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Antimicrobial Activity of Root Bark of Salacia reticulata  

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Antimicrobial activity of chloroform and methanolic extracts of Salacia reticulata were tested against gram positive, gram negative and fungus strains using zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentrations. It was observed that both extracts have inhibitory effect towards all microorganisms used in the test. Chloroform extract was more effective than methanolic extract.

Choudhary, G. P.; Vijay Kanth, M. S.

2005-01-01

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Adverse pregnancy outcome in rats following exposure to a Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) root extract  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The root extract of Salacia reticulata Wight (family: Celastraceae) is used in Sri Lanka by traditional practitioners as a herbal therapy for glycemic control even during pregnancy. It is recognized that some clinically used antidiabetic drugs have harmful effects on pregnancy but the effects of the [...] S. reticulata root extract on reproductive outcome is unknown and deserves examination. We determined the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on the reproductive outcome of Wistar rats (250-260 g) when administered orally (10 g/kg) during early (days 1-7) and mid- (days 7-14) pregnancy. The root extract significantly (P

W.D., Ratnasooriya; J.R.A.C., Jayakody; G.A.S., Premakumara.

2003-07-01

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Anti-proliferative effects of Salacia reticulata leaves hot-water extract on interleukin-1?-activated cells derived from the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis model mice  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Salacia reticulata (SR is a plant native to Sri Lanka. In ayurvedic medicine, SR bark preparations, taken orally, are considered effective in the treatment of rheumatism and diabetes. We investigated the ability of SR leaves (SRL to inhibit in vitro the interleukin-1? (IL-1?-activated proliferation of synoviocyte-like cells derived from rheumatoid arthritis model mice. Findings Inflammatory synovial tissues were harvested from type II collagen antibody-induced arthritic mice. From these tissues, a synoviocyte-like cell line was established and named MTS-C H7. To determine whether SRL can suppress cell proliferation and gene expression in MTS-C H7 cells, fractionation of the SRL hot-water extract was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, liquid-liquid extraction, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, and protease digestion. The 50% inhibitory concentration of the SRL hot-water extract against MTS-C H7 cells proliferation was ~850??g/mL. Treatment with a low dose (25??g dry matter per millilitre of the extract inhibited IL-1?-induced cell proliferation and suppressed the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP genes in MTS-C H7 cells. Various polyphenolic fractions obtained from HPLC and the fractions from liquid-liquid extraction did not affect cell proliferation. Only the residual water sample from liquid-liquid extraction significantly affected cell proliferation and the expression of MMP genes. The results of SDS-PAGE and protease digestion experiment showed that low molecular weight proteins present in SRL inhibited the IL-1?-activated cell proliferation. Conclusions We surmised that the residual water fraction of the SRL extract was involved in the inhibition of IL-1?-activated cell proliferation and regulation of mRNA expression in MTS-C H7 cells. In addition, we believe that the active ingredients in the extract are low molecular weight proteins.

Sekiguchi Yuusuke

2012-04-01

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Mutagenicity induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the medicinal plant Plathymenia reticulata Benth  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Plathymenia reticulata Benth has an anti-inflammatory effect and is capable of neutralizing the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu or Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, probably by precipitating venom proteins (an effect caused by plant tannins). The present study aimed to eval [...] uate the mutagenic activity of P. reticulata by using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test) and the micronucleus test in CHO-K1 cells. P. reticulata extract concentrations of 2.84, 5.68, 11.37, and 19.90 mg/plate were assayed by the Ames test using TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 bacterial strains, with (+S9) and without (-S9) metabolic activation. Concentrations of 5, 1.6 and 0.5 ?g/mL of P. reticulata extract were used for the micronucleus test. P. reticulata extract was mutagenic to TA98 (-S9) and showed signs of mutagenic activity in TA97a and TA102 (both -S9) strains. Micronucleus test CBPI values showed that the endogenous metabolic system increased the number of viable cells when compared to the non-activated samples and the micronucleus frequency increased when the cells were treated in the absence of S9. We concluded that P. reticulata extract may present direct mutagenic properties.

A, Della Torre; LBL, Albuquerque; NM, Farrapo; Y, Oshima-Franco; MG, Santos; RVS, Tavares; ACD, Rodas; CA, Dal Belo; CRP, Cardoso; EA, Varanda; FC, Groppo; PS, Lopes.

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Mutagenicity induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the medicinal plant Plathymenia reticulata Benth  

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Full Text Available Plathymenia reticulata Benth has an anti-inflammatory effect and is capable of neutralizing the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu or Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, probably by precipitating venom proteins (an effect caused by plant tannins. The present study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic activity of P. reticulata by using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test and the micronucleus test in CHO-K1 cells. P. reticulata extract concentrations of 2.84, 5.68, 11.37, and 19.90 mg/plate were assayed by the Ames test using TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 bacterial strains, with (+S9 and without (-S9 metabolic activation. Concentrations of 5, 1.6 and 0.5 ?g/mL of P. reticulata extract were used for the micronucleus test. P. reticulata extract was mutagenic to TA98 (-S9 and showed signs of mutagenic activity in TA97a and TA102 (both -S9 strains. Micronucleus test CBPI values showed that the endogenous metabolic system increased the number of viable cells when compared to the non-activated samples and the micronucleus frequency increased when the cells were treated in the absence of S9. We concluded that P. reticulata extract may present direct mutagenic properties.

A Della Torre

2011-01-01

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A REVIEW UPDATED ON ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF KIRGANELIA RETICULATA POIR (BAILL. : AN IMPORTANT HERBAL PLANT  

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Full Text Available Kirganelia reticulata (Poir. Baill. is known for its importance in various traditional medicines around the world. In present review covers a literature survey across from 1971 to 2014 until now. The some information collected from published literature on species of Kirganelia reticulata (Poir. Baill. (=Syn. Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir..The extract and the compounds isolated from Kirganelia reticulata show a wide spectrum of biological activities including antidiabetic, antibacterial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antiplasmodial, anticiceptive, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.

Rajesh Kumar Soni

2014-03-01

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PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND HPTLC PROFILING OF EXTRACTS OF SALACIA OBLONGA  

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Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Plants of medicinal importance though are quite well known among the Ayurvedic practitioners since years, yet many of them have not been standardized, validated and documented completely. Among such medicinally valuable plants, Salacia holds a place as an effective antidiabetic herb and many species of this plant are in use as anti-diabetics. The present study reports the phytochemical analysis of one of its species Salacia oblonga (SO (roots and stems, belonging to the family Celastraceae (bittersweet, through various biochemical and chromatographic methods. TLC and HPTLC analysis of six different extracts of SO revealed numerous bands, indicating the presence of diverse groups of phytocompounds, many of them are assumed to contribute significantly to its antioxidant activity as well as, other biological activities. This type of analysis can help in fingerprint profiling of the plant and its various species. The identification and characterization of the phytocompounds can further help in finding out molecular targets/mechanism of action of the constituents of this herb that are responsible for its biological activities.

Sujata Basu, Mamta Pant and Rachana*

2013-04-01

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REVIEW ON KIRGANELIA RETICULATA  

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Full Text Available In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and information on Kirganelia reticulata (Poir Family Euphorbiaceae, a medicinal herb used in the indigenous system of medicine. K. reticulata has been adored in almost all ancient ayurvedic texts for its extraordinary medicinal properties. K. reticulata is annual herbaceous climbing plant with long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties and has utilized for treatment of various ailments including, diuretic, diarrhoea, small pox and astringent. Wild range of chemical compound including, flavanoids, triterpenoids, alkaloids and glycosides have been isolated from the species. Their extracts have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. A compressive review of its ethanomedical uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant is prepared. Particular attention is given to its antibacterial, antiviral, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant effects so that its potential uses can be better evaluated. This review will definitely help for the researchers as well as clinicians dealing with K. reticulata to know its proper usage as this herb is seemed to be highly valuable, possessing many pharmacological / medicinal properties. Keywords: Euphorbiaceae, Kirganelia reticulate, phytochemistry, Pharmacological properties

Amol Kharat

2013-07-01

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Palinotaxonomia de espécies brasileiras de Salacia L. (Hippocrateaceae) / Palynotaxonomy of the Brazilian species of Salacia L. (Hippocrateaceae)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O estudo palinotaxonômico de Salacia L. teve como objetivo contribuir para a melhor caracterização, circunscrição e delimitação deste gênero. Os grãos de pólen de 21 espécies de Salacia foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados sob microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de varredura ( [...] MEV). A análise sob MEV foi utilizada visando a elucidação de dúvidas sobre a ornamentação da exina. Constatou-se que os grãos de pólen são predominantemente de tamanho médio, reticulados a microrreticulados, 3-colporados, geralmente com uma característica área apertural proeminente. Salacia é um gênero estenopolínico. Entretanto, o pólen permitiu a confecção da chave polínica e a separação de diferentes espécies ou grupo de espécies de Salacia com base nos resultados obtidos sob microscopia de luz. O presente trabalho confirmou, por meio dos grãos de pólen, a circunscrição e a delimitação genérica da Hippocrateaceae da América do Sul. Abstract in english The palynotaxonomic study of Salacia L. aimed to contribute to a better characterization as well as the circumscription and delimitation of this genus. The pollen grains of 21 species of the Salacia were studied. The pollen material was acetolyzed, measured, described and illustrated with photo or e [...] letronmicrography (SEM). The analysis in SEM was used in order to elucidate the exine sculpture. The data obtained were statiscally analysed according to sample sizes. The pollen grains of Salacia are generally of medium size, oblate-spheroidal, reticulate to microreticulate, 3-colporate predominantly with a characteristic prominent apertural area. Salacia is a stenopalynous genus. However it was possible to make pollinic key with the results here obtained in light microscopy, and to segregate Salacia species or group of species using pollen characters. The present work has corroborated, by means of the pollen grains, the circumscription and generic delimitation concerning the Hippocrateaceae of South America.

VANIA, GONÇALVES-ESTEVES; THEREZINHA SANT’ANNA, MELHEM.

2000-12-01

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Triterpenoids and ?-glucosidase inhibitory constituents from Salacia hainanensis.  

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Thirteen triterpenoids (1-13), including two new lupane triterpenoids, salacinins A and B (1 and 2), as well as one new friedelane triterpenoid, salacinin C (3), were isolated from the roots and stems of Salacia hainanensis. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR, and MS experiments. Compound 1 possesses rare 2,3-seco-lupane skeleton. Compounds 4, 6 and 7 showed inhibitory effects on ?-glucosidase in vitro. PMID:25073097

Yu, Mei-Hua; Shi, Zheng-Feng; Yu, Bang-Wei; Pi, En-Hao; Wang, He-Yao; Hou, Ai-Jun; Lei, Chun

2014-10-01

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ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CHEMOCONSTITUENTS OF ROOTS OF SALACIA MACROSPERMA  

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The ethanolic extract of roots of Salacia macrosperma (Hippocrataceae) exhibited significant in vitro antimicrobial activity. The ethanolic extract was fractionated with different solvents and all the fractions were screened for their antimicrobial spectrum against eight gram-positive, five gram-negative and ten fungal strains. Chloroform fraction followed by benzene fraction of enthanolic extract showed significant antimicrobial effect against all the microorganisms tested. The dose-dependen...

Venkatesarulu, V.; Kokate, C. K.; Rambhau, D.; Veeresham, C.

1992-01-01

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Studies on ?Kinnow? (Citrus reticulata Blanco. Decline in Relation to Soil-Plant Nutritional Status  

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Full Text Available ?Kinnow? decline was studied in relation to soil plant nutritional status under semi arid condition of Hisar (India. There were no differences between the soil pH, electrical conductivity and calcium carbonate of healthy and declining trees. The soil under the healthy trees had significantly higher organic carbon (0.46% than that under declining trees (0.35%. The nutrients viz., N, P, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe in the soil under healthy and declining trees did not differ significantly except K. Leaf N, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe were significantly more in the healthy trees. The deficiency of N, P, Zn and Mn in the leaves of both categories of trees could be attributed to low contents of these nutrients in the soil under healthy and declining trees. Growth, yield and fruit quality were better in healthy trees as compared to declining trees. The yield on kg per tree basis in declining trees reduced (8.43 kg/tree as compared to that in healthy trees (20.74 kg/tree. Low organic carbon, soil N, Zn and Mn content could be associated with the declining problem of ?Kinnow?.

Parveen KUMAR

2011-08-01

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Salacia campestris root bark extract: peroxidase inhibition, antioxidant and antiradical profile  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Espécies reativas do oxigênio (ERO) e radicais livres estão relacionados ao início ou à exacerbação de muitas doenças em organismos vivos; existindo portanto uma necessidade contínua por moléculas antioxidantes que inativem as ERO e radicais livres. Muitos estudos com extratos brutos de plantas têm [...] demonstrado propriedades antioxidantes e seqüestradoras de radicais livres. Espécies de Salacia são utilizadas, em muitos países, como remédio tradicional contra certas doenças e por suas propriedades antiinflamatórias. Neste estudo, o extrato bruto etanólico da casca da raiz da Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae) foi avaliado quanto à sua habilidade em seqüestrar radicais livres e espécies reativas do oxigênio; os resultados são expressos como porcentagem de inibição das espécies ativas. ScEtOH mostrou-se eficiente frente as espécies estudadas: radical DPPH (inibição obtida = 30%), ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1,8±0,8 ?g/mL), HOCl (IC50 = 1,7 ± 0,1 ?g/mL), O2•- (inibição obtida = 32%), and NO• (inibição obtida = 18%). A inibição da atividade peroxidásica foi avaliada através da oxidação do guaiacol catalisada pela hemina, HRP e mieloperoxidase (MPO); os dados mostram que 10 ?g/mL de ScEtOH promovem 54 e 51% de inibição, respectivamente para os sistemas da hemina e da HRP. No sistema da MPO, ScEtOH promoveu 50% de inibição na dose de 8,9 ?g/mL, enquanto a quercetina, um potente inibidor da MPO promoveu tal inibição com 1,35 ?g/mL. Abstract in english Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radical species have been implicated in initiating or accompanying many diseases in living organisms; there is thus, a continual need for antioxidants molecules to inactivate ROS/free radicals. Many studies of plants crude extracts have demonstrated free-radica [...] l scavenging and antioxidant action. Salacia species have long been used, in several countries, as traditional medicines against certain diseases and for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae) root bark ethanol extract (ScEtOH) was assessed for its ability to scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen species; the results were expressed as percentage inhibition of the active species. ScEtOH was efficient against studied species: DPPH radical (obtained inhibition = 30%), ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1.8±0.8 ?g/mL), HOCl (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.1 ?g/mL), O2•- (obtained inhibition = 32%), and NO• (obtained inhibition = 18 %). Peroxidase activity inhibition was evaluated through the guaiacol oxidation reaction catalyzed by hemin, HRP and myeloperoxidase (MPO); data showed that ScEtOH at 10 ?g/mL led to 54 and 51% of inhibition, respectively, for the hemin and HRP systems. In the MPO system, ScEtOH promoted a 50% inhibition at 8.9 ?g/mL, whereas quercetin, a powerful MPO inhibitor, inhibited this system at 1.35 ?g/mL.

José Carlos Rebuglio, Vellosa; Najeh Maissar, Khalil; Vânia Ortega, Gutierres; Vânia Aparecida de Freitas Formenton Macedo dos, Santos; Maysa, Furlan; Iguatemy Lourenço, Brunetti; Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria, Oliveira.

2009-03-01

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Biochemical characterization of selected plant species from Brazilian Savannas  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O Cerrado é constituído por inúmeras espécies vegetais com potencial econômico, as quais são utilizadas para os mais variados fins, como medicinal e nutricional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar e quantificar a presença de atividade enzimática de peroxidases e proteases e fatores antinutricion [...] ais, como lectinas e inibidores de proteases, além de polifenóis e taninos em algumas espécies nativas do Cerrado. O material vegetal utilizado foram sementes de Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá), Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca), Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada), Salacia crassiflora (Mart.) G. Don. (bacupari) e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro), coletadas na cidade de Goiânia e municípios de Jataí e Caldas Novas, estado de Goiás. O uso potencial destas plantas e suas enzimas na indústria de alimentos, poderia resultar em aplicações ao aparecimento de novos produtos a partir das matérias-primas tradicionais, além do uso de novas fontes de alimentos. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the presence of antinutritional compounds such as lectins and trypsin-like inhibitors, polyphenols and tannins, and enzymatic activity of peroxidases and proteases in the seeds of Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbar [...] il (jatobá), Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca), Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada), Salacia crassiflora Mart G. Don. (bacupari), and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro). The results suggested that these plants could be used as new source of food.

Samantha Salomão, Caramori; Claudinei Sousa, Lima; Kátia Flávia, Fernandes.

2004-06-01

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Leptadenia reticulata a Rasayana Herbs: A Review  

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Full Text Available Leptadenia reticulata is very valuable medicinal plant belonging to family Asclepiadaceae popularly known as Jivanti. It is specially known for its stimulant and restorative properties in Ayurveda and it also important constituent of many well reputed ayurvedic formulations like Chywanprash, Speman etc. Its principal constituents are leptadenol, leptidin ?-sitosterol, ?-amyrin acetate. It possesses the appetizer, aphrodisiac, anticancerous and antibacterial properties. This review is to compile its valuable properties and pharmacological activities under one platform.

V.K. Dixit

2010-01-01

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Use of an infrared thermometer for assessment of plant water stress in neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco  

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Full Text Available In general, water stress causes stomatal closure in citrus, and this leads to higher leaf temperature. Recently, it has been reported that infrared thermometry technique can be used for detecting stomatal closure indirectly to assess plant water stress. Therefore, it was proposed to apply to neck orange. An experiment was arranged as a completely randomized design. There were 3 treatments of watering levels: 1 wellwatering (W1, 2 3-day interval watering (W2, and 3 6-day interval watering (W3 with 6 replicates. Eighteen 2-year-old trees of neck orange were used, and each tree was grown in a container (0.4 m3 filled with mixed media of soil, compost and sand (1:1:1. During 18 days of the experimental period, it was found that leaf water potential and stomatal conductance of the plants in W2 and W3 treatments decreased with the progress of water stress. There was high correlation (r2 = 0.71** between leaf water potential and stomatal conductance as a linear regression (Y = 0.0044X-1.8635. Canopy temperature (Tc and air temperature (Ta of each tree were measured by an infrared thermometer, and Tc-Ta was assessed. At the end of the experimental period, it was found that Tc-Ta was significantly highest in the W3 treatment (3.5ºC followed by the of W2 treatment (2ºC, while it was lowest in the W1 treatment (1ºC. The relationship between Tc-Ta and stomatal conductance was high as polynomial (Y = 0.0002X2 0.0572X+3.9878, r2 = 0.70**. This indicated that stomatal closure or decreasing stomatal conductance caused increasing of Tc-Ta in the leaves. Hence, it suggests that infrared thermometer is a convenient device for the assessment of plant water stress in neck orange.

Sayan Sdoodee

2006-11-01

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Cassane diterpenes from Plathymenia reticulata  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Do lenho do caule de Plathymenia reticulata (Leguminosae) foram isolados dois novos diterpenos cassânicos: 16,18-diacetoxicass-13(15)-eno e 16-hidroxi-18-acetoxicass-13(15)-eno, além dos conhecidos diterpenos platiterpol, acetato de vinhaticila e vinhaticoato de metila. As estruturas foram determina [...] das com base em análise espectroscópica, envolvendo comparação com dados da literatura e transformações químicas. Abstract in english From trunk heartwood of Plathymenia reticulata (Leguminosae) two novel cassane diterpenes 16,18-diacetoxycass-13(15)-ene and 16-hydroxy-18-acetoxycass-13(15)-ene, and the known diterpenes plathyterpol, vinhaticyl acetate and methyl vinhaticoate were isolated. Structure determinations were accomplish [...] ed by spectroscopic analysis involving comparison with data from literature and chemical transformations.

Rosélia de S., Leal; Mary Anne S., Lima; Edilberto R., Silveira.

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Additional Coumarins from Kielmeyera reticulata  

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Full Text Available Three new 4-phenylcoumarins, 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(2'-hydroxy-3'-methyl-3'-butenyl-8-(4" -cinnamoyl-3"-methyl-1"-oxobutyl-4-phenylcoumarin, 7-hydroxy-8-(4"-cinnamoyl-3"-methyl-1" -oxobutyl-2'-(2-hydroxyisopropyl-dihydrofurano(5',4':5,6-4-phenylcoumarin, and 5,7-dihydroxy-8-(4"-cinnamoyl-3"-methyl-1"-oxobutyl-4-phenylcoumarin, along with the known 4-n-propylcoumarins, 7-hydroxy-8-(4"-cinnamoyl-3"-methyl-1"-oxobutyl-2',2'-dimethylpyrano (6',5':5,6-4-n-propylcoumarin, 5-hydroxy-6-(4"-cinnamoyl-3"-methyl-1"-oxobutyl-2',2' -dimethylpyrano(6',5':7,8-4-n-propylcoumarin, the xanthone, 2,3-methylenedioxyxanthone and delta-tocotrienol were isolated from the organic extracts of Kielmeyera reticulata stems .

Cruz Frederico G.

2002-01-01

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Constituintes químicos do caule de Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae: Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd.  

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Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes a and b-amirin, the steroids b-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants.

Rogério Nunes dos Santos

2008-01-01

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Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae); Constituintes quimicos do caule de Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae)  

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The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae) yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes {alpha} and {beta}-amirin, the steroids {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants. (author)

Santos, Rogerio Nunes dos; Silva, Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: mgvsilva@ufc.br; Braz Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais

2008-07-01

 
 
 
 
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Constituintes químicos do caule de Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae): Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd.  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae) yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes a and b-amir [...] in, the steroids b-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants.

Rogério Nunes dos, Santos; Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos, Silva; Raimundo, Braz Filho.

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Larvicidal activity of oil-resin fractions from the Brazilian medicinal plant Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae) / Atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina da planta medicinal brasileira Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) sobre o Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) foi avaliada em larvas de 3º estádio de Aedes aegypti, na busca de alternativas para o controle desse mosquito. As frações bioativas foram monitoradas quimicamente através de cromatografia de [...] camada delgada, analisada por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio (¹H e 13C) e espectrometria de massas. Os bioensaios foram realizados à temperatura de 28±1°C, 80±5% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 12h, com cinco repetições. A mortalidade foi determinada através do escurecimento da cápsula cefálica, após 24h de exposição das larvas às soluções. As frações mais ativas foram CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenos) e CRM5-7 (diterpeno labdano), que mostraram os valores de CL50 de 0,2 e 0,8ppm, respectivamente. Abstract in english Oil-resin fractions from Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) were evaluated for larvicidal activity on third larval instars of Aedes aegypti, in searching for alternative control methods for this mosquito. The bioactive fractions were chemically monitored by thin-layer chromatog [...] raphy, ¹H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Bioassays were performed using five repetitions, at a temperature of 28 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 80 ± 5% and light and dark cycles of 12h. Mortality was indicated by darkening of the cephalic capsule after 24h of exposure of the larvae to the solutions. The most active fractions were CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenes) and CRM5-7 (labdane diterpenes), which showed LC50 values of 0.2 and 0.8ppm, respectively.

Heloísa Helena Garcia da, Silva; Regina, Geris; Edson, Rodrigues Filho; Cleonice, Rocha; Ionizete Garcia da, Silva.

2007-06-01

23

Avaliação citotóxica em três linhagens de células tumorais das frações obtidas da casca do caule de Salacia crassifolia (MART. ex. Schult.) G. Dom. (Celastraceae) / Assessment of cytotoxicity in three tumor cell lines of the fractions attained from the stem bark of Salacia crassifolia (Mart. ex. Schult.) G. Dom (Celastraceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A utilização de plantas pela humanidade com fins medicinais é uma das formas mais antigas para tratamento, cura e prevenção de doenças, dentre elas o câncer, cujas espécies vegetais são encontradas em elevada diversidade no ecossistema. Com essa perspectiva, se optou por um arbusto típico do Cerrado [...] , Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae), para um screening inicial na determinação do potencial citotóxico desta espécie in vitro. Na medicina popular, S. crassifolia é utilizada no tratamento de problemas renais, tosse crônica, dores de cabeça, cicatrizantes, ulcerogênicas e na terapia da malaria. As frações: hidroalcoólica (SCCcM-W), diclorometânica(SCCcM-D), hexânica (SCCcM-H) e acetato de etila (SCCcM-A) da casca do caule foram submetidas a testes de citotoxicidade in vitro frente às linhagens MDA-MB-435(melanoma), HCT-8 (cólon-humano) e SF-295 (sistema nervoso central) utilizando o método colorimétrico MTT. As frações hexânica (SCCcM-H) e de acetato de etila(SCCcM-A) foram aquelas que proporcionaram citotoxicidade significativas frente às células tumorais analisadas. Abstract in english For millennia humans have been using plants for medicinal purposes to treat, cure, or prevent diseases, including cancer. Brazilian ecosystem has a high diversity of plant species. From this perspective, a species found in the Cerrado, Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae), was selected, for an initial [...] screening to determine the cytotoxic potential of this species "in vitro". S. crassifolia has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat kidney diseases, chronic cough, headaches, healing, ulcerogenic, and for treatment of malaria. The fractions: hydroalcoholic (SCCcM-W), dichloromethane(SCCcM-D), hexane (SCCcM-H) and ethyl acetate (SCCcM-A) from the stem bark were tested for cytotoxicity "in vitro" to within MDA -MB-435(melanoma), HCT-8 (human-colon), and SF-295 (CNS) using the MTT colorimetric method. The hexane (SCCcM-H) and ethyl acetate (SCCcM-A) fractions were those that provided significant cytotoxicity against analyzed tumor cells.

Clayton, Rodrigues de Oliveira; Antânio Calos, Severo Menezes; Manoel O., de Moraes; Letícia, de Melo Vieira; Adriana, Gomes Pereira; Rosa, Silva Lima; Mirley Luciene, dos Santos.

2012-06-01

24

Avaliação citotóxica em três linhagens de células tumorais das frações obtidas da casca do caule de Salacia crassifolia (MART. ex. Schult.) G. Dom. (Celastraceae) / Assessment of cytotoxicity in three tumor cell lines of the fractions attained from the stem bark of Salacia crassifolia (Mart. ex. Schult.) G. Dom (Celastraceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A utilização de plantas pela humanidade com fins medicinais é uma das formas mais antigas para tratamento, cura e prevenção de doenças, dentre elas o câncer, cujas espécies vegetais são encontradas em elevada diversidade no ecossistema. Com essa perspectiva, se optou por um arbusto típico do Cerrado [...] , Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae), para um screening inicial na determinação do potencial citotóxico desta espécie in vitro. Na medicina popular, S. crassifolia é utilizada no tratamento de problemas renais, tosse crônica, dores de cabeça, cicatrizantes, ulcerogênicas e na terapia da malaria. As frações: hidroalcoólica (SCCcM-W), diclorometânica(SCCcM-D), hexânica (SCCcM-H) e acetato de etila (SCCcM-A) da casca do caule foram submetidas a testes de citotoxicidade in vitro frente às linhagens MDA-MB-435(melanoma), HCT-8 (cólon-humano) e SF-295 (sistema nervoso central) utilizando o método colorimétrico MTT. As frações hexânica (SCCcM-H) e de acetato de etila(SCCcM-A) foram aquelas que proporcionaram citotoxicidade significativas frente às células tumorais analisadas. Abstract in english For millennia humans have been using plants for medicinal purposes to treat, cure, or prevent diseases, including cancer. Brazilian ecosystem has a high diversity of plant species. From this perspective, a species found in the Cerrado, Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae), was selected, for an initial [...] screening to determine the cytotoxic potential of this species "in vitro". S. crassifolia has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat kidney diseases, chronic cough, headaches, healing, ulcerogenic, and for treatment of malaria. The fractions: hydroalcoholic (SCCcM-W), dichloromethane(SCCcM-D), hexane (SCCcM-H) and ethyl acetate (SCCcM-A) from the stem bark were tested for cytotoxicity "in vitro" to within MDA -MB-435(melanoma), HCT-8 (human-colon), and SF-295 (CNS) using the MTT colorimetric method. The hexane (SCCcM-H) and ethyl acetate (SCCcM-A) fractions were those that provided significant cytotoxicity against analyzed tumor cells.

Clayton, Rodrigues de Oliveira; Antânio Calos, Severo Menezes; Manoel O., de Moraes; Letícia, de Melo Vieira; Adriana, Gomes Pereira; Rosa, Silva Lima; Mirley Luciene, dos Santos.

25

Gametic isolation in guppies (Poecilia reticulata)  

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Post-mating reproductive isolating mechanisms may be among the earliest reproductive barriers to emerge among incipient species. Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, populations in the Caroni and Oropouche drainages in Northern Trinidad exhibit marked genetic divergence and provide an ideal system in which to search for these barriers. We inseminated virgin females with equal amounts of sperm from two males, a ‘native’ male from the female's own population and a ‘foreign’ male from...

Ludlow, A. M.; Magurran, A. E.

2006-01-01

26

Social networks in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Social network theory is used to elicit details of the social structure of a population of free-ranging guppies, Poecilia reticulata. They were found to have a complex and highly structured social network, which exhibited characteristics consistent with the 'small world' phenomenon. Stable partner associations between individuals were observed, a finding that fulfils the basic prerequisite for the evolution of reciprocal altruism. The findings are discussed in relation to the ecology and evol...

Croft, Darren P.; Krause, Jens; James, Richard

2004-01-01

27

Female preference in guppies, Poecilia reticulata Peters  

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Observation was made to examine mode of female preference in guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters, to see whether females used relative or absolute preference modes. The materials included used six adult males and six adult females and independently manipulated the mean and the standard deviation (SD) of a preferred secondary sexual character of males (percentage of body area covered in orange). Female preference functions did not differ significantly with changes in the mean or the SD of orange...

Mullica Jaroensutasinee

2001-01-01

28

Chemical variability of Copaifera reticulata Ducke oleoresin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The copaiba tree (Copaifera spp.) produces an oleoresin which is highly valued due to its medicinal properties. The chemical composition of C. reticulata oleoresin was characterized, and its variability related to seasonal variation (dry and rainy seasons), to successive extractions, and to several factors associated with tree morphometry, disease, and surrounding vegetation structure was investigated. Oleoresin was collected from 24 C. reticulata individuals between October 2006 and March 2008. For seven individuals, oleoresin was extracted for a second time between three and nine months after the first extraction. For each tree, several morphometric variables, viz., the presence of termites, vines, and holes as well as the soil type and surrounding vegetation structure, were recorded. The chemical composition and concentration of the main volatile compounds were identified by GC/MS. Almost 100% of the constituents were sesquiterpenes, the three main ones being ?-caryophyllene, trans-?-bergamotene, and ?-bisabolene. A classification analysis separated the C. reticulata individuals in two main groups and further divided one of the main groups in two subgroups, which were defined by different concentrations of the three main compounds. The results showed high intra-population variability in the composition and concentration of sesquiterpenes, this being comparable to the interspecific variability. It was not possible to determine a clear influence of environmental, morphometrical, and structural factors on the oleoresin composition, although some compounds varied according to the soil type, the volume of oleoresin extracted, and the crown surface. PMID:21480513

Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Casado, Miguel A; das Graças Bichara Zoghbi, Maria; Célia Martins-da-Silva, Regina

2011-04-01

29

Antibacterial Activity of Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight. & Arn. (Asclepidaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Leptadenia reticulata of Asclepidaceae family is a shrub, originally property of Petroleum ether, Alcohol & Chloroform extract of L. reticulata. The antimicrobial testing was carried out by "Disc diffusion method". Amongst the tested three extracts, chloroform extract showed high antimicrobial activity against E. coli, alcoholic extract showed high antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while Petroleum ether extract showed antibacterial activity against Klebsilla pneumonae. PMID:22557325

Kalidass, C; Glory, M; Borgio, Francis; Manickam, V S

2009-04-01

30

Antibacterial Activity of Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight. & Arn. (Asclepidaceae)  

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Leptadenia reticulata of Asclepidaceae family is a shrub, originally property of Petroleum ether, Alcohol & Chloroform extract of L. reticulata. The antimicrobial testing was carried out by “Disc diffusion method”. Amongst the tested three extracts, chloroform extract showed high antimicrobial activity against E. coli, alcoholic extract showed high antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while Petroleum ether extract showed antibacterial activity against Klebsilla pneumonae

Kalidass, C.; Glory, M.; Borgio, Francis; Manickam, V. S.

2009-01-01

31

EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF IPOMEA CARNEA LEAVES ON GUPPY, POECILIA RETICULATA (PETERS  

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Full Text Available Ipomea carnea is a toxic plant causes severe damage to intestine, liver and kidney. In the present investigation ethanolic extract of I. carnea leaves was tested for its toxicity against fresh water fish guppy Poecilia reticulata using 0.025, 0.050, 0.075 and 0.1 mg/ml concentrations. The experiment was run in triplicate along with suitable control. Ethanolic extract of Ipomea carnea leaves showed toxic effect, causes mortality in guppy fishes. All concentrations of ethanolic extracts of I. carnea leaves were found toxic. Mortality of fishes increases with increase of time and concentrations. The 0.1mg/ml concentration of ethanolic extract of I. carnea leaves showed three times higher mortality than control in guppy fishes, Poecilia reticulata Peters. Further study is needed to isolate toxic principles present in I. carnea leaves and to be studied separately against guppy fishes to determine their toxicity.

D. D. Wanule and J. V. Balkhande

2012-06-01

32

In vitro efficacy of Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides and Copaifera reticulata against Leishmania chagasi.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the murine monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To determine the IC50 a MTT test (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was performed on promastigotes, and an in situ ELISA assay was conducted on amastigotes. Here, we demonstrate that oleoresin from C. reticulata was effective against both promastigotes (IC50 of 7.88 µg.mL-1) and amastigotes (IC50 of 0.52 µg.mL-1), and neither of the two treatments differed significantly (p > 0.05) from pentamidine (IC50 of 2.149 µg.mL-1) and amphotericin B (IC50 of 9.754 µg.mL-1). Of the three plant oils tested, only oleoresin showed no toxicity toward monocyte, with 78.45% viability after treatment. Inhibition of promastigote and amastigote growth and the lack of cytotoxicity by C. reticulata demonstrate that oleoresin may be a viable option for analyzing the in vivo therapeutic effects of leishmanicidal plants. PMID:23070424

Rondon, Fernanda Cristina Macedo; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Accioly, Marina Parissi; de Morais, Selene Maia; de Andrade-Júnior, Heitor Franco; de Carvalho, Camila Aparecida; Lima, Josemar Coelho; Magalhães, Hilton César Rodrigues

2012-01-01

33

Pollution Effect on the Cambial Structure of Citrus reticulata var. tangelos  

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This study includes investigation of the effect of pollution (radiations and coal-smoke) on the structure of vascular cambium of Citrus reticulata var. tangelos of family Rutaceae. The results obtained from the observations clearly shows that the plants under investigation shows a retarded radial growth under the influence of radiations as the length of fusiform initials reduces from 240 ?m under normal condition to 204 ?m under irradiated condition while the width of fusiform...

Khan, Moin A.; Badruzzaman Siddiqui, M.; Saima Bhat; Danish Shahab

2007-01-01

34

The growth of Neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco) scion on seedling and cutting of trifoliate orange hybrid rootstocks  

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The growth of Neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco) on seedling and cutting of trifoliate orange hybrid rootstocks was studied at the Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University in order to select the appropriate rootstock. The stem cross section, growth characteristic and isozyme pattern of Neck orange scion were investigated. One-year-old seedlings and cuttings (both with 0.3-0.4 mm stem diameter) of Troyer citrange, Swingle citrumelo and Neck or...

Thavorat, S.; Te-chato, S.; Lim, M.

2003-01-01

35

Gametic isolation in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Post-mating reproductive isolating mechanisms may be among the earliest reproductive barriers to emerge among incipient species. Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, populations in the Caroni and Oropouche drainages in Northern Trinidad exhibit marked genetic divergence and provide an ideal system in which to search for these barriers. We inseminated virgin females with equal amounts of sperm from two males, a 'native' male from the female's own population and a 'foreign' male from the other drainage. Artificial insemination ensured that mating order and mate choice did not affect the outcome. Paternities were assigned to the resulting broods using microsatellite markers. As predicted, sperm from native males had precedence over foreign sperm. Moreover, this effect was symmetrical for both drainages. In contrast, we detected no native sperm precedence in controls, in which females received sperm from the same and another population within the same drainage. Our results show that gametic isolation can arise between geographically proximate, though genetically divergent, populations of a single species and highlight the potential role of this process in speciation. PMID:16959638

Ludlow, A M; Magurran, A E

2006-10-01

36

In vitro efficacy of Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides and Copaifera reticulata against Leishmania chagasi / Eficácia in vitro de Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides e Copaifera reticulata sobre Leishmania chagasi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O aumento na incidência da Leishmaníase Visceral (LV) no Brasil deve-se à ineficácia das medidas de controle da doença. Além disso, não há tratamento efetivo para LV canina com drogas sintéticas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos óleos essenciais de Coriandrum sativum e de Li [...] ppia sidoides e do óleo-resina de Copaiferareticulata sobre promastigotas e amastigotas de Leishmania chagasi e analisar o grau de toxicidade sobre células monocíticas murinas RAW 264.7. Para determinar a CI50 sobre promastigotas foi usado teste MTT (brometo de 3-[4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il]-2,5-difeniltetrazólio) e sobre amastigotas foi realizado imunoensaio in situ pela técnica de ELISA. Os resultados obtidos comprovaram que o óleo-resina de C. reticulata foi o mais eficaz contra as formas promastigotas (CI50 de 7,88 µg.mL-1) e amastigotas (CI50 de 0,52 µg.mL-1) e em nenhum dos dois testes diferiu do controle pentamidina que obteve CI50 de 2,149 µg.mL-1, no teste sobre promastigotas, e anfotericina B que obteve CI50 de 9,754 µg.mL-1, nos testes com amastigotas (p > 0.05). Quanto à citotoxicidade apenas o óleo-resina não apresentou toxicidade com 78,45% de monócitos viáveis. Os resultados obtidos sobre promastigotas e amastigotas e a ausência de citotoxicidade do óleo-resina de C. reticulata evidenciam que este óleo-resina pode ser viável para a análise de seus efeitos terapêuticos em testes in vivo. Abstract in english The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils [...] of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the murine monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To determine the IC50 a MTT test (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was performed on promastigotes, and an in situ ELISA assay was conducted on amastigotes. Here, we demonstrate that oleoresin from C. reticulata was effective against both promastigotes (IC50 of 7.88 µg.mL-1) and amastigotes (IC50 of 0.52 µg.mL-1), and neither of the two treatments differed significantly (p > 0.05) from pentamidine (IC50 of 2.149 µg.mL-1) and amphotericin B (IC50 of 9.754 µg.mL-1). Of the three plant oils tested, only oleoresin showed no toxicity toward monocyte, with 78.45% viability after treatment. Inhibition of promastigote and amastigote growth and the lack of cytotoxicity by C. reticulata demonstrate that oleoresin may be a viable option for analyzing the in vivo therapeutic effects of leishmanicidal plants

Fernanda Cristina Macedo, Rondon; Claudia Maria Leal, Bevilaqua; Marina Parissi, Accioly; Selene Maia de, Morais; Heitor Franco de, Andrade-Júnior; Camila Aparecida de, Carvalho; Josemar Coelho, Lima; Hilton César Rodrigues, Magalhães.

2012-09-01

37

In vitro efficacy of Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides and Copaifera reticulata against Leishmania chagasi Eficácia in vitro de Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides e Copaifera reticulata sobre Leishmania chagasi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the murine monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To determine the IC50 a MTT test (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide was performed on promastigotes, and an in situ ELISA assay was conducted on amastigotes. Here, we demonstrate that oleoresin from C. reticulata was effective against both promastigotes (IC50 of 7.88 µg.mL-1 and amastigotes (IC50 of 0.52 µg.mL-1, and neither of the two treatments differed significantly (p > 0.05 from pentamidine (IC50 of 2.149 µg.mL-1 and amphotericin B (IC50 of 9.754 µg.mL-1. Of the three plant oils tested, only oleoresin showed no toxicity toward monocyte, with 78.45% viability after treatment. Inhibition of promastigote and amastigote growth and the lack of cytotoxicity by C. reticulata demonstrate that oleoresin may be a viable option for analyzing the in vivo therapeutic effects of leishmanicidal plantsO aumento na incidência da Leishmaníase Visceral (LV no Brasil deve-se à ineficácia das medidas de controle da doença. Além disso, não há tratamento efetivo para LV canina com drogas sintéticas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos óleos essenciais de Coriandrum sativum e de Lippia sidoides e do óleo-resina de Copaiferareticulata sobre promastigotas e amastigotas de Leishmania chagasi e analisar o grau de toxicidade sobre células monocíticas murinas RAW 264.7. Para determinar a CI50 sobre promastigotas foi usado teste MTT (brometo de 3-[4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il]-2,5-difeniltetrazólio e sobre amastigotas foi realizado imunoensaio in situ pela técnica de ELISA. Os resultados obtidos comprovaram que o óleo-resina de C. reticulata foi o mais eficaz contra as formas promastigotas (CI50 de 7,88 µg.mL-1 e amastigotas (CI50 de 0,52 µg.mL-1 e em nenhum dos dois testes diferiu do controle pentamidina que obteve CI50 de 2,149 µg.mL-1, no teste sobre promastigotas, e anfotericina B que obteve CI50 de 9,754 µg.mL-1, nos testes com amastigotas (p > 0.05. Quanto à citotoxicidade apenas o óleo-resina não apresentou toxicidade com 78,45% de monócitos viáveis. Os resultados obtidos sobre promastigotas e amastigotas e a ausência de citotoxicidade do óleo-resina de C. reticulata evidenciam que este óleo-resina pode ser viável para a análise de seus efeitos terapêuticos em testes in vivo.

Fernanda Cristina Macedo Rondon

2012-09-01

38

A mixture of Salacia oblonga extract and IP-PA1 reduces fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels  

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At present, lifestyle-related diseases are one of the most critical health issues worldwide. It has been reported that lipopolysaccharide derived from a Gram-negative bacteria (IP-PA1) symbiotic with wheat exhibited several advantageous biological effects, such as the reduction of plasma glucose levels in NOD mice and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in WHHL rabbits. In this study, the beneficial effects on plasma glucose and lipids of a tea (SI tea) consisting of IP-PA1 and Salacia (whic...

Nakata, Kazue; Taniguchi, Yoshie; Yoshioka, Noriko; Yoshida, Aya; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Takeru; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Miyake, Shin-ichiro; Kohchi, Chie; Kuroki, Masahide; Soma, Gen-ichiro

2011-01-01

39

Somatic embryogenesis in Citrus sinensis, C. reticulata AND C. nobilis x C. deliciosa  

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Full Text Available Most of the plant regeneration processes in citrus, through tissue culture, involve indirect somatic embryogenesis. The optimization of these processes is important for the development of in vitro plant improvement and micropropagation studies. Studies to evaluate the effect of different carbohydrates in somatic embryogenesis were conducted using calli from 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata, Blanco, 'Cravo' mandarin (C. reticulata, 'Itaboraí' sweet orange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck., 'Valencia' sweet orange (C. sinensis and 'Kinnow' mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro x C. deliciosa Tenore. The culture medium used was MT supplemented with sucrose, galactose, glucose, maltose or lactose with the following concentrations of 18, 37, 75, 110, and 150 mM. The culture medium used for the maturation of somatic embryos had 0, 15, 29, 44, 58 and 73 mM of sucrose, in presence or absence of 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal. Seventy-three mM of sucrose with 0.1 mg L-1 of GA3 in the presence or absence 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal was also tested. Overall, the carbohydrates galactose or lactose induced a higher number of somatic embryos. Sucrose concentrations of 58 and 73 mM generated a higher number of plantlets from mature embryos of 'Ponkan' mandarin and 'Valencia' sweet orange.

Ricci Adriana Patrícia

2002-01-01

40

Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Studies on the Leaf and Stem Bark of Annona reticulata Linn.  

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Full Text Available The present work was undertaken to establish the pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards of Leaf and Stem bark of Annona reticulata L. It is a highly apparent plant in ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The plant is traditionally used for the treatment of epilepsy, dysentery, cardiac problems, worm infestation, constipation, haemorrhage, antibacterial infection, dysuria, fever, and ulcer . No reports are available on the pharmacognostic nature and phytochemical studies of the leaf and stem bark , hence, the present study was carried out to investigate the same. All the parameters were studied according to the WHO & Pharmacopoeial guidelines. This parameters will help for correct identification of this plant for the future references.

Kalyani Pathak

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Salacia oblonga root improves postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: Activation of PPAR-?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salacia oblonga (SO) root is an Ayurvedic medicine with anti-diabetic and anti-obese properties. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-?, a nuclear receptor, plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of lipid metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that chronic oral administration of the water extract from the root of SO to Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, a genetic model of type 2 diabetes and obesity, lowered plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol (TC) levels, increased plasma high-density lipoprotein levels and reduced the liver contents of triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and the ratio of fatty droplets to total tissue. By contrast, the extract had no effect on plasma triglyceride and TC levels in fasted ZDF rats. After olive oil administration to ZDF the extract also inhibited the increase in plasma triglyceride levels. These results suggest that SO extract improves postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in ZDF rats. Additionally, SO treatment enhanced hepatic expression of PPAR-? mRNA and protein, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and acyl-CoA oxidase mRNAs in ZDF rats. In vitro, SO extract and its main component mangiferin activated PPAR-? luciferase activity in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and lipoprotein lipase mRNA expression and enzyme activity in THP-1 differentiated macrophages; these effects were completely suppressed by a selective PPAR-? antagonist MK-886. The findings from both in vivo and in The findings from both in vivo and in vitro suggest that SO extract functions as a PPAR-? activator, providing a potential mechanism for improvement of postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in diabetes and obesity

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The diet of Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea in southeastern Brazil  

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Full Text Available The ophiuroid Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825 occurs in the sediment-rocky shore interface, under small stones. Its diet is analyzed in this short communication. Specimens were collected at the Praia Grande beach, located on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in July, 2002 and January, 2003. The animals were fixed in 70% ethanol and dissected to obtain their stomach contents. Of the total (35, 77.1% (27 had ingested some kind of food and, among those, 81.4% (22 had more than one item. The mean number of food items per stomach was 1.9. Ophionereis reticulata is an omnivorous species, consuming sediment, green and red algae, and polychaetes.O ofiuróide Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825 ocorre na interface sedimento rocha de costões rochosos, sob pequenas pedras. Alguns aspectos de sua dieta alimentar foram analisados nesta nota. A amostragem foi realizada na Praia Grande, localizada no litoral norte do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os indivíduos, coletados em julho de 2002 e janeiro de 2003, foram fixados em álcool 70% e dissecados para obtenção de seus conteúdos estomacais. Do total (35, 77,1% (27 tinham ingerido algum tipo de alimento, e destes, 81,4% (22 possuíam mais de um item. O número médio de itens alimentares por estômago foi 1,9. Ophionereis reticulata é uma espécie onívora, consumindo sedimento, algas verdes e vermelhas, e poliquetas.

Leonardo Q. Yokoyama

2008-09-01

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The diet of Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) in southeastern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O ofiuróide Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825) ocorre na interface sedimento rocha de costões rochosos, sob pequenas pedras. Alguns aspectos de sua dieta alimentar foram analisados nesta nota. A amostragem foi realizada na Praia Grande, localizada no litoral norte do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os [...] indivíduos, coletados em julho de 2002 e janeiro de 2003, foram fixados em álcool 70% e dissecados para obtenção de seus conteúdos estomacais. Do total (35), 77,1% (27) tinham ingerido algum tipo de alimento, e destes, 81,4% (22) possuíam mais de um item. O número médio de itens alimentares por estômago foi 1,9. Ophionereis reticulata é uma espécie onívora, consumindo sedimento, algas verdes e vermelhas, e poliquetas. Abstract in english The ophiuroid Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825) occurs in the sediment-rocky shore interface, under small stones. Its diet is analyzed in this short communication. Specimens were collected at the Praia Grande beach, located on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in July, 2002 and [...] January, 2003. The animals were fixed in 70% ethanol and dissected to obtain their stomach contents. Of the total (35), 77.1% (27) had ingested some kind of food and, among those, 81.4% (22) had more than one item. The mean number of food items per stomach was 1.9. Ophionereis reticulata is an omnivorous species, consuming sediment, green and red algae, and polychaetes.

Leonardo Q., Yokoyama; Antonia C. Z., Amaral.

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Experience-Dependent Color Constancy in Guppies (Poecilia reticulata)  

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We investigated the ability to recognize the color of surfaces in fish (Poecilia reticulata), bred from birth in conditions of artificial light with constant spectral content. The capacity for color constancy significantly deteriorated when compared that to the control group. Further alteration of lighting conditions and transfer into natural daylight conditions restored the suppressed function to its normal level. We suggest that the color constancy function bel...

Intskirveli, I. E.; Roinishvili, M. O.; Kezeli, A. R.

2002-01-01

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Antifungal activity of Leptadenia reticulata Wight and Arn. aerial parts  

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Full Text Available

The petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of Leptadenia reticulata Wight and Arn. (Asclepiadaceae were studied for in vitro antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ruantti, Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Trichodermata viride and Trichodermata koningii respectively. The methanolic extract exhibited prominent antifungal activity against all the selected strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the extracts was performed by broth dilution method and the zone of inhibition was studied by agar disc diffusion method at concentrations of 2, 5 and 10mg/ml in DMSO. Cotrimazole (25?g/ml was used as reference control for antifungal studies. Results of MIC study revealed the antifungal activities of the extracts against the tested strains in between concentration ranges 50-400?g/ml. The present study indicates the potential usefulness of L. reticulata aerial parts as antifungal agent.

Keywords: Leptadenia reticulata Wight and Arn., Antifungal activity, Minimum inhibitory concentration, Zone of inhibition, Clotrimazole

M. K. Mishra

2011-04-01

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Evaluation of aeroponics for clonal propagation of Caralluma edulis, Leptadenia reticulata and Tylophora indica - three threatened medicinal Asclepiads.  

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The present study explores the potential of aeroponic system for clonal propagation of Caralluma edulis (Paimpa) a rare, threatened and endemic edible species, Leptadenia reticulata (Jeewanti), a threatened liana used as promoter of health and Tylophora indica (Burm.f.) Merill, a valuable medicinal climber. Experiments were conducted to asses the effect of exogenous auxin (naphthalene acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, indole-3-acetic acid) and auxin concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5gl(-1)) on various root morphological traits of cuttings in the aeroponic chamber. Amongst all the auxins tested, significant effects on the length, number and percentage of rooting was observed in IBA treated nodal cuttings. Cent per cent of the stem cuttings of C. edulis rooted if pre-treated with 2.0 gl(-1) of IBA for 5 min while 97.7 % of the stem cuttings of L. reticulata and 93.33 % of stem cuttings of Tylophora indica rooted with pre-treatment of 3.0 gl(-1) of IBA for 5 min. Presence of at least two leaves on the nodal cuttings of L. reticulata and T. indica was found to be a prerequisite for root induction. In all the species, the number of adventitious roots per cutting and the percentage of cuttings rooted aeroponically were significantly higher than the soil grown stem cuttings. Shoot growth measured in terms of shoot length was significantly higher in cuttings rooted aeroponically as compared to the cuttings rooted under soil conditions. All the plants sprouted and rooted aeroponically survived on transfer to soil. This is the first report of clonal propagation in an aeroponic system for these plants. This study suggests aeroponics as an economic method for rapid root induction and clonal propagation of these three endangered and medicinally important plants which require focused efforts on conservation and sustainable utilization. PMID:25049464

Mehandru, Pooja; Shekhawat, N S; Rai, Manoj K; Kataria, Vinod; Gehlot, H S

2014-07-01

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Identification of chemical compounds present in different fractions of Annona reticulata L. leaf by using GC-MS.  

Science.gov (United States)

GC-MS analysis of fractions prepared from hydro-alcoholic extract of Annona reticulata Linn (Family Annonaceae) leaf revealed the presence of 9,10-dimethyltricyclo[4.2.1.1(2,5)]decane-9,10-diol; 4-(1,5-dihydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-2-enyl)but-3-en-2-one; 3,7-dimethyl-6-nonen-1-ol acetate; 9-octadecenamide,(Z)-; glycerine; D-glucose,6-O-?-D-galactopyranosyl-; desulphosinigrin and ?-methyl-D-mannopyranoside as few of the major compounds in different fractions. The presence of these compounds in the plant has been identified for the first time. PMID:25050939

Rout, Soumya P; Kar, Durga M

2014-01-01

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EFFECT OF LEPTADENIA RETICULATA LINN ON STRESS MODULATED SEXUAL BEHAVIOR OF MALE RATS  

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Full Text Available In the day today life the persons living and working in the area were the environmental factors such as chemical, physical, or emotional, stress may adversely affect the testicular functions that is enhancement of testicular germ cell apoptosis will takes place. All the organisms survive by maintaining a dynamic equilibrium with their environment. The organization of this homeostasis exists at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels. But some of the physical, mental, or emotional stress acts as a threat to this equilibrium, So this alteration in the homeostasis by stress will cause decreased libido, changes in the motor activity, increased arousal, vigilance and increased tolerance of pain.So the aim of the present study was to determine whether the Leptadenia reticulata plant methanolic and chloroform extracts in the low 50mg/kg, mid 100mg/kg, high 250mg/kg and a safety 200mg/kg oral dose will overcome the stress induced sexual dysfunction or not. So to evaluate whether the Leptadenia reticulata active constituents have got aphrodisiac as well as infertility treatment activity was assessed by studying the following sexual behavioral parameters, number of mounts, ejaculation latency, intromission interval, number of ejaculations and the histopathological study of testis, will give a clear idea of the study.In this study the obtained results will show that chloroform extract is having more potent aphrodisiac activity when compared to normal, because it has got increased number of mounts, intromission interval, Number of ejaculations and decreased latency of first mount as well as the increase in post ejaculation time shows its potent aphrodisiac in both normal and stressed rats. Significant (P<0.05 weight gain in testis, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, vasdeferens, epididymis, with declined weight gain in adrenal gland indicating HPA/HPG axis regulatory mechanism. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for significant aphrodisiac and male infertility treatment activity with improved testicular performance.

Santosh B. T

2011-10-01

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Aerial Jumping in the Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

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Many fishes are able to jump out of the water and launch themselves into the air. Such behavior has been connected with prey capture, migration and predator avoidance. We found that jumping behavior of the guppy Poecilia reticulata is not associated with any of the above. The fish jump spontaneously, without being triggered by overt sensory cues, is not migratory and does not attempt to capture aerial food items. Here, we use high speed video imaging to analyze the kinematics of the jumping b...

Soares, Daphne; Bierman, Hilary S.

2013-01-01

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Arthroscopic surgery in a reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

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An 8-mo-old captive male reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) developed an acute lameness (grade IV/V) of the right forelimb, with swelling of the metacarpophalangeal joint. A traumatic injury was suspected based on clinical, radiographic, and arthroscopic evaluation. Several abnormalities were identified arthroscopically, including synovitis, cartilage damage, and an osteochondral fragment. Medial collateral ligament damage was also suspected based on radiographic evaluation. Arthroscopy provided a means of diagnosis and treatment of the abnormalities identified. The lameness in this giraffe resolved within 6 wk following arthroscopic surgery. PMID:10572867

Radcliffe, R M; Turner, T A; Radcliffe, C H; Radcliffe, R W

1999-09-01

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Influence of GAMMA radiation on morphological changes of Poecilia reticulata  

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In our experiment were followed histological changes after gamma-irradiation with dose of 30 Gy in Poecilia reticulata. After radiation shyness and lethargy were observed. The most prominent clinical symptoms observed were emaciation, hampered breathing, ex ophthalmia and hemorrhages. The histological picture found were adequate to these symptoms. The enteritic villi compared with controls were relatively low. Enterocytes taking part on resorption processes were damaged and desquamated on some sites, and the number of microvilli was reduced on their surface. As our earlier findings on rats revealed, the decrease in number of microvilli designates malfunctioning intestinal resorption, which can lead to emaciation. (authors)

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Effect of Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils on Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production on Asparagus racemosus.  

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Essential oils extracted from Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus were tested in vitro against the toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus, isolated from the tuberous roots of Asparagus racemosus, used in preparation of herbal drugs. The essential oils completely inhibited the growth of A. flavus at 750 ppm and also exhibited a broad fungitoxic spectrum against nine additional fungi isolated from the roots. Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils completely inhibited aflatoxin B(1) production at 750 and 500 ppm, respectively. During in vivo investigation, the incidence of fungi and aflatoxin B(1) production decreased considerably in essential oil-treated root samples. The findings thus indicate possible exploitation of the essential oils as effective inhibitor of aflatoxin B(1) production and as post-harvest fungitoxicant of traditionally used plant origin for the control of storage fungi. These essential oils may be recommended as plant-based antifungals as well as aflatoxin B(1) suppressors in post-harvest processing of herbal samples. PMID:20401550

Singh, Priyanka; Shukla, Ravindra; Kumar, Ashok; Prakash, Bhanu; Singh, Shubhra; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

2010-09-01

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The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked Orange and shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun  

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Full Text Available The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked Orange and shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2006, 28(3 : 515-530 The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked orange and Shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun was investigated at the Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University during January, 2003 to October, 2004. Eighty-eight of three-year-old Necked orange and Shogun grafted onto 11 species of citrus rootstocks were raised in 35 litre pot. Complete randomized factorial design was used for evaluating the two factors, scions and rootstocks. The vegetative growth: upper and lower of trunk diameter, tree height, canopy volume and leaf area; the foliar nutrient: nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC and C/N ratio; flowering; fruit-set and fruit qualities were determined and analysed. Furthermore, the graft compatibility between stock and scion was also evaluated by the esterase isozymes technique. It was found that Necked orange grafted onto most of the rootstocks showed higher range of upper and lower trunk diameter and leaf area than that of Shogun. Both of the scions on rough lemon and volkamer lemon gave higher vegetative growth characteristics than on the other roostock species. Necked orange grafted onto Cleopatra mandarin, Swingle citrumelo, Volkamer lemon and Mawo rootstock had 5 times the flowering and fruit-set while Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange had 7 times the flowering and fruit-set. There was no significant difference on the foliar nutrient between scions and rootstocks except the foliar TNC of necked orange and Shogun on Manaao-khwaai (34.86%. Necked orange and Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange gave the highest number of fruits/tree (20.6 and 31.6 fruits/ tree and fruit weight/tree (3,906 g/tree and 5,114 g/tree respectively. Necked orange grafted onto Rough lemon showed the highest rind thickness (0.559 cm while Shogun grafted onto Cleopatra mandarin showed 0.275 cm rind thickness. Necked orange grafted on Troyer citrange and Mawo and Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange and Volkamer lemon gave the highest TSS: TA ratio. The esterase enzyme pattern of necked orange grafted on Manaao-khwaai was changed and most of the rootstock species affected the esterase enzyme activities of Shogun.

Lim, M.

2006-05-01

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Simultaneous Determination of Flavonoids in Different Parts of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ Fruit by High Performance Liquid Chromatography—Photodiode Array Detection  

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Full Text Available Flavonoids are important polyphenolic secondary metabolites in plant. Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit are rich in flavonoids and are being used as functional antioxidant ingredients for the treatment of atherosclerosis and cancer, etc. A high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection system was used to analyze five flavonoids, namely, naringin, hesperidin, didymin, tangeretin and nobiletin, in different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a C18 column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a photodiode array detector at 280 nm. The calibration curves for the determination of all analytes showed good linearity over the investigated ranges (R2 > 0.9995. Precision and reproducibility were evaluated by six replicated analyses, and the R.S.D. values were less than 0.9% and 2.7%. The recoveries were between 98.37 and 103.89%. This method is promising to improve the quality control of different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit.

Yujie Zhang

2010-08-01

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Simultaneous determination of flavonoids in different parts of Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' fruit by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flavonoids are important polyphenolic secondary metabolites in plant. Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' fruit are rich in flavonoids and are being used as functional antioxidant ingredients for the treatment of atherosclerosis and cancer, etc. A high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection system was used to analyze five flavonoids, namely, naringin, hesperidin, didymin, tangeretin and nobiletin, in different parts of C. reticulata 'Chachi' fruit. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a C(18) column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a photodiode array detector at 280 nm. The calibration curves for the determination of all analytes showed good linearity over the investigated ranges (R2 > 0.9995). Precision and reproducibility were evaluated by six replicated analyses, and the R.S.D. values were less than 0.9% and 2.7%. The recoveries were between 98.37 and 103.89%. This method is promising to improve the quality control of different parts of C. reticulata 'Chachi' fruit. PMID:20714303

Sun, Yinshi; Wang, Jianhua; Gu, Shubo; Liu, Zhengbo; Zhang, Yujie; Zhang, Xiaoxia

2010-08-01

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Vulnerability of the mosquito larvae to the guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in the presence of alternative preys  

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Background & objectives: The predatory potential of the larvivorous fishes can be affected by the presence of alternative preys. In the present study the predation pattern of the sewage dwelling Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1872) on the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae) was evaluated in the presence of alternative preys. Methods: The predation of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by different size groups of P. reticulata fishes was evaluated. In addition to this, th...

Barnali Manna; Gautam Aditya; Samir Banerjee

2008-01-01

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Isolation Bacterial Symbiont from Ulva reticulata and Caulerpa racemosa as Candidate of Antimicrobial Producer  

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Isolation of bacterial symbionts from Ulva reticulata and Caulerpa racemosa was performed by crowded plate technique method using marine agar media. The purpose of this study was to search for antimicrobial-producing bacterial symbiont in green alga Ulva reticulata and Caulerpa racemosa from Takalar Coast, South Sulawesi. The isolates of bacterial symbiont were fermented in production media for seven days at 37oC. Antimicrobial activity was done by agar diffusion method using Bacillus subti...

Sartini; Suryadi; Nur Afni; Ayu Permata Sari

2013-01-01

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Sesquiterpenes and Other Natural Products from Roldana reticulata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish De Roldana reticulata se aislaron dos 9-oxo-furanoeremofilanos (1, 2), además de senecrassidiol, tirosol, icarisida D2 y rutina; no se detectaron alcaloides pirrolizidínicos, coincidiendo con el patrón químico del género reportado hasta ahora. La actividad anti-inflamatoria de los extractos y produc [...] tos aislados fue evaluada en el modelo de edema de inflamación aguda inducido con TPA. Abstract in english The chemical study of Roldana reticulate led to the isolation of two 9-oxo-furanoeremophilanes (1, 2), together with senecrassidiol, tyrosol, icariside D2, and rutin; no pyrrolizidine alkaloids were detected, in agreement with the chemistry of the genus reported so far. The anti-inflammatory activit [...] y of extracts and isolated products was tested using the TPA model of induced acute inflammation.

Amira, Arciniegas; Jhon, Ironzi Maldonado; Karina, González; Ana L., Pérez-Castorena; José Luis, Villaseñor; Alfonso, Romo de Vivar.

2013-03-01

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Colonic obstruction in three captive reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatal colonic obstructions were diagnosed in three captive, adult, reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). Clinical presentations varied, but all cases displayed decreased activity, anorexia, and considerably decreased fecal production, consistent with intestinal obstruction. Case 1 was diagnosed at necropsy with a phytobezoar obstructing the spiral colon. Case 2 was diagnosed at necropsy with a fecal impaction of the colon. Case 3 was diagnosed during surgery with colonic ileus. Cases 2 and 3 underwent surgical intervention but were markedly compromised by the time of surgery and died during surgery or 24 hr postoperatively. Gastrointestinal obstruction, requiring aggressive supportive care and early surgical intervention, should be considered in giraffe in which anorexia and substantially decreased fecal production are observed. Abdominal exploratory surgery will likely be necessary for diagnosis and treatment. Based on a small number of cases, gastrointestinal obstruction has a poor prognosis in giraffe. PMID:19368259

Davis, Michelle R; Langan, Jennifer N; Mylniczenko, Natalie D; Benson, Keith; Lamberski, Nadine; Ramer, Jan

2009-03-01

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Acute toxic effects of fenpyroximate acaricide on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859).  

Science.gov (United States)

Fenpyroximate (FP), an acaricide, is widely used in the prevention of acarids (mites) in fruit plant gardens. In this study, the acute toxic effects of different concentrations of FP were investigated using adult guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859). Guppy adults were exposed to a range of FP concentrations (25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 µg/L) during 48 h. Static method, which is one of the acute toxicity experiments, has been used in this study. According to probit analysis, the 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) value of FP at 26°C was found to be 72.821 µg/L. Sublethal exposures were predetermined based on 48-h LC50 value. Guppies were exposed to low concentrations (15, 25, and 50 µg/L) of FP for 48 h. Signs of paralysis and behavior deformations were monitored every 12 h in a number of live and dead adults. Low concentrations of FP were also responsible for erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, and being lethargic. Liver histology revealed several pathological damages including congestion, picnotic nucleus, sinusoidal dilatation, increase in melanomacrophagic centers, and endothelial degeneration. Finally, the toxicity test results provided 48-h LC50 value for FP, and low concentrations of FP can be highly detrimental to guppy adults with clear evidence of behavioral and histologic effects. PMID:22508399

Do?an, Nesli; Yaz?c?, Zehra; ?i?man, Turgay; A?kin, Hakan

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
61

Induction of seedlessness in kinow (citrus reticulata blanco) with gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dormant budwood of KINNOW mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) were subjected to acute exposures of gamma radiations. Doses of 0, 40, 60, 80 and 120 Gy were applied at ambient temperature (25 -+ 2 deg. C) with air as the medium of irradiation. The irradiated and un-irradiated scions were grafted onto 2 years old Citrus jambhiri rootstock already established in the field using the side-graft technique. Based on the bud survival percentage, Ld-50 was found to be 18.5 Gy under field conditions. A sparsely seeded (2 - 8 seeds/fruit) mutant was detected in the mV/sub 1/ progeny of shoots from 20 Gy exposed buds. The induced sparse seedy character was retained by the mV/sub 2/ and mV/sub 3/ propagations. Parent Kinnow contained 18-28 seeds per fruit. The peel of mutant Kinnows was thicker which may protect the fruit during transit and may compensate for the slightly lower juice yield as compared to parent Kinnow. Sparsely seeded mutant Kinnow fruit and plant resembled with the parent kinnow in most of the morphological, physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics. (author)

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Salacia oblonga root improves cardiac lipid metabolism in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: Modulation of cardiac PPAR-?-mediated transcription of fatty acid metabolic genes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Excess cardiac triglyceride accumulation in diabetes and obesity induces lipotoxicity, which predisposes the myocytes to death. On the other hand, increased cardiac fatty acid (FA) oxidation plays a role in the development of myocardial dysfunction in diabetes. PPAR-? plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis of lipid metabolism. We have previously demonstrated that the extract from Salacia oblonga root (SOE), an Ayurvedic anti-diabetic and anti-obesity medicine, improves hyperlipidemia in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats (a genetic model of type 2 diabetes and obesity) and possesses PPAR-? activating properties. Here we demonstrate that chronic oral administration of SOE reduces cardiac triglyceride and FA contents and decreases the Oil red O-stained area in the myocardium of ZDF rats, which parallels the effects on plasma triglyceride and FA levels. Furthermore, the treatment suppressed cardiac overexpression of both FA transporter protein-1 mRNA and protein in ZDF rats, suggesting inhibition of increased cardiac FA uptake as the basis for decreased cardiac FA levels. Additionally, the treatment also inhibited overexpression in ZDF rat heart of PPAR-? mRNA and protein and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, acyl-CoA oxidase and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase mRNAs and restored the downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA. These results suggest that SOE inhibits cardiac FA oxidation in ZDF rats. Thus, our findings suggest that improvement by SOE of excessggest that improvement by SOE of excess cardiac lipid accumulation and increased cardiac FA oxidation in diabetes and obesity occurs by reduction of cardiac FA uptake, thereby modulating cardiac PPAR-?-mediated FA metabolic gene transcription

63

Geographical variation in allometry in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Variation in static allometry, the power relationship between character size and body size among individuals at similar developmental stages, remains poorly understood. We tested whether predation or other ecological factors could affect static allometry by comparing the allometry between the caudal fin length and the body length in adult male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) among populations from different geographical areas, exposed to different predation pressures. Neither the allometric slopes nor the allometric elevations (intercept at constant slope) changed with predation pressure. However, populations from the Northern Range in Trinidad showed allometry with similar slopes but lower intercepts than populations from the Caroni and the Oropouche drainages. Because most of these populations are exposed to predation by the prawn Macrobrachium crenulatum, we speculated that the specific selection pressures exerted by this predator generated this change in relative caudal fin size, although effects of other environmental factors could not be ruled out. This study further suggests that the allometric elevation is more variable than the allometric slope. PMID:21955207

Egset, C K; Bolstad, G H; Rosenqvist, G; Endler, J A; Pélabon, C

2011-12-01

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Aplicação de ácido giberélico (GA3 em précolheita de tangerina ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata blanco = Application of Gibberelic acid (GA3 on preharvest of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco fruit  

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Full Text Available O experimento foi instalado em pomar comercial de tangerineira ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata Blanco, enxertadas sobre tangerineira ‘Cleópatra’ (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., em Pratânia, Estado de S??o Paulo, Brasil. Adotouse o delineamento experimental em blocoscasualizados com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos empregados foram: 0 (controle, 5, 10, 15 e 20 mg L1 de ácido giberélico (GA3. A aplicação dos tratamentos foi realizada com atomizador tratorizado. Na mudança de coloração dos frutos, utilizaramse 5,9 litros de solução por planta, com adição de 0,03% de surfatante não iônico com 25% de Alquil fenol poliglicoléter. As análises da qualidade dos frutos foram realizadas aos 13, 45, 75 e 111 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT. Não se verificou influência da aplicação de GA3 na massa fresca dos frutos, no conteúdo de sólidos solúveis totais, na acidez total titulável e “ratio”. No entanto foi observado atraso na colheita de frutos, induzido pelo efeito fisiológico do ácido giberélico. The experiment was carried out in a commercial orchard of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco, grafted on ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., in Pratânia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The utilized experimental design was composed of randomized blocks of four replications. The treatments consisted of: 0 (control,5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L1 of Gibberellic acid (GA3. Atomizer equipment was utilized for the application of the treatments. Each plant received 5.9 liters of solution, in which 0.03% of nonionic surfactant with 25% of alkylphenol ethoxylate was added, in order to change fruit coloration. The analyses of fruit quality were developed on the 13th, 45th, 75th and 111th days after the application of the treatments (DAT. Results showed that the application of GA3 did not affect fruit fresh mass, total soluble solids content, total titulable acidity and ratio. However, a delay in fruit harvesting was verified, which was induced by the physiological effect of Gibberellic acid.

Júnior Cesar Modesto

2006-01-01

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Larvivorous activity of Poecilia reticulata against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in a polluted water drain in Hardwar, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of the larvivorous fish Poecilia reticulata against mosquito larvae was monitored in a drain at Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Hardwar, India. The water was polluted and the water flow was in some way impeded. Poecilia reticulata failed to feed on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in this drain. Laboratory experiments also confirmed the inefficacy of P. reticulata as a predator of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae during the first 24 h. Significant differences in the efficacy of P. reticulata against Cx. quinquefasciatus were recorded between polluted water and drinking water. Poecilia reticulata preferred to feed on other available food present in the polluted water rather than on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. This was verified by the identification of plankton in the gut content of the fish and by the high density of plankton present in the polluted water. PMID:18240525

Dua, Virendra K; Pandey, A C; Rai, Swapnil; Dash, A P

2007-12-01

66

Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Some Nigerian Medicinal Plant Extracts  

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Full Text Available The present research evaluates the DPPH radical scavenging, total antioxidant activities, reducing power and total contents of phenolic compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of five Nigerian medicinal plants (Dalbergia saxatilis Hook.f. (Papilionacae, Ekebergia senegalensis A.Juss.(Meliaceae, Hymenocardia acida Tul. (Hymenocardiaceae, Icacina tricantha Oliv. (Icacinaceae and Salacia pallescens Oliv.(Celastraceae. Total phenols were analysed according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Each sample under assay condition, showed a dose-dependent effect both on free radical scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH and also on Fe3+ reducing power. The antioxidant activity of the plant extracts with the DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power method, were in the order Hymenocardia> Ekebergia> Salacia> Icacina> Dalbergia. H. acida and E. senegalensis possess very high radical scavenging activity in both assays. Potency of H. acida extract was of the same magnitude as that of reference ?-tocopherol. Total phenols in all the samples expressed as GAE (Gallic Acid Equivalent varied from 1.83 to 15.47mg g-1 of dry plant material. Total antioxidant activities correlated with total phenols (R2 = 0.6640 an indication that 66% of the antioxidant capacity of these extracts results from contribution of phenolic compounds. A linear positive relationship existed between the reducing power and total phenolics of the tested plant extracts (R2 = 0.9564.

M.O. Sofidiya

2006-01-01

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Larvicidal activity of Copaifera reticulata ducke oil-resin against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) / Atividade larvicida do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata sobre Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A evolução de resistência de Culex quinquefasciatus Say aos inseticidas sintéticos e a modificação da suscetibilidade desse mosquito aos piretróides, estimularam estudos sobre a atividade de plantas inseticidas, como alternativa para o seu controle. Neste trabalho foram realizados ensaios biológicos [...] para verificar a atividade larvicida do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata sobre C. quinquefasciatus. Para a realização dos bioensaios o óleo-resina foi solubilizado com dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO), na proporção de 0,4 ml do DMSO para 24,6 ml de água destilada. Para cada estádio, os bioensaios foram realizados em copos descartáveis, contendo 100 ml de solução na qual colocavam-se 20 larvas, com quatro réplicas para ajuste das concentrações letais. As leituras de mortalidade foram feitas após 48h de exposição das larvas à solução. O controle foi feito em água destilada e DMSO, com o mesmo número de réplicas dos bioensaios. Os experimentos foram realizados numa câmara biológica, climatizada a 28 ± 1°C, umidade relativa de 80 ± 5 % e fotofase de 12h e posteriormente, no campo. Foram consideradas mortas as larvas que não possuíam movimentos. O óleo-resina de C. reticulata demonstrou atividade larvicida para todos os estádios de C. quinquefasciatus. As LC50 encontradas para larvas de 1º, 2º, 3º e 4º estádios foram de 0,4; 0,9; 39 e 80 ppm, e as LC99 foram de 15; 15; 50 e 180 ppm, respectivamente. Abstract in english The appearance of resistance of Culex quinquefasciatus Say to chemical insecticides and the modification of the susceptibility of this mosquito to pyrethroid has stimulated studies on the activity of plants as alternative for its control. In this study, bioassays were carried out to verify the larvi [...] cidal activity of the oil-resin of Copaifera reticulata on C. quinquefasciatus. The bioassays were carried out with the oil dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), at the proportion of 0.4 ml of DMSO to 24.6 ml of distilled water. For each instar, the bioassays were carried out in plastic glasses with 100 ml solution using 20 larvae, wit four replications to adjust the lethal concentrations. The mortality observations were made after 48h exposure of the larvae to the solution. The control was carried out in distilled water and DMSO, with the same number of replications as the bioassays. The experiments were carried out in a biological chamber, controlled at 28 ± 1°C, 80 ± 5% relative humidity and 12h light. The larvae without movement were considered dead. The C. reticulata oil-resin demonstrated larvicide activity for all the C. quinquefasciatus instars. The LC50 found for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instars were: 0.4, 0.9, 39 and 80 ppm, and the LC99 were 15, 15, 50 and 180 ppm, respectively.

Ionizete G., Silva; Valéria O.M., Zanon; Heloisa H.G., Silva.

2003-12-01

68

The Effects of Gokshura, Tribulus terrestris on Sex Reversal of Guppy, Poecilia reticulata  

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Full Text Available This study examined the effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT on sex reversal in guppy, Poecilia reticulata. The objective of this study was to introduce a new environmentally friendly method for masculinization in P. reticulata. Since male guppy has higher commercial value than female. TT is a natural, non-toxic herb which helps enhance testosterone levels in human and animals. It was prepared in a laboratory in France. Different concentration (0.0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 g L-1 of TT was investigated for sex reversal in the Poecilia reticulata. TT extract was administered by immersion of newly born offspring once weekly for two months. Among the dosages used in the present study 0.15 g L-1 TT was the most effective dosage that ensured maximum male ratio (80%, p<0.01. Although, sex ratios of 0.05 and 0.1 g L-1 TT were not significantly different from the expected 1:1 ratio, in these two groups treatment with TT also result in higher number of males (58.25 and 59.77%, respectively, than control (p>0.05. Total survival rates in all treatments and control were uniformly high ranging from 83 to 87% (p>0.05. It is concluded that TT has no negative effect on survival rate of P. reticulata. All groups of TT-treated fish exhibited successful growth acceleration comparing to the control group, but only TT treatment at the concentration of 0.15 and 0.1 g L-1 TT significantly improved growth rate of P. reticulata (p<0.01. Histological examinations revealed that testes of fish treated with TT-extract contained all stages of spermatogenesis. Sex reversal in P. reticulata demonstrated that TT treated new-born progenies showed successful sex reversal, spermatogenesis and better growth rate than untreated progenies.

Oehriban cek

2007-01-01

69

'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) immature fruits storage / Armazenamento de frutos imaturos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito do armazenamento de frutos e concentrações de sacarose no cultivo in vitro de embriões imaturos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) x laranjeira 'Pêra' [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.]. Frutos com 3 a 4 cm de diâmetro foram coletados e coloc [...] ados em sacos pretos de polietileno perfurados e armazenados a 5±1ºC por um período de 135 dias. A cada 15 dias, uma amostra foi retirada, seus embriões foram excisados e inoculados individualmente em tubos de ensaio contendo 15 mL de meio MS acrescido de sacarose (0; 1,5; 3; 6; 12; 18 e 24 g L-1), 0,3 mg L-1 GA3 e 1 g L-1 de carvão ativado. Os tratamentos permaneceram 48 horas no escuro e em seguida foram transferidos para sala de crescimento a 27±1ºC com fotoperíodo de 16 horas e 32 µmol m-2 s-1 de intensidade luminosa. Frutos imaturos podem ser armazenados e posteriormente utilizados na excisão e cultura de embriões. Frutos com 120 dias após a polinização podem ser armazenados por mais de 135 dias sem afetar a viabilidade dos embriões. Observou-se melhor desenvolvimento da parte aérea e sistema radicular de plântulas oriundas de embriões de tangerineira 'Ponkan' x laranjeira 'Pêra' em meio MS com 12-18 g L-1 de sacarose. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of 'Ponkan' mandarin (C. reticulata) x 'Pêra' sweet orange (C. sinensis) immature fruits storage and sucrose concentrations on embryos in vitro culture. Fruits with 3 to 4 cm in diameter were harvested and placed inside black polyethylene bags with lat [...] eral openings and stored at 5±1ºC during 135 days. Every 15 days a sample was removed, its embryos were excised and individually inoculated in test tubes containing 15 mL of MS medium (Murashige & Skoog, 1962) with sucrose (0, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 g L-1) and 0.3 mg L-1 GA3 and 1 g L-1 activated charcoal. Those treatments rested 48 hours in the dark and later in a growth room at 27 ± 1ºC with a 16-h photoperiod and 32 µmol m-2 s-1 light intensity. Immature fruits can be stored for posterior excision and embryos culture. Fruits with 120 days after the pollination can be stored for at most 135 days without damaging the embryos viability. It was observed a better development of the aerial part and root system of plantlets from 'Ponkan' mandarin x 'Pêra' sweet orange embryos in MS medium with 12-18 g L-1 sucrose.

Moacir, Pasqual; Leonardo Ferreira, Dutra; Aparecida Gomes de, Araujo; Milene Alves de, Figueiredo.

70

'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) immature fruits storage / Armazenamento de frutos imaturos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito do armazenamento de frutos e concentrações de sacarose no cultivo in vitro de embriões imaturos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) x laranjeira 'Pêra' [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.]. Frutos com 3 a 4 cm de diâmetro foram coletados e coloc [...] ados em sacos pretos de polietileno perfurados e armazenados a 5±1ºC por um período de 135 dias. A cada 15 dias, uma amostra foi retirada, seus embriões foram excisados e inoculados individualmente em tubos de ensaio contendo 15 mL de meio MS acrescido de sacarose (0; 1,5; 3; 6; 12; 18 e 24 g L-1), 0,3 mg L-1 GA3 e 1 g L-1 de carvão ativado. Os tratamentos permaneceram 48 horas no escuro e em seguida foram transferidos para sala de crescimento a 27±1ºC com fotoperíodo de 16 horas e 32 µmol m-2 s-1 de intensidade luminosa. Frutos imaturos podem ser armazenados e posteriormente utilizados na excisão e cultura de embriões. Frutos com 120 dias após a polinização podem ser armazenados por mais de 135 dias sem afetar a viabilidade dos embriões. Observou-se melhor desenvolvimento da parte aérea e sistema radicular de plântulas oriundas de embriões de tangerineira 'Ponkan' x laranjeira 'Pêra' em meio MS com 12-18 g L-1 de sacarose. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of 'Ponkan' mandarin (C. reticulata) x 'Pêra' sweet orange (C. sinensis) immature fruits storage and sucrose concentrations on embryos in vitro culture. Fruits with 3 to 4 cm in diameter were harvested and placed inside black polyethylene bags with lat [...] eral openings and stored at 5±1ºC during 135 days. Every 15 days a sample was removed, its embryos were excised and individually inoculated in test tubes containing 15 mL of MS medium (Murashige & Skoog, 1962) with sucrose (0, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 g L-1) and 0.3 mg L-1 GA3 and 1 g L-1 activated charcoal. Those treatments rested 48 hours in the dark and later in a growth room at 27 ± 1ºC with a 16-h photoperiod and 32 µmol m-2 s-1 light intensity. Immature fruits can be stored for posterior excision and embryos culture. Fruits with 120 days after the pollination can be stored for at most 135 days without damaging the embryos viability. It was observed a better development of the aerial part and root system of plantlets from 'Ponkan' mandarin x 'Pêra' sweet orange embryos in MS medium with 12-18 g L-1 sucrose.

Moacir, Pasqual; Leonardo Ferreira, Dutra; Aparecida Gomes de, Araujo; Milene Alves de, Figueiredo.

1017-10-01

71

Genome Sequence of Streptomyces wadayamensis Strain A23, an Endophytic Actinobacterium from Citrus reticulata.  

Science.gov (United States)

The actinobacterium Streptomyces wadayamensis A23 is an endophyte of Citrus reticulata that produces the antimycin and mannopeptimycin antibiotics, among others. The strain has the capability to inhibit Xylella fastidiosa growth. The draft genome of S. wadayamensis A23 has ~7.0 Mb and 6,006 protein-coding sequences, with a 73.5% G+C content. PMID:24994795

de Oliveira, Luciana G; Tormet Gonzalez, Gabriela D; Samborsky, Markyian; Marcon, Joelma; Araujo, Welington L; de Azevedo, João Lucio

2014-01-01

72

Mutational changes in the courtship activity of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) after X-irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The courtship activity of male F2 descendants of irradiated and control guppies, Poecilia reticulata, of the inbred strain Istanbul was compared. The results of Spieser and Schroeder (1978), who found a decrease in courtship activity of descendants of irradiated guppies, were confirmed under more natural conditions

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PROLIFERATIVE LESIONS IN SWIMBLADDER OF JAPANESE MEDAKA ORYZIAS LATIPES AND GUPPY POECILIA RETICULATA  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirteen cases of proliferative lesions of the swimbladder were encountered in Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes and guppy Poecilia reticulata from about 10,000 medaka and 5,000 guppies used in carcinogenicity tests and histologically examined. Two of the four cases from medaka and...

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Biosorption of nickel from synthetic and electroplating industrial solutions using a Green marine algae ulva reticulata  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present work investigated the biosorption of nickel from synthetic and electroplating industrial effluents using a green marine algae Ulva reticulata. Preliminary batch results imply that pH 4.5 was optimum for nickel uptake and the isotherm experiments conducted at this pH condition indicated that U. reticulata can biosorb 62.3 mg g{sup -1} nickel ions from synthetic solutions, according to the Langmuir model. Desorption was effective and practical using 0.1 M CaCl{sub 2} (pH 2.5, HCl) and the biomass was regenerated and reused for three cycles. Continuous biosorption experiments were performed in an upflow packed column (2 cm I.D and 35 cm height). Among the two electroplating effluents used, effluent-1 is characterized by excess co-ions and high nickel ion content. This influenced the column nickel uptake with U. reticulata exhibiting 52.1 mg g{sup -1} in the case of effluent-1 compared to 56.5 mg g{sup -1} in the case of synthetic solution. On the other hand U. reticulata performed well in effluent-2 with uptakes of 53.3 and 54.3 mg g{sup -1}for effluent-2 and synthetic solution, respectively. Mathematical modeling of column experimental data was performed using nonlinear forms of the Thomas- and modified dose-response models, with the latter able to simulate breakthrough curves with high correlation coefficients. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Vijayaraghavan, Kuppusamy [Division of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea)

2008-03-15

75

Sequencing and characterization of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata transcriptome  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Next-generation sequencing is providing researchers with a relatively fast and affordable option for developing genomic resources for organisms that are not among the traditional genetic models. Here we present a de novo assembly of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata transcriptome using 454 sequence reads, and we evaluate potential uses of this transcriptome, including detection of sex-specific transcripts and deployment as a reference for gene expression analysis in guppies and a related species. Guppies have been model organisms in ecology, evolutionary biology, and animal behaviour for over 100 years. An annotated transcriptome and other genomic tools will facilitate understanding the genetic and molecular bases of adaptation and variation in a vertebrate species with a uniquely well known natural history. Results We generated approximately 336 Mbp of mRNA sequence data from male brain, male body, female brain, and female body. The resulting 1,162,670 reads assembled into 54,921 contigs, creating a reference transcriptome for the guppy with an average read depth of 28×. We annotated nearly 40% of this reference transcriptome by searching protein and gene ontology databases. Using this annotated transcriptome database, we identified candidate genes of interest to the guppy research community, putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and male-specific expressed genes. We also showed that our reference transcriptome can be used for RNA-sequencing-based analysis of differential gene expression. We identified transcripts that, in juveniles, are regulated differently in the presence and absence of an important predator, Rivulus hartii, including two genes implicated in stress response. For each sample in the RNA-seq study, >50% of high-quality reads mapped to unique sequences in the reference database with high confidence. In addition, we evaluated the use of the guppy reference transcriptome for gene expression analyses in a congeneric species, the sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna. Over 40% of reads from the sailfin molly sample aligned to the guppy transcriptome. Conclusions We show that next-generation sequencing provided a reliable and broad reference transcriptome. This resource allowed us to identify candidate gene variants, SNPs in coding regions, and sex-specific gene expression, and permitted quantitative analysis of differential gene expression.

Rodd F Helen

2011-04-01

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Rapid evolution of escape ability in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Predators are widely assumed to create selection that shapes the evolution of prey escape abilities. However, this assumption is difficult to test directly due to the challenge of recording both predation and its evolutionary consequences in the wild. We examined these events by studying natural and experimental populations of Trinidadian guppies, Poecilia reticulata, which occur in distinct high-predation and low-predation environments within streams. Importantly, in the last two decades several populations of guppies have been experimentally introduced from one type of predatory environment into the other, allowing measurements of the consequences of change. We used this system to test two hypotheses: First, that changes in predatory environments create phenotypic selection favoring changes in escape ability of guppies, and second, that this selection can result in rapid evolution. For the first test we compared escape ability of wild caught guppies from high- versus low-predation environments by measuring survival rates during staged encounters with a major predator, the pike cichlid Crenicichla alta. We used guppies from three streams, comparing two within-stream pairs of natural populations and three within-stream pairs of an introduced population versus its natural source population. In every comparison, guppies from the high-predation population showed higher survival. These multiple, parallel divergences in guppy survival phenotype suggest that predatory environment does create selection of escape ability. We tested our second hypothesis by rearing guppies in common garden conditions in the laboratory, then repeating the earlier experiments using the F2 generation. As before, each comparison resulted in higher survival of guppies descended from the high-predation populations, demonstrating that population differences in escape ability have a genetic basis. These results also show that escape ability can evolve very rapidly in nature, that is, within 26-36 generations in the introduced populations. Interestingly, we found rapid evolutionary loss of escape ability in populations introduced into low-predation environments, suggesting that steep fitness trade-offs may influence the evolution of escape traits. PMID:12038535

O'Steen, Shyril; Cullum, Alistair J; Bennett, Albert F

2002-04-01

77

Descripción de los estadios ninfales de Edessa reticulata y Edessa jugata (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Edessinae) para Oaxaca y Veracruz / Description of nynphal states of Edessa reticulata and E. jugata (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Edessinae) from Oaxaca and Veracruz  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se describen e ilustran fotográficamente los estadios ninfales y adultos de Edessa reticulata Dallas para el estado de Oaxaca y E. jugata Westwood para el estado de Veracruz. [...] Abstract in english The nimphal and adult stages of Edessa reticulata Dallas for the state of Oaxaca and E. jugata Westwood for the state of Veracruz are described and illustrated photographically. [...

Guillermina, Ortega-León; Martín Leonel, Zurita-García.

78

Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 e Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 de peixes ornamentais de água doce no Brasil  

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In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2)...

Ml, Martins; Marchiori, N.; Roumbedakis, K.; Lami, F.

2012-01-01

79

Chemical and pharmacognostical characterization of two Malaysian plants both known as Ajisamat  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Ajisamat, an herb commonly used as an aphrodisiac in the Malaysian traditional medicine, corresponds to two different species from different families - Salacia macrophylla Blume, Celastraceae, and Prismatomeris glabra (Korth.) Valeton, Rubiaceae. Macromorphological inspection of the vegetative parts [...] both plants reveals only a slight difference in the arrangement of the petioles. Microscopic investigation of the plants roots used as crude drugs revealed however distinctive anatomical features. Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and banded paratracheal parenchyma are characteristics of S. macrophylla while P. glabra displays an abundance as crystals. Other features such as vessels diameters and arrangements are also of diagnostic importance. Some of these characters were also identified in the powder of thes e plant materials and proposed for diagnostic purpose. The values for extraction of ethanol and water as well as total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash and sulfated ash were determined for both plants. Phytochemical studies were carried out on hexane and chloroform extracts of S. macrophylla and methanolic extract of P. glabra. S. macrophylla was shown to contain highly oxidized pentacyclic triterpenes while P. glabra contains anthraquinones. The pharmacognostical and hytochemical information can be utilised as the identification tools for Salacia macrophylla and Prismatomeris glabra

Tengku Azlan S. Tengku, Mohamad; Humera, Naz; Ratni S., Jalal; Khatijah, Hussin; Mohd R. Abd, Rahman; Aishah, Adam; Jean-Frederic F., Weber.

80

Chemical and pharmacognostical characterization of two Malaysian plants both known as Ajisamat  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Ajisamat, an herb commonly used as an aphrodisiac in the Malaysian traditional medicine, corresponds to two different species from different families - Salacia macrophylla Blume, Celastraceae, and Prismatomeris glabra (Korth.) Valeton, Rubiaceae. Macromorphological inspection of the vegetative parts [...] both plants reveals only a slight difference in the arrangement of the petioles. Microscopic investigation of the plants roots used as crude drugs revealed however distinctive anatomical features. Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and banded paratracheal parenchyma are characteristics of S. macrophylla while P. glabra displays an abundance as crystals. Other features such as vessels diameters and arrangements are also of diagnostic importance. Some of these characters were also identified in the powder of thes e plant materials and proposed for diagnostic purpose. The values for extraction of ethanol and water as well as total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash and sulfated ash were determined for both plants. Phytochemical studies were carried out on hexane and chloroform extracts of S. macrophylla and methanolic extract of P. glabra. S. macrophylla was shown to contain highly oxidized pentacyclic triterpenes while P. glabra contains anthraquinones. The pharmacognostical and hytochemical information can be utilised as the identification tools for Salacia macrophylla and Prismatomeris glabra

Tengku Azlan S. Tengku, Mohamad; Humera, Naz; Ratni S., Jalal; Khatijah, Hussin; Mohd R. Abd, Rahman; Aishah, Adam; Jean-Frederic F., Weber.

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
81

The growth of Neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco scion on seedling and cutting of trifoliate orange hybrid rootstocks  

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Full Text Available The growth of Neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco on seedling and cutting of trifoliate orange hybrid rootstocks was studied at the Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University in order to select the appropriate rootstock. The stem cross section, growth characteristic and isozyme pattern of Neck orange scion were investigated. One-year-old seedlings and cuttings (both with 0.3-0.4 mm stem diameter of Troyer citrange, Swingle citrumelo and Neck orange were used as root stock for grafting with Neck orange scions. The diameter of upper and lower graft union, number of branches and leaves, height, root length, shoot and root dry weight and shoot: root dry weight ratio of grafted plants were measured at 24 weeks after grafting. The results showed that the structure of stem cross section of Troyer citrange and Neck orange i.e. the size of periderm, vascular bundle and pith, were similar to that of Neck orange. The vascular bundle of Swingle citrumelo was larger than that of the two rootstocks. Troyer citrange rootstock gave the best results in all growth parameters of Neck orange. The study of isozymes recorded an extra locus (Est 3 of Swingle citrumelo rootstock occurred in Neck orange at 24 and 48 weeks after grafting.

Thavorat, S.

2003-11-01

82

Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil / Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 e Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 de peixes ornamentais de água doce no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho Trichodina reticulata e T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) de peixes ornamentais de água doce cultivados no estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil são caracterizadas morfologicamente. A prevalência de infecção e uma lista comparative de medidas são discutidas. Foram examinados "pl [...] atis" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "kinguios" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppys" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "molinésias" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "betas" Betta splendens (n = 2) e "espada" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). Após a anestesia com solução de benzocaína, os peixes foram submetidos à avaliação parasitológca. Um total de 51,57% peixes estavam parasitados por Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus foi a espécie mais parasitada, seguida por X. maculatus e P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus e P. latipinna não estavam parasitados por tricodinídeos. Duas species de Trichodina foram coletadas da superfície corporal dos peixes: T. nobilis foi encontrada em C. auratus, P. reticulata e X. maculatus e T. reticulata foi observada apenas em C. auratus. A importância do manejo adequado em cultivos de peixes ornamentais também foi discutida. Abstract in english In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southe [...] rn platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2) and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed.

ML, Martins; N, Marchiori; K, Roumbedakis; F, Lami.

83

Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 e Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 de peixes ornamentais de água doce no Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35, "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31, "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20, "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6, "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2 and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1. After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed.No presente trabalho Trichodina reticulata e T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae de peixes ornamentais de água doce cultivados no estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil são caracterizadas morfologicamente. A prevalência de infecção e uma lista comparative de medidas são discutidas. Foram examinados "platis" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35, "kinguios" Carassius auratus (n = 31, "guppys" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20, "molinésias" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6, "betas" Betta splendens (n = 2 e "espada" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1. Após a anestesia com solução de benzocaína, os peixes foram submetidos à avaliação parasitológca. Um total de 51,57% peixes estavam parasitados por Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus foi a espécie mais parasitada, seguida por X. maculatus e P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus e P. latipinna não estavam parasitados por tricodinídeos. Duas species de Trichodina foram coletadas da superfície corporal dos peixes: T. nobilis foi encontrada em C. auratus, P. reticulata e X. maculatus e T. reticulata foi observada apenas em C. auratus. A importância do manejo adequado em cultivos de peixes ornamentais também foi discutida.

ML Martins

2012-05-01

84

Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil / Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 e Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 de peixes ornamentais de água doce no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho Trichodina reticulata e T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) de peixes ornamentais de água doce cultivados no estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil são caracterizadas morfologicamente. A prevalência de infecção e uma lista comparative de medidas são discutidas. Foram examinados "pl [...] atis" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "kinguios" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppys" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "molinésias" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "betas" Betta splendens (n = 2) e "espada" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). Após a anestesia com solução de benzocaína, os peixes foram submetidos à avaliação parasitológca. Um total de 51,57% peixes estavam parasitados por Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus foi a espécie mais parasitada, seguida por X. maculatus e P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus e P. latipinna não estavam parasitados por tricodinídeos. Duas species de Trichodina foram coletadas da superfície corporal dos peixes: T. nobilis foi encontrada em C. auratus, P. reticulata e X. maculatus e T. reticulata foi observada apenas em C. auratus. A importância do manejo adequado em cultivos de peixes ornamentais também foi discutida. Abstract in english In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southe [...] rn platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2) and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed.

ML, Martins; N, Marchiori; K, Roumbedakis; F, Lami.

2012-05-01

85

Anti-fungal activity of Citrus reticulata Blanco essential oil against Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical composition of Citrus reticulata Blanco essential oil was analysed using GC/MS. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (C10H16) constituted the majority (88.96%, w/w) of the total oil. The oils dose-dependently inhibited Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum. The anti-fungal activity of the oils against P. italicum was attributed to citronellol, octanal, citral, decanal, nonanal, ?-pinene, linalool, and ?-terpinene, whereas anti-fungal activity against P. digitatum is attributed to octanal, decanal, nonanal, limonene, citral, ?-terpinene, linalool, and ?-terpineol. The oils altered the hyphal morphology of P. italicum and P. digitatum by causing loss of cytoplasm and distortion of the mycelia. The oils significantly altered extracellular conductivity, the release of cell constituents, and the total lipid content of P. italicum and P. digitatum. The results suggest that C. reticulata Blanco essential oils generate cytotoxicity in P. italicum and P. digitatum by disrupting cell membrane integrity and causing the leakage of cell components. PMID:24491729

Tao, Nengguo; Jia, Lei; Zhou, Haien

2014-06-15

86

Mutagenicity and genotoxicity in gill erythrocyte cells of Poecilia reticulata exposed to a glyphosate formulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poecilia reticulata were exposed to herbicide Roundup Transorb(®) for micronucleus test, nuclear abnormalities and comet assay. The exposure-concentrations were based on CL50-96 h following 0, 1.41, 2.83, 4.24 and 5.65 ?L L(-1) for 24 h. Micronucleus and comets were significantly increased in the gill erythrocyte cells after herbicide exposure compared with the non-exposed group. Results showed a gradual increase in the number of damaged cells, indicating a concentration-dependent effect and that this herbicide was mutagenic and genotoxic to P. reticulata and this effect could be attributed to a combination of compounds contained in the formulation with the active ingredient glyphosate. PMID:24042842

De Souza Filho, José; Sousa, Caio César Neves; Da Silva, Cláudio Carlos; De Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

2013-11-01

87

Efficacy of Citrus reticulata and Mirazid in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid), as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for different cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH); lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase); acid phosphatase (AP) and 5'- nucleotidase. L...

Hamed, Manal A.; Hetta, Mona H.

2005-01-01

88

Male display rate reveals ejaculate characteristics in the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata.  

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Previous work (Reynolds and Gross 1992) has demonstrated that mate choice enables female guppies, Poecilia reticulata, to obtain heritable benefits ('good genes') for their offspring. It is not yet known whether males also signal their functional fertility, that is, their viability as fathers, to female guppies. Our study tested the hypothesis that a male's behaviour reveals characteristics of his ejaculate. We uncovered a strong correlation between display rate and sperm number in male guppi...

Matthews, I. M.; Evans, J. P.; Magurran, A. E.

1997-01-01

89

Female mate preference explains countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of guppies (Poecilia reticulata)  

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We tested the hypothesis that mate choice is responsible for countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The nature of the countergradient pattern is that geographical variation in the carotenoid content of the orange spots of males is counterbalanced by genetic variation in drosopterin production, resulting in a relatively uniform pigment ratio. A female hue preference could produce this pattern, because hue is the axis of colour variation...

Deere, Kerry A.; Grether, Gregory F.; Sun, Aida; Sinsheimer, Janet S.

2012-01-01

90

Predicting the direction of ornament evolution in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata)  

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Sexual selection is thought to be opposed by natural selection such that ornamental traits express a balance between these two antagonistic influences. Phenotypic variation among populations may indicate local shifts in this balance, or that different stable ‘solutions’ are possible, but testing these alternatives presents a major challenge. In the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a small freshwater fish with male-limited ornamental coloration, these issues can be addressed by transplanting f...

Kemp, Darrell J.; Reznick, David N.; Grether, Gregory F.; Endler, John A.

2009-01-01

91

Active selection for large guppies, Poecilia reticulata, by the pike cichlid, Crenicichla saxatilis  

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Size-selective predation has been proposed to be one important evolutionary force shaping life-history traits in guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Populations living in the presence of the ring-tailed pike cichlid (Crenicichlasaxatilis) are smaller, mature earlier, allocate more energy to offspring and get more and smaller young than guppies in localities without Crenicichla. We investigated if Crenicichlasaxatilis is a size-selective predator, if the selectivity is a result of active choice and...

Johansson, Jonas; Turesson, Ha?kan; Persson, Anders

2004-01-01

92

Interface between culturally based preferences and genetic preferences: female mate choice in Poecilia reticulata.  

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The relative contribution of genetic and socio-cultural factors in the shaping of behavior is of fundamental importance to biologists and social scientists, yet it has proven to be extremely difficult to study in a controlled, experimental fashion. Here I describe experiments that examined the strength of genetic and cultural (imitative) factors in determining female mate choice in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Female guppies from the Paria River in Trinidad have a genetic, heritable prefer...

Dugatkin, L. A.

1996-01-01

93

Evolution of juvenile growth rates in female guppies (Poecilia reticulata): predator regime or resource level?  

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Recent theoretical and empirical work argues that growth rate can evolve and be optimized, rather than always being maximized. Chronically low resource availability is predicted to favour the evolution of slow growth, whereas attaining a size-refuge from mortality risk is predicted to favour the evolution of rapid growth. Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) evolve differences in behaviour, morphology and life-history traits in response to predation, thus demonstrating that predators are potent agen...

Arendt, Jeffrey D.; Reznick, David N.

2005-01-01

94

Insemination efficiency of two alternative male mating tactics in the guppy Poecilia reticulata  

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In this study we compared the insemination efficiency of two alternative mating tactics (courtship and sneak mating) in the guppy Poecilia reticulata by quantifying the number of sperm delivered during a copulation. During a single copulation, guppies delivered between zero and 92% of the sperm available, as determined by mechanically stripping the males' sperm reserve at rest. The absolute number of sperm delivered after courtship was three times larger than that delivered through sneak mati...

Pilastro, A.; Bisazza, A.

1999-01-01

95

Evaluation of progesterone levels in feces of captive reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Fresh fecal samples were collected from seven adult female reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). Samples were collected for several weeks before, during, and for a few weeks after gestation. Fecal samples were analyzed for progesterone levels by radioimmunoassay. There were significant differences in progesterone levels between pregestational and gestational samples and between gestational and postgestational samples. These results demonstrate that fecal progesterone levels are useful in determining pregnant versus nonpregnant reticulated giraffe. PMID:17319123

Dumonceaux, Genevieve A; Bauman, Joan E; Camilo, Gerardo R

2006-09-01

96

Population differentiation and sexual isolation among Poecilia reticulata (the guppy) populations  

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Guppy populations in Trinidad have been a model for studies of evolutionary ecology and sexual selection. This thesis extends these studies to examine the phylogeographic history of Poecilia reticulata Peters (the guppy), and to test whether patterns of parallel morphological divergence seen in Trinidad extend across the natural range. In Chapter 1, phylogenetic, nested clade, and population genetic analyses of nuclear (X-src) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences were used to investigate p...

Alexander, Heather Jane

2007-01-01

97

Chemical Constituents from the Leaves of Annona reticulata and Their Inhibitory Effects on NO Production  

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Full Text Available In the present study, the chemical investigation of the leaves of Annona reticulata has resulted in the identification of nine compounds, including annonaretin A, (1, a new triterpenoid. The purified compounds were subjected to the examination of their effects on NO inhibition in LPS-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages and most of them exhibited significant NO inhibition, with IC50 values in the range of 48.6 ± 1.2 and 99.8 ± 0.4 ?M.

Ngo Xuan Luong

2013-04-01

98

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF GREEN SEAWEED Ulva reticulata COLLECTED FROM TAKALAR WATERS OF SOUTH SULAWESI  

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Introduction Seaweeds are the extraordinary sustainable resources in the marine ecosystem which have been used as a source of food, feed and medicine. These marine natural products possess a broad range of activity as antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, cytotoxic and anticancer. Methods Study of antimicrobial activity and TLC-bioautography of green seaweed Ulva reticulata extracts against human pathogenic bacteria and yeast has been done invitro by agar diffusion met...

Zainuddin, Elmi N.; Manggau, Marianti A.; Sartini; Wan Nawi, W. N. F.

2014-01-01

99

Protective Effect against Hydroxyl-induced DNA Damage and Antioxidant Activity of Citri reticulatae Pericarpium  

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Full Text Available Purpose: As a typical Chinese herbal medicine, Citri reticulatae pericarpium (CRP possesses various pharmacological effects involved in antioxidant ability. However, its antioxidant effects have not been reported yet. The objective of this work was to investigate its antioxidant ability, then further discuss the antioxidant mechanism. Methods: CRP was extracted by ethanol to obtain ethanol extract of Citri reticulatae pericarpium (ECRP. ECRP was then measured by various antioxidant methods, including DNA damage assay, DPPH assay, ABTS assay, Fe3+-reducing assay and Cu2+-reducing assay. Finally, the content of total flavonoids was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. Results: Our results revealed that ECRP could effectively protect against hydroxyl-induced DNA damage (IC50 944.47±147.74 ?g/mL. In addition, it could also scavenge DPPH· radical (IC50349.67±1.91 ?g/mL and ABTS+• radical (IC5011.33±0.10 ?g/mL, reduce Fe3+ (IC50 140.95±2.15 ?g/mL and Cu2+ (IC50 70.46±1.77 ?g/mL. Chemical analysis demonstrated that the content of total flavonoids in ECRP was 198.29±12.24 mg quercetin/g. Conclusion: Citri reticulatae pericarpium can effectively protect against hydroxyl-induced DNA damage. One mechanism of protective effect may be radical-scavenging which is via donating hydrogen atom (H·, donating electron (e. Its antioxidant ability can be mainly attributed to the flavonoids, especially hesperidin and narirutin.

Dongfeng Chen

2013-02-01

100

Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of citrus jambhiri lush and citrus reticulata blanco essential oils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to investigate the time interval in which we can get maximum concentration of essential oil from the peels of Citrus jambhiri Lush and Citrus reticulata Blanco, to determine the composition of peel oils and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracted oils. It was observed that in case of Citrus jambhiri Lush maximum oil yield (I %) was obtained when fruits were immature (during October). As the fruit samples got matured, the oil yield decreased. In December the oil yield decreased to 0.2 %. In case of Citrus reticulata Blanco maximum oil yield (0.189 %) was obtained during the last week of January. Chemical analysis of essential oils showed that limonene was the most abundant compound (86 %-93 %) followed by alpha terpinene (2 %-4.5 %), beta-pinene(1 0/0-2 %) and nerol (0.5 %-1.5 %). The radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of essential oils were determined by DPPH and linoleic acid test. The essential oil of Citrus jambhiri Lush inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid by 54.98 % and that of Citrus reticulata Blanco inhibited by 49.98 %. Moreover, the essential oils also showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms. (author)

 
 
 
 
101

Efecto anabólico y androgénico del esteroide acetato de trembolona en el guppy (Poecilia reticulata) / Anabolic and androgenic effect of steroid trenbolone acetate on guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se investigó el efecto del esteroide semisintético acetato de trembolona (ATB) en el pez de ornato Poecilia reticulata (guppy). Especímenes juveniles de 30 días de edad fueron tratados con el esteroide a dosis de 300 mg/kg de alimento durante 60 días. Al término del tratamiento, 40 días después, se [...] estimó el efecto residual del esteroide. Se analizó la sobrevivencia, la proporción de peces masculinizados, así como el efecto anabólico. Los resultados indicaron que el ATB es eficaz para inducir la masculinización, a diferencia del grupo testigo, donde se registraron 32% de machos. Asimismo, el ATB tuvo un efecto anabólico, ya que los peces tratados mostraron mayor peso y talla e incremento de la aleta caudal. El esteroide no causó daño en la población tratada, al sobrevivir 93.3% de los peces, comparado con 83% del grupo testigo. Abstract in english The effect of semi-synthetic steroid trenbolone acetate (TBA) on the ornamental fish Poecilia reticulata (guppy) was studied. The steroid at a dose of 300 mg/kg feed was administered to 30 days old juvenile specimens during 60 days. Forty days after treatment was ended, an evaluation aimed to determ [...] ine the steroid residual effect was undertaken. Survival, masculinization ratio and the drug anabolic effect were analyzed. Results showed TBA to be effective to induce masculinization, differing (P

Héctor, Salgado Zamora; Aída, Azpeitia Hernández; Samuel, Marañón Herrera; Eduardo, Maya Peña.

2008-09-01

102

Quality control and discrimination of pericarpium citri reticulatae and pericarpium citri reticulatae viride based on high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprints and multivariate statistical analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) fingerprints of pericarpium citri reticulatae (PCR) and pericarpium citri reticulatae viride (PCRV) were firstly measured for deliberately collected 39 authentic samples and 21 commercial samples. Both correlation coefficients of similarity for chromatograms and absolute peak areas of characteristic compounds were calculated for quantitative expression of the HPLC fingerprints. After principal component analysis (PCA) successfully distinguished the 'mixed peels' samples from authentic samples, partial least squares-linear discrimination analysis (PLS-LDA) was then effectively applied to class separation between authentic PCR and PCRV. Furthermore, the unequivocally determined compounds, hesperidin, nobiletin and tangeretin, were screened out by loadings plots of PCA and PLS-LDA. The results indicated that they could be used as chemical markers for discrimination among different groups of samples. The proposed method shows an efficient strategy for quality control of PCR and PCRV, which cannot only distinguish the 'mixed peels' but also discriminate authentic PCR and PCRV. This method has potential perspective for quality control of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). PMID:17386812

Yi, Lun-zhao; Yuan, Da-lin; Liang, Yi-zeng; Xie, Pei-shan; Zhao, Yu

2007-04-11

103

Efecto anabólico y androgénico del esteroide acetato de trembolona en el guppy (Poecilia reticulata) / Anabolic and androgenic effect of steroid trenbolone acetate on guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se investigó el efecto del esteroide semisintético acetato de trembolona (ATB) en el pez de ornato Poecilia reticulata (guppy). Especímenes juveniles de 30 días de edad fueron tratados con el esteroide a dosis de 300 mg/kg de alimento durante 60 días. Al término del tratamiento, 40 días después, se [...] estimó el efecto residual del esteroide. Se analizó la sobrevivencia, la proporción de peces masculinizados, así como el efecto anabólico. Los resultados indicaron que el ATB es eficaz para inducir la masculinización, a diferencia del grupo testigo, donde se registraron 32% de machos. Asimismo, el ATB tuvo un efecto anabólico, ya que los peces tratados mostraron mayor peso y talla e incremento de la aleta caudal. El esteroide no causó daño en la población tratada, al sobrevivir 93.3% de los peces, comparado con 83% del grupo testigo. Abstract in english The effect of semi-synthetic steroid trenbolone acetate (TBA) on the ornamental fish Poecilia reticulata (guppy) was studied. The steroid at a dose of 300 mg/kg feed was administered to 30 days old juvenile specimens during 60 days. Forty days after treatment was ended, an evaluation aimed to determ [...] ine the steroid residual effect was undertaken. Survival, masculinization ratio and the drug anabolic effect were analyzed. Results showed TBA to be effective to induce masculinization, differing (P

Héctor, Salgado Zamora; Aída, Azpeitia Hernández; Samuel, Marañón Herrera; Eduardo, Maya Peña.

104

Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2) and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed. PMID:22735135

Martins, M L; Marchiori, N; Roumbedakis, K; Lami, F

2012-05-01

105

Acute Toxicity of Premium Motor Spirit to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859  

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Full Text Available Static bioassays were made to determine acute toxicity of premium motor spirit on poecilia reticulata. Lethal doses of the oil were determined using LC50 software programmes based on Finneys probit statistical method. The 96 LC50 value of the oil for guppy was estimated as 1.69 (1.13-2.43 mg L-1. The fish exhibited behavioural changes in the form of aggression, rapid gulping of water, increased opercular movement and abnormal swimming movements. The significance of this sublethal effect particularly as a stress indicator of petrol oil contamination was discussed.

J .K. Saliu

2007-01-01

106

Metachromins U-W: cytotoxic merosesquiterpenoids from an Australian specimen of the sponge Thorecta reticulata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three new merosesquiterpenoids, metachromins U, V, and W (1-3), were isolated from a specimen of the marine sponge Thorecta reticulata collected off Hunter Island, Tasmania, Australia. Structures of the new compounds were elucidated through extensive NMR investigations and comparison with literature values. The cytotoxicities of 1-3 were assessed against a panel of human tumor cell lines (SF-268, H460, MCF-7, and HT-29) and a mammalian cell line (CHO-K1). All compounds were found to have 50% growth inhibition activities in the range 2.1-130 ?M, with 2 being the most active (GI50 2.1-10 ?M). PMID:21513294

Ovenden, Simon P B; Nielson, Jonathan L; Liptrot, Catherine H; Willis, Richard H; Tapiolas, Dianne M; Wright, Anthony D; Motti, Cherie A

2011-05-27

107

Serial tranquilization of a reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) using xylazine.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 5-yr-old captive-born reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) was tranquilized with i.m. xylazine 34 times in a 39-day period to allow nursing by her calf. Xylazine administered at approximately 0.16 mg/kg i.m. provided adequate sedation of the dam without detrimental side effects to the dam or the calf. While the dam was sedated, the calf was able to ingest adequate amounts of milk to produce acceptable weight gains until he was consistently eating solid foods. PMID:9279408

Fischer, M T; Miller, R E; Houston, E W

1997-06-01

108

Efficacy of Citrus reticulata and Mirazid in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid), as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for different cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH); lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase); acid phosphatase (AP) and 5'- nucleotidase. Liver function enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST); alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also estimated. Parasitological studies through ova count and worm burden will also be taken into consideration. The results showed a marked reduction in SDH, LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities and a significant increase in G-6-Pase, AP, 5'- nucleotidase, and ALP after S. mansoni infection. A noticeable alteration in LDH subunits were also noticed. Treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all the previous enzyme activities with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden. PMID:16410968

Hamed, Manal A; Hetta, Mona H

2005-11-01

109

Efficacy of Citrus reticulata and Mirazid in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni  

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Full Text Available This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid, as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for different cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase; acid phosphatase (AP and 5'- nucleotidase. Liver function enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST; alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were also estimated. Parasitological studies through ova count and worm burden will also be taken into consideration. The results showed a marked reduction in SDH, LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities and a significant increase in G-6-Pase, AP, 5'- nucleotidase, and ALP after S. mansoni infection. A noticeable alteration in LDH subunits were also noticed. Treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all the previous enzyme activities with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden.

Manal A Hamed

2005-11-01

110

Efficacy of Citrus reticulata and Mirazid in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid), as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for di [...] fferent cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH); lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase); acid phosphatase (AP) and 5'- nucleotidase. Liver function enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST); alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also estimated. Parasitological studies through ova count and worm burden will also be taken into consideration. The results showed a marked reduction in SDH, LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities and a significant increase in G-6-Pase, AP, 5'- nucleotidase, and ALP after S. mansoni infection. A noticeable alteration in LDH subunits were also noticed. Treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all the previous enzyme activities with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden.

Manal A, Hamed; Mona H, Hetta.

2005-11-01

111

Efficacy of Citrus reticulata and Mirazid in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid), as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for di [...] fferent cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH); lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase); acid phosphatase (AP) and 5'- nucleotidase. Liver function enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST); alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also estimated. Parasitological studies through ova count and worm burden will also be taken into consideration. The results showed a marked reduction in SDH, LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities and a significant increase in G-6-Pase, AP, 5'- nucleotidase, and ALP after S. mansoni infection. A noticeable alteration in LDH subunits were also noticed. Treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all the previous enzyme activities with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden.

Manal A, Hamed; Mona H, Hetta.

112

Cultivo de Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poecilidae) en cuerpos de agua tropicales,Veracruz,México  

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Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los peces ornamentales cultivados se han popularizado como mascotas,generando una demanda local que no se ha podido cubrir con la producción de México y por lo tanto deben importarse.Poecilia reticulata "guppy ",es un pez muy popular en el ámbito acuarístico,hoy en día se ha logrado desarrollar una [...] gran cantidad de variedades según su coloración,tipo y forma de cola.Son peces vivíparos que toleran un ámbito extremo de temperatura,siendo la más adecuada entre 25ºC y 28ºC.El tiempo que tardan las hembras en expulsar a las crías una vez que quedan preñadas,oscila entre los 25 y 30 días dependiendo de la temperatura.En esta investigación,el ciclo reproductivo completo se desarrolló en jaulas flotantes,en una laguna tropical situada en la Llanura Costera del Golfo Sur, Veracruz, México.Se diseñó la infraestructura necesaria para producir guppys (P.reticulata )incluyendo el manejo de reproductores,crianza,engorda,alimentación y comercialización,evaluando su factibilidad técnica y financiera.Se realizó un estudio de mercado,a través de una encuesta aplicada a los propietarios de los 22 acuarios existentes en la Ciudad de Veracruz,México.Se analizaron las frecuencias de oferta y demanda de cada especie con respecto a la temporada del año,lugar de origen y resistencia al manejo.Las características hidrobiológicas presentaron valores medios de temperatura (31.4ºC),oxígeno disuelto (4.5 mgl-1)y pH (6.8).Con los datos obtenidos en campo se realizó un modelo para producción de P.reticulata ,obteniendo una relación beneficio/costo=1.16,correspondiente al ingreso mínimo potencial con una ganancia bruta de US$257.67, proporcionando empleo a dos personas El aprovechamiento de cuerpos de agua en regiones tropicales a través de la producción de peces de ornato representa una alternativa para disminuir la presión sobre las poblaciones silvestres y las tierras de cultivo,proporcionar fuentes de empleo e incrementar los ingresos para el productor en comparación con sistemas tradicionales de producción. Abstract in english Culture of Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poecilidae)in tropical water bodies, Veracruz, México. Poecilia reticulata,also known as guppy,is the most popular fish in the aquarium environment. Guppys are viviparous fish with high tolerance to extreme temperatures.The development of the offspring takes be [...] tween 25 and 30 days.We developed a technology for raising guppys,which outlines infrastructure and devices for reproduction,nursery,feeding,and commercialization,evaluating the financial and technical feasibility of this technology in a case study.The complete reproductive cycle occured in floating cages with 1 mm mesh and the method was tested in a tropical lagoon in Mexico.Water quality was monitored throughout the study period (temperature,dissolved oxygen and pH levels).A marketing survey was carried out at all existing aquarium shops in Veracruz City.Data collected depict quantities demanded and offered for each species by season,place of origin,and resistance to handling.The hydrobiological characteristics were:average temperature 31.4 ºC, dissolved oxygen 4.5 mgl-1,and pH level 6.8.With these values we built a production function,and used it to evaluate profitability.We estimate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.16,with a net annual income of US$257.67.The system may provide two permanent jobs.Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4):951-958.Epub 2005 Jun 24.

Patricia, Devezé Murillo; Juan Lorenzo, Reta Mendiola; Basilio, Sánchez Luna.

2004-12-01

113

Cultivo de Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poecilidae) en cuerpos de agua tropicales,Veracruz,México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los peces ornamentales cultivados se han popularizado como mascotas,generando una demanda local que no se ha podido cubrir con la producción de México y por lo tanto deben importarse.Poecilia reticulata "guppy ",es un pez muy popular en el ámbito acuarístico,hoy en día se ha logrado desarrollar una [...] gran cantidad de variedades según su coloración,tipo y forma de cola.Son peces vivíparos que toleran un ámbito extremo de temperatura,siendo la más adecuada entre 25ºC y 28ºC.El tiempo que tardan las hembras en expulsar a las crías una vez que quedan preñadas,oscila entre los 25 y 30 días dependiendo de la temperatura.En esta investigación,el ciclo reproductivo completo se desarrolló en jaulas flotantes,en una laguna tropical situada en la Llanura Costera del Golfo Sur, Veracruz, México.Se diseñó la infraestructura necesaria para producir guppys (P.reticulata )incluyendo el manejo de reproductores,crianza,engorda,alimentación y comercialización,evaluando su factibilidad técnica y financiera.Se realizó un estudio de mercado,a través de una encuesta aplicada a los propietarios de los 22 acuarios existentes en la Ciudad de Veracruz,México.Se analizaron las frecuencias de oferta y demanda de cada especie con respecto a la temporada del año,lugar de origen y resistencia al manejo.Las características hidrobiológicas presentaron valores medios de temperatura (31.4ºC),oxígeno disuelto (4.5 mgl-1)y pH (6.8).Con los datos obtenidos en campo se realizó un modelo para producción de P.reticulata ,obteniendo una relación beneficio/costo=1.16,correspondiente al ingreso mínimo potencial con una ganancia bruta de US$257.67, proporcionando empleo a dos personas El aprovechamiento de cuerpos de agua en regiones tropicales a través de la producción de peces de ornato representa una alternativa para disminuir la presión sobre las poblaciones silvestres y las tierras de cultivo,proporcionar fuentes de empleo e incrementar los ingresos para el productor en comparación con sistemas tradicionales de producción. Abstract in english Culture of Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poecilidae)in tropical water bodies, Veracruz, México. Poecilia reticulata,also known as guppy,is the most popular fish in the aquarium environment. Guppys are viviparous fish with high tolerance to extreme temperatures.The development of the offspring takes be [...] tween 25 and 30 days.We developed a technology for raising guppys,which outlines infrastructure and devices for reproduction,nursery,feeding,and commercialization,evaluating the financial and technical feasibility of this technology in a case study.The complete reproductive cycle occured in floating cages with 1 mm mesh and the method was tested in a tropical lagoon in Mexico.Water quality was monitored throughout the study period (temperature,dissolved oxygen and pH levels).A marketing survey was carried out at all existing aquarium shops in Veracruz City.Data collected depict quantities demanded and offered for each species by season,place of origin,and resistance to handling.The hydrobiological characteristics were:average temperature 31.4 ºC, dissolved oxygen 4.5 mgl-1,and pH level 6.8.With these values we built a production function,and used it to evaluate profitability.We estimate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.16,with a net annual income of US$257.67.The system may provide two permanent jobs.Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4):951-958.Epub 2005 Jun 24.

Patricia, Devezé Murillo; Juan Lorenzo, Reta Mendiola; Basilio, Sánchez Luna.

114

DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLLASE ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO L. USING SEAWEED EXTRACT OF ULVA RETICULATA FORSSKAL.  

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The effect of seaweed extract prepared from Ulva reticulata on seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyllase activity of Vigna mungo L. was studied. 100% germination was recorded in the seeds treated with lower concentration of seaweed extract. The V. mungo seeds soaked with lower concentrations of the seaweed extracts showed higher rates of germination, while the higher concentrations of the extracts inhibited the germination.

Ganapathy Selvam G.; Balamurugan M; Thinakaran T.; Sivakumar K

2013-01-01

115

Upstream guppies (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859) go against the flow / Gupies (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859) de áreas de cabeceira se posicionam contra a corrente  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Populações de guppies (Poecilia reticulata Peters) que vivem em lagos e em cativeiro podem demonstrar menos reotaxia em comparação com populações que habitam rios e que estão frequentemente expostas a enchentes e que provocam a migração involuntária para jusante. Neste trabalho, vamos testar esta hi [...] pótese num rio artificial utilizando guppies de duas populações selvagens que habitam em rios, uma população que habita em lagos, e uma linhagem ornamental. Os resultados demonstram que os guppies de rios que provêm de localidades a montante demonstram maior reotaxia, diminuindo assim probabilidade de serem arrastados para jusante em períodos de enchentes. No entanto, não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre guppies de localidades a jusante, do lago Pitch ou ornamentais. Este resultado pode dever-se ao facto de existirem grandes diferenças ecológicas entre os habitats localizados a jusante e a montante dos rios. Devido ao facto de estas localidades estarem separadas por cachoeiras, impossibilitando a migração rio-acima, a seleção natural poderá estar a actuar contra guppies que sejam arrastados rio abaixo durantes os períodos de cheias Abstract in english Guppies (Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859) in lakes and from captive-bred populations are predicted to show little rheotaxis compared to conspecifics in a stream environment that are regularly exposed to flash floods associated with involuntary downstream migration. Here we test this hypothesis using [...] an artificial stream, examining guppies of two wild riverine populations, one lake population, and one ornamental strain. Guppies from the most upstream riverine habitat show the most pronounced rheotaxis and are less likely to be swept downstream during flooding events. However, there is no significant difference between guppies from the lowland riverine habitat, the Pitch Lake and ornamental strain. We propose that station-keeping behaviours are most strongly selected in the upstream population because large spatial differences exist in ecology and environment between up- and downstream habitats. Given that these sites are separated by barrier waterfalls that prevent compensatory upstream migration, natural selection operates particularly strong against upstream guppies that have been displaced downstream during flooding events.

Ryan Simon, Mohammed; Cock, van Oosterhout; Bettina, Schelkle; Joanne, Cable; Mark, McMullan.

2012-09-01

116

Upstream guppies (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859) go against the flow / Gupies (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859) de áreas de cabeceira se posicionam contra a corrente  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Populações de guppies (Poecilia reticulata Peters) que vivem em lagos e em cativeiro podem demonstrar menos reotaxia em comparação com populações que habitam rios e que estão frequentemente expostas a enchentes e que provocam a migração involuntária para jusante. Neste trabalho, vamos testar esta hi [...] pótese num rio artificial utilizando guppies de duas populações selvagens que habitam em rios, uma população que habita em lagos, e uma linhagem ornamental. Os resultados demonstram que os guppies de rios que provêm de localidades a montante demonstram maior reotaxia, diminuindo assim probabilidade de serem arrastados para jusante em períodos de enchentes. No entanto, não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre guppies de localidades a jusante, do lago Pitch ou ornamentais. Este resultado pode dever-se ao facto de existirem grandes diferenças ecológicas entre os habitats localizados a jusante e a montante dos rios. Devido ao facto de estas localidades estarem separadas por cachoeiras, impossibilitando a migração rio-acima, a seleção natural poderá estar a actuar contra guppies que sejam arrastados rio abaixo durantes os períodos de cheias Abstract in english Guppies (Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859) in lakes and from captive-bred populations are predicted to show little rheotaxis compared to conspecifics in a stream environment that are regularly exposed to flash floods associated with involuntary downstream migration. Here we test this hypothesis using [...] an artificial stream, examining guppies of two wild riverine populations, one lake population, and one ornamental strain. Guppies from the most upstream riverine habitat show the most pronounced rheotaxis and are less likely to be swept downstream during flooding events. However, there is no significant difference between guppies from the lowland riverine habitat, the Pitch Lake and ornamental strain. We propose that station-keeping behaviours are most strongly selected in the upstream population because large spatial differences exist in ecology and environment between up- and downstream habitats. Given that these sites are separated by barrier waterfalls that prevent compensatory upstream migration, natural selection operates particularly strong against upstream guppies that have been displaced downstream during flooding events.

Ryan Simon, Mohammed; Cock, van Oosterhout; Bettina, Schelkle; Joanne, Cable; Mark, McMullan.

117

Pseudobrânquia do guaru Poecilia reticulata (Peter, 1859): análise estrutural, morfométrica e histoquímica para detecção de glicoconjugados / Pseudo-gill of guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Peter, 1859): structural, morphometric, and histochemical analyses for the detection of glycoconjugates  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A morfologia, os parâmetros citomorfométricos e os glicoconjugados presentes na pseudobrânquia de guaru, Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae), foram investigados por microscopia de luz acoplada ao sistema de captura e análise de imagens, juntamente por histoquímica com l [...] ectinas. A anatomia microscópica indicou que P. reticulata possui pseudobrânquia glandular formada por dois lóbulos, a qual se localiza abaixo do epitélio faringiano. O órgão é constituído por parênquima vascularizado e rico em células pseudobranquiais. Esse tipo celular exibe estado citofisiológico ativo, com abundante sistema de biomembranas e ausência de óstio na superfície apical,que por sua vez é encontrado nas células ricas em mitocôndrias das holobrânquias. Assim, indica-se que as células da pseudobrânquia se distinguem das células das holobrânquias em relação à morfologia, histoquímica e fisiologia. Em decorrência dessas características intrínsecas, a pseudobrânquia de alevinos do guaru pode desempenhar funções não respiratórias nas fases iniciais do desenvolvimento. Além disso, a caracterização da pseudobrânquia do guaru possibilitará estudos futuros sobre o efeito de poluentes aquáticos em espécies biomonitoras, como P. reticulata. Abstract in english The morphology, cytomorphometric parameters, and glycoconjugates present in the pseudo-gill of guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae), were investigated by light microscopy coupled to image capture and analysis system, and also by lectin histochemistry. The microsco [...] pic anatomy indicates that P. reticulata has a glandular pseudo-gill formed by two lobes, located underneath the pharynx epithelium. The organ is formed by vascularized parenchyma rich in pseudo-gill cells. This cell type exhibits active cytophysiological state with an abundant system of biomembranes and lacking of ostium in apical surface, which in turn is found in the mitochondria-rich cells of the holobranch. This indicates that the pseudo-gill cells distinguishe from the holobranch cells in their morphology, histochemistry and physiology. Due to these intrinsic characteristics, the pseudo-gill of guppy fingerlings may have non-respiratory function in the initial phase of their development. The characterization of guppy's pseudo-gill could facilitate further studies about the effect of water pollutants on biomonitor species, such as P. reticulata.

Thiago L., Rocha; Ana P.R., Santos; Simone M.T., Sabóia-Morais.

2013-05-01

118

EFECTOS ECOTOXICOLOGICOS DEL CARTAP SOBRE POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE Y PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE ECOTOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CARTAP ON POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE AND PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE  

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Full Text Available Se evaluó el impacto ecotoxicológico del insecticida carbámico cartap (1,3 di (carbamoytio-2-dimetiloaminopropano usado para el control de plagas agrícolas y como molusquicida de vectores de importancia en Salud Pública, sobre dos especies de peces del ecosistema acuático continental: Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859 "guppy" (Poecilidae y Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936 ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae. Ellos fueron utilizados como organismos no destinatarios en ensayos de corta duración, para determinar el impacto toxicológico del cartap. Para ambas especies de peces se evaluó el porcentaje de mortalidad, y dos respuestas subletales: el incremento del movimiento opercular y el nado extraño. A 3 h de exposición para P. reticulata, se encontró un valor de CL50 (Concentración letal media de 6,75 mg•L-1 y valores de CE50 (Concentración efectiva media de The ecotoxicological impact of the carbamate insecticide cartap (1,3 di (carbamoythio-2-dimethyloaminopropan used for agriculture pests and as mollusquicide of vectors of Public Health importance was evaluated, on two fish species of the continental aquatic ecosystem. Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859 ``guppy" (Poecilidae and Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936 ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae were employed as non-target organisms in assays of short duration to determine the toxicological impact of cartap. For both fish, percentage of mortality and two sublethal responses: increase of opercula movement and strange swim, were evaluated. In P. reticulata after 3 h exposure it was found a LC50 (mean Lethal Concentration of 6.75 mg'•L-1 and values of EC50 (mean Effective Concentration of <7.55 and <8.16 mg•L-1 as speed up of opercula movement and strange swim, respectively. For P. innesi, it was found an LC50 value of <0.02 mg•L-1 and values of EC50 of <0.01 and <0.03 mg•L-1, as speed up of opercula movement and strange swim, respectively. P. innesi was more sensitive to cartap than P. reticulata. Risk Quotients (RQ to evaluate environmental risk (ERA of this insecticide on aquatic ecosystem were calculated, indicating that P. innesi was more accurate than P. reticulata as ecotoxicological tool to evaluate cartap.

Jose Iannacone

2007-01-01

119

Biometria de frutos e sementes e germinação de Plathymenia reticulata benth. e Plathymenia foliolosa benth. (Fabaceae - mimosoideae) / Biometry of fruits and seeds and germination of Plathymenia reticulata benth. and Plathymenia foliolosa benth. (Fabaceae - mimosoideae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo objetivou comparar características biométricas de frutos e sementes e o efeito de diferentes escarificações, temperaturas e luz na germinação de Plathymenia reticulata Benth. e Plathymenia foliolosa Benth. Foram registrados comprimento, largura, espessura, massa da matéria seca e fresca [...] de frutos (n = 100) e sementes (n = 100) de cada espécie. Os diferentes tratamentos foram escarificações mecânica e química e temperaturas (fotoperíodo/nictoperíodo) de 20, 30 e 35/15 °C (12/12 e 0/24) e 25 e 35 °C (12/12). Os frutos de P. foliolosa mostraram-se mais largos, espessos e pesados e as sementes, mais compridas e espessas do que as de P. reticulata. As sementes de ambas as espécies não apresentaram fotoblastismo. A escarificação ácida não aumentou significativamente a germinabilidade das sementes em relação ao grupo-controle, enquanto a escarificação mecânica incrementou significativamente a germinabilidade apenas de P. foliolosa. As germinabilidades a 25 °C das sementes de P. reticulata intactas, escarificadas com ácido e lixa foram, respectivamente, de 55%, 60% e 89%. Para as sementes de P. foliolosa esses valores foram 48%, 37,5% e 83%, respectivamente.Esses resultados apontam limitações na germinação de P. foliolosa impostas pelo tegumento, entretanto o efeito deste restringindo a germinação das sementes intactas decresceu com a elevação da temperatura. Abstract in english This study aimed to compare the biometry of fruits and seeds, as well as the effect of different scarification, temperature and light conditions on the germination of Plathymenia reticulata Benth. and Plathymenia foliolosa Benth. We measured the length, width, thickness, and fresh mass of fruits (n= [...] 100) and seeds (n= 100) of each specie. The different treatments were mechanic and acid scarification, temperatures (photoperiod/nictoperiod) of 20, 30 and 35/15 °C (12/12 and 0/24) and 25 and 35 °C (12/12). P. foliolosa fruits were wider, thickener and heavier. Its seeds are longer and thicker than those of P. reticulata. Seeds of both species were not photosensitive. Acid scarification did not increase significantly the percentage of seed germination of both species, but mechanic scarification increased significantly the percentage of seed germination for P. foliolosa. The percentage of germination at 25 °C of intact seeds of P. reticulata, scarified with acid and with sandpaper was, respectively, 55%, 60% and 89%. For seeds of P. foliolosa values obtained were, respectively, 48%, 37.5% and 83%. These results indicate limitations of germination of P. foliolosa imposed by the tegument but the effect of tegument restringing the germination of intact seeds decrease with the increase of temperature.

Renata de Melo Ferreira, Lopes; Valéria Lúcia de Oliveira, Freitas; José Pires de, Lemos Filho.

2010-10-01

120

Biometria de frutos e sementes e germinação de Plathymenia reticulata benth. e Plathymenia foliolosa benth. (Fabaceae - mimosoideae) / Biometry of fruits and seeds and germination of Plathymenia reticulata benth. and Plathymenia foliolosa benth. (Fabaceae - mimosoideae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo objetivou comparar características biométricas de frutos e sementes e o efeito de diferentes escarificações, temperaturas e luz na germinação de Plathymenia reticulata Benth. e Plathymenia foliolosa Benth. Foram registrados comprimento, largura, espessura, massa da matéria seca e fresca [...] de frutos (n = 100) e sementes (n = 100) de cada espécie. Os diferentes tratamentos foram escarificações mecânica e química e temperaturas (fotoperíodo/nictoperíodo) de 20, 30 e 35/15 °C (12/12 e 0/24) e 25 e 35 °C (12/12). Os frutos de P. foliolosa mostraram-se mais largos, espessos e pesados e as sementes, mais compridas e espessas do que as de P. reticulata. As sementes de ambas as espécies não apresentaram fotoblastismo. A escarificação ácida não aumentou significativamente a germinabilidade das sementes em relação ao grupo-controle, enquanto a escarificação mecânica incrementou significativamente a germinabilidade apenas de P. foliolosa. As germinabilidades a 25 °C das sementes de P. reticulata intactas, escarificadas com ácido e lixa foram, respectivamente, de 55%, 60% e 89%. Para as sementes de P. foliolosa esses valores foram 48%, 37,5% e 83%, respectivamente.Esses resultados apontam limitações na germinação de P. foliolosa impostas pelo tegumento, entretanto o efeito deste restringindo a germinação das sementes intactas decresceu com a elevação da temperatura. Abstract in english This study aimed to compare the biometry of fruits and seeds, as well as the effect of different scarification, temperature and light conditions on the germination of Plathymenia reticulata Benth. and Plathymenia foliolosa Benth. We measured the length, width, thickness, and fresh mass of fruits (n= [...] 100) and seeds (n= 100) of each specie. The different treatments were mechanic and acid scarification, temperatures (photoperiod/nictoperiod) of 20, 30 and 35/15 °C (12/12 and 0/24) and 25 and 35 °C (12/12). P. foliolosa fruits were wider, thickener and heavier. Its seeds are longer and thicker than those of P. reticulata. Seeds of both species were not photosensitive. Acid scarification did not increase significantly the percentage of seed germination of both species, but mechanic scarification increased significantly the percentage of seed germination for P. foliolosa. The percentage of germination at 25 °C of intact seeds of P. reticulata, scarified with acid and with sandpaper was, respectively, 55%, 60% and 89%. For seeds of P. foliolosa values obtained were, respectively, 48%, 37.5% and 83%. These results indicate limitations of germination of P. foliolosa imposed by the tegument but the effect of tegument restringing the germination of intact seeds decrease with the increase of temperature.

Renata de Melo Ferreira, Lopes; Valéria Lúcia de Oliveira, Freitas; José Pires de, Lemos Filho.

 
 
 
 
121

Bloom of the cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii on the gorgonian coral Annella reticulata in Japan  

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Coral populations are in decline due to environmental changes and biological attacks by predators and infectious diseases. Here, we report a localized bloom of the benthic filamentous cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii (formerly Lyngbya bouillonii) observed exclusively on the gorgonian (sea fan) coral Annella reticulata at around 20?m depth in Japan. The degree of infection has reached 26% among different sizes of Annella colonies. Thick and continuous growth of Moorea may be sustained partly by symbiotic alpheid shrimp, which affix Moorea filaments to gorgonian corals for use as food and shelter. Most filaments get entangled on the coral colony, some penetrate into the stem of the coral with a swollen end like a root hair, which appears to function as an anchor in Annella. In addition to the cyanobacterium–shrimp interaction, the new trait of anchoring by the cyanobacterium into gorgonian coral may contribute to persistence of this bloom. PMID:25112498

Yamashiro, Hideyuki; Isomura, Naoko; Sakai, Kazuhiko

2014-01-01

122

Accumulation of dieldrin in an alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), Daphnia magna, and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

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Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Poecilia reticulata accumulated dieldrin directly from water; average concentration factors (concentration in organism, dry weight, divided by concentration in water) were 1282 for the alga, 13,954 for D. magna, and 49,307 (estimated) for the guppy. The amount accumulated by each species at equilibrium (after about 1.5, 3-4, and 18 days, respectively) was directly proportional to the concentration of dieldrin in the water. Daphnia magna and guppies accumulated more dieldrin from water than from food that had been exposed to similar concentrations in water. When guppies were fed equal daily rations of D. magna containing different concentrations of insecticide, the amounts of dieldrin accumulated by the fish were directly proportional to the concentration in D. magna; when two lots of guppies were fed different quantities of D. magna (10 and 20 organisms per day) containing identical concentrations of dieldrin, however, the amounts accumulated did not differ substantially.

Reinert, Robert E.

1972-01-01

123

Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Essential Oil  

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Full Text Available The chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (PCR essential oil obtained using an improved Clevenger type apparatus were studied. Among the five different PCRs examined the highest yield of essential oil was found in Chachi 2004 (harvested and stored in 2004 and the lowest in Chachi 2008 (harvested and stored in 2008. Fifty three different volatile compounds were determined, including terpenic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters. D-limonene, one of terpenes, was the major constituent in PCR. The antioxidant capacity of PCR essential oil varied considerably with the duration of storage time, and the oil from Chachi 1994 has the strongest ferric-reducing antioxidant power. In addition, the essential oil possessed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, except Streptococcus faecalis, while had no effect on Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae.

Bei Gao

2011-05-01

124

DETAILED COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA LINN. AND ANNONA RETICULATA LINN. LEAVES  

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Full Text Available Annona squamosa Linn. and Annona reticulata Linn. are locally known as Sitaphala and Ramphala respectively both belongs to family Annonaceae. Leaves of both are used in various diseases like suppurant, toothache, anthelmintic commonly. Individually A. squamosa is used in anti diabetic, antispasmodic, dandruff and A. reticulate is used in flatulence and toothache. Till date there is no scientific comparative study has been reported. Pharmacognostical study of A. squamosa shows lysogenous cavity and sparse trichome where as, A. reticulate shows multicellular trichomes filled with tannin and stone cells. The powder characters of A. squamosa are stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate whereas A. reticulate shows pitted stones cells and micro rosettes crystals of calcium oxalate. Annular vessels, lysogenous cavity and paracytic stomata are common characters observed in both the leaves.

Jani Switu

2012-10-01

125

Successful management of acute-onset torticollis in a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

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A 2-yr-old male reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) presented with severe midcervical segmental torticollis upon arrival as an incoming shipment. Despite initial medical management, the giraffe developed marked neck sensitivity, focal muscle spasms, and decreased cervical range of motion. Using operant conditioning to assist patient positioning and tolerance to cervical manipulation, a series of manually applied chiropractic treatments were applied to the affected cervical vertebrae in an effort to restore normal cervical mobility. Laser therapy and cervical range of motion exercises were also used to reduce cervical muscle hypertonicity. The combined application of these nontraditional therapies produced marked clinical improvement. This case highlights the potential benefits of combining traditional medical management with chiropractic treatment and physical therapy techniques for management of severe acute-onset torticollis in a giraffe. PMID:23505724

Dadone, Liza I; Haussler, Kevin K; Brown, Greg; Marsden, Melanie; Gaynor, James; Johnston, Matthew S; Garelle, Della

2013-03-01

126

Bloom of the cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii on the gorgonian coral Annella reticulata in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coral populations are in decline due to environmental changes and biological attacks by predators and infectious diseases. Here, we report a localized bloom of the benthic filamentous cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii (formerly Lyngbya bouillonii) observed exclusively on the gorgonian (sea fan) coral Annella reticulata at around 20 m depth in Japan. The degree of infection has reached 26% among different sizes of Annella colonies. Thick and continuous growth of Moorea may be sustained partly by symbiotic alpheid shrimp, which affix Moorea filaments to gorgonian corals for use as food and shelter. Most filaments get entangled on the coral colony, some penetrate into the stem of the coral with a swollen end like a root hair, which appears to function as an anchor in Annella. In addition to the cyanobacterium-shrimp interaction, the new trait of anchoring by the cyanobacterium into gorgonian coral may contribute to persistence of this bloom. PMID:25112498

Yamashiro, Hideyuki; Isomura, Naoko; Sakai, Kazuhiko

2014-01-01

127

Influence of the protein quantity from combined fodder on the corporal development of guppy (Poecilia reticulata  

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Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the effects of various concentrations of protein premixtures onthe growth in length and weight of adult specimens of ornamental fish Poecilia reticulata, bred incaptivity. Of this consideration, the experiment was set up with six groups: R1, R2, R3, TG, TP and TD,which were fed differently as follows: R1 with mixed fodder containing 30% CP (crude protein, ownrecipe; R2 with mixed fodder containing 30% GP, own recipe; R3 with mixed fodder containing 30%CP, own recipe; TG with Troco Grower fodder containing 43% CP; TP with Troco Prim fodder containing44% CP; TD with Tetra Discus fodder containing 48% CP. The research was conducted over a period ofthree months in which there have been followed the length and weight, to determine body indices(average increase of the weight gain, Fulton index and average weight ratio multiplier.

Adrian Gruber

2013-03-01

128

Senna reticulata (Willd.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae) "Matapasto", árbol pionero en las planicies inundables amazónicas / Senna reticulata (Willd.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae) as "Pasture Killer" ("Matapasto") pioneer tree in amazonian floodplains  

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Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Senna reticulata ( Willd. ) H. S. Irwin & Barneby ( Fabaceae ) es un árbol pionero que coloniza áreas abiertas en las planicies inundables de la amazonía. Es muy abundante a lo largo de los ríos de aguas claras y nutritivas y puede considerarse uno de los más eficientes colonizadores de áreas abiert [...] as. Las raíces y tallos poseen una alta tolerancia a la inundación y presenta una alta asimilación fotosintética y rápido crecimiento a pesar de la inundación prolongada; además la eficiente dispersión de la semilla y la habilidad para rebrotar después de un periodo de condiciones desfavorables, la hacen muy efectiva. Estas características llevan a la población local a considerar a Senna reticulata como una nociva maleza leñosa, llamada "matapasto" ( "pasture killer" ) aunque en la secuencia sucesional represente una etapa leñosa de corta duración, la cual permite el establecimiento de bosques altamente diversos. Abstract in english Senna reticulata ( Willd. ) H. S. Irwin & Barneby ( Fabaceae ) is a pioneer tree which colonizes open areas in Amazonian floodplains. It is very abundant throughout Amazonia along the nutrientrich whitewater rivers, and can be considered to be one of the most efficient colonizers of open areas. It p [...] ossesses a very high tolerance towards flooding of the roots and stem, and performs extremely high photosynthetic assimilation and fast growth despite prolonged waterlogging. Efficient seed dispersal and the ability of resprouting after a period of unfavourable conditions add to its effectiveness. These features led the local people to consider Senna reticulata a noxious woody weed called ‘matapasto’ ( "pasture killer" ) although in the successional sequence it represents a short-lived woody stage which enhances the establishment of highly diverse forests.

Pia, Parolin.

129

Flutuação populacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton em Citrus deliciosa e no híbrido Murcott Citrus sinensis x Citrus reticulata Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton population fluctuation in Citrus deliciosa and Murcott hybrid Citrus sinensis x Citrus reticulata  

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O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a dinâmica populacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), o minador-dos-citros, em pomares de tangerineira Citrus deliciosa Tenore variedade Montenegrina e de tangoreiro híbrido "Murcott" Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck X Citrus reticulata Blanco, com manejo orgânico, em Montenegro (29° 68'S e 51° 46'O), Rio Grande do Sul. Foram realizadas amostragens quinzenais de julho de 2001 a junho de 2003. Os brotos coletados fo...

Cristiane Ramos de Jesus; Luiza Rodrigues Redaelli; Fábio Kessler Dal Soglio

2008-01-01

130

Investigation of Acute Toxicity of Pirimiphos-Methyl (Actellic®, 25%EC on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859  

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Full Text Available Pirimiphos-methyl is a broad spectrum organophosphate insecticide and potential toxic pollutant in aquatic ecosystems. The acute toxicity of Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic® was investigated using Guppy (Poecilia reticulata in a 96 h static renewal laboratory bioassay. Based on probit analysis, the LC50 was 0.026, 0.024, 0.022 and 0.019 ml L-1 at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA showed that there was significant difference (p<0.05 in the quantal response (mortality of P. reticulata to different concentrations of Actellic at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure. Actellic insecticide is toxic to fish; therefore its indiscriminate use in aquatic environment should be discouraged.

M.O. Lawal

2010-01-01

131

Investigation of acute toxicity of pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic, 25%EC) on guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859).  

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Pirimiphos-methyl is a broad spectrum organophosphate insecticide and potential toxic pollutant in aquatic ecosystems. The acute toxicity of Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic) was investigated using Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) in a 96 h static renewal laboratory bioassay. Based on probit analysis the LC50 was 0.026, 0.024, 0.022 and 0.019 ml L(-1) at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that there was significant difference (p < 0.05) in the quantal response (mortality) of P. reticulata to different concentrations of Actellic at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure. Actellic insecticide is toxic to fish; therefore its indiscriminate use in aquatic environment should be discouraged. PMID:20836303

Lawal, M O; Samuel, O B

2010-04-15

132

Pigment Pattern Formation in the Guppy, Poecilia reticulata, Involves the Kita and Csf1ra Receptor Tyrosine Kinases  

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Males of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) vary tremendously in their ornamental patterns, which are thought to have evolved in response to a complex interplay between natural and sexual selection. Although the selection pressures acting on the color patterns of the guppy have been extensively studied, little is known about the genes that control their ontogeny. Over 50 years ago, two autosomal color loci, blue and golden, were described, both of which play a decisive role in the formation of t...

Kottler, Verena A.; Fadeev, Andrey; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

2013-01-01

133

Anticancer effects of flavonoid derivatives isolated from Millettia reticulata Benth in SK-Hep-1 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.  

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Millettia reticulata Benth is cultivated in Asian countries. M. reticulata Benth has multiple biological functions and is one of the oldest tonic herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. It has been elevated to one of the most commonly used herbs in modern Chinese medicine. The aims of this work were to study the in vitro anticancer activity of flavonoid derivatives isolated from the stems of M. reticulata Benth. Six flavonoid derivatives including (-)-epicatechin (1), naringenin (2), 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone (3), formononetin (4), isoliquiritigenin (5), and genistein (6) were isolated from the stems of M. reticulata Benth. The structures of 1-6 were determined by spectroscopic methods. The effects of flavonoid derivatives (1-6) on the viability of human cancer cells (including HepG2, SK-Hep-1, Huh7, PLC5, COLO 205, HT-29, and SW 872 cells) were investigated. The results indicated that genistein (6) had the strongest inhibitory activity with an IC(50) value of 16.23 microM in SK-Hep-1 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Treatment of SK-Hep-1 cells with genistein (6) caused loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Western blot data revealed that genistein (6) stimulated an increase in the protein expression of Fas, FasL, and p53. Additionally, treatment with genistein (6) changed the ratio of expression levels of pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members and subsequently induced the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, which was followed by cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). These results demonstrate that genistein (6) induces apoptosis in SK-Hep-1 cells via both Fas- and mitochondria-mediated pathways. PMID:19994890

Fang, Song-Chwan; Hsu, Chin-Lin; Lin, Hsin-Tang; Yen, Gow-Chin

2010-01-27

134

DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLLASE ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO L. USING SEAWEED EXTRACT OF ULVA RETICULATA FORSSKAL.  

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Full Text Available The effect of seaweed extract prepared from Ulva reticulata on seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyllase activity of Vigna mungo L. was studied. 100% germination was recorded in the seeds treated with lower concentration of seaweed extract. The V. mungo seeds soaked with lower concentrations of the seaweed extracts showed higher rates of germination, while the higher concentrations of the extracts inhibited the germination.

Ganapathy Selvam G.

2013-01-01

135

Study on the volatile oil contents of Annona glabra L., Annona squamosa L., Annona muricata L. and Annona reticulata L., from Vietnam.  

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The volatile compounds identified from four species of Annona from Vietnam are being reported. The oils were obtained from aliquots of plant samples by steam distillation and subjected to GC and GC-MS analysis. The main compounds of Annona glabra L., were ?-caryophyllene (21.5%) germacrene D (17.7%), ?-cadinol (5.4%) and ?-elemene (5.2%). Annona squamosa L., comprised mainly of ?-pinene (1.0-11.9%), limonene (0.8-11.7%), ?-cubebene (0.5-13.0%), ?-caryophyllene (11.6-24.5%), spathulenol (0.8-9.0%), caryophyllene oxide (1.0-10.6%) and ?-cadinol (3.3-7.8%). The significant constituents of Annona muricata L., were ?-pinene (9.4%), ?-pinene (20.6%), ?-mentha-2,4(8)-diene (9.8%), ?-elemene (9.1%) and germacrene D (18.1%). However, camphene (0.2-6.6%), ?-copaene (2.0-7.3%), ?-elemene (5.9-16.6%), ?-caryophyllene (8.3-14.9%), ?-bisabolene (0.4-10.2%), ?-cadinene (1.7-4.8%) and germacrene D (9.3-22.8%) were the main compounds common to samples of Annona reticulata L. There were significant amounts of sabinene (11.2% and 2.7%; leaf and stem bark) and bicycloelemene (9.6% and 6.1%; stem and bark). PMID:22989376

Thang, T D; Dai, D N; Hoi, T M; Ogunwande, I A

2013-01-01

136

The effects of chronic irradiation on the breeding performance of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Osteichthyes: Teleostei)  

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The effects of chronic irradiation on the life-time breeding performance of the small tropical fish, Poecilia reticulata, have been investigated at mean dose-rates of 0.17, 0.40 and 1.27 rad hour-1. The total fecundity was markedly (P<0.001) reduced at all dose-rates owing to a decrease in mean actual brood-size and an increase in temporary and permanent infertility. Minor progressive changes in the interbrood time with age and dose-rate were noted. The neonatal death-rate, incidence of abnormalities, and survival and sex ratio of the offspring were unaffected by irradiation. The brood-size data have been used to derive estimates of the dominant lethal mutation rate which are of the same order as those determined for mammals. Histological studies indicate that functional sterility is not necessarily dependent on the destruction of the gonads, and it is possible that radiation effects on pituitary function are responsible for much of the observed infertility. (author)

137

The MC1R gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata: Genotypic and phenotypic polymorphisms  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The guppy (Poecilia reticulata is an important model organism for studying sexual selection; male guppies have complex and conspicuous pigmentation, and female guppies exhibit preferences for males with specific color spots. Understanding the genetic basis underlying pigmentation variation in the guppy is important for exploring the factors causing the maintenance of color polymorphism in wild populations. Findings We focused on the melanic black pigmentation of guppies, and examined genetic variations in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene because variation in this gene is known to contribute to polymorphism of melanin pigmentation in several animal species. The complete coding sequence of the guppy MC1R gene was determined, and two different MC1R alleles (963 and 969 bp were found in wild populations. Ornamental strain guppies with a 963-bp MC1R tended to show less black pigmentation than those with a 969-bp MC1R, although the association between MC1R genotype and black pigmentation disappeared in the F2 offspring. Conclusions The guppy MC1R gene showed variation in the five wild Trinidadian populations we examined, and these populations also differed in terms of allele frequencies. We identified a significant association between black pigmentation and MC1R genotype in fish obtained from aquarium shops. However, the results from F2 families suggest that there are other genes that modify the effects of the MC1R gene.

Yokoyama Jun

2011-02-01

138

Developmental toxicity of copaiba tree (Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae) oleoresin in rat.  

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The oleoresin of the copaiba tree (Copaifera sp., Fabaceae) is traditionally used in Brazilian herbal medicine to treat a variety of illnesses and symptoms. This study, conducted according to the OECD Guideline 414, provides data on the developmental toxicity of oleoresin from C. reticulata (COPA-R) in rats. Pregnant Wistar rats (25 per dose group) were treated by gavage with COPA-R (0, 500, 1000 and 1250 mg/kg bw/day) on gestation days (GD) 6-19 and Caesarean sections performed on GD20. Implantations, living and dead fetuses and resorptions were recorded. Half of the fetuses from each litter were examined for visceral abnormalities and the remaining were cleared and stained for skeleton evaluation. COPA-R was maternally toxic (reduced food intake and weight gain) and embryotoxic (lower fetal body weight and increased occurrence of fetal skeleton variations) at the two highest doses, but did not cause embryo deaths or fetal malformations at any dose level. The study derived an oral no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for maternal and developmental toxicity induced by COPA-R of 500 mg/kg bw/day. The results suggest that copaiba oleoresin does not pose a health risk to pregnant women when used according to the recommended doses (up to five drops, three times a day). PMID:21266184

Sachetti, Camile G; de Carvalho, Rosângela R; Paumgartten, Francisco J R; Lameira, Osmar A; Caldas, Eloisa D

2011-05-01

139

Female mating preference for bold males in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata.  

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Although females prefer to mate with brightly colored males in numerous species, the benefits accruing to such females are virtually unknown. According to one hypothesis of sexual selection theory, if the expression of costly preferred traits in males (such as conspicuous colors) is proportional to the male's overall quality or reveals his quality, a well-developed trait should indicate good condition and/or viability for example. A female choosing such a male would therefore stand to gain direct or indirect fitness benefits, or both. Among potential phenotypic indicators of an individual's quality are the amount and brightness of its carotenoid-based colors and its boldness, as measured by its willingness to risk approaching predators without being killed. Here, we show experimentally that in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) the visual conspicuousness of the color pattern of males correlates positively with boldness toward, and with escape distance from, a cichlid fish predator. Bold individuals are thus more informed about nearby predators and more likely to survive encounters with them. Mate-choice experiments showed that females prefer colorful males as mates, but prefer bolder males irrespective of their coloration when given the opportunity to observe their behavior toward a potential fish predator. By preferentially mating with colorful males, female guppies are thus choosing on average, relatively bold, and perhaps more viable, individuals. In doing so, and to the extent that viability is heritable, they potentially gain indirect fitness benefits by producing more viable offspring than otherwise. PMID:11607706

Godin, J G; Dugatkin, L A

1996-09-17

140

The effects of different predator species on antipredator behavior in the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata  

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Different types of predators often elicit different antipredator responses in a common type of prey. Alternatively, some prey species may adopt a general response, which provides limited protection from many different types of predator. The Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, is faced with a wide range of different predators throughout its range and is known to display varying levels of antipredator behavior depending on the predator assemblage. Pike cichlids, Crenicichla frenata, are regarded as the primary aquatic guppy predator in streams in the northern mountain range in Trinidad. As such, they are seen to be responsible for many of the differences in morphology, life history traits, and behavior between guppy populations from areas with few predators and those from areas with many pike cichlids. In this study we investigated how guppies responded when faced with different predator species using three common aquatic predators. We exposed shoals of ten guppies to one out of four treatments: no predator (control), pike cichlid, acara cichlid ( Aequidens pulcher), and wolf fish ( Hoplias malabaricus); and we made behavioral observations on both focal individuals and the shoal as a whole. Guppies showed significantly greater levels of predator inspection and shoaling behavior, foraged less, spent more time in the surface water, and stayed in significantly larger shoals when faced with pike cichlids than in other treatments. We discuss these results in the context of multiple predator effects.

Botham, M. S.; Kerfoot, C. J.; Louca, V.; Krause, J.

2006-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Investigation of LC50, NOEC and LOEC of Glyphosate, Deltamethrin and Pretilachlor in Guppies (Poecilia Reticulata  

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Full Text Available Background: The presence of pesticides is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran. These toxic substances may accumulate in the food chain and cause serious ecological and health problems. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor as potential dangerous organic pesticides to assess lethal effects of these chemicals agents to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata. Methods: Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate (41% (0, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 25 ppm, deltamethrin (2.5% (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.10 and 0.30 ppm and pretilachlor (50% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm for 96 h and cumulative mortality of the guppies was calculated with 24 h intervals. Results: LC50-96h was 12.01±1.00, 0.08±0.47 and 8.24±0.42 for glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor respectively. The very low LC50 obtained for glyphosate (12.01±1.00 ppm, deltamethrin (0.08±0.47 ppm and pretilachlor (8.24±0.42 ppm indicate that glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor are highly toxic to guppies. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that deltamethrin and glyphosate had the lowest and highest rate of mortality on the guppy respectively.

Ali Sadeghi

2014-09-01

142

EFECTOS ECOTOXICOLOGICOS DEL CARTAP SOBRE POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE) Y PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE) / ECOTOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CARTAP ON POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE) AND PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el impacto ecotoxicológico del insecticida carbámico cartap (1,3 di (carbamoytio)-2-dimetiloaminopropano) usado para el control de plagas agrícolas y como molusquicida de vectores de importancia en Salud Pública, sobre dos especies de peces del ecosistema acuático continental: Poecilia ret [...] iculata (Peters 1859) "guppy" (Poecilidae) y Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936) ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae). Ellos fueron utilizados como organismos no destinatarios en ensayos de corta duración, para determinar el impacto toxicológico del cartap. Para ambas especies de peces se evaluó el porcentaje de mortalidad, y dos respuestas subletales: el incremento del movimiento opercular y el nado extraño. A 3 h de exposición para P. reticulata, se encontró un valor de CL50 (Concentración letal media) de 6,75 mg•L-1 y valores de CE50 (Concentración efectiva media) de Abstract in english The ecotoxicological impact of the carbamate insecticide cartap (1,3 di (carbamoythio)-2-dimethyloaminopropan) used for agriculture pests and as mollusquicide of vectors of Public Health importance was evaluated, on two fish species of the continental aquatic ecosystem. Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1 [...] 859) ``guppy" (Poecilidae) and Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936) ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae) were employed as non-target organisms in assays of short duration to determine the toxicological impact of cartap. For both fish, percentage of mortality and two sublethal responses: increase of opercula movement and strange swim, were evaluated. In P. reticulata after 3 h exposure it was found a LC50 (mean Lethal Concentration) of 6.75 mg'•L-1 and values of EC50 (mean Effective Concentration) of

Jose, Iannacone; Roxana, Onofre; Olga, Huanqui.

143

Use of multi species freshwater bio monitor (MFB) to assess behavioral changes of guppy Poecilia reticulata and freshwater prawn Macrobrachium lanchesteri in response to cadmium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Multi species Freshwater Bio monitor (MFB) uses the measurement and analysis of different types of behaviours from different aquatic organisms for monitoring the water quality in freshwater ecosystem. The aim of this study was to determine the specific response of freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium lanchesteri) and guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) to cadmium (Cd) in the laboratory. Different concentrations of Cd were exposed to M. lanchesteri (1 ppb and 10 ppb) and P. reticulata (100 ppb and 560 ppb) and the behavioural changes of the organisms were recorded by MFB for 2 hours. Results showed that the behavioural and ventilation response of M. lanchesteri and P. reticulata increased with increasing exposure concentrations of Cd. Results also showed that the shrimp was more sensitive to Cd than the guppy fish and these local species were suitable as indicator organism for the MFB. (author)

144

Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

2013-02-01

145

CONTROL DEMONSTRATION OF THE RICEFIELD BREEDING MOSQUITO ANOPHELES ACONITUS DONITZ IN CENTRAL JAVA, USING POECILIA RETICULATA THROUGH COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION : 3. FIELD TRIAL AND EVALUATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Suatu penelitian dilakukan untuk menjajagi kemungkinan menggunakan minapadi sebagai cara pemberantasan nyamuk Anopheles aconitus. Minapadi dilakukan dengan ikan Cyprinus carpio. Dengan tersedianya air di sawah untuk ikan, ikan pemakan jentik Poecilia Reticulata yang ditebarkan dapat hidup pula. Penebaran dilakukan oleh masyarakat. Hasil Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa melalui minapadi yaitu dengan penebaran, ikan P. reticulata pada kepadatan 2 ekor /m2, populasi An. aconitus selama 5 tahun dapat diturunkan sebanyak 99,7% dan S.P.R. malaria sebanyak 98.8%. [1] Regency Health Service, Banjarnegara Regency, Central Java.

Sustriayu Nalim

2012-09-01

146

Uptake and elimination of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) at sublethal and lethal aqueous concentrations.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The kinetics of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) have been studied in an accumulation and elimination experiment. At a sublethal exposure, uptake and elimination rate constants of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene were determined, employing a first-order one-compartment model. The constants were found to be 492 ± 234 Lkg?1 d?1 (uptake), and 0.49 ± 0.22 d?1 (elimination) on the basis of wet weight. Exposing guppies to a time-varying lethal concentration of 1,2,4-trichlorobe...

Eck, J. M. C.; Koelmans, A. A.; Deneer, J. W.

1997-01-01

147

Influence of the protein quantity from combined fodder on the corporal development of guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aims to highlight the effects of various concentrations of protein premixtures onthe growth in length and weight of adult specimens of ornamental fish Poecilia reticulata, bred incaptivity. Of this consideration, the experiment was set up with six groups: R1, R2, R3, TG, TP and TD,which were fed differently as follows: R1 with mixed fodder containing 30% CP (crude protein), ownrecipe; R2 with mixed fodder containing 30% GP, own recipe; R3 with mixed fodder containing 30%CP, ...

Adrian Gruber; Pop, Ioan M.; Benone P?s?rin; Gabriel Hoha; Cristian Radu- Rusu; R?zvan Radu-Rusu

2013-01-01

148

Spatial discounting of food and social rewards in guppies (Poecilia reticulata  

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Full Text Available In temporal discounting, animals trade off the time to obtain a reward against the quality of a reward, choosing between a smaller reward available sooner versus a larger reward available later. Similar discounting can apply over space, when animals choose between smaller and closer versus larger and more distant rewards. Most studies of temporal and spatial discounting in nonhuman animals use food as the reward, and it is not established whether animals trade off other preferred stimuli in similar ways. Here, we offered female guppies (Poecilia reticulata a spatial discounting task in which we measured preferences for a larger reward as the distance to it increased relative to a closer but smaller reward. We tested whether the fish discounted reward types differently by offering subjects either food items or same-sex conspecifics as rewards. Before beginning the discounting tasks, we conducted validation tests to ensure that subjects equally valued the food and social stimuli in the quantities provided. In the discounting task, subjects switched their preferences from the larger to the smaller reward as the distance to the larger reward increased (spatial discounting, but the pattern and magnitude of discounting did not differ across the two reward types. These findings indicate that guppies show similar patterns of discounting food and social rewards in a spatial task. In an analysis of travel times, however, the fish swam faster to food rewards than to shoaling partners. This difference in travel times implies that fish temporally discounted social rewards less steeply than food rewards. Thus, reward type influences temporal discounting, suggesting a dissociation between temporal and spatial discounting. Our results illustrate how animals adjust choices and travel times depending on both the type of cost (time, distance and benefits (food, social partners.

JeffreyRStevens

2011-04-01

149

Phenotypic Plasticity Changes Correlations of Traits Following Experimental Introductions of Trinidadian Guppies (Poecilia reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Colonization of novel environments can alter selective pressures and act as a catalyst for rapid evolution in nature. Theory and empirical studies suggest that the ability of a population to exhibit an adaptive evolutionary response to novel selection pressures should reflect the presence of sufficient additive genetic variance and covariance for individual and correlated traits. As correlated traits should not respond to selection independently, the structure of correlations of traits can bias or constrain adaptive evolution. Models of how multiple correlated traits respond to selection often assume spatial and temporal stability of trait-correlations within populations. Yet, trait-correlations can also be plastic in response to environmental variation. Phenotypic plasticity, the ability of a single genotype to produce different phenotypes across environments, is of particular interest because it can induce population-wide changes in the combination of traits exposed to selection and change the trajectory of evolutionary divergence. We tested the ability of phenotypic plasticity to modify trait-correlations by comparing phenotypic variance and covariance in the body-shapes of four experimental populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to their ancestral population. We found that phenotypic plasticity produced both adaptive and novel aspects of body-shape, which was repeated in all four experimental populations. Further, phenotypic plasticity changed patterns of covariance among morphological characters. These findings suggest our ability to make inferences about patterns of divergence based on correlations of traits in extant populations may be limited if novel environments not only induce plasticity in multiple traits, but also change the correlations among the traits. PMID:25201899

Handelsman, Corey A; Ruell, Emily W; Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Ghalambor, Cameron K

2014-11-01

150

Predicting the direction of ornament evolution in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual selection is thought to be opposed by natural selection such that ornamental traits express a balance between these two antagonistic influences. Phenotypic variation among populations may indicate local shifts in this balance, or that different stable 'solutions' are possible, but testing these alternatives presents a major challenge. In the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a small freshwater fish with male-limited ornamental coloration, these issues can be addressed by transplanting fish among sites of varying predation pressure, thus effectively manipulating the strength and nature of natural selection. Here, we contrast the evolutionary outcome of two such introductions conducted in the Trinidadian El Cedro and Aripo Rivers. We use sophisticated colour appraisal methods that account for full spectrum colour variation and which incorporate the very latest visual sensitivity data for guppies and their predators. Our data indicate that ornamentation evolved along different trajectories: whereas Aripo males evolved more numerous and/or larger orange, black and iridescent markings, El Cedro males only evolved more extensive and brighter iridescence. Examination of the El Cedro experiment also revealed little or no ornamental evolution at the control site over 29 years, which contrasts markedly with the rapid (approx. 2-3 years) changes reported for introduction populations. Finally, whole colour-pattern analysis suggested that the greatest visual difference between El Cedro introduction and control fish would be perceived by the two most salient viewers: guppies and the putatively dangerous predator Crenicichla alta. We discuss whether and how these evolutionary trajectories may result from founder effects, population-specific mate preferences and/or sensory drive. PMID:19776075

Kemp, Darrell J; Reznick, David N; Grether, Gregory F; Endler, John A

2009-12-22

151

Levodopa enhances synaptic plasticity in the substantia nigra pars reticulata of Parkinson's disease patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parkinson's disease, caused by the loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal projections, is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease characterized by bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor and postural instability. The dopamine precursor levodopa (L-dopa) is the most effective treatment for the amelioration of Parkinson's disease signs and symptoms, but long-term administration can lead to disabling motor fluctuations and L-dopa -induced dyskinesias (LIDs). Studies in rat striatal slices have shown dopamine to be an essential component of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity at the input to the basal ganglia, but dopamine is also released from ventrally projecting dendrites of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) on the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), a major output structure of the basal ganglia. We characterized synaptic plasticity in the SNr using field potentials evoked with a nearby microelectrode (fEPs), in 18 Parkinson's disease patients undergoing implantation of deep brain stimulating (DBS) electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). High frequency stimulation (HFS--four trains of 2 s at 100 Hz) in the SNr failed to induce a lasting change in test fEPs (1 Hz) amplitudes in patients OFF medication (decayed to baseline by 160 s). Following oral L-dopa administration, HFS induced a potentiation of the fEP amplitudes (+29.3% of baseline at 160 s following a plateau). Our findings suggest that extrastriatal dopamine modulates activity-dependent synaptic plasticity at basal ganglia output neurons. Dopamine medication state clearly impacts fEP amplitude, and the lasting nature of the increase is reminiscent of LTP-like changes, indicating that aberrant synaptic plasticity may play a role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. PMID:19050033

Prescott, I A; Dostrovsky, J O; Moro, E; Hodaie, M; Lozano, A M; Hutchison, W D

2009-02-01

152

Waterborne zinc alters temporal dynamics of guppy Poecilia reticulata epidermal response to Gyrodactylus turnbulli (Monogenea).  

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The present study assessed the histological changes in the epidermis of Poecilia reticulata induced by the combined effects of an ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli and differing concentrations of waterborne zinc (Zn). Infected guppies were exposed to 0, 15, 30, 60, or 120 µg Zn l-1 and monitored over 3 wk during the exponential increase in parasite numbers on the fish. The fish epidermis responded within 3 d to G. turnbulli infection with a rapid increase in epidermal thickness and a modest increase in number, but not size or composition, of mucous cells. In contrast, in the presence of combined waterborne Zn and infection, mucous cell numbers declined rapidly. As the parasite numbers increased, the epidermis remained thicker than normal, and the number and size of mucous cells decreased. The addition of Zn led to a dramatic thickening of the epidermis during the exponential growth of the parasite population. Mucous cell numbers remained depressed. Temporal changes in mucous cell size were Zn concentration dependent. At 60 µg Zn l-1, cells returned to normal size as infection progressed, whereas they remained extremely small at 120 µg Zn l-1. Changes in mucin composition previously reported in response to Zn alone were subdued in the presence of the parasite except at 60 µg Zn l-1, where all cells contained only acidic mucins. Together these results demonstrate that, on exposure to both Zn and G. turnbulli infection, the epidermal response is initially a protective response to both stressors, and then mainly driven by the increased parasite burden. PMID:22436462

Gheorghiu, Cristina; Marcogliese, David J; Scott, Marilyn E

2012-03-20

153

Whole toxicity removal for industrial and domestic effluents treated with electron beam radiation, evaluated with Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Poecilia reticulata  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several studies have been performed in order to apply ionizing radiation to treat real complexes effluents from different sources, at IPEN. This paper shows the results of such kind of application devoted to influents and effluents from Suzano Wastewater Treatment Plant, Sao Paulo, Suzano WTP, from SABESP. The purpose of the work was to evaluate the radiation technology according to ecotoxicological aspects. The evaluation was carried out on the toxicity bases which included three sampling sites as follows: complex industrial effluents; domestic sewage mixed to the industrial discharge (GM) and final secondary effluent. The tested-organisms for toxicity evaluation were: the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri, the microcrustacean Daphnia similis and the guppy Poecilia reticulata. The fish tests were applied only for secondary final effluents. The results demonstrated the original acute toxicity levels as well as the efficiency of electron beam for its reduction. An important acute toxicity removal was achieved: from 75% up to 95% with 50 kGy (UNA), 20 kGy (GM) and 5.0 kGy for the final effluent. The toxicity removal was a consequence of several organic solvents decomposed by radiation and acute toxicity reduction was about 95%. When the toxicity was evaluated for fish the radiation efficiency reached from 40% to 60%. The hypothesis tests showed a statistical significant removal in the developed studies condition. No residual hydrogen peroxide was found after 5.0 kGy was agen peroxide was found after 5.0 kGy was applied to final effluent. (author)

154

Use of artificial sediment to assess toxicity of chromium on Chironomus xanthus, Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata / Utilização de sedimento artificial na avaliação da toxicidade do cromo sobre Chironomus xanthus, Danio rerio e Poecilia reticulata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Sedimentos artificiais com formulações simples foram utilizados para avaliar a toxicidade do Cr em C. xanthus, D. rerio e P. reticulata. MÉTODOS: Os organismos foram expostos a duas formulações: sem matéria orgânica (S0) e com 1% de matéria orgânica (SIII), contaminadas com Cr nas concentr [...] ações de 90; 180; 360; 720 e 1440 mg/kg para os ensaios com C. xanthus e 375; 750; 1500 e 3000 mg/kg para os ensaios com peixes. RESULTADOS: Os resultados dos ensaios agudos demonstraram uma redução de até quatro vezes na toxicidade frente à presença de matéria orgânica detrital biodegradável (MO). C. xanthus apresentou maior sensibilidade ao metal em relação aos peixes. A redução na toxicidade do Cr frente à presença de MO foi verificada nos valores de CL50, que estiveram mais elevados nos em SIII (C. xanthus = 1234,43 mg/kg ; D. rerio = 2263,54 m/kg e P. reticulata = 2244,48 mg/kg) em relação à S0 (C. xanthus = 340,56 mg/kg; D. rerio = 1731,04 mg/kg e P. reticulata = 1733,55 mg/kg). CONCLUSÕES: Os sedimentos artificiais com formulações simples foram satisfatórios na avaliação da toxicidade e asseguram resultados confiáveis em estudos ecotoxicológicos Abstract in english AIM: Artificial sediments with simple formulations were used to assess the toxicity of Cr to C. xanthus, D. rerio and P. reticulata. METHODS: The organisms were exposed to two sediment formulations: one without organic matter (S0) and one with 1% organic matter (SIII), both contaminated with Cr at c [...] oncentrations of 90, 180, 360, 720 and 1440 mg/kg for the assays with C. xanthus, and 375, 750, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg for those with the two fish species. Chromium was obtained from the potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). RESULTS: The results of the acute toxicity tests demonstrated a reduction of up to four times in toxicity with the presence of OM, consisting of biodegradable detritus, even at the low concentration used (1%), and that C. xanthus was most sensitive to the metal. The reduction in the chromium toxicity was indicated by the LC50 values, which were higher in SIII (1234.43 mg/kg; 2263.54 m/kg; 2244.48 mg/kg) than in S0 (340.56 mg/kg; 1731.04 mg/kg; 1733.55 mg/kg) for C. xanthus, D. rerio and P. reticulata, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Because of the repeatability of the results obtained, the artificial sediments with simple formulations were satisfactory to assess toxicity and can thus provide reliable results in ecotoxicological studies

Aline Fernanda, Campagna; Beatriz Kawamura, Rodrigues; Roberta Corrêa, Nogueirol; Nelsy Fenerich, Verani; Evaldo Luiz Gaeta, Espíndola; Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú, Alleoni.

2013-03-01

155

Use of artificial sediment to assess toxicity of chromium on Chironomus xanthus, Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata / Utilização de sedimento artificial na avaliação da toxicidade do cromo sobre Chironomus xanthus, Danio rerio e Poecilia reticulata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Sedimentos artificiais com formulações simples foram utilizados para avaliar a toxicidade do Cr em C. xanthus, D. rerio e P. reticulata. MÉTODOS: Os organismos foram expostos a duas formulações: sem matéria orgânica (S0) e com 1% de matéria orgânica (SIII), contaminadas com Cr nas concentr [...] ações de 90; 180; 360; 720 e 1440 mg/kg para os ensaios com C. xanthus e 375; 750; 1500 e 3000 mg/kg para os ensaios com peixes. RESULTADOS: Os resultados dos ensaios agudos demonstraram uma redução de até quatro vezes na toxicidade frente à presença de matéria orgânica detrital biodegradável (MO). C. xanthus apresentou maior sensibilidade ao metal em relação aos peixes. A redução na toxicidade do Cr frente à presença de MO foi verificada nos valores de CL50, que estiveram mais elevados nos em SIII (C. xanthus = 1234,43 mg/kg ; D. rerio = 2263,54 m/kg e P. reticulata = 2244,48 mg/kg) em relação à S0 (C. xanthus = 340,56 mg/kg; D. rerio = 1731,04 mg/kg e P. reticulata = 1733,55 mg/kg). CONCLUSÕES: Os sedimentos artificiais com formulações simples foram satisfatórios na avaliação da toxicidade e asseguram resultados confiáveis em estudos ecotoxicológicos Abstract in english AIM: Artificial sediments with simple formulations were used to assess the toxicity of Cr to C. xanthus, D. rerio and P. reticulata. METHODS: The organisms were exposed to two sediment formulations: one without organic matter (S0) and one with 1% organic matter (SIII), both contaminated with Cr at c [...] oncentrations of 90, 180, 360, 720 and 1440 mg/kg for the assays with C. xanthus, and 375, 750, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg for those with the two fish species. Chromium was obtained from the potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). RESULTS: The results of the acute toxicity tests demonstrated a reduction of up to four times in toxicity with the presence of OM, consisting of biodegradable detritus, even at the low concentration used (1%), and that C. xanthus was most sensitive to the metal. The reduction in the chromium toxicity was indicated by the LC50 values, which were higher in SIII (1234.43 mg/kg; 2263.54 m/kg; 2244.48 mg/kg) than in S0 (340.56 mg/kg; 1731.04 mg/kg; 1733.55 mg/kg) for C. xanthus, D. rerio and P. reticulata, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Because of the repeatability of the results obtained, the artificial sediments with simple formulations were satisfactory to assess toxicity and can thus provide reliable results in ecotoxicological studies

Aline Fernanda, Campagna; Beatriz Kawamura, Rodrigues; Roberta Corrêa, Nogueirol; Nelsy Fenerich, Verani; Evaldo Luiz Gaeta, Espíndola; Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú, Alleoni.

156

[Analgesic activity of different nonvolatile extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta Tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire].  

Science.gov (United States)

Different extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire contain mainly secondary metabolites with iridoïd lactonic and glucosidic type, also with triterpine lupan type.The aerial part of each species is crushed, then extracted in methanol by cold maceration, called global extracts. The global extracts will be extracted through various solvents: initially by hexane, then by dichloromethane, after that by ethyl acetate and at the end by buthanol. Each one of the obtained extracts will be used for the following trials: i) Tail flick trial on the rat for central morphine-like analgesic activity; ii) Koster trial on the mouse for peripheral analgesic activity. The evaluation of the central and peripheral analgesic activities for the pre-cited extracts was realized after optimal doses determination of the global extracts activities for both species.The peripheral analgesic activity test on the mouse showed that, for 60 mg/kg intra peritoneum (IP), the hexanic, dichloromethanic, ethyl acetate and butanic extracts have a protection power against abdominal cramp respectively around 89.78%, 81.73%, 70.9% et 69.05% for Nepeta atlantica Ball, and around 89.16%, 82.98%, 71.52% et 70.27% for Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata.Central morphine-like analgesic activity on the rat showed that, for both spices under 60 mg/kg IP, the central analgesic activity effect is significantly for two extracts only: dichloromethane and ethyl acetate. PMID:18937913

Bouidida, El Houcine; Alaoui, Katim; Cherrah, Yahia; Chammache, Malika; Il Idrissi, Abdelkader

2008-01-01

157

MHC class IIB additive and non-additive effects on fitness measures in the guppy Poecilia reticulata.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genetic architecture of fitness at the class IIB gene of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in the guppy Poecilia reticulata was analysed. Diversity at the MHC is thought to be maintained by some form of balancing selection; heterozygote advantage, frequency-dependent selection or spatially and temporally fluctuating selection. Here these hypotheses are evaluated by using an algorithm that partitions the effect of specific MHC allele and genotypes on fitness measures. The effect of MHC genotype on surrogate measures of fitness was tested, including growth rate (at high and low bulk food diets), parasite load following a parasite challenge and survival. The number of copies of the Pore_a132 MHC allele was inversely related to infection by Gyrodactylus flukes and it appeared to be positively related to faster growth. Also, genotypes combining the Pore_a132 or other relatively common alleles paired with rare MHC alleles produced both advantageous and detrimental non-additive effects. Thus, the genetic architecture underlying fitness at the MHC is complex in the P. reticulata. PMID:20738688

Fraser, B A; Neff, B D

2009-12-01

158

[Dynamic changes of soil respiration in Citrus reticulata and Castanea henryi orchards in Wanmulin Nature Reserve, Fujian Province of East China].  

Science.gov (United States)

From January 2009 to December 2009, the soil respiration in the Citrus reticulata and Castanea henryi orchards in Wanmulin Nature Reserve was measured with Li-8100, aimed to characterize the dynamic changes of the soil respiration and its relationships with soil temperature and moisture in the two orchards. The monthly variation of the soil respiration in the orchards was single-peaked, with the peak appeared in July (3.76 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)) ) and August (2.69 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)). Soil temperature was the main factor affecting the soil respiration, and explained 73%-86% of the monthly variation of soil respiration. The average annual soil respiration rate was significantly higher in Citrus reticulata orchard than in Castanea henryi orchard, with the mean value being 2.68 and 1.55 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the soil respiration rate and soil moisture content in Castanea henryi orchard, but less correlation in Citrus reticulata orchard. The Q10 value of the soil respiration in Citrus reticulata and Castanea henryi orchards was 1.58 and 1.75, and the annual CO2 flux was 10.01 and 5.77 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1), respectively. PMID:22937632

Wang, Chao; Huang, Rong; Yang, Zhi-Jie; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Guang-Shui; Wan, Xiao-Hua

2012-06-01

159

Plants  

... Plants Plants, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal. Plants Submit to Plants Login Register MDPI Journals A-Z For Authors For Editors ...Microarrays Micromachines Microorganisms Minerals Molbank Molecules Nanomaterials Nutrients Pathogens Pharmaceuticals Pharmaceutics Pharmacy Plants Polymers Processes Proteomes Publications Religions Remote Sensing Resources Risks Robotics Sensors ...Project Report Reply Retraction Review Short Note Technical Note Special Issue Page Plants Plants Home About this journal Indexing & Abstracting Instructions for ... 1 (2012) Plants — Editors Journal Contact Plants Editorial Office MDPI AG, Klybeckstrasse 64, 4057 Basel, Switzerland E-Mail: plants@mdpi.com ...

160

Efficacy of garlic based treatments against monogenean parasites infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata (Peters)).  

Science.gov (United States)

Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a well-known spice which also possesses anti-microbial and anti-parasitical properties. The current work aimed to test the efficacy of garlic-based treatments against infection with monogenean sp. in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Clipped sections of tail fins of guppies heavily infected with Gyrodactylus turnbulli were exposed to aqueous garlic extract (7.5 to 30 mL L(-1)) and visually observed under a dissecting microscope. Results revealed that exposure to garlic caused detachment of parasite and cessation of movement indicating death. A positive correlation was seen between garlic concentration and time to detachment and death of parasites, which, at the highest concentration of 30 mL L(-1), occurred at 4.1 and 8.6 min, respectively. Bathing in aqueous garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) was tested in guppies infected with G. turnbulli. Prior acute toxicity tests revealed the maximum tolerance levels of guppies to garlic extract to be 12.5 mL L(-1) for 1h. Bathing of infected fish in garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) significantly (p<0.05) reduced infection prevalence and intensity as compared to the control. Oral treatments using dry garlic powder-supplemented diet were tested on guppies infected with G. turnbulli and Dactylogyrus sp. Fish were fed with food containing 10% and 20% dry garlic powder for 14 days. Groups fed with garlic supplemented diets showed significantly reduced (p<0.05) mean prevalence and mean intensity of parasites as compared to the control. Dietary application of garlic did not appear to affect palatability. Fresh crushed garlic was added at a level of 1 gL(-1) and applied as an indefinite bath for 14 days. This treatment was seen to significantly reduce (p<0.05) parasite prevalence and mean intensity as compared to the control. Histopathology revealed elevated muscular dystrophy in the 20% garlic-fed group, as compared to control. These findings demonstrate the potential of garlic as a natural alternative to currently used chemical treatments for monogenean sp. infection in the guppy. PMID:24598083

Fridman, S; Sinai, T; Zilberg, D

2014-06-16

 
 
 
 
161

In vitro evaluation of adhesion and aggregation abilities of four potential probiotic strains isolated from guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this work was to study the probiotic-related characteristics of four strains of bacteria isolated from the normal flora of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. In vitro results showed that the strains, namely, MBTU_PB1, MBTU_PB2, MBTU_PB3 and MBTU_PB4 had higher adhesion abilities than the tes [...] ted indicator strains. However, an association between the cell-surface hydrophobicity and the ability to adhere to the intestinal mucus was not observed for these strains. Further, the selected strains were strongly autoaggregating (autoaggregation percentage ? 80) and also showed strain-specific coaggregation abilities with the tested indicator strains.

Aparna, Balakrishna.

162

Nutritional Evaluation of Raw Materials Entering the Structure to Mixed Fodder for the Specie Poecilia reticulata (Guppy  

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Full Text Available In the ornamental pisciculture is a especial emphasis on the exterior shape and color to the fishes, issues that are dependent directly to the structure of compound feeds in relation to the nutritional characteristics of the raw materials.Own research or focused on analyzing the crude chemical composition with Weende scheme (water content and dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, SEN of raw materials can be used in the structure of a compound feeds for the Poecilia reticulata (guppy species, for most of these materials there are no current data in the literature.These materials were analyzed: gelatin, wheat flour, sunflower meal, soybean meal, meal Spirulina platensis, carrot (Daucus carota, Pangasius fillet, Daphnia pulex, grount dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, grount nettle (Urtica dioica and yeast.

Adrian Gruber

2011-05-01

163

Citrus Essential Oil of Nigeria Part IV: Volatile Constituents of Leaf Oils of Mandarins (Citrus Reticulata Blanco From Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The chemical composition of hydrodistilled oils obtained from the leaves of six Citrus reticulata Blanco (mandarin cultivars grown in Nigeria were examined by GC and GC/MS, the result of their chemical composition were further submitted to cluster analysis. Fifty seven constituents were characterized accounting for 88.2 - 96.7% of the total oils. Sabinene, g -terpinene, P-cymene, d -3-carene and (E- b -ocimene were observed in great variability in all the oils. Other constituents include linalool, myrcene, terpinen-4-ol and cis-sabinenehydrate. In addition, limonene, terpinolene, b -pinene, and a -pinene were also detected in appreciable concentrations. b -sinensal and a -sinensal were isolated by preparative GC and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques.

Adeleke A. Kasali

2010-07-01

164

The use of magnetic resonance imaging to better define hoof pathology in the reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

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A 22-yr-old bull giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) with severely altered hoof conformation in both forelimbs was presented for necropsy following acute mortality. Due to multiple challenges that prevented safe immobilization, corrective hoof trimming procedures were never performed on this animal. To better define the extent of the damage of the soft tissue structures and bone within the hoof, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system was used to obtain images of these structures. The MRI study found evidence of severe osteolysis, phalangeal fractures of both forelimbs, and tenosynovitis of several tendon sheaths. These findings help demonstrate the impact that hoof overgrowth can have on internal structures within the hoof. By managing hoof problems early in the course of disease and investing in appropriate facilities that make giraffe immobilization safer, morbidity and mortality associated with hoof disease and overgrowth can potentially be reduced. PMID:25314840

Wakeman, Kyle A; Sanchez, Carlos R; Lung, Nancy P; Hersman, Jake; Barrett, Myra F

2014-09-01

165

Surgical resolution of an avulsion fracture of the peroneus tertius origin in a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

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A 4-mo-old, 185-kg male giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) was presented due to stifle effusion and lameness of 3-wk duration. Radiographs revealed a fracture of the extensor fossa of the lateral trochlear ridge of the femur at the origin of the peroneus tertius. Under anesthesia, dysfunction of the reciprocal apparatus was documented by flexing the stifle while the tarsus remained extended. An avulsion fracture of the origin of the peroneus tertius and extensor digitorum longus muscle was diagnosed. An exploratory arthroscopy of the femorotibial joint was followed by arthrotomy to excise the large bone fragment from its soft tissue attachments. Because of the fractious temperament of the animal, postoperative care was restricted to stall rest for 3 mo, and no postoperative complications arose. Only a mild residual lameness remained by 6 mo after surgery. PMID:22946420

Quesada, Rolando; Citino, Scott B; Easley, Jeremiah T; Hall, Natalie; Brokken, Mathew T; Brown, Murray P

2011-06-01

166

Identification of polymethoxylated flavones from green tangerine peel (Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride) by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) were extracted from Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride using a procedure that obtained a consistent mixture of PMFs both in identity and proportion. The mixture consisted of isosinensetin (0.2%) (1), sinensetin (1.7%) (4), tetramethyl-o-isoscutellarein (0.3%) (5), nobiletin (40.5%) (6), tetramethyl-o-scutellarein (1.2%) (7), tangeretin (45.6%) (10), 5-demethylnobiletin (8.7%) (12), 5-demethyl tangeretin (0.8%) (14) and other flavonoids including heptamethoxyflavone (1.0%) (9), among which, compounds 1, 4, 5, 7 and 9 were identified based on their UV spectra, MS data and elution order described in the literature while compounds 6, 10, 12 and 14 were isolated and identified by UV, IR, MS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and 2D NMR spectral studies. In addition, compound 14 was isolated and identified for the first time from Citrus. PMID:17367982

Wang, Dandan; Wang, Jian; Huang, Xuehui; Tu, Ying; Ni, Kunyi

2007-05-01

167

The green synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the biological activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Leptadenia reticulata leaf extract  

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Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag Nps) was carried out using methanol leaves extract of L. reticulata. Ag Nps were characterized based on the observations of UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. These Ag Nps were tested for antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method against different pathogenic microorganisms and antioxidant activity was performed using DPPH assay. Further, the in vitro cytotoxic effects of Ag Nps were screened against HCT15 cancer cell line and viability of tumor cells was confirmed using MTT ((3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole)) assay. The nuclear condensation was studied using the propidium iodide-staining method. The color change from green to dark brown and the absorbance peak at about 420 nm indicated the formation of nanoparticles. XRD pattern showed characteristic peaks indexed to the crystalline planes (111), (200) and (220) of face-centered cubic silver. The nanoparticles were of spherical shape with varying sizes ranging from 50 to 70 nm. Biosynthesized Ag Nps showed potent antibacterial activity and effective radical scavenging activity. MTT assay revealed a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability. Microscopic observations showed distinct cellular morphological changes indicating unhealthy cells, whereas the control appeared normal. Increase in the number of propidium iodide positive cells were observed in maximum concentration. Methanolic leaf extract of L. reticulata acts as an excellent capping agent for the formation of silver nanoparticles and demonstrates immense biological activities. Hence, these Ag NPs can be used as antibacterial, antioxidant as well as cytotoxic agent in treating many medical complications.

Kumara Swamy, M.; Sudipta, K. M.; Jayanta, K.; Balasubramanya, S.

2014-02-01

168

Temporal dynamics of epidermal responses of guppies Poecilia reticulata to a sublethal range of waterborne zinc concentrations.  

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This study assessed the histological changes in the epidermis of guppies Poecilia reticulata induced by waterborne zinc (Zn). Laboratory-reared P. reticulata fry were maintained individually in separate vessels containing artificial water (8 microg l(-1) Zn) to which 0, 15, 30, 60 or 120 microg l(-1) Zn was added. Their epidermal response to Zn was monitored regularly over 4 weeks. Compared with controls, mucus was rapidly released and mucous cell numbers decreased at all concentrations. Thereafter mucous release, epidermal thickness, numbers and size of mucous cells fluctuated at a rate that varied with Zn concentration, but fluctuations declined after day 18. Results clearly highlight the dynamic nature of the epidermal response to sublethal concentrations of waterborne Zn. In general, low concentrations of Zn induced a rapid response with reduced numbers and size of mucous cells and shift in mucin composition, and a subsequent thickening of the epidermis. Epidermal thickness and mucous cell area fluctuated over time but were normal after a month of exposure to low Zn concentrations. The number of mucous cells, however, remained low. Virtually all mucous cells from fish maintained in 15 and 60 microg l(-1) Zn contained acidic mucins throughout the month, whereas fish maintained at 30 microg l(-1) Zn responded by production of neutral mucins during the first 12 days followed by a mixture of neutral and acidic mucins. At 120 microg l(-1) Zn, the most dramatic effects were the gradual but sustained decrease in numbers and area of mucous cells, and the shift to acidic mucins in these cells. Thus, as concentration of Zn increased, the epidermal responses indicated a disturbed host response (dramatic decline in mucous cell numbers, with mixed composition of mucins), which may have been less effective in preventing Zn uptake across the epithelium. PMID:20738513

Gheorghiu, C; Marcogliese, D J; Scott, M E

2009-12-01

169

Capacidad Larvívora del Gold Fish (Carassius auratus auratus) y del Guppy Salvaje (Poecilia reticulata) Sobre Larvas de Aedes aegypti en Condiciones de Laboratorio / Larvivorous Capacity of the Gold Fish (Carassius auratus auratus) and the Wild Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) on Larvaes of Aedes aegypti in Laboratory Conditions  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El control biológico de vectores de importancia médica se presenta como una alternativa al uso de plaguicidas. La utilización de peces larvívoros se promueve como una nueva estrategia para el control de vectores. El propósito de este estudio es evaluar el potencial de dos especies ícticas para el co [...] ntrol biológico de mosquitos Aedes aegypti (principal vector del dengue) en condiciones de laboratorio. Un creciente número de larvas de A. aegypti en estadíos I, II y III (n: 25, 50 y 100) fueron colocados en acuarios con goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) y guppys salvajes (Poecilia reticulata). Se cuantificó la relación peso corporal/larvas ingeridas/hora en diez ensayos. La especie Poecilia reticulata reflejó una mayor (P Abstract in english The biological control of vectors of medical importance is presented as an alternative to the use of plaguicides. The utilization of larvivorous fishes is promoted as a new strategy for the control of vectors. The proposal of this study is to evaluate the potential of two species of fishes for the b [...] iological control of mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (main vector of Dengue) under laboratory conditions. A growing number of larvaes in stages I, II and III of A. aegypti (n: 25, 50 and 100) was placed in aquariums with goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and wild guppys (Poecilia reticulata). The ratio body weight/eliminated larvaes/hour was quantified in ten assays. The species Poecilia reticulata had a higher (P

Nereida, Valero; Eddy, Meleán; Mery, Maldonado; Milagros, Montiel; Yraima, Larreal; Luz Marina, Espina.

170

Factors affecting isolation of protoplasts of neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and gene transformation by Agrobacterium  

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Protoplasts of the neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco) were isolated from various sources. One month-old leaves from all sources were stripped and incubated in various combinations of enzymes for 2,3 and 4 hours on a reciprocal shaker at 40 rpm. For transformation study, leaf protoplasts were used to co-culture with Agrobacterium, at different periods. The results showed that leaves derived from seedling gave the highest number of mesophyll protoplasts (3.07x107

Taweekanachote, S.; Te-chato, S.

2000-01-01

171

Comportamiento de la producción de lima Tahití (Citrus latifolia Tanaka), injertada sobre el patrón de Mandarina Cleopatra (Citrus reticulata Blanco) y la influencia del virus de la tristeza (CTV) en condiciones del piedemonte del Meta, 1997-2008 / Performance of the production of Tahiti lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) grafted on the pattern of Cleopatra Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and the influence of tristeza virus (CTV) under the piedemont of Meta, 1997-2008  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La lima ácida Tahití (Citrus latifolia T) ocupa el tercer lugar dentro de las especies cítricas cultivadas en Colombia. Sus frutos se consumen en el mercado interno y presenta un creciente mercado de exportación. Entre las enfermedades virales que afectan a los cultivos de cítricos el Virus de la Tr [...] isteza de los Cítricos (CTV) es uno de los más limitantes para la producción y longevidad de las plantas en particular en las de lima Tahití. Este estudio se llevó a cabo bajo las condiciones agroecológicas del Centro de Investigación Corpoica La Libertad, en el piedemonte del departamento del Meta. Las plantas utilizadas se injertaron en vivero en 1996 con yemas provenientes de cultivos comerciales utilizándose como patrón la mandarina Cleopatra (Citrus reticulata Blanco). El cultivo se estableció en campo en 1997, ocupando una extensión de una hectárea, con una densidad de 490 plantas ha-1. Para determinar la producción del cultivo se llevaron registros anuales; y para la incidencia y severidad de la (CTV) se realizaron dos lecturas en las plantas, durante el séptimo y onceavo año después del transplante (addt). En el año 2008 (11 addt) se realizó la descripción de la sintomatología del daño ocasionado por la tristeza de los cítricos en la planta y se realizó el registro fotográfico. La producción de la lima Tahití se inicio en el 3 año después del transplante con 4 t/ha y se incremento anualmente hasta presentar el pico de producción en el 8 año con 62 t/ha, posteriormente decrece hasta obtener 2 t/ha en el año 11. La incidencia de CTV en el año 2003 (6 addt) fue de 16.5 % para un total de 80 plantas afectadas y en el 2008 (11 addt) el 100 % de las plantas estaban afectadas (490 plantas) La severidad del CTV, en el año 2003 fue de 29.4 %, mientras que en el 2008 fue del 84 %. Abstract in english Tahiti limes (Citrus latifolia T) is in third place among the citrus species cultivated in Colombia. Its fruits are consumed in the domestic market and has a growing export market. Among the viral diseases affecting citrus crops Virus Citrus Tristeza (CTV) is one of the most limiting for production [...] and longevity of plants especially in Tahiti lime. This study was carried out under the ecological conditions of the Research Center Corpoica La Libertad, in the foothills of the department of Meta. The plants used in the nursery in 1996 grafted with buds from crops used as standard Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco). The crop field was established in 1997, occupying an area of one hectare, with a density of 490 plants ha-1. To determine crop production took annual records, and the incidence and severity of the (CTV) were two readings in plants, during the seventh and eleventh year after transplantation (addt). In 2008 (11 addt) A description of the symptoms of the damage caused by citrus tristeza in the plant and the photographic record was made. The Tahiti lime production started three years after transplantation with 4 t / ha and increased annually to present the peak of production in the eighth year with 62 t/ha, then decreased until 2 t/ha in year 11. The incidence of CTV in 2003 (6 addt) was 16.5 % for a total of 80 affected plants and in 2008 (11 addt) 100 % of plants were affected (490 plants). The severity of CTV, in the 2003 was 29.4 %, while the reading of 2008 was 84 %.

Julio, Quiroga - Cardona; Francy L, Hernández- Parrado; María del Rosario, Silva- Herrera; Javier O., Orduz-Rodríguez.

172

L-type Ca²? channel activity determines modulation of GABA release by dopamine in the substantia nigra reticulata and the globus pallidus of the rat.  

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Modulation of L-type Ca²?-channel function by dopamine is a major determinant of the rate of action potential firing by striatal medium spiny neurons. However, the role of these channels in modulating GABA release by nerve terminals in the basal ganglia is unknown. We found that depolarization-induced [³H]GABA release in both the substantia nigra reticulata and the external globus pallidus (GPe), was depressed by about 50% by either the selective L-channel dihydropyridine blocker nifedipine or the P/Q channel blocker ?-agatoxin TK. The effects of these blockers were additive and together eliminated about 90% of depolarization-induced [³H]GABA release. In addition, in the substantia nigra reticulata, dihydropyridines prevented both the stimulation of [³H]GABA release produced by dopamine D1 receptor activation and the inhibition caused by D4 receptor activation. In the GP nifedipine blocked the effects of D2 and A2(A) receptor coactivation as well as the effects of activating adenylyl cyclase with forskolin. ?-Agatoxin TK did not interfere with the action of these modulatory agents. The L-type Ca²?-channel agonist BAYK 8644 stimulated GABA release in both substantia nigra reticulata and GP. Because dihydropyridine sensitivity is a key criterion to identify L-type Ca²?-channel activity, our results imply that these channels are determinant of GABA release modulation by dopamine in striatonigral, striatopallidal and pallidonigral terminals. PMID:24505607

Recillas-Morales, S; Sánchez-Vega, L; Ochoa-Sánchez, N; Caballero-Florán, I; Paz-Bermúdez, F; Silva, I; Aceves, J; Erlij, D; Florán, B

2014-01-01

173

Atividade antimicrobiana do oleorresina de copaíba (Copaifera reticulata) frente a Staphylococcus coagulase positiva isolados de casos de otite em cães / Antimicrobial activity of copaiba oil (Copaifera reticulata) against coagulase positive Staphylococcus of canine otitis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar o potencial antimicrobiano do oleorresina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke em isolados de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (SCP) provenientes de casos de otite externa em cães. O método de microdiluição em caldo foi utilizado para determinação da concentr [...] ação inibitória mínima (CIM) e concentração bactericida mínima (CBM) de oleorresina de copaíba. Em adição, foi determinado o perfil de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos dos isolados de SCP pelo método de difusão em ágar. Oito classes de antimicrobianos foram usadas para o cálculo de multirresistência antimicrobiana. A determinação da composição química do oleorresina de copaíba foi realizada por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (GC/MS), sendo que ?-cariofileno, ?-bisaboleno e (E)-?-bergamoteno foram os compostos majoritários. O oleorresina de copaíba demonstrou CIM90 de 0,164mg/mL e CBM90 de 1,31mg/mL. A multirresistência foi verificada em 27% das cepas testadas. Os resultados sugerem que o oleorresina de copaíba exerceu atividade bacteriostática e bactericida mesmo em cepas multirresistentes de Staphylococcus coagulase-positiva. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the oleoresin Copaifera reticulata Ducke against Staphylococcus coagulase positive (SCP) isolated from otitis externa in dogs. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the oleores [...] in were determined by broth microdilution method. In addition, we verified the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates of SCP by agar diffusion method. Eight classes of antimicrobial were used to calculate the multidrug resistance. The chemical composition of the oleoresin was performed by gas chromatography coupled to the mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and ?-caryophyllene, ?-bisabolene, and (E)-?-bergamotene were the main compounds found. The copaiba oleoresin showed a MIC90 of 0.164mg/mL and a CBM90 of 1.3mg/mL. The multidrug resistance was found in 27% of the strains tested. The results suggest that copaiba oleoresin has bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity even in multidrug-resistant coagulase-positive strains.

Rosangela E., Ziech; Luana D., Farias; Cláudia, Balzan; Magnos F., Ziech; Berta M., Heinzmann; Osmar A., Lameira; Agueda C. de, Vargas.

2013-07-01

174

Populational approach in ecophysiological studies: the case of Plathymenia reticulata, a tree from Cerrado and Atlantic Forest Abordagem populacional em estudos ecofisiológicos: o caso de /Plathymenia reticulata/, uma árvore do Cerrado e da Mata Atlântica  

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Full Text Available The variability of ecophysiological traits among populations can be a result of selection in response to environmental pressure and/or due to random factors, like the genetic drift. The analysis of both genetic and phenotypic variation within populations can lead to better understanding of adaptation in order to colonize different habitats. In the last years we have developed several studies with an widely ecogeographic distributed legume tree species, Plathymenia reticulata, which were focused on identifying specific morphological and physiological traits related to adaptation to the habitats of origin of each studied population. We studied populations from Atlantic Forest, Cerrado and ecotonal sites in relation to phenology, seed morphological traits and their relation with seed dispersion, seed dormancy and germination, and growth traits in a common garden experiment. In several analyzed traits we found high diversity in this species that can explain its occurrence in a broad geographical range. The existence of genetically based differences of traits in an adaptive way among savanna and forest populations suggests a degree of divergence that characterizes the existence of ecotypes from Cerrado and Atlantic Forest. We also pointed future perspectives in studies at population level in evolutionary ecophysiology and implications of these studies for flora conservation and habitat restoration.A variação em características ecofisiológicas entre populações pode ser devido ao resultado da seleção em resposta a pressão ambiental e/ou pode ser devido a fatores aleatórios como a deriva genética. A análise tanto da variação genética quanto da variação fenotípica das populações, pode levar ao melhor conhecimento sobre adaptações necessárias para a ocupação de diferentes ambientes. Nos últimos anos, nós temos desenvolvido diversos estudos com populações de Plathymenia reticulata, uma leguminosa arbórea de ocorrência em ampla extensão ecogeográfica, com o objetivo de identificar características morfológicas e fisiológicas envolvidas na adaptação das populações aos seus ambientes de origem. Populações provenientes da Mata Atlântica, do Cerrado e de áreas ecotonais entre estes biomas foram avaliadas em relação à fenologia, morfologia e germinação de sementes, bem como em relação à características de crescimento de plantas cultivadas em um mesmo ambiente experimental. Em muitas das características analisadas nessa espécie foi encontrada grande diversidade, o que poderia explicar a sua ocorrência em uma ampla extensão geográfica. A existência de diferenças genéticas em características na direção adaptativa entre as populações provenientes de ambientes de savana e florestais sugere a existência de ecótipos de Cerrado e de Mata Atlântica. Nós também apontamos perspectivas futuras para estudos de ecofisiologia evolutiva em nível populacional, bem como implicações desta abordagem para a conservação da flora e restauração de ambientes.

José Pires de Lemos Filho

2008-09-01

175

Atividade antimicrobiana do oleorresina de copaíba (Copaifera reticulata) frente a Staphylococcus coagulase positiva isolados de casos de otite em cães / Antimicrobial activity of copaiba oil (Copaifera reticulata) against coagulase positive Staphylococcus of canine otitis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar o potencial antimicrobiano do oleorresina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke em isolados de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (SCP) provenientes de casos de otite externa em cães. O método de microdiluição em caldo foi utilizado para determinação da concentr [...] ação inibitória mínima (CIM) e concentração bactericida mínima (CBM) de oleorresina de copaíba. Em adição, foi determinado o perfil de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos dos isolados de SCP pelo método de difusão em ágar. Oito classes de antimicrobianos foram usadas para o cálculo de multirresistência antimicrobiana. A determinação da composição química do oleorresina de copaíba foi realizada por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (GC/MS), sendo que ?-cariofileno, ?-bisaboleno e (E)-?-bergamoteno foram os compostos majoritários. O oleorresina de copaíba demonstrou CIM90 de 0,164mg/mL e CBM90 de 1,31mg/mL. A multirresistência foi verificada em 27% das cepas testadas. Os resultados sugerem que o oleorresina de copaíba exerceu atividade bacteriostática e bactericida mesmo em cepas multirresistentes de Staphylococcus coagulase-positiva. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the oleoresin Copaifera reticulata Ducke against Staphylococcus coagulase positive (SCP) isolated from otitis externa in dogs. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the oleores [...] in were determined by broth microdilution method. In addition, we verified the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates of SCP by agar diffusion method. Eight classes of antimicrobial were used to calculate the multidrug resistance. The chemical composition of the oleoresin was performed by gas chromatography coupled to the mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and ?-caryophyllene, ?-bisabolene, and (E)-?-bergamotene were the main compounds found. The copaiba oleoresin showed a MIC90 of 0.164mg/mL and a CBM90 of 1.3mg/mL. The multidrug resistance was found in 27% of the strains tested. The results suggest that copaiba oleoresin has bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity even in multidrug-resistant coagulase-positive strains.

Rosangela E., Ziech; Luana D., Farias; Cláudia, Balzan; Magnos F., Ziech; Berta M., Heinzmann; Osmar A., Lameira; Agueda C. de, Vargas.

176

Fecundidad,fertilidad e índice gonadosomático de Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poeciliidae)en Heredia,Costa Rica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Entre setiembre y noviembre de 1998 se determinó la fecundidad,fertilidad e índice gonadosomático de Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859),a partir de especímenes recolectados en un estanque en Santo Domingo de Heredia,Costa Rica.Las hembras presentaron una longitud total promedio de 34.43 ± 7.26 mm con [...] un ámbito entre 17.80 y 51.50 mm y un peso total promedio de 0.69 ± 0.48 g,con un ámbito entre 0.06 y 2.32 g.Se determinó que esta especie presenta superfetación,matrotrofía y se mantuvo sexualmente activa durante todo el período de estudio.La fertilidad se rigió por la ecuación F =0.527e0.1171Lt (r² =0.9404)y con una fertilidad promedio para la población de 56.1 ± 43.6,con un ámbito entre 7.98 y 197.58 (huevos +embriones).La fecundidad se rigió por la ecuación Fo = 0.695e0.1076 Lt (r² =0.9376)con una fecundidad promedio para la población de 48.95 ± 35.99, con un ámbito entre 6.98 y 178.99 (ovocitos +óvulos). El índice gonadosomático en hembras se rigió por la ecuación IGS =0.0014e 0.134 Lt (r 2 =0.8581)y se encontró un índice gonadosomático promedio de 0.25 ± 0.27%con un ámbito entre 0.02 y 1.31%. Abstract in english Fertility,fecundity and gonadosomatic index of Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poeciliidae)in Heredia,Costa Rica.Between September and November of 1998,1 432 females of Poecilia reticulata were collected in a pond in Santo Domingo,Heredia,Costa Rica.The average total length of females was 34.43 ± 7.26 m [...] m (range 17.80 and 51.50 mm)and the average total weight of 0.69 ± 0.48 g (range 0.06 and 2.32 g). This species is a viviparous matrotrofic and the specimens were sexually mature.The total length-fertility relationship was F =0.527e 0.1171Lt (r² =0.9404).The average fertility was 56.1 ± 43.6 (eggs +embryos)(range 8.0 and 197.6).The total length-fecundity relationship was Fo =0.695e0.1076 Lt (r² =0.9376).The average fecundity was of 49.0 ± 36.0 (oocytes +ova)(range 7.0 and 179.0).The total length-gonadosomatic index relationship was IGS =0.0014 e0.134 Lt (r² =0.8581).The average gonadosomatic index was 0.25 ± 0.27%(range 0.02 and 1.31%).Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4):945-950.Epub 2005 Jun 24.

Mario, Urriola Hernández; Jorge, Cabrera Peña; Maurizio, Protti Quesada.

2004-12-01

177

Determination of nickel in alcoholic beverages by FAAS after online preconcentration using mandarin peel (Citrus reticulata) as biosorbent  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um método de extração por fase sólida foi desenvolvido para determinação direta de níquel em bebidas alcóolicas. Este método baseia-se na adsorção de níquel em cascas de Citrus reticulata, conhecida como mexerica. O pH de solução, quantidade de adsorvente, vazão da amostra e do eluente, concentração [...] do eluente e efeito de matriz foram investigados usando estratégias de otimização multivariada. Estudos de dessorção foram feitos com HCl 1 mol L-1. As condições ideais de extração foram obtidas usando amostra em pH 6,0, vazão da amostra de 4,3 mL min-1, massa de adsorvente de 50 mg e HCl 1,0 mol L-1 na vazão de 2,0 mL min-1 usado como eluente. Fator de pré-concentração, precisão, limite de detecção (LOD), limite de quantificação (LOQ), índice de consumo e frequência analítica foram estimados como 12, 0,9% (30,0 µg L-1, n = 7), 3,1 µg L-1, 10,3 µg L-1, 0,85 mL e 15 amostras por h, respectivamente. O método foi aplicado em amostras de cachaça e uísque e os resultados para os testes de recuperação foram maiores que 99%. Abstract in english A solid phase extraction method was developed for the direct determination of nickel in alcoholic beverages. This method is based on the adsorption of nickel onto the peel of Citrus reticulata (mandarin orange). The solution pH, amount of adsorbent, sample and eluent flow rates, eluent concentration [...] and matrix effects were investigated using multivariate optimization strategies. Desorption studies were carried out with 1 mol L-1 HCl. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained using a sample pH of 6.0, sample flow rate of 4.3 mL min-1, 50 mg of sorbent mass and 1.0 mol L-1 HCl at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min-1 used as eluent. The preconcentration factor, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), consumption index and sample throughput were estimated as 12, 0.9% (30.0 µg L-1, n = 7), 3.1 µg L-1, 10.3 µg L-1, 0.85 mL and 15 samples per h, respectively. The method was applied to sugar cane spirit and whisky samples and the results for recovery tests were higher than 99%.

Gabriela C., Ribeiro; Luciana M., Coelho; Nívia M. Melo, Coelho.

1072-10-01

178

The importance of social dimension and maturation stage for the probabilistic maturation reaction norm in Poecilia reticulata.  

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Maturation is an important event in an organism's life history, with important implications on dynamics of both wild and captive populations. The probabilistic maturation reaction norm (PMRN) has emerged as an important method to describe variation in maturation in wild fish. Because most PMRNs are based on age and size only, it is important to understand limitations of these variables in explaining maturation. We experimentally assessed (i) the sensitivity of age- and size-based PMRNs to unaccounted sources of plasticity, (ii) the role of social environment on maturation and (iii) the significance of estimating PMRNs early and late in the maturation process (initiation and completion of maturation, respectively). We reared male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) under laboratory conditions, subjected to two food levels and three different social cues. We found that growth and social environment affected the maturation in a way that could not be accounted for by their effect on age and size. PMRNs estimated for the initiation stage were less plastic (growth differences and social cues influenced the PMRN shape only little) than those for completion. The initiation of maturation is probably closer to the maturation 'decision' and allows determining factors influencing maturation decision most accurately. PMID:23937558

Diaz Pauli, B; Pauli, B D; Heino, M

2013-10-01

179

The effect of vitamin C on growth factors, survival, reproduction and sex ratio in guppy (Poecilia reticulata  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid, AA ongrowth factors, survival, reproductive performance and sex ratio in guppy (Poecilia reticulataPeters,1859. Guppies were divided into 5 treatments with triplicate groups and fed with one of 5 dietsfor 20 weeks. The experimental vitamin C diets were formulated to contain 400, 800, 1200 and 2000 mgAA kg-1 (treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively with 1 control group. The data obtained from the trial weresubjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA to test for effects of dietary treatments. In vitamin Ctreatments the body weight increase (BWI, percent body weight increase (PBWI, specific growth rate(SGR, daily growth rate (DGR and reproductive performance of guppies were increased significantlywith increasing the levels of vitamin C (P<0.05 and highest BWI, PBWI, SGR and DGR were observed intreatment 4. There were no significant differences in sex ratio observed between the treatments. Insurvival rate there was significant difference between treatment 2 with treatments 1, 3 and control(P<0.05. This study indicates that BWI, PBWI, SGR and DGR and reproductive performance can beimproved by dietary vitamin C supplementation and also may be concluded that the vitamin Crequirement of guppies fish for optimum growth and reproductive performance is 2000 mg/kg of drydiet.

Bahareh Mehrad

2010-11-01

180

Chronic effects of Cd on the reproduction of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) through Cd-accumulated midge larvae (Chironomus yoshimatsui)  

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Chronic effects of Cd on the growth and reproduction of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) were studied using a food chain model, midge larvae as prey and guppy as predator. The transfer rate of Cd from the midge to the guppy was between 0.5 and 1% during the 30-day experiment. Growth rate of the guppy fed Cd-accumulated midge larvae (270 micrograms/g dry wt) for 30 days was not impaired. Cumulative numbers of fry produced by the guppy fed Cd-accumulated midge larvae (210 micrograms/g) for 2 months decreased to ca. 80% of the control. Guppies had been fed the Cd-accumulated midges from 30 days old for 7 months. Cumulative numbers of fry produced by the guppy fed midge larvae-accumulated 500, 800, and 1300 micrograms Cd/g for 6 months decreased to 79, 65, and 55% of the control, respectively. Similar effects of Cd on the reproduction of guppy were shown between the guppies fed the Cd-accumulated midge larvae (500 micrograms Cd/g) and exposed to 10 or 20 micrograms Cd/liter for the 6 months. The Cd concentrations of the digestive tract, liver, and kidney increased strongly, indicating that such Cd accumulation was brought on mainly through the Cd-accumulated midges. Mortality of the female guppies fed larvae-accumulated 1300 micrograms Cd/g increased abruptly from the 6 months of the experiment, whereas no male guppy died during the experiment.

Hatakeyama, S.; Yasuno, M.

1987-12-01

 
 
 
 
181

Replicated origin of female-biased adult sex ratio in introduced populations of the trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

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There are many theoretical and empirical studies explaining variation in offspring sex ratio but relatively few that explain variation in adult sex ratio. Adult sex ratios are important because biased sex ratios can be a driver of sexual selection and will reduce effective population size, affecting population persistence and shapes how populations respond to natural selection. Previous work on guppies (Poecilia reticulata) gives mixed results, usually showing a female-biased adult sex ratio. However, a detailed analysis showed that this bias varied dramatically throughout a year and with no consistent sex bias. We used a mark-recapture approach to examine the origin and consistency of female-biased sex ratio in four replicated introductions. We show that female-biased sex ratio arises predictably and is a consequence of higher male mortality and longer female life spans with little effect of offspring sex ratio. Inconsistencies with previous studies are likely due to sampling methods and sampling design, which should be less of an issue with mark-recapture techniques. Together with other long-term mark-recapture studies, our study suggests that bias in offspring sex ratio rarely contributes to adult sex ratio in vertebrates. Rather, sex differences in adult survival rates and longevity determine vertebrate adult sex ratio. PMID:24816221

Arendt, Jeffrey D; Reznick, David N; López-Sepulcre, Andres

2014-08-01

182

Crossing-over between Y chromosomes: another possible source of phenotypic variability in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters  

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Full Text Available Genetic linkage acting through crossing-over between X and X chromosomes, X and Y chromosomes, and autosomal gene recombination are the most important sources of color pattern polymorphisms in animals. Variability in male color patterns and fin morphologies in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing fish is an example of extreme pattern polymorphism. We explored the possibility that crossing-over between Y chromosomes can also contribute to the high degree of pattern polymorphism in guppies because YY individuals are easily induced in the boratory. However, note that YY individuals are also produced in natural populations. Our results indicated that YY crossing-over was another important source of phenotypic variability - probably because recombination may be possible ver the entire length of Y chromosomes, and at very high frequencies due to high degrees of homology. Thus, crossing-over between Y chromosomes is yet another mechanism that can contribute to extreme pattern polymorphism in the guppy, a popular aquarium and important research model species.

I. Valentin Petrescu-Mag

2008-09-01

183

Multiple pigment cell types contribute to the black, blue, and orange ornaments of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata).  

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The fitness of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) highly depends on the size and number of their black, blue, and orange ornaments. Recently, progress has been made regarding the genetic mechanisms underlying male guppy pigment pattern formation, but we still know little about the pigment cell organization within these ornaments. Here, we investigate the pigment cell distribution within the black, blue, and orange trunk spots and selected fin color patterns of guppy males from three genetically divergent strains using transmission electron microscopy. We identified three types of pigment cells and found that at least two of these contribute to each color trait. Further, two pigment cell layers, one in the dermis and the other in the hypodermis, contribute to each trunk spot. The pigment cell organization within the black and orange trunk spots was similar between strains. The presence of iridophores in each of the investigated color traits is consistent with a key role for this pigment cell type in guppy color pattern formation. PMID:24465632

Kottler, Verena A; Koch, Iris; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

2014-01-01

184

Hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeretin are collectively responsible for the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of tangerine peel (Citri reticulatae pericarpium).  

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Inhibiting microglial activation-mediated neuroinflammation has become a convincing target for the development of functional foods to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Tangerine peel (Citri reticulatae pericarpium) has potent anti-inflammatory capacity; however, its anti-neuroinflammatory capacity and the corresponding active compounds remain unclear. To this end, the composition of a tangerine peel ethanolic extract was analysed by LC-MS, and the anti-neuroinflammatory ability was evaluated using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV2 microglia culture system. Hesperidin is the most predominant flavonoid in tangerine peel, followed by tangeretin and nobiletin. Among the eight tested flavanone glycosides and polymethoxy flavones, only nobiletin displayed a capacity of>50% to inhibit LPS-induced proinflammatory NO, TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 secretion at a concentration of 100 ?M. At 2 mg/ml, tangerine peel extract attenuated LPS-induced NO, TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 secretion by 90.6%, 80.2%, 66.7%, and 86.8%, respectively. Hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeretin individually (at concentrations of 135, 40, and 60 ?M, respectively) in 2 mg/ml tangerine peel extract were only mildly inhibitory, whereas in combination, they significantly inhibited LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine expression at levels equal to that of 2 mg/ml tangerine peel extract. Overall, tangerine peel possesses potent anti-neuroinflammatory capacity, which is attributed to the collective effect of hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeretin. PMID:24955543

Ho, Su-Chen; Kuo, Chun-Ting

2014-09-01

185

ESTs and EST-linked polymorphisms for genetic mapping and phylogenetic reconstruction in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The guppy, Poecilia reticulata, is a well-known model organism for studying inheritance and variation of male ornamental traits as well as adaptation to different river habitats. However, genomic resources for studying this important model were not previously widely available. Results With the aim of generating molecular markers for genetic mapping of the guppy, cDNA libraries were constructed from embryos and different adult organs to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs. About 18,000 ESTs were annotated according to BLASTN and BLASTX results and the sequence information from the 3' UTRs was exploited to generate PCR primers for re-sequencing of genomic DNA from different wild type strains. By comparison of EST-linked genomic sequences from at least four different ecotypes, about 1,700 polymorphisms were identified, representing about 400 distinct genes. Two interconnected MySQL databases were built to organize the ESTs and markers, respectively. A robust phylogeny of the guppy was reconstructed, based on 10 different nuclear genes. Conclusion Our EST and marker databases provide useful tools for genetic mapping and phylogenetic studies of the guppy.

Tripathi Namita

2007-08-01

186

Pigment pattern formation in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, involves the Kita and Csf1ra receptor tyrosine kinases.  

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Males of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) vary tremendously in their ornamental patterns, which are thought to have evolved in response to a complex interplay between natural and sexual selection. Although the selection pressures acting on the color patterns of the guppy have been extensively studied, little is known about the genes that control their ontogeny. Over 50 years ago, two autosomal color loci, blue and golden, were described, both of which play a decisive role in the formation of the guppy color pattern. Orange pigmentation is absent in the skin of guppies with a lesion in blue, suggesting a defect in xanthophore development. In golden mutants, the development of the melanophore pattern during embryogenesis and after birth is affected. Here, we show that blue and golden correspond to guppy orthologs of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor a (csf1ra; previously called fms) and kita. Most excitingly, we found that both genes are required for the development of the black ornaments of guppy males, which in the case of csf1ra might be mediated by xanthophore-melanophore interactions. Furthermore, we provide evidence that two temporally and genetically distinct melanophore populations contribute to the adult camouflage pattern expressed in both sexes: one early appearing and kita-dependent and the other late-developing and kita-independent. The identification of csf1ra and kita mutants provides the first molecular insights into pigment pattern formation in this important model species for ecological and evolutionary genetics. PMID:23666934

Kottler, Verena A; Fadeev, Andrey; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

2013-07-01

187

Cell proliferation and growth-associated protein 43 expression in the olfactory epithelium in Poecilia reticulata after copper solution exposure  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the regeneration in the olfactory mucosa of the teleostean fish Poecilia reticulata when returned to dechlorinated tap water after 4-day exposure to 30 ?g/L of Cu2+. The regeneration process in the olfactory tissue was examined in fishes at 0, 3, 6 and 10 days of recovery in well water. Jade B staining permitted to evaluate the rate of the damage which was especially extended to olfactory neurons. Immediately after the end of exposure, a massive mitotic activity in the basal region of the mucosa was detected by immunostaining with PCNA. After 3 days of recovery the nuclei of the newly formed cells had already finished their migration to the upper portion of the epithelium, and cellular division was much less intense. Simultaneously, immunoreactivity for the neural growth-associated phosphoprotein GAP-43 increased respect to control levels, revealing that the new differentiating PCNA-positive elements belonged to immature neurons. After 6 days in well water no mitotic activity was detected, while the GAP-43 labelling appeared particularly concentrated in the apical surface of the olfactory epithelium.After 10 days the aspect of the olfactory epithelium was almost identical to the control. The present results suggest that after 10 days regeneration seems to be complete and integrity of the tissue restored. Furthermore, the epithelium reconstitution does not show apparent divergence from other fishes or mammals.

F Ciani

2006-06-01

188

Relative host body condition and food availability influence epidemic dynamics: a Poecilia reticulata-Gyrodactylus turnbulli host-parasite model.  

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Understanding disease transmission is important to species management and human health. Host body condition, nutrition and disease susceptibility interact in a complex manner, and while the individual effects of these variables are well known, our understanding of how they interact and translate to population dynamics is limited. Our objective was to determine whether host relative body condition influences epidemic dynamics, and how this relationship is affected by food availability. Poecilia reticulata (guppies) of roughly similar size were selected and assembled randomly into populations of 10 guppies assigned to 3 different food availability treatments, and the relative condition index (Kn) of each fish was calculated. We infected 1 individual per group ('source' fish) with Gyrodactyus turnbulli and counted parasites on each fish every other day for 10 days. Epidemic parameters for each population were analysed using generalized linear models. High host Kn-particularly that of the 'source' fish-exerted a positive effect on incidence, peak parasite burden, and the degree of parasite aggregation. Low food availability increased the strength of the associations with peak burden and aggregation. Our findings suggest that host Kn and food availability interact to influence epidemic dynamics, and that the condition of the individual that brings the parasite into the host population has a profound impact on the spread of infection. PMID:23122390

Tadiri, Christina P; Dargent, Felipe; Scott, Marilyn E

2013-03-01

189

In vitro and in vivo efficacy of garlic compounds against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

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Traditional compounds used to treat fish diseases in aquaculture and the ornamental fish industry (such as formalin and malachite green) can be more toxic to the hosts than their parasites. With the reviviscence in the use of herbal products, various botanicals have been heralded as cures for particular pathogens, but the efficacy of these compounds for parasitic worms is questionable. Here, we tested a range of garlic (Allium sativum) products against a major aquarium pathogen, Gyrodactylus turnbulli, infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). All garlic products significantly reduced parasite mean survival time in vitro, from 13 h to <1 h. In fully randomised trials, the number of parasites was also significantly reduced on infected fish exposed to garlic from different sources. Two garlic treatments (minced and granule forms) reduced worm burdens by 66% and 75% after three doses, whereas Chinese freeze-dried garlic and allyl disulphide were 95% effective after a single application. In fact, Chinese freeze dried garlic was equally effective as Levamisole, a licensed livestock dewormer that is highly effective against G. turnbulli but not routinely prescribed for use in fish; hence, garlic may be a potential alternative treatment for gyrodactylosis. PMID:24074607

Schelkle, Bettina; Snellgrove, Donna; Cable, Joanne

2013-11-15

190

Effects of waterborne zinc on reproduction, survival and morphometrics of Gyrodactylus turnbulli (Monogenea) on guppies (Poecilia reticulata).  

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Recent reviews indicate that pollutants in the surrounding macroenvironment directly influence the population dynamics, distribution and dispersal of fish ectoparasites, often leading to increased parasitism. The aim of the current study was to explore the effects of sublethal concentrations of waterborne zinc (up to 240 microg Zn/L) on survival, reproduction and morphometrics of Gyrodactylus turnbulli, a viviparous monogenean infecting the skin and fins of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Parasite survival and reproduction on the fish were recorded daily for individual parasites maintained in isolated containers. Both survival and reproduction were reduced in 30 and 120 microg Zn/L, compared with 0, 15, and 60 microg Zn/L indicating direct toxic effects of Zn on the parasite. However, as generation time was unaffected by Zn, we attribute the reduced reproduction to the shorter lifespan. Parasite survival off the fish was monitored hourly. Average lifespan of the detached parasites decreased linearly from 19.5 h in 0 microg Zn/L to 17.3h in 240 microg Zn/L, further supporting the direct toxic effect of Zn to the parasite. In addition, temporal dynamics of parasite morphometrics were monitored from mini-epidemics sampled after 1, 5, 10, and 15 days exposure to various Zn concentrations. All morphological parameters decreased significantly in response both to concentration and duration of exposure to waterborne Zn. Together these data clearly indicate that concentrations as low as 120 microg Zn/L are directly toxic to G. turnbulli. PMID:17049530

Gheorghiu, Cristina; Cable, Joanne; Marcogliese, David J; Scott, Marilyn E

2007-03-01

191

Distribution of guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1860) and Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868) along a polluted stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil Distribuição dos guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1860) e Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868) ao longo de um trecho poluído do rio Paraíba do Sul, Brasil  

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Cyprinodontiformes fishes (guppies) are widely distributed in Neotropical regions and use deteriorated microhabitats in rivers where few species can occur. This study was carried out in a stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River in bracketing a large urban-industrial complex. The aim was to assess eventual effects that the industrial complex could have on distribution of two closely related fish species of guppies, Phalloceros caudimaculatus and Poecilia reticulata. The area was divided into thre...

Fg, Arau?jo; Mg, Peixoto; Bct, Pinto; Tp, Teixeira

2009-01-01

192

Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity of copaiba oils from Copaifera cearensis Huber ex Ducke, Copaifera reticulata Ducke and Copaifera multijuga Hayne--a comparative study.  

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Copaiba oil is an oleoresin obtained from the Copaifera L. genus (Leguminoseae) commonly featured in anti-inflammatory recipe prescribed by Amazonian traditional medical practitioners and featured in Europe and North America pharmacopeias of the past. Chemical and anti-inflammatory activity investigations from the copaiba oils obtained from Copaifera multijuga Hayne, Copaifera cearensis Huber ex Ducke and Copaifera reticulata Ducke species have proved that, although similar, these oleoresins possess varied composition and anti-inflammatory activity. Chromatographic studies showed that the main compound among sesquiterpenes was beta-caryophyllene (57.5, 19.7 and 40.9%, respectively), followed by alpha-humulene, alpha-copaene, alpha-bergamotene, delta-cadinene, with different amounts in each oleoresin. Among the diterpenes, copalic acid was the main component from Copaifera multijuga Hayne (6.2%) and was found in all the oleoresins studied. In Copaifera cearensis Huber ex Ducke, clorechinic (11.3%) and hardwickiic acids (6.2%) were the major diterpenes while kaurenoic (3.9%) and kolavenic acids (3.4%) predominated in Copaifera reticulata Ducke. The pharmacologic effects of the three oleoresins were evaluated in vitro by measuring the NO production by murine macrophages and in vivo using the zymosan induced pleurisy model in mice. The Copaiba Oil from Copaifera multijuga Hayne (100 mg/kg) was the most potent, inhibiting both NO production and the pleurisy induced by zymosan. The oleoresins from Copaifera cearensis Huber ex Ducke and Copaifera reticulata Ducke were also able to inhibit NO production and the pleurisy but with less intensity. PMID:17446019

Veiga Junior, V F; Rosas, E C; Carvalho, M V; Henriques, M G M O; Pinto, Angelo C

2007-06-13

193

[Acute toxicity and analgesic activity of the global extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire].  

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The global extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire are especially rich in secondary metabolites of the type iridoid lactonique and glucosidique and of type lupane triterpine. The aerial part of each species is crushed, and then extracted by cold maceration in methanol. These total extracts are in the form of suspension in Arabic gum with 5%, they are tested on the mice for the tests of acute toxicity like for the peripheral analgesic activity according to the test of Koster; and also on the rats for the central analgesic activity of the morphine type based on the test "Tail Flick". The acute toxicity evaluation of these extracts follows upon the determination of the lethal amounts 50% of essential oils from these two species, already given it is specified here by the lethal dose 50% (DL50) of 1672 +/- 232 mg/kg with confidence limits [1030 - 2320] mg/kg for Nepeta atlantica and 1401 +/- 97.29 mg/kg with confidence limits [1130 - 1670] mg/kg for Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata. The tests of Koster in the mouse and the "Tail Flik" in the rat showed that the global extracts of the studied species have all two greatly peripheral analgesic activity with an important protection against abdominal cramp 67.91% and 75.53% for 60 mg/kg IP respectively for Nepeta atlantica and Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. Reticulata, which rise up to 90.10% and 92.89% for 120 mg/kg IP. A central morphine like analgesic activity is record with 120 mg/kg IP for the two species. PMID:17243274

Bouidida, El Houcine; Alaoui, Katim; Cherrah, Yahia; Fkih-Tetouani, Souad; Idrissi, Abdelkader Il

2006-01-01

194

Sex-specific effects of carotenoid intake on the immunological response to allografts in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).  

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Rarely are the evolutionary origins of mate preferences known, but, recently, the preference of female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) for males with carotenoid-based sexual coloration has been linked to a sensory bias that may have originally evolved for detecting carotenoid-rich fruits. If carotenoids enhance the immune systems of these fishes, as has been suggested for other species, this could explain the origin of the attraction to orange fruits as well as the maintenance of the female preference for orange males. We used the classic immunological technique of tissue grafting to assay a component of the immune response of guppies raised on two different dietary levels of carotenoids. Individual scales were transplanted between pairs of unrelated fishes, creating reciprocal allografts. Transplanted scales were scored on a six-point rejection scale every day for 10 days. Five days later, the same pairs of fishes received a second set of allografts and were scored again. Compared with low-carotenoid-diet males, high-carotenoid-diet males mounted a significantly stronger rejection response to the second allograft but not to the first allograft. High-carotenoid-diet females, however, showed no improvement in graft rejection compared with low-carotenoid-diet females. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence for sex-specific effects of carotenoid consumption on the immune system of a species with carotenoid-based sexual coloration. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the mate preference for carotenoid coloration is maintained by the benefits to females of choosing healthy mates, but they cast doubt on the idea that the benefits of carotenoid consumption, per se, could account for the origin of the preference. The sex-specificity of carotenoid effects on allograft rejection in guppies provides indirect support for the general hypothesis that males pay an immunological cost for sexual ornamentation. PMID:15002770

Grether, Gregory F; Kasahara, Shinji; Kolluru, Gita R; Cooper, Edwin L

2004-01-01

195

Dopaminergic presynaptic modulation of nigral afferents: its role in the generation of recurrent bursting in substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons  

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Full Text Available Previous work has shown the functions associated with activation of dopamine presynaptic receptors in some substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr afferents: i striatonigral terminals (direct pathway posses presynaptic dopamine D1-class receptors whose action is to enhance inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs and GABA transmission. ii Subthalamonigral terminals posses D1- and D2-class receptors where D1-class receptor activation enhances and D2-class receptor activation decreases excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs. Here we report that pallidonigral afferents posses D2-class receptors (D3 and D4 types that decrease inhibitory synaptic transmission via presynaptic modulation. No action of D1-class agonists was found on pallidonigral synapses. In contrast, administration of D1-receptor antagonists greatly decreased striatonigral IPSCs in the same preparation, suggesting that tonic dopamine levels help in maintaining the function of the striatonigral (direct pathway. When both D3 and D4 type receptors were blocked, pallidonigral IPSCs increased in amplitude while striatonigral connections had no significant change, suggesting that tonic dopamine levels are repressing a powerful inhibition conveyed by pallidonigral synapses (a branch of the indirect pathway. We then blocked both D1- and D2-class receptors to acutely decrease direct pathway (striatonigral and enhance indirect pathways (subthalamonigral and pallidonigral synaptic force. The result was that most SNr projection neurons entered a recurrent bursting firing mode similar to that observed during Parkinsonism in both patients and animal models. These results raise the question as to whether the lack of dopamine in basal ganglia output nuclei is enough to generate some pathological signs of Parkinsonism.

JoseBargas

2011-02-01

196

Seasonal simulation of water, salinity and nitrate dynamics under drip irrigated mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and assessing management options for drainage and nitrate leaching  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimation of all water fluxes temporally and spatially within and out of the crop root zone, and evaluation of issues like salinity and nutrient leaching, are necessary to fully appraise the efficiency of irrigation systems. Simulation models can be used to investigate these issues over several seasons when the cost of long term monitoring is prohibitive. Model results can be used to advise growers if improvements are required to various aspects of irrigation system operations. In this study, HYDRUS-2D was used to evaluate data measured during one season in a young mandarin (Citrus reticulata) orchard, irrigated with an intensive surface drip fertigation system. Water contents, salinities, and nitrate concentrations measured weekly in the field were compared with model predictions. The temporal mean absolute error (MAE) values between weekly measured and simulated water contents ranged from 0.01 to 0.04 cm3 cm-3. However, modelling error (MAE) was slightly larger at 10 cm depth (0.04 cm3 cm-3), as compared to greater depths (0.02-0.03 cm3 cm-3). Similarly, the errors were larger in the surface soil layer (25 cm depth) for nitrate-nitrogen, NO3--N (1.52 mmol(c) L-1), as compared to greater depths. The spatial and temporal soil solution salinity (ECsw) and NO3--N data showed accumulation of salts and nitrate within the soil up until day 150 of the simulation (December, 2006), followed by leaching due to high precipitation and over irrigation at later times. Only 49% of applied water was used by the mandarin trees, while 33.5% was leached. On the other hand, the simulation revealed that a significant amount of applied nitrogen (85%) was taken up by the mandarin trees, and the remaining 15% was leached. The results indicate that the irrigation and fertigation schedule needs modifying as there was overwatering from December onwards. Different permutations and combinations of irrigation and fertigation scheduling were evaluated to optimise the water and nitrogen uptake and to reduce their leaching out of the crop root zone. Slightly higher nitrogen uptake (1.73 kg ha-1) was recorded when fertigation was applied second to last hour in an irrigation event, as compared to applying it earlier during an irrigation event. Similarly, a 20% reduction in irrigation and N application produced a pronounced reduction in drainage (28%) and N leaching (46.4%), but it also decreased plant N uptake by 15.8% and water uptake by 4.8%, and increased salinity by 25.8%, as compared to the normal practice. This management would adversely impact the sustainability of this expensive irrigation system. However, reducing only irrigation by 30% during the 2nd half of the crop season (January to August) reduced drainage and N leaching by 37.2% and 50.5%, respectively, and increased N uptake by 6.9%. Such management of irrigation would be quite promising for the sustainability of the entire system. It is concluded that judicious manipulations of irrigation and fertilizer applications can be helpful in designing drip irrigation schedules for perennial horticultural crops to achieve improved efficiency of irrigation and fertigation applications and reduced contamination of receiving water bodies.

Phogat, V.; Skewes, M. A.; Cox, J. W.; Sanderson, G.; Alam, J.; Šim?nek, J.

2014-05-01

197

Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is considerable intraspecific variation in metabolic rates and locomotor performance in aquatic ectothermic vertebrates; however, the mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. Using pregnant Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing teleost, we examined the effects of reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burse-assisted swimming on swimming metabolic rate, standard metabolic rate (MO2std) and prolonged swimming performance (Ucrit). Reproductive traits included reproductive allocation and pregnancy stage, the former defined as the mass of the reproductive tissues divided by the total body mass. Results showed that the metabolic rate increased curvilinearly with swimming speed. The slope of the relationship was used as an index of swimming cost. There was no evidence that reproductive traits correlated with swimming cost, MO2std or Ucrit. In contrast, data revealed strong effects of pectoral fin use on swimming cost and Ucrit. Poecilia reticulata employed body-caudal fin (BCF) swimming at all tested swimming speeds; however, fish with a high simultaneous use of the pectoral fins exhibited increased swimming cost and decreased Ucrit. These data indicated that combining BCF swimming and pectoral fin movement over a wide speed range, presumably to support swimming stability and control, is an inefficient swimming behaviour. Finally, transition to burst-assisted swimming was associated with an increase in aerobic metabolic rate. Our study highlights factors other than swimming speed that affect swimming cost and suggests that intraspecific diversity in biomechanical performance, such as pectoral fin use, is an important source of variation in both locomotor cost and maximal performance.

Svendsen, Jon Christian; Banet, Amanda I.

2013-01-01

198

Acaricidal activity of an oleoresinous extract from Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) against larvae of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The acaricidal activity of oleoresinous extract (oleoresin) from the copaiba tree, Copaifera reticulata was investigated. Oleoresin was dissolved with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and mixed with distilled water at a rate of 0.4 ml of DMSO to 24.6 ml water. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae were exposed to filter paper envelopes impregnated with different oleoresin concentrations. Four envelopes were impregnated with each tested solution. Thirty larvae between 14 and 21 days old were fasted and placed in each envelope. Bioassays were performed at 27 degrees+/-1 degrees C, RH>or=80% and a photoperiod of 12:12 h. Larval mortality was observed 24 h after treatment. Four replicates for each concentration were evaluated to determine lethal concentrations (LC). Oleoresin LC50 and LC99 values were 1579 and 3491 ppm, respectively. The potential use of oleoresin for control of R. (B.) microplus is discussed. The results of this study reinforce the importance of the preservation of C. reticulata in its natural Biome, as a potentially auto-sustainable medicinal resource among the flora of Amazonian forest. PMID:17478043

de Freitas Fernandes, Fernando; de Paula Souza Freitas, Edméia

2007-06-20

199

Acute toxicity and environmental risk of teflubenzuron to Daphnia magna, Poecilia reticulata and Lemna minor in the absence and presence of sediment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to estimate the acute toxicity of teflubenzuron (1-(3,5-dichloro-2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)urea) (TFB) for Daphnia magna, Lemna minor and Poecilia reticulata, in the absence and presence of sediment; evaluate the effect of sediment on the TFB bioavailability; and to classify this insecticide according to its environmental poisoning risk for agricultural and aquaculture uses. The tests of TFB acute toxicity were conducted in static system in a completely randomized design with increasing TFB concentrations, and a control group. The TFB has been classified according to the estimated values of EC50 and LC50 by its acute toxicity and environmental risk. The sediment significantly reduced toxicity and bioavailability of TFB in water column. Therefore, the insecticide can be classified as being highly toxic to Daphnia magna, which means the agricultural and aquacultural uses of TFB pose a high risk of environmental toxicity to non-target organisms. However, it was practically non-toxic to L. minor and P. reticulata. PMID:23581694

Medeiros, Louise S; Souza, Jaqueline P; Winkaler, Elissandra U; Carraschi, Silvia P; Cruz, Claudinei; Souza-Júnior, Severino C; Machado-Neto, Joaquim G

2013-01-01

200

Simultaneous determination of five bioactive flavonoids in pericarpium Citri reticulatae from china by high-performance liquid chromatography with dual wavelength detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the quality of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae from China, a new, simple, and accurate method involving high-performance liquid chromatography with dual wavelength detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of five bioactive flavonoids, hesperidin, nobiletin, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone, tangeretin, and 5-hydroxy-6,7,8,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone for the first time. Under the optimal condition, analysis was performed on a Dikma Diamonsil C(18) column and gradient elution with a solvent system of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detected at 283 and 330 nm, respectively. All five calibration curves exhibited good linearity (R2 > 0.9997). The relative standard deviation values for intra- and interday precision were less than 5% with accuracies between 95.16% and 104.71%. The recoveries were in the range of 96.91-103.20%. The established method was successfully applied to determine above five flavonoids in 32 samples collected from different districts of China, and the results demonstrated that the method may be used as strong research tools for quality control of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae and chemotaxonomic investigation in botanical sciences of Citrus species. PMID:19722565

Zheng, Guodong; Yang, Depo; Wang, Dongmei; Zhou, Fang; Yang, Xue; Jiang, Lin

2009-08-12

 
 
 
 
201

Influence of combined changes in salinity and copper modulation on growth and copper uptake in the tropical green macroalga Ulva reticulata  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of salinity on growth and Cu uptake in the green macroalga Ulva reticulata collected from the intertidal area in the Western Indian Ocean was studied under controlled laboratory conditions. Exposure concentrations ranged from 5 to 500 ?g Cu l -1 at five salinities (ranging 20-40). The accumulation of Cu increased with decreasing salinity, so that the uptake at 500 ?g Cu l -1 was approximately 2.7, 2.4 and 2.0 times higher at salinities of 20, 25, and 30 respectively, than uptake at salinity of 35, and with uptake being lowest at salinity of 40. Ulva maintained a positive growth rate over the whole salinity range (20-40), with highest rates at salinity of 35. When exposing to Cu at low salinities (20 and 25), the growth rate of Ulva was strongly inhibited suggesting an increase in toxicity of Cu with decreasing salinity. EC50 and NOEC increased with increase in salinity, implying a reduced Cu toxicity at high salinities. It was concluded that salinity needs to be considered when using macroalgae, such as U. reticulata, as a bioindicator of heavy metals in areas with heavy rainfall, underground fresh water intrusion or in estuaries, as they might accumulate more metals and be more negatively affected.

Mamboya, Florence; Lyimo, Thomas J.; Landberg, Tommy; Björk, Mats

2009-09-01

202

Alterações químicas, físicas e físico-químicas da tangerina 'ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco durante o armazenamento refrigerado Chemical, physical and physical-chemical changes on tangerina 'ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco under refrigerated storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo proposto neste trabalho foi o de avaliar as alterações químicas, físicas e físico-químicas da tangerina 'Ponkan' (citrus reticulata Blanco durante o armazenamento refrigerado a 5 ± 2° C e umidade relativa de 85 ± 3% por um período de 28 dias, em dois estádios de maturação (frutos coletados no início da safra; com a casca mais verde e frutos coletados no final da safra com a casca amarela. Os frutos foram coletados com pedúnculo, ao acaso de um pomar comercial com sete anos de idade, localizado no município de Perdões, região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram realizadas duas colheitas, uma no mês de Abril quando os frutos estavam com a casca verde, mas já estavam aptos para o consumo; e outra mais no final da safra no mês de Julho quando os frutos já estavam com a casca bem amarela. Os frutos coletados foram levados ao Laboratório de Bioquímica da Universidade Federal de Lavras, onde foram selecionados 100 (cem frutos de tamanho uniforme e com ausência de injúrias a cada colheita, estes foram lavados com uma solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%, protocolados, pesados, medidos e realizadas as leituras de cor. Os frutos foram então armazenados em refrigerador a 5 ± 2° C e umidade relativa de 85 ± 3% por um período de 28 dias, e as análises foram realizadas nos frutos e no suco dos frutos aos 0, 7 14, 21 e 28 dias de armazenamento. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com 5 repetições de 4 frutos . Os resultados mostraram que quase todas as análises realizadas apresentaram variações significativas. A perda de massa, os diâmetros transversais e longitudinais apresentaram diminuições significativas com os dias de armazenamento refrigerado. Os açúcares também tiveram variações significativas com tendência de aumento com os dias de armazenamento.O pH não apresentou variações significativas. Os teores de Vitamina C não apresentaram variações significativas com os dias de armazenamento refrigerado. A coloração da casca dos frutos foi medida com um colorímetro e foram medidos três variáveis de cor: luminosidade, teor de amarelo e teor de vermelho. Pode-se observar visualmente que os frutos coletados no início da safra apresentaram um ressecamento das vesículas de suco, ou seja, frutos com granulação, principalmente a partir da segunda semana de armazenamento, enquanto os frutos coletados mais maduros com maiores teores de açúcares solúveis foram mais resistentes ao ressecamento interno das vesículas.(análise visual e tátil.This work was aimed to evaluating chemical, physical and physical-chemical changes on tangerine 'Ponkan' (citrus reticulata Blanco during the storage at 5 ± 2° C under relative humidity of 85 ± 3%, for a period of 28 days, in two maturation stadiums (fruits collected at the beginning of the crop; with the greenest peel and yellow peel fruits,, collected by the end of the crop. Fruits with stalf were alleatory collected in a seven-years old commercial orchard, located at Perdões, South area of the State of Minas Gerais. Fruits were collectd twice: on April, when they got a green peel, but they were already edible; and on July, by the end of the crop, when fruits got a very yellow peel. Then fruits were taken to the Laboratory of Biochemistry of the Federal University of Lavras, where a hundred aff them with uniform size and injury were washed with a 1% sodium hypochoride solution, marked, weigthted measured and submitted to color readings. After 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days in a refrigerator at fruits of uniform size and with absence of offenses to each crop, these were washed with a hipoclorito of sodium solution to 1%, recorded, heavy, measured and accomplished the color readings. Then the fruits were stored then in refrigerator at 5 ± 2° C, under relative humidity of 85 ± 3%, fruits as well as thein juice were analysed. The experimental outline used was entirely randomized, with five replicates containig four fruits in each one. Almost all rescelts were significantly depende

Adriana Aparecida Souza Vale

2006-08-01

203

Evaluation of guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters) immunization against Tetrahymena sp. by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of the effectiveness of guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters) immunization based on measurements of antibody (Ab) titers suffers from a shortage of reagents that can detect guppy antibodies (Abs). To overcome this problem, we immunized mice with different preparations of guppy immunoglobulins (Igs) and used the mouse antisera to develop a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The most efficient immunogen for mouse immunization was guppy Igs adsorbed on protein A/G beads. Antisera from mice boosted with this immunoglobulin (Ig) preparation were highly specific and contained high Ab titers. They immunoreacted in a Western blot with Ig heavy and light chains from guppy serum, and Ig heavy chain from guppy whole-body homogenate. The mouse anti-guppy Ig was applied in an ELISA aimed at comparing the efficiency of different routes of guppy immunization against Tetrahymena: (i) anal intubation with sonicated Tetrahymena (40,000 Tetrahymena/fish in a total volume of 10 ?L) mixed with domperidon, deoxycholic acid and free amino acids (valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and tryptophan), or (ii) intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of sonicated Tetrahymena in complete Freund's adjuvant (15,000 Tetrahymena/fish in total a volume of 20 ?L). Negative control fish were anally intubated with the intubation mixture without Tetrahymena, or untreated. ELISA measurement of anti-Tetrahymena Ab titer revealed a significantly higher level of Abs in i.p.-immunized guppies, compared to the anally intubated and control fish. In addition, the efficiency of immunization was tested by monitoring guppy mortality following (i) i.p. challenge with Tetrahymena (900 Tetrahymena/fish) or (ii) cold stress followed by immersion in water containing 10,000 Tetrahymena/mL. Fish mortality on day 14 post-Tetrahymena infection by i.p. injection exceeded 50% in the control and anally intubated fish, compared to 31% in i.p.-immunized fish. Immunization did not protect from pathogen challenge by immersion. The results suggest a direct correlation between the anti-Tetrahymena Ab response and fish resistance to i.p.-injected Tetrahymena, but not to infection by immersion preceded by cold stress. PMID:25085773

Sharon, Galit; Nath, Pulak R; Isakov, Noah; Zilberg, Dina

2014-09-15

204

Distribution of guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1860) and Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868) along a polluted stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil / Distribuição dos guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1860) e Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868) ao longo de um trecho poluído do rio Paraíba do Sul, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Peixes Cyprinodontiformes (guppies) são largamente distribuídos na região Neotropical e usam microhábitats deteriorados em rios onde poucas espécies podem ocorrer. Este estudo foi realizado em um trecho do rio Paraíba do Sul compreendendo um grande complexo urbano-industrial. O objetivo foi avaliar [...] eventuais efeitos que o complexo industrial poderia ter na distribuição de duas espécies de guppies proximamente relacionadas, Phalloceros caudimaculatus e Poecilia reticulata. A área foi dividida em três zonas: Z1, 40 km rio acima do complexo urbano-industrial de Volta Redonda; Z2, imediatamente abaixo do complexo industrial; e Z3, 30 km abaixo do complexo. Seis locais (dois em cada zona) foram amostrados mensalmente entre novembro de 1998 e outubro de 1999, usando um esforço de pesca estandardizado com tarrafas, peneiras e arrastos, cobrindo diferentes microhábitats, isto é, corredeiras, remansos e a proximidade da margem dos rios. Poecilia reticulata foi largamente distribuído, apresentando pico na Z2, área mais poluída, enquanto P. caudimaculatus apresentou a maior abundância na Z3, sendo quase ausente na Z1. Ambas as espécies ocorreram em elevados números ao longo do ano, mas foram escassas entre abril e junho. Fêmeas foram mais numerosas do que machos para ambas as espécies na maioria das classes de tamanho e em todos os locais. Jovens foram mais abundantes que adultos, com fêmeas não grávidas predominando sobre fêmeas grávidas. Fator de condição foi sempre maior nos machos do que nas fêmeas, mas somente machos de P. reticulata apresentaram diferenças significantes entre as três zonas, com os mais elevados valores na Z2. Maior número de fêmeas confirma as expectativas de que estas espécies podem usar áreas bem poluídas e que a disponibilidade de alimento provida pela carga orgânica permite sua distribuição ao longo de toda a área. Embora estas duas espécies tenham apresentado indicações de separação especial, seus similares padrões de ocorrência sazonal sugerem que elas respondem de maneira similar às variações das condições ambientais. Abstract in english Cyprinodontiformes fishes (guppies) are widely distributed in Neotropical regions and use deteriorated microhabitats in rivers where few species can occur. This study was carried out in a stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River in bracketing a large urban-industrial complex. The aim was to assess eventu [...] al effects that the industrial complex could have on distribution of two closely related fish species of guppies, Phalloceros caudimaculatus and Poecilia reticulata. The area was divided into three zones: Z1, 40 km upriver of the major urban-industrial complex of Volta Redonda; Z2, just down river of the complex; and Z3, 30 km down river of the complex. Six sites (two in each zone) were sampled monthly between November 1998 and October 1999, using a standardized fishing effort with cast net throws, trays lifts and seine hauls, covering different microhabitats, that is, riffles, pools and the proximity of the river's margins. Poecilia reticulata was widely distributed, peaking at Z2, the most polluted area, while P. caudimaculatus showed the highest abundance at Z3, being almost absent in Z1. Both species occurred in high numbers throughout the year but they were scarce between April and June. Females outnumbered males for both species in most size classes and at all sites. Juveniles were more abundant than adults, with non-pregnant females outnumbering pregnant ones. Condition factor was always higher in males than females but only males P. reticulata showed significant difference among the three zones, with the highest values at Z2. The higher number of females confirms the expectation that these species can use very polluted areas and that availability of food provided by organic loads allowed their distribution all over the area. Although these two species have shown indication of spatial separation in the study area, their simila

FG., Araújo; MG., Peixoto; BCT., Pinto; TP., Teixeira.

2009-02-01

205

Distribution of guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1860 and Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868 along a polluted stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil Distribuição dos guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1860 e Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868 ao longo de um trecho poluído do rio Paraíba do Sul, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cyprinodontiformes fishes (guppies are widely distributed in Neotropical regions and use deteriorated microhabitats in rivers where few species can occur. This study was carried out in a stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River in bracketing a large urban-industrial complex. The aim was to assess eventual effects that the industrial complex could have on distribution of two closely related fish species of guppies, Phalloceros caudimaculatus and Poecilia reticulata. The area was divided into three zones: Z1, 40 km upriver of the major urban-industrial complex of Volta Redonda; Z2, just down river of the complex; and Z3, 30 km down river of the complex. Six sites (two in each zone were sampled monthly between November 1998 and October 1999, using a standardized fishing effort with cast net throws, trays lifts and seine hauls, covering different microhabitats, that is, riffles, pools and the proximity of the river's margins. Poecilia reticulata was widely distributed, peaking at Z2, the most polluted area, while P. caudimaculatus showed the highest abundance at Z3, being almost absent in Z1. Both species occurred in high numbers throughout the year but they were scarce between April and June. Females outnumbered males for both species in most size classes and at all sites. Juveniles were more abundant than adults, with non-pregnant females outnumbering pregnant ones. Condition factor was always higher in males than females but only males P. reticulata showed significant difference among the three zones, with the highest values at Z2. The higher number of females confirms the expectation that these species can use very polluted areas and that availability of food provided by organic loads allowed their distribution all over the area. Although these two species have shown indication of spatial separation in the study area, their similar seasonal patterns of occurrence suggest that they respond in a similar way to changes in environmental conditions.Peixes Cyprinodontiformes (guppies são largamente distribuídos na região Neotropical e usam microhábitats deteriorados em rios onde poucas espécies podem ocorrer. Este estudo foi realizado em um trecho do rio Paraíba do Sul compreendendo um grande complexo urbano-industrial. O objetivo foi avaliar eventuais efeitos que o complexo industrial poderia ter na distribuição de duas espécies de guppies proximamente relacionadas, Phalloceros caudimaculatus e Poecilia reticulata. A área foi dividida em três zonas: Z1, 40 km rio acima do complexo urbano-industrial de Volta Redonda; Z2, imediatamente abaixo do complexo industrial; e Z3, 30 km abaixo do complexo. Seis locais (dois em cada zona foram amostrados mensalmente entre novembro de 1998 e outubro de 1999, usando um esforço de pesca estandardizado com tarrafas, peneiras e arrastos, cobrindo diferentes microhábitats, isto é, corredeiras, remansos e a proximidade da margem dos rios. Poecilia reticulata foi largamente distribuído, apresentando pico na Z2, área mais poluída, enquanto P. caudimaculatus apresentou a maior abundância na Z3, sendo quase ausente na Z1. Ambas as espécies ocorreram em elevados números ao longo do ano, mas foram escassas entre abril e junho. Fêmeas foram mais numerosas do que machos para ambas as espécies na maioria das classes de tamanho e em todos os locais. Jovens foram mais abundantes que adultos, com fêmeas não grávidas predominando sobre fêmeas grávidas. Fator de condição foi sempre maior nos machos do que nas fêmeas, mas somente machos de P. reticulata apresentaram diferenças significantes entre as três zonas, com os mais elevados valores na Z2. Maior número de fêmeas confirma as expectativas de que estas espécies podem usar áreas bem poluídas e que a disponibilidade de alimento provida pela carga orgânica permite sua distribuição ao longo de toda a área. Embora estas duas espécies tenham apresentado indicações de separação especial, seus similares padrões de ocorrência sazonal sugerem que elas respondem de maneira similar às variações das co

FG. Araújo

2009-02-01

206

Determination of natural radioactivity and the concentration of heavy metal in tissue of Guppy Fish, Poecilia Reticulata and sediment on urban drawn in Klang, Selangor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study has been carried out to determine the natural radioactivity and concentration of heavy metal in guppy fish, Poecilia Reticulata and sediment sample on urban drawn in Klang, Selangor. Natural radioactivity (U-238, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40) was determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The concentration of heavy metal was determined using Coupled-Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Guppy fish and sediment sample was taken from three different locations in research area. Sample treatment process was starting with separation of impurities in sample. Samples were dried in the oven at 100 degree Celsius in 72 hours, homogenization process, and then samples were filled into counts bottles, sealed and kept for a month to achieved secular equilibrium. The activities found for each location varied. In sediment samples the activity concentration of U-238, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 were in the range of 87.61 ± 13.47 to 180.88 ± 30.50 Bq/ kg, 59.45 ± 9.12 to 88.29 ± 2.73 Bq/ kg, 6.70 ± 3.13 to 8.53 ± 4.90 Bq/ kg and 246.83 ± 12.27 to 495.28 ± 22.30 Bq/ kg. For sediment samples, have 12 elements of heavy metals found are Mg, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Al, As, Ba and Pb. For guppy fish, P. Reticulata have 7 elements of heavy metals achieved found are Mg, K, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Al. Concentration of U-238 and K-40 is higher than the world average value reported by UNSCEAR (2000). Th-232 is below the world average value. From comparative with IAEA (1990) reporcomparative with IAEA (1990) report showed that the concentration of heavy metals in sediment sample was at background level except for As and Pb. For concentration of heavy metal in guppy fish, P. Reticulata showed that the values are highly than value of IAEA-407 report except for Zn and Mn. (author)

207

Polymethoxylated, C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids in tangelo (Citrus reticulata×Citrus paradisi) juice and their influence on antioxidant properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

A separation/identification protocol based on RP-LC-DAD-ESI-MS-MS has been employed for the characterisation of the flavonoid fraction of the juice from tangelos (Citrus reticulata×Citrus paradisi) grown in Southern Italy. Eleven compounds were identified in a single chromatographic course. Of these, two C-glycosyl flavones (lucenin-2 and vicenin-2) and an O-triglycosyl flavanone (narirutin 4'-O-glucoside) were identified for the first time. Fruit juice antioxidant activity was evaluated on the basis of its ability to scavenge DPPH, O2(-), OH and ABTS(+) radicals, and to reduce iron (FRAP). Moreover, the influence of the identified polymethoxylated, C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids on the total antioxidant activity has been elucidated. We also checked the antimicrobial activity of a broad fraction, containing all the detected flavonoids obtained by preparative HPLC, in terms of MICs for Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:23790942

Barreca, Davide; Bisignano, Carlo; Ginestra, Giovanna; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Bellocco, Ersilia; Leuzzi, Ugo; Gattuso, Giuseppe

2013-11-15

208

Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

There is considerable intraspecific variation in metabolic rates and locomotor performance in aquatic ectothermic vertebrates; however, the mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. Using pregnant Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a live-bearing teleost, we examined the effects of reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst-assisted swimming on swimming metabolic rate, standard metabolic rate (O2std) and prolonged swimming performance (Ucrit). Reproductive traits included reproductive allocation and pregnancy stage, the former defined as the mass of the reproductive tissues divided by the total body mass. Results showed that the metabolic rate increased curvilinearly with swimming speed. The slope of the relationship was used as an index of swimming cost. There was no evidence that reproductive traits correlated with swimming cost, O2std or Ucrit. In contrast, data revealed strong effects of pectoral fin use on swimming cost and Ucrit. Poecilia reticulata employed body-caudal fin (BCF) swimming at all tested swimming speeds; however, fish with a high simultaneous use of the pectoral fins exhibited increased swimming cost and decreased Ucrit. These data indicated that combining BCF swimming and pectoral fin movement over a wide speed range, presumably to support swimming stability and control, is an inefficient swimming behaviour. Finally, transition to burst-assisted swimming was associated with an increase in aerobic metabolic rate. Our study highlights factors other than swimming speed that affect swimming cost and suggests that intraspecific diversity in biomechanical performance, such as pectoral fin use, is an important source of variation in both locomotor cost and maximal performance. PMID:23737561

Svendsen, Jon C; Banet, Amanda I; Christensen, Rune H B; Steffensen, John F; Aarestrup, Kim

2013-09-15

209

Polymethoxylated flavones, flavanone glycosides, carotenoids, and antioxidants in different cultivation types of tangerines ( Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng) from Northern Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) and flavanone glycosides (FGs) were analyzed in hand-pressed juice and the peeled fruit of 'Sainampueng' tangerines ( Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng) grown in northern Thailand. The tangerines were collected from a citrus cluster of small orchard farmers and were cultivated as either agrochemical-based (AB), agrochemical-safe (AS), or organic grown fruits. Juice samples were also measured on contents of carotenoids, ascorbic acid, and tocopherols. The peel-deriving PMFs tangeretin, nobiletin, and sinensetin were found with high concentrations in juice as a result of simple squeezing, whereas amounts of those PMFs were negligibly low in peeled tangerine fruit. In contrast, the mean concentrations of the FGs narirutin, hesperidin, and didymin were several fold higher in peeled fruit than in tangerine juice and significantly higher in organic than AS and AB tangerines. Narirutin and hesperidin in juice from organic produces as well as narirutin in juice from AS produces were significantly higher than respective mean concentrations in juice from AB produces. beta-Cryptroxanthin was the predominant carotenoid beside zeaxanthin, lutein, lycopene, and beta-carotene in tangerine juice. Ascorbic acid concentrations were not predicted by the type of cultivation, whereas alpha-tocopherol was significantly higher in juice from organic than AS produces. In summary, hand-pressed juice of C. reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng serves as a rich source of PMFs, FGs, carotenoids, and antioxidants: 4-5 tangerine fruits ( approximately 80 g of each fruit) giving one glass of 200 mL hand-pressed juice would provide more than 5 mg of nobiletin and tangeretin and 36 mg of hesperidin, narirutin, and didymin, as well as 30 mg of ascorbic acid, >1 mg of provitamin A active beta-cryptoxanthin, and 200 microg of alpha-tocopherol. PMID:20420369

Stuetz, Wolfgang; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Hongsibsong, Surat; Biesalski, Hans-Konrad

2010-05-26

210

Insetos Sugadores (Sternorrhyncha em Cultivo Orgânico de Tangerina cv. Poncã (Citrus reticulata Blanco: Diversidade, Constância, Freqüência e Flutuação Populacional  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a diversidade, constância, freqüência e a flutuação populacional de insetos sugadores da subordem Sternorrhyncha associados à tangerina cv. Poncã sob o sistema de cultivo orgânico. Os levantamentos foram realizados entre outubro de 2002 e outubro de 2003. Dentre os aleirodídeos, Aleurothrixus floccosus Maskell destacou-se dos demais, com média populacional igual a 74,06%. Aleurotrachelus cruzi Cassino obteve média de 52,6%. Entre as cochonilhas destacaram-se Selenaspidus articulatus (Morgan (23,96% e Pinnaspis aspidistrae (Signoret (19,38%. O psilídeo Diaphorina citri Kuwayama obteve média de 52,6%, sendo a segunda espécie com maior média. Os pulgões Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy e Toxoptera aurantii (Boyer, somente ocorreram em período de brotação e floração, com média populacional de 7,6% e 6,25%, respectivamente. Quanto à diversidade das espécies o período com maior diversidade, ocorreu na 1ª quinzena de setembro de 2003 (H’= 0,964, coincidindo com a menor dominância (D= 0,200, e menor diversidade na 1º quinzena de maio de 2003 (H’= 0,657 e maior dominância (D= 0,522. As espécies constantes foram: A. floccosus (100%, A. cruzi (96%, Coccus viridis (Green (100%, P. aspidistrae (100% e D. citri (100%. As espécies mais freqüentes foram: A. floccosus (30,79% e D. citri (21,87%. Os resultados sugerem que as espécies verificadas possuem a dinâmica populacional em parte influenciada pela competição interespecífica, pois quando há um aumento populacional dos aleirodídeos, há um decréscimo da população das cochonilhas e vice-versa, além dos fatores ambientais, a predação e o parasitismo.Sucker Insects (Sternorrhyncha in Organic Cropping of Tangerine cv. Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco: Diversity, Constancy, Frequency and Populational FluctuationAbstract. The aim of this work was to study the diversity, constancy, frequency and the population fluctuation of the sucker insects of the suborder Sternorrhyncha associated with the tangerine cv. Ponkan cultivated under the organic. The study was conducted from October 2002 to October 2003. Among the whiteflies, Aleurothrixus floccosus Maskell had a population average equivalent to 74.06%. Aleurotrachelus cruzi Cassino reached 52.6%. Among the scale, Selenapidus articulatus Morgan reached 23.96% and Pinnaspis aspidistrae (Signoret 19.38%. The Diaphorina citri Kuwayama average was 52.6%, the second bigger average. The aphids Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy and Toxoptera aurantii (Boyer took place only during the budding and blooming, presenting a population average of 7.6% and 6.25%, respectively. The period in which occurred the largest diversity was the first fifteen days of September 2003 (H’= 0.964, simultaneously to the least dominance (D = 0.200, and in the first fifteen days of May 2003 occurred the least diversity (H’= 0.657 and the largest dominance (D = 0.522. The constant species that were more prominent were: A. floccosus (100%, A. cruzi (96%, Coccus viridis (Green (100%, P. aspidistrae (100% and D. citri (100%. The most frequent species were A. floccosus (30.79% and D. citri (21.87%. To sum up, the results show that all the species studied have a population dynamics in part influenced by the interspecific competition, as there is a population increasing of whiteflies, there is a population decrease of scale and vice-versa, as well as the environmental and predatory factors and the parasitism.

William Costa Rodrigues

2009-08-01

211

composicion quimica y compuestos bioactivos de las harinas de cascaras de naranja (citrus sinensis), mandarina (citrus reticulata) y toronja (citrus paradisi) cultivadas en Venezuela / Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of flour of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peels cultivated in Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la composición química y algunos compuestos bioactivos en las harinas de cáscaras de varias frutas cítricas de mayor consumo, que se cultivan en Venezuela. Se determinó la composición química, algunos elementos trazas, ácido ascórbico, carotenoides, fibr [...] a dietética, polifenoles totales y la eficiencia antirradical de los polifenoles utilizando 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracil (DPPH· ) en las cáscaras de naranja (Citrus sinensis), mandarina (Citrus reticulata) y toronja, variedad blanca, (Citrus paradisi). Las muestras presentaron diferencias significativas (p Abstract in english The purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some bioactive compounds in the peel’s flour of some of the most consumed citrus fruits cultivated in Venezuela. Chemical composition as well as some trace elements, ascorbic acid, carotenoids dietary fiber, total polyphenols [...] and their antiradical efficiency, using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidracyl (DPPH· ) were assessed in the dried peels of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and white grapefruit (Citrus paradisi). Moisture, fat, protein and ash content for all samples showed statistical differences (p

Alicia M, Rincón; A, Vásquez; Marina, Padilla; Fanny, C.

212

RT-qPCR reveals opsin gene upregulation associated with age and sex in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) - a species with color-based sexual selection and 11 visual-opsin genes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background PCR-based surveys have shown that guppies (Poecilia reticulata) have an unusually large visual-opsin gene repertoire. This has led to speculation that opsin duplication and divergence has enhanced the evolution of elaborate male coloration because it improves spectral sensitivity and/or discrimination in females. However, this conjecture on evolutionary connections between opsin repertoire, vision, mate choice, and male coloration was generated wi...

Taylor John S; Rj, Laver Christopher

2011-01-01

213

The molecular basis of color vision in colorful fish: Four Long Wave-Sensitive (LWS) opsins in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are defined by amino acid substitutions at key functional sites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Comparisons of functionally important changes at the molecular level in model systems have identified key adaptations driving isolation and speciation. In cichlids, for example, long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsins appear to play a role in mate choice and male color variation within and among species. To test the hypothesis that the evolution of elaborate coloration in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) is also associated with opsin gene diversi...

Ward Pam R; Polack Megan D; Owens Greg L; Rj, Laver Chris; Dick Kevin J; Churcher Allison M; Ward Matthew N; Breden Felix; Taylor John S

2008-01-01

214

The molecular basis of color vision in colorful fish: Four Long Wave-Sensitive (LWS) opsins in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are defined by amino acid substitutions at key functional sites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Comparisons of functionally important changes at the molecular level in modelsystems have identified key adaptations driving isolation and speciation. In cichlids, for example,long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsins appear to play a role in mate choice and male colorvariation within and among species. To test the hypothesis that the evolution of elaboratecoloration in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) is also associated with opsin gene diversity, wesequenced long wavelength-sensit...

Breden, Felix; Ward, Matthew; Churcher, Allison; Dick, Kevin

2008-01-01

215

Pathway-specific engagement of ephrinA5-EphA4/EphA5 system of the substantia nigra pars reticulata in cocaine-induced responses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The nucleus accumbens (NAc) serves as a key neural substrate that controls acute and adaptive behavioral responses to cocaine administration. In this circuit, inputs from the NAc are transmitted through two parallel pathways, named the direct and indirect pathways, and converge at the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). Our previous study using reversible neurotransmission blocking (RNB) of each pathway revealed that the dual stimulation of the SNr by both pathways is necessary for the ac...

Kimura, Kensuke; Hikida, Takatoshi; Yawata, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Nakanishi, Shigetada

2011-01-01

216

[Host plants of Aphis gossypii (Aphididae), vector of virus of Cucumis melo melon (Cucurbitaceae) in Costa Rica].  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant species associated with commercial melon crops and surrounding areas were examined to identity the natural host plants of Aphis gossypii Glover. The study was conducted in two farms located in different melon production areas and plant life zones of Costa Rica. Plant species diversity, percent coverage and distribution over time were recorded during one year. Differences between locations were observed. A total of 86 plant species (49 families) and 72 plant species (40 families) were identified associated to the crop in farms A and B, respectively. In both farms a total of 24 species plants (16 families) were colonized by A. gossypii and 16 (10 families) are new reports of host plant species for this aphid. The new reports are: Justicia comata, Tetramerium nervosum, Alternanthera pubiflora, Cassia massoni, C. reticulata, Cleome viscosa, C. spinosa, Croton argenteus, Caperonia palustris, Chamaesyce gyssopilopia, Phyllantus amarus, Sida decumbens, Ludwigia erecta, Passiflora foetida, Guazuma ulmifolia and Corchorus orinocensis. PMID:11795159

Sánchez, M V; Agüero, R; Rivera, C

2001-03-01

217

Avaliação da toxicidade aguda e potencial neurotóxico do óleo-resina de copaíba (Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae) / Assessment of the neurotoxic potential and acute toxicity of copaiba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O óleo-resina de copaíba obtido do gênero Copaifera L., Fabaceae, é largamente utilizado na medicina popular como antiinflamatório, antimicrobiano e antitumoral. Porém, informações sobre seu potencial tóxico são escassos na literatura. O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer a toxicidade oral aguda [...] e os possíveis efeitos neurotóxicos relacionados à ingestão do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, em ratas Wistar. O estudo foi conduzido com quinze ratas nulíparas distribuídas nos grupos de doses 300 e 2000 mg/kg pc de óleo-resina administrado por gavagem. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que nestas doses não houve sinais clínicos de toxicidade ou neurotoxicidade, alteração no consumo de ração ou alteração no peso corpóreo. A dose letal aguda foi estimada como maior que 2000 mg/kg pc e classificada como categoria 5, segundo o Guia OECD 423. Estes resultados indicam que existe uma relativa margem de segurança para o uso do óleo-resina de copaíba como agente terapêutico, embora estudos toxicológicos adicionais sejam ainda necessários, principalmente com a administração repetida de baixas doses. Abstract in english Copaiba oil-resin obtained from Copaifera L. genus, Fabaceae, is largely used in popular medicine as antinflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumoral. Information concerning the potential toxicity of this oil is limited in the literature. The goal of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity an [...] d the possible neurotoxic effects related to the ingestion of Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, oil-resin using female Wistar rats. Fifteen nulliparous rats were used and distributed in the experimental groups orally exposed to doses of 300 e 2000 mg/kg bw of oil-resin (gavage). No overt clinical signs of toxicity or neurotoxicity, alteration of food consumption or body weight were observed in the animals at the tested doses. The lethal oral toxicity was estimated to be higher than 2000 mg/kg bw, classified as category 5 according to OECD Guide 423. These results indicate that there is a certain safety margin associated with the use of copaiba as therapeutic agent, although additional toxicological studies are still necessary, mainly using repeated low doses.

Camile Giaretta, Sachetti; Maria Luiza, Fascineli; Juliana Alves, Sampaio; Osmar Alves, Lameira; Eloisa Dutra, Caldas.

218

Zinc stress induces physiological, ultra-structural and biochemical changes in mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco) seedlings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient for higher plants; yet, at higher concentrations it is toxic. In order to explore the effect of Zn stress on growth, biochemical, physiological and ultra-structural changes, 1 year old mandarin plants were grown under various Zn concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10 15 and 20 mM) for 14 weeks. The biomass of the plants increased with increasing Zn concentrations and finally declined under excess Zn concentration but the prime increase was observed at 4 and 5 mM Zn. Zn stress reduced the photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration along with reduction of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids content in leaf. Superoxide anion, malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide and electrolyte leakage were elevated in Zn stressed plants. The activities of ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) and peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) enzymes were increased in both Zn-deficient and Zn-excess plants. Therefore it is suggested that antioxidant defense system did not sufficiently protect the plants under rigorous Zn stress which was also corroborated by the alteration in cell ultrastructure as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. PMID:25320469

Subba, Pratap; Mukhopadhyay, Mainaak; Mahato, Suresh Kumar; Bhutia, Karma Diki; Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Ghosh, Swapan Kumar

2014-10-01

219

Comportamento, sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de lebistes, Poecilia reticulata, submetidos a agentes utilizados na profilaxia de doenças - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1183 Behaviour, survival, and development of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, submitted to agents used in the prophylaxis of diseases - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1183  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento, a sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de larvas saudáveis de Poecilia reticulata submetidas à profilaxia contra bactérias, fungos e parasitas, foi conduzido no Laboratório de Aqüicultura da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, um experimento delineado ao acaso com 6 tratamentos (controle, azul de metileno, cloranfenicol, formalina, KMnO4 e NaCl e 4 repetições. Os banhos profiláticos variaram conforme o tratamento, de 30 minutos a 48 horas. Posteriormente, avaliou-se, por 20 dias, o desenvolvimento dos animais. A análise comportamental realizada durante o banho mostrou que, quando expostos à formalina, os animais perdiam o senso de direção e chocavam-se contra a parede. O desenvolvimento das larvas no tratamento com cloranfenicol apresentou-se melhor (P Aiming to evaluate the behavioural, survival and developmental responses of healthy larvae of Poecilia reticulata subjected to the prophyllatic against bacteria, fungi and parasites, a randomized experiment was carried out at the Aquaculture Laboratory of the State University of Maringá, state of Paraná, using six treatments (control, methylene blue, chloramphenicol, formalin, KMnO4 and NaCl and four repetitions. Length prophylactic treatment varied from 30 minutes to 48 hours. After bath treatment, animals’ growth was evaluated during the following 20 days. Behavioural analysis during bath treatment showed that when the animals were exposed to formalin, they lost their sense of direction and collided against the wall. In the treatment with chloramphenicol, development of the larvae was better (P < 0.05 when treated with formalin. In relation to survival, there were no differences between the treatments. Thus, any methodology may be applied in this study when related to survival. Prophylaxis with chloramphenicol is the preferred treatment to formalin when evaluating growth

Wilson Rogério Boscolo

2005-03-01

220

Sexual characteristics are altered by 4-tert-octylphenol and 17beta-estradiol in the adult male guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are believed to interfere with animal reproduction, but only few biomarkers above the cellular level have been developed to assess the adverse effects of these chemicals. Using the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) as a model organism, studies have been undertaken with the object of comparing biomarker responses to EDCs at increasing levels of biological complexity. Short-term exposure to the xenoestrogen 4-tert-octylphenol and the natural estrogen 17beta-estradiol (E2) changed important sexual characteristics in the adult male guppy. Both compounds increased the number of sperm cells in the ejaculates, reduced the area and color intensity of the sexually attractive orange spots, and inhibited testis growth. In the case of E2, the effects on sperm count and coloration were still evident after 3 months of recovery in clean water. Preliminary results on male reproductive capability demonstrated that treated males produced fewer offspring than untreated fish, indicating an impairment of reproduction itself. Udgivelsesdato: 2001-Jan

Toft, G; Baatrup, E

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Can mixed-species groups reduce individual parasite load? A field test with two closely related poeciliid fishes (Poecilia reticulata and Poecilia picta).  

Science.gov (United States)

Predation and parasitism are two of the most important sources of mortality in nature. By forming groups, individuals can gain protection against predators but may increase their risk of being infected with contagious parasites. Animals might resolve this conflict by forming mixed-species groups thereby reducing the costs associated with parasites through a relative decrease in available hosts. We tested this hypothesis in a system with two closely related poeciliid fishes (Poecilia reticulata and Poecilia picta) and their host-specific monogenean ectoparasites (Gyrodactylus spp.) in Trinidad. Fish from three different rivers were sampled from single and mixed-species groups, measured and scanned for Gyrodactylus. The presence and abundance of Gyrodactylus were lower when fish of both species were part of mixed-species groups relative to single-species groups. This is consistent with the hypothesis that mixed-species groups provide a level of protection against contagious parasites. We discuss the importance of potentially confounding factors such as salinity and individual fish size. PMID:23437237

Dargent, Felipe; Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Scott, Marilyn E; Ramnarine, Indar; Fussmann, Gregor F

2013-01-01

222

Indução do florescimento e crescimento de tangerineira 'Poncã' (Citrus reticulata Blanco em função da irrigação e da aplicação de paclobutrazol Flowering induction and vegetative development of 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco by irrigation and paclobutrazol application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP/Câmpus de Botucatu (SP, com o objetivo de avaliar o florescimento fora de época e o crescimento vegetativo da tangerineira 'Poncã'. Nesse contexto, adotou-se o delineamento estatístico em blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas, com duas repetições, na instalação do ensaio. Os dois tratamentos de -0,03 e -0,05 MPa, como potenciais mínimos da água no solo, constituíram as parcelas e as quatro doses de paclobutrazol: 0; 4; 8 e 12 g por planta, nas subparcelas. No segundo ano de pesquisa, foram mantidas as mesmas parcelas e foram aplicadas nas plantas das subparcelas as doses de 0; 500; 1000 e 2000 mg l-1 de paclobutrazol, via foliar. Cada parcela foi constituída de 16 plantas, sendo oito destinadas à avaliação. Utilizou-se, em ambas as combinações, de um tratamento sem irrigação (-0,07 MPa e sem aplicação de paclobutrazol, como testemunha. Foram avaliados parâmetros, como a altura, diâmetro médio, volume e área de projeção da copa e condutância estomática para caracterizar a resposta das plantas aos tratamentos empregados. Concluiu-se que a aplicação do paclobutrazol e a variação do potencial da água no solo não proporcionaram a indução do florescimento fora de época das tangerineiras, e que os níveis de paclobutrazol influenciaram no desenvolvimento das plantas.The aim of this research was to study the flowering out of season in no induction conditions and the vegetative development of 'Ponkan' mandarin by irrigation and paclobutrazol application. The experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences - UNESP/Botucatu, State of São Paulo. The treatments followed a randomized blocks experimental design, being distributed in split-splots, and two replications. Each experimental unit was represented per 16 plants, being 8 destined for the evaluations. The treatments consisted of two soil water potential, -0,03 e -0,05 MPa that constituted the main experimental unit and the paclobutrazol levels that represented the sub units. In the second year of the experiment the units were maintained and it was applied the paclobutrazol: 0; 500; 1000 e 2000 mg L-1, by foliar application, in the plants of the sub units. Both treatments was compared with the treatments without irrigation (control plants: -0,07MPa and whitout paclobutrazol application plants. It was evaluated the following parameters: height, scion diameter medium, scion projection area, scion volume and stomatic condutance showing the plant's response to treatments. It was concluded that the paclobutrazol application and the irrigation did not influence the plant's flowering out of season and that the paclobutrazol levels influenced the growth of 'Ponkan' mandarin plants.

Carlos Henrique dos Santos

2004-04-01

223

Indução do florescimento e crescimento de tangerineira 'Poncã' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) em função da irrigação e da aplicação de paclobutrazol / Flowering induction and vegetative development of 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) by irrigation and paclobutrazol application  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi conduzido na Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP/Câmpus de Botucatu (SP), com o objetivo de avaliar o florescimento fora de época e o crescimento vegetativo da tangerineira 'Poncã'. Nesse contexto, adotou-se o delineamento estatístico em blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdi [...] vididas, com duas repetições, na instalação do ensaio. Os dois tratamentos de -0,03 e -0,05 MPa, como potenciais mínimos da água no solo, constituíram as parcelas e as quatro doses de paclobutrazol: 0; 4; 8 e 12 g por planta, nas subparcelas. No segundo ano de pesquisa, foram mantidas as mesmas parcelas e foram aplicadas nas plantas das subparcelas as doses de 0; 500; 1000 e 2000 mg l-1 de paclobutrazol, via foliar. Cada parcela foi constituída de 16 plantas, sendo oito destinadas à avaliação. Utilizou-se, em ambas as combinações, de um tratamento sem irrigação (-0,07 MPa) e sem aplicação de paclobutrazol, como testemunha. Foram avaliados parâmetros, como a altura, diâmetro médio, volume e área de projeção da copa e condutância estomática para caracterizar a resposta das plantas aos tratamentos empregados. Concluiu-se que a aplicação do paclobutrazol e a variação do potencial da água no solo não proporcionaram a indução do florescimento fora de época das tangerineiras, e que os níveis de paclobutrazol influenciaram no desenvolvimento das plantas. Abstract in english The aim of this research was to study the flowering out of season in no induction conditions and the vegetative development of 'Ponkan' mandarin by irrigation and paclobutrazol application. The experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences - UNESP/Botucatu, State of São Paulo. T [...] he treatments followed a randomized blocks experimental design, being distributed in split-splots, and two replications. Each experimental unit was represented per 16 plants, being 8 destined for the evaluations. The treatments consisted of two soil water potential, -0,03 e -0,05 MPa that constituted the main experimental unit and the paclobutrazol levels that represented the sub units. In the second year of the experiment the units were maintained and it was applied the paclobutrazol: 0; 500; 1000 e 2000 mg L-1, by foliar application, in the plants of the sub units. Both treatments was compared with the treatments without irrigation (control plants: -0,07MPa) and whitout paclobutrazol application plants. It was evaluated the following parameters: height, scion diameter medium, scion projection area, scion volume and stomatic condutance showing the plant's response to treatments. It was concluded that the paclobutrazol application and the irrigation did not influence the plant's flowering out of season and that the paclobutrazol levels influenced the growth of 'Ponkan' mandarin plants.

Carlos Henrique dos, Santos; Antonio Evaldo, Klar; Hélio, Grassi Filho; João Domingos, Rodrigues; Fernanda Cristina, Pierre.

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Detection of Epigenetic Variations in the Protoplast-Derived Germlings of Ulva reticulata Using Methylation Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism (MSAP)  

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Regeneration of protoplasts into de novo plants was reported for a large number of seaweed species. The regeneration of protoplasts into different morphotypes as a result of epigenetic variations was discussed for the first time in this study. The loci assessed for methylation modifications in normal filamentous thalli showed a frequency of 32.43% as unmethylated DNA, 24.32% as a hemimethylated, and 20.27% as a methylation of internal cytosine at both the strands. The corresponding methylatio...

Gupta, Vishal; Bijo, A. J.; Kumar, Manoj; Reddy, C. R. K.; Jha, Bhavanath

2012-01-01

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Histamine H3 receptor activation selectively inhibits dopamine D1 receptor-dependent [3H]GABA release from depolarization-stimulated slices of rat substantia nigra pars reticulata  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The release of [3H]GABA from slices of rat substantia nigra pars reticulata induced by increasing extracellular K+ from 6 to 15 mM in the presence of 10 ?M sulpiride was inhibited by 73±3% by 1 ?M SCH 23390, consistent with a large component of release dependent upon D1 receptor activation. The histamine H3 receptor-selective agonist immepip (1 ?M) and the non-selective agonist histamine (100 ?M) inhibited [3H]GABA release by 78±2 and 80±2%, respectively. The inhibition by both agonists was reversed by the H3 receptor antagonist thioperamide (1 ?M). However, in the presence of 1 ?M SCH 23390 depolarization-induced release of [3H]GABA was not significantly decreased by 1 ?M immepip. In rats depleted of dopamine by pretreatment with reserpine, immepip no longer inhibited control release of [3H]GABA, but in the presence of 1 ?M SKF 38393, which produced a 7±1-fold stimulation of release, immepip reduced the release to a level not statistically different from that in the presence of immepip alone. Immepip (1 ?M) also inhibited the depolarization-induced release of [3H]dopamine from substantia nigra pars reticulata slices, by 38±3%.The evidence is consistent with the proposition that activation of histamine H3 receptors leads to the selective inhibition of the component of depolarization-induced [3H]GABA release in substantia nigra pars retin substantia nigra pars reticulata slices which is dependent upon D1 receptor activation. This appears to be largely an action at the terminals of the striatonigral GABA projection neurons, which may be enhanced by a partial inhibition of dendritic [3H]dopamine release. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

226

Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine?disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi?static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long?term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17??estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine?disrupting action. -- Highlights: ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17??estradiol levels of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male guppies.

227

Balancing selection, random genetic drift, and genetic variation at the major histocompatibility complex in two wild populations of guppies (Poecilia reticulata).  

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Our understanding of the evolution of genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is rapidly increasing, but there are still enigmatic questions remaining, particularly regarding the maintenance of high levels of MHC polymorphisms in small, isolated populations. Here, we analyze the genetic variation at eight microsatellite loci and sequence variation at exon 2 of the MHC class IIB (DAB) genes in two wild populations of the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata. We compare the genetic variation of a small (Ne, 100) and relatively isolated upland population to that of its much larger (Ne approximately 2400) downstream counterpart. As predicted, microsatellite diversity in the upland population is significantly lower and highly differentiated from the population further downstream. Surprisingly, however, these guppy populations are not differentiated by MHC genetic variation and show very similar levels of allelic richness. Computer simulations indicate that the observed level of genetic variation can be maintained with overdominant selection acting at three DAB loci. The selection coefficients differ dramatically between the upland (s > or = 0.2) and lowland (s < or = 0.01) populations. Parasitological analysis on wild-caught fish shows that parasite load is significantly higher on upland than on lowland fish, which suggests that large differences in selection intensity may indeed exist between populations. Based on the infection intensity, a substantial proportion of the upland fish would have suffered direct or indirect fitness consequences as a result of their high parasite loads. Selection by parasites plays a particularly important role in the evolution of guppies in the upland habitat, which has resulted in high levels of MHC diversity being maintained in this population despite considerable genetic drift. PMID:17263117

Van Oosterhout, Cock; Joyce, Domino A; Cummings, Stephen M; Blais, Jonatan; Barson, Nicola J; Ramnarine, Indar W; Mohammed, Ryan S; Persad, Nadia; Cable, Joanne

2006-12-01

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Ultra-deep Illumina sequencing accurately identifies MHC class IIb alleles and provides evidence for copy number variation in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

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We address the bioinformatic issue of accurately separating amplified genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) from artefacts generated during high-throughput sequencing workflows. We fit observed ultra-deep sequencing depths (hundreds to thousands of sequences per amplicon) of allelic variants to expectations from genetic models of copy number variation (CNV). We provide a simple, accurate and repeatable method for genotyping multigene families, evaluating our method via analyses of 209 b of MHC class IIb exon 2 in guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Genotype repeatability for resequenced individuals (N = 49) was high (100%) within the same sequencing run. However, repeatability dropped to 83.7% between independent runs, either because of lower mean amplicon sequencing depth in the initial run or random PCR effects. This highlights the importance of fully independent replicates. Significant improvements in genotyping accuracy were made by greatly reducing type I genotyping error (i.e. accepting an artefact as a true allele), which may occur when using low-depth allele validation thresholds used by previous methods. Only a small amount (4.9%) of type II error (i.e. rejecting a genuine allele as an artefact) was detected through fully independent sequencing runs. We observed 1-6 alleles per individual, and evidence of sharing of alleles across loci. Variation in the total number of MHC class II loci among individuals, both among and within populations was also observed, and some genotypes appeared to be partially hemizygous; total allelic dosage added up to an odd number of allelic copies. Collectively, observations provide evidence of MHC CNV and its complex basis in natural populations. PMID:24400817

Lighten, Jackie; van Oosterhout, Cock; Paterson, Ian G; McMullan, Mark; Bentzen, Paul

2014-07-01

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Control de larvas de Aedes aegypti (L) con Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1895: una experiencia comunitaria en el municipio Taguasco, Sancti Spíritus, Cuba / Control of Aedes aegypti larvae (L) with Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1895: a community experience in Taguasco municipality, Sancti Spíritus, Cuba  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se determinó la eficacia del control de larvas de Aedes aegypti (L) con Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1895, en depósitos para almacenar agua destinada al consumo doméstico, en el municipio Taguasco, al centro de la Provincia de Sancti Spíritus, Cuba. Con anterioridad a las epidemias de Santiago de Cuba [...] y Provincia Habana, este municipio no había sido positivo a Aedes aegypti (L). Ante el temor a una epidemia de dengue, las crecientes infestaciones del vector comenzaron a preocupar a la población. Antes de iniciar las siembras de peces, se realizó un levantamiento, durante el cual se encuestaron 1 298 viviendas y locales con extensos patios y un deficiente suministro de agua; eso hace que sus habitantes utilicen todo tipo de depósitos, entre estos 458 tanques bajos donde se observaron 40 focos de mosquitos. Los peces se distribuyeron a razón de no menos de 3 por recipiente, controlándose los focos en 2 meses, excepto en un tanque donde los huevos llegaron a eclosionar. Los resultados además, facilitan la labor del personal sanitario al prescindir de una constante revisión de los depósitos. Por lo que se propone extender la experiencia de Taguasco a otras provincias del país con situación similar. Abstract in english The efficacy of the control of Aedes aegypti (L) with Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1895, was determined in containers used for domestic consumption water in Taguasco municipality in the center of Sancti Spiritus province, Cuba. Before the epidemic of Santiago de Cuba and Havana Province, this municipa [...] lity had not been positive to Aedes aegypti (L). The increasing infections caused by the vector started to worry the population that feared an outbreak of dengue epidemic. Previous to the fish growth, a survey was done in 1 298 houses and places with large backyards and a deficient water supply that made its dwellers use all kinds of containers. Among them 458 low tanks where 40 mosquito foci were detected. Fishes were distributed at a rate of no less than 3 per container. The foci were controlled in 2 months, excepting a tank where eclosion occurred. The results also make easy the work of the health personnel on avoiding the constant checking of the containers. That’s why, it is recommended to extend the experience of Taguasco to other provinces of the country under similar situations.

Eugenia, Hernández Hernández; María, Marques Pina.

2006-08-01

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Moscas frugívoras (Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae): ocorrência em pomares comerciais de tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco) do município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba / Frugivorous flies (Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae): occurrence in commercials tangerine orchards (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in Matinhas, state of Paraíba, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba com aproximadamente 1,3 milhões de plantas de tangerina, é responsável por 90% da produção do Estado. A pesquisa foi conduzida em cinco regiões geográficas do município de Matinhas, onde foram coletados 20 frutos na copa e 20 sob a copa da planta, objetivan [...] do pesquisar a ocorrência de moscas frugívoras e seus níveis de infestação em tangerina. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a tangerina é infestada por Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann,1824), Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal) e Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann,1830). O índice médio de infestação de C. capitata nas cinco regiões não ultrapassou 0,5 pupa fruto-1. A percentagem de emergência (P.E.) de C. capitata em frutos coletados na planta e solo variou entre 14,0 a 54,0% de adultos fruto-1. Os índices de infestação de N. zadolicha, em frutos coletados na planta e solo, variaram entre 0,4 a 4,3 pupários fruto-1. Os dados da percentagem de emergência (P.E.) de N . zadolicha variaram entre 49,9 a 65,9% de adultos fruto-1, sendo considerada a espécie mais abundante, dominante e com uma alta taxa de sobrevivência. N. zadolicha foi considerada praga primária da tangerina nas condições de Matinhas. Este é, também, o primeiro relato das espécies N. zadolicha e N. glaberrima infestando tangerina na Paraíba. Abstract in english The municipality of Matinhas, with approximately 1.3 million tangerine trees, is responsible for 90% of the tangerine production in the state of Paraíba. This research was carried out in five geographic regions of Matinhas, where 20 fruits on plant and 20 fruits in soil were collected, with the aim [...] of searching for the frugivorous flies and their levels of infestation in tangerine. The results showed that tangerine is infested by frugivorous flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann, 1824), Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal) and Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann, 1830). The mean infestation index of C. capitata in five regions did not exceed 0.5 pupae fruit-1. The emergence percentage (EP) of C . capitata adults in fruits collected on plant and in soil varied between 14.0% and 54.0% of adults fruit-1. The infestation index for N . zadolicha had variations between 0.4 and 4.3 pupae fruit-1. The data on the emergence percentage (EP) of N . zadolicha varied between 49.9% and 65.9% of adults fruit-1, which made it the most abundant and dominant species, with a high survival rate. N. zadolicha was considered the pest with the highest economic impact to tangerines in Matinhas. The present work is also the first report of the N. zadolicha and N. glaberiima species causing infestation in tangerine fruits in the state of Paraíba.

Edson Batista, Lopes; Jacinto de Luna, Batista; Ivanildo Cavalcanti de, Albuquerque; Carlos Henrique de, Brito.

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Moscas frugívoras (Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae: ocorrência em pomares comerciais de tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco do município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba = Frugivorous flies (Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae: occurrence in commercials tangerine orchards (Citrus reticulata Blanco in Matinhas, state of Paraíba, Brazil  

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Full Text Available O município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba com aproximadamente 1,3 milhões de plantas de tangerina, é responsável por 90% da produção do Estado. A pesquisa foi conduzida em cinco regiões geográficas do município de Matinhas, onde foram coletados 20 frutos na copa e 20 sob a copa da planta, objetivando pesquisar a ocorrência de moscasfrugívoras e seus níveis de infestação em tangerina. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a tangerina é infestada por Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann,1824, Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal e Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann,1830. O índice médio de infestação de C. capitata nas cinco regiões não ultrapassou 0,5 pupa fruto-1. A percentagem de emergência (P.E. de C. capitata em frutos coletados na planta e solo variou entre 14,0 a 54,0% de adultos fruto-1. Osíndices de infestação de N. zadolicha, em frutos coletados na planta e solo, variaram entre 0,4 a 4,3 pupários fruto-1. Os dados da percentagem de emergência (P.E. de N. zadolicha variaram entre 49,9 a 65,9% de adultos fruto-1, sendo considerada a espécie mais abundante, dominante e com uma alta taxa de sobrevivência. N. zadolicha foi considerada praga primária da tangerina nas condições de Matinhas. Este é, também, o primeiro relato das espécies N. zadolicha e N. glaberrima infestando tangerina na Paraíba.The municipality of Matinhas, with approximately 1.3 million tangerinetrees, is responsible for 90% of the tangerine production in the state of Paraíba. This research was carried out in five geographic regions of Matinhas, where 20 fruits on plant and 20 fruits in soil were collected, with the aim of searching for the frugivorous flies and their levels of infestation in tangerine. The results showed that tangerine is infested by frugivorous flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann, 1824, Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal and Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann, 1830. The mean infestation index of C. capitata in five regions did not exceed 0.5 pupae fruit-1. The emergence percentage (EP of C. capitata adults in fruits collected on plant and in soil varied between 14.0% and 54.0% of adults fruit-1. The infestation index for N. zadolicha had variations between 0.4 and 4.3 pupae fruit-1. The data on the emergence percentage (EP of N. zadolicha varied between 49.9% and 65.9% of adults fruit-1, which made it the most abundant and dominant species, with a high survival rate. N. zadolicha was considered the pest with the highest economic impact to tangerines in Matinhas. The present work is also the first report of the N. zadolicha and N. glaberiimaspecies causing infestation in tangerine fruits in the state of Paraíba.

Edson Batista Lopes

2008-12-01

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CARACTERÍSTICAS DO FRUTO DA VARIEDADE SPAN AMERICANA (Citrus reticulata Blanco): UMA TANGERINA DO TIPO 'PONCÃ' DE MATURAÇÃO PRECOCE / FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SPAN AMERICANA (Citrus reticulata Blanco): AN EARLY RIPENING 'PONKAN' LIKE MANDARIN  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A tangerina-'Poncã' é bastante apreciada pelo consumidor brasileiro. No Estado de São Paulo, a maturação de seus frutos ocorre nos meses de abril a agosto. Com o mercado ávido por frutas de mesa e agravado pelo problema da ocorrência da clorose variegada dos citros (CVC), que afeta principalmente as [...] variedades de laranjas-doces, tem havido um aumento considerável no plantio dessa variedade. Dessa forma, um excesso de produção, num mesmo período, faz com que os preços caiam, desestimulando assim os produtores. O Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira (CCSM) vem buscando outras alternativas no sentido de obter, durante o ano todo, esse tipo de tangerina. Assim sendo, foram realizados estudos de caracterização de frutos, em diversas épocas do ano, com o acompanhamento dos níveis de maturação, envolvendo acessos do Banco de Germoplasma do CCSM. Dentre as variedades estudadas, quanto à precocidade e qualidade dos frutos, destacou-se a Span Americana. A tangerina-'Poncã' tem seu período de maturação para as condições edafoclimáticas do CCSM, nos meses de maio e junho. Já a variedade Span Americana, que apresenta frutos similares à 'Poncã' tradicional, tem maturação bastante precoce, podendo ser iniciada a sua colheita no mês de março. Abstract in english The 'Ponkan' mandarin is highly appreciated by the Brazilian consumer. In the State of São Paulo, Brazil, its fruits mature from April through August. With the market very much in demand for table fruits and due to the problem of occurrence of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) that affects mainly th [...] e sweet orange varieties there has been a considerable increase in planting of this variety. By this way, an over of production in a same period makes the prices drop, desistimulating the growers. The Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira (CCSM) is searching other alternatives in order to obtain mandarin fruits all the year. Therefore, fruit characteristics studies in different seasons of the year with accompanying of the ripening levels, involving accesses of the germplasm bank of the CCSM, were carried out. Among the studied varieties in regard to earliness and fruit quality, the Span Americana was outstanding. The 'Ponkan' mandarin has its maturing period for the edafoclimatic conditions of the CCSM, in May and June. The Span Americana variety, that produces fruits similar to the traditional Ponkan, matures very early, and might be harvested in the beginning of March, which could be an alternative to enlarge the disponibility of mandarin fruit during the year.

ROSE MARY, PIO; KEIGO, MINAMI; JOSÉ ORLANDO DE, FIGUEIREDO.

233

Histamine H{sub 3} receptor activation selectively inhibits dopamine D{sub 1} receptor-dependent [{sup 3}H]GABA release from depolarization-stimulated slices of rat substantia nigra pars reticulata  

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The release of [{sup 3}H]GABA from slices of rat substantia nigra pars reticulata induced by increasing extracellular K{sup +} from 6 to 15 mM in the presence of 10 {mu}M sulpiride was inhibited by 73{+-}3% by 1 {mu}M SCH 23390, consistent with a large component of release dependent upon D{sub 1} receptor activation. The histamine H{sub 3} receptor-selective agonist immepip (1 {mu}M) and the non-selective agonist histamine (100 {mu}M) inhibited [{sup 3}H]GABA release by 78{+-}2 and 80{+-}2%, respectively. The inhibition by both agonists was reversed by the H{sub 3} receptor antagonist thioperamide (1 {mu}M). However, in the presence of 1 {mu}M SCH 23390 depolarization-induced release of [{sup 3}H]GABA was not significantly decreased by 1 {mu}M immepip. In rats depleted of dopamine by pretreatment with reserpine, immepip no longer inhibited control release of [{sup 3}H]GABA, but in the presence of 1 {mu}M SKF 38393, which produced a 7{+-}1-fold stimulation of release, immepip reduced the release to a level not statistically different from that in the presence of immepip alone. Immepip (1 {mu}M) also inhibited the depolarization-induced release of [{sup 3}H]dopamine from substantia nigra pars reticulata slices, by 38{+-}3%.The evidence is consistent with the proposition that activation of histamine H{sub 3} receptors leads to the selective inhibition of the component of depolarization-induced [{sup 3}H]GABA release in substantia nigra pars reticulata slices which is dependent upon D{sub 1} receptor activation. This appears to be largely an action at the terminals of the striatonigral GABA projection neurons, which may be enhanced by a partial inhibition of dendritic [{sup 3}H]dopamine release. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

Aceves, J. [Departmento de Fisiologia, Biofisica y Neurociencias, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico (Mexico); Young, J.M. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Arias-Montano, J.A.; Floran, B.; Garcia, M. [Departmento de Fisiologia, Biofisica y Neurociencias, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico (Mexico)

1997-06-25

234

Alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de Aedes aegypti submetidas ao diterpeno labdano, isolado de Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae), e à uma fração rica em taninos de Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae) / Ultrastructural alterations in larvae of Aedes aegypti subject to labdane diterpene isolated from Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae) and a fraction enriched with tannins of Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública, em vários países, e tem como principal vetor o Aedes aegypti, mosquito mais adaptado às áreas urbanizadas. Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, as alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de 3º estádio, desse mosquito, causadas pelos larvicidas [...] naturais, um diterpeno labdano, extraído de Copaifera reticulata, e uma fração rica em taninos catéquicos, extraída de Magonia pubescens, evidenciando o mecanismo de ação dessas substâncias. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados com larvas de 3º estádio em solução de 0,9ppm, do diterpeno (3-?-acetoxylabdan-8(17)-13-dien-15-óico) e de 3,7ppm, da fração majoritária de tanino catéquico de massa molecular 864Da. Obtiveram-se as substâncias através de fracionamentos cromatográficos sucessivos, identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. As larvas que atingiram estado letárgico foram coletadas e dissecadas e seus tubos digestórios fixados, desidratados, emblocados e polimerizados. Cortes ultrafinos foram feitos e contrastados com acetato de uranila 3% e citrato de chumbo, posteriormente, levados ao microscópio eletrônico. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações ultraestruturais provocadas pelos diterpeno e tanino sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti foram vacuolização citoplasmática, desorganização e degeneração celular, mudança estrutural dos microvilos e deslocamento das células da lâmina basal. CONCLUSÕES: O diterpeno e a fração rica em taninos catéquicos provocaram a morte das larvas de Aedes aegypti através da destruição celular no intestino médio. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Dengue is an important public health problem in many countries and its main vector Aedes aegypti, is the mosquito most adapted to urban areas. For the first time, the mechanism of action of labdane diterpenoid extracted from Copaifera reticulata and the fraction enriched of catechin ta [...] nnins extracted from Magonia pubescens is demonstrated through ultrastructural alterations of Aedes aegypti larvae. METHODS: Experiments were performed using a 0.9ppm solution of diterpenoid and 3.7ppm of the fraction as the main catechin tannin of molecular mass 846Da. The compounds were obtained by thin layer chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen and mass spectrometry. Larvae that achieved lethargic state were collected and dissected. Next, they were contrasted with 1% uranyl acetate, dehydrated, embedded and polymerized. Ultrathin sections were made, mixed with 3% uranyl acetate and lead citrate and placed in an electron microscope. RESULTS: The main ultrastructural alterations caused by the diterpenoid and by tanins in larvae of Aedes aegypti were: cytoplasmic vacuolation, alteration of microvilli, cellular aging, cell disruption and degeneration, formation of secretion vesicles and structural changes in microvilli, irregular nuclei and displacement of cells in the basal lamina. CONCLUSIONS: The fraction containing tannins and the diterpenoid caused the death of Aedes aegypti larvae by cell destruction in the midgut.

Cleyde Ferreira Barreto, Valotto; Heloisa Helena Garcia da, Silva; Gláucia, Cavasin; Regina, Geris; Edson, Rodrigues Filho; Ionizete Garcia da, Silva.

235

Alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de Aedes aegypti submetidas ao diterpeno labdano, isolado de Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae), e à uma fração rica em taninos de Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae) / Ultrastructural alterations in larvae of Aedes aegypti subject to labdane diterpene isolated from Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae) and a fraction enriched with tannins of Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública, em vários países, e tem como principal vetor o Aedes aegypti, mosquito mais adaptado às áreas urbanizadas. Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, as alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de 3º estádio, desse mosquito, causadas pelos larvicidas [...] naturais, um diterpeno labdano, extraído de Copaifera reticulata, e uma fração rica em taninos catéquicos, extraída de Magonia pubescens, evidenciando o mecanismo de ação dessas substâncias. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados com larvas de 3º estádio em solução de 0,9ppm, do diterpeno (3-?-acetoxylabdan-8(17)-13-dien-15-óico) e de 3,7ppm, da fração majoritária de tanino catéquico de massa molecular 864Da. Obtiveram-se as substâncias através de fracionamentos cromatográficos sucessivos, identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. As larvas que atingiram estado letárgico foram coletadas e dissecadas e seus tubos digestórios fixados, desidratados, emblocados e polimerizados. Cortes ultrafinos foram feitos e contrastados com acetato de uranila 3% e citrato de chumbo, posteriormente, levados ao microscópio eletrônico. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações ultraestruturais provocadas pelos diterpeno e tanino sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti foram vacuolização citoplasmática, desorganização e degeneração celular, mudança estrutural dos microvilos e deslocamento das células da lâmina basal. CONCLUSÕES: O diterpeno e a fração rica em taninos catéquicos provocaram a morte das larvas de Aedes aegypti através da destruição celular no intestino médio. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Dengue is an important public health problem in many countries and its main vector Aedes aegypti, is the mosquito most adapted to urban areas. For the first time, the mechanism of action of labdane diterpenoid extracted from Copaifera reticulata and the fraction enriched of catechin ta [...] nnins extracted from Magonia pubescens is demonstrated through ultrastructural alterations of Aedes aegypti larvae. METHODS: Experiments were performed using a 0.9ppm solution of diterpenoid and 3.7ppm of the fraction as the main catechin tannin of molecular mass 846Da. The compounds were obtained by thin layer chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen and mass spectrometry. Larvae that achieved lethargic state were collected and dissected. Next, they were contrasted with 1% uranyl acetate, dehydrated, embedded and polymerized. Ultrathin sections were made, mixed with 3% uranyl acetate and lead citrate and placed in an electron microscope. RESULTS: The main ultrastructural alterations caused by the diterpenoid and by tanins in larvae of Aedes aegypti were: cytoplasmic vacuolation, alteration of microvilli, cellular aging, cell disruption and degeneration, formation of secretion vesicles and structural changes in microvilli, irregular nuclei and displacement of cells in the basal lamina. CONCLUSIONS: The fraction containing tannins and the diterpenoid caused the death of Aedes aegypti larvae by cell destruction in the midgut.

Cleyde Ferreira Barreto, Valotto; Heloisa Helena Garcia da, Silva; Gláucia, Cavasin; Regina, Geris; Edson, Rodrigues Filho; Ionizete Garcia da, Silva.

2011-04-01

236

Plants 1: Plant Parents  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first of two lessons about reproduction in plants. This lesson covers how most plants normally reproduce - sexually. The second Science NetLinks lesson in this series, Plant Propagation, teaches how plants can be forced to reproduce asexually. In this lesson, students will learn the parts of the flower and the process of sexual reproduction in plants.

Science Netlinks;

2001-10-20

237

Determination of the contents and distribution characteristics of REE in natural plants by NAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of 8 REEs (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in 17 species of plants and their host soil, which were collected from a rare earth ore area located in the south of China, have been determined by INAA. The chondritic normalized REE patterns for different parts of plants (e.g., leaf, stem and root) and their host soils were studied. The results showed that the concentration levels of REE for most plants in the sampling area were elevated. Particularly, the leaves of the fern (Dicranopteris dichotoma) contain extremely high concentration of the total REE (675-3358 ?g/g). Generally, these REE distribution patterns in every part of plants were very similar and reflected the characteristics of their host soils. However, the chondritic normalized REE patterns in some plants relative to the host soil revealed obvious fractionation, such as the depletion of the heavy REE (for fern, Citrus reticulata and Brassia campestris), the heavy REE enrichment (for Camellia sinensis, Camellia oleifera and Ziziphus) and the Ce positive anomaly (for Gardenia jasminoides). (author)

238

Growth and yield of Kinnow (Citrus reticulata Blanco and soil physical properties as affected by orchard floor management practices in Punjab, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Improvement of soil physical properties through orchard floor management is a desired option because it results in improved yields, better nutrients and water use efficiency and reduced runoff. Studies were carried out to determine effect of weed management practices on growth, fruit production and changes in soil physico-chemical parameters in a citrus orchard. Studies comprised of two orchard floor management practices i.e. cultivation and mowing. In cultivation, weeds emerging in the orchard were controlled by cultivation/ploughing to keep their growth at minimal, while in mowing, weeds were cut at about 5 cm height to keep their growth under check and the cut weeds to act as mulch. After 8 years of continuous practice, determinations were made to compare effectiveness of the management practices in terms of plant growth and yield, changes in soil physico-chemical and water retention characteristics. The data indicated that all the growth parameters responded significantly to management practices. Similarly, soil physico-chemical parameters were also affected. Shoot growth, canopy diameter, Trunk Cross-sectional Area (TCSA and fruit yield were increased. Soil bulk density was decreased and consequently soil porosity was increased. Mowing promoted accumulation of soil organic matter and soil aggregation. The increased water retention in soil profile and enhanced saturated hydraulic conductivity were attributed to conditions conducive to organic matter accumulation in the soil profile. The results indicated superiority of mowing practice over conventional cultivation towards plant growth, yield and improvement in soil physical properties.

Hafeez-ur-Rahman

2012-11-01

239

RT-qPCR reveals opsin gene upregulation associated with age and sex in guppies (Poecilia reticulata - a species with color-based sexual selection and 11 visual-opsin genes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background PCR-based surveys have shown that guppies (Poecilia reticulata have an unusually large visual-opsin gene repertoire. This has led to speculation that opsin duplication and divergence has enhanced the evolution of elaborate male coloration because it improves spectral sensitivity and/or discrimination in females. However, this conjecture on evolutionary connections between opsin repertoire, vision, mate choice, and male coloration was generated with little data on gene expression. Here, we used RT-qPCR to survey visual-opsin gene expression in the eyes of males, females, and juveniles in order to further understand color-based sexual selection from the perspective of the visual system. Results Juvenile and adult (male and female guppies express 10 visual opsins at varying levels in the eye. Two opsin genes in juveniles, SWS2B and RH2-2, accounted for >85% of all visual-opsin transcripts in the eye, excluding RH1. This relative abundance (RA value dropped to about 65% in adults, as LWS-A180 expression increased from approximately 3% to 20% RA. The juvenile-to-female transition also showed LWS-S180 upregulation from about 1.5% to 7% RA. Finally, we found that expression in guppies' SWS2-LWS gene cluster is negatively correlated with distance from a candidate locus control region (LCR. Conclusions Selective pressures influencing visual-opsin gene expression appear to differ among age and sex. LWS upregulation in females is implicated in augmenting spectral discrimination of male coloration and courtship displays. In males, enhanced discrimination of carotenoid-rich food and possibly rival males are strong candidate selective pressures driving LWS upregulation. These developmental changes in expression suggest that adults possess better wavelength discrimination than juveniles. Opsin expression within the SWS2-LWS gene cluster appears to be regulated, in part, by a common LCR. Finally, by comparing our RT-qPCR data to MSP data, we were able to propose the first opsin-to-?max assignments for all photoreceptor types in the cone mosaic.

Taylor John S

2011-03-01

240

Ivy plant  

Science.gov (United States)

New plants can be grown from cuttings of mature, full-grown plants. New ivy plants can be grown from cuttings from mature ivy plants. The cuttings will develop their own root systems. They will continue budding and growing from the top of the plant. The area where leaves or flowers grow from the stem is called a node.

N/A N/A (None;)

2006-04-26

 
 
 
 
241

Evaluation of antioxidant effect of Salacia oblonga against aluminum chloride induced visceral toxicity in albino rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Result: The results showed that S. oblonga produced significant (pS. oblonga protects against aluminuminduced oxidative stress, which is an important finding that further reinforces the antioxidant properties of this natural product. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 315-319

S. Nathiya

2014-04-01

242

Antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus reticulata) peel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mandarin peel, a waste product coming from juice production, was extracted by conventional extraction with 70% acetone. Content of flavonoids in mandarin peel extract (MPE) was determined by HPLC. Hesperidin was the most dominant flavonoid. Free radical scavenging activity of MPE on stable DPPH radicals and reactive hydroxyl radicals was also evaluated. EC50 value determined in spectrophotometrical DPPH radical assay was 0.179 mg/ml, while this value in ESR spin trapping hydroxyl radica...

Tumbas Vesna T.; ?etkovi? Gordana S.; ?ilas Sonja M.; ?anadanovi?-Brunet Jasna M.; Vuli? Jelena J.; Knez Željko; Škerget Mojca

2010-01-01

243

Antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus reticulata peel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mandarin peel, a waste product coming from juice production, was extracted by conventional extraction with 70% acetone. Content of flavonoids in mandarin peel extract (MPE was determined by HPLC. Hesperidin was the most dominant flavonoid. Free radical scavenging activity of MPE on stable DPPH radicals and reactive hydroxyl radicals was also evaluated. EC50 value determined in spectrophotometrical DPPH radical assay was 0.179 mg/ml, while this value in ESR spin trapping hydroxyl radical assay was 0.415 mg/ml. Also, MPE showed protective effects in stabilising sunflower oil during accelerated storage. The results indicated that mandarin peel can be a valuable source of natural antioxidants.

Tumbas Vesna T.

2010-01-01

244

Aquatic plants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water.

Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

2006-01-01

245

Plant toxicology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book comprises a general part on plant biology, the pathway of pollutant accumulation in plants, and the function of plants as pollutant indicators, as well as a specialized section in which pollutants and their effects are classified by origin and type of compound. Finally, indirect damage caused by parasites or radiation effects is gone into. Higher plants and fungi get most of the attention but lichens, mosses and algae are discussed as well. (orig./MG)

246

Autoluminescent plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prospects of obtaining plants glowing in the dark have captivated the imagination of scientists and layman alike. While light emission has been developed into a useful marker of gene expression, bioluminescence in plants remained dependent on externally supplied substrate. Evolutionary conservation of the prokaryotic gene expression machinery enabled expression of the six genes of the lux operon in chloroplasts yielding plants that are capable of autonomous light emission. This work demonstrates that complex metabolic pathways of prokaryotes can be reconstructed and function in plant chloroplasts and that transplastomic plants can emit light that is visible by naked eye. PMID:21103397

Krichevsky, Alexander; Meyers, Benjamin; Vainstein, Alexander; Maliga, Pal; Citovsky, Vitaly

2010-01-01

247

Plant volatiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant volatiles are the metabolites that plants release into the air. The quantities released are not trivial. Almost one-fifth of the atmospheric CO2 fixed by land plants is released back into the air each day as volatiles. Plants are champion synthetic chemists; they take advantage of their anabolic prowess to produce volatiles, which they use to protect themselves against biotic and abiotic stresses and to provide information - and potentially disinformation - to mutualists and competitors alike. As transferors of information, volatiles have provided plants with solutions to the challenges associated with being rooted in the ground and immobile. PMID:20462477

Baldwin, Ian T

2010-05-11

248

Carnivorous Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The animal kingdom may have its egg-laying platypus, but the plant kingdom is not without its own odd twists on taxonomy. If movies like Little Shop of Horrors are any indication, carnivorous plants like the Venus flytrap, sundew, and pitcher plant never fail to spark the imagination. The following set of Web sites presents a brief introduction to carnivorous plants and includes loads of great photos. The first site (1) contains the Galleria Carnivora, a terrific collection of carnivorous plant photographs, compiled by carnivorous plant enthusiast Barry Rice. Rice has created a virtual art museum for these photos, which, together with his tongue-in-cheek commentary, provides a fun way to get acquainted with this diverse group of plants. The second Web site contains another extensive image gallery (presented by Matthias and Oliver Schmidt), this time showing carnivorous plants in their natural habitats (2). The Venus flytrap is the first carnivorous plant many of us encounter. With this next Web site from HowStuffWorks, readers can find out exactly how the flytrap attracts, traps, and digests its insect prey (3). The following site from Indiana University's Roger P. Hangarter offers a cool QuickTime movie of a Venus flytrap in action -- part of the Plants-In-Motion video collection (4). In this appealing and informative Web site (5), Marlis and Dennis Merbach present the Nepenthes (a genus of tropical pitcher plants) of Borneo, the center of Nepenthes diversity. Visitors to the next site will be treated to a beautiful photomicrograph of a sundew plant, entered by Earl Nishiguchi in Nikon's Small World Gallery photo contest (6). Boston's Museum of Science offers an interesting magnified image of a bladderwort, a tiny carnivorous plant found in freshwater (7). And, another Web site from Barry Rice (mentioned above) provides an entertaining look at carnivorous plants on TV and the silver screen, from Attack of the Killer Tomatoes to Minority Report and more (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

249

Endophytic population of Pantoea agglomerans in citrus plants and development of a cloning vector for endophytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Harmless bacteria inhabiting inner plant tissues are termed endophytes. Population fluctuations in the endophytic bacterium Pantoea agglomerans associated with two species of field cultured citrus plants were monitored over a two-year period. The results demonstrated that populations of P. agglomerans fluctuated in Citrus reticulata but not C. sinensis. A cryptic plasmid pPA3.0 (2.9 kb) was identified in 35 out of 44 endophytic isolates of P. agglomerans and was subsequently sequenced. The origins of replication were identified and nine out of 18 open reading frames (ORFs) revealed homology with described proteins. Notably, two ORFs were related to cellular transport systems and plasmid maintenance. Plasmid pPA3.0 was cloned and the gfp gene inserted to generate the pPAGFP vector. The vector was introduced into P. agglomerans isolates and revealed stability was dependent on the isolate genotype, ninety-percent stability values were reached after 60 hours of bacterial cultivation in most evaluated isolates. In order to definitively establish P. agglomerans as an endophyte, the non-transformed bacterium was reintroduced into in vitro cultivated seedlings and the density of inner tissue colonization in inoculated plants was estimated by bacterium re-isolation, while the tissue niches preferred by the bacterium were investigated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Cells from P. agglomerans (strain ARB18) at similar densities were re-isolated from roots, stems and leaves and colonization of parenchyma and xylem tissues were observed. Data suggested that P. agglomerans is a ubiquitous citrus endophyte harboring cryptic plasmids. These characteristics suggest the potential to use the bacterium as a vehicle to introduce new genes in host plants via endophytic bacterial transformation. PMID:18759238

Andreote, Fernando D; Rossetto, Priscilla B; Souza, Leonardo C A; Marcon, Joelma; Maccheroni, Walter; Azevedo, João L; Araújo, Welington L

2008-10-01

250

Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host plant associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native plant species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host plant species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications. PMID:14503581

Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

2003-08-01

251

Screening of promising chemotherapeutic candidates from plants against human adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (III).  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a malignancy of mature peripheral T lymphocytes caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I). In our previous paper, 214 extracts from 162 plants were screened to elucidate the anti-proliferative principles against HTLV-I-infected T-cell lines. In this study, 245 extracts from 182 plants belonging to 61 families were further tested against two HTLV-I-infected T-cell lines (MT-1 and MT-2). Potent anti-proliferative effects were exhibited against MT-1 and MT-2 cells by 52 and 60 of the 245 extracts tested, respectively. Of these, two extracts showed strong inhibitory activity (EC?? values 0.1-1 ?g/mL; +++) against both cells, 7 extracts showed moderate inhibitory activity (EC5?? values 1-10 ?g/mL; ++), and 43 extracts showed weak inhibitory activity (EC?? values 10-100 ?g/mL; +), whereas the remaining extracts did not show any activity (EC?? values >100 ?g/mL; -) against MT-1 cells. On the other hand, 10 extracts showed moderate inhibitory activit and, 48 extracts showed weak inhibitory activity, whereas the remaining extracts did not show any activity against MT-2 cells. Extracts from the aerial parts of Annona reticulata and A. squamosa showed the most potent inhibitory activity and three aporphine alkaloids were isolated from their extracts as the active principles by activity-guided fractionation. PMID:23397239

Nakano, Daisuke; Ishitsuka, Kenji; Kamikawa, Mio; Matsuda, Michika; Tsuchihashi, Ryota; Okawa, Masafumi; Okabe, Hikaru; Tamura, Kazuo; Kinjo, Junei

2013-10-01

252

[Plant sulfolipids].  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant sulpholipid, sulphoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG), represents about 12% of the lipid mass in higher plants and as the lipid with net negative charge is capable to play a specific role in the structural organisation of the membrane. SQDG appears to be concentrated mainly in the plant chloroplasts, as in envelope so and in lamellar membranes; higher plant chloroplasts are considered to be completely autonomous for SQDG synthesis both the DAG moiety and the head group. The possible pathway of SQDG biosyntheses and functions are discussed. PMID:12199096

Okanenko, O A

2002-01-01

253

Plant ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progress is reported in the following areas of research: effects of chromium toxicity on bush bean plants; role of synthetic chelating agents in mineral cycling; use of waste pyrites from mine operations on highly calcareous soil; roots of higher plants as a barrier to translocation of metals; nitrogen cycle in the northern Mohave desert; plant productivity and nutrient interrelationships of perennials; effects of copper, cobalt, cadmium, zinc, nickel, and chromium on growth and mineral concentration in chrysanthemum; plant uptake of 239Pu, 240Pu, and 241Am through roots from soils containing aged fallout materials; estimated inventory of plutonium and uranium radionuclides for vegetation in aged fallout areas; and temperature and water relations and photosynthesis in desert plants

254

Plant Inventory  

Science.gov (United States)

This article, part of Biodiversity Counts, reports on the process of doing a plant inventory. The article discusses how scientists begin by marking out the plot, using colored flagging and permanent marker, why you may need to divide a plot into smaller subplots if the plants you're inventorying are smaller than trees, and some of the difficulties scientists face in the field when they're working in particularly dense areas.

255

PLANT CHRONOPHYSIOLOGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant chronophysiology is founded as a new biological science, presenting great theoretical and practical importance it opens perspectives in other domains. As regards the bioinformations are discussed various data recorded in aquatic or terrestrial ecosystems, many experimentally proved. The objective being the study of periodical display of physiological phenomena at all levels of the plant biosystems certain new biological concepts are formulated, for example "primary biorhythm" and "chronotype" and new laws, mainly referring to the biorhythms chronology and their hierarchy.

SIMONA APOSTOL

2011-01-01

256

Plant intelligence  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of plant intelligence, as proposed by Anthony Trewavas, has raised considerable discussion. However, plant intelligence remains loosely defined; often it is either perceived as practically synonymous to Darwinian fitness, or reduced to a mere decorative metaphor. A more strict view can be taken, emphasizing necessary prerequisites such as memory and learning, which requires clarifying the definition of memory itself. To qualify as memories, traces of past events have to be not only stored, but also actively accessed. We propose a criterion for eliminating false candidates of possible plant intelligence phenomena in this stricter sense: an “intelligent” behavior must involve a component that can be approximated by a plausible algorithmic model involving recourse to stored information about past states of the individual or its environment. Re-evaluation of previously presented examples of plant intelligence shows that only some of them pass our test. “You were hurt?” Kumiko said, looking at the scar. Sally looked down. “Yeah.” “Why didn't you have it removed?” “Sometimes it's good to remember.” “Being hurt?” “Being stupid.”—(W. Gibson: Mona Lisa Overdrive) PMID:19816094

Lipavska, Helena; Zarsky, Viktor

2009-01-01

257

Planting Science  

Science.gov (United States)

Planting Science is a collaboration of international scientific societies, scientists, educators, and education research organizations that work together to increase young people's interest in science. The community's work includes this website, which is designed to provide access to open education resources for student-centered plant investigations that meet national science education standards. On the site, visitors can look over the What's Happening area to learn about newly added resources and upcoming seminars. The Featured Projects area contains user-generated classroom materials from science educators around the United States. The Teacher tab provides a roadmap for starting investigations and a great Communicating Science area. Here visitors can learn about crafting lab notebooks, making presentations, and sketching in science classes.

258

Power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The power plant of the present invention can calibrate and clean a feedwater flowmeter. That is, a branched pipeline is disposed between the feedwater flowmeter and an isolation valve. Water passing through the feedwater flowmeter is introduced to the branched pipeline to measure the amount of passing water by a water flow rate measuring container. Further, there is disposed a branched pipe line which is branched from a supplementary water line and connected between the feed water flowmeter and the isolation valve or connected with instrumentation pipelines of the feedwater flowmeter, having an opening/closing valve interposed. With such a constitution, the feedwater flowmeter tending to suffer from aging change as it is present in a high temperature/high pressure portion can be calibrated accurately by a measuring tank. Further, the feedwater flowmeter tending to suffer from aging change can easily be cleaned. In addition, it can be calibrated without removal in a plant shut down state. (I.S.)

259

Invasive Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation from ATEEC describes the ecological impact of six invasive plant species. A slide is provided with detailed information on the exotic bush honeysuckle, bull thistle, common buckthorn, Japanese honeysuckle, purple loosestrife and yellow starthistle. Habitat, management approaches, biology and spread are discussed for each. This document is provided as a PowerPoint file. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

2013-06-10

260

Plant biotechnology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The first decade of the 21st century has seen an intense debate of the potential contribution of Plant Biotechnology to meeting present and future world demands of food and biomass. The discussion started in 1997 when the first genetically modified (GM) crops were approved by the EPA for commercial production. The debate has been later stimulated by the increasing awareness of the potential effects of global climate change on agricultural production, as the current crops may be poorly adapted...

Molina Ferna?ndez, Antonio

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Plant adaptogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The term adaptogen has not yet been accepted in medicine. This is probably due to the difficulties in discriminating adaptogenic drugs from immunostimulators, anabolic drugs, nootropic drugs, and tonics. There can be not doubt, however, that, at least in animal experiments, there are plant drugs capable of modulating distinct phases of the adaptation syndrome as defined by Seyle. These drugs either reduce stress reactions in the alarm phase or retard / prevent the exhaustion phase and thus provide a certain degree of protection against long-term stress. The small number of drugs the antistress activity of which has been proven or reported includes, among others, the plant drugs Ginseng, Eleutherococcus, Withania, Ocimum, Rhodiola, and Codonopsis. This review summarizes the major findings of pharmacological tests and human studies carried out with these drugs. Currently used assay systems allowing detection of antistress activities are also reported. At present the most likely candidates responsible for the putative antistress activity of plant drugs are special steroids, phenylprogane compounds and lignanes, respectively. Apart from influencing activities of the pituitary-adrenal axis and inducing stress proteins, many adaptogens also possess immunomodulatory and / or anabolic activities. PMID:23195818

Wagner, H; Nörr, H; Winterhoff, H

1994-06-01

262

Caladium plant poisoning  

Science.gov (United States)

... poisoning; Heart of Jesus plant poisoning; Texas Wonder plant poisoning ... Calcium oxalate crystals Asparagine, a protein found in the plant Note: All parts of the plants are poisonous if large amounts are eaten.

263

Plant fertilizer poisoning  

Science.gov (United States)

... household plant foods are substances used to improve plant growth. Plant fertilizer and household plant food poisoning can occur ... will measure and monitor your vital signs, including temperature, ... (by IV) Medicine (antidote) to reverse the effect of the poison

264

Plant Physiology  

Science.gov (United States)

Full text of this journal, provided by the American Society of Plant Physiologists, has been made freely available (through the end of 1998) by Stanford University's HighWire Press. Full text is available since January 1998, with selected abstracts and/or table of contents being available for previous issues. The trial period for the journal ends in December 1998. After those dates, the journal will be available only by individual or institutional subscriptions, but access to tables of contents, abstracts, and full text searching will continue to be available to the public.

2007-07-04

265

Bubbling Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Students learn a simple technique for quantifying the amount of photosynthesis that occurs in a given period of time, using a common water plant (Elodea). They can use this technique to compare the amounts of photosynthesis that occur under conditions of low and high light levels. Before they begin the experiment, however, students must come up with a well-worded hypothesis to be tested. After running the experiment, students pool their data to get a large sample size, determine the measures of central tendency of the class data, and then graph and interpret the results.

Engineering K-Phd Program

266

Plant Tissue Culture Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant tissue culture techniques are essential to many types of academic inquiry, as well as to many applied aspects of plant science. Currently, tissue-cultured plants that have been genetically engineered provide insight into plant molecular biology and gene regulation. Plant tissue culture techniques are also central to innovative areas of applied plant science, including plant biotechnology and agriculture. Thus, tissue culture techniques have been, and still are, prominent in academic and applied plant science.

Lorraine Mineo (Lafayette College;)

1989-06-06

267

Nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.)

268

LNG plant combined with power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs

269

Investigating Plant Physiology with Wisconsin Fast Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The activities and backgroundinformation in this booklet are designed to support investigations into three primary areas of plant physiology (how plants function): Nutrition, Tropism, and Hormone Response (using gibberellin).

Program, The W.

270

Teaching Plant Reproduction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.

2000-01-01

271

Effects of flooding on grafted annona plants of different scion/rootstock combinations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Annona atemoya Hort cv. African Pride (AP is highly valued due to its high quality and unique flavor, but highly susceptible to water-logging. Prevalence of root diseases in saturated soils is one of the main problems in production, which restricts the development of AP in south China, where flooding frequently occurs in rainy seasons. However, some annona species, e.g. A. montana, A. glabra and A. muricata, are relatively tolerant to continuous flooding and periodic water-logging conditions, but of limited commercial value. Yet, the potential may exist to increase flood tolerance of commercial annona varieties by the use of flood tolerant rootstocks. An experiment was conducted with the aim to study the effects of continuous or periodical soil flooding on tree performances of four different annona scion/rootstock combinations: AP/AR/G (scion/interstock/rootstock, AR/G (scion/rootstock, AP/AR/M and AR/M, where AP stands for Annona atemoya Hort cv. African Pride, AR for the hybrid of “AP” atemoya × A. reticulata, used as an interstock, G for pond apple (A. glabra, and M for mountain soursop (A. montana. Plant growth, leaf net photosynthetic rates and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were measured regularly after flooding treatments were applied. Flooding treatments reduced shoot extension, leaf production, net photosynthetic rates and maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm in plants of AP/AR/M and AR/M, which displayed wilting within 2 weeks of flooding, with a higher wilting percentage in AP/AR/M than in AR/M. The wilted plants shed all leaves but remained alive and sprouted new but weak shoots after 16 weeks of flooding. Long term flooding did not suppress but enhanced photosynthesis as well as tree growth in AP/AR/G and AR/G, with vigorous growth of adventitious roots. Thus, we suggest the use A. glabra instead of A. montana as a rootstock and AR as an interstock to increase flood tolerance of commercial annona varieties.

Jian-Yun Zhu

2012-03-01

272

Spanish Nuclear Power Plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report issued by the Nuclear Safety Conseil analyzes the technical characteristics, nuclear safety and radiation protection of spanish nuclear power plants. The report elaborates on 3 chapters for each nuclear power plant: 1.- Site characteristics. 2.- General description of Nuclear Power Plant. 3.- Nuclear Power plant history

273

Plant Biology Science Projects.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book contains science projects about seed plants that deal with plant physiology, plant ecology, and plant agriculture. Each of the projects includes a step-by-step experiment followed by suggestions for further investigations. Chapters include: (1) "Bean Seed Imbibition"; (2) "Germination Percentages of Different Types of Seeds"; (3)…

Hershey, David R.

274

Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis in plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel transgenic plants and plant cells are capable of biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Heterologous enzymes involved in PHA biosynthesis, particularly PHA polymerase, are targeted to the peroxisome of a transgenic plant. Transgenic plant materials that biosynthesize short chain length monomer PHAs in the absence of heterologous .beta.-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase are also disclosed.

Srienc, Friedrich (Lake Elmo, MN); Somers, David A. (Roseville, MN); Hahn, J. J. (New Brighton, MN); Eschenlauer, Arthur C. (Circle Pines, MN)

2000-01-01

275

Ethylene insensitive plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences are described which relate to an EIN6 gene, a gene involved in the plant ethylene response. Plant transformation vectors and transgenic plants are described which display an altered ethylene-dependent phenotype due to altered expression of EIN6 in transformed plants.

Ecker, Joseph R. (Carlsbad, CA); Nehring, Ramlah (La Jolla, CA); McGrath, Robert B. (Philadelphia, PA)

2007-05-22

276

Curium in plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Published information on the occurrence and distribution of curium in plants is surveyed. Results from field studies are limited and the majority of the relevant data derive from glasshouse experiments in which (nominally) root uptake was the only means of entry of curium into the plant. Often, experiments designed to investigate the effect of a particular factor on the uptake of curium by plants (e.g. a soil chemical property, species of plant) have, due to analytical difficulties, yielded inconclusive results. Occurrence in plants; soil-plant relationships; species-dependence of its concentration ratios; root uptake; and the distribution within plants are considered. (Auth./G.J.P.)

277

Plant Research '75  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research is reported on stomatal regulation of the gas exchanges between plant and environment; inhibitory effects in flower formation; plant growth and development through hormones; hormone action; development and nitrogen fixation in algae; primary cell wall glycoprotein ectensin; enzymic mechanisms and control of polysaccharide and glycoprotein synthesis; molecular studies of membrane studies; sensory transduction in plants; regulation of formation of protein complexes and enzymes in higher plant cell and mechanism of sulfur dioxide toxicity in plants. (PCS)

1975-01-01

278

Plants | Special Issues  

...) 30 April 2013 7 Interaction Between Abiotic and Biotic Stresses in Plants (Guest Editors: Sylvie Renault, Germán Avila Sakar) 30 April 2014 2 Leaf Development (Guest Editor: Naomi Ori) 31 January 2013 6 New Insights into Plant Small RNAs (Guest Editor: Mark F. Belmonte) 28 February 2014 0 New Journal Plants - Feature Papers (Guest Editor: Dilantha Fernando) 31 July 2012 5 Plant Light Signalling (Guest Editor: Beronda Montgomery) 15 November 2013 2 Plant Reproductive Transition and Flower Development (Guest Editor: Rebecca ...

279

Plant Cycles: Photosynthesis & Transpiration  

Science.gov (United States)

What do plants need? Students examine the effects of light and air on green plants, learning the processes of photosynthesis and transpiration. Student teams plant seeds, placing some in sunlight and others in darkness. They make predictions about the outcomes and record ongoing observations of the condition of the stems, leaves and roots. Then, several healthy plants are placed in glass jars with lids overnight. Condensation forms, illustrating the process of transpiration, or the release of moisture to the atmosphere by plants.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

280

Nuclear plant security: plant physical design features  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concern over power plant security has always existed to a degree. In the past it has been motivated primarily by the appreciable plant investment costs and the potential loss of revenue which could result from successful acts of sabotage. With the advent of the commercial nuclear power plant, there is an additional concern regarding the unacceptable consequences which successful acts of sabotage could have on the health and safety of the public. The challenge to the nuclear industry is clear. To meet the challenge, however, a more complex approach to plant security is required than has, in general, been provided in the past

 
 
 
 
281

Multinationals and plant survival  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non-parametric estimates show that domestic MNE plants are more likely to exit the market than other plants, also when controlling for plant-specific differences. Finally, foreign presence in the market seems to have had a negative impact on the survival rate of plants in non-exporting non- MNEs, but not to have affected plants in exporting non-MNEs or plants in domestic MNEs.

Bandick, Roger

2010-01-01

282

Fatal herpesvirus encephalitis in a reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatal meningoencephalitis caused by equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) was diagnosed in a reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulate). The giraffe died following a history of stumbling, incoordination, and abdominal pain. Gross examination of the brain revealed asymmetric edema and red-brown discoloration, predominantly within the telencephalon. Microscopically, there was perivascular lymphohistiocytic cuffing, multifocal gliosis, and neuronal necrosis in the cerebrum. Necrotic neurons contained acidophilic intranuclear inclusions. EHV-1 was isolated from the brain of the giraffe, and polymerase chain reaction was positive on sections of the brain. Immunohistochemistry using an EHV-1-specific antibody identified positive staining in neurons, astrocytes, and endothelial cells. The giraffe had been housed with a group of zebras that were serologically positive for EHV-1 and suspected as the source of infection. This raises concerns for cross-species transmission of EHV-1 when housing equids together with other species in zoologic collections. PMID:16966458

Hoenerhoff, M J; Janovitz, E B; Richman, L K; Murphy, D A; Butler, T C; Kiupel, M

2006-09-01

283

Invent a Plant  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners construct models of plants that are adapted to living under specific environmental conditions. As they make their models, learners consider what adaptations help plants survive under various natural onditions that can include extreme dryness, high wind, heavy surf, competition from other plants for sunlight, and human impact such as car exhaust along highways with decorative plantings. Doing this activity outdoors with learners makes it easier to introduce them to living plants and their adaptations, but pictures of various plants from books or magazines can be used for reference if the activity is done indoors. This activity can be combined with the "Desert Water Keepers" activity from the same resource.

Science, Lawrence H.

1979-01-01

284

plant health controls on personal imports of plants and plant ...  

in general please refer to the Fera booklet ' The Plant Health Guide for ... \\intended for household use and not intended for use in the course of trade or \\business, .... Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, \\Greece,.

285

Plant Phenotype Characterization System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

2005-09-09

286

Measuring Plant Allelopathy  

Science.gov (United States)

In this investigation, students will select, identify, and test a common plant for allelopathy by extracting the plant's natural chemicals and measuring the effect on the germination of lettuce seeds. They will analyze the data statistically to determine

Van Faasen, Carl; Peaslee, Graham; Soukhome, Jennifer; Statema, William

2009-04-01

287

New heating plant regulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This teaching unit contains 4 chapters dealing with the following topics: 1. The new heating plant regulation; 2. Natural gas as a fuel for heating plants; 3. Conservation in water consumption; 4. Principles of refrigeration.

1983-01-01

288

Nitrogen volatilization form plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In plant nitrogen metabolism, a significant role is played not only by the uptake of nitrogen compounds but also by their release into the environment. One of the ways in which plant nitrogen is released is the volatilization of reduced and oxidized nitrogen forms through the above-ground plant organs. During the growing season, depending on plant species, genotype and environmental conditions, plants may release by volatilization a significant portion of their nitrogen uptake and up to 80 kg of ammonia per hectare. Besides releasing ammonia into the atmosphere, plants also take it up from the atmosphere and thus partially compensate for their ammonia losses by volatilization. These losses can be reduced by plant breeding by developing genotypes with reduced ammonia releases and a more effective reassimilation of the ammonia quantities released. Attempts have been made to reduce the volatilization of nitrogen compounds from the above-ground plant parts by applying physiologically active substances.

Kastori Rudolf R.

2004-01-01

289

Plant tissue culture techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

Rolf Dieter Illg

1991-01-01

290

The Carnivorous Plant FAQ  

Science.gov (United States)

Provided by Barry Meyers-Rice, carnivorous plant enthusiast and team member of The Nature Conservancy's Wildland Weeds Management & Research Program, this site offers answers to many questions about carnivorous plants. Although the majority of content targets the (deservedly) gee-whiz aspects of these plants that "attract, capture, kill, and digest animal life forms," several sections will be of interest to educators and researchers. Carnivorous Plant Taxonomy covers relationships among genera and families; Carnivorous Plant Genera provides text and color photos on genera from Aldrovanda (Waterwheel Plants) to Utricularia (Bladderworts); and Carnivorous Plants and Conservation offers information on the threats to these plants and efforts to protect them. A selection of related links rounds out the site.

Meyers-Rice, Barry.

291

Nuclear Power Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

... could leak outside the plant and off the plant site. The sirens will sound. Tune to your local radio or television station for reports. Be prepared to follow instructions promptly. Building as Shielding Building as Shelter Text Version TXT ...

292

Plant/Insect Interactions  

Science.gov (United States)

This list of 12 investigative questions is designed to help students observe how insects interact with plants in their habitat. The one-page printable PDF list includes questions about the insect behavior and the plant characteristics.

293

Plant tissue culture techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

Rolf Dieter Illg

1991-01-01

294

Plant centromere compositions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

Mach, Jennifer (Chicago, IL); Zieler, Helge (Chicago, IL); Jin, James (Chicago, IL); Keith, Kevin (Chicago, IL); Copenhaver, Gregory (Chapel Hill, NC); Preuss, Daphne (Chicago, IL)

2007-06-05

295

Plant centromere compositions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

Mach, Jennifer (Chicago, IL); Zieler, Helge (Chicago, IL); Jin, James (Chicago, IL); Keith, Kevin (Chicago, IL); Copenhaver, Gregory (Chapel Hill, NC); Preuss, Daphne (Chicago, IL)

2006-06-26

296

Plant centromere compositions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

Mach, Jennifer M. (Chicago, IL); Zieler, Helge (Del Mar, CA); Jin, RongGuan (Chesterfield, MO); Keith, Kevin (Three Forks, MT); Copenhaver, Gregory P. (Chapel Hill, NC); Preuss, Daphne (Chicago, IL)

2011-08-02

297

Plant centromere compositions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

Mach; Jennifer M. (Chicago, IL), Zieler; Helge (Del Mar, CA), Jin; RongGuan (Chesterfield, MO), Keith; Kevin (Three Forks, MT), Copenhaver; Gregory P. (Chapel Hill, NC), Preuss; Daphne (Chicago, IL)

2011-11-22

298

All About Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

What are the stages in the life cycle of plants? Monday Plant Life Cycle Movie -----Click here and follow the link. Watch The Basics of Plant Growth: Years 3 and 4. On the first page of your scientific journal, list three predictions about the changes you think your seed will go through during the week. Take a picture of your plant. Tuesday Seed Growth -----Click here ...

Moffat, Mrs.

2010-12-06

299

Plants as green phones  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plants can act as vertical communication channels or `green phones¿ linking soil-dwelling insects and insects in the aboveground ecosystem. When root-feeding insects attack a plant, the direct defense system of the shoot is activated, leading to an accumulation of phytotoxins in the leaves. The protection of the plant shoot elicited by root damage can impair the survival, growth and development of aboveground insect herbivores, thereby creating plant-based functional links between soil-dwell...

Soler, R.; Harvey, J. A.; Bezemer, T. M.; Stuefer, J. F.

2008-01-01

300

Power Plant Cycling Costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

TRANSGENIC PLANT CONTAINMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

The new technology using plant genetics to produce chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and therapeuitics in a wide array of new plant forms requires sufficient testing to ensure that these new plant introductions are benign in the environment. A recent effort to provide necessary guidan...

302

Plant Water Relations  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant water relations are presented in this learning activity to help participants understand the components of water potential, explain how water moves through plants, provide examples of plant adaptations to water stress, and have a general understanding of how water potential can be measured.

Bidlack, Jim

303

Vascular Plant Image Gallery  

Science.gov (United States)

Texas A&M University's Bioinformatics Working Group offers this no-nonsense botany teaching resource. Vascular plants are arranged alphabetically by family from Acanthaceae to Zygophyllaceae and users simply click for the images. Brief descriptions are provided (which may indicate the popular name of the plant). The site is searchable. Familiarity with vascular plant taxonomic nomenclature is assumed.

Manhart, James R.

304

Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this brochure the Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina, (VED), subsidiary of the utility Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, plc. Bratislava) are presented. VED is mainly aimed at generating peak-load electrical energy and maintenance of operational equipment. Reaching its goals, company is first of all focused on reliability of production, economy and effectiveness, keeping principles of work safety and industry safety standards and also ecology. VED operates eight hydroelectric power plants, from which PVE Ruzin I and PVE Dobsina I are pump storage ones and they are controlled directly by the Slovak Energy Dispatch Centre located in Zilina thought the system LS 3200. Those power plants participate in secondary regulation of electrical network of Slovakia. They are used to compensate balance in reference to foreign electrical networks and they are put into operation independently from VED. Activity of the branch is focused mainly on support of fulfilment of such an important aim as electric network regulation. Beginnings of the subsidiary Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina are related to the year of 1948. After commissioning of the pump storage Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina in 1953, the plant started to carry out its mission. Since that time the subsidiary has been enlarged by other seven power plants, through which it is fulfilling its missions nowadays. The characteristics of these hydroelectric power plants (The pump-storage power plant Dobsina, Small hydroelectric power plant Dobsina II, Small hydroelectric power plant Rakovec, Small hydroelectric power plant Svedlar, Hydroelectric power plant Domasa, The pump-storage power plant Ruzin, and Small hydroelectric power plant Krompachy) are described in detail. Employees welfare and public relations are presented

305

Plant Fossil Record  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Organization of Palaeobotany (IOP) manages the Plant Fossil Record (PFR) database. The recently released version of the database, PFR2.2, offers descriptive details of most plant fossil genera and modern genera with fossil species. Based on "the scientific literature ... or museum collections," the database is organized into five sections: Genera (references for plant fossil genera published mostly before 1985), Descriptions (containing descriptive details of "the type specimens of more than 10,000 extinct plant genera"), Taxonomy (an "informal system of vascular plant classification" based on published schemes), Occurrences (distribution information and references), and Palaeo Maps.

306

Safe genetically engineered plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emergfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work

307

Irradiation Plant Economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The world's first gamma irradiation plant designed specifically for the sterilization of catgut became operational early in 1963, after loading with 40 000 curies of Co60. The plant is operated by Ethicon Ltd. in Edinburgh and was designed and built by Nuclear Chemical Plant Ltd., a licensee of the UKAEA. The plant capacity has been determined using 'Perspex' dosimeters with target material of constant density. The information so obtained has been used to determine cost data for the irradiation treatment of materials over a wide range of densities for plant of similar design. Cost data have been evaluated for plant where the number of passes ate increased from four to eight or twelve. Such units are particularly suited to low target density materials where the throughput is high. Details of plant designs and costs are given so that operating cost data can be evaluated for other conditions than those in this paper. (author)

308

Safe genetically engineered plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

Rosellini, D; Veronesi, F [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale e Biotecnologie Agroambientali e Zootecniche, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Borgo XX giugno 74, 06121 Perugia (Italy)

2007-10-03

309

Safe genetically engineered plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.

2007-10-01

310

Desert Plant: Mimosa hamata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant derived medicinal products have been used for centuries in every culture throughout the world. Mimosa hamata possesses a vast ethnomedicinal history of heuristic medical value. Ethnomedicinal use of Mimosa hamata has been known since time immemorial and this plant were used to cure diseases and to maintain good health. M. hamata whole plant are used in traditional systems of medicine for treating various diseases. M. hamata exhibited higher antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities. Some bioactive constituents of this plant were thoroughly reviewed and discussed based on literatures. M. hamata has been claimed as folk medicinal plant but little is known about the phytochemicals and pharmacognostical information. There is a need to review this plant in order to provide scientific information for its application in traditonal and biological medicinal system.

Nakuleshwar Dut Jasuja

2014-01-01

311

Hormesis and plant biology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A database has been developed that demonstrates experimental evidence of hormesis. It includes information from a broad range of biological models, including plants, and information on study design, dose-response features, and physical/chemical properties of the agents. An assessment of plant hormetic dose responses is presented based on greater than 3000 plant endpoints. Plant hormetic dose responses were observed for numerous endpoints including disease incidence, reproductive indices, mutagenic endpoints, various metabolic parameters, developmental processes, and a range of growth indicators. Quantitative features of these dose responses typically display a maximum stimulatory response less than two-fold greater than controls and a width of the stimulatory response usually less than 10-fold in dose range. The database establishes that hormetic dose responses commonly occur in plants, are broadly generalizable, and have quantitative features similar to hormetic dose responses found for animals. - Hormesis commonly occurs within plant species

312

Hormesis and plant biology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A database has been developed that demonstrates experimental evidence of hormesis. It includes information from a broad range of biological models, including plants, and information on study design, dose-response features, and physical/chemical properties of the agents. An assessment of plant hormetic dose responses is presented based on greater than 3000 plant endpoints. Plant hormetic dose responses were observed for numerous endpoints including disease incidence, reproductive indices, mutagenic endpoints, various metabolic parameters, developmental processes, and a range of growth indicators. Quantitative features of these dose responses typically display a maximum stimulatory response less than two-fold greater than controls and a width of the stimulatory response usually less than 10-fold in dose range. The database establishes that hormetic dose responses commonly occur in plants, are broadly generalizable, and have quantitative features similar to hormetic dose responses found for animals. - Hormesis commonly occurs within plant species.

Calabrese, Edward J. [Department of Public Health, Environmental Health Sciences Division, Pleasant Street, Morrill I, N344, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)], E-mail: edwardc@schoolph.umass.edu; Blain, Robyn B. [Department of Public Health, Environmental Health Sciences Division, Pleasant Street, Morrill I, N344, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

2009-01-15

313

Secret life of plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants are able to perform photosynthesis and cannot escape from environmental stresses, so they therefore developed sophisticated, highly responsive and dynamic physiology. Others' and our results indicate that plants solve their optimal light acclimation and immune defenses, photosynthesis and transpiration by a computational algorithm of the cellular automation. Our recent results however suggest that plants are capable of processing information encrypted in light intensity and in its energy. With the help of nonphotochemical quenching and photoelectrophysiological signaling (PEPS) plants are able to perform biological quantum computation and memorize light training in order to optimize their Darwinian fitness. Animals have their network of neuron synapses, electrophysiological circuits and memory, but plants have their network of chloroplasts connected by stromules, PEPS circuits transduced by bundle sheath cells and cellular light memory. It is suggested that plants could be intelligent organisms with much higher organism organization levels than it was thought before. PMID:21051941

Szechynska-Hebda, Magdalena

2010-01-01

314

Plant nuclear photorelocation movement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organelle movement and positioning are essential for proper cellular function. A nucleus moves dynamically during cell division and differentiation and in response to environmental changes in animal, fungal, and plant cells. Nuclear movement is well-studied and the mechanisms have been mostly elucidated in animal and fungal cells, but not in plant cells. In prothallial cells of the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris and leaf cells of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana, light induces nuclear movement and nuclei change their position according to wavelength, intensity, and direction of light. This nuclear photorelocation movement shows some common features with the photorelocation movement of chloroplasts, which is one of the best-characterized plant organelle movements. This review summarizes nuclear movement and positioning in plant cells, especially plant-specific nuclear photorelocation movement and discusses the relationship between nuclear photorelocation movement and chloroplast photorelocation movement. PMID:24336444

Higa, Takeshi; Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Wada, Masamitsu

2014-06-01

315

Plant Diseases Announcements  

Science.gov (United States)

Produced in collaboration with the ProMED Project (Federation of American Scientists), this searchable archive of the emerging plant disease announcements is provided by AgNIC. The Plant Diseases Announcements list may be viewed chronologically, or by subject area, or alphabetical order. In addition, users can perform full-text searches. From announcements of recent genome sequencing of Xylella fastidiosa in Brazil, to a listing of the best Websites on rice, this will be a valuable resource to plant pathologists.

316

Enterprise Hydropower plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This brochure describes the Enterprise Hydropower plants of the joint stock company Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE-VE). This Enterprise consists of 34 hydroelectric power plants with total installed electric power 2.399 GW and with mean annual production 4.786 TWh of electric power. Technical data in detail of SE-VE and plans for construction of new hydropower plants as well as influence of use of hydro-energetic potential on the environment are presented

317

Plants and Sunlight  

Science.gov (United States)

What is a plant? How do plants make food? What is biomass? Let's learn by playing games! Remember that picture we saw of the biggest flower in the world? Learn more about it by watching this video about the Rafflesia Arnoldii. Some more great videos, Venus Fly Trap and Sustainable Forests. Grow your own plants with Ms. Frizzle in this game. You'll have to think quick and know all about photosynthesis for The Oxygenator! Need to review? ...

Hall, Ms.

2013-10-02

318

Component- and plant safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since reliable plants depend on reliable components, the work of engineers entrusted with their planning or maintenance would be unthinkable today without a sufficiently founded safety-engineering knowledge. This book gives a profound introduction to component and plant safety and discusses important licensing aspects. It mainly addresses students of mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, supply and environmental engineering and experienced industrial-planning experts who have some elementary background knowledge of mathematics, mechanics, material science and plant construction. (orig.)

319

Parts of a Plant  

Science.gov (United States)

Today we will be learning about the parts of a plant. By the end of this project you will answer the essential question: How does a plant get the nutrients it needs to grow? As you go to these websites, write 2 things you have learned about each part of a plant in the rectangles on the word web that I have given you. 1. Go to this website to hear about the different parts of a plant. Do not take the "Test". When ...

Hamilton, Miss

2009-10-22

320

The Kuroshio power plant  

CERN Document Server

By outlining a new design or the Kuroshio power plant, new approaches to turbine design, anchorage system planning, deep sea marine engineering and power plant operations and maintenance are explored and suggested. The impact on the local environment, particularly in the face of natural disasters, is also considered to provide a well rounded introduction to plan and build a 30MW pilot power plant. Following a literature review, the six chapters of this book propose a conceptual design by focusing on the plant's core technologies and establish the separate analysis logics for turbine design and

Chen, Falin

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Recombinant Cytokines from Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant-based platforms have been successfully applied for the last two decades for the efficient production of pharmaceutical proteins. The number of commercialized products biomanufactured in plants is, however, rather discouraging. Cytokines are small glycosylated polypeptides used in the treatment of cancer, immune disorders and various other related diseases. Because the clinical use of cytokines is limited by high production costs they are good candidates for plant-made pharmaceuticals. Several research groups explored the possibilities of cost-effective production of animal cytokines in plant systems. This review summarizes recent advances in this field.

Patrycja Redkiewicz

2011-06-01

322

Plants Around a Building  

Science.gov (United States)

In this outdoor activity, learners discover how the environment around a building affects the growth of plants. Learners observe patterns of plant growth such as size, thickness, weeds, and damage to plants by humans, then share their observations verbally and combine all their observations on a large outline map. The activity can be extended or adapted for higher grades by assigning each learner or team to look for specific aspects affecting plant growth, such as soil composition, moisture, and how location and design of the building affect growth patterns. (More quantitative measurement of environmental factors is available in the Terrestrial Hi-Lo Hunt activity from the same source.)

Science, Lawrence H.

1980-01-01

323

Towards plant wires  

CERN Document Server

In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems.

Adamatzky, Andrew

2014-01-01

324

Plant Science: An Invasive Plant Paradox  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Why some plants attain extremely high densities in communities where they are exotic, yet remain at low densities in their native ranges is a mystery. The pattern has been called a "paradox" because it conflicts with long-held ideas about the importance of local adaptation for the ecological performance of organisms. This biogeographical shift may be connected to other apparent ecological paradoxes that occur with plant invasions involving processes mediated by soil microbes.

Marnie E. Rout (University of Montana;Division of Biological Sciences); Ragan M. Callaway (University of Montana;Division of Biological Sciences)

2009-05-08

325

7 CFR 319.56-34 - Clementines from Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Clementines from Spain. 319.56-34 Section...Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...56-34 Clementines from Spain. Clementines (Citrus reticulata ) from Spain may only be imported...

2010-01-01

326

Offshore atomic power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various merits of offshore atomic power plants are illustrated, and their systems are assessed. The planning of the offshore atomic power plants in USA is reviewed, and the construction costs of the offshore plant in Japan were estimated. Air pollution problem may be solved by the offshore atomic power plants remarkably. Deep water at low temperature may be advantageously used as cooling water for condensers. Marine resources may be bred by building artificial habitats and by providing spring-up equipments. In the case of floating plants, the plant design can be standardized so that the construction costs may be reduced. The offshore plants can be classified into three systems, namely artificial island system, floating system and sea bottom-based system. The island system may be realized with the present level of civil engineering, but requires the development of technology for the resistance of base against earthquake and its calculation means. The floating system may be constructed with conventional power plant engineering and shipbuilding engineering, but the aseismatic stability of breakwater may be a problem to be solved. Deep water floating system and deep water submerging system are conceivable, but its realization may be difficult. The sea bottom-based system with large caissons can be realized by the present civil engineering, but the construction of the caissons, stability against earthquake and resistance to waves may be problems to be solved. The technical prediction and assessment of new plant sites for nuclear power plants have been reported by Science and Technology Agency in 1974. The construction costs of an offshore plant has been estimated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry to be yen71,026/kW as of 1985. (Iwakiri, K.)

327

Plant integrity: an important factor in plant-pathogen interactions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of plant integrity and of aboveground-belowground defense signaling on plant resistance against pathogens and herbivores is emerging as a subject of scientific research. There is increasing evidence that plant defense responses to pathogen infection differ between whole intact plants and detached leaves. Studies have revealed the importance of aboveground-belowground defense signaling for plant defenses against herbivores, while our studies have uncovered that the roots as well as the plant integrity are important for the resistance of the potato cultivar Sarpo Mira against the hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Furthermore, in the Sarpo Mira–P. infestans interactions, the plant’s meristems, the stalks or both, seem to be associated with the development of the hypersensitive response and both the plant’s roots and shoots contain antimicrobial compounds when the aerial parts of the plants are infected. Here, we present a short overview of the evidence indicating the importance of plant integrity on plant defense responses

Orlowska, Elzbieta Zofia; Llorente, Briardo

2013-01-01

328

CONNECTICUT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of sewage treatment plants in Connecticut. It is a point Shapefile that includes the locations of sewage treatment plants, but not their discharge locations to surface or groundater. The National Pollution Discharge Elimintation Discharge Syste...

329

Rocky Flats plant overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on the robotics applications at the Rocky Flats Plant. The topics discussed include current plant activities in resumption of plutonium operations, pondcrete, and federal facilities compliance agreement, automated storage and retrieval system, pneumatic sample transfer system, bag-out robot, participation in the national robotics technology development program. This report consists of overheads only.

Phillips, D.E. [EG and G Rocky Flats, Golden, CO (United States)

1990-11-01

330

Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

331

Enterprise Vojany power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This leaflet describes the Enterprise Vojany power plant (SE-EVO) is described. This is brown coal burning ((EVO II) and natural gas or fuel oil burning (EVO I) power plant. Technical data of SE-EVO as well as environmental effects are presented

332

Invasive Plants of Alaska.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide is intended for use by anyone interested in learning more about the invasive non-native plants moving into Alaska. Some of the plants described have been here for many years; some are common, others are rare and just now spreading, and still ot...

J. Heys, J. Snyder, M. Carlson, M. Shephard

2005-01-01

333

Solar thermal power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)urope. (author)

334

Power plant performance comparisons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is currently much interest in the productivity achievements of different types of nuclear power plant and of different countries in which such plant is operated. The productivity over the life of a plant is crucial to the economic return on the large capital investment involved. The performance of existing reactor systems, expressed as annual and cumulative plant load factors, can provide guidance to those responsible for future plant selection. Methods of comparing the load factors of groups of plants are examined and it is shown that in deriving average cumulative load factors it is essential to weight the performance of each unit by its length of service as well as its capacity. Published arithmetic or capacity-weighted averages of cumulative load factors are liable to give incorrect measures of overall performance, as shown by representative comparisons. Productivity data are presented in the form of diagrams which display simultaneously the load factor, operating experience, and cumulative generation of single plants or groups of plants. (author)

335

Common toxic plant ingestions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on some of the more common dangerous plant and mushroom ingestions, discussing toxic components, early symptoms, and treatment. Among the plants considered are oleander, foxglove, hemlock, dieffenbachia, and Amanita phalloides. Details concerning recognition of toxic species are intentionally omitted in an effort to avoid potentially dangerous errors in identification. PMID:6543527

Geehr, E

1984-08-01

336

Plant tissue culture techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions. [...

Rolf Dieter, Illg.

337

Ocean thermal plant  

Science.gov (United States)

Modular Ocean Thermal-Energy Conversion (OTEC) plant permits vital component research and testing and serves as operational generator for 100 megawatts of electric power. Construction permits evaporators and condensers to be tested in same environment in which they will be used, and could result in design specifications for most efficient plant facilities in future.

Owens, L. J.

1979-01-01

338

Solar thermal power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

Schnatbaum, L. [Solar Millennium AG, Erlanger (Germany)

2009-09-15

339

Communal biomass conversion plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim was to show the agricultural advantages of farmers being in connection with Communal Biogas Plant. Whether a more environmentally protectire distribution of plant nutrients from animal manure takes place through a biogas plants distribution system, whether the nitrogen in the digested slurry is better utilized and whether the connection results in slurry transportation-time reduction, are discussed. The average amount of nitrogen from animal manure used per hectare was reduced. The area of manure distribution was larger. The nitrogen efficiency was increased when using digested slurry and purchase of N mineral fertilizer decreased, resulting in considerable reduction in nitrogen leaching. The amount of slurry delivered to the local storage tanks was approximately 45 per cent of the total amount treated on the biogas plant. Conditions of manure transport improved greatly as this was now the responsibility of the communal biomass conversion plant administrators. (AB) (24 refs.)

340

Plant performance enhancement program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Plant Performance Enhancement Program (P2EP), an initiative of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), responds to strong industry incentives to improve nuclear plant thermal efficiency and electrical output. Launched by EPRI's Nuclear Power Division, P2EP operates within the purview of the Plant Support Engineering (PSE) Program, with day-to-day activities conducted out of the P2EP office headquartered at EPRI's facility in Charlotte, North Carolina. This alignment is consistent with EPFU's strategic targets in support of industry goals, keeping P2EP's mission in clear focus: Helping utility thermal performance engineers improve the heat rate of nuclear power plants, thereby increasing unit average capacity and reducing plant operations and maintenance costs per kilowatt-hour

 
 
 
 
341

Plant performance enhancement program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Plant Performance Enhancement Program (P{sup 2}EP), an initiative of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), responds to strong industry incentives to improve nuclear plant thermal efficiency and electrical output. Launched by EPRI`s Nuclear Power Division, P{sup 2}EP operates within the purview of the Plant Support Engineering (PSE) Program, with day-to-day activities conducted out of the P{sup 2}EP office headquartered at EPRI`s facility in Charlotte, North Carolina. This alignment is consistent with EPFU`s strategic targets in support of industry goals, keeping P{sup 2}EP`s mission in clear focus: Helping utility thermal performance engineers improve the heat rate of nuclear power plants, thereby increasing unit average capacity and reducing plant operations and maintenance costs per kilowatt-hour.

Munchausen, J.H. [EPRI Plant Support Engineering, Charlotte, NC (United States)

1995-09-01

342

Plant tissue culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plant tissue culture refers to growing and multiplication of cells, tissues and organs of plants on defined solid or liquid media under aseptic and controlled environment. The commercial technology is primarily based on micropropagation, in which rapid proliferation is achieved from tiny stem cuttings, axillary buds, and to a limited extent from somatic embryos, cell clumps in suspension cultures and bioreactors. The cultured cells and tissue can take several pathways. The pathways that lead to the production of true-to-type plants in large numbers are the preferred ones for commercial multiplication. The process of micropropagation is usually divided into several stages i.e., pre-propagation, initiation of explants, subculture of explants for proliferation, shooting and rooting, and hardening. These stages are universally applicable in large-scale multiplication of plants. The delivery of hardened small micropropagated plants to growers and market also requires extra care. (author)

343

Kruemmel nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This short description of the site and the nuclear power plant with information on the presumable effects on the environment and the general public is to provide some data material to the population in a popular form so that the citizens may in form themselves about the plant. In this description which shall be presented to the safety report, the site, the technical design and the operation mode of the nuclear power plant are described. Some problems of the emission and the effects of radioactive materials as well as other issues related to the plant which are of interest to the public are dealt with. The supposed accidents and their handling are discussed. The description shows that the selected site is suitable for both setting-up and operation of the plant without affecting the safety of the people living there and that in admissible burdens of the environment shall not have to be expected. (orig./HP)

344

Plant surveillance at Zaparozhe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The type of surveillance of nuclear power plants in Ukraine practiced in the early nineties provided the supervisory authority with only inadequate access to information about the current safety status of plants. In connection with the results of safety analyses of nuclear power plants it became necessary, therefore, to improve the possibility of plant operation surveillance by the Ukrainian authority. For the Zaporozhe Nuclear Power Station, a modern surveillance system was designed as a pilot project, installed, and commissioned for trial operation in late 1995, by the Rossendorf Research Center in a joint effort with the Rhineland Technical Inspectorate. The system complements the existing monitoring and surveillance installations by incorporating modern information and computer technologies. The system allows the status of the plant to be observed continuously in normal operation and in cases of maloperation or accident. Consequently, any detectable deviations from regular operation can be responded to at an early stage by inquiries and instructions. (orig.)

345

Nuclear power plant siting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The construction of a nuclear power plant is conditioned on territorial requirements and is accompanied by the disturbance of the environment, land occupation, population migration, the emission of radioactive wastes, thermal pollution, etc. On the other hand, a nuclear power plant makes possible the introduction of district heating and increases the economic and civilization activity of the population. Due to the construction of a nuclear power plant the set limits of negative impacts must not be exceeded. The locality should be selected such as to reduce the unfavourable effects of the plant and to fully use its benefits. The decision on the siting of the nuclear power plant is preceded by the processing of a number of surveys and a wide range of documentation to which the given criteria are strictly applied. (B.H.)

346

Encapsulation plant at Forsmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate report

347

Encapsulation plant at Forsmark  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate report.

Nystroem, Anders

2007-08-15

348

Science 101: Do plants communicate?  

Science.gov (United States)

Oh yes. Sometimes their conversation is flowery, sometimes not. Plants with problems try to converse and get to the root of the problem, but if not, they have been known to stalk one another. This often creates a situation where one plant leaves town, reputation soiled. But seriously, folks � Plants do communicate with other plants and organisms as well as with insects, although it's unlikely they use lame puns about plant parts. In this column, the author discusses this communication with separate categories: communication within a plant, communication between plants, communication between plants and insects, and communication between plants and insects together.

Robertson, William C.

2009-02-01

349

Theories Behind Plant Tissue Culture  

Science.gov (United States)

When introducing a foreign gene into a target genome in plant tissue, you need to grow the transgenic cell to a complete plant. This is done by plant tissue culture, a biotechnique based on the concept that an organ, tissue or cell of a plant can be manipulated to grow back into a complete plant.

350

Plants | Special Issue : Plant Reproductive Transition and Flower Development  

...Plants | Special Issue : Plant Reproductive Transition and Flower Development Submit to Plants Login Register MDPI Journals A-Z For Authors For Editors For Librarians About ... 1 (2012) Special Issue \\

351

Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned. PMID:12287843

Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

1994-01-01

352

Experimental mutagenesis in plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Considerable progress has been made in directed or controlled mutagenesis with bacterial systems, the genetic resolving power of which is much greater than that of higher plants. The mutagen specificity in higher plants has been of great interest, and numerous results and observations have been reported. The advances in the culture of plant cells and tissues have created much interest concerning the possibility of inducing and recovering mutants at the cellular level. There are great problems including the failure to regenerate plants from cells in all but a few species. The genetic and cytogenetic instability in the culture of plant tissues is well known, and the most common nuclear change is polyploidy including aneuploidy. The degree of polyploidy increases with calluses or culture age. In rice, the frequency of aneuploidy is greater in the calluses derived from roots than those derived from stem internodes. Polyploid and/or self-incompatible plant species are not as amenable to conventional mutation breeding techniques as diploid, self-fertilizing species. Inducing mutations in somatic tissues creates the problem of chimeras. However, the new cultivars of highly heterozygous, outcrossing, self-incompatible species are produced by combining several different clones. The performance of the progeny of at least 4 generations removed from the polycross of the parent clones is the important factor, and a high amount of heterozygocity is tolerated within cultivars and evocity is tolerated within cultivars and even on the same plants. (Yamashita, S.)

353

Radiation hormesis in plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose ?-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with different dose of ?-ray. (author)

354

ANTIMICROBIAL CONSTITUENTS FROM PLANTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research on medicinal plants showed promising constituents for effective treatment and management of various illnesses. Microbes are commonly found everywhere which causes many diseases to the man kind. Antibiotics available in the markets are often reported of microbial resistance. Scientist realized that the effective life span of any Antibiotic is limited hence new sources from plants need be investigated. A multitude of plant compounds as always promised as a Antimicrobial agents. In this article authors made an attempt to review the constituents which showed potential Antimicrobial activity.

G.Murgananthan

2012-01-01

355

Plant and Cell Physiology  

Science.gov (United States)

This journal has recently been made available online. The Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists, in combination with Oxford Journals Online, has posted recent issues of the journal Plant and Cell Physiology, an international journal covering original research in the fields of "physiology, biochemistry, biophysics, chemistry, molecular biology, cell biology and gene engineering of plants and micro-organisms." Online coverage includes full-text and abstracts from July 2000 to the present. Note that the electronic version of this journal is free through the end of 2000.

356

Plant Physiology Information Website  

Science.gov (United States)

This extensive Plant Physiology Information Website was created by Ross E. Koning, professor of biology at Eastern Connecticut State University. Dr. Koning provides links to lecture notes, lab exercises, and other resources for a variety of his courses including Biology of Plants, Plant Physiology, Principles of Biology, and more. In addition, the site offers a diverse assortment of other resources such as an Elementary Education Energy Workshop handout, a science fair project on lettuce seed germination, and related website links. The site also provides guidelines for CBE, APA, and MLA citation styles.

357

Projected electric power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Projections show over 250 steam-electric and hydroelectric units beginning operation within the next 20 years in the US. The coal-fired, nuclear, geothermal, and hydroelectric plants listed in this report will add about 137 GWe (gross) to US electric capacity. Seven new units have begun operation since the last report. Other notable changes include the licensing of several nuclear plants, the removal of 14 coal-fired units from the data base, and the addition of five hydroelectric units. The report describes all known projected plants and lists architect/engineering firms, construction companies, and boiler and turbine/generator manufacturers if they are known

358

Nuclear power plant outages  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls nuclear power plant safety in Finland. In addition to controlling the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, STUK also controls refuelling and repair outages at the plants. According to section 9 of the Nuclear Energy Act (990/87), it shall be the licence-holder`s obligation to ensure the safety of the use of nuclear energy. Requirements applicable to the licence-holder as regards the assurance of outage safety are presented in this guide. STUK`s regulatory control activities pertaining to outages are also described

NONE

1998-12-01

359

Radiation hormesis in plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with different dose of {gamma}-ray. (author)

Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Byung Hun; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

2000-04-01

360

Plant design and nuclear power plant protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beginning with a modern design for a nuclear power plant, the study examines the enhancement of protection which may be achieved by design changes. The degree of enhancement is examined in terms of potential reduction in the number of vital areas and increased probability of adversary sequence interruption. Impacts considered include operational constraints and increased capital and operating costs. The study concludes that structural design changes alone do not provide significant increases in protection but that such changes may facilitate physical protection

 
 
 
 
361

Morphological and physiological features of the species Asimina triloba (L. dunal, introduced as an ornamental plant in Baia Mare (Maramure? county, Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tree species Asimina triloba (L. Dunal, is native to North America. In the area of origin is cultivated, both as food species because the edible fruit, and as ornamental species. Ornamental value derives both from decorative flowers, that open in early spring, and because habitus species. The species is demanding from slightly acidic soils (pH 5.5 to 7.0 and well drained. Seedlings are susceptible to heatstroke and need areas of the sun, but since the second year, vegetate well in bright light conditions [27]. Optimum climate is temperate to subtropical one. The species exhibits unique quality traits for a temperate fruit that are similar to other fruit in the Annonaceae family, including cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill., sugar apple or sweetsop, (A. squamosa L., soursop (A. muricata L., custard apple (A. reticulata L., and atemoya (A. squamosa X A. cherimola, all of which are tropical [2].This study follows the behavior of the species, in particular conditions of the Baia Mare and its surroundings. In this area a fewindividuals were introduced, in order to diversigy the range of species of ornamental plants. In Baia Mare, topoclimate is specifically depression, sheltered by mountains, more atenuated as temperature and winds, than in surrounding areas. As a result ofclimatic conditions, chestnut Castanea sativa, grows in good conditions in Baia Mare. Instead, the area is heavily polluted,especially at ground level. Pollution by heavy metals is a historical being generated by the mining industry.The introduction and use of a new plant species into a new area involves: 1. easy to obtain seed; 2.- maintaining the crown shape habitus and and leaf shape and size, respectively; 3 – determination of optimal physiological parameters. Therefore have been performed, the following experimental determinations: 1. - germination of seed obtained in the particular conditions of the Baia Mare; 2. - some morphomtric characteristics of leaves, in the juveniles of the 1-2 years; 3. – the dynamic of photosynthesis intensity in these plants, during the day, during summer/autumn months.The study results are promising for acclimatization of the species Asimina triloba (L. Dunal in particular conditions of Baia Mare. Morphological and physiological parametres tested are maintaned at similar to those of native habitat, described in the literature.

Beatrice SZILAGYI

2011-11-01

362

Protoplasts and plant viruses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of protoplasts in the study of plant viruses has attracted considerable attention since its inception in the late 1960s. This article is an attempt to assess the current status of protoplasts (primarily) and all cell cultures (in some instances) in studies of virus infection, virus replication, cytopathology, cross-protection, virus resistance, and the use of in vitro methods and genetic engineering to recover virus-resistant plants. These areas of study proved difficult to do entirely with whole plants or plant parts. However, because protoplasts could be synchronously infected with virus, they provided a valuable alternative means of following biochemical and cytological events in relation to the virus growth cycle in a more precise manner than previously possible

363

Higher plant cellulose synthases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The sole function of cellulose synthases, which are found in plants bacteria, fungi, and animals, is to produce the biopolymer cellulose. Although no crystal structure has yet been solved, a considerable amount is known about their structure, function and evolution.

Richmond, Todd

2000-01-01

364

Plant Vascular Biology 2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

Ding, Biao

2014-11-17

365

Nuclear power plant construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The legal aspects of nuclear power plant construction in Brazil, derived from governamental political guidelines, are presented. Their evolution, as a consequence of tecnology development is related. (A.L.S.L.)

366

Sand, Plants and Pants  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners explore how the application of nano-sized particles or coatings can change a bigger materialâs properties. Learners investigate the hydrophobic properties of plants, nano-fabric pants and magic sand.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Houston, Children'S M.

2014-06-04

367

Power plant profiles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The facilities described here represent the rich variety of technologies being applied at new and existing powerplants in the US. While new capacity additions are at an all-time low in this country, the plants and projects that are completed generally represent new highs in regulatory compliance, technical savvy, and management ingenuity. They range from a 4-MW landfill-gas-fired turbine to a 2,500-MW nuclear plant. Several gas-turbine projects are included, confirming the current dominance of this technology. The projects are: Fort St. Vrain, Pinon Pine, Cleburne cogeneration plant, Gilbert station, Hanes Mill Rd, El Dorado, Wolf Creek, South Texas Project, Stanton Energy Center Unit 2, Milliken station and Northampton plant

368

Plant Growth Facility (PGF)  

Science.gov (United States)

In a microgravity environment aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia Life and Microgravity Mission STS-78, compression wood formation and hence altered lignin deposition and cell wall structure, was induced upon mechanically bending the stems of the woody gymnosperms, Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda). Although there was significant degradation of many of the plant specimens in space-flight due to unusually high temperatures experienced during the mission, it seems evident that gravity had little or no effect on compression wood formation upon bending even in microgravity. Instead, it apparently results from alterations in the stress gradient experienced by the plant itself during bending under these conditions. This preliminary study now sets the stage for long-term plant growth experiments to determine whether compression wood formation can be induced in microgravity during phototropic-guided realignment of growing woody plant specimens, in the absence of any externally provided stress and strain.

1998-01-01

369

Memristors in plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated electrical circuitry of the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera. The goal was to discover if these plants might have a new electrical component--a resistor with memory. This element was postulated recently and the researchers were looking for its presence in different systems. The analysis was based on cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation of plants by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in plant tissue. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. This study can be a starting point for understanding mechanisms of memory, learning, circadian rhythms, and biological clocks. PMID:24556876

Volkov, Alexander G; Tucket, Clayton; Reedus, Jada; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

2014-01-01

370

Maintaining Plant Genebanks  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson explores the benefits and problems of maintaining plant genebanks globally. Students can plan a genebank or agricultural cryopreservation business venture, write a biography about a famous botanist, present views at a genebank symposium for developing nations and more!

Brian R. Shmaefsky (Kingwood College;)

2003-06-02

371

Chitosan in Plant Protection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chitin and chitosan are naturally-occurring compounds that have potential in agriculture with regard to controlling plant diseases. These molecules were shown to display toxicity and inhibit fungal growth and development. They were reported to be active against viruses, bacteria and other pests. Fragments from chitin and chitosan are known to have eliciting activities leading to a variety of defense responses in host plants in response to microbial infections, including the accumulation of phytoalexins, pathogen-related (PR proteins and proteinase inhibitors, lignin synthesis, and callose formation. Based on these and other proprieties that help strengthen host plant defenses, interest has been growing in using them in agricultural systems to reduce the negative impact of diseases on yield and quality of crops. This review recapitulates the properties and uses of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives, and will focus on their applications and mechanisms of action during plant-pathogen interactions.

Abdelbasset El Hadrami

2010-03-01

372

ANEUPLOIDY IN HIGHER PLANTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper reviews the significance and frequency of naturally occurring aneuploidy in higher plants. The role and mechanism of induction of aneuploidy by radiation, chemicals, thermal shocks, and self hybridization of polyploids and aneuploids in generating primary and secondary ...

373

Plant Cycle Graphic Organizer  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource provides 2 picture examples of a strategy for using a specific graphic organizer to help students learn the parts of a plant. This strategy can be used by students to represent a variety of concepts across subject areas.

Heiblum, Heather

2012-04-30

374

New Plants-FOSS Module  

Science.gov (United States)

The New Plants Module provides experiences that heighten students' awareness of the diversity of life in the plant kingdom. Students care for plants to learn what they need to grow and develop. They observe the structures of flowering plants and discover ways to propagate new plants from mature plants (from seeds, bulbs, roots, and stem cuttings). They observe and describe changes that occur as plants grow, and organize their observations on a calendar and in a journal. The site is undergoing changes. To view from the original, archived site: http://archive.fossweb.com/modulesK-2/NewPlants/index.html

Web, Foss

2011-12-14

375

Modernizing nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power plants belonging to older generation can be backfitted to the status of modern plants. Replacement of all materials susceptible to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) ensures the integrity of the primary system, prolongs inspection intervals, and opens up the possibility to introduce the leak-before-break concept. Replacing stellite surfaces by materials containing no cobalt will improve the dose rate and, consequently, the working environment. Reduced maintenance cost and a higher capacity factor will enhance competitiveness. (orig.)

376

International power plant business  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the Brown Boveri press seminar 'Energy' in Baden-Baden Rainer Grohe, member of the Brown Boveri board, Mannheim, gave a survey of the activities on the international power plant market in recent years. He showed the vacuities which must be taken into account in this sector today. The drastic escalation of demands on power plant suppliers has lead not to a reduction of protagonists but to an increase. (orig.).

Grohe, R.

1986-03-03

377

Plants for cleansing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phyto-remediation, an emergent and promising technique, uses the natural abilities of plants to accumulate or to degrade some noxious compounds present in soils, waters or sediments. It is an ecological and cheap alternative to the classical techniques used for cleansing. Very recently, a new plant has been found: Lupinus; it is able to exhaust the soils of herbicides and insecticides as toxic as atrazine. (O.M.)

378

Plant-based plastics '  

... High-density polyethylene (HDPE), for instance, can be 100% sourced from plants and is often used for juice bottles, Sapiro explained. But the plastic is a bit more rough, has a colouration to it, and is less transparent than PET, making it less appealing to consumers. 'People might be able to tell you that they are able to produce bottles which are 100% plant-based. But then it is not PET,' Sapiro claimed, referring to Pepsi's announcement. Sustainability concerns However, there ...

379

NMR, water and plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis describes the application of a non-destructive pulsed proton NMR method mainly to measure water transport in the xylem vessels of plant stems and in some model systems. The results are equally well applicable to liquid flow in other biological objects than plants, e.g. flow of blood and other body fluids in human and animals. The method is based on a pulse sequence of equidistant ? pulses in combination with a linear magnetic field gradient. (Auth.)

380

A modular reactor plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a new concept in liquid metal reactors that is being developed by General Electric under contract to the Department of Energy. This concept is called the Modular Reactor Plant. While this effort is not expected to have a near-term impact, it is directed toward three principal issues currently affecting nuclear power in the United States. First, plant costs have escalated to the point where the startup of new plants require large electric rate increases. Second, the cost of new plants coming on-line today vary by as much as a factor of three. And, third, nuclear construction times often exceed the utilities prudent planning cycle. This paper describes how General Electric's Modular Reactor Plant addreses these issues through shop fabrication and assembly, rail shipment to the site for rapid installation of nuclear components and inherent reactor protection. In addition, it is expected the modular reactor plant will reduce the current cost of development and demonstration of liquid metal reactors to an affordable level

 
 
 
 
381

Reactor plant V-407  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The (WWER-640) V-407 reactor plant represents a new generation reactor design for a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) of medium power level, with a high level of reliability and efficiency, in comparison with the preceding standard series of plants with domestically designed reactors. The V-407 is a light-water cooled and moderated reactor intended for the generation and supply of steam to turbo-generator plants of nuclear installations of average power, for production of electricity with a frequency of 50 Hz and 640 MW (electric). It is intended for operation under base-load and load-follow conditions with peak and semi-peak modes, for location in regions with high seismic activity (up to magnitude 10). The safety concepts of the NPP with V-407 reactors conform to the worldwide trend in development of future generation nuclear power plant designs. According to the classification by the International Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) in the documents, INSAG-3 and INSAG-5, the V-407 reactor plant is in the class of evolutionary projects of medium-size NPP with passive safety systems. (author)

382

Safety in nuclear plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Safety of BNFL's nuclear processing plant, THORP, under construction in Cumbria, is of paramount importance, and will be achieved by a combination of operator control through the distributed control system (DCS) and separate safety systems. In certain parts of the plant the number of separate safety systems required was sufficiently high that the use of a programmable logic controller (PLC) based protection system, rather than a conventional hard wired system, was justified. The plant control requirements for THORP are provided for by a distributed control system (DCS) comprising some 60 distributed control units (DCUs) located throughout the THORP building. The information necessary for plant control is fed back to seven operator consoles located in the central control room, and the system is implemented using Taylor MOD 300 series equipment. In addition to the DCS there are four other systems in the plant which contribute to the overall safety of operations. There are the safety trips (with which this paper is concerned), hard wired alarms, emergency shutdown system and radiological protection system. The safe shutdown of each system and the PLC monitoring are discussed. Safety assessment shows that plants will be adequately safe. One aspect of this is that failure of a single programmable system will not result directly in a hazard. (author)

383

Landscaping plant epigenetics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The understanding of epigenetic mechanisms is necessary for assessing the potential impacts of epigenetics on plant growth, development and reproduction, and ultimately for the response of these factors to evolutionary pressures and crop breeding programs. This volume highlights the latest in laboratory and bioinformatic techniques used for the investigation of epigenetic phenomena in plants. Such techniques now allow genome-wide analyses of epigenetic regulation and help to advance our understanding of how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms affect cellular and genome function. To set the scene, we begin with a short background of how the field of epigenetics has evolved, with a particular focus on plant epigenetics. We consider what has historically been understood by the term "epigenetics" before turning to the advances in biochemistry, molecular biology, and genetics which have led to current-day definitions of the term. Following this, we pay attention to key discoveries in the field of epigenetics that have emerged from the study of unusual and enigmatic phenomena in plants. Many of these phenomena have involved cases of non-Mendelian inheritance and have often been dismissed as mere curiosities prior to the elucidation of their molecular mechanisms. In the penultimate section, consideration is given to how advances in molecular techniques are opening the doors to a more comprehensive understanding of epigenetic phenomena in plants. We conclude by assessing some opportunities, challenges, and techniques for epigenetic research in both model and non-model plants, in particular for advancing understanding of the regulation of genome function by epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:24478004

McKeown, Peter C; Spillane, Charles

2014-01-01