tap water after 4-day exposure to 30 ?g/L of Cu2+. The regeneration process in the olfactory tissue was examined in fishes at 0, 3, 6 and 10 days of recovery in well water. Jade B staining permitted to evaluate the rate of the damage which was especially extended to olfactory neurons. Immediately after the end of exposure, a massive mitotic activity in the basal region of the mucosa was detected by immunostaining with PCNA. After 3 days of recovery the nuclei of the newly formed cells had already finished their migration to the upper portion of the epithelium, and cellular division was much less intense. Simultaneously, immunoreactivity for the neural growth-associated phosphoprotein GAP-43 increased respect to control levels, revealing that the new differentiating PCNA-positive elements belonged to immature neurons. After 6 days in well water no mitotic activity was detected, while the GAP-43 labelling appeared particularly concentrated in the apical surface of the olfactory epithelium.After 10 days the aspect of the olfactory epithelium was almost identical to the control. The present results suggest that after 10 days regeneration seems to be complete and integrity of the tissue restored. Furthermore, the epithelium reconstitution does not show apparent divergence from other fishes or mammals.

F Ciani

2006-06-01

193

Pallidal origin of GABA release within the substantia nigra pars reticulata during high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (HFS-STN) is an effective treatment for alleviating the motor symptoms of parkinsonian patients. However, the neurochemical basis of its effects remains unknown. We showed previously that 1 h of HFS-STN in normal rats increases extracellular glutamate (Glu) level in the output nuclei of the STN, the globus pallidus (GP), and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), consistent with an increase in the activity of STN neurons. HFS-STN also increases GABA levels in the SNr, but the origin of this increase is unclear. We investigated the effectiveness of HFS-STN for improving Parkinson's disease symptoms, using intracerebral microdialysis to determine the extracellular Glu and GABA levels of the GP and SNr in response to HFS-STN in anesthetized hemiparkinsonian rats [6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc)]. Basal levels of Glu and GABA in the GP and SNr were significantly higher in hemiparkinsonian than in intact rats. HFS-STN did not affect extracellular Glu level in the SNr of hemiparkinsonian rats but doubled the level of GABA. Ibotenic acid lesion of the GP abolished the increase in GABA levels in the SNr induced by HFS-STN in SNc-lesioned rats. These results provide neurochemical confirmation of the hyperactivity of the STN after dopaminergic denervation and suggest that the therapeutic effects of HFS-STN may result partly from the stimulation of pallidonigral fibers, thereby revealing a potential role for pallidal GABA in the inhibition of basal ganglial output structures during HFS-STN. PMID:15901790

Windels, François; Carcenac, Carole; Poupard, Annie; Savasta, Marc

2005-05-18

194

Dopaminergic presynaptic modulation of nigral afferents: its role in the generation of recurrent bursting in substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons  

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Full Text Available Previous work has shown the functions associated with activation of dopamine presynaptic receptors in some substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr afferents: i striatonigral terminals (direct pathway posses presynaptic dopamine D1-class receptors whose action is to enhance inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs and GABA transmission. ii Subthalamonigral terminals posses D1- and D2-class receptors where D1-class receptor activation enhances and D2-class receptor activation decreases excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs. Here we report that pallidonigral afferents posses D2-class receptors (D3 and D4 types that decrease inhibitory synaptic transmission via presynaptic modulation. No action of D1-class agonists was found on pallidonigral synapses. In contrast, administration of D1-receptor antagonists greatly decreased striatonigral IPSCs in the same preparation, suggesting that tonic dopamine levels help in maintaining the function of the striatonigral (direct pathway. When both D3 and D4 type receptors were blocked, pallidonigral IPSCs increased in amplitude while striatonigral connections had no significant change, suggesting that tonic dopamine levels are repressing a powerful inhibition conveyed by pallidonigral synapses (a branch of the indirect pathway. We then blocked both D1- and D2-class receptors to acutely decrease direct pathway (striatonigral and enhance indirect pathways (subthalamonigral and pallidonigral synaptic force. The result was that most SNr projection neurons entered a recurrent bursting firing mode similar to that observed during Parkinsonism in both patients and animal models. These results raise the question as to whether the lack of dopamine in basal ganglia output nuclei is enough to generate some pathological signs of Parkinsonism.

JoseBargas

2011-02-01

195

Seasonal simulation of water, salinity and nitrate dynamics under drip irrigated mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and assessing management options for drainage and nitrate leaching  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimation of all water fluxes temporally and spatially within and out of the crop root zone, and evaluation of issues like salinity and nutrient leaching, are necessary to fully appraise the efficiency of irrigation systems. Simulation models can be used to investigate these issues over several seasons when the cost of long term monitoring is prohibitive. Model results can be used to advise growers if improvements are required to various aspects of irrigation system operations. In this study, HYDRUS-2D was used to evaluate data measured during one season in a young mandarin (Citrus reticulata) orchard, irrigated with an intensive surface drip fertigation system. Water contents, salinities, and nitrate concentrations measured weekly in the field were compared with model predictions. The temporal mean absolute error (MAE) values between weekly measured and simulated water contents ranged from 0.01 to 0.04 cm3 cm-3. However, modelling error (MAE) was slightly larger at 10 cm depth (0.04 cm3 cm-3), as compared to greater depths (0.02-0.03 cm3 cm-3). Similarly, the errors were larger in the surface soil layer (25 cm depth) for nitrate-nitrogen, NO3--N (1.52 mmol(c) L-1), as compared to greater depths. The spatial and temporal soil solution salinity (ECsw) and NO3--N data showed accumulation of salts and nitrate within the soil up until day 150 of the simulation (December, 2006), followed by leaching due to high precipitation and over irrigation at later times. Only 49% of applied water was used by the mandarin trees, while 33.5% was leached. On the other hand, the simulation revealed that a significant amount of applied nitrogen (85%) was taken up by the mandarin trees, and the remaining 15% was leached. The results indicate that the irrigation and fertigation schedule needs modifying as there was overwatering from December onwards. Different permutations and combinations of irrigation and fertigation scheduling were evaluated to optimise the water and nitrogen uptake and to reduce their leaching out of the crop root zone. Slightly higher nitrogen uptake (1.73 kg ha-1) was recorded when fertigation was applied second to last hour in an irrigation event, as compared to applying it earlier during an irrigation event. Similarly, a 20% reduction in irrigation and N application produced a pronounced reduction in drainage (28%) and N leaching (46.4%), but it also decreased plant N uptake by 15.8% and water uptake by 4.8%, and increased salinity by 25.8%, as compared to the normal practice. This management would adversely impact the sustainability of this expensive irrigation system. However, reducing only irrigation by 30% during the 2nd half of the crop season (January to August) reduced drainage and N leaching by 37.2% and 50.5%, respectively, and increased N uptake by 6.9%. Such management of irrigation would be quite promising for the sustainability of the entire system. It is concluded that judicious manipulations of irrigation and fertilizer applications can be helpful in designing drip irrigation schedules for perennial horticultural crops to achieve improved efficiency of irrigation and fertigation applications and reduced contamination of receiving water bodies.

Phogat, V.; Skewes, M. A.; Cox, J. W.; Sanderson, G.; Alam, J.; Šim?nek, J.

2014-05-01

196

Neuroprotective effect of seaweeds inhabiting South Indian coastal area (Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve): Cholinesterase inhibitory effect of Hypnea valentiae and Ulva reticulata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, which is one of the four leading causes of death in developed nations. Until date the only symptomatic treatment for this disease is based on the "cholinergic hypothesis" where the drugs enhance acetylcholine levels in the brain by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In the course for screening cholinesterase inhibitors about eight seaweeds, with wide pharmaceutical applications, were collected from Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar, Marine Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu, India. Inhibitory effect of methanol extract of the seaweeds was studied in vitro by incubating various concentration of the extract with AChE or butyryl cholinesterase (BuChE) and assessing their activities by Ellman's colorimetric method. Kinetic parameters like IC(50), K(i) and V(max) were also analyzed. The results showed that of the eight seaweeds screened Hypnea valentiae, Padina gymnospora, Ulva reticulata and Gracilaria edulis exhibited inhibitory activity to AChE with IC(50) value of 2.6, 3.5, 10 and 3mg/ml respectively, while H. valentiae, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Dictyota dichotoma and U. reticulata showed 50% inhibition to BuChE at concentration 3.9, 7, 6.5 and 10mg/ml respectively. The inhibitory activities of the seaweed extracts were comparable to the standard drug donepezil. Enzyme kinetic analysis showed that algal extracts exhibited mixed type inhibition (partial noncompetitive inhibition). PMID:19897016

Suganthy, N; Karutha Pandian, S; Pandima Devi, K

2010-01-14

197

Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is considerable intraspecific variation in metabolic rates and locomotor performance in aquatic ectothermic vertebrates; however, the mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. Using pregnant Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing teleost, we examined the effects of reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burse-assisted swimming on swimming metabolic rate, standard metabolic rate (MO2std) and prolonged swimming performance (Ucrit). Reproductive traits included reproductive allocation and pregnancy stage, the former defined as the mass of the reproductive tissues divided by the total body mass. Results showed that the metabolic rate increased curvilinearly with swimming speed. The slope of the relationship was used as an index of swimming cost. There was no evidence that reproductive traits correlated with swimming cost, MO2std or Ucrit. In contrast, data revealed strong effects of pectoral fin use on swimming cost and Ucrit. Poecilia reticulata employed body-caudal fin (BCF) swimming at all tested swimming speeds; however, fish with a high simultaneous use of the pectoral fins exhibited increased swimming cost and decreased Ucrit. These data indicated that combining BCF swimming and pectoral fin movement over a wide speed range, presumably to support swimming stability and control, is an inefficient swimming behaviour. Finally, transition to burst-assisted swimming was associated with an increase in aerobic metabolic rate. Our study highlights factors other than swimming speed that affect swimming cost and suggests that intraspecific diversity in biomechanical performance, such as pectoral fin use, is an important source of variation in both locomotor cost and maximal performance.

Svendsen, Jon Christian; Banet, Amanda I.

2013-01-01

198

Reproductive performance of the guppy fish Poecilia reticulata [Peters, 1859] fed with live Artemia franciscana [Kellog, 1906] cultured with inert and live diets  

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Full Text Available El comportamiento reproductivo del guppy Poecilia reticulata ?evaluado como número de crías, longitud estándar, peso húmedo y seco de las crías y su proporción sexual? fue estudiado usando varias dietas para los reproductores. Los tratamientos consistieron en adultos vivos de Artemia franciscana cultivada con microalgas vivas (Tetraselmis suecica y Chaetoceros calcitrans, harina de Spirulina, harina de soya, harina de trigo, una mezcla 50%/50% de dichas harinas y una dieta comercial como grupo control. Después de 45 días bajo condiciones experimentales de laboratorio, no se encontraron diferencias significativas (P > 0.05 en el número de crías producidas por hembra y en la longitud estándar individual de las crías entre los tratamientos. Las crías producidas por el grupo control fueron más pesadas que las del resto de los tratamientos (4.14 y 1.06 mg de peso húmedo y seco, respectivamente. En promedio, el grupo de reproductores alimentado con Spirulina produjo mayor cantidad de machos. Los resultados destacan el uso de la dieta comercial para cubrir con los requerimientos reproductivos de P. reticulata.

M. Garcu00EDa-Ulloa

2004-01-01

199

A new genus and species of Callipogonini, description of the male of Strongylaspis boliviana Monne & Santos-Silva, 2003, and a new distributional record for Chorenta reticulata (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae)  

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Seticeros gen. n. and Seticeros tunupai sp. n. of the tribe Callipogonini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) from Yungas, Bolivia and the male of Strongylaspis boliviana Monne & Santos-Silva, 2003 are described and illustrated. Chorenta aquilus (Thomson, 1865) is transferred to Seticeros gen. n. A new distributional record for Chorenta reticulata (Dalman, 1817) is given.

Santos-silva, Antonio; Perger, Robert

2010-01-01

200

A new genus and species of Callipogonini, description of the male of Strongylaspis boliviana Monne & Santos-Silva, 2003, and a new distributional record for Chorenta reticulata (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae  

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Full Text Available Seticeros gen. n. and Seticeros tunupai sp. n. of the tribe Callipogonini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae from Yungas, Bolivia and the male of Strongylaspis boliviana Monne & Santos-Silva, 2003 are described and illustrated. Chorenta aquilus (Thomson, 1865 is transferred to Seticeros gen. n. A new distributional record for Chorenta reticulata (Dalman, 1817 is given.

Robert Perger

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

Alterações químicas, físicas e físico-químicas da tangerina 'ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) durante o armazenamento refrigerado / Chemical, physical and physical-chemical changes on tangerina 'ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) under refrigerated storage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo proposto neste trabalho foi o de avaliar as alterações químicas, físicas e físico-químicas da tangerina 'Ponkan' (citrus reticulata Blanco) durante o armazenamento refrigerado a 5 ± 2° C e umidade relativa de 85 ± 3% por um período de 28 dias, em dois estádios de maturação (frutos coletad [...] os no início da safra; com a casca mais verde e frutos coletados no final da safra com a casca amarela). Os frutos foram coletados com pedúnculo, ao acaso de um pomar comercial com sete anos de idade, localizado no município de Perdões, região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram realizadas duas colheitas, uma no mês de Abril quando os frutos estavam com a casca verde, mas já estavam aptos para o consumo; e outra mais no final da safra no mês de Julho quando os frutos já estavam com a casca bem amarela. Os frutos coletados foram levados ao Laboratório de Bioquímica da Universidade Federal de Lavras, onde foram selecionados 100 (cem) frutos de tamanho uniforme e com ausência de injúrias a cada colheita, estes foram lavados com uma solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%, protocolados, pesados, medidos e realizadas as leituras de cor. Os frutos foram então armazenados em refrigerador a 5 ± 2° C e umidade relativa de 85 ± 3% por um período de 28 dias, e as análises foram realizadas nos frutos e no suco dos frutos aos 0, 7 14, 21 e 28 dias de armazenamento. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com 5 repetições de 4 frutos . Os resultados mostraram que quase todas as análises realizadas apresentaram variações significativas. A perda de massa, os diâmetros transversais e longitudinais apresentaram diminuições significativas com os dias de armazenamento refrigerado. Os açúcares também tiveram variações significativas com tendência de aumento com os dias de armazenamento.O pH não apresentou variações significativas. Os teores de Vitamina C não apresentaram variações significativas com os dias de armazenamento refrigerado. A coloração da casca dos frutos foi medida com um colorímetro e foram medidos três variáveis de cor: luminosidade, teor de amarelo e teor de vermelho. Pode-se observar visualmente que os frutos coletados no início da safra apresentaram um ressecamento das vesículas de suco, ou seja, frutos com granulação, principalmente a partir da segunda semana de armazenamento, enquanto os frutos coletados mais maduros com maiores teores de açúcares solúveis foram mais resistentes ao ressecamento interno das vesículas.(análise visual e tátil). Abstract in english This work was aimed to evaluating chemical, physical and physical-chemical changes on tangerine 'Ponkan' (citrus reticulata Blanco) during the storage at 5 ± 2° C under relative humidity of 85 ± 3%, for a period of 28 days, in two maturation stadiums (fruits collected at the beginning of the crop; w [...] ith the greenest peel and yellow peel fruits,, collected by the end of the crop). Fruits with stalf were alleatory collected in a seven-years old commercial orchard, located at Perdões, South area of the State of Minas Gerais. Fruits were collectd twice: on April, when they got a green peel, but they were already edible; and on July, by the end of the crop, when fruits got a very yellow peel. Then fruits were taken to the Laboratory of Biochemistry of the Federal University of Lavras, where a hundred aff them with uniform size and injury were washed with a 1% sodium hypochoride solution, marked, weigthted measured and submitted to color readings. After 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days in a refrigerator at fruits of uniform size and with absence of offenses to each crop, these were washed with a hipoclorito of sodium solution to 1%, recorded, heavy, measured and accomplished the color readings. Then the fruits were stored then in refrigerator at 5 ± 2° C, under relative humidity of 85 ± 3%, fruits as well as thein juice were analysed. The experimental outline used was entirely randomized, w

Adriana Aparecida Souza, Vale; Custódio Donizete dos, Santos; Celeste Maria Patto de, Abreu; Angelita Duarte, Corrêa; Juliana Araújo, Santos.

202

Alterações químicas, físicas e físico-químicas da tangerina 'ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco durante o armazenamento refrigerado Chemical, physical and physical-chemical changes on tangerina 'ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco under refrigerated storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo proposto neste trabalho foi o de avaliar as alterações químicas, físicas e físico-químicas da tangerina 'Ponkan' (citrus reticulata Blanco durante o armazenamento refrigerado a 5 ± 2° C e umidade relativa de 85 ± 3% por um período de 28 dias, em dois estádios de maturação (frutos coletados no início da safra; com a casca mais verde e frutos coletados no final da safra com a casca amarela. Os frutos foram coletados com pedúnculo, ao acaso de um pomar comercial com sete anos de idade, localizado no município de Perdões, região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram realizadas duas colheitas, uma no mês de Abril quando os frutos estavam com a casca verde, mas já estavam aptos para o consumo; e outra mais no final da safra no mês de Julho quando os frutos já estavam com a casca bem amarela. Os frutos coletados foram levados ao Laboratório de Bioquímica da Universidade Federal de Lavras, onde foram selecionados 100 (cem frutos de tamanho uniforme e com ausência de injúrias a cada colheita, estes foram lavados com uma solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%, protocolados, pesados, medidos e realizadas as leituras de cor. Os frutos foram então armazenados em refrigerador a 5 ± 2° C e umidade relativa de 85 ± 3% por um período de 28 dias, e as análises foram realizadas nos frutos e no suco dos frutos aos 0, 7 14, 21 e 28 dias de armazenamento. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com 5 repetições de 4 frutos . Os resultados mostraram que quase todas as análises realizadas apresentaram variações significativas. A perda de massa, os diâmetros transversais e longitudinais apresentaram diminuições significativas com os dias de armazenamento refrigerado. Os açúcares também tiveram variações significativas com tendência de aumento com os dias de armazenamento.O pH não apresentou variações significativas. Os teores de Vitamina C não apresentaram variações significativas com os dias de armazenamento refrigerado. A coloração da casca dos frutos foi medida com um colorímetro e foram medidos três variáveis de cor: luminosidade, teor de amarelo e teor de vermelho. Pode-se observar visualmente que os frutos coletados no início da safra apresentaram um ressecamento das vesículas de suco, ou seja, frutos com granulação, principalmente a partir da segunda semana de armazenamento, enquanto os frutos coletados mais maduros com maiores teores de açúcares solúveis foram mais resistentes ao ressecamento interno das vesículas.(análise visual e tátil.This work was aimed to evaluating chemical, physical and physical-chemical changes on tangerine 'Ponkan' (citrus reticulata Blanco during the storage at 5 ± 2° C under relative humidity of 85 ± 3%, for a period of 28 days, in two maturation stadiums (fruits collected at the beginning of the crop; with the greenest peel and yellow peel fruits,, collected by the end of the crop. Fruits with stalf were alleatory collected in a seven-years old commercial orchard, located at Perdões, South area of the State of Minas Gerais. Fruits were collectd twice: on April, when they got a green peel, but they were already edible; and on July, by the end of the crop, when fruits got a very yellow peel. Then fruits were taken to the Laboratory of Biochemistry of the Federal University of Lavras, where a hundred aff them with uniform size and injury were washed with a 1% sodium hypochoride solution, marked, weigthted measured and submitted to color readings. After 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days in a refrigerator at fruits of uniform size and with absence of offenses to each crop, these were washed with a hipoclorito of sodium solution to 1%, recorded, heavy, measured and accomplished the color readings. Then the fruits were stored then in refrigerator at 5 ± 2° C, under relative humidity of 85 ± 3%, fruits as well as thein juice were analysed. The experimental outline used was entirely randomized, with five replicates containig four fruits in each one. Almost all rescelts were significantly depende

Adriana Aparecida Souza Vale

2006-08-01

203

Distribution of guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1860 and Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868 along a polluted stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil Distribuição dos guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1860 e Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868 ao longo de um trecho poluído do rio Paraíba do Sul, Brasil  

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Full Text Available Cyprinodontiformes fishes (guppies are widely distributed in Neotropical regions and use deteriorated microhabitats in rivers where few species can occur. This study was carried out in a stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River in bracketing a large urban-industrial complex. The aim was to assess eventual effects that the industrial complex could have on distribution of two closely related fish species of guppies, Phalloceros caudimaculatus and Poecilia reticulata. The area was divided into three zones: Z1, 40 km upriver of the major urban-industrial complex of Volta Redonda; Z2, just down river of the complex; and Z3, 30 km down river of the complex. Six sites (two in each zone were sampled monthly between November 1998 and October 1999, using a standardized fishing effort with cast net throws, trays lifts and seine hauls, covering different microhabitats, that is, riffles, pools and the proximity of the river's margins. Poecilia reticulata was widely distributed, peaking at Z2, the most polluted area, while P. caudimaculatus showed the highest abundance at Z3, being almost absent in Z1. Both species occurred in high numbers throughout the year but they were scarce between April and June. Females outnumbered males for both species in most size classes and at all sites. Juveniles were more abundant than adults, with non-pregnant females outnumbering pregnant ones. Condition factor was always higher in males than females but only males P. reticulata showed significant difference among the three zones, with the highest values at Z2. The higher number of females confirms the expectation that these species can use very polluted areas and that availability of food provided by organic loads allowed their distribution all over the area. Although these two species have shown indication of spatial separation in the study area, their similar seasonal patterns of occurrence suggest that they respond in a similar way to changes in environmental conditions.Peixes Cyprinodontiformes (guppies são largamente distribuídos na região Neotropical e usam microhábitats deteriorados em rios onde poucas espécies podem ocorrer. Este estudo foi realizado em um trecho do rio Paraíba do Sul compreendendo um grande complexo urbano-industrial. O objetivo foi avaliar eventuais efeitos que o complexo industrial poderia ter na distribuição de duas espécies de guppies proximamente relacionadas, Phalloceros caudimaculatus e Poecilia reticulata. A área foi dividida em três zonas: Z1, 40 km rio acima do complexo urbano-industrial de Volta Redonda; Z2, imediatamente abaixo do complexo industrial; e Z3, 30 km abaixo do complexo. Seis locais (dois em cada zona foram amostrados mensalmente entre novembro de 1998 e outubro de 1999, usando um esforço de pesca estandardizado com tarrafas, peneiras e arrastos, cobrindo diferentes microhábitats, isto é, corredeiras, remansos e a proximidade da margem dos rios. Poecilia reticulata foi largamente distribuído, apresentando pico na Z2, área mais poluída, enquanto P. caudimaculatus apresentou a maior abundância na Z3, sendo quase ausente na Z1. Ambas as espécies ocorreram em elevados números ao longo do ano, mas foram escassas entre abril e junho. Fêmeas foram mais numerosas do que machos para ambas as espécies na maioria das classes de tamanho e em todos os locais. Jovens foram mais abundantes que adultos, com fêmeas não grávidas predominando sobre fêmeas grávidas. Fator de condição foi sempre maior nos machos do que nas fêmeas, mas somente machos de P. reticulata apresentaram diferenças significantes entre as três zonas, com os mais elevados valores na Z2. Maior número de fêmeas confirma as expectativas de que estas espécies podem usar áreas bem poluídas e que a disponibilidade de alimento provida pela carga orgânica permite sua distribuição ao longo de toda a área. Embora estas duas espécies tenham apresentado indicações de separação especial, seus similares padrões de ocorrência sazonal sugerem que elas respondem de maneira similar às variações das co

FG. Araújo

2009-02-01

204

Distribution of guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1860) and Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868) along a polluted stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil / Distribuição dos guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1860) e Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868) ao longo de um trecho poluído do rio Paraíba do Sul, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Peixes Cyprinodontiformes (guppies) são largamente distribuídos na região Neotropical e usam microhábitats deteriorados em rios onde poucas espécies podem ocorrer. Este estudo foi realizado em um trecho do rio Paraíba do Sul compreendendo um grande complexo urbano-industrial. O objetivo foi avaliar [...] eventuais efeitos que o complexo industrial poderia ter na distribuição de duas espécies de guppies proximamente relacionadas, Phalloceros caudimaculatus e Poecilia reticulata. A área foi dividida em três zonas: Z1, 40 km rio acima do complexo urbano-industrial de Volta Redonda; Z2, imediatamente abaixo do complexo industrial; e Z3, 30 km abaixo do complexo. Seis locais (dois em cada zona) foram amostrados mensalmente entre novembro de 1998 e outubro de 1999, usando um esforço de pesca estandardizado com tarrafas, peneiras e arrastos, cobrindo diferentes microhábitats, isto é, corredeiras, remansos e a proximidade da margem dos rios. Poecilia reticulata foi largamente distribuído, apresentando pico na Z2, área mais poluída, enquanto P. caudimaculatus apresentou a maior abundância na Z3, sendo quase ausente na Z1. Ambas as espécies ocorreram em elevados números ao longo do ano, mas foram escassas entre abril e junho. Fêmeas foram mais numerosas do que machos para ambas as espécies na maioria das classes de tamanho e em todos os locais. Jovens foram mais abundantes que adultos, com fêmeas não grávidas predominando sobre fêmeas grávidas. Fator de condição foi sempre maior nos machos do que nas fêmeas, mas somente machos de P. reticulata apresentaram diferenças significantes entre as três zonas, com os mais elevados valores na Z2. Maior número de fêmeas confirma as expectativas de que estas espécies podem usar áreas bem poluídas e que a disponibilidade de alimento provida pela carga orgânica permite sua distribuição ao longo de toda a área. Embora estas duas espécies tenham apresentado indicações de separação especial, seus similares padrões de ocorrência sazonal sugerem que elas respondem de maneira similar às variações das condições ambientais. Abstract in english Cyprinodontiformes fishes (guppies) are widely distributed in Neotropical regions and use deteriorated microhabitats in rivers where few species can occur. This study was carried out in a stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River in bracketing a large urban-industrial complex. The aim was to assess eventu [...] al effects that the industrial complex could have on distribution of two closely related fish species of guppies, Phalloceros caudimaculatus and Poecilia reticulata. The area was divided into three zones: Z1, 40 km upriver of the major urban-industrial complex of Volta Redonda; Z2, just down river of the complex; and Z3, 30 km down river of the complex. Six sites (two in each zone) were sampled monthly between November 1998 and October 1999, using a standardized fishing effort with cast net throws, trays lifts and seine hauls, covering different microhabitats, that is, riffles, pools and the proximity of the river's margins. Poecilia reticulata was widely distributed, peaking at Z2, the most polluted area, while P. caudimaculatus showed the highest abundance at Z3, being almost absent in Z1. Both species occurred in high numbers throughout the year but they were scarce between April and June. Females outnumbered males for both species in most size classes and at all sites. Juveniles were more abundant than adults, with non-pregnant females outnumbering pregnant ones. Condition factor was always higher in males than females but only males P. reticulata showed significant difference among the three zones, with the highest values at Z2. The higher number of females confirms the expectation that these species can use very polluted areas and that availability of food provided by organic loads allowed their distribution all over the area. Although these two species have shown indication of spatial separation in the study area, their simila

FG., Araújo; MG., Peixoto; BCT., Pinto; TP., Teixeira.

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Determination of natural radioactivity and the concentration of heavy metal in tissue of Guppy Fish, Poecilia Reticulata and sediment on urban drawn in Klang, Selangor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study has been carried out to determine the natural radioactivity and concentration of heavy metal in guppy fish, Poecilia Reticulata and sediment sample on urban drawn in Klang, Selangor. Natural radioactivity (U-238, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40) was determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The concentration of heavy metal was determined using Coupled-Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Guppy fish and sediment sample was taken from three different locations in research area. Sample treatment process was starting with separation of impurities in sample. Samples were dried in the oven at 100 degree Celsius in 72 hours, homogenization process, and then samples were filled into counts bottles, sealed and kept for a month to achieved secular equilibrium. The activities found for each location varied. In sediment samples the activity concentration of U-238, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 were in the range of 87.61 ± 13.47 to 180.88 ± 30.50 Bq/ kg, 59.45 ± 9.12 to 88.29 ± 2.73 Bq/ kg, 6.70 ± 3.13 to 8.53 ± 4.90 Bq/ kg and 246.83 ± 12.27 to 495.28 ± 22.30 Bq/ kg. For sediment samples, have 12 elements of heavy metals found are Mg, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Al, As, Ba and Pb. For guppy fish, P. Reticulata have 7 elements of heavy metals achieved found are Mg, K, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Al. Concentration of U-238 and K-40 is higher than the world average value reported by UNSCEAR (2000). Th-232 is below the world average value. From comparative with IAEA (1990) report showed that the concentration of heavy metals in sediment sample was at background level except for As and Pb. For concentration of heavy metal in guppy fish, P. Reticulata showed that the values are highly than value of IAEA-407 report except for Zn and Mn. (author)

2012-01-01

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Length-weight relationship and reproduction of the guppy Poecilia reticulata (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) in urban drainage channels in the Brazilian city of Belém / Relação peso-comprimento e reprodução do guppy Poecilia reticulata (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) em canais de coleta residual na região metropolitana de Belém, Pará, Brasil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho tem por objetivo descrever aspectos populacionais relacionados ao estabelecimento da relação peso/comprimento, estimativa de tamanho de primeira maturação (L) e período reprodutivo de Poecilia reticulata encontrados em sistemas de coleta residual no campus da Universidade Federal [...] do Pará, região metropolitana de Belém - PA (Brasil). Foram realizadas coletas mensais no período de junho de 2006 a março de 2007, utilizando um puçá, que resultou na captura de 1.936 exemplares, sendo 942 machos e 994 fêmeas. As fêmeas apresentaram-se maiores e mais pesadas que os machos. A relação peso/comprimento para machos foi estabelecida pela equação Pt = 5 × 10-5 × Ct2,397 e para fêmeas esta foi dada pela fórmula Pt = 3 × 10-6 × Ct3,419. Os valores estimados para L foi 17,5 mm para machos 20,4 mm para fêmeas, sugerindo que os machos iniciam atividades reprodutivas em tamanhos menores que as fêmeas. A frequência mensal de fêmeas maduras não variou significativamente. Além disso, também não foram encontradas diferenças na proporção sexual durante os períodos investigados, sendo no geral, a proporção de fêmeas iguais as de machos. Desta forma, verificamos que, apesar das condições presentes nos sistemas de coleta residual da UFPA, a espécie P. reticulata parece ter adaptado seus processos biológicos. Abstract in english This paper describes the length-weight relationship, size at first maturation (L), and breeding season of Poecilia reticulata found in drainage channels on the campus of the Federal University of Pará (UFPA) in the Brazilian city of Belém. A total of 1.936 specimens (942 males and 994 females) were [...] collected in monthly samples of the study area between June, 2006, and March, 2007. Females were significantly longer and heavier than males. The length-weight relationship for males was established by the equation Pt = 5 × 10-5 × Ct2.397 and for females by Pt = 3 × 10-6 × Ct3.419. The estimated value of L was 17.5 mm for males and 20.4 mm for females, suggesting that males initiate reproductive activity at a smaller size than females. The abundance of mature females did not vary significantly among months, and there was little variation in the sex ratio, which was close to parity overall. Despite the adverse conditions encountered in the UFPA drainage system, P. reticulata appeared to have adapted its biological processes adequately.

Luciano Fogaça de Assis, Montag; Tiago Magalhães da Silva, Freitas; Roberta Dannyele de Oliveira, Raiol; Marlene Vasconcelos da, Silva.

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Flutuação populacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton em Citrus deliciosa e no híbrido Murcott Citrus sinensis x Citrus reticulata / Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton population fluctuation in Citrus deliciosa and Murcott hybrid Citrus sinensis x Citrus reticulata  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a dinâmica populacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), o minador-dos-citros, em pomares de tangerineira Citrus deliciosa Tenore variedade Montenegrina e de tangoreiro híbrido "Murcott" Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck X Citrus reticu [...] lata Blanco, com manejo orgânico, em Montenegro (29° 68'S e 51° 46'O), Rio Grande do Sul. Foram realizadas amostragens quinzenais de julho de 2001 a junho de 2003. Os brotos coletados foram examinados em laboratório e submetidos à análise do número de folhas por broto, a da presença ou ausência de minas, do número de minas, dos ovos, das larvas e das pupas de P. citrella. Em ambos os pomares não houve registro de minas de P. citrella no primeiro fluxo de brotação, de agosto a outubro. No ano I, as maiores densidades de minas foram registradas em meados de novembro, início de janeiro e início de abril, em ambos os pomares. No ano II, constataram-se as maiores densidades de minas e larvas em janeiro e em abril, em C. deliciosa, e de dezembro a março em "Murcott". Embora o número médio de brotos registrado tenha sido sempre maior em C. deliciosa, a colonização e o estabelecimento do minador-dos-citros seguiram o mesmo padrão em ambos os pomares. A temperatura mínima e média e a umidade relativa do ar foram os fatores abióticos que apresentaram maior influência no número de minas e de larvas de P. citrella. Abstract in english To evaluate the population dynamics of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), the citrus leafminer, in tangerine Citrus deliciosa Tenore var. Montenegrina and tangor 'Murcott' Citrus sinensis L Osbeck X Citrus reticulata Blanco in organically managed orchards, in Montenegro [...] (29° 68'S e 51° 46'W), RS, fortnightly samples were carried out from July 2001 to June 2003. Sampled shoots were examined in the lab and the number of leaves, presence or absence of mines and the number of mines, eggs, larvae and pupae were recorded. In both orchards there were no records of P. citrella mines in the first leaf flush, from August to October. In the first year, the highest mine densities were recorded in the middle of November, beginning of January and in April for both orchards. In the following year, the highest mine and larval densities were in January and April for C. deliciosa var. Montenegrina and from December to March for 'Murcott'. Although the number of shoots has always been greater in C. deliciosa, the citrus leafminer colonization and establishment followed the same pattern for both orchards. Minimum and medium temperature and relative humidity were the abiotic factors showing the strongest influence in the numbers of P. citrella mines and larvae.

Jesus, Cristiane Ramos de; Redaelli, Luiza Rodrigues; Dal Soglio, Fábio Kessler.

208

Polymethoxylated, C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids in tangelo (Citrus reticulata×Citrus paradisi) juice and their influence on antioxidant properties.  

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A separation/identification protocol based on RP-LC-DAD-ESI-MS-MS has been employed for the characterisation of the flavonoid fraction of the juice from tangelos (Citrus reticulata×Citrus paradisi) grown in Southern Italy. Eleven compounds were identified in a single chromatographic course. Of these, two C-glycosyl flavones (lucenin-2 and vicenin-2) and an O-triglycosyl flavanone (narirutin 4'-O-glucoside) were identified for the first time. Fruit juice antioxidant activity was evaluated on the basis of its ability to scavenge DPPH, O2(-), OH and ABTS(+) radicals, and to reduce iron (FRAP). Moreover, the influence of the identified polymethoxylated, C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids on the total antioxidant activity has been elucidated. We also checked the antimicrobial activity of a broad fraction, containing all the detected flavonoids obtained by preparative HPLC, in terms of MICs for Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:23790942

Barreca, Davide; Bisignano, Carlo; Ginestra, Giovanna; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Bellocco, Ersilia; Leuzzi, Ugo; Gattuso, Giuseppe

2013-11-15

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Efecto del Ácido Giberelico y el Método de Siembra en la Germinación de Semillas y Crecimiento de Plántulas de Anona Colorada (Annona Reticulata L.  

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Full Text Available Semillas de anona colorada (Annona reticulata L., tratadas con AG3 en concentraciones de 5000, 7500 Y 10000 ppm, fueron sembradas en cama y bolsa, con el fin de acelerar la germinación y reducir el tiempo a injertación Las variables dependientes eran germinación, altura y diámetro de plántulas como medidas del crecimiento. Las giberelinas promovieron la germinación, siendo más notable su acción cuando las semillas se colocaron en bolsa; también favorecieron el aumento en longitud y diámetro de las plántulas, expresión que fue más evidente en aquellas que crecieron en cama. No obstante la sensibilidad del anón a las giberelinas, esta no se considera una alternativa que permita a los viveristas disponer de patrones en un lapso más corto.

Cartagena Valenzuela José Régulo

1998-12-01

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Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

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There is considerable intraspecific variation in metabolic rates and locomotor performance in aquatic ectothermic vertebrates; however, the mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. Using pregnant Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a live-bearing teleost, we examined the effects of reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst-assisted swimming on swimming metabolic rate, standard metabolic rate (O2std) and prolonged swimming performance (Ucrit). Reproductive traits included reproductive allocation and pregnancy stage, the former defined as the mass of the reproductive tissues divided by the total body mass. Results showed that the metabolic rate increased curvilinearly with swimming speed. The slope of the relationship was used as an index of swimming cost. There was no evidence that reproductive traits correlated with swimming cost, O2std or Ucrit. In contrast, data revealed strong effects of pectoral fin use on swimming cost and Ucrit. Poecilia reticulata employed body-caudal fin (BCF) swimming at all tested swimming speeds; however, fish with a high simultaneous use of the pectoral fins exhibited increased swimming cost and decreased Ucrit. These data indicated that combining BCF swimming and pectoral fin movement over a wide speed range, presumably to support swimming stability and control, is an inefficient swimming behaviour. Finally, transition to burst-assisted swimming was associated with an increase in aerobic metabolic rate. Our study highlights factors other than swimming speed that affect swimming cost and suggests that intraspecific diversity in biomechanical performance, such as pectoral fin use, is an important source of variation in both locomotor cost and maximal performance. PMID:23737561

Svendsen, Jon C; Banet, Amanda I; Christensen, Rune H B; Steffensen, John F; Aarestrup, Kim

2013-09-15

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Insetos Sugadores (Sternorrhyncha em Cultivo Orgânico de Tangerina cv. Poncã (Citrus reticulata Blanco: Diversidade, Constância, Freqüência e Flutuação Populacional  

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Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a diversidade, constância, freqüência e a flutuação populacional de insetos sugadores da subordem Sternorrhyncha associados à tangerina cv. Poncã sob o sistema de cultivo orgânico. Os levantamentos foram realizados entre outubro de 2002 e outubro de 2003. Dentre os aleirodídeos, Aleurothrixus floccosus Maskell destacou-se dos demais, com média populacional igual a 74,06%. Aleurotrachelus cruzi Cassino obteve média de 52,6%. Entre as cochonilhas destacaram-se Selenaspidus articulatus (Morgan (23,96% e Pinnaspis aspidistrae (Signoret (19,38%. O psilídeo Diaphorina citri Kuwayama obteve média de 52,6%, sendo a segunda espécie com maior média. Os pulgões Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy e Toxoptera aurantii (Boyer, somente ocorreram em período de brotação e floração, com média populacional de 7,6% e 6,25%, respectivamente. Quanto à diversidade das espécies o período com maior diversidade, ocorreu na 1ª quinzena de setembro de 2003 (H’= 0,964, coincidindo com a menor dominância (D= 0,200, e menor diversidade na 1º quinzena de maio de 2003 (H’= 0,657 e maior dominância (D= 0,522. As espécies constantes foram: A. floccosus (100%, A. cruzi (96%, Coccus viridis (Green (100%, P. aspidistrae (100% e D. citri (100%. As espécies mais freqüentes foram: A. floccosus (30,79% e D. citri (21,87%. Os resultados sugerem que as espécies verificadas possuem a dinâmica populacional em parte influenciada pela competição interespecífica, pois quando há um aumento populacional dos aleirodídeos, há um decréscimo da população das cochonilhas e vice-versa, além dos fatores ambientais, a predação e o parasitismo.Sucker Insects (Sternorrhyncha in Organic Cropping of Tangerine cv. Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco: Diversity, Constancy, Frequency and Populational FluctuationAbstract. The aim of this work was to study the diversity, constancy, frequency and the population fluctuation of the sucker insects of the suborder Sternorrhyncha associated with the tangerine cv. Ponkan cultivated under the organic. The study was conducted from October 2002 to October 2003. Among the whiteflies, Aleurothrixus floccosus Maskell had a population average equivalent to 74.06%. Aleurotrachelus cruzi Cassino reached 52.6%. Among the scale, Selenapidus articulatus Morgan reached 23.96% and Pinnaspis aspidistrae (Signoret 19.38%. The Diaphorina citri Kuwayama average was 52.6%, the second bigger average. The aphids Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy and Toxoptera aurantii (Boyer took place only during the budding and blooming, presenting a population average of 7.6% and 6.25%, respectively. The period in which occurred the largest diversity was the first fifteen days of September 2003 (H’= 0.964, simultaneously to the least dominance (D = 0.200, and in the first fifteen days of May 2003 occurred the least diversity (H’= 0.657 and the largest dominance (D = 0.522. The constant species that were more prominent were: A. floccosus (100%, A. cruzi (96%, Coccus viridis (Green (100%, P. aspidistrae (100% and D. citri (100%. The most frequent species were A. floccosus (30.79% and D. citri (21.87%. To sum up, the results show that all the species studied have a population dynamics in part influenced by the interspecific competition, as there is a population increasing of whiteflies, there is a population decrease of scale and vice-versa, as well as the environmental and predatory factors and the parasitism.

William Costa Rodrigues

2009-08-01

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Preventive effects of Citrus reticulata essential oil on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats and the mechanism  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of essential oil of Citrus reticulata (EOCR on proliferation of human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELFs, and to explore its protective effects on bleomycin (BLM-induced lung fibrosis in rats.METHODS: Routinely cultured HELFs during the logarithmic phase of growth were divided into control and treated groups, and applied for evaluation of inhibitory activity using methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT assay. A rat model of BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis was used for the evaluation of antifibrotic effect of EOCR. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, prednisone group and different doses of EOCR groups. BLM was intratracheally instilled into all the rats except those in the normal group, and EOCR was orally given to BLM-treated rats at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg once per day for four weeks. The rats in the normal group were intratracheally administered the same volume of saline. On the 28th day, rats were sacrificed under anesthesia, and the serum and lung tissues were collected. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activities and malondialdehyde (MDA contents in serum and lung tissues were analyzed with corresponding kits; type ? collagen (Col ? content in lung tissues was evaluated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; pulmonary fibrosis was assessed by lung histology; protein and mRNA expressions of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF in lung tissues were measured with immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization semiquantitative image analyses, respectively.RESULTS: The EOCR at different concentrations displayed inhibitory activity on proliferation of HELFs. In in vivo experiment, the weight gain of the rats in groups treated with EOCR at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg per day was significantly higher than those in the model group at the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day (P?0.05 or P?0.01. The scores of alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis in the groups treated with EOCR at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg per day were significantly lower than those in the model group (P?0.01; the SOD levels in serum and pulmonary tissues of the EOCR (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg groups were markedly increased compared with the model group (P?0.01 , while the MDA levels in both serum and pulmonary tissues were markedly reduced (P?0.05; the Col ? level in pulmonary tissues of the EOCR (100 and 200 mg/kg per day groups were markedly lower than that of the model group (P?0.01; the protein and mRNA expressions of CTGF in the groups treated with EOCR at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg per day were down-regulated compared with the model group (P?0.01.CONCLUSION: The results indicate that EOCR has preventive effects on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. The mechanism may be via adjusting the unbalance of oxidation and antioxidation, down-regulating CTGF protein and mRNA expressions, and reducing collagen deposition and fibrosis.

Xian-mei Zhou

2012-02-01

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Comparación del "Tabog" (Swinglea glutinosa Merr con el limón "rugoso" (Citrus jambhiri Swingle y la mandarina "Cleopatra" (C. reticulata Swingle como porta-injerto para la lima acida ''Tahiti" (C. aurantifolia Swingle  

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Full Text Available At the C.N.I.-I.C.A. Palmira, fruit trees program the influence of "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa was evaluated as rootstock for acid lime "Tahiti" Citrus aurantifolia, taking into account the following aspects: development and productivility of the trees quality and growth of fruits, demands of nutriments, and resistance or susceptibility to pest and disease; comparing its behavior with the commercial rootstocks rough, lemon C. jambhiri and mandarina, "Cleopatra" C. reticulata.En el C.N.l. Palmira del Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (lCA, se evaluó la influencia del "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa como porta-injerto para la lima "Tahiti " Citrus aurantifolia, teniendo en cuenta los siguientes aspectos: desarrollo y productividad del árbol, calidad y desarrollo de los frutos, exigencias de nutrimentos, resistencia o susceptibilidad a plagas y enfermedades; comparando su comportamiento con los porta-injertos comerciales limón "Rugoso" C. jambhiri y la mandarina "Cleopatra " C. reticulata.

Restrepo C. Orlando

1987-09-01

214

The Molecular Basis of Color Vision in Colorful Fish: Four Long Wave-Sensitive (LWS) Opsins in Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) Are Defined by Amino Acid Substitutions at Key Functional Sites  

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Background: Comparisons of functionally important changes at the molecular level in modelsystems have identified key adaptations driving isolation and speciation. In cichlids, for example,long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsins appear to play a role in mate choice and male colorvariation within and among species. To test the hypothesis that the evolution of elaboratecoloration in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) is also associated with opsin gene diversity, wesequenced long wavelength-sensit...

Breden, Felix; Ward, Matthew; Churcher, Allison; Dick, Kevin

2008-01-01

215

Avaliação da toxicidade aguda e potencial neurotóxico do óleo-resina de copaíba (Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae) / Assessment of the neurotoxic potential and acute toxicity of copaiba  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O óleo-resina de copaíba obtido do gênero Copaifera L., Fabaceae, é largamente utilizado na medicina popular como antiinflamatório, antimicrobiano e antitumoral. Porém, informações sobre seu potencial tóxico são escassos na literatura. O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer a toxicidade oral aguda [...] e os possíveis efeitos neurotóxicos relacionados à ingestão do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, em ratas Wistar. O estudo foi conduzido com quinze ratas nulíparas distribuídas nos grupos de doses 300 e 2000 mg/kg pc de óleo-resina administrado por gavagem. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que nestas doses não houve sinais clínicos de toxicidade ou neurotoxicidade, alteração no consumo de ração ou alteração no peso corpóreo. A dose letal aguda foi estimada como maior que 2000 mg/kg pc e classificada como categoria 5, segundo o Guia OECD 423. Estes resultados indicam que existe uma relativa margem de segurança para o uso do óleo-resina de copaíba como agente terapêutico, embora estudos toxicológicos adicionais sejam ainda necessários, principalmente com a administração repetida de baixas doses. Abstract in english Copaiba oil-resin obtained from Copaifera L. genus, Fabaceae, is largely used in popular medicine as antinflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumoral. Information concerning the potential toxicity of this oil is limited in the literature. The goal of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity an [...] d the possible neurotoxic effects related to the ingestion of Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, oil-resin using female Wistar rats. Fifteen nulliparous rats were used and distributed in the experimental groups orally exposed to doses of 300 e 2000 mg/kg bw of oil-resin (gavage). No overt clinical signs of toxicity or neurotoxicity, alteration of food consumption or body weight were observed in the animals at the tested doses. The lethal oral toxicity was estimated to be higher than 2000 mg/kg bw, classified as category 5 according to OECD Guide 423. These results indicate that there is a certain safety margin associated with the use of copaiba as therapeutic agent, although additional toxicological studies are still necessary, mainly using repeated low doses.

Sachetti, Camile Giaretta; Fascineli, Maria Luiza; Sampaio, Juliana Alves; Lameira, Osmar Alves; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra.

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Indução do florescimento e crescimento de tangerineira 'Poncã' (Citrus reticulata Blanco em função da irrigação e da aplicação de paclobutrazol Flowering induction and vegetative development of 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco by irrigation and paclobutrazol application  

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Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP/Câmpus de Botucatu (SP, com o objetivo de avaliar o florescimento fora de época e o crescimento vegetativo da tangerineira 'Poncã'. Nesse contexto, adotou-se o delineamento estatístico em blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas, com duas repetições, na instalação do ensaio. Os dois tratamentos de -0,03 e -0,05 MPa, como potenciais mínimos da água no solo, constituíram as parcelas e as quatro doses de paclobutrazol: 0; 4; 8 e 12 g por planta, nas subparcelas. No segundo ano de pesquisa, foram mantidas as mesmas parcelas e foram aplicadas nas plantas das subparcelas as doses de 0; 500; 1000 e 2000 mg l-1 de paclobutrazol, via foliar. Cada parcela foi constituída de 16 plantas, sendo oito destinadas à avaliação. Utilizou-se, em ambas as combinações, de um tratamento sem irrigação (-0,07 MPa e sem aplicação de paclobutrazol, como testemunha. Foram avaliados parâmetros, como a altura, diâmetro médio, volume e área de projeção da copa e condutância estomática para caracterizar a resposta das plantas aos tratamentos empregados. Concluiu-se que a aplicação do paclobutrazol e a variação do potencial da água no solo não proporcionaram a indução do florescimento fora de época das tangerineiras, e que os níveis de paclobutrazol influenciaram no desenvolvimento das plantas.The aim of this research was to study the flowering out of season in no induction conditions and the vegetative development of 'Ponkan' mandarin by irrigation and paclobutrazol application. The experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences - UNESP/Botucatu, State of São Paulo. The treatments followed a randomized blocks experimental design, being distributed in split-splots, and two replications. Each experimental unit was represented per 16 plants, being 8 destined for the evaluations. The treatments consisted of two soil water potential, -0,03 e -0,05 MPa that constituted the main experimental unit and the paclobutrazol levels that represented the sub units. In the second year of the experiment the units were maintained and it was applied the paclobutrazol: 0; 500; 1000 e 2000 mg L-1, by foliar application, in the plants of the sub units. Both treatments was compared with the treatments without irrigation (control plants: -0,07MPa and whitout paclobutrazol application plants. It was evaluated the following parameters: height, scion diameter medium, scion projection area, scion volume and stomatic condutance showing the plant's response to treatments. It was concluded that the paclobutrazol application and the irrigation did not influence the plant's flowering out of season and that the paclobutrazol levels influenced the growth of 'Ponkan' mandarin plants.

Carlos Henrique dos Santos

2004-04-01

217

Sexual characteristics are altered by 4-tert-octylphenol and 17beta-estradiol in the adult male guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are believed to interfere with animal reproduction, but only few biomarkers above the cellular level have been developed to assess the adverse effects of these chemicals. Using the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) as a model organism, studies have been undertaken with the object of comparing biomarker responses to EDCs at increasing levels of biological complexity. Short-term exposure to the xenoestrogen 4-tert-octylphenol and the natural estrogen 17beta-estradiol (E2) changed important sexual characteristics in the adult male guppy. Both compounds increased the number of sperm cells in the ejaculates, reduced the area and color intensity of the sexually attractive orange spots, and inhibited testis growth. In the case of E2, the effects on sperm count and coloration were still evident after 3 months of recovery in clean water. Preliminary results on male reproductive capability demonstrated that treated males produced fewer offspring than untreated fish, indicating an impairment of reproduction itself. Udgivelsesdato: 2001-Jan

Toft, G; Baatrup, E

2001-01-01

218

Population genetic analysis of microsatellite variation of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in Trinidad and Tobago: evidence for a dynamic source-sink metapopulation structure, founder events and population bottlenecks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Riverine fish populations are traditionally considered to be highly structured and subject to strong genetic drift. Here, we use microsatellites to analyse the population structure of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), focussing on the headwater floodplain area of the Caroni drainage in Trinidad. We also analyse the population genetics of guppies in the Northern Drainage in Trinidad, a habitat characterized by rivers flowing directly into the sea, and a small isolated population in Tobago. Upland Caroni populations are highly differentiated and display low levels of genetic diversity. However, we found no evidence to suggest that these upland populations experienced recent population crashes and the populations appear to approach mutation-drift equilibrium. Dominant downstream migration over both short- and long-time frames has a strong impact on the population genetics of lowland Caroni populations. This drainage system could be considered a source-sink metapopulation, with the tributary furthest downstream representing a 'super sink', receiving immigrants from rivers upstream in the drainage. Moreover, the effective population size in the lowlands is surprisingly low in comparison with the apparently large census population sizes. PMID:19210594

Barson, N J; Cable, J; Van Oosterhout, C

2009-03-01

219

[Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of flour of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peels cultivated in Venezuela].  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some bioactive compounds in the peel's flour of some of the most consumed citrus fruits cultivated in Venezuela. Chemical composition as well as some trace elements, ascorbic acid, carotenoids dietary fiber, total polyphenols and their antiradical efficiency, using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidracyl (DPPH) were assessed in the dried peels of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and white grapefruit (Citrus paradisi). Moisture, fat, protein and ash content for all samples showed statistical differences (p peel showed the highest magnesium and carotenoid content, while highest ascorbic acid and carotenoid content was found in the grapefruit's peel. Dietary fiber content presented significant high value in the tangerine peel. All samples presented high content of extractable polyphenols (4.33; 7.6 and 5.1 g/100g). The highest antiradical efficiency was shown by the tangerine's peel, value which correlates with the polyphenol content. These results suggest that tangerine peel should be the most suitable, to reduce risk of some diseases such as cardiovascular and some associated to lipid oxidation. Studied samples are good sources of dietary fiber and phenolic compounds, whose use could be useful in the formulation of functional foods, taking advantage of the presence of dietary fiber and antioxidant compounds in only one ingredient. PMID:16454058

Rincón, Alicia M; Vásquez, A Marina; Padilla, Fanny C

2005-09-01

220

Effects of Gibberellic Acid (GA3, Naphtalin Acetic Acid (NAA, Ethephon and Urea on Alternate Bearing Control in Kinnow Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco  

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Full Text Available Alternate bearing is a key factor in limiting citrus production. Chemical controls have proved to be the most effective solution to this problem. Two different experiments were conducted to study the effects of different growth regulators (GA3, NAA, Ethephon and urea on alternate bearing control in Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata. In the first experiment, GA3 at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mgl-1 were applied 3 times during late autumn and early winter 1993 on off trees. Flowers reduced as a result of GA3 application in the following spring but increased in the second spring. Best results obtained with 50 and 75 mgl-1. In the 2nd experiment thinning agents: NAA (0, 100, 200 and 300 mgl-1, ethephon (0, 100, 200, 300 mgl-1 and urea (0, 4, 8 and 12% were sprayed to the trees on on-year, when the fruitlets were about 0.75-1 cm in diameter. The results indicated that urea had no effect; however, both NAA and ethephon were effective on thinning of fruits and control of fruiting. Ethephon at 200 and 300 mgl-1, and NAA at 400 mgl-1 gave the best results.

E. Tafazoli

2002-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Indução do florescimento e crescimento de tangerineira 'Poncã' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) em função da irrigação e da aplicação de paclobutrazol / Flowering induction and vegetative development of 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) by irrigation and paclobutrazol application  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi conduzido na Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP/Câmpus de Botucatu (SP), com o objetivo de avaliar o florescimento fora de época e o crescimento vegetativo da tangerineira 'Poncã'. Nesse contexto, adotou-se o delineamento estatístico em blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdi [...] vididas, com duas repetições, na instalação do ensaio. Os dois tratamentos de -0,03 e -0,05 MPa, como potenciais mínimos da água no solo, constituíram as parcelas e as quatro doses de paclobutrazol: 0; 4; 8 e 12 g por planta, nas subparcelas. No segundo ano de pesquisa, foram mantidas as mesmas parcelas e foram aplicadas nas plantas das subparcelas as doses de 0; 500; 1000 e 2000 mg l-1 de paclobutrazol, via foliar. Cada parcela foi constituída de 16 plantas, sendo oito destinadas à avaliação. Utilizou-se, em ambas as combinações, de um tratamento sem irrigação (-0,07 MPa) e sem aplicação de paclobutrazol, como testemunha. Foram avaliados parâmetros, como a altura, diâmetro médio, volume e área de projeção da copa e condutância estomática para caracterizar a resposta das plantas aos tratamentos empregados. Concluiu-se que a aplicação do paclobutrazol e a variação do potencial da água no solo não proporcionaram a indução do florescimento fora de época das tangerineiras, e que os níveis de paclobutrazol influenciaram no desenvolvimento das plantas. Abstract in english The aim of this research was to study the flowering out of season in no induction conditions and the vegetative development of 'Ponkan' mandarin by irrigation and paclobutrazol application. The experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences - UNESP/Botucatu, State of São Paulo. T [...] he treatments followed a randomized blocks experimental design, being distributed in split-splots, and two replications. Each experimental unit was represented per 16 plants, being 8 destined for the evaluations. The treatments consisted of two soil water potential, -0,03 e -0,05 MPa that constituted the main experimental unit and the paclobutrazol levels that represented the sub units. In the second year of the experiment the units were maintained and it was applied the paclobutrazol: 0; 500; 1000 e 2000 mg L-1, by foliar application, in the plants of the sub units. Both treatments was compared with the treatments without irrigation (control plants: -0,07MPa) and whitout paclobutrazol application plants. It was evaluated the following parameters: height, scion diameter medium, scion projection area, scion volume and stomatic condutance showing the plant's response to treatments. It was concluded that the paclobutrazol application and the irrigation did not influence the plant's flowering out of season and that the paclobutrazol levels influenced the growth of 'Ponkan' mandarin plants.

Carlos Henrique dos, Santos; Antonio Evaldo, Klar; Hélio, Grassi Filho; João Domingos, Rodrigues; Fernanda Cristina, Pierre.

222

Histamine H3 receptor activation selectively inhibits dopamine D1 receptor-dependent [3H]GABA release from depolarization-stimulated slices of rat substantia nigra pars reticulata  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The release of [3H]GABA from slices of rat substantia nigra pars reticulata induced by increasing extracellular K+ from 6 to 15 mM in the presence of 10 ?M sulpiride was inhibited by 73±3% by 1 ?M SCH 23390, consistent with a large component of release dependent upon D1 receptor activation. The histamine H3 receptor-selective agonist immepip (1 ?M) and the non-selective agonist histamine (100 ?M) inhibited [3H]GABA release by 78±2 and 80±2%, respectively. The inhibition by both agonists was reversed by the H3 receptor antagonist thioperamide (1 ?M). However, in the presence of 1 ?M SCH 23390 depolarization-induced release of [3H]GABA was not significantly decreased by 1 ?M immepip. In rats depleted of dopamine by pretreatment with reserpine, immepip no longer inhibited control release of [3H]GABA, but in the presence of 1 ?M SKF 38393, which produced a 7±1-fold stimulation of release, immepip reduced the release to a level not statistically different from that in the presence of immepip alone. Immepip (1 ?M) also inhibited the depolarization-induced release of [3H]dopamine from substantia nigra pars reticulata slices, by 38±3%.The evidence is consistent with the proposition that activation of histamine H3 receptors leads to the selective inhibition of the component of depolarization-induced [3H]GABA release in substantia nigra pars reticulata slices which is dependent upon D1 receptor activation. This appears to be largely an action at the terminals of the striatonigral GABA projection neurons, which may be enhanced by a partial inhibition of dendritic [3H]dopamine release. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

1997-06-25

223

Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine?disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi?static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long?term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17??estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine?disrupting action. -- Highlights: ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17??estradiol levels of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male guppies.

2012-09-01

224

Ultra-deep Illumina sequencing accurately identifies MHC class IIb alleles and provides evidence for copy number variation in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

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We address the bioinformatic issue of accurately separating amplified genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) from artefacts generated during high-throughput sequencing workflows. We fit observed ultra-deep sequencing depths (hundreds to thousands of sequences per amplicon) of allelic variants to expectations from genetic models of copy number variation (CNV). We provide a simple, accurate and repeatable method for genotyping multigene families, evaluating our method via analyses of 209 b of MHC class IIb exon 2 in guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Genotype repeatability for resequenced individuals (N = 49) was high (100%) within the same sequencing run. However, repeatability dropped to 83.7% between independent runs, either because of lower mean amplicon sequencing depth in the initial run or random PCR effects. This highlights the importance of fully independent replicates. Significant improvements in genotyping accuracy were made by greatly reducing type I genotyping error (i.e. accepting an artefact as a true allele), which may occur when using low-depth allele validation thresholds used by previous methods. Only a small amount (4.9%) of type II error (i.e. rejecting a genuine allele as an artefact) was detected through fully independent sequencing runs. We observed 1-6 alleles per individual, and evidence of sharing of alleles across loci. Variation in the total number of MHC class II loci among individuals, both among and within populations was also observed, and some genotypes appeared to be partially hemizygous; total allelic dosage added up to an odd number of allelic copies. Collectively, observations provide evidence of MHC CNV and its complex basis in natural populations. PMID:24400817

Lighten, Jackie; van Oosterhout, Cock; Paterson, Ian G; McMullan, Mark; Bentzen, Paul

2014-07-01

225

Non-additive phenotypic and transcriptomic inheritance in a citrus allotetraploid somatic hybrid between C. reticulata and C. limon: the case of pulp carotenoid biosynthesis pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Allopolyploidy is known to induce novel patterns of gene expression and often gives rise to new phenotypes. Here we report on the first attempt to relate phenotypic inheritance in an allotetraploid somatic hybrid with gene expression. Carotenoid compounds in the fruit pulp of the two parental species and the hybrid were evaluated quantitatively by HPLC. Only very low levels of beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin were observed in Citrus limon, while beta-cryptoxanthin was a major component of C. reticulata, which also displayed high levels of phytoene, phytofluene, beta-carotene, lutein, zeaxantin and violaxanthin. Total carotenoid content in mandarin juice sacs was 60 times greater than that in lemon. The allotetraploid hybrid produced all the same compounds as mandarin but at very low levels. Transgressive concentration of abscisic acid (ABA) was observed in the somatic hybrid. Real-time RT-PCR of total RNA from juice sacs was used to study expression of seven genes (CitDxs, CitPsy, CitPds, CitZds, CitLcy-b, CitChx-b, and CitZep) of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway and two genes (CitNced1 and CitNced2) involved in abscisic acid synthesis from carotenoid. Gene expression was significantly higher for mandarin than lemon for seven of the nine genes analyzed. Lemon under expression was partially dominant in the somatic hybrid for three upstream steps of the biosynthetic pathway, particularly for CitDxs. Transgressive over expression was observed for the two CitNced genes. A limitation of the upstream steps of the pathway and a downstream higher consumption of carotenoids may explain the phenotype of the somatic hybrid. PMID:19727737

Bassene, Jean Baptiste; Froelicher, Yann; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Mouhaya, Waffa; Ferrer, Rosa Mar; Ancillo, Gema; Morillon, Raphael; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

2009-11-01

226

Dopamine D4 receptor stimulation in GABAergic projections of the globus pallidus to the reticular thalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra reticulata of the rat decreases locomotor activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dopamine D4 receptors are localized in the GABAergic projections that globus pallidus (GP) neurons send to the reticular nucleus of the thalamus (RTN), the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Deficient D4 function in this network could lead to hyperactivity and thus be important in generating some of the symptoms of ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), a condition associated with polymorphisms of dopamine D4 receptors. It is then, unexpected that systemic injections of D4 ligands have no significant effects on the motor activity of normal rats. We further examined this issue by microinjecting D4 ligands and psychostimulant drugs in relevant structures. Interstitial dopamine overflow in the RTN was increased by reverse microdialysis of both methylphenidate and methamphetamine. Intranuclear injections in the RTN of methylphenidate, methamphetamine and the selective D4 agonist PD 168,077 reduced motor activity. Intraperitoneal injection of the D4 antagonist L 745,870 blocked the effects of these intranuclear injections. Similarly, intranuclear injections of PD 168,077 in the SNr inhibited motor activity, an effect that was also blocked by intraperitoneal L 745,870. In rats with 6-OHDA induced hemiparkinsonism, intraperitoneal PD 168,077 produced ipsilateral turning behavior that was blocked by L 745,870. Our results suggest that diminished D4 signaling in GP projections could lead to increased traffic through the relay nuclei of the thalamus and hyperactivity. Hence this basal-ganglia-thalamus network may be one of the targets of the beneficial effects that psychostimulant drugs have in disorders associated with D4 receptor abnormalities. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. PMID:22108379

Erlij, David; Acosta-García, Jacqueline; Rojas-Márquez, Martín; González-Hernández, Brenda; Escartín-Perez, Erick; Aceves, Jorge; Florán, Benjamín

2012-02-01

227

Regulation of substantia nigra pars reticulata GABAergic neuron activity by hydrogen peroxide via flufenamic acid-sensitive channels and KATP channels  

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Full Text Available Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr GABAergic neurons are key output neurons of the basal ganglia. Given the role of these neurons in motor control, it is important to understand factors that regulate their firing rate and pattern. One potential regulator is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, a reactive oxygen species that is increasingly recognized as a neuromodulator. We used whole-cell current clamp recordings of SNr GABAergic neurons in guinea-pig midbrain slices to determine how H2O2 affects the activity of these neurons and to explore the classes of ion channels underlying those effects. Elevation of H2O2 levels caused an increase in the spontaneous firing rate of SNr GABAergic neurons, whether by application of exogenous H2O2 or amplification of endogenous H2O2 through inhibition of glutathione peroxidase with mercaptosuccinate. This effect was reversed by flufenamic acid, implicating transient receptor potential (TRP channels. Conversely, depletion of endogenous H2O2 by catalase, a peroxidase enzyme, decreased spontaneous firing rate and firing precision of SNr neurons, demonstrating tonic control of firing rate by H2O2. Elevation of H2O2 in the presence of flufenamic acid revealed an inhibition of tonic firing that was prevented by blockade of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP channels with glibenclamide. In contrast to guinea-pig SNr neurons, the dominant effect of H2O2 elevation in mouse SNr GABAergic neurons was hyperpolarization, indicating a species difference in H2O2-dependent regulation. Thus, H2O2 is an endogenous modulator of SNr GABAergic neurons, acting primarily through presumed TRP channels in guinea pig, with additional modulation via KATP channels to regulate SNr output.

MargaretERice

2011-04-01

228

Control de larvas de Aedes aegypti (L con Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1895: una experiencia comunitaria en el municipio Taguasco, Sancti Spíritus, Cuba Control of Aedes aegypti larvae (L with Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1895: a community experience in Taguasco municipality, Sancti Spíritus, Cuba  

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Full Text Available Se determinó la eficacia del control de larvas de Aedes aegypti (L con Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1895, en depósitos para almacenar agua destinada al consumo doméstico, en el municipio Taguasco, al centro de la Provincia de Sancti Spíritus, Cuba. Con anterioridad a las epidemias de Santiago de Cuba y Provincia Habana, este municipio no había sido positivo a Aedes aegypti (L. Ante el temor a una epidemia de dengue, las crecientes infestaciones del vector comenzaron a preocupar a la población. Antes de iniciar las siembras de peces, se realizó un levantamiento, durante el cual se encuestaron 1 298 viviendas y locales con extensos patios y un deficiente suministro de agua; eso hace que sus habitantes utilicen todo tipo de depósitos, entre estos 458 tanques bajos donde se observaron 40 focos de mosquitos. Los peces se distribuyeron a razón de no menos de 3 por recipiente, controlándose los focos en 2 meses, excepto en un tanque donde los huevos llegaron a eclosionar. Los resultados además, facilitan la labor del personal sanitario al prescindir de una constante revisión de los depósitos. Por lo que se propone extender la experiencia de Taguasco a otras provincias del país con situación similar.The efficacy of the control of Aedes aegypti (L with Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1895, was determined in containers used for domestic consumption water in Taguasco municipality in the center of Sancti Spiritus province, Cuba. Before the epidemic of Santiago de Cuba and Havana Province, this municipality had not been positive to Aedes aegypti (L. The increasing infections caused by the vector started to worry the population that feared an outbreak of dengue epidemic. Previous to the fish growth, a survey was done in 1 298 houses and places with large backyards and a deficient water supply that made its dwellers use all kinds of containers. Among them 458 low tanks where 40 mosquito foci were detected. Fishes were distributed at a rate of no less than 3 per container. The foci were controlled in 2 months, excepting a tank where eclosion occurred. The results also make easy the work of the health personnel on avoiding the constant checking of the containers. That’s why, it is recommended to extend the experience of Taguasco to other provinces of the country under similar situations.

Eugenia Hernández Hernández

2006-08-01

229

Control de larvas de Aedes aegypti (L) con Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1895: una experiencia comunitaria en el municipio Taguasco, Sancti Spíritus, Cuba / Control of Aedes aegypti larvae (L) with Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1895: a community experience in Taguasco municipality, Sancti Spíritus, Cuba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se determinó la eficacia del control de larvas de Aedes aegypti (L) con Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1895, en depósitos para almacenar agua destinada al consumo doméstico, en el municipio Taguasco, al centro de la Provincia de Sancti Spíritus, Cuba. Con anterioridad a las epidemias de Santiago de Cuba [...] y Provincia Habana, este municipio no había sido positivo a Aedes aegypti (L). Ante el temor a una epidemia de dengue, las crecientes infestaciones del vector comenzaron a preocupar a la población. Antes de iniciar las siembras de peces, se realizó un levantamiento, durante el cual se encuestaron 1 298 viviendas y locales con extensos patios y un deficiente suministro de agua; eso hace que sus habitantes utilicen todo tipo de depósitos, entre estos 458 tanques bajos donde se observaron 40 focos de mosquitos. Los peces se distribuyeron a razón de no menos de 3 por recipiente, controlándose los focos en 2 meses, excepto en un tanque donde los huevos llegaron a eclosionar. Los resultados además, facilitan la labor del personal sanitario al prescindir de una constante revisión de los depósitos. Por lo que se propone extender la experiencia de Taguasco a otras provincias del país con situación similar. Abstract in english The efficacy of the control of Aedes aegypti (L) with Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1895, was determined in containers used for domestic consumption water in Taguasco municipality in the center of Sancti Spiritus province, Cuba. Before the epidemic of Santiago de Cuba and Havana Province, this municipa [...] lity had not been positive to Aedes aegypti (L). The increasing infections caused by the vector started to worry the population that feared an outbreak of dengue epidemic. Previous to the fish growth, a survey was done in 1 298 houses and places with large backyards and a deficient water supply that made its dwellers use all kinds of containers. Among them 458 low tanks where 40 mosquito foci were detected. Fishes were distributed at a rate of no less than 3 per container. The foci were controlled in 2 months, excepting a tank where eclosion occurred. The results also make easy the work of the health personnel on avoiding the constant checking of the containers. That’s why, it is recommended to extend the experience of Taguasco to other provinces of the country under similar situations.

Eugenia, Hernández Hernández; María, Marques Pina.

230

Regeneração de plantas após fusão de protoplastos de tangelo 'Page' e toranja 'Lau Tau' Plant regeneration after protoplast fusion of 'Page' tangelo and 'Lau Tau' pummelo  

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Full Text Available Buscou-se a hibridação somática entre tangelo 'Page' e toranja 'Lau Tau' visando à produção de porta-enxerto semelhante à laranja-azeda, por esta espécie ser considerada um provável híbrido entre C. reticulata e C. grandis. Após isolamento, fusão e cultivo de protoplastos, obtiveram-se brotações que foram enxertadas in vitro, em laranja 'Hamlin'. Dezessete plantas foram aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação. A análise de citometria de fluxo confirmou a constituição diplóide dessas plantas. Marcadores moleculares RAPD das plantas regeneradas apresentaram padrão de bandas similar ao de tangelo 'Page'. Entretanto, todas as plantas apresentaram conformação fenotípica diferente dos genitores.This work aimed to produce somatic hybrid between 'Page' tangelo and 'Lau Tau' pummelo in an attempt to regenerate a similar rootstock to sour orange, because this species is considered a probable hybrid between C. reticulata and C. grandis. After protoplast isolation, fusion and culture regenerated shoots were in vitro grafted on 'Hamlin' sweet orange. Seventeen plants were acclimatized in a greenhouse. Citometric flow analyses revealed that all plants are diploid. RAPD molecular markers of regenerated plants had the same pattern as compared to 'Page' tangelo. However, all plants had phenotypic traits different from both genitors.

Dayse Cristina de Carvalho

2007-08-01

231

Moscas frugívoras (Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae: ocorrência em pomares comerciais de tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco do município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba = Frugivorous flies (Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae: occurrence in commercials tangerine orchards (Citrus reticulata Blanco in Matinhas, state of Paraíba, Brazil  

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Full Text Available O município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba com aproximadamente 1,3 milhões de plantas de tangerina, é responsável por 90% da produção do Estado. A pesquisa foi conduzida em cinco regiões geográficas do município de Matinhas, onde foram coletados 20 frutos na copa e 20 sob a copa da planta, objetivando pesquisar a ocorrência de moscasfrugívoras e seus níveis de infestação em tangerina. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a tangerina é infestada por Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann,1824, Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal e Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann,1830. O índice médio de infestação de C. capitata nas cinco regiões não ultrapassou 0,5 pupa fruto-1. A percentagem de emergência (P.E. de C. capitata em frutos coletados na planta e solo variou entre 14,0 a 54,0% de adultos fruto-1. Osíndices de infestação de N. zadolicha, em frutos coletados na planta e solo, variaram entre 0,4 a 4,3 pupários fruto-1. Os dados da percentagem de emergência (P.E. de N. zadolicha variaram entre 49,9 a 65,9% de adultos fruto-1, sendo considerada a espécie mais abundante, dominante e com uma alta taxa de sobrevivência. N. zadolicha foi considerada praga primária da tangerina nas condições de Matinhas. Este é, também, o primeiro relato das espécies N. zadolicha e N. glaberrima infestando tangerina na Paraíba.The municipality of Matinhas, with approximately 1.3 million tangerinetrees, is responsible for 90% of the tangerine production in the state of Paraíba. This research was carried out in five geographic regions of Matinhas, where 20 fruits on plant and 20 fruits in soil were collected, with the aim of searching for the frugivorous flies and their levels of infestation in tangerine. The results showed that tangerine is infested by frugivorous flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann, 1824, Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal and Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann, 1830. The mean infestation index of C. capitata in five regions did not exceed 0.5 pupae fruit-1. The emergence percentage (EP of C. capitata adults in fruits collected on plant and in soil varied between 14.0% and 54.0% of adults fruit-1. The infestation index for N. zadolicha had variations between 0.4 and 4.3 pupae fruit-1. The data on the emergence percentage (EP of N. zadolicha varied between 49.9% and 65.9% of adults fruit-1, which made it the most abundant and dominant species, with a high survival rate. N. zadolicha was considered the pest with the highest economic impact to tangerines in Matinhas. The present work is also the first report of the N. zadolicha and N. glaberiimaspecies causing infestation in tangerine fruits in the state of Paraíba.

Edson Batista Lopes

2008-12-01

232

Moscas frugívoras (Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae): ocorrência em pomares comerciais de tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco) do município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba / Frugivorous flies (Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae): occurrence in commercials tangerine orchards (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in Matinhas, state of Paraíba, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba com aproximadamente 1,3 milhões de plantas de tangerina, é responsável por 90% da produção do Estado. A pesquisa foi conduzida em cinco regiões geográficas do município de Matinhas, onde foram coletados 20 frutos na copa e 20 sob a copa da planta, objetivan [...] do pesquisar a ocorrência de moscas frugívoras e seus níveis de infestação em tangerina. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a tangerina é infestada por Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann,1824), Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal) e Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann,1830). O índice médio de infestação de C. capitata nas cinco regiões não ultrapassou 0,5 pupa fruto-1. A percentagem de emergência (P.E.) de C. capitata em frutos coletados na planta e solo variou entre 14,0 a 54,0% de adultos fruto-1. Os índices de infestação de N. zadolicha, em frutos coletados na planta e solo, variaram entre 0,4 a 4,3 pupários fruto-1. Os dados da percentagem de emergência (P.E.) de N . zadolicha variaram entre 49,9 a 65,9% de adultos fruto-1, sendo considerada a espécie mais abundante, dominante e com uma alta taxa de sobrevivência. N. zadolicha foi considerada praga primária da tangerina nas condições de Matinhas. Este é, também, o primeiro relato das espécies N. zadolicha e N. glaberrima infestando tangerina na Paraíba. Abstract in english The municipality of Matinhas, with approximately 1.3 million tangerine trees, is responsible for 90% of the tangerine production in the state of Paraíba. This research was carried out in five geographic regions of Matinhas, where 20 fruits on plant and 20 fruits in soil were collected, with the aim [...] of searching for the frugivorous flies and their levels of infestation in tangerine. The results showed that tangerine is infested by frugivorous flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann, 1824), Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal) and Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann, 1830). The mean infestation index of C. capitata in five regions did not exceed 0.5 pupae fruit-1. The emergence percentage (EP) of C . capitata adults in fruits collected on plant and in soil varied between 14.0% and 54.0% of adults fruit-1. The infestation index for N . zadolicha had variations between 0.4 and 4.3 pupae fruit-1. The data on the emergence percentage (EP) of N . zadolicha varied between 49.9% and 65.9% of adults fruit-1, which made it the most abundant and dominant species, with a high survival rate. N. zadolicha was considered the pest with the highest economic impact to tangerines in Matinhas. The present work is also the first report of the N. zadolicha and N. glaberiima species causing infestation in tangerine fruits in the state of Paraíba.

Edson Batista, Lopes; Jacinto de Luna, Batista; Ivanildo Cavalcanti de, Albuquerque; Carlos Henrique de, Brito.

233

CARACTERÍSTICAS DO FRUTO DA VARIEDADE SPAN AMERICANA (Citrus reticulata Blanco): UMA TANGERINA DO TIPO 'PONCÃ' DE MATURAÇÃO PRECOCE / FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SPAN AMERICANA (Citrus reticulata Blanco): AN EARLY RIPENING 'PONKAN' LIKE MANDARIN  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A tangerina-'Poncã' é bastante apreciada pelo consumidor brasileiro. No Estado de São Paulo, a maturação de seus frutos ocorre nos meses de abril a agosto. Com o mercado ávido por frutas de mesa e agravado pelo problema da ocorrência da clorose variegada dos citros (CVC), que afeta principalmente as [...] variedades de laranjas-doces, tem havido um aumento considerável no plantio dessa variedade. Dessa forma, um excesso de produção, num mesmo período, faz com que os preços caiam, desestimulando assim os produtores. O Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira (CCSM) vem buscando outras alternativas no sentido de obter, durante o ano todo, esse tipo de tangerina. Assim sendo, foram realizados estudos de caracterização de frutos, em diversas épocas do ano, com o acompanhamento dos níveis de maturação, envolvendo acessos do Banco de Germoplasma do CCSM. Dentre as variedades estudadas, quanto à precocidade e qualidade dos frutos, destacou-se a Span Americana. A tangerina-'Poncã' tem seu período de maturação para as condições edafoclimáticas do CCSM, nos meses de maio e junho. Já a variedade Span Americana, que apresenta frutos similares à 'Poncã' tradicional, tem maturação bastante precoce, podendo ser iniciada a sua colheita no mês de março. Abstract in english The 'Ponkan' mandarin is highly appreciated by the Brazilian consumer. In the State of São Paulo, Brazil, its fruits mature from April through August. With the market very much in demand for table fruits and due to the problem of occurrence of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) that affects mainly th [...] e sweet orange varieties there has been a considerable increase in planting of this variety. By this way, an over of production in a same period makes the prices drop, desistimulating the growers. The Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira (CCSM) is searching other alternatives in order to obtain mandarin fruits all the year. Therefore, fruit characteristics studies in different seasons of the year with accompanying of the ripening levels, involving accesses of the germplasm bank of the CCSM, were carried out. Among the studied varieties in regard to earliness and fruit quality, the Span Americana was outstanding. The 'Ponkan' mandarin has its maturing period for the edafoclimatic conditions of the CCSM, in May and June. The Span Americana variety, that produces fruits similar to the traditional Ponkan, matures very early, and might be harvested in the beginning of March, which could be an alternative to enlarge the disponibility of mandarin fruit during the year.

PIO, ROSE MARY; MINAMI, KEIGO; FIGUEIREDO, JOSÉ ORLANDO DE.

234

CARACTERÍSTICAS DO FRUTO DA VARIEDADE SPAN AMERICANA (Citrus reticulata Blanco: UMA TANGERINA DO TIPO 'PONCÃ' DE MATURAÇÃO PRECOCE FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SPAN AMERICANA (Citrus reticulata Blanco: AN EARLY RIPENING 'PONKAN' LIKE MANDARIN  

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Full Text Available A tangerina-'Poncã' é bastante apreciada pelo consumidor brasileiro. No Estado de São Paulo, a maturação de seus frutos ocorre nos meses de abril a agosto. Com o mercado ávido por frutas de mesa e agravado pelo problema da ocorrência da clorose variegada dos citros (CVC, que afeta principalmente as variedades de laranjas-doces, tem havido um aumento considerável no plantio dessa variedade. Dessa forma, um excesso de produção, num mesmo período, faz com que os preços caiam, desestimulando assim os produtores. O Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira (CCSM vem buscando outras alternativas no sentido de obter, durante o ano todo, esse tipo de tangerina. Assim sendo, foram realizados estudos de caracterização de frutos, em diversas épocas do ano, com o acompanhamento dos níveis de maturação, envolvendo acessos do Banco de Germoplasma do CCSM. Dentre as variedades estudadas, quanto à precocidade e qualidade dos frutos, destacou-se a Span Americana. A tangerina-'Poncã' tem seu período de maturação para as condições edafoclimáticas do CCSM, nos meses de maio e junho. Já a variedade Span Americana, que apresenta frutos similares à 'Poncã' tradicional, tem maturação bastante precoce, podendo ser iniciada a sua colheita no mês de março.The 'Ponkan' mandarin is highly appreciated by the Brazilian consumer. In the State of São Paulo, Brazil, its fruits mature from April through August. With the market very much in demand for table fruits and due to the problem of occurrence of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC that affects mainly the sweet orange varieties there has been a considerable increase in planting of this variety. By this way, an over of production in a same period makes the prices drop, desistimulating the growers. The Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira (CCSM is searching other alternatives in order to obtain mandarin fruits all the year. Therefore, fruit characteristics studies in different seasons of the year with accompanying of the ripening levels, involving accesses of the germplasm bank of the CCSM, were carried out. Among the studied varieties in regard to earliness and fruit quality, the Span Americana was outstanding. The 'Ponkan' mandarin has its maturing period for the edafoclimatic conditions of the CCSM, in May and June. The Span Americana variety, that produces fruits similar to the traditional Ponkan, matures very early, and might be harvested in the beginning of March, which could be an alternative to enlarge the disponibility of mandarin fruit during the year.

ROSE MARY PIO

2001-08-01

235

Deafferentiation-induced c-fos gene expression in subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra reticulata is reduced by non-NMDA receptor antagonist.  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecular events underlying the mechanism by which brain injury elicits delayed transneuronal degeneration of neurons remote from the site of initial injury are not well understood. In rats, acute injury of the caudate nucleus (CN) and globus pallidus (GP) by local injection of excitotoxic ibotenic acid (IA) or by transient forebrain ischemia resulted in delayed cell death of neurons in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr). To elucidate the involvement of glutamate receptor mediated hyperactivity of neurons produced by loss of inhibitory inputs in this delayed degeneration of SNr neurons, the region-specific expression of an immediate early gene, c-fos, and the effect of glutamate receptor antagonists on the c-fos expression were examined by using immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization analysis. Following unilateral IA-injection into the CN and GP, a robust expression of c-fos mRNA and Fos protein was induced specifically in neurons of both subthalamic nucleus (STN) and SNr deafferented by the IA-lesions 36 h after IA-injection. The delayed expression of Fos-protein in SNr neurons lasted for 48 h longer than that in STN neurons. Following unilateral IA-injection confined to the CN, an intense but short-term expression of Fos-protein was exhibited only in neurons of the deafferented SNr. c-fos mRNA and Fos protein were not expressed in neurons of the substantia nigra compacta at any time points examined. The induction of c-fos mRNA and Fos protein in neurons of the STN and SNr following IA-lesions of the CN and GP was reduced markedly by non-NMDA receptor antagonist (GYKI52466), but not by NMDA receptor antagonist (MK-801). The region-specific c-fos expression implies that deprivation of inhibitory afferents (disinhibition) due to destruction of presynaptic neurons can induce increased activity of postsynaptic neurons. The effect of GYKI52466 on the c-fos gene expression in neurons of the deafferented STN and SNr suggests that activation of non-NMDA receptors may be involved in a pathophysiological cascade for the transneuronal degeneration of SNr neurons. PMID:8719629

Saji, M; Kimura, M; Ishida, G; Ohno, K

1995-12-12

236

Analyses of the sediment toxicity of Monjolinho River, São Carlos, São Paulo State, Brazil, using survey, growth and gill morphology of two fish species (Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a toxicidade dos sedimentos do rio Monjolinho (São Carlos - São Paulo/Brasil), por meio de bioensaios de toxicidade crônicos parciais com juvenis de D. rerio e P. reticulata. Foram realizadas análises histológicas das brânquias dos organismos para detectar po [...] ssíveis efeitos deletérios que antecedam a mortalidade. Em todos os pontos amostrados, foram verificadas alterações nas brânquias (hiperplasia, fusão de lamelas secundárias e dilatação de vasos sanguíneos), sendo no ponto dois foram encontradas lesões mais acentuadas (segundo estágio). A análise biométrica dos indivíduos expostos em amostras de sedimento demonstrou condições inadequadas para o crescimento e desenvolvimentos dos organismos-teste em todo o ambiente estudado. Os sedimentos apresentaram maior toxicidade no período chuvoso, sendo estes resultados confirmados por meio das análises histológicas das brânquias dos organismos expostos, as quais demonstraram lesões mais acentuadas no mesmo período. Tal situação possivelmente decorre dos impactos antrópicos os quais o sistema está suscetível (efluentes domésticos, industriais e agrícolas), que foram constatados pelas análises físicas e químicas dos sedimentos. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the toxicity of the sediments of the Monjolinho River (São Carlos - São Paulo/Brazil), through partial chronic toxicity bioassays with juveniles of D. rerio and P. reticulata. Histological analyses of the gills and biometric measurements were conducted to d [...] etect the possible deleterious effects that caused the death. In all points the sampled the alterations were found in the gills (hyperplasia, fusion of secondary lamellas and dilation of blood vessels), with the most intense lesions (second stage) occurring at the point two. The biometric analysis pointed to inadequate conditions for the growth of the test-organisms when exposed to the sediment samples. These results showed that the conditions of these environments were not suitable for the survival and growth of these fishes.

Campagna, Aline Fernanda; Fracácio, Renata; Rodrigues, Beatriz Kawamura; Eler, Márcia Noélia; Verani, Nelsy Fenerich; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta.

237

Analyses of the sediment toxicity of Monjolinho River, São Carlos, São Paulo State, Brazil, using survey, growth and gill morphology of two fish species (Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the toxicity of the sediments of the Monjolinho River (São Carlos - São Paulo/Brazil, through partial chronic toxicity bioassays with juveniles of D. rerio and P. reticulata. Histological analyses of the gills and biometric measurements were conducted to detect the possible deleterious effects that caused the death. In all points the sampled the alterations were found in the gills (hyperplasia, fusion of secondary lamellas and dilation of blood vessels, with the most intense lesions (second stage occurring at the point two. The biometric analysis pointed to inadequate conditions for the growth of the test-organisms when exposed to the sediment samples. These results showed that the conditions of these environments were not suitable for the survival and growth of these fishes.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a toxicidade dos sedimentos do rio Monjolinho (São Carlos - São Paulo/Brasil, por meio de bioensaios de toxicidade crônicos parciais com juvenis de D. rerio e P. reticulata. Foram realizadas análises histológicas das brânquias dos organismos para detectar possíveis efeitos deletérios que antecedam a mortalidade. Em todos os pontos amostrados, foram verificadas alterações nas brânquias (hiperplasia, fusão de lamelas secundárias e dilatação de vasos sanguíneos, sendo no ponto dois foram encontradas lesões mais acentuadas (segundo estágio. A análise biométrica dos indivíduos expostos em amostras de sedimento demonstrou condições inadequadas para o crescimento e desenvolvimentos dos organismos-teste em todo o ambiente estudado. Os sedimentos apresentaram maior toxicidade no período chuvoso, sendo estes resultados confirmados por meio das análises histológicas das brânquias dos organismos expostos, as quais demonstraram lesões mais acentuadas no mesmo período. Tal situação possivelmente decorre dos impactos antrópicos os quais o sistema está suscetível (efluentes domésticos, industriais e agrícolas, que foram constatados pelas análises físicas e químicas dos sedimentos.

Aline Fernanda Campagna

2008-02-01

238

Contribution à l'étude de l'écologie et de la biologie des homoptères ravageurs des arbres fruitiers et autres plantes: II. - Influence de la plante-hôte et de sa phénologie sur l'évolution des infestations d'Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Hom.: Aleyrodidae en République du Congo  

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Full Text Available Contribution to the Knowlegde of the Ecology and Biology of Homopterous Pests of Fruit Trees and other Plants: II. - The Influence of the Host Plant and its Phenology on the Evolution of Infestation of Aleurodicus disperses Russell (Hom.: Aleyrodidae in Republic of the Congo. The purpose of this study was to estimate the infestations' frequencies of Aleurodicus dispersus Russell on 20 host plants species. The observations carried out under natural conditions reveal the prominent part taken by host species and its phenology on the seasonal distribution of the infestations. The magnitude of the infestations seems to be correlated with the number of elderly leaves. Furthermore, it has been proved that hosts as Hura crepitans, Persea americana, Acacia auriculoformis, Elaeis guineensis and Eucalyptus alba x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid were very attractive for the laying of A. dispersus, while Mangifera indica, Citrus reticulata, Carica papaya and Dacryodes edulis were less attractive for the whitefly.

Kiyindou, A.

2003-01-01

239

The molecular basis of color vision in colorful fish: Four Long Wave-Sensitive (LWS opsins in guppies (Poecilia reticulata are defined by amino acid substitutions at key functional sites  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparisons of functionally important changes at the molecular level in model systems have identified key adaptations driving isolation and speciation. In cichlids, for example, long wavelength-sensitive (LWS opsins appear to play a role in mate choice and male color variation within and among species. To test the hypothesis that the evolution of elaborate coloration in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata is also associated with opsin gene diversity, we sequenced long wavelength-sensitive (LWS opsin genes in six species of the family Poeciliidae. Results Sequences of four LWS opsin genes were amplified from the guppy genome and from mRNA isolated from adult guppy eyes. Variation in expression was quantified using qPCR. Three of the four genes encode opsins predicted to be most sensitive to different wavelengths of light because they vary at key amino acid positions. This family of LWS opsin genes was produced by a diversity of duplication events. One, an intronless gene, was produced prior to the divergence of families Fundulidae and Poeciliidae. Between-gene PCR and DNA sequencing show that two of the guppy LWS opsins are linked in an inverted orientation. This inverted tandem duplication event occurred near the base of the poeciliid tree in the common ancestor of Poecilia and Xiphophorus. The fourth sequence has been uncovered only in the genus Poecilia. In the guppies surveyed here, this sequence is a hybrid, with the 5' end most similar to one of the tandem duplicates and the 3' end identical to the other. Conclusion Enhanced wavelength discrimination, a possible consequence of opsin gene duplication and divergence, might have been an evolutionary prerequisite for color-based sexual selection and have led to the extraordinary coloration now observed in male guppies and in many other poeciliids.

Ward Pam R

2008-07-01

240

Fruit splitting occurrence of Shogun mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun in southern Thailand and alleviation by calcium and boron sprays  

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Full Text Available Fruit splitting is a serious problem of Shogun mandarin in southern Thailand. To alleviate this impact, the applications of calcium and boron by spraying were investigated. An experiment was established in a farmer orchard (at Amphur Sadao, Songkhla province where four-year plants were grown at 6 m x 6 m spacing. The experiment was arranged as a completely randomized design, and 16 trees were used. There were 4 treatments (1. control or water spray, 2. 1% CaCl2 spray or C treatment, 3. 0.8% boric acid spray or B treatment and 4. 1% CaCl2+ 0.8% boric acid spray or C+B treatment with 4 replicates. The application was started at 4 months after fruit-setting, the sprays were done at 1 month intervals. It was found that the occurrence of fruit-splitting started at 3 months after fruit-setting, and there were 4 causes of fruit-splitting: 1. scab (28.33%, 2. sun scald (11.11%, 3. sun burn (7.78% and 4. no primary peel damage (52.78%. Various patterns of fruit splitting were found: vertical, horizontal, oblique and informal shape. The treatments of calcium and boron sprays did not affect on fruit growth or fruit size compared with the control, but they significantly enhanced fruit firmness, total soluble solid (TSS and total acidity (TA. The treatments of C, B, and C + B can reduce the percentages of fruit splitting to 5.56, 8.89 and 6.67%, respectively, and they were significantly different from that of the control (52.22%. It is suggested that calcium and boron sprays can alleviate fruit splitting in Shogun mandarin, and fruit quality is also enhanced.

Chiarawipa, R.

2005-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Plant toxicology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book comprises a general part on plant biology, the pathway of pollutant accumulation in plants, and the function of plants as pollutant indicators, as well as a specialized section in which pollutants and their effects are classified by origin and type of compound. Finally, indirect damage caused by parasites or radiation effects is gone into. Higher plants and fungi get most of the attention but lichens, mosses and algae are discussed as well. (orig./MG)

1984-01-01

242

Growing Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

In this "Sid the Science Kid" activity, learners observe how plants change as they grow. Learners examine the effects of growth by measuring and recording changes in plants over days and weeks. They'll also learn about how to care for plants. This activity includes a "Sid the Science Kid" video showing how to conduct the investigation.

Company, The J.

2008-01-01

243

Plant walkdown  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report covers the following: preparatory steps for performing plant walk-down; the objective of the first plant walk-down; plant walk-down procedures; earthquake screening evaluation; walk-down documentation; second plant walk-down. The following objectives concerning the plant walk-down(s) were achieved. The plant system configuration is verified in order to proceed with event tree and fault tree analyses. Systems interactions, other types of dependencies or plant unique features are identified. he safety related components that are judged to generically possess high capacities (i.e., larger than the earthquake review level) have been verified to contain no weaknesses. Further analyses needed to establish the capacities of remaining safety-related components are identified and necessary field data are obtained. Information on components is obtained to assist in HCLPF (fragility) evaluation and peer review of the seismic margin study

2000-11-06

244

Carnivorous Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The animal kingdom may have its egg-laying platypus, but the plant kingdom is not without its own odd twists on taxonomy. If movies like Little Shop of Horrors are any indication, carnivorous plants like the Venus flytrap, sundew, and pitcher plant never fail to spark the imagination. The following set of Web sites presents a brief introduction to carnivorous plants and includes loads of great photos. The first site (1) contains the Galleria Carnivora, a terrific collection of carnivorous plant photographs, compiled by carnivorous plant enthusiast Barry Rice. Rice has created a virtual art museum for these photos, which, together with his tongue-in-cheek commentary, provides a fun way to get acquainted with this diverse group of plants. The second Web site contains another extensive image gallery (presented by Matthias and Oliver Schmidt), this time showing carnivorous plants in their natural habitats (2). The Venus flytrap is the first carnivorous plant many of us encounter. With this next Web site from HowStuffWorks, readers can find out exactly how the flytrap attracts, traps, and digests its insect prey (3). The following site from Indiana University's Roger P. Hangarter offers a cool QuickTime movie of a Venus flytrap in action -- part of the Plants-In-Motion video collection (4). In this appealing and informative Web site (5), Marlis and Dennis Merbach present the Nepenthes (a genus of tropical pitcher plants) of Borneo, the center of Nepenthes diversity. Visitors to the next site will be treated to a beautiful photomicrograph of a sundew plant, entered by Earl Nishiguchi in Nikon's Small World Gallery photo contest (6). Boston's Museum of Science offers an interesting magnified image of a bladderwort, a tiny carnivorous plant found in freshwater (7). And, another Web site from Barry Rice (mentioned above) provides an entertaining look at carnivorous plants on TV and the silver screen, from Attack of the Killer Tomatoes to Minority Report and more (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

245

Antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus reticulata peel  

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Full Text Available Mandarin peel, a waste product coming from juice production, was extracted by conventional extraction with 70% acetone. Content of flavonoids in mandarin peel extract (MPE was determined by HPLC. Hesperidin was the most dominant flavonoid. Free radical scavenging activity of MPE on stable DPPH radicals and reactive hydroxyl radicals was also evaluated. EC50 value determined in spectrophotometrical DPPH radical assay was 0.179 mg/ml, while this value in ESR spin trapping hydroxyl radical assay was 0.415 mg/ml. Also, MPE showed protective effects in stabilising sunflower oil during accelerated storage. The results indicated that mandarin peel can be a valuable source of natural antioxidants.

Tumbas Vesna T.

2010-01-01

246

Antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus reticulata) peel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mandarin peel, a waste product coming from juice production, was extracted by conventional extraction with 70% acetone. Content of flavonoids in mandarin peel extract (MPE) was determined by HPLC. Hesperidin was the most dominant flavonoid. Free radical scavenging activity of MPE on stable DPPH radicals and reactive hydroxyl radicals was also evaluated. EC50 value determined in spectrophotometrical DPPH radical assay was 0.179 mg/ml, while this value in ESR spin trapping hydroxyl radica...

2010-01-01

247

Plant communication  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as a means to warn other plants of impending danger. Nearby plants exposed to the induced VOCs prepare their own defense weapons in response. Accumulated data supports this assertion, yet much of the evidence has been obtained in laboratories under artificial conditions where, for example, a single VOC might be applied at a concentration that plants do not actually experience in nature. Experiments conducted outdoors suggest that communication occurs only within a limited distance from the damaged plants. Thus, the question remains as to whether VOCs work as a single component or a specific blend, and at which concentrations VOCs elicit insect and pathogen defenses in undamaged plants. We discuss these issues based on available literature and our recent work, and propose future directions in this field.

Ueda, Hirokazu; Kikuta, Yukio; Matsuda, Kazuhiko

2012-01-01

248

Poisonous plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

South Africa is blessed with one of the richest floras in the world, which - not surprisingly - includes many poisonous plants. Theiler in the founding years believed that plants could be involved in the aetiologies of many of the then unexplained conditions of stock, such as gousiekte and geeldikkop. His subsequent investigations of plant poisonings largely laid the foundation for the future Sections of Toxicology at the Institute and the Faculty of Veterinary Science (UP). The history of re...

2009-01-01

249

Aquatic Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

This site provides high level descriptions of aquatic plant life and excellent photos of common aquatic plants. Phytoplankton, macrophytes, fungi and lichens are also featured. While the text would be difficult for elementary children, a teacher could use this site for reference, and the photos would be of great interest to students.

Hebert, P.

250

Annual Plant Reviews : Plant Proteomics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The proteome comprises all protein species resulting from gene expression in a cell, organelle, tissue or organism. By definition, proteomics aims to identify and characterise the expression pattern, cellular location, activity, regulation, post-translational modifications, molecular interactions, three dimensional structures and functions of each protein in a biological system. In plant science, the number of proteome studies is rapidly expanding after the completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence, and proteome analyses of other important or emerging model systems and crop plants are in progress or are being initiated. Proteome analysis in plants is subject to the same obstacles and limitations as in other organisms, but the nature of plant tissues, with their rigid cell walls and complex variety of secondary metabolites, means that extra challenges are involved that may not be faced when analysing other organisms. This volume aims to highlight the ways in which proteome analysis has been used to probe the complexities of plant biochemistry and physiology. It is aimed at researchers in plant biochemistry, genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics who wish to gain an up-to-date insight into plant proteomes, the information plant proteomics can yield and the directions plant proteome research is taking.

2006-01-01

251

Plants | Special Issue : Plant Vacuole  

...edu Phone: +1-515-294-7461 Fax: +1-515-294-5256 Interests: autophagy; vesicle trafficking, SNAREs; vacuolar targeting Special Issue Information Dear Colleagues, The plant vacuole is an essential organelle for plant growth and development and is typically the largest compartment within a mature plant cell. It is a highly dynamic organelle with multiple functions, including maintenance of turgor, storage of ions, metabolites and proteins, and degradation of macromolecules. Vacuoles within different cell types and at different developmental stages often have distinct functions, for example in protein storage during seed development and protein degradation during ...

252

Burdock plant  

Science.gov (United States)

Burdock seeds are curved and there is a kind of hook on one end of the seed. The hook is easily caught on animal fur and the clothing of humans as they pass by. This helps the seeds spread. This is a commensalistic relationship because the burdock plant benefits while the animal or human is neither harmed nor helped.

Michael Becker (None;)

2005-07-03

253

Nuclear plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reception area of a spent fuel centre (back end plant) contains a decontamination device for fuel element transport containers. A two part, symmetrical working platform is used to monitor their surfaces. Both parts can be pushed out of the way and can be adjusted in heighth. A spindle motor and hydraulic motors are used for this purpose. (DG)

1979-01-01

254

Plant biotechnology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The first decade of the 21st century has seen an intense debate of the potential contribution of Plant Biotechnology to meeting present and future world demands of food and biomass. The discussion started in 1997 when the first genetically modified (GM) crops were approved by the EPA for commercial production. The debate has been later stimulated by the increasing awareness of the potential effects of global climate change on agricultural production, as the current crops may be poorly adapted...

Molina Ferna?ndez, Antonio

2010-01-01

255

Parasitóides de lepidópteros minadores presentes em plantas de crescimento espontâneo em pomar orgânicos de citrus montenegro - RS / Parasitoids of leafmining lepidoptera in spontaneous growth plants in an organic citrus orchard in montenegro, RS, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar se Phyllocnistis citrella ataca plantas de crescimento espontâneo, presentes em pomar de citros orgânicos, identificar nestas plantas outros lepidópteros minadores e seus parasitóides, e verificar se estes parasitóides são os mesmos relatados para P. citre [...] lla. O trabalho foi conduzido no município de Montenegro-RS, em um pomar orgânico do híbrido 'Murcott' (Citrus sinensis x C. reticulata). Realizaram-se amostragens quinzenais, de maio de 2003 a maio de 2004, coletando-se, em cada ocasião, todas as folhas com minas contidas na área delimitada por um aro de 0,28 m², que era jogado nas linhas e nas entrelinhas de 30 árvores sorteadas. O material coletado foi levado ao laboratório para triagem. Durante o estudo, foram registradas 11 espécies de lepidópteros minadores e 12 espécies de microimenópteros parasitóides. Alguns gêneros identificados neste estudo já haviam sido relatados em várias regiões do mundo com espécies parasitando P. citrella, tais como Chrysocharis, Closterocerus, Sympiesis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) e Bracon (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Abstract in english This work aimed to check if Phyllocnistis citrella attacks spontaneous growth plants present in an organic citrus orchard, to identify in these plants other leafmining Lepidoptera and its parasitoids, and to verify if the parasitoids species are the same ones reported for P. citrella. The work was c [...] onducted in Montenegro, RS, in an organic orchard of the hybrid 'Murcott' (Citrus sinensis x C. reticulata). Samplings were taken every other week, from May 2003 to May 2004, with a ring of 0.28 m² being randomly thrown in the lines and interlines of 30 trees. All the plants with mines inside of the ring were collected. The screening of the material was made in laboratory. Eleven species of leafmining Lepidoptera and 12 species of microhymenopteran parasitoids were found. Some genera identified that this study had been already reported in several regions of the world with parasitizing species P. citrella, such as Chrysocharis, Closterocerus, Sympiesis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Bracon (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

Santos, Janaína Pereira dos; Dal Soglio, Fábio Kessler; Redaelli, Luiza Rodrigues; Costa, Valmir Antonio; Foelkel, Ester.

256

Bubbling Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Students learn a simple technique for quantifying the amount of photosynthesis that occurs in a given period of time, using a common water plant (Elodea). They can use this technique to compare the amounts of photosynthesis that occur under conditions of low and high light levels. Before they begin the experiment, however, students must come up with a well-worded hypothesis to be tested. After running the experiment, students pool their data to get a large sample size, determine the measures of central tendency of the class data, and then graph and interpret the results.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program

257

Plant Power  

Science.gov (United States)

In this chemistry challenge, learners identify which plants have the enzyme "catalase" that breaks hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. Multiple fruits and vegetables, both raw and cooked (a few seconds in boiling water, or 30 seconds in the microwave) should be available for testing. Preparation time can be shortened by using a food processor. Background information is provided about enzymes (proteins that act as catalysts), and the specific enzyme catalase, which catalyzes hydrogen peroxide. Since heating destroys enzymes, cooked fruits and vegetables have no catalytic activity.

Sciencenter

2012-12-27

258

Plant Tissue Culture Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant tissue culture techniques are essential to many types of academic inquiry, as well as to many applied aspects of plant science. Currently, tissue-cultured plants that have been genetically engineered provide insight into plant molecular biology and gene regulation. Plant tissue culture techniques are also central to innovative areas of applied plant science, including plant biotechnology and agriculture. Thus, tissue culture techniques have been, and still are, prominent in academic and applied plant science.

Lorraine Mineo (Lafayette College;)

1989-06-06

259

Nuclear plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nuclear power plant operating with both a thermal and a fast reactor housed in the same containment building is discussed in this invention. The fuel elements are transferred between the two reactors using a charge/discharge machine. As the enrichment of the fuel elements in the thermal reactor falls (and hence also the reactor reactivity), the fuel elements are transferred to the fast reactor to permit re-enrichment of the isotopes which are fissionable by thermal neutrons. The fuel elements are then replaced in the thermal reactor. The advantage of obtaining a higher breeding ratio in the fast reactor by using a gaseous rather than a liquid metal coolant is also discussed. (U.K.)

1978-01-01

260

Plant betterment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ability to retain coal burning capability in the state of New Jersey permits PSE and G to continue to have a diversified fuel mix with each fuel type (oil, coal, gas, and nuclear) capable of providing a significant contribution to our total generating requirements. Built in the 1960's, Hudson 2 Unit and Mercer 1 and 2 Units represent our entire New Jersey coal burning capability. However, by the early 1980's, continued operation of these units was threatened. This threat was caused by the accelerated deterioration of plant systems due to operational demands not originally anticipated and increasingly stringent environmental regulations. Programs were designed to correct both inherent design flaws and to modify existing systems to permit forecasted load cycling operation with greater reliability. This paper describes the programs at each of these facilities in detail, including current construction activities

1990-04-23

 
 
 
 
261

Nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.)

1985-01-01

262

Power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention provides a nuclear power plant which can efficiently take out energy of a reactor core with a simple structure. Namely, primary coolants exchange heat with a heat source. Secondary coolants intrude into heated primary coolants to exchange heat by direct contact with the primary coolants. The secondary coolants are separated from the primary coolants after the heat exchange by the difference of boiling points or the gravitational effect, and convert the heat into a dynamic power. With such procedures, a heat exchange efficiency between the primary coolants and the secondary coolants is increased. Various devices for isolating the primary coolants circuits from the secondary coolants, circuit a gas/liquid separator and the like can be saved. The secondary coolants are jetted out to the primary coolants by means of a coolant driving means. The primary coolants recycle in the primary coolant circuits by a kinetic energy generated by the coolant driving means. Accordingly, pumps for the primary coolants can be eliminated. (I.S.)

1993-09-20

263

Plant Genome Research Program (PGRP)  

Science.gov (United States)

... processes in plants. The focus is on plants of economic importance and plant processes of potential ... processes in plants. The program focuses on plants of economic importance and plant processes of ...

264

Teaching Plant Reproduction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.

2000-01-01

265

Poinsettia plant exposure  

Science.gov (United States)

Christmas flower poisoning; Lobster plant poisoning; Painted leaf poisoning ... Leaves, stem, sap of the poinsettia plant ... Eating this plant does not usually result in a trip to the hospital. Rinse the mouth out with water if leaves ...

266

47 CFR Plant - Other  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other Plant Telecommunications Plant Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...of the separation of the cost of Telecommunications Plant In Service, Account 2001, excluding the...

2010-10-01

267

Evaluation of antioxidant effect of Salacia oblonga against aluminum chloride induced visceral toxicity in albino rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Result: The results showed that S. oblonga produced significant (pS. oblonga protects against aluminuminduced oxidative stress, which is an important finding that further reinforces the antioxidant properties of this natural product. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 315-319

S. Nathiya

2014-04-01

268

Plant Development and Reproduction  

Science.gov (United States)

Here you will find basic information on the reproduction and growth of plants; from a seed that develops into a full grown plant and then, when sexually mature, produces its own seeds. Plant development and reproduction Standard 3, objective 3 (4 th grade). Observe plant growth and relate it to soil conditions. Objectives : List the resources needed for the healthy growth of plants. Explain how a seed germinates and plants grow. Describe the ...

Elizabeth

2010-09-28

269

Plants on Display  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants play an essential role in daily life, making them a natural subject of study for a standards-based unit in the elementary science curriculum. One creative way to give students direct experience with living plants is by using theme-based live plant displays. The displays, which changed over the course of the year focused on five themes: the environment, plant families, plant organs, growth and reproduction, and plant origins.

Gerber, D. T.; Beck, Judy; Lawniczak, Stefanie

2004-07-01

270

Combination power plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A combination power plant is disclosed including an ocean thermal energy conversion power plant and a steam generation power plant. Water discharged from a condenser in the ocean thermal energy conversion power plant is mixed with water discharged from an evaporator in the ocean thermal energy conversion power plant. The mixed water is used as cooling water for a condenser in the steam generation power plant. Part of the water discharged from the condenser in the steam generation power plant is used as heating water for the evaporator in the ocean thermal energy conversion power plant.

Nakamoto, Y.; Terayama, T.

1983-11-29

271

Plant Growth Regulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant growth regulators, including auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, and ethylene, are investigated in this learning activity to demonstrate how these chemicals (hormones) affect plant growth and development.

This page authored by Jim Bidlack, University of Central Oklahoma, based on original activities by Long Ashton Research Station, KScience, Cynthia Herbrandson, Kellogg Community College, Ross Koning, Eastern Connecticut State University, and A.G. Scientific, Inc.

272

Arctic plants, frequent flyers?  

Science.gov (United States)

If the climate gets too warm or cold, an animal can walk, fly or swim to a more comfortable habitat. But what about a plant? Although an individual plant is typically stuck in the same place for life, new research suggests that some plant seeds can travel long distances, allowing a plant species to move into a new area.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2007-06-14

273

Plant cell culture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The volume 'Plant cell culture' comprises biosynthesis of secondary products by cell cultures of higher plants, immobilized plant cells as well as production of useful metabolites and screening techniques for plant cell cultures. Separate entries are available for 5 papers. (EF). With 51 figs., 18 tabs.

Anderson, L.A.; Berlin, J.; Lambe, C.A.; Misawa, M.; Phillipson, J.D.; Roberts, M.F.; Rosevear, A.; Sasse, F.; Yamada, Y.

1985-01-01

274

Plant GRAB proteins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A method of controlling plant cell and plant virus growth and/or replication, plant cell cycle, differentiation, development and/or scenescence is provided characterised in that it comprises increasing or decreasing the levels or binding capabilities of GRAB (Geminivirus RepA Binding) proteins other than Rb (Retinoblastoma) proteins within plant cells.

Gutie?rrez Armenta, Crisanto; Xie, Qi; Sanz Burgos, Andre?s

1998-01-01

275

Plant Growth Regulators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)

Nickell, Louis G.

1978-01-01

276

GCFR plant control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A plant control system is being designed for a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) demonstration plant. Control analysis is being performed as an integral part of the plant design process to ensure that control requirements are satisfied as the plant design evolves. The load control portion of the plant control system provides stable automatic (closed-loop) control of the plant over the 25% to 100% load range. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate load control system performance. The results show that the plant is controllable at full load with the control system structure selected, but gain scheduling is required to achieve desired performance over the load range

1980-06-06

277

GCFR plant control system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A plant control system is being designed for a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) demonstration plant. Control analysis is being performed as an integral part of the plant design process to ensure that control requirements are satisfied as the plant design evolves. The load control portion of the plant control system provides stable automatic (closed-loop) control of the plant over the 25% to 100% load range. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate load control system performance. The results show that the plant is controllable at full load with the control system structure selected, but gain scheduling is required to achieve desired performance over the load range.

Estrine, E.A.; Greiner, H.G.

1980-05-01

278

Plant fatty acid hydroxylases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2001-01-01

279

Plant Research '75  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research is reported on stomatal regulation of the gas exchanges between plant and environment; inhibitory effects in flower formation; plant growth and development through hormones; hormone action; development and nitrogen fixation in algae; primary cell wall glycoprotein ectensin; enzymic mechanisms and control of polysaccharide and glycoprotein synthesis; molecular studies of membrane studies; sensory transduction in plants; regulation of formation of protein complexes and enzymes in higher plant cell and mechanism of sulfur dioxide toxicity in plants. (PCS)

1975-01-01

280

Plant life management applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The deregulation of the power generation industry has resulted in increased competitive pressure and is forcing operators to improve plant operating economy while maintaining high levels of plant safety. A key factor to meeting this challenge is to apply a comprehensive plant life management (PLIM) approach which addresses all relevant ageing and degradation mechanisms regarding the safety concept, plant components and documentation, plant personnel, consumables, operations management system and administrative controls. For this reason, Framatome ANP has developed an integrated PLIM concept focussing on the safety concept, plant components and documentation. Representative examples of customer tailored Framatome ANP PLIM applications from plant wide analysis to cost optimized LM strategies associated with specific component types are described. The Framatome ANP PLIM concept supports the plant owner for taking the strategic decisions involved in plant life extension (PLEX). (orig.)

Daeuwel, W. [Framatome ANP, Erlangen, (Germany)

2004-05-01

 
 
 
 
281

Better plants through mutations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a public relations film describing problems associated with the genetic improvement of crop plants through induced mutations. Mutations are the ultimate source of genetic variation in plants. Mutation induction is now established as a practical tool in plant breeding. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the IAEA's laboratory at Seibersdorf have supported research and practical implementation of mutation breeding of both seed propagated and vegetatively propagated plants. Plant biotechnology based on in vitro culture and recombinant DNA technology will make a further significant contribution to plant breeding

1988-01-01

282

Plant Phenotype Characterization System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

2005-09-09

283

Plant centromere compositions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

Mach, Jennifer (Chicago, IL); Zieler, Helge (Chicago, IL); Jin, James (Chicago, IL); Keith, Kevin (Chicago, IL); Copenhaver, Gregory (Chapel Hill, NC); Preuss, Daphne (Chicago, IL)

2006-06-26

284

Plant centromere compositions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

Mach, Jennifer (Chicago, IL); Zieler, Helge (Chicago, IL); Jin, RongGuan (Chicago, IL); Keith, Kevin (Chicago, IL); Copenhaver, Gregory (Chapel Hill, NC); Preuss, Daphne (Chicago, IL)

2007-06-05

285

Plant centromere compositions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

Mach, Jennifer M. (Chicago, IL); Zieler, Helge (Del Mar, CA); Jin, RongGuan (Chesterfield, MO); Keith, Kevin (Three Forks, MT); Copenhaver, Gregory P. (Chapel Hill, NC); Preuss, Daphne (Chicago, IL)

2011-08-02

286

Plant centromere compositions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

Mach; Jennifer M. (Chicago, IL), Zieler; Helge (Del Mar, CA), Jin; RongGuan (Chesterfield, MO), Keith; Kevin (Three Forks, MT), Copenhaver; Gregory P. (Chapel Hill, NC), Preuss; Daphne (Chicago, IL)

2011-11-22

287

Plant/Insect Interactions  

Science.gov (United States)

This list of 12 investigative questions is designed to help students observe how insects interact with plants in their habitat. The one-page printable PDF list includes questions about the insect behavior and the plant characteristics.

288

Nuclear Power Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

... cause serious illness or death. Before Before a Nuclear Power Plant Emergency The following are things you ... Executive Office of the President. During During a Nuclear Power Plant Emergency If an accident at a ...

289

Measuring Plant Allelopathy  

Science.gov (United States)

In this investigation, students will select, identify, and test a common plant for allelopathy by extracting the plant's natural chemicals and measuring the effect on the germination of lettuce seeds. They will analyze the data statistically to determine

Van Faasen, Carl; Peaslee, Graham; Soukhome, Jennifer; Statema, William

2009-04-01

290

Power plant chemical technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Ko...

1996-01-01

291

Nitrogen volatilization form plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In plant nitrogen metabolism, a significant role is played not only by the uptake of nitrogen compounds but also by their release into the environment. One of the ways in which plant nitrogen is released is the volatilization of reduced and oxidized nitrogen forms through the above-ground plant organs. During the growing season, depending on plant species, genotype and environmental conditions, plants may release by volatilization a significant portion of their nitrogen uptake and up to 80 kg of ammonia per hectare. Besides releasing ammonia into the atmosphere, plants also take it up from the atmosphere and thus partially compensate for their ammonia losses by volatilization. These losses can be reduced by plant breeding by developing genotypes with reduced ammonia releases and a more effective reassimilation of the ammonia quantities released. Attempts have been made to reduce the volatilization of nitrogen compounds from the above-ground plant parts by applying physiologically active substances.

Kastori Rudolf R.

2004-01-01

292

Ethylene storage plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Near Tarragona/Spain Messrs. Sulzer built an ethylene storage and shipping plant for the petroleum refinery Enpetrol. The storage plant, safety devices, treatment of the evaporating steams, and the shipping facilities are described.

Mueller, A.

1981-04-01

293

Plant tissue culture techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

Rolf Dieter Illg

1991-01-01

294

mobile plant licence application  

...for a mobile plant licence Waste management Please...form. You will need a mobile plant licence if you want...of individuals or partnership. For applications from partnerships please provide written...

295

Plant tissue culture techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

Rolf Dieter Illg

1991-01-01

296

Plant cytokine or phytocytokine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Peptide hormones play an important role in plant growth and development. Some of them are secreted by stem cells and also regulate plant immunity through cell-cell communication and reprogramming the expression of immune related genes, such as CLAVATA3p (CLV3p) and phytosulfokine (PSK). These peptides play similar roles as cytokines in plant innate immunity. As explosive progress of plant omics, more and more such functional peptides will be discovered. I recommend that they should be named a...

Luo, Li

2012-01-01

297

Plant and Animal Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Compare and contrast animal cells and plant cells. Use this graphic organizer diagram to help you organize your thoughts while you are looking at each webpage. First go to this link interactive animal and plant cell model and look at both the plant and animal cell models. After you get done with that site go to this site inside a plant and animal cell and take some more ...

Montgomery, Ms.

2012-04-04

298

Plant sugar signaling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In plants, sugars are not merely a carbohydrate metabolite or a photoassimilate of photosynthesis. They also play an important role in the intricate machinery of signal transduction. Sugar signaling is part of an ancient system for cellular adjustment to shifting environments and has been found to be crucial in responses to various stimuli, most importantly to the carbohydrate status of the plant. Gene responses to a changing carbohydrate status can vary greatly between plants and plant tissu...

2007-01-01

299

Vascular Plant Image Gallery  

Science.gov (United States)

Texas A&M University's Bioinformatics Working Group offers this no-nonsense botany teaching resource. Vascular plants are arranged alphabetically by family from Acanthaceae to Zygophyllaceae and users simply click for the images. Brief descriptions are provided (which may indicate the popular name of the plant). The site is searchable. Familiarity with vascular plant taxonomic nomenclature is assumed.

Manhart, James R.

300

TRANSGENIC PLANT CONTAINMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

The new technology using plant genetics to produce chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and therapeuitics in a wide array of new plant forms requires sufficient testing to ensure that these new plant introductions are benign in the environment. A recent effort to provide necessary guidan...

 
 
 
 
301

Plant ozone injury symptoms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of the phytotoxicity of ozone to plants was conducted in controlled-atmosphere greenhouses to determine if the symptoms of such exposure would be similar to symptoms exhibited by plants exposed to photochemical smog (which contains ozone) in the Tokyo area. Test plants used were herbaceous plants and woody plants, which were fumigated to 20 pphm ozone. Plants used as controls for the oxone exposure experiments were placed in a carbon filtered greenhouse. Herbaceous plants were generally sensitive to injury, especially Brassica rapa, Brassica pekinensis and others were extremely responsive species. In comparison with herbaceous plants, woody plants were rather resistant except for poplar. Depending on plant species and severity of injury, ozone-injury symptoms of herbaceous plants were bleaching, chlorosis, necrosis, and red-dish-brown flecks. Leaves of woody plants developed discrete, punctate spots, reddish-brown pigment on the upper surfaces and lastly defoliation. Ozone injury was typically confined to the upper leaf surfaces and notably greater mature leaves. Microscopic examination showed that pallisade cells were much more prone to ozone injury than other tissues.

Nouchi, I.; Odaira, T.; Sawada, T.; Oguchi, K.; Komeiji, T.

1973-01-01

302

Planting Brassica rapa  

Science.gov (United States)

This video resource explains and demonstrates how to plant Fast Plants in a bottle growing system made from recycled soda/water bottles was made by the instructors at UW-Madison who teach Biocore (a foundational undergraduate biology course). In this planting approach, vermiculite is used along with a soil-less potting mix (e.g. Redi-Earth).

Biocore, Uw-Madison

303

Water Desalination Plant  

Science.gov (United States)

Students use a thermal process approach to design, build and test a small-scale desalination plant that is capable of significantly removing the salt content from a saltwater solution. Students use a saltwater circuit to test the efficiency of their model desalination plant and learn how the water cycle is the basis for the thermal processes that drive their desalination plant.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

304

Power Plant Cycling Costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

2012-07-01

305

Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this brochure the Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina, (VED), subsidiary of the utility Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, plc. Bratislava) are presented. VED is mainly aimed at generating peak-load electrical energy and maintenance of operational equipment. Reaching its goals, company is first of all focused on reliability of production, economy and effectiveness, keeping principles of work safety and industry safety standards and also ecology. VED operates eight hydroelectric power plants, from which PVE Ruzin I and PVE Dobsina I are pump storage ones and they are controlled directly by the Slovak Energy Dispatch Centre located in Zilina thought the system LS 3200. Those power plants participate in secondary regulation of electrical network of Slovakia. They are used to compensate balance in reference to foreign electrical networks and they are put into operation independently from VED. Activity of the branch is focused mainly on support of fulfilment of such an important aim as electric network regulation. Beginnings of the subsidiary Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina are related to the year of 1948. After commissioning of the pump storage Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina in 1953, the plant started to carry out its mission. Since that time the subsidiary has been enlarged by other seven power plants, through which it is fulfilling its missions nowadays. The characteristics of these hydroelectric power plants (The pump-storage power plant Dobsina, Small hydroelectric power plant Dobsina II, Small hydroelectric power plant Rakovec, Small hydroelectric power plant Svedlar, Hydroelectric power plant Domasa, The pump-storage power plant Ruzin, and Small hydroelectric power plant Krompachy) are described in detail. Employees welfare and public relations are presented

1997-01-01

306

Plant Fossil Record  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Organization of Palaeobotany (IOP) manages the Plant Fossil Record (PFR) database. The recently released version of the database, PFR2.2, offers descriptive details of most plant fossil genera and modern genera with fossil species. Based on "the scientific literature ... or museum collections," the database is organized into five sections: Genera (references for plant fossil genera published mostly before 1985), Descriptions (containing descriptive details of "the type specimens of more than 10,000 extinct plant genera"), Taxonomy (an "informal system of vascular plant classification" based on published schemes), Occurrences (distribution information and references), and Palaeo Maps.

307

Convoy nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the convoy-concept is a designing of, as far as possible, identical nuclear power plants at different, sites in different states. This new procedure is expected to ensure a more rational handling of planning and licensing procedures in order to master the time factor which is especially expensive. After 3 nuclear power plants built in the FRG according to this concept (Biblis C, Emsland, Isar-2), other plants are planned. After briefly describing the concept the author makes some remarks on the construction technique, plant technology, planning, examination, licensing procedure, and the technical realisation of the convoy-plants. (orig.)

1982-01-01

308

Plant life management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plant life assessment and extension studies have been performed by numerous companies all over the world. Critical equipment has been identified as well as various degradation mechanisms involved in the plant aging process. Nowadays one has to think what to implement to improve the existing situation in the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). FRAMATOME has undertaken this thought process in order to find the right answers and bring them to utilities facing either critical concern for plant life extension or the problem of management of power plant potential longevity. This is why we prepared a Plant Life Improvement Action Plan, comprising 10 (ten) major items described hereafter using examples of work performed by FRAMATOME for its utility customers desiring to manage the lives of their plants, both in France with EDF and abroad

1992-04-12

309

Photochemical smog and plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Surveys of plant damage due to photochemical smog are summarized. The components of smog which appear to be responsible for plant damage include ozone and peroxyacyl nitrates. Their phytotoxic effects are much greater than those due to sulfur oxides. Damage surveys since 1970 reveal the following symptoms appearing on herbaceous plants (morning glory, cocks comb, dahlia, knotweed, petunia, chickweed, Welsh onion, spinach, Chinese cabbage, chard, taro): yellowish-white leaf discoloration, white and brown spots on matured leaves, and silvering of the lower surfaces of young leaves. Symptoms which appear on arboraceous plants such as zelkova, poplar, ginkgo, planetree, rose mallow, magnolia, pine tree, and rhododendron include early yellowing and reddening, white or brown spots, and untimely leaf-fall. The above plants are now utilized as indicator plants of photochemical smog. Surveys covering a broad area of Tokyo and three other prefectures indicate that plant damage due to photochemical smog extends to relatively unpolluted areas.

Sawada, T.

1974-07-01

310

Bumper transgenic plant crop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although it may seem hard to believe, it's been almost 10 years since researchers showed that they could use gene transfer technology on plants. Since then the plant genetic engineers have taken great strides. With several dozen field trials already under way, they may soon achieve their original goal - the development of high-yielding plant varieties with enhanced resistance to herbicides, disease, or insects. So now the researchers are branching out, beginning to design plants with improved consumer appeal, such as tomatoes that hold up better to freezing, as well as creating plants that can serve as factories for pharmaceuticals and industrial oils, just as researchers are now attempting to use pigs to make human hemoglobin. Some of the plant varieties being developed include: tobacco plants, soybeans, tomatoes, and dry, navy and green beans.

Moffat, A.S.

1991-07-05

311

Qatar desalination plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Activities preparatory to the commercial operation of the Ras Abu Fontas Power and Water Station Desalting plant in Qatar, Saudi Arabia, are described. The plant has a capacity of 45,320 cu m/day of fresh water. No corrosion has occurred at the plant. The Sitra Power and Water Station Desalting plant in Bahrain has a capacity of 22,700 cu m/day of fresh water. The little corrosion that exists is due to the high humidity of the local atmosphere. The two Bushehr dual purpose desalination plants have a capacity of 100,000 cu m/day and are coupled with two 1200 Mw nuclear power plants. The nuclear power plants will provide a reliable supply of steam. A hot water closed loop is provided as a safety barrier against radioactive contamination. (9 references)

Barba, D.; Germana, A.; Salemme, A.; Tagliaferri, G.; Bogazzi, D.; Zonetti, E.; Edalat, M.

1978-08-01

312

Safe genetically engineered plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.

2007-10-01

313

Next Generation Population Genomics in the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Population genetic studies estimate allele frequency distributions and the change of these frequencies over time in order to infer the demographic history of natural populations. Such studies aim to explain how adaptation and speciation have occurred. Until recently, inferences in non-reference taxa have been based on very few loci due to the high cost of developing a large set of markers de-novo. Only in established model organisms with a known reference genome was it possible to study genom...

Willing, Eva-maria

2011-01-01

314

Fatal herpesvirus encephalitis in a reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatal meningoencephalitis caused by equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) was diagnosed in a reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulate). The giraffe died following a history of stumbling, incoordination, and abdominal pain. Gross examination of the brain revealed asymmetric edema and red-brown discoloration, predominantly within the telencephalon. Microscopically, there was perivascular lymphohistiocytic cuffing, multifocal gliosis, and neuronal necrosis in the cerebrum. Necrotic neurons contained acidophilic intranuclear inclusions. EHV-1 was isolated from the brain of the giraffe, and polymerase chain reaction was positive on sections of the brain. Immunohistochemistry using an EHV-1-specific antibody identified positive staining in neurons, astrocytes, and endothelial cells. The giraffe had been housed with a group of zebras that were serologically positive for EHV-1 and suspected as the source of infection. This raises concerns for cross-species transmission of EHV-1 when housing equids together with other species in zoologic collections. PMID:16966458

Hoenerhoff, M J; Janovitz, E B; Richman, L K; Murphy, D A; Butler, T C; Kiupel, M

2006-09-01

315

Desert Plant: Mimosa hamata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant derived medicinal products have been used for centuries in every culture throughout the world. Mimosa hamata possesses a vast ethnomedicinal history of heuristic medical value. Ethnomedicinal use of Mimosa hamata has been known since time immemorial and this plant were used to cure diseases and to maintain good health. M. hamata whole plant are used in traditional systems of medicine for treating various diseases. M. hamata exhibited higher antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities. Some bioactive constituents of this plant were thoroughly reviewed and discussed based on literatures. M. hamata has been claimed as folk medicinal plant but little is known about the phytochemicals and pharmacognostical information. There is a need to review this plant in order to provide scientific information for its application in traditonal and biological medicinal system.

Nakuleshwar Dut Jasuja

2014-01-01

316

Plants and Sunlight  

Science.gov (United States)

What is a plant? How do plants make food? What is biomass? Let's learn by playing games! Remember that picture we saw of the biggest flower in the world? Learn more about it by watching this video about the Rafflesia Arnoldii. Some more great videos, Venus Fly Trap and Sustainable Forests. Grow your own plants with Ms. Frizzle in this game. You'll have to think quick and know all about photosynthesis for The Oxygenator! Need to review? ...

Hall, Ms.

2013-10-02

317

Plant Image Gallery  

Science.gov (United States)

Created and maintained by Thomas Schoepke of the Institute of Pharmacy at Greifswald University, this site may prove useful to both botanists and biology students. Behind the straightforward interface is a database of some 2,000 high-quality images of plants, mainly from Europe, Costa Rica, Japan, and the Galapagos Islands. Users can browse the images by four geographic galleries or by plant family. Entries include the Latin name, whether the plant is native or cultivated, and photo location.

318

Plant Development and Yield  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study to investigate the effect of sowing bruichid-damaged bean seeds on germination, plant development and grain yield was conducted at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania during the year 2000 cropping season. Unperforated and bruchids damaged seeds with one to four holes were planted in plastic pots and placed in the glasshouse. Germination, plant development and subsequent grain yield were compared using a randomized complete block design. Results indicate that...

Misangu, R. N.; Chipungahelo, M. S.; Reuben, S. O. W. M.; Mulungu, L. S.

2007-01-01

319

Power plant chemistry. Kraftwerkschemie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Power plant chemistry in united Germany is reviewed on the basis of literature citations; it is made clear that a uniform technical standard must be reached as quickly as possible. Particular attention is given to flue gas purification in conventional power plants. Apart from water chemistry and corrosion, high-sensitivity techniques of analysis are gone into which are capable of monitoring substances that could not be detected hitherto. There is a short section on nuclear power plant chemistry. (BBR).

Krabbe, H.J.

1991-04-01

320

Power plant chemistry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Power plant chemistry in united Germany is reviewed on the basis of literature citations; it is made clear that a uniform technical standard must be reached as quickly as possible. Particular attention is given to flue gas purification in conventional power plants. Apart from water chemistry and corrosion, high-sensitivity techniques of analysis are gone into which are capable of monitoring substances that could not be detected hitherto. There is a short section on nuclear power plant chemistry. (BBR)

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Handbook of Plant Virology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Handbook of Plant Virology is a comprehensive guide to the terms and expressions commonly used in the study of plant virology, complete with descriptions of plant virus families down to the generic level. Rather than simply listing terms in alphabetical order, this unique book links each term to related terms within a theme and adds commentary from authors whose specific expertise adds additional dimensions to the topics. The result is an invaluable resource for research workers, educator...

Khan, J. A.; Dijkstra, J.

2006-01-01

322

Evolution of plant senescence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Senescence is integral to the flowering plant life-cycle. Senescence-like processes occur also in non-angiosperm land plants, algae and photosynthetic prokaryotes. Increasing numbers of genes have been assigned functions in the regulation and execution of angiosperm senescence. At the same time there has been a large expansion in the number and taxonomic spread of plant sequences in the genome databases. The present paper uses these resources to make a stu...

Thomas Howard; Huang Lin; Young Mike; Ougham Helen

2009-01-01

323

Plant monitor system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The plant monitor system described could be used to control the operation of a commercial nuclear power plant. In one example of the system, six constituent systems are included. They are: the control centre panels; the data processing system; the discrete indication and alarm system; the component control system consisting of engineered safeguard function controls and process controls; the plant protection system; the power control system. These systems collect plat data, present the required information to the operator efficiently and perform all the automatic functions while providing for direct manual control of the plant components. (38 figures). (UK)

1989-11-02

324

Plant monitor system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The plant monitor system described could be used to control the operation of a commercial nuclear power plant. In one example of the system, six constituent systems are included. They are: the control centre panels; the data processing system; the discrete indication and alarm system; the component control system consisting of engineered safeguard function controls and process controls; the plant protection system; the power control system. These systems collect plat data, present the required information to the operator efficiently and perform all the automatic functions while providing for direct manual control of the plant components. (38 figures). (UK).

Scarola, K.; Jamison, D.; Manazir, R.; Rescori, R.; Harmon, D.

1994-05-11

325

Actin bundling in plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tight regulation of plant actin cytoskeleton organization and dynamics is crucial for numerous cellular processes including cell division, expansion and intracellular trafficking. Among the various actin regulatory proteins, actin-bundling proteins trigger the formation of bundles composed of several parallel actin filaments closely packed together. Actin bundles are present in virtually all plant cells, but their biological roles have rarely been addressed directly. However, decades of research in the plant cytoskeleton field yielded a bulk of data from which an overall picture of the functions supplied by actin bundles in plant cells emerges. Although plants lack several equivalents of animal actin-bundling proteins, they do possess major bundler classes including fimbrins, villins and formins. The existence of additional players is not excluded as exemplified by the recent characterization of plant LIM proteins, which trigger the formation of actin bundles both in vitro and in vivo. This apparent functional redundancy likely reflects the need for plant cells to engineer different types of bundles that act at different sub-cellular locations and exhibit specific function-related properties. By surveying information regarding the properties of plant actin bundles and their associated bundling proteins, the present review aims at clarifying why and how plants make actin bundles. PMID:19504571

Thomas, Clément; Tholl, Stéphane; Moes, Danièle; Dieterle, Monika; Papuga, Jessica; Moreau, Flora; Steinmetz, André

2009-11-01

326

BOTANY: A Plant's Dilemma  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Plants absorb water through their roots, then expel it through pores (stomata) in their leaves. In their Perspective, Grill and Ziegler explain that in times of drought, closing the stomata can help a plant conserve water. Thus, the finding in this week's issue by Pei et al. --that mutation of a gene encoding a protein-modifying enzyme can cause a plant to close its stomata more easily--may point the way to limitation of water loss by plants, a tremendous economic benefit in arid regions.

Erwin Grill (Lehrstuhl für Botanik, Technische Universität München;); Hubert Ziegler (Lehrstuhl für Botanik, Technische Universität München;)

1998-10-09

327

The Kuroshio power plant  

CERN Document Server

By outlining a new design or the Kuroshio power plant, new approaches to turbine design, anchorage system planning, deep sea marine engineering and power plant operations and maintenance are explored and suggested. The impact on the local environment, particularly in the face of natural disasters, is also considered to provide a well rounded introduction to plan and build a 30MW pilot power plant. Following a literature review, the six chapters of this book propose a conceptual design by focusing on the plant's core technologies and establish the separate analysis logics for turbine design and

Chen, Falin

2013-01-01

328

Plant Science: An Invasive Plant Paradox  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Why some plants attain extremely high densities in communities where they are exotic, yet remain at low densities in their native ranges is a mystery. The pattern has been called a "paradox" because it conflicts with long-held ideas about the importance of local adaptation for the ecological performance of organisms. This biogeographical shift may be connected to other apparent ecological paradoxes that occur with plant invasions involving processes mediated by soil microbes.

Marnie E. Rout (University of Montana;Division of Biological Sciences); Ragan M. Callaway (University of Montana;Division of Biological Sciences)

2009-05-08

329

ROS and Phytohormones in Plant-Plant Allelopathic Interaction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Allelopathy refers to plant-plant interference mediated mostly by plant released products of secondary metabolism. It was recently suggested that allelochamicals may influence growth of neighboring plants by induction of oxidative stress. We have focused on the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phytohormons (ABA and ethylene) in the biochemical and molecular regulation of plant response to sunflower phytotoxins.

Bogatek, Renata; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

2007-01-01

330

Plant Tissue Culture and Plant Morphogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent rapid progress in biology is due to the development of new ideas and new methods of investigation. Modern plant physiology, like modern biology, attempts to elucidate processes which take place at the cellular level. The method of in vitro cult...

R. G. Butenko

1968-01-01

331

Solar thermal power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

Schnatbaum, L. [Solar Millennium AG, Erlanger (Germany)

2009-09-15

332

Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

333

Solar thermal power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

2009-09-01

334

Geothermal Power Plant Model  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners make a model of a power plant that uses steam. Learners use simple materials like foil, a tin can, and a pot of water to model a geothermal power plant. Learners use a pinwheel to observe the power produced by the steam. SAFETY NOTE: Adult assistance required.

Commission, California E.

2006-01-01

335

Model Power Plant Voelklingen.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Model Power Plant Voelklingen a power plant concept by which high-ash coal is burnt in an atmospheric fluidized bed furnace and the combustion is heat abducted by a pipe system immersed into the fluidized bed is applied. The advantages of the proce...

1983-01-01

336

Power plant chemical technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

NONE

1996-12-01

337

Plant tissue culture techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions. [...

Rolf Dieter, Illg.

338

Plant fatty acid hydroxylase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2000-01-01

339

Plant Light Box Construction  

Science.gov (United States)

These instructions describe how to construct a plant light box from two stackable plastic file crates that are cut, lined with aluminum foil and lit with a 40/42-watt CFL bulb. This 3-page document includes a complete materials list and 12-step assembly instructions with photographs that illustrate each step. This light box works well for growing Fast Plants.

Program, The W.

340

The Dounreay cementation plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper concerns the cementation plant being built at Dounreay, Scotland, for encapsulating radioactive waste into cement. The plant is scheduled to come into operation in 1987. A description is given of the process used to solidify intermediate level liquid wastes accumulated from the reprocessing of the Materials Testing fuel elements. (U.K.)

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

High Wind Power Plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

In comparison to the usual power plants in which the machines are installed in special buildings, the high wind power plant is described as a power source in which the structure as a whole makes up the machine. New large structures are supports for genera...

H. Honnef

1974-01-01

342

Plant pathogen resistance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

Greenberg, Jean T; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

2012-11-27

343

Communal biomass conversion plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim was to show the agricultural advantages of farmers being in connection with Communal Biogas Plant. Whether a more environmentally protectire distribution of plant nutrients from animal manure takes place through a biogas plants distribution system, whether the nitrogen in the digested slurry is better utilized and whether the connection results in slurry transportation-time reduction, are discussed. The average amount of nitrogen from animal manure used per hectare was reduced. The area of manure distribution was larger. The nitrogen efficiency was increased when using digested slurry and purchase of N mineral fertilizer decreased, resulting in considerable reduction in nitrogen leaching. The amount of slurry delivered to the local storage tanks was approximately 45 per cent of the total amount treated on the biogas plant. Conditions of manure transport improved greatly as this was now the responsibility of the communal biomass conversion plant administrators. (AB) (24 refs.)

1993-01-01

344

Cellulose metabolism in plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many bacterial genomes contain a cellulose synthase operon together with a cellulase gene, indicating that cellulase is required for cellulose biosynthesis. In higher plants, there is evidence that cell growth is enhanced by the overexpression of cellulase and prevented by its suppression. Cellulase overexpression could modify cell walls not only by trimming off the paracrystalline sites of cellulose microfibrils, but also by releasing xyloglucan tethers between the microfibrils. Mutants for membrane-anchored cellulase (Korrigan) also show a typical phenotype of prevention of cellulose biosynthesis in tissues. All plant cellulases belong to family 9, which endohydrolyzes cellulose, but are not strong enough to cause the bulk degradation of cellulose microfibrils in a plant body. It is hypothesized that cellulase participates primarily in repairing or arranging cellulose microfibrils during cellulose biosynthesis in plants. A scheme for the roles of plant cellulose and cellulases is proposed. PMID:16344110

Hayashi, Takahisa; Yoshida, Kouki; Park, Yong Woo; Konishi, Teruko; Baba, Kei'ichi

2005-01-01

345

Plant performance enhancement program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Plant Performance Enhancement Program (P{sup 2}EP), an initiative of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), responds to strong industry incentives to improve nuclear plant thermal efficiency and electrical output. Launched by EPRI`s Nuclear Power Division, P{sup 2}EP operates within the purview of the Plant Support Engineering (PSE) Program, with day-to-day activities conducted out of the P{sup 2}EP office headquartered at EPRI`s facility in Charlotte, North Carolina. This alignment is consistent with EPFU`s strategic targets in support of industry goals, keeping P{sup 2}EP`s mission in clear focus: Helping utility thermal performance engineers improve the heat rate of nuclear power plants, thereby increasing unit average capacity and reducing plant operations and maintenance costs per kilowatt-hour.

Munchausen, J.H. [EPRI Plant Support Engineering, Charlotte, NC (United States)

1995-09-01

346

Decommissioning nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the next three decade, over 300 nuclear power plants will be shut down. Eventually, the international nuclear community will have to dispose of more than 500 plants, including those currently under construction. Decommissioning is waste management on a new scale, in terms of both complexity and cost. Following plant closure, the company or agency responsible must first decide which of three courses to follow: decontaminate and dismantle the facility decay for 50-100 years before dismantling; or simply erect a permanent tomb. No one knows how much it will cost to decommission the hundreds of units in service or under construction around the world. Estimates range from $50 million to $3 billion per plant. The biggest stumbling block for all nations with nuclear plants is the lack of permanent disposal facilities for radioactive wastes. No country currently has the capability to permanently dispose of the high-level wastes now stored at a single reactor

1986-01-01

347

Plant performance enhancement program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Plant Performance Enhancement Program (P2EP), an initiative of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), responds to strong industry incentives to improve nuclear plant thermal efficiency and electrical output. Launched by EPRI's Nuclear Power Division, P2EP operates within the purview of the Plant Support Engineering (PSE) Program, with day-to-day activities conducted out of the P2EP office headquartered at EPRI's facility in Charlotte, North Carolina. This alignment is consistent with EPFU's strategic targets in support of industry goals, keeping P2EP's mission in clear focus: Helping utility thermal performance engineers improve the heat rate of nuclear power plants, thereby increasing unit average capacity and reducing plant operations and maintenance costs per kilowatt-hour

1995-04-18

348

Plant tissue culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plant tissue culture refers to growing and multiplication of cells, tissues and organs of plants on defined solid or liquid media under aseptic and controlled environment. The commercial technology is primarily based on micropropagation, in which rapid proliferation is achieved from tiny stem cuttings, axillary buds, and to a limited extent from somatic embryos, cell clumps in suspension cultures and bioreactors. The cultured cells and tissue can take several pathways. The pathways that lead to the production of true-to-type plants in large numbers are the preferred ones for commercial multiplication. The process of micropropagation is usually divided into several stages i.e., pre-propagation, initiation of explants, subculture of explants for proliferation, shooting and rooting, and hardening. These stages are universally applicable in large-scale multiplication of plants. The delivery of hardened small micropropagated plants to growers and market also requires extra care. (author)

2004-02-01

349

Mycoplasma infections of plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants can be infected by two types of wall-less procaryotes, spiroplasmas and mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO), both located intracellularly in the phloem tissues of affected plants. Spiroplasmas have been cultured, characterized and shown to be true members of the class Mollicutes. MLO have not yet been cultured or characterized; they are thought to be mycoplasma-like on the basis of their ultrastructure as seen in situ, their sensitivity to tetracycline and resistance to penicillin. Mycoplasmas can also be found on the surface of plants. These extracellularly located organisms are members of the following genera: Spiroplasma. Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma. The presence of such surface mycoplasmas must not be overlooked when attempts to culture MLO from affected plants are undertaken. Sensitive serological techniques such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can successfully be used to compare the MLO located in the phloem of affected plants with those eventually cultured from the same plants. In California and Morocco periwinkles naturally infected with both Spiroplasma citri and MLO have been reported. With such doubly infected plants, the symptom expression has been that characteristic of the MLO disease (phyllody or stolbur), not that given by S. citri. Only S. citri can be cultured from such plants, but this does not indicate that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease expressed by the plant. In California many nonrutaceous plants have been found to be infected with S. citri. Stubborn affected citrus trees represent an important reservoir of S. citri, and Circulifer tenellus is an active leafhopper vector of S. citri. Hence, it is not surprising that in California MLO-infected fruit trees could also become infected with S. citri but it would not mean that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease. Criteria are discussed that are helpful in distinguishing between MLO infections and S. citri infections. PMID:7287398

Bove, J M

1981-07-01

350

Encapsulation plant at Forsmark  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate report.

Nystroem, Anders

2007-08-15

351

Encapsulation plant at Forsmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate report

2007-01-01

352

Technical services for power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The services offered cover damage investigations, preventive investigations, advice, damage research, and development of new methods to prevent damage. The power plant technology for electricity supply to communities and industries is a priority area. Activities cover coal-, oil- and gas-fired power plants, hydroelectric power stations, nuclear and solar power plants as well as wind power plants, including practically all plant components. (DG)

1990-01-01

353

Theories Behind Plant Tissue Culture  

Science.gov (United States)

When introducing a foreign gene into a target genome in plant tissue, you need to grow the transgenic cell to a complete plant. This is done by plant tissue culture, a biotechnique based on the concept that an organ, tissue or cell of a plant can be manipulated to grow back into a complete plant.

354

SITE-SPECIFIC WATER QUALITY STUDIES OF THE STRAIGHT RIVER, MINNESOTA: COMPLEX EFFLUENT TOXICITY, ZINC TOXICITY, AND BIOLOGICAL SURVEY RELATIONSHIPS  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparative laboratory toxicity tests using Ceriodaphnia reticulata and the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas were conducted to establish relationships between the toxicity of a sewage treatment plant effluent containing high concentrations of zinc, toxicity of the effluent in t...

355

The Plant – Pathogen Interactions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interaction between plants and their pathogens is complex, involving multifaceted recognition of pathogens by the plants and, on the other hand, subtle evasion from the pathogens. Plants perceive pathogens through direct recognition of common molecular patterns in microbes and direct recognition of effectors or their perturbation on cellular components by the pathogens. Recognition of microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns triggers innate immunity that renders plants resistant to most potential microbial pathogens. Recognition-dependant immunity in plants largely relies on polymorphism of resistance gene products that confer specificity towards host-specialised pathogens, which, in turn, induces more specific resistance that is effective against host-specialised pathogens. The deployment of effective resistance involves signalling of pathogen recognition through complex signalling cascades, transcriptional reprogramming, and defence-related genes, which all contribute to an arrest of pathogen growth. Our current insights into effector biology and to which the plants respond, provide a detailed information on the evolutionary arms race between plants and their pathogens. These will lead to an improvement of current strategies for crop improvement and protection.

CAHYA PRIHATNA

2009-12-01

356

Immobilized plant cell reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of plant cells for the production of biochemicals represents a new area of biotechnological exploration. The techniques envisioned for industrial processes are related to those developed for microorganisms and a strong emphasis should be placed on immobilized cell systems. This review examines the spectrum of products that are synthesized by higher plants and the immobilization techniques that are suited to entrap plant cells from suspension culture. Different reactor configurations are described. Both packed-bed reactors with alginate-entrapped cells and hollow-fibre cartridges with sequestered cells have utility for the continuous production of biochemicals. 58 references

Prenosil, J.E.; Pedersen, H.

1983-09-01

357

Plant and Cell Physiology  

Science.gov (United States)

This journal has recently been made available online. The Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists, in combination with Oxford Journals Online, has posted recent issues of the journal Plant and Cell Physiology, an international journal covering original research in the fields of "physiology, biochemistry, biophysics, chemistry, molecular biology, cell biology and gene engineering of plants and micro-organisms." Online coverage includes full-text and abstracts from July 2000 to the present. Note that the electronic version of this journal is free through the end of 2000.

358

Merchant plants way off  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It may be years before merchant plants emerge in Asia, even though they have cropped up in many Latin America countries, as well as the US and UK. While developers, lawyers and bankers working on the deals have various opinions about why Asia is not ready for merchant plants, one overriding factor seems to emerge: Asian countries` history of central control all but rules out merchant plants, which stand the best chance of survival in countries with an established record of competitive, private power markets. (author)

Nielsen, K.; Mulhern, J.

1997-08-01

359

Projected electric power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Projections show over 250 steam-electric and hydroelectric units beginning operation within the next 20 years in the US. The coal-fired, nuclear, geothermal, and hydroelectric plants listed in this report will add about 137 GWe (gross) to US electric capacity. Seven new units have begun operation since the last report. Other notable changes include the licensing of several nuclear plants, the removal of 14 coal-fired units from the data base, and the addition of five hydroelectric units. The report describes all known projected plants and lists architect/engineering firms, construction companies, and boiler and turbine/generator manufacturers if they are known

1985-01-01

360

PLANT BIOPHYSICS: Forcible Entry  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. When fungal pathogens land on a leaf surface, they can use various mechanisms for entering the plant. Some species form specialized infection structures called appressoria which can generate large pressures and are believed to enter the plant by breaking the leaf surface. Bechinger et al. (page 1896) use an optical waveguide to visualize and quantify the pressures the appressoria exert, and provide the first direct evidence for the ability of appressoria to exert sufficient force for mechanical infection of plants.

Nicholas J. Talbot (University of Exeter;School of Biological Sciences)

1999-09-17

 
 
 
 
361

Retrofit baseload LNG plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on significant economic savings which result from revamp strategies that start with identification of objectives and constraints, followed by and evaluation of alternatives and an implementation of selected tasks. Several years after the startup of a baseload LNG plant, improving existing production trains or adding new trains to increase production capacity are usually under consideration. The main objective is to maximize net LNG delivered to tankers and increase plant reliability and safety. Constraints are usually manifested as equipment bottlenecks, storage capacity limitations or regulatory requirements. A well-planned performance test, along with plant simulations, is needed to locate hidden bottleneck

1992-01-01

362

Boosting plant performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Innovative technology (Synetix UK) has been applied to relieve a bottleneck in a hydrogen/syngas production unit in Italy. The technology was based on conventional steam reforming with an oxygen blown secondary reformer (OBSR). Figures show (1) the plant configuration (2) the integration of the post reformer in the existing plant; (3) the integration of the OBSR in the existing plant; (4) the Synetix secondary reformer and (5) the DCS printout of operating data at design capacity. Tables show (a) comparison between operating data with various options and (b) process variables before and after revamping. A 20% increase in throughput was achieved.

Loiacono, O.; Cicarelli, A. [KTI SpA (Italy); Papaleo, D.; De Pasquale, G. [Condea (Italy); Farnell, P. [Synetix (United Kingdom)

2001-02-01

363

Pretraining plant operators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new approach to training utility plant operators who can cope with the increasing technological demands of plant operation precedes industry training programs with formal entry-level training at educational and research facilities. This pretraining allows potential operators to be screened and offers an appropriate curriculum prior to employment. The educational guidelines can be set out in a manual and reinforced with qualification tests, counseling, and student assessments. Classroom instruction can give students a basic knowledge of plant procedures. Students who aim for managerial positions can continue beyond the vocational technical setting to university courses. (DCK)

George, T.J. (Pope, Evans and Robbins Inc., Fairmont, WV); Claypoole, G.T.; Sherren, D.C.

1980-06-01

364

Plant Health Strategy for England  

May 8, 2000 ... To organise the activities relevant to plant health (including ... Plant pests can \\reduce yield and/ or marketability of produce and have costs, both financial .... \\Develop a communications strategy for plant health issues to cover ...

365

Plant design and nuclear power plant protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beginning with a modern design for a nuclear power plant, the study examines the enhancement of protection which may be achieved by design changes. The degree of enhancement is examined in terms of potential reduction in the number of vital areas and increased probability of adversary sequence interruption. Impacts considered include operational constraints and increased capital and operating costs. The study concludes that structural design changes alone do not provide significant increases in protection but that such changes may facilitate physical protection

1981-03-08

366

New Plants-FOSS Module  

Science.gov (United States)

The New Plants Module provides experiences that heighten students' awareness of the diversity of life in the plant kingdom. Students care for plants to learn what they need to grow and develop. They observe the structures of flowering plants and discover ways to propagate new plants from mature plants (from seeds, bulbs, roots, and stem cuttings). They observe and describe changes that occur as plants grow, and organize their observations on a calendar and in a journal. The site is undergoing changes. To view from the original, archived site: http://archive.fossweb.com/modulesK-2/NewPlants/index.html

Web, Foss

2011-12-14

367

Higher plant cellulose synthases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The sole function of cellulose synthases, which are found in plants bacteria, fungi, and animals, is to produce the biopolymer cellulose. Although no crystal structure has yet been solved, a considerable amount is known about their structure, function and evolution.

Richmond, Todd

2000-01-01

368

Bioassays with Fast Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Instructional materials for experimenting to learn what will happen to your Fast Plant if you subject it to a 10% liquid detergent solution? Experiment to determine the effects of substances in the environment on living organisms.

Program, The W.

369

Kakkonda Geothermal Power Plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

A brief general description is given of a geothermal resource. Geothermal exploration in the Takinoue area is reviewed. Geothermal drilling procedures are described. The history of the development at the Takinoue area (the Kakkonda Geothermal Power Plant)...

R. DiPippo

1979-01-01

370

Sand, Plants and Pants  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners explore how the application of nano-sized particles or coatings can change a bigger materialâs properties. Learners investigate the hydrophobic properties of plants, nano-fabric pants and magic sand.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Houston, Children'S M.

2014-06-04

371

KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is a real time engineering simulator based on the KWU computer programs used in plant transient analysis and licensing. The primary goal is to promote the understanding of the technical and physical processes of a nuclear power plant at an on-site training facility. Thus the KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is available with comparable low costs right at the time when technical questions or training needs arise. This has been achieved by (1) application of the transient code NLOOP; (2) unrestricted operator interaction including all simulator functions; (3) using the mainframe computer Control Data Cyber 176 in the KWU computing center; (4) four color graphic displays controlled by a dedicated graphic computer, no control room equipment; and (5) coupling of computers by telecommunication via telephone

1986-08-01

372

Nuclear power plant decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of issues have to be taken into account before the introduction of any nuclear power plant in any country. These issues include reactor safety (site and operational), waste disposal and, lastly, the decommissioning of the reactor inself. Because of the radioactive nature of the components, nuclear power plants require a different approach to decommission compared to other plants. Until recently, issues on reactor safety and waste disposal were the main topics discussed. As for reactor decommissioning, the debates have been academic until now. Although reactors have operated for 25 years, decommissioning of retired reactors has simply not been fully planned. But the Shippingport Atomic Power Plant in Pennysylvania, the first large scale power reactor to be retired, is now being decommissioned. The work has rekindled the debate in the light of reality. Outside the United States, decommissioning is also being confronted on a new plane. (author)

1986-01-01

373

Towards the intelligent plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of Knowledge Based Systems (KBS) in nuclear power and industrial plants is currently under development at ANSALDO (Italy) Eng. R&D in collaboration with APEIRON, consulting in Expert System (ES) design and development. A most important obj...

A. D'Ambrosio A. Serventi

1987-01-01

374

Martin Drake power plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relatively old Martin Drake coal-fired plant at Colorado Springs is facing challenges to meet environmental requirements whilst satisfying power demands and remaining competition. The article describes measures taken and planned to tackle these challenges. 2 photos.

Schimmoller, B.K.

2005-08-01

375

Chitosan in Plant Protection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chitin and chitosan are naturally-occurring compounds that have potential in agriculture with regard to controlling plant diseases. These molecules were shown to display toxicity and inhibit fungal growth and development. They were reported to be active against viruses, bacteria and other pests. Fragments from chitin and chitosan are known to have eliciting activities leading to a variety of defense responses in host plants in response to microbial infections, including the accumulation of phytoalexins, pathogen-related (PR proteins and proteinase inhibitors, lignin synthesis, and callose formation. Based on these and other proprieties that help strengthen host plant defenses, interest has been growing in using them in agricultural systems to reduce the negative impact of diseases on yield and quality of crops. This review recapitulates the properties and uses of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives, and will focus on their applications and mechanisms of action during plant-pathogen interactions.

Abdelbasset El Hadrami

2010-03-01

376

07 tree planting  

...2009) NATURAL HERITAGE ...NH 007 TREES Trees and other plants are primary...European neighbours. THE IMPORTANCE OF TREES • They provide shelter from sun...and animals. THE IMPORTANCE OF TREES OXYGEN PRODUCED CARBON DIOXIDE ABSORBED...

377

Changes in Hydropower plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new organisational structure of the Operation Function completed the process of transformation of the Points of Operation to Hydro-Centres in the Hydro Power Plants in the Slovenske elektrarne. (author)

2010-01-01

378

Power plant chemistry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Review of publications in 1980 in the fields of: Guidelines, operating experience in nuclear power plants, corrosion problems, condensate purification, treatment of service water, preparation and treatment, environmental protection (air and water pollution abatement). (HP)

1981-01-01

379

Chitosan in Plant Protection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chitin and chitosan are naturally-occurring compounds that have potential in agriculture with regard to controlling plant diseases. These molecules were shown to display toxicity and inhibit fungal growth and development. They were reported to be active against viruses, bacteria and other pests. Fragments from chitin and chitosan are known to have eliciting activities leading to a variety of defense responses in host plants in response to microbial infections, including the accumulation of ph...

Abdelbasset El Hadrami; Adam, Lorne R.; Ismail El Hadrami; Fouad Daayf

2010-01-01

380

Dry alcohol production plant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatiz...

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Animal and Plant Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

What are the similarities and differences between plant cells and animal cells? Use the graphic organizer. Graphic Organizer Go here and look at the diagram. Make notes about the anatomy of an animal cell in your graphic organizer. Anatomy of an Animal Cell Go to this website and explore the typical animal cell. Press start and interact with the model. Typical Animal Cell Take the plant cell tutorial with this link. Interact ...

Wlcounts

2012-04-04

382

Thermonuclear power plant model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes a model of a thermonuclear power plant with a very detailed electrical substation. The model includes facilities such as an operational railroad, a train shed, a container crane and two diesel oil filling stations. The result is very eye-catching and most suitable for the classroom or science-fair events. A brief technical explanation on the components of real-world nuclear power plants and electrical substations is also given.

Esteves, Joa?o Sena; Sepu?lveda, Joa?o

2008-01-01

383

Thermonuclear power plant model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes a model of a thermonuclear power plant with a very detailed electrical substation. The model includes facilities such as an operational railroad, a train shed, a container crane and two diesel oil filling stations. The result is very eye-catching and most suitable for the classroom or science-fair events. A brief technical explanation on the components of real-world nuclear power plants and electrical substations is also given.

Esteves, Joa?o Sena; Sepu?lveda, Joa?o

2007-01-01

384

Cyanogenic glycosides in plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The presence of cyanogenic glycosides was determined in 70 plant species from the campus of the State University of Londrina, PR, Brazil, and a further 45 plant species from the Forestry Reserve on the Doralice Farm in Ibiporã, PR, Brazil. Of the vegetative species from the State University of Londrina, 7.1% showed cyanogenic glycosides: Manihot esculenta (Euphorbiaceae), Passiflora edulis (Passifloraceae), Macadamia ternifolia (Proteaceae), Prunus persica (Rosaceae) and Beloperone sp (Acant...

Francisco, Ilza A.; Maria Helena Pimenta Pinotti

2000-01-01

385

Sex Determination in Plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most dioecious plant species are believed to derive from hermaphrodite ancestors. The regulatory pathways that have been modified during evolution of the hermaphrodite ancestors and led to the emergence of dioecious species (with separate sexes) still remain unknown. Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant species harbouring XY sex chromosomes. To identify the molecular mechanisms involved in female organ suppression in male flowers of S. latifolia, we looked for genes potentially involved in t...

2007-01-01

386

Phenolics and Plant Allelopathy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Phenolic compounds arise from the shikimic and acetic acid (polyketide) metabolic pathways in plants. They are but one category of the many secondary metabolites implicated in plant allelopathy. Phenolic allelochemicals have been observed in both natural and managed ecosystems, where they cause a number of ecological and economic problems, such as declines in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure of natural forests, and replanting problems in orchards. Phenolic allelochemical ...

Zhao-Hui Li; Qiang Wang; Xiao Ruan; Cun-De Pan; De-An Jiang

2010-01-01

387

Cytoskeleton and plant organogenesis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The functions of microtubules and actin filaments during various processes that are essential for the growth, reproduction and survival of single plant cells have been well characterized. A large number of plant structural cytoskeletal or cytoskeleton-associated proteins, as well as genes encoding such proteins, have been identified. Although many of these genes and proteins have been partially characterized with respect to their functions, a coherent picture of how they interact to execute c...

Kost, Benedikt; Bao, Yi-qun; Chua, Nam-hai

2002-01-01

388

The plant information center  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Plant Information Center is a partnership of the North Carolina Botanical Garden, Unviersity of North Carolina (UNC) Herbarium, UNC School of Information and Library Science, McDougle Middle School, and Orange County Public Library. The intent of the Project is to connect the research community and the general public (including school children) to make greater use of primary research material and to nurture the public interest and enthusiasm in the study of trees, plants, and natural hist...

Daniel, Evelyn; White, Peter; Greenberg, Jane; Massey, James

2000-01-01

389

Modernizing nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power plants belonging to older generation can be backfitted to the status of modern plants. Replacement of all materials susceptible to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) ensures the integrity of the primary system, prolongs inspection intervals, and opens up the possibility to introduce the leak-before-break concept. Replacing stellite surfaces by materials containing no cobalt will improve the dose rate and, consequently, the working environment. Reduced maintenance cost and a higher capacity factor will enhance competitiveness. (orig.)

1998-10-01

390

Powder detergents production plant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for powder detergent production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories, in 1998. - 2000. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant with a capacity of 25,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Delta In", Zrenjanin, in 2000.This technology was an innovation, because new approach in mixing a powder materials was used, as well as introducing ...

Stankovi? Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.

2003-01-01

391

Conversion of war plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Peace movements, labour unions and scientists have plans for conversion of war production to peace production. At Blohm and Voss in BRD they are able to produce, instead of frigates, town heating systems, turbines and boilers for heating systems and heat exchangers. It is possible to produce ships for wind energy generation at sea. According to calculations the investments for the utility plants are 1500 DM per kW compared with 2000-4000 DM for coal or nuclear power plants.

Prins, J.

1983-06-01

392

Maintenance in power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Conference proceeding about lectures on power plant maintenance, which some of them have been already published in the journal, 'VGB-Kraftwerkstechnik'. The following topics are discussed: Data processing utilization in the maintenance domain of power plants, documentation systems, process control, repeating testing, practical maintenance, creep loaded materials, remote handling devices for inspection and installation of pipelines, as asbest free seals and packings. (GL)

1990-01-24

393

Thermal oxide reprocessing plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This extract from United Kingdom Parliamentary Proceedings covers Opposition opinion on the commissioning of the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at Sellafield on 28th June 1993. An amendment is debated which seeks to postpone, for economic, environmental and proliferation reasons, the opening of the THORP plant. The amendment also proposes that the fifteen year-old public inquiry should be updated as circumstances, economically and politically, have altered radically in that time. The amendment was defeated by 157 votes to 43. (UK).

Hughes, Simon (House of Commons, London (United Kingdom))

1993-06-28

394

Small hydro power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy sources are increasing in importance in a world which is more conscious of the environment than ever before. Small hydro-electric power stations have today assumed a new importance. Industrialised countries can produce considerable amounts of additional energy by restarting old plants and by using modern technology to make more efficient use of hydropower. In developing countries, small plants are required for rural electrification and many other purposes. (Author).

Kotisaari, Antti (Tamburbine (FI))

1991-07-01

395

Chemistry in power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the 29th and 30th of October, 1974, the Technische Vereinigung der Grosskraftwerks-Betreiber e.V. (VGB) held its VGB conference 'Chemistry in Power Plants 1974' - VGB feedwater conference 1974 - and informative exhibition in the Gruga hall in Essen. At this meeting, 11 reports were held in 2 days on the following issues: cooling water problems, measuring technique, chemistry in nuclear power plants, exhaust gas problems and water reprocessing. (orig./AK)

1975-04-01

396

Plant Plastid Engineering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Genetic material in plants is distributed into nucleus, plastids and mitochondria. Plastid has a central role of carrying out photosynthesis in plant cells. Plastid transformation is becoming more popular and an alternative to nuclear gene transformation because of various advantages like high protein levels, the feasibility of expressing multiple proteins from polycistronic mRNAs, and gene containment through the lack of pollen transmission. Recently, much progress in plastid engineering has...

Wani, Shabir H.; Haider, Nadia; Kumar, Hitesh; Singh, N. B.

2010-01-01

397

Plant secretome proteomics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The plant secretome refers to the set of proteins secreted out of the plant cell into the surrounding extracellular space commonly referred to as the apoplast. Secreted proteins maintain cell structure and acts in signaling and are crucial for stress responses where they can interact with pathogen effectors and control the extracellular environment. Typically, secreted proteins contain an N-terminal signal peptide and are directed through the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi pathway. However, in p...

Alexandersson, Erik; Ali, Ashfaq; Resjo?, Svante; Andreasson, Erik

2013-01-01

398

Plant redox proteomics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In common with other aerobic organisms, plants are exposed to reactive oxygen species resulting in formation of post-translational modifications related to protein oxidoreduction (redox PTMs) that may inflict oxidative protein damage. Accumulating evidence also underscores the importance of redox PTMs in regulating enzymatic activities and controlling biological processes in plants. Notably, proteins controlling the cellular redox state, e.g. thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, appear to play dual ...

Navrot, Nicolas; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Ha?gglund, Per

2011-01-01

399

Plants for cleansing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phyto-remediation, an emergent and promising technique, uses the natural abilities of plants to accumulate or to degrade some noxious compounds present in soils, waters or sediments. It is an ecological and cheap alternative to the classical techniques used for cleansing. Very recently, a new plant has been found: Lupinus; it is able to exhaust the soils of herbicides and insecticides as toxic as atrazine. (O.M.)

2004-03-01

400

Nuclear reactor power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nuclear power plant has a main prestressed concrete pressure vessel housing the core, and, in pods, the heat exchangers, low power turbine, circulators, etc., but a separate pressure vessel for the power turbine connected to the main vessel for the supply of working fluid. A greater flexibility of plant layout results, for the position of the turbo-alternator line is independent of the main vessel. (U.S.)

1975-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Safety in nuclear plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Safety of BNFL's nuclear processing plant, THORP, under construction in Cumbria, is of paramount importance, and will be achieved by a combination of operator control through the distributed control system (DCS) and separate safety systems. In certain parts of the plant the number of separate safety systems required was sufficiently high that the use of a programmable logic controller (PLC) based protection system, rather than a conventional hard wired system, was justified. The plant control requirements for THORP are provided for by a distributed control system (DCS) comprising some 60 distributed control units (DCUs) located throughout the THORP building. The information necessary for plant control is fed back to seven operator consoles located in the central control room, and the system is implemented using Taylor MOD 300 series equipment. In addition to the DCS there are four other systems in the plant which contribute to the overall safety of operations. There are the safety trips (with which this paper is concerned), hard wired alarms, emergency shutdown system and radiological protection system. The safe shutdown of each system and the PLC monitoring are discussed. Safety assessment shows that plants will be adequately safe. One aspect of this is that failure of a single programmable system will not result directly in a hazard. (author)

1989-01-01

402

Power plants 2010. Lectures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proceedings include the following lectures: Facing the challenges - new structures for electricity production. Renewable energies in Europe - chances and challenges. Nuclear outlook in the UK. Sustainable energy for Europe. Requirements of the market and the grid operator at the electricity production companies. Perspectives for the future energy production. Pumped storage plants - status and perspectives. Nuclear power/renewable energies -partners or opponents? New fossil fired power stations in Europe - status and perspectives. Nuclear energy: outlook for new build and lifetime extension in Europe. Biomass in the future European energy market - experiences for dong energy. Meeting the EU 20:20 renewable energy targets: the offshore challenges. DESERTEC: sustainable electricity for Europe, Middle East and North Africa. New power plants in Europe - a challenge for project and quality management. Consideration of safely in new build activities of power plants. Challenges to an integrated development in Maasvlakte, Netherlands. Power enhancement in EnBW power plants. Operational experiences of CCS pilot plants worldwide. Two years of operational experiences with Vattenfall's oxyfuel pilot plant. Pre-conditions for CCS. Storage technologies for a volatile generation. Overview: new generation of gas turbines.

2010-09-22

403

Plant monitoring device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The monitoring device of the present invention is most suitable to early detection for equipment abnormality, or monitoring of state upon transient conditions such as startup and shutdown of an electric power plant, a large-scaled thermonuclear device and an accelerator plant. That is, in existent moitoring devices, acquired data are stored and the present operation states are monitored in comparison. A plant operation aquisition data reproduction section is disposed to the device. From the past operation conditions stored in the plant operation data aquisition reproducing section, the number of operation cycles that agrees with the present plant operation conditions is sought, to determine the agreed aquired data. Since these aquired data are time sequential data measured based on the standard time determined by the operation sequence, aquired data can be reproduced successively on every sample pitches. With such a constitution, aquired data under the same operation conditions as the present conditions are displayed together with the measured data. Accordingly, accurate monitoring can be conducted from the start-up to the shutdown of the plant. (I.S.)

1990-02-14

404

Groundbreaking biodiesel plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Construction work on the world's first, biodiesel production plant to be based on Neste Oil's groundbreaking NExBTL technology is making good progress at the company's Porvoo refinery. Production at the plant, which has been designed 1:o produce 170,000 t/a, is due to begin next year. Mechanical completion is scheduled for March 2007. Foundation work on the process area of the new plant has moved ahead well this year. The installation of structural steel began in March, and work on the new substation needed for the plant ha also begun. The foundations for the plant's raw material and product storage facility will be completed on a phased basis, after which construction of the storage tanks themselves will begin. The framework of the structure housing the plant's pre-treatment unit is advancing, and engineering companies around Finland are busy manufacturing process equipment and reactor vessels.

NONE

2006-07-01

405

Uranium speciation in plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detailed knowledge of the nature of uranium complexes formed after the uptake by plants is an essential prerequisite to describe the migration behavior of uranium in the environment. This study focuses on the determination of uranium speciation after uptake of uranium by lupine plants. For the first time, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy were used to determine the chemical speciation of uranium in plants. Differences were detected between the uranium speciation in the initial solution (hydroponic solution and pore water of soil) and inside the lupine plants. The oxidation state of uranium did not change and remained hexavalent after it was taken up by the lupine plants. The chemical speciation of uranium was identical in the roots, shoot axis, and leaves and was independent of the uranium speciation in the uptake solution. The results indicate that the uranium is predominantly bound as uranyl(VI) phosphate to the phosphoryl groups. Dandelions and lamb's lettuce showed uranium speciation identical to lupine plants. (orig.)

2003-01-01

406

Mercury and power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mercury can accumulate in the food chain and is potentially toxic to humans and wildlife, and can also be transported by rainfall and dust clouds. An estimated 60 per cent of mercury entering the ecosystem globally comes from anthropogenic sources. Coal-fired power plants in Alberta emit 1,200 kg of mercury a year, accounting for 90 per cent of the province's total annual mercury emissions. This document lists the requirements that must be in place by 2005 for mercury emissions from coal-fired plants. By March 31, 2007, coal-fired plants will be required to submit proposals on how they will capture at least 70 per cent of mercury emissions, with all proposals being subject to stakeholder input prior to submission. Technology is required to be in place for mercury emission by the end of 2010. By 2011, coal-fired plants in Alberta will have mercury emission limits and monitoring requirements. It was noted that continuous improvement in emissions control is part of Alberta's approach. There will be an ongoing review of standards beginning in 2008, and every 5 years after that. In addition, plants must submit proposals for capturing 80 per cent of their mercury emissions by the end of 2012. By 2010, overall mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in Alberta are expected to drop by 50 per cent.

NONE

2005-06-01

407

A modular reactor plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a new concept in liquid metal reactors that is being developed by General Electric under contract to the Department of Energy. This concept is called the Modular Reactor Plant. While this effort is not expected to have a near-term impact, it is directed toward three principal issues currently affecting nuclear power in the United States. First, plant costs have escalated to the point where the startup of new plants require large electric rate increases. Second, the cost of new plants coming on-line today vary by as much as a factor of three. And, third, nuclear construction times often exceed the utilities prudent planning cycle. This paper describes how General Electric's Modular Reactor Plant addreses these issues through shop fabrication and assembly, rail shipment to the site for rapid installation of nuclear components and inherent reactor protection. In addition, it is expected the modular reactor plant will reduce the current cost of development and demonstration of liquid metal reactors to an affordable level

1984-04-01

408

Center for Plant Conservation-Plant Conservation Education Aids: Plants in Peril  

Science.gov (United States)

This Plants in Peril website was created by the Center for Plant Conservation as a "guide to exploring biodiversity and rare native plant conservation for middle school educators." The site contains clear, concise informational pages on subjects like What is Biodiversity?, Plants and People, and Challenges of Saving Plants in Peril. Additionally, the site offers teacher guidelines for four plant conservation activities including Biodiversity Dilemmas, Scavenger Hunt, and more. Links are also provided for relevant educator resources and action project ideas.

409

Biofuelled heating plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to serve as a basis to enable establishment and operation of small and medium-sized bio-fuel plants, district heating plants and local district heating plants. Furthermore, the purpose of this report is to serve as a guideline and basis when realizing projects, from the first concept to established plant. Taking into account all the phases, from selection of heating system, fuel type, selection of technical solutions, authorization request or application to operate a plant, planning, construction and buying, inspection, performance test, take-over and control system of the plant. Another purpose of the report is to make sure that best available technology is used and to contribute to continuous development of the technology. The report deals mainly with bio-fuelled plants in the effect range 0.3 to10 MW. The term 'plant' refers to combined power and heating plants as well as 'simpler' district heating plants. The last-mentioned is also often referred to as 'local heating plant'. In this context, the term bio fuel refers to a wide range of fuel types. The term bio fuel includes processed fractions like powders, pellets, and briquettes along with unprocessed fractions, such as by-products from the forest industry; chips and bark. Bio fuels also include straw, energy crops and cereal waste products, but these have not been expressly studied in this report. The report is structured with appendixes regarding the various phases of the projects, with the purpose of serving as a helping handbook, or manual for new establishment, helping out with technical and administrative advice and environmental requirements. Plants of this size are already expanding considerably, and the need for guiding principles for design/technology and environmental requirements is great. These guiding principles should comply with the environmental legislation requirements, and must contain advice and recommendations for bio fuel plants in this effect range, also in reference to the environmental legislation. This means, among other things, that the suggested environmental requirements should be realistic so that they can be fulfilled, but there will also be a strong motive to raise the requirements, but not so high that the new establishment of bio fuelled plants is held back in favour of old-fashioned routine technology or fossil fuels. Concurrent with the expansion of bio fuel plants in Sweden, there is an increasing need for clear and simple practical handling of this type of project in its different phases: The selection of heating system/fuel; The selection of technical solutions; Application or authorization according to environmental legislation; Design and purchasing; Inspection and performance test; Operation and control system. The selection of burning and flue gas cleaning techniques is dependent on the kind of fuel used, and the fuel's moisture content. Pellet burning furnace is the easiest and most developed solution for plants in the smaller range, and grate firing is the best solution for the bigger plants. Pulverized bio fuel burning is not used to a great extent in this particular effect range. Depending on the size and effect of the plant, the plant establishment requires authorization request according to the environmental legislation. The authorization request is different depending on the effect of the plant and the distinction between the two possible kinds is at 10 MW. The term plant size refer to the fuel supplied for all the plant's existing furnaces, which means that several plants need authorization although the effects of the individual bio fuel furnace is lower than 10 MW. An example of an EIA, which is a part of an application or authorization request, is included as an appendix. Flue gas dust cleaning is always required in this effect range. The most frequent cleaning equipment is dynamic separators, (such as multi cyclone batteries), fabric filters, (such as bag filters), and electrical partition filters. Fabric filters or electrical partition filters is needed to meet the environment requi

2001-01-01