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Sample records for plant salacia reticulata

  1. Effects of the Sri Lankan medicinal plant, Salacia reticulata, in rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Sekiguchi, Yuusuke; Mano, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Sachie; Shimizu, Jun; Wada, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Salacia reticulata is a native plant of Sri Lanka. In the traditional medicine of Sri Lanka and India, Salacia reticulata bark is considered orally effective in the treatment of rheumatism, gonorrhea, skin disease and diabetes. We have investigated, both in vivo and in vitro, whether the leaf of Salacia reticulata (SRL) can ameliorate collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) in mice as the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) model. The mice were fed a lard containing chow diet (AIN-93G) or the same d...

  2. Effects of the Sri Lankan medicinal plant, Salacia reticulata, in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yuusuke; Mano, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Sachie; Shimizu, Jun; Wada, Masahiro

    2010-03-01

    Salacia reticulata is a native plant of Sri Lanka. In the traditional medicine of Sri Lanka and India, Salacia reticulata bark is considered orally effective in the treatment of rheumatism, gonorrhea, skin disease and diabetes. We have investigated, both in vivo and in vitro, whether the leaf of Salacia reticulata (SRL) can ameliorate collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) in mice as the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) model. The mice were fed a lard containing chow diet (AIN-93G) or the same diet containing 1% (w/w) SRL powder. All mice were bred for 23 days. On day 7 or 14 after LPS injection, mice were killed, and tissue and blood samples were collected. Histological analysis was performed, and serum levels of inflammatory mediators and the mRNA levels of inflammation-related genes and osteoclast-related genes were measured. SRL treatment ameliorated the rapid initial paw swelling, inflammatory cells infiltration, skeletal tissues damage, osteoclast activation and the mRNA levels for osteoclast-related genes compared with the CAIA mice. However, the serum and mRNA levels of inflammatory mediators did not differ between the CAIA mice and the SRL-treated mice. SRL might reduce the inflammatory cells induction and skeletal tissue degradation by CAIA by the regulating osteoclastogenesis. PMID:19727885

  3. Role of medicinal plant Salacia Reticulata in the management of Type II Diabetic Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Radha, R.; Amrithaveni, M.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading causes of death and ranks third among the chronic diseases. Recent studies have shown that up to 10 % of India's urban population and 2 % of the rural population above the age of 15 years have diabetes and WHO had declared India as the diabetic capital of the world. India has wealth of medicinalplants, and these plants have credited to the development of therapeutic agents for various ailments and diseases. Hark of Salacia Reticulata was screened for it...

  4. Role of medicinal plant Salacia Reticulata in the management of Type II Diabetic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, R; Amrithaveni, M

    2009-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading causes of death and ranks third among the chronic diseases. Recent studies have shown that up to 10 % of India's urban population and 2 % of the rural population above the age of 15 years have diabetes and WHO had declared India as the diabetic capital of the world. India has wealth of medicinalplants, and these plants have credited to the development of therapeutic agents for various ailments and diseases. Hark of Salacia Reticulata was screened for its hypoglycemic and hypo-lipidaemic effect. A- total of 60 type II diabetics were enrolled, consisting of experimental group 30 and control group 30. Experimental group received 2 grams of Kadalazhinjil powder daily for a period of 90 days and control group did not receive any supplements. Blood glucose levels before and after medications were estimated in both groups at baseline and at 90 days. There was insignificant reduction in fasting blood glucose, HbA(1) c and lipid levels at the end of 90 days in the supplemented group. The experimental group showed encouraging results which call for long term supplementation in Diabetes Mellitus. PMID:22557337

  5. Preventive Effects of Salacia reticulata on Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in TSOD Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoko Akase; Tsutomu Shimada; Yukiko Harasawa; Tomohide Akase; Yukinobu Ikeya; Eiichi Nagai; Seiichi Iizuka; Gojiro Nakagami; Shinji Iizaka; Hiromi Sanada; Masaki Aburada

    2011-01-01

    The extracts of Salacia reticulata (Salacia extract), a plant that has been used for the treatment of early diabetes, rheumatism and gonorrhea in Ayurveda, have been shown to have an anti-obesity effect and suppress hyperglycemia. In this study, the effects of Salacia extract on various symptoms of metabolic disorder were investigated and compared using these TSOD mice and non-obese TSNO mice. Body weight, food intake, plasma biochemistry, visceral and subcutaneous fat (X-ray and CT), glucose...

  6. Salacia reticulata has therapeutic effects on obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Nakayama, Yuichiro; Harasawa, Yukiko; Matsui, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Hiroko; Sai, Yoshimichi; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Tomatsu, Shunji; Aburada, Masaki

    2014-10-01

    Salacia reticulata Wight (S. reticulata) is a herbal medicine used for treatment of early diabetes in Ayurvedic medicine. In previous reports, the extract of S. reticulata showed preventive effects on obesity and various metabolic disorders and a suppressive effect on differentiation in premature adipocytes. The aim of this research was to elucidate the therapeutic efficacy of the extract of S. reticulata on obesity and various metabolic disorders in 12-week-old TSOD mice with obesity and metabolic disorders and in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In TSOD mice, S. reticulata therapy produced a reduction in body weight and mesenteric fat accumulation, an improvement in abnormal glucose metabolism, and an increase in adiponectin level in plasma. In addition, the mRNA expressions of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and adiponectin were increased in mesenteric fat. In in vitro experiments, S. reticulata therapy produced suppression of intracellular triacylglycerol accumulation and enhancement of glycerol release into the medium in mature 3T3-L1 cells. The mRNA expressions of lipogenesis factor (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, lipoprotein lipase, CD36, and fatty acid binding protein 4) were down-regulated, while the expressions of lipolysis factor (adipose tissue triacylglycerol lipase and HSL) and adiponectin were up-regulated. Moreover, the extract of S. reticulata enhanced the expression of total AMP-activated protein kinase ? (AMPK?) and phosphorylated AMPK? in mature adipocytes. These findings demonstrate that the extract of S. reticulata has therapeutic effects on obesity and metabolic disorders by enhancing lipogenesis genes and suppressing lipolysis genes through the activation of AMPK? in adipocytes. PMID:24838513

  7. Antimicrobial Activity of Root Bark of Salacia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, G P; Vijay Kanth, M S

    2005-07-01

    Antimicrobial activity of chloroform and methanolic extracts of Salacia reticulata were tested against gram positive, gram negative and fungus strains using zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentrations. It was observed that both extracts have inhibitory effect towards all microorganisms used in the test. Chloroform extract was more effective than methanolic extract. PMID:22557181

  8. Antimicrobial Activity of Root Bark of Salacia reticulata

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhary, G. P.; Vijay Kanth, M. S.

    2005-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of chloroform and methanolic extracts of Salacia reticulata were tested against gram positive, gram negative and fungus strains using zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentrations. It was observed that both extracts have inhibitory effect towards all microorganisms used in the test. Chloroform extract was more effective than methanolic extract.

  9. Preventive Effects of Salacia reticulata on Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in TSOD Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akase, Tomoko; Shimada, Tsutomu; Harasawa, Yukiko; Akase, Tomohide; Ikeya, Yukinobu; Nagai, Eiichi; Iizuka, Seiichi; Nakagami, Gojiro; Iizaka, Shinji; Sanada, Hiromi; Aburada, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    The extracts of Salacia reticulata (Salacia extract), a plant that has been used for the treatment of early diabetes, rheumatism and gonorrhea in Ayurveda, have been shown to have an anti-obesity effect and suppress hyperglycemia. In this study, the effects of Salacia extract on various symptoms of metabolic disorder were investigated and compared using these TSOD mice and non-obese TSNO mice. Body weight, food intake, plasma biochemistry, visceral and subcutaneous fat (X-ray and CT), glucose tolerance, blood pressure and pain tolerance were measured, and histopathological examination of the liver was carried out. A significant dose-dependent decline in the gain in body weight, accumulation of visceral and subcutaneous fat and an improvement of abnormal glucose tolerance, hypertension and peripheral neuropathy were noticed in TSOD mice. In addition, hepatocellular swelling, fatty degeneration of hepatocytes, inflammatory cell infiltration and single-cell necrosis were observed on histopathological examination of the liver in TSOD mice. Salacia extract markedly improved these symptoms upon treatment. Based on the above results, it is concluded that Salacia extract has remarkable potential to prevent obesity and associated metabolic disorders including the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:19505975

  10. Capillary zone electrophoresis method for the separation of glucosidase inhibitors in extracts of Salacia reticulata, a plant used in ayurvedic treatments of type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandberg, Wesley F; Mohan, Sankar; Kumarasamy, Jayakanthan; Pinto, B Mario

    2010-06-15

    A simple and reproducible capillary-zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the separation and quantitation of sulfonium-ion-containing compounds isolated from plants of the Salacia genus which are traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The method sufficiently resolved four different compounds with confirmed glucosidase inhibitory activity, namely, salacinol, ponkoranol, kotalanol and de-O-sulfonated kotalanol. Separation could be achieved in less than 9 min, and calibration curves showed good linearity. Detection limits were determined to be in the low mug/mL range. This method was used to demonstrate that de-O-sulfonated kotalanol isolated from natural sources has identical ionic mobility to a synthetic standard. Furthermore, new extraction conditions were developed by which the zwitterionic compounds (salacinol, ponkoranol, and kotalanol) could be separated from de-O-sulfonated kotalanol in a single solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. The extraction gave reproducibly high recoveries and was used to process four commercial Salacia extracts for CZE analysis to reduce the complexity of resulting electropherograms and to facilitate the detection of the four inhibitors in question. De-O-sulfonated kotalanol was detected in two of four Salacia samples while ponkoranol was present in all four. A comparison of all samples tested demonstrated that they had remarkably similar patterns of peaks, suggesting that this CZE method may be useful in the chemical fingerprinting of Salacia-containing products. PMID:20491445

  11. Adverse pregnancy outcome in rats following exposure to a Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) root extract

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnasooriya W.D.; Jayakody J.R.A.C.; Premakumara G.A.S.

    2003-01-01

    The root extract of Salacia reticulata Wight (family: Celastraceae) is used in Sri Lanka by traditional practitioners as a herbal therapy for glycemic control even during pregnancy. It is recognized that some clinically used antidiabetic drugs have harmful effects on pregnancy but the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on reproductive outcome is unknown and deserves examination. We determined the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on the reproductive outcome of Wistar rats (250-...

  12. Adverse pregnancy outcome in rats following exposure to a Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) root extract

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    W.D., Ratnasooriya; J.R.A.C., Jayakody; G.A.S., Premakumara.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The root extract of Salacia reticulata Wight (family: Celastraceae) is used in Sri Lanka by traditional practitioners as a herbal therapy for glycemic control even during pregnancy. It is recognized that some clinically used antidiabetic drugs have harmful effects on pregnancy but the effects of the [...] S. reticulata root extract on reproductive outcome is unknown and deserves examination. We determined the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on the reproductive outcome of Wistar rats (250-260 g) when administered orally (10 g/kg) during early (days 1-7) and mid- (days 7-14) pregnancy. The root extract significantly (P

  13. Metabolic disease prevention and suppression of fat accumulation by Salacia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Nagai, Eiichi; Harasawa, Yukiko; Akase, Tomoko; Aburada, Takashi; Iizuka, Seiichi; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Aburada, Masaki

    2010-07-01

    In Ayurvedic medicine, Salacia reticulata is known to be useful against various metabolic diseases, including diabetes and obesity. In this study, we attempted to clarify the antiobesity mechanism and the safety of S. reticulata in vivo and in vitro. We gave ordinary MF feed, alone or mixed with S. reticulata (0.3 or 1.0%), to Tsumura Suzuki obesity diabetes (TSOD) mice (spontaneous obese type II diabetes model mice) and Tsumura Suzuki non-obese (TSNO) mice (the corresponding reference animals), ad libitum for 2 months. As compared with the TSNO control mice, the TSOD control mice became obese due to fat accumulation and developed various signs of metabolic diseases. The TSOD mouse group receiving S. reticulata showed the following effects: suppression of body weight increase and fat accumulation, alleviation of abnormal lipid metabolism and abnormal glucose tolerance, and suppression of intrahepatic fat accumulation. Also, S. reticulata prevented the mesenteric adipocyte hypertrophy recognized in TSOD mice. In the TSNO controls, the feed containing 1.0% S. reticulata exerted a suppressing effect on body weight increase and fat accumulation, but the feed containing 0.3% S. reticulata did not show any effect at all. In an in vitro experiment using mouse-derived adipocyte precursor 3T3-L1 cells, S. reticulata significantly suppressed fat accumulation in the differentiation induction phase and maturation phase. This suggested that the metabolic disease-preventing effects of S. reticulata, including the antiobesity effect, may involve suppression of differentiation and accumulation in the adipocytes. PMID:20225078

  14. Total synthesis of neokotalanol, a potent ?-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from Salacia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Jia; Tanabe, Genzoh; Tsutsui, Nozomi; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Muraoka, Osamu

    2013-11-01

    Neokotalanol, a potent ?-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from Salacia reticulata, was synthesized through a key coupling reaction between a perbenzylated thiosugar and an appropriately protected perseitol triflate derived from D-mannose. This key step was found to be quite temperature dependent, and a simultaneous cyclization of the triflate leading to a characteristic 2,4,7-trioxabicyclo[4.2.1]nonane system was detected. PMID:24345510

  15. Anti-proliferative effects of Salacia reticulata leaves hot-water extract on interleukin-1?-activated cells derived from the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis model mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sekiguchi Yuusuke; Mano Hiroshi; Nakatani Sachie; Shimizu Jun; Kobata Kenji; Wada Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Salacia reticulata (SR) is a plant native to Sri Lanka. In ayurvedic medicine, SR bark preparations, taken orally, are considered effective in the treatment of rheumatism and diabetes. We investigated the ability of SR leaves (SRL) to inhibit in vitro the interleukin-1? (IL-1?)-activated proliferation of synoviocyte-like cells derived from rheumatoid arthritis model mice. Findings Inflammatory synovial tissues were harvested from type II collagen antibody-induced arthrit...

  16. Adverse pregnancy outcome in rats following exposure to a Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasooriya, W D; Jayakody, J R A C; Premakumara, G A S

    2003-07-01

    The root extract of Salacia reticulata Wight (family: Celastraceae) is used in Sri Lanka by traditional practitioners as a herbal therapy for glycemic control even during pregnancy. It is recognized that some clinically used antidiabetic drugs have harmful effects on pregnancy but the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on reproductive outcome is unknown and deserves examination. We determined the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on the reproductive outcome of Wistar rats (250-260 g) when administered orally (10 g/kg) during early (days 1-7) and mid- (days 7-14) pregnancy. The root extract significantly (Preticulata root extract can be hazardous to successful pregnancy in women and should not be used in pregnancy complicated by diabetes. PMID:12845381

  17. [Antigenicity and phototoxicity of water-soluble extract from Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, H; Asano, I; Yamada, Y

    2001-04-01

    The antigenicity and phototoxicity of water-soluble extract from Salacia reticulata (SRE) were examined in guinea pigs. In a study of active systemic anaphylaxis reaction, neither the oral administration group (64 or 320 mg/kg, 5 times/week, 3 weeks) nor the subcutaneous administration group (64 mg/kg, 1 time/week, 3 weeks) exhibited any anaphylactic reaction. Moreover, sensitization with serum obtained from these animals did not induce passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in normal animals. In a phototoxicity study, oral administration of SRE (320 mg/kg) induced neither erythema nor edema. These results suggest that SRE is not antigenic or phototoxic. PMID:11486382

  18. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor from Kothala-himbutu (Salacia reticulata WIGHT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Sei; Oe, Hiromi; Kitamura, Shinichi

    2008-06-01

    A polyhydroxylated cyclic 13-membered sulfoxide (1) was isolated from an aqueous extract of Kothala-himbutu ( Salacia reticulata WIGHT). The structure of compound 1 was elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR and APCI-MS methods. The alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of compound 1 (IC 50: maltase, 0.227 microM; sucrase, 0.186 microM; isomaltase, 0.099 microM) was much greater than the inhibitory activity of salacinol and kotalanol, which were previously isolated from Kothala-himbutu. PMID:18547114

  19. Hypoglycemic effect of 13-membered ring thiocyclitol, a novel alpha-glucosidase inhibitor from Kothala-himbutu (Salacia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oe, Hiromi; Ozaki, Sei

    2008-07-01

    A novel 13-membered ring thiocyclitol, isolated from an aqueous extract of Kothala-himbutu (Salacia reticulata), inhibited alpha-glucosidase in vitro. The inhibitory activity was investigated by maltose- and sucrose-loading on Wistar rats. This study found significant lowering of postprandial glucose levels, and the potency of 13-membered ring thiocyclitol was confirmed in vivo. PMID:18603797

  20. Purified Methanolic Extract of Salacia reticulata Wight. Ameliorates Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Alterations in Rats Fed High Fructose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Mitra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried-out to investigate the insulin sensitizing activity of purified methanolic extract of salacia reticulata roots in fructose-fed rats, a well-known model of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Feeding fructose enriched diet caused a hyperinsulinemic state and increased insulin resistance index with statistically significant increase in fasting triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. Fructose fed rats also exhibited glucose intolerance when tested by oral glucose tolerance test as indicated by increase in total area under curve of blood glucose. Dietary supplementation of purified methanolic extract of Salacia reticulata (0.4 g/100 g of feed significantly reversed the fructose diet-induced metabolic alterations in rats and also improved glucose intolerance. The effect of purified methanolic extract of Salacia reticulata was comparable to that of rosiglitazone, a known insulin sensitizer. Acarbose, a marketed ?-glucosidase inhibitor failed to reverse the metabolic alterations caused by fructose enriched diet in rats. The finding proves probable mechanism of action of Salacia reticulata and further validates scientific basis of its usage in the management of various metabolic disorders including diabetes.

  1. Anti-diabetic activity of a leaf extract prepared from Salacia reticulata in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Kyoji; Miyauchi, Yuko; Kanetaka, Takashi; Takagi, Yasutaka; Koga, Kunimasa

    2009-05-01

    The effects of a water extract prepared from the leaves of Salacia reticulata on the absorption of sugars in normal and type 1 diabetic mice were investigated. The simultaneous oral administration of the extract at a dose of 1.0 mg/mouse with maltose or sucrose inhibited the postprandial elevation of the plasma glucose and insulin levels and intestinal alpha-glucosidase activities in mice. In addition, the supply of a 0.01% solution of the extract as drinking water prevented the elevation of the plasma glucose level and intestinal alpha-glucosidase activities in type 1 diabetic mice. This treatment also prevented the elevation of the plasma, pancreatic, and kidney lipid peroxide levels, lowering of the plasma insulin level, and elevation of the kidney aldose reductase activities in diabetic mice. These results suggest that the water extract of the leaves of S. reticulata could be a beneficial food material for the prevention of diabetes and obesity because of its multiple effects. PMID:19420711

  2. Anti-proliferative effects of Salacia reticulata leaves hot-water extract on interleukin-1?-activated cells derived from the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis model mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sekiguchi Yuusuke; Mano Hiroshi; Nakatani Sachie; Shimizu Jun; Kobata Kenji; Wada Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Salacia reticulata (SR) is a plant native to Sri Lanka. In ayurvedic medicine, SR bark preparations, taken orally, are considered effective in the treatment of rheumatism and diabetes. We investigated the ability of SR leaves (SRL) to inhibit in vitro the interleukin-1? (IL-1?)-activated proliferation of synoviocyte-like cells derived from rheumatoid arthritis model mice. Findings Inflammatory synovial tissues were harvested from type II collagen antibody-induced arthrit...

  3. Adverse pregnancy outcome in rats following exposure to a Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae root extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D. Ratnasooriya

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The root extract of Salacia reticulata Wight (family: Celastraceae is used in Sri Lanka by traditional practitioners as a herbal therapy for glycemic control even during pregnancy. It is recognized that some clinically used antidiabetic drugs have harmful effects on pregnancy but the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on reproductive outcome is unknown and deserves examination. We determined the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on the reproductive outcome of Wistar rats (250-260 g when administered orally (10 g/kg during early (days 1-7 and mid- (days 7-14 pregnancy. The root extract significantly (P<0.05 enhanced post-implantation losses (control vs treatment: early pregnancy, 4.7 ± 2.4 vs 49.3 ± 13%; mid-pregnancy, 4.7 ± 2.4 vs 41.7 ± 16.1%. Gestational length was unaltered but the pups born had a low birth weight (P<0.05 (early pregnancy, 6.8 ± 0.1 vs 5.3 ± 0.1 g; mid-pregnancy, 6.8 ± 0.1 vs 5.0 ± 0.1 g and low birth index (P<0.05 (early pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 50.7 ± 12.9%; mid-pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 58.3 ± 16.1%, fetal survival ratio (P<0.05 (early pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 50.7 ± 12.9; mid-pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 58.3 ± 16.1, and viability index (P<0.05 (early pregnancy, 94.9 ± 2.6 vs 49.5 ± 12.5%; mid-pregnancy, 94.9 ± 2.6 vs 57.1 ± 16.1%. However, the root extract was non-teratogenic. We conclude that the S. reticulata root extract can be hazardous to successful pregnancy in women and should not be used in pregnancy complicated by diabetes.

  4. Salacia reticulata and its polyphenolic constituents with lipase inhibitory and lipolytic activities have mild antiobesity effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Nishida, Norihisa; Takada, Miki; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2002-07-01

    Salacia (S.) reticulata, a Hippocrateaceae plant distributed in Sri Lankan and Indian forests, has been used as a supplementary food in Japan to prevent obesity and diabetes. We examined the antiobesity effects of the hot water-soluble extract (SRHW) from the roots of S. reticulata using obese rat models and an in vitro study. Body weight (P = 0.07) and periuterine fat storage (P = 0.10) in female Zucker fatty rats (8-9 wk old) tended to be suppressed by oral administration of SRHW (125 mg/kg) for 27 d. Male rats fed a high fat diet were not affected by SRHW. Furthermore, SRHW inhibited porcine pancreatic lipase (PL), rat adipose tissue-derived lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activities with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of 264 (95% confidence limits: 203-393) mg/L, 15 (12-18) mg/L and 54 (35-85) mg/L, respectively, but did not inhibit hormone-sensitive lipase activity in rat adipose tissue. Next, we examined the effects of polyphenols, di- and triterpenes and salacinol isolated from the roots of S. reticulata on lipid metabolizing enzymes and lipolysis. (-)-Epigallocatechin and (-)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-(-)-4'-O-methylepigallocatechin inhibited PL activity with IC(50) of 88 (not calculated) and 68 (26-122) mg/L, respectively. (-)-Epicatechin, 3beta, 22beta-dihydroxyolean-12-en-29-oic acid and the tannin fraction inhibited LPL activity with IC(50) of 81 (54-214), 89 (62-214) and 35 (24-62) mg/L. Only the tannin fraction inhibited GPDH activity with an IC(50) of 6.8 (3.4-10.9) mg/L. These constituents may be involved in the lipase and GPDH inhibitory activities of SRHW. On the other hand, SRHW at 100 mg/L tended to enhance lipolysis in rat adipocytes (P = 0.06). Significant lipolytic effects were exerted by mangiferin, (-)-4'-O-methylepigallocatechin and maytenfolic acid at 100 mg/L (P < 0.01). In conclusion, polyphenolic compounds may be involved in the antiobesity effects of SRHW in rats through inhibition of fat metabolizing enzymes (PL, LPL and GPDH) and enhanced lipolysis. PMID:12097653

  5. Kotalanol, a potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor with thiosugar sulfonium sulfate structure, from antidiabetic ayurvedic medicine Salacia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, M; Murakami, T; Yashiro, K; Matsuda, H

    1998-08-01

    A potent natural alpha-glucosidase inhibitor called kotalanol has been isolated from an antidiabetic traditional Ayurvedic medicine, the roots and stems of Salacia reticulata Wight, through bioassay-guided separation. The structure of kotalanol was elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence to be the inner salt comprised of 1-deoxyheptosyl-3-sulfate anion and 1-deoxy-4-thio-D-arabinofuranosyl sulfonium cation. Kotalanol was found to show more potent inhibitory activity against sucrase than salacinol and acarbose. PMID:9734318

  6. The effects of Salacia reticulata on anti-cellular oxidants and melanogenesis inhibition in alpha-MSH-stimulated and UV irradiated B16 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannalert, Prasit; Kariya, Ryusho; Suzu, Ikuko; Okada, Seiji

    2014-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the inhibitory effects of Salacia reticulata Tul. root extract on cellular oxidants and melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells. Cells treated with non-toxic doses of S. reticulata root extract were investigated for their effects on melanogenesis, cellular tyrosinase activity and cellular oxidant scavenging activity. The results indicated that S. reticulata extract inhibited melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in alpha-MSH-induced or UV-irradiated B16 melanoma cells in a dose dependent manner. Additionally, the extract also exhibited anti-cellular oxidants in UV-induced radical melanoma cells. Altogether, these results suggested that S. reticulata root extract has roles in suppression of melanogenesis and oxidant inhibition. S. reticulata root extract may be a potential source for the development of pharmaceutical products for treatment of skin hyperpigmentation disorders. PMID:24868882

  7. Absolute stereostructure of potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, Salacinol, with unique thiosugar sulfonium sulfate inner salt structure from Salacia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Morikawa, Toshio; Matsuda, Hisashi; Tanabe, Genzoh; Muraoka, Osamu

    2002-05-01

    A most potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor named salacinol has been isolated from an antidiabetic Ayurvedic traditional medicine, Salacia reticulata WIGHT, through bioassay-guided separation. The absolute stereostructure of salacinol was determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence, which included the alkaline degradation of salacinol to 1-deoxy-4-thio-D-arabinofuranose and the X-ray crystallographic analysis, to be the unique spiro-like configuration of the inner salt comprised of 1-deoxy-4-thio-D-arabinofuranosyl sulfonium cation and 1'-deoxy-D-erythrosyl-3'-sulfate anion. Salacinol showed potent inhibitory activities on several alpha-glucosidases, such as maltase, sucrase, and isomaltase, and the inhibitory effects on serum glucose levels in maltose- and sucrose-loaded rats (in vivo) were found to be more potent than that of acarbose, a commercial alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. PMID:11886816

  8. Hepatoprotective and antioxidative properties of Salacia reticulata: preventive effects of phenolic constituents on CCl4-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Nishida, Norihisa; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2002-01-01

    The hepatoprotective effects of the hot water (SRHW) and methanolic (SRM) extracts from the roots and stems of Salacia reticulata were examined using an oxidative stress-induced liver injury model. Both SRHW and SRM extracts (400 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly suppressed the increase in glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activities in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated mice. These extracts also inhibited CCl4-induced thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBA-RS) formation, which indicates increased lipid peroxidation in the liver. A good correlation (r=0.945, preticulata were examined. Mangiferin, (-)-4'-O-methylepigallocatechin, and (-)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-(-)-4'-O-methylepigallocatechin, which a principal phenolic compounds, showed potent scavenging activity on DPPH radicals and their concentrations required for 50% reduction of 40 microM DPPH radicals were 5.9, 10, and 3.2 microM, respectively. On the other hand, against the CCl4-induced serum GOT and GPT elevations and TBA-RS formation in mice, mangiferin and (-)-4'-O-methylepigallocatechin showed potent activity at a dose of 100 mg/kg, but (-)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-(-)-4'-O-methylepigallocatechin did not. These results suggest that the antioxidative activity of the principal phenolic compounds is involved in the hepatoprotective activity of S. reticulata. PMID:11824561

  9. Purified Methanolic Extract of Salacia reticulata Wight. Ameliorates Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Alterations in Rats Fed High Fructose Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, S. K.; Mohamed Rafiq

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried-out to investigate the insulin sensitizing activity of purified methanolic extract of salacia reticulata roots in fructose-fed rats, a well-known model of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Feeding fructose enriched diet caused a hyperinsulinemic state and increased insulin resistance index with statistically significant increase in fasting triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. Fructose fed rats also exhibited glucose intolerance...

  10. New glucosidase inhibitors from an ayurvedic herbal treatment for type 2 diabetes: structures and inhibition of human intestinal maltase-glucoamylase with compounds from Salacia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Lyann; Jayakanthan, Kumarasamy; Mohan, Sankar; Nasi, Ravindranath; Johnston, Blair D; Pinto, B Mario; Rose, David R

    2010-01-26

    An approach to controlling blood glucose levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes is to target alpha-amylases and intestinal glucosidases using alpha-glucosidase inhibitors acarbose and miglitol. One of the intestinal glucosidases targeted is the N-terminal catalytic domain of maltase-glucoamylase (ntMGAM), one of the four intestinal glycoside hydrolase 31 enzyme activities responsible for the hydrolysis of terminal starch products into glucose. Here we present the X-ray crystallographic studies of ntMGAM in complex with a new class of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors derived from natural extracts of Salacia reticulata, a plant used traditionally in Ayuverdic medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Included in these extracts are the active compounds salacinol, kotalanol, and de-O-sulfonated kotalanol. This study reveals that de-O-sulfonated kotalanol is the most potent ntMGAM inhibitor reported to date (K(i) = 0.03 microM), some 2000-fold better than the compounds currently used in the clinic, and highlights the potential of the salacinol class of inhibitors as future drug candidates. PMID:20039683

  11. Salacia reticulata improves serum lipid profiles and glycemic control in patients with prediabetes and mild to moderate hyperlipidemia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaprasad, H N; Bhanumathy, M; Sushma, G; Midhun, T; Raveendra, K R; Sushma, K R; Venkateshwarlu, K

    2013-06-01

    The present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy and safety of Salacia reticulata leaves and root bark extracts in 29 patients with prediabetes and mild to moderate hyperlipidemia. Patients received either Salacia extracts (500?mg/day) or placebo along with therapeutic lifestyle changes for a period of 6 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of change in lipid profile and glycemic levels. The safety and tolerability was evaluated by a physical examination and clinical laboratory evaluations. Improvements in lipid profiles and glycemic levels were observed in Salacia extract-treated groups when compared to placebo at week 6. A statistical significant reduction was observed in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels at week 3 and 6 when treated with root bark extract. The leaves extract-treated group showed statistically significant reduction in FBS levels at week 6 only. No adverse events occurred and all safety parameters were within normal ranges during the study. This study revealed that treatment with S. reticulata was safe and well-tolerated and may be beneficial in the management of prediabetes and mild to moderate hyperlipidemia. PMID:23767865

  12. Anti-proliferative effects of Salacia reticulata leaves hot-water extract on interleukin-1?-activated cells derived from the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis model mice

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    Sekiguchi Yuusuke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salacia reticulata (SR is a plant native to Sri Lanka. In ayurvedic medicine, SR bark preparations, taken orally, are considered effective in the treatment of rheumatism and diabetes. We investigated the ability of SR leaves (SRL to inhibit in vitro the interleukin-1? (IL-1?-activated proliferation of synoviocyte-like cells derived from rheumatoid arthritis model mice. Findings Inflammatory synovial tissues were harvested from type II collagen antibody-induced arthritic mice. From these tissues, a synoviocyte-like cell line was established and named MTS-C H7. To determine whether SRL can suppress cell proliferation and gene expression in MTS-C H7 cells, fractionation of the SRL hot-water extract was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, liquid-liquid extraction, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, and protease digestion. The 50% inhibitory concentration of the SRL hot-water extract against MTS-C H7 cells proliferation was ~850??g/mL. Treatment with a low dose (25??g dry matter per millilitre of the extract inhibited IL-1?-induced cell proliferation and suppressed the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP genes in MTS-C H7 cells. Various polyphenolic fractions obtained from HPLC and the fractions from liquid-liquid extraction did not affect cell proliferation. Only the residual water sample from liquid-liquid extraction significantly affected cell proliferation and the expression of MMP genes. The results of SDS-PAGE and protease digestion experiment showed that low molecular weight proteins present in SRL inhibited the IL-1?-activated cell proliferation. Conclusions We surmised that the residual water fraction of the SRL extract was involved in the inhibition of IL-1?-activated cell proliferation and regulation of mRNA expression in MTS-C H7 cells. In addition, we believe that the active ingredients in the extract are low molecular weight proteins.

  13. Biochemical investigation and gene expression analysis of the immunostimulatory functions of an edible Salacia extract in rat small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Yuriko; Ueda, Fumitaka; Kamei, Asuka; Kakinuma, Chihaya; Abe, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Roots and bark from plants belonging to genus Salacia of the family Hippocrateaceae (Salacia reticulata, Salacia oblonga, etc.) have been used for traditional Ayurvedic medicine, particularly for the treatment of diabetes. In our study, we evaluated the gene expression profiles in the small intestinal epithelium of rats that were given a Salacia plant extract to gain insight into its effects on the small intestine. In detail, DNA microarray analysis was performed to evaluate the gene expression profiles in the rat ileal epithelium. The intestinal bacterial flora was also studied using T-RFLP (Nagashima method) in these rats. Expressions of many immune-related genes, especially Th1-related genes associated with cell-mediated immunity, were found to increase in the small intestinal epithelium and the intestinal bacterial flora became similar to those in the case with Salacia plant extract administration. Our study thus revealed that Salacia plant extract exerts bioregulatory functions by boosting intestinal immunity. PMID:21328625

  14. CONJOINTED TWIN AND TRIPLET SEEDLINGS IN SALACIA CHINENSIS LINN: AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Rane A D; Gogate P P; Boat R I

    2012-01-01

    Seed germination and seedling grading are important stages in nursery management. Abnormal seedlings are generally discarded from planting programme. Reporting of such abnormalities are important in further breeding programme. Such abnormalities in Salacia chinensis are reported in this article.

  15. CONJOINTED TWIN AND TRIPLET SEEDLINGS IN SALACIA CHINENSIS LINN: AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT

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    Rane A D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination and seedling grading are important stages in nursery management. Abnormal seedlings are generally discarded from planting programme. Reporting of such abnormalities are important in further breeding programme. Such abnormalities in Salacia chinensis are reported in this article.

  16. A double blind randomised placebo controlled cross over study of a herbal preparation containing Salacia reticulata in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, M H S; de Alwis, N M W; Hettigoda, V; Fernando, D J S

    2005-02-28

    We conducted a randomised single centre double blind cross over clinical trial to investigate the effects of a herbal tea containing Salacia reticulata (Kothala Himbutu tea) in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Fifty-one patients with type II diabetes mellitus for longer than 6 months and with evidence of stable glycaemic control over the preceding 6 months (as assessed by HbA1C) participated in the study. They were randomised to receive a standard preparation of Kothala Himbutu tea for 3 months followed by placebo in similar tea bags for a further 3 months (n = 28) or in reverse order (n = 23). All patients received detailed advice on diet, exercise and lifestyle modification. HbA1C was measured at recruitment, at 3 months and on completion of the study at 6 months. Liver and renal functions were assessed biochemically at baseline, at 3 and 6 months and adverse events were recorded. There were no significant differences between the two groups in age, body mass index, male/female ratio, glycaemic control and baseline laboratory tests. All patients completed both arms of the trial. The HbA1C at the end of drug treatment was significantly lower than after treatment with placebo (6.29 +/- S.D. 1.02 versus 6.65 +/- S.D. 1.04; P = 0.008). A statistically significant fall in HBA1c was seen with the active drug compared to a rise in HbA1C with the placebo group (0. 54 +/- S.D. 0.93) versus -0.3 +/-S.D. 1.05; P < 0.001. The daily mean dose of Glibenclamide fell by 1.89 (S.D. 6.2) mg in the drug treated group but rose by 2.25 mg in the placebo treated group (P = 0.07). The differences in the metformin dose were not significantly significant in the two groups. We conclude that Kothala Himbutu tea is an effective and safe treatment for type 2 diabetes. PMID:15707755

  17. Mutagenicity induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the medicinal plant Plathymenia reticulata Benth

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    A Della Torre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plathymenia reticulata Benth has an anti-inflammatory effect and is capable of neutralizing the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu or Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, probably by precipitating venom proteins (an effect caused by plant tannins. The present study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic activity of P. reticulata by using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test and the micronucleus test in CHO-K1 cells. P. reticulata extract concentrations of 2.84, 5.68, 11.37, and 19.90 mg/plate were assayed by the Ames test using TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 bacterial strains, with (+S9 and without (-S9 metabolic activation. Concentrations of 5, 1.6 and 0.5 ?g/mL of P. reticulata extract were used for the micronucleus test. P. reticulata extract was mutagenic to TA98 (-S9 and showed signs of mutagenic activity in TA97a and TA102 (both -S9 strains. Micronucleus test CBPI values showed that the endogenous metabolic system increased the number of viable cells when compared to the non-activated samples and the micronucleus frequency increased when the cells were treated in the absence of S9. We concluded that P. reticulata extract may present direct mutagenic properties.

  18. Mutagenicity induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the medicinal plant Plathymenia reticulata Benth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Della Torre; LBL, Albuquerque; NM, Farrapo; Y, Oshima-Franco; MG, Santos; RVS, Tavares; ACD, Rodas; CA, Dal Belo; CRP, Cardoso; EA, Varanda; FC, Groppo; PS, Lopes.

    Full Text Available Plathymenia reticulata Benth has an anti-inflammatory effect and is capable of neutralizing the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu or Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, probably by precipitating venom proteins (an effect caused by plant tannins). The present study aimed to eval [...] uate the mutagenic activity of P. reticulata by using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test) and the micronucleus test in CHO-K1 cells. P. reticulata extract concentrations of 2.84, 5.68, 11.37, and 19.90 mg/plate were assayed by the Ames test using TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 bacterial strains, with (+S9) and without (-S9) metabolic activation. Concentrations of 5, 1.6 and 0.5 ?g/mL of P. reticulata extract were used for the micronucleus test. P. reticulata extract was mutagenic to TA98 (-S9) and showed signs of mutagenic activity in TA97a and TA102 (both -S9) strains. Micronucleus test CBPI values showed that the endogenous metabolic system increased the number of viable cells when compared to the non-activated samples and the micronucleus frequency increased when the cells were treated in the absence of S9. We concluded that P. reticulata extract may present direct mutagenic properties.

  19. A mixture of Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) aqueous extract and cyclodextrin reduces body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, and total cholesterol and insulin increases in male Wistar fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishino, Eriko; Ito, Tetsuya; Fujita, Koki; Kiuchi, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a mixture of an aqueous extract of Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) and cyclodextrin (SRCD) on various metabolic parameters and cecal fermentation in obese fa/fa male Wistar fatty rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Wistar fatty rats were fed 0% (control group) or 0.2% SRCD-supplemented diets and weighed weekly. The plasma glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, insulin, and adiponectin concentrations were measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 5. SRCD supplementation suppressed the time-dependent increase in the plasma total cholesterol and insulin concentrations. After 6 weeks of a 0.2% SRCD-supplemented diet, the body weight gain, food intake, visceral fat mass, liver mass, and liver triacylglycerol content of the rats were significantly lower, whereas the plasma adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher than those of the control group. SRCD supplementation had no significant effect on plasma glucose and triacylglycerol concentrations. SRCD supplementation significantly increased cecum mass, whereas it significantly decreased the cecal butyrate and short-chain fatty acid (sum of the acetate, butyrate, and propionate) concentrations. All of the rats were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test at the beginning of week 6. The area under the curve for insulin was significantly smaller with SRCD supplementation and showed no change in glucose tolerance compared to that of the control group. These results suggest that bioactive compounds in SRCD may suppress the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus by influencing glucose and lipid metabolism in male Wistar fatty rats and that SRCD may influence cecal fermentation. PMID:19185778

  20. A mixture of the Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) aqueous extract and cyclodextrin reduces the accumulation of visceral fat mass in mice and rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishino, Eriko; Ito, Tetsuya; Fujita, Koki; Kiuchi, Yoshihiro

    2006-02-01

    The effects of a mixture of the Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) aqueous extract and cyclodextrin (SRCD) on the development of obesity were examined. We studied the effects of SRCD on the elevation of plasma triacylglycerol levels induced by oral administration of a high-fat (HF) liquid diet to male Sprague-Dawley rats. The plasma triacylglycerol concentration was significantly lower in the SRCD-treated rats than in the control rats 4 h after HF diet administration (P<0.05). In a study of female C57BL/6 mice that consumed a solid HF diet containing 0, 0.2 or 0.5% SRCD ad libitum for 8 wk, the increases in body weight and visceral fat mass were less in those fed the diet supplemented with 0.5% SRCD than in those fed the HF diet (P<0.05). In male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a solid HF diet with or without 0.2% SRCD and restricted in energy intake to that of rats fed a normal diet for 35 d, the increases in body weight and visceral fat mass were smaller in the SRCD-supplemented rats (P<0.05). In addition, the energy efficiency and the plasma leptin and adiponectin concentrations were lower in the mice and rats that were administered SRCD than in those fed the HF diet alone (P<0.05). The inhibitory effects of SRCD on HF diet-induced obesity may be attributable to the inhibition of carbohydrate and lipid absorption from the small intestine. Therefore, SRCD may suppress the accumulation of visceral fat and the glucose intolerance that accompany this type of obesity. PMID:16424124

  1. Safety evaluation of the aqueous extract Kothala himbutu (Salacia reticulata) stem in the hepatic gene expression profile of normal mice using DNA microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ryanghyok; Mano, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Sachie; Shimizu, Jun; Wada, Masahiro

    2008-12-01

    Kothala himbutu is a traditional Ayurvedic medicinal plant used to treat diabetes. We aimed to evaluate the safety of an aqueous extract of Kothala himbutu stem (KTE) in normal mice. The mice were divided into two groups: one was administered KTE and the other distilled water for 3 weeks. During the test period, the groups showed no significant differences in body weight gain or plasma parameters, such as fasting blood glucose level, oral glucose tolerance test, or aspartate transaminase (AST) or alanine transaminase (ALT) activity. DNA microarray analysis revealed that expression of genes of known function, such as those for the stress response, ribosomal proteins, transcription, cell function, the inflammatory/immune response, and metabolism (xenobiotic, glutathione, etc.) remained largely unaffected by KTE. However some genes such as catechol-o-methyltransferase and succinyl-CoA synthetase were regulated by KTE, indicating that KTE is not toxic to normal mice and might be effective as a functional food. PMID:19060410

  2. In silico design, synthesis and evaluation of 3'-O-benzylated analogs of salacinol, a potent ?-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from an Ayurvedic traditional medicine "Salacia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Genzoh; Nakamura, Shinya; Tsutsui, Nozomi; Balakishan, Gorre; Xie, Weijia; Tsuchiya, Satoshi; Akaki, Junji; Morikawa, Toshio; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Nakanishi, Isao; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu

    2012-09-01

    With the aid of an in silico method, ?-glucosidase inhibitors with far more potent activities than salacinol (1), a potent natural ?-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from an Ayurvedic traditional medicine Salacia reticulata, have been developed. PMID:22820468

  3. Oral hypoglycaemic activity of some medicinal plants of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanayake, E H; Welihinda, J; Sirimanne, S R; Sinnadorai, G

    1984-07-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the oral hypoglycaemic activity of some Sri Lankan medicinal plants. Approximately 40 plants available locally are reputed to have oral hypoglycaemic activity. Of these, the mostly widely used are (a) Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) (b) Aegle marmelos (Rutaceae) and (c) Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae). Aqueous decoctions of these plants were investigated for their ability to lower the fasting blood glucose level and improve the glucose tolerance in laboratory animals. The results indicate that the aqueous decoctions of all three plants possess significant hypoglycaemic effect. The magnitude of this effect showed time related variation with the three plants. The highest oral hypoglycaemic activity and the maximum improvement of the oral glucose tolerance were associated with the extract of Momordica charantia while the least but significant effects were shown by Salacia reticulata. PMID:6492834

  4. PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND HPTLC PROFILING OF EXTRACTS OF SALACIA OBLONGA

    OpenAIRE

    Sujata Basu, Mamta Pant And Rachana

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Plants of medicinal importance though are quite well known among the Ayurvedic practitioners since years, yet many of them have not been standardized, validated and documented completely. Among such medicinally valuable plants, Salacia holds a place as an effective antidiabetic herb and many species of this plant are in use as anti-diabetics. The present study reports the phytochemical analysis of one of its species Salacia oblonga (SO) (roots and stems), belonging to the family Cel...

  5. REVIEW ON KIRGANELIA RETICULATA

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    Amol Kharat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and information on Kirganelia reticulata (Poir Family Euphorbiaceae, a medicinal herb used in the indigenous system of medicine. K. reticulata has been adored in almost all ancient ayurvedic texts for its extraordinary medicinal properties. K. reticulata is annual herbaceous climbing plant with long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties and has utilized for treatment of various ailments including, diuretic, diarrhoea, small pox and astringent. Wild range of chemical compound including, flavanoids, triterpenoids, alkaloids and glycosides have been isolated from the species. Their extracts have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. A compressive review of its ethanomedical uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant is prepared. Particular attention is given to its antibacterial, antiviral, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant effects so that its potential uses can be better evaluated. This review will definitely help for the researchers as well as clinicians dealing with K. reticulata to know its proper usage as this herb is seemed to be highly valuable, possessing many pharmacological / medicinal properties. Keywords: Euphorbiaceae, Kirganelia reticulate, phytochemistry, Pharmacological properties

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Antihyperglycaemic Effect of Various Parts of Salacia chinensis L.

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Leema Rose, A.; Anitha, S.

    2013-01-01

    Salacia chinensis L. (Saptrangi) belongs to the family Hippocrateaceae. The plant extracts have been evaluated for number of activities like anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, sedative and neuromuscular. In traditional medicine, this plant has been used in the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, methanolic extracts of leaf, stem and root of Salacia chinensis were tested for antihyperglycaemic activities in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Glibenclamide (500 ?g ...

  7. SALACIA IMPERATORIA URBS

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    José d’Encarnação

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Síntese acerca do que se tem investigado sobre Alcácer do Sal na época romana. Explicita-se a razão do nome; refere-se o interesse que, em todos os tempos, despertou nos historiadores; releva-se o papel fundamental que deteve do ponto de vista estratégico e económico (os Cornelli Bocchi, a emissão de moeda…. Analisa-se, nesse contexto, o pedestal dedicado por uma flamínia a I. O. M. (IRCP 183; a consagração de Vicanus, Bouti filius, ao imperador Augusto (IRCP 184, a presença da onomástica grega e a importância invulgar da tabella defixionis, em que se invocam Hércules e Átis. ENGLISH: Synthesis of the investigation about Salacia: the cause of its Roman designation, the interest of the researchers throughout time, the important strategic and economic position of the town (the family of the Cornelli Bocchi, emission of money…. Additionally, this synthesis includes the reanalysis of uncommon epigraphic texts: the dedication of a flaminica to I. O. M. (IRCP 183, the consecration of Vicanus Bouti filius to the Emperor August (IRCP 184, the significant presence of the Greek names and of a tabella defixionis where the power of Hercules and Atis are invoked.

  8. [Polyphenol constituents from Salacia species: quantitative analysis of mangiferin with alpha-glucosidase and aldose reductase inhibitory activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, M; Nishida, N; Shimoda, H; Takada, M; Kawahara, Y; Matsuda, H

    2001-05-01

    Mangiferin, three catechins, and two catechin dimers were isolated from the roots of Salacia reticulata (SRE), and examined their inhibitory activities against several carbohydrate metabolize enzymes (sucrase, maltase, isomaltase, alpha-amylase, and aldose reductase). Among them, mangiferin was found to inhibit sucrase, isomaltase, and aldose reductase from rat with IC50 values of 87, 216 and 1.4 micrograms/ml, respectively. The inhibitory activities of mangiferin are competitive for sucrase and isomaltase with inhibitor constant (Ki) 55 micrograms/ml and 70 micrograms/ml, respectively. In order to determine the mangiferin contents in the water extracts from the roots of S. reticulata, a quantitative analytical method by means of HPLC was developed and the mangiferin contents in SRE were determined to be in the range of 0.9-2.3% by the application of this method. A high linear correlation (r = 0.934) was observed between the mangiferin contents and the sucrase inhibitory activity. In addition, this analytical procedure of mangiferin was found to be applicable for other Salacia species (S. oblonga, S. chinensis, and S. prinoides). Thus, the quantitative HPLC analysis of mangiferin was supposed to be suitable for the quality control of Salacia species and its products. PMID:11360491

  9. [A new trincallane derivative from Salacia hainanensis Chun et How].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zheng-Hong; Xi, Rong-Gang; Wang, Xiao-Bo; Wu, Li-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan

    2009-10-01

    Chemical constituents of the roots and stem of Salacia hainanensis Chun et How were isolated and purified with column chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated based on physicochemical and spectral spectroscopic analysis. Depending on the activities of anti-alpha-glucosidase and inhibiting AGEs (advanced glycation end products, AGEs) formation in vitro, nine compounds were identified as 26, 27-dihydroxy-7, 24-tirucalladien-3-one (1), abruslactone A (2), lupeol (3), 21alpha, 30-dihydroxy-D: A-friedooleanan-3-one (4), 15alpha-hydroxyfriedelan-3-one (5), friedelin (6), mangiferin (7), epicatechin (8) and beta-sitosterol (9), separately. Among them, compound 1 is a new compound, and compound 2 was isolated from the Salacia genus for the first time, while, compounds 3, 4, 5, 8 were obtained from this plant for the first time. PMID:20055135

  10. Biochemical characterization of selected plant species from Brazilian Savannas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Samantha Salomão, Caramori; Claudinei Sousa, Lima; Kátia Flávia, Fernandes.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O Cerrado é constituído por inúmeras espécies vegetais com potencial econômico, as quais são utilizadas para os mais variados fins, como medicinal e nutricional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar e quantificar a presença de atividade enzimática de peroxidases e proteases e fatores antinutricion [...] ais, como lectinas e inibidores de proteases, além de polifenóis e taninos em algumas espécies nativas do Cerrado. O material vegetal utilizado foram sementes de Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá), Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca), Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada), Salacia crassiflora (Mart.) G. Don. (bacupari) e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro), coletadas na cidade de Goiânia e municípios de Jataí e Caldas Novas, estado de Goiás. O uso potencial destas plantas e suas enzimas na indústria de alimentos, poderia resultar em aplicações ao aparecimento de novos produtos a partir das matérias-primas tradicionais, além do uso de novas fontes de alimentos. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the presence of antinutritional compounds such as lectins and trypsin-like inhibitors, polyphenols and tannins, and enzymatic activity of peroxidases and proteases in the seeds of Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbar [...] il (jatobá), Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca), Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada), Salacia crassiflora Mart G. Don. (bacupari), and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro). The results suggested that these plants could be used as new source of food.

  11. Biochemical characterization of selected plant species from Brazilian Savannas

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    Samantha Salomão Caramori

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the presence of antinutritional compounds such as lectins and trypsin-like inhibitors, polyphenols and tannins, and enzymatic activity of peroxidases and proteases in the seeds of Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá, Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca, Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada, Salacia crassiflora Mart G. Don. (bacupari, and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro. The results suggested that these plants could be used as new source of food.O Cerrado é constituído por inúmeras espécies vegetais com potencial econômico, as quais são utilizadas para os mais variados fins, como medicinal e nutricional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar e quantificar a presença de atividade enzimática de peroxidases e proteases e fatores antinutricionais, como lectinas e inibidores de proteases, além de polifenóis e taninos em algumas espécies nativas do Cerrado. O material vegetal utilizado foram sementes de Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá, Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca, Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada, Salacia crassiflora (Mart. G. Don. (bacupari e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro, coletadas na cidade de Goiânia e municípios de Jataí e Caldas Novas, estado de Goiás. O uso potencial destas plantas e suas enzimas na indústria de alimentos, poderia resultar em aplicações ao aparecimento de novos produtos a partir das matérias-primas tradicionais, além do uso de novas fontes de alimentos.

  12. Nephroprotective and antioxidant activities of Salacia oblonga on acetaminophen-induced toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palani, S; Raja, S; Kumar, S Nirmal; Kumar, B Senthil

    2011-11-01

    Salacia oblonga, a woody climbing plant belonging to the family Celastaceae, is widely distributed in India and other southeast Asian countries. The genus Salacia have been used particularly for the treatment of diabetes, obesity, gonorrhoea, rheumatism, pruritus and asthma. Acetaminophen (APAP), used as an analgesic drug, produces liver and kidney necrosis in mammals at high doses. The aim of this study was to investigate the nephroprotective and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of Salacia oblonga (EESO) at the two dose levels of 250 and 500 mg/kg?bw on APAP-induced toxicity in rats. The results showed that APAP significantly increases the levels of serum urea, creatinine, and reduces levels of uric acid concentration. The EESO reduces these by increasing anti-oxidative responses as assessed by biochemical and histopathological parameters. In conclusion, our results suggest that the EESO possesses nephroprotective and antioxidant effects against APAP-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. PMID:21848492

  13. Salacia root, a unique Ayurvedic medicine, meets multiple targets in diabetes and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhao; Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Yamahara, Johji

    2008-05-23

    In many traditional schools of medicine it is claimed that a balanced modulation of several targets can provide a superior therapeutic effect and decrease in side effect profile compared to a single action from a single selective ligand, especially in the treatment of certain chronic and complex diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. Diabetes and obesity have a multi-factorial basis involving both genetic and environmental risk factors. A wide array of medicinal plants and their active constituents play a role in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Salacia roots have been used in Ayurvedic medicine for diabetes and obesity since antiquity, and have been extensively consumed in Japan, the United States and other countries as a food supplement for the prevention of obesity and diabetes. Recent pharmacological studies have demonstrated that Salacia roots modulate multiple targets: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha-mediated lipogenic gene transcription, angiotensin II/angiotensin II type 1 receptor, alpha-glucosidase, aldose reductase and pancreatic lipase. These multi-target actions may mainly contribute to Salacia root-induced improvement of type 2 diabetes and obesity-associated hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and related cardiovascular complications seen in humans and rodents. The results of bioassay-guided identification indicate that mangiferin, salacinol, kotalanol and kotalagenin 16-acetate are at least in part responsible for these multi-target regulatory activities of Salacia roots. The evidence suggests that this unique traditional medicine fulfills a multiple-target strategy in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and obesity. Although toxicological studies have suggested minimal adverse effects of the herbal medicine in rodents, a clinical trial is crucial to further confirm the safety of Salacia roots. In addition, further mechanistic studies are necessary in order to allow a better understanding of how use of Salacia root may interact with other therapeutic interventions. PMID:18433791

  14. PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND HPTLC PROFILING OF EXTRACTS OF SALACIA OBLONGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Basu, Mamta Pant and Rachana*

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Plants of medicinal importance though are quite well known among the Ayurvedic practitioners since years, yet many of them have not been standardized, validated and documented completely. Among such medicinally valuable plants, Salacia holds a place as an effective antidiabetic herb and many species of this plant are in use as anti-diabetics. The present study reports the phytochemical analysis of one of its species Salacia oblonga (SO (roots and stems, belonging to the family Celastraceae (bittersweet, through various biochemical and chromatographic methods. TLC and HPTLC analysis of six different extracts of SO revealed numerous bands, indicating the presence of diverse groups of phytocompounds, many of them are assumed to contribute significantly to its antioxidant activity as well as, other biological activities. This type of analysis can help in fingerprint profiling of the plant and its various species. The identification and characterization of the phytocompounds can further help in finding out molecular targets/mechanism of action of the constituents of this herb that are responsible for its biological activities.

  15. Quantitative determination of potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, salacinol and kotalanol, in Salacia species using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Osamu; Morikawa, Toshio; Miyake, Sohachiro; Akaki, Junji; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2010-09-01

    A practical HPLC-MS method for the quantitative determination of salacinol (1) and kotalanol (2), potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from Salacia species (Hippocrateaceae) as a specific remedy for diabetes in Ayurvedic system, was developed. The optimum conditions of separation and detection of these two constituents were achieved on a Asahipak NH2P-50 column (5 mcirom particle size, 2.0 mm i.d. x 150 mm) with a CH(3)CN-H(2)O mobile phase, associated with MS using electrospray ionization source. The overall recoveries of 1 (85.8-112.6%) and 2 (99.7-106.1%), and relative standard deviation values of intra- and inter-day precision were lower than 6.8 and 8.5%, respectively. The detection (S/N=3) and quantitation limits (S/N=10) were established to be 0.015 and 0.050 ng for 1, and 0.030 and 0.10 ng for 2, respectively. The correlation coefficients of all the calibration curves showed good linearity within test ranges. The extraction process was also optimized as 2 h immersion in water under reflux. The method was applied to evaluate extracts of three kinds of Salacia species, i.e. S. reticulata, S. oblonga, and S. chinensis, and those of four different parts, i.e. roots, stems, leaves and fruits of the same material, revealing that the extract from the roots of S. reticulata had the highest contents of these compounds. The results indicated that the assay was reproducible and precise and could be readily utilized for the evaluation of Salacia species. PMID:20303690

  16. Use of an infrared thermometer for assessment of plant water stress in neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayan Sdoodee

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In general, water stress causes stomatal closure in citrus, and this leads to higher leaf temperature. Recently, it has been reported that infrared thermometry technique can be used for detecting stomatal closure indirectly to assess plant water stress. Therefore, it was proposed to apply to neck orange. An experiment was arranged as a completely randomized design. There were 3 treatments of watering levels: 1 wellwatering (W1, 2 3-day interval watering (W2, and 3 6-day interval watering (W3 with 6 replicates. Eighteen 2-year-old trees of neck orange were used, and each tree was grown in a container (0.4 m3 filled with mixed media of soil, compost and sand (1:1:1. During 18 days of the experimental period, it was found that leaf water potential and stomatal conductance of the plants in W2 and W3 treatments decreased with the progress of water stress. There was high correlation (r2 = 0.71** between leaf water potential and stomatal conductance as a linear regression (Y = 0.0044X-1.8635. Canopy temperature (Tc and air temperature (Ta of each tree were measured by an infrared thermometer, and Tc-Ta was assessed. At the end of the experimental period, it was found that Tc-Ta was significantly highest in the W3 treatment (3.5ºC followed by the of W2 treatment (2ºC, while it was lowest in the W1 treatment (1ºC. The relationship between Tc-Ta and stomatal conductance was high as polynomial (Y = 0.0002X2 0.0572X+3.9878, r2 = 0.70**. This indicated that stomatal closure or decreasing stomatal conductance caused increasing of Tc-Ta in the leaves. Hence, it suggests that infrared thermometer is a convenient device for the assessment of plant water stress in neck orange.

  17. Salacia campestris root bark extract: peroxidase inhibition, antioxidant and antiradical profile

    OpenAIRE

    José Carlos Rebuglio Vellosa; Najeh Maissar Khalil; Vânia Ortega Gutierres; Vânia Aparecida de Freitas Formenton Macedo dos Santos; Maysa Furlan; Iguatemy Lourenço Brunetti; Olga Maria Mascarenhas Faria de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radical species have been implicated in initiating or accompanying many diseases in living organisms; there is thus, a continual need for antioxidants molecules to inactivate ROS/free radicals. Many studies of plants crude extracts have demonstrated free-radical scavenging and antioxidant action. Salacia species have long been used, in several countries, as traditional medicines against certain diseases and for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this...

  18. Screening of ethnic medicinal plants of South India against influenza (H1N1) and their antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria John, K M; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Jin, Kijoun; Yeon, Jin Bong; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-03-01

    Antiviral activity against H1N1 influenza was studied using ethnic medicinal plants of South India. Results revealed that Wrightia tinctoria (2.25 ?g/ml) was one of the best antidotes against H1N1 virus in terms of inhibitory concentration of 50% (IC50) whereas the control drug Oseltamivir showed 6.44 ?g/ml. Strychnos minor, Diotacanthus albiflorus and Cayratia pedata showed low cytotoxicity (>100) to the MDCK (Malin darby canine kidney) cells by cytotoxicity concentration of 50% (CC50) and possessed antiviral activity suggesting that these plants can be used as herbal capsules for H1N1 virus. W. tinctoria and S. minor showed high therapeutic indexes (TI) such as 12.67 and 21.97 suggesting that those plants can be used for anti-viral drug development. The CC50 values of Eugenia singampattiana (0.3 ?g/ml), Vitex altissima (42 ?g/ml), Salacia oblonga (7.32 ?g/ml) and Salacia reticulata (7.36 ?g/ml) resulted in cytotoxicity of the MDCK cells, due to their high phenolic content. Findings from this study state that the plant W. tinctoria can be a potent source for third generation anti-viral drug development against H1N1. PMID:25737652

  19. PHARMACEUTICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON SALACIA MACROSPERMA-1

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateswarlu, V.; Kokate, C. K.; Peddanna, G.; Veeresham, C.; Rambhau, D.

    1990-01-01

    The chloroform, ethanol (95%) and aqueous extracts of roots of Salacia macrosperma (Hippocrataceae) were prepared by double maceration followed by vacuum evaporation. All the extracts were subjects to qualitative chemical tests to find out phytoconstituents present in them. The ethanolic extract showed significant hypoglycemic activity in fasted rabbits. The activity of ethanolic extract was also evaluated in alloxan induced hyperglycemic albino rats. It showed a mean blood sugar level reduct...

  20. Chemical constituents of Salacia elliptica (Celastraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lucienir Pains Duarte; Rute Cunha Figueiredo; Grasiely Faria de Sousa; Débora Barbosa da Silva Soares; Salomão Bento Vasconcelos Rodrigues; Fernando César Silva; Grácia Divina de Fátima Silva; Sidney Augusto Vieira Filho

    2010-01-01

    The chemical investigation of Salacia elliptica allowed to the isolation of 20 constituents: two polyols, one xanthone, a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons, one carboxylic acid, one polymer, two steroidal compounds, one aromatic ester and eleven pentacyclic triterpenes. These triterpenes include 3?-stearyloxy-oleanane, 3?-stearyloxy-ursane, one seco-friedelane, and eight compounds of the friedelane serie. The chemical structure and the relative configuration of a new triterpene 1,3...

  1. [Biological activities of Salacia chinensis originating in Thailand: the quality evaluation guided by alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Pongpiriyadacha, Yutana; Kishi, Akinobu; Kageura, Tadashi; Wang, Tao; Morikawa, Toshio; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2003-10-01

    In the course of our characterization studies on anti-obese and antidiabetogenic principles in medicinal foodstuffs, we found that the methanolic extract from the stems of Salacia chinensis (Hippocerateaceae) showed potent anti-hyperglycemic effects in oral sucrose or maltose-loaded rats, inhibitory effects on intestinal alpha-glucosidase, rat lens aldose reductase, formation of Amadori compounds and advanced glycation end-products, nitric oxide production from lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse peritoneal macrophage, and radical scavenging activities. Those in vivo and in vitro biological activities were compared with those of S. oblonga and S. reticulata. In addition, we isolated the principal alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, salacinol, from the stems of S. chinensis and examined alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities of eleven samples of S. chinensis collected in Thailand. PMID:14577333

  2. Chemical constituents of Salacia elliptica (Celastraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Figueiredo, Rute Cunha; Sousa, Grasiely Faria de; Soares, Debora Barbosa da Silva; Rodrigues, Salomao Bento Vasconcelos; Silva, Fernando Cesar; Silva, Gracia Divina de Fatima, E-mail: lucienir@ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Vieira Filho, Sidney Augusto [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Escola de Farmacia. Dept. de Farmacia

    2010-07-01

    The chemical investigation of Salacia elliptica allowed to the isolation of 20 constituents: two polyols, one xanthone, a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons, one carboxylic acid, one polymer, two steroidal compounds, one aromatic ester and eleven pentacyclic triterpenes. These triterpenes include 3{beta}-stearyloxy-oleanane, 3{beta}-stearyloxy-ursane, one seco-friedelane, and eight compounds of the friedelane series. The chemical structure and the relative configuration of a new triterpene 1,3-dioxo-16alpha-hydroxyfriedelane (15) were established through {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR including 2D experiments (HMBC, HMQC, COSY and NOESY) and herein reported for the first time (author)

  3. Chemical constituents of Salacia elliptica (Celastraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucienir Pains Duarte

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical investigation of Salacia elliptica allowed to the isolation of 20 constituents: two polyols, one xanthone, a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons, one carboxylic acid, one polymer, two steroidal compounds, one aromatic ester and eleven pentacyclic triterpenes. These triterpenes include 3?-stearyloxy-oleanane, 3?-stearyloxy-ursane, one seco-friedelane, and eight compounds of the friedelane serie. The chemical structure and the relative configuration of a new triterpene 1,3-dioxo-16?-hydroxyfriedelane (15 were established through ¹H and 13C NMR including 2D experiments (HMBC, HMQC, COSY and NOESY and herein reported for the first time.

  4. Chemical constituents of Salacia elliptica (Celastraceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucienir Pains, Duarte; Rute Cunha, Figueiredo; Grasiely Faria de, Sousa; Débora Barbosa da Silva, Soares; Salomão Bento Vasconcelos, Rodrigues; Fernando César, Silva; Grácia Divina de Fátima, Silva; Sidney Augusto, Vieira Filho.

    Full Text Available The chemical investigation of Salacia elliptica allowed to the isolation of 20 constituents: two polyols, one xanthone, a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons, one carboxylic acid, one polymer, two steroidal compounds, one aromatic ester and eleven pentacyclic triterpenes. These triterpenes include 3? [...] -stearyloxy-oleanane, 3?-stearyloxy-ursane, one seco-friedelane, and eight compounds of the friedelane serie. The chemical structure and the relative configuration of a new triterpene 1,3-dioxo-16?-hydroxyfriedelane (15) were established through ¹H and 13C NMR including 2D experiments (HMBC, HMQC, COSY and NOESY) and herein reported for the first time.

  5. Chemical constituents of Salacia elliptica (Celastraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical investigation of Salacia elliptica allowed to the isolation of 20 constituents: two polyols, one xanthone, a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons, one carboxylic acid, one polymer, two steroidal compounds, one aromatic ester and eleven pentacyclic triterpenes. These triterpenes include 3?-stearyloxy-oleanane, 3?-stearyloxy-ursane, one seco-friedelane, and eight compounds of the friedelane series. The chemical structure and the relative configuration of a new triterpene 1,3-dioxo-16?-hydroxyfriedelane (15) were established through 1H and 13C NMR including 2D experiments (HMBC, HMQC, COSY and NOESY) and herein reported for the first time (author)

  6. Palinotaxonomia de espécies brasileiras de Salacia L. (Hippocrateaceae) / Palynotaxonomy of the Brazilian species of Salacia L. (Hippocrateaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    VANIA, GONÇALVES-ESTEVES; THEREZINHA SANT’ANNA, MELHEM.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo palinotaxonômico de Salacia L. teve como objetivo contribuir para a melhor caracterização, circunscrição e delimitação deste gênero. Os grãos de pólen de 21 espécies de Salacia foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados sob microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de varredura ( [...] MEV). A análise sob MEV foi utilizada visando a elucidação de dúvidas sobre a ornamentação da exina. Constatou-se que os grãos de pólen são predominantemente de tamanho médio, reticulados a microrreticulados, 3-colporados, geralmente com uma característica área apertural proeminente. Salacia é um gênero estenopolínico. Entretanto, o pólen permitiu a confecção da chave polínica e a separação de diferentes espécies ou grupo de espécies de Salacia com base nos resultados obtidos sob microscopia de luz. O presente trabalho confirmou, por meio dos grãos de pólen, a circunscrição e a delimitação genérica da Hippocrateaceae da América do Sul. Abstract in english The palynotaxonomic study of Salacia L. aimed to contribute to a better characterization as well as the circumscription and delimitation of this genus. The pollen grains of 21 species of the Salacia were studied. The pollen material was acetolyzed, measured, described and illustrated with photo or e [...] letronmicrography (SEM). The analysis in SEM was used in order to elucidate the exine sculpture. The data obtained were statiscally analysed according to sample sizes. The pollen grains of Salacia are generally of medium size, oblate-spheroidal, reticulate to microreticulate, 3-colporate predominantly with a characteristic prominent apertural area. Salacia is a stenopalynous genus. However it was possible to make pollinic key with the results here obtained in light microscopy, and to segregate Salacia species or group of species using pollen characters. The present work has corroborated, by means of the pollen grains, the circumscription and generic delimitation concerning the Hippocrateaceae of South America.

  7. Palinotaxonomia de espécies brasileiras de Salacia L. (Hippocrateaceae Palynotaxonomy of the Brazilian species of Salacia L. (Hippocrateaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANIA GONÇALVES-ESTEVES

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo palinotaxonômico de Salacia L. teve como objetivo contribuir para a melhor caracterização, circunscrição e delimitação deste gênero. Os grãos de pólen de 21 espécies de Salacia foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados sob microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. A análise sob MEV foi utilizada visando a elucidação de dúvidas sobre a ornamentação da exina. Constatou-se que os grãos de pólen são predominantemente de tamanho médio, reticulados a microrreticulados, 3-colporados, geralmente com uma característica área apertural proeminente. Salacia é um gênero estenopolínico. Entretanto, o pólen permitiu a confecção da chave polínica e a separação de diferentes espécies ou grupo de espécies de Salacia com base nos resultados obtidos sob microscopia de luz. O presente trabalho confirmou, por meio dos grãos de pólen, a circunscrição e a delimitação genérica da Hippocrateaceae da América do Sul.The palynotaxonomic study of Salacia L. aimed to contribute to a better characterization as well as the circumscription and delimitation of this genus. The pollen grains of 21 species of the Salacia were studied. The pollen material was acetolyzed, measured, described and illustrated with photo or eletronmicrography (SEM. The analysis in SEM was used in order to elucidate the exine sculpture. The data obtained were statiscally analysed according to sample sizes. The pollen grains of Salacia are generally of medium size, oblate-spheroidal, reticulate to microreticulate, 3-colporate predominantly with a characteristic prominent apertural area. Salacia is a stenopalynous genus. However it was possible to make pollinic key with the results here obtained in light microscopy, and to segregate Salacia species or group of species using pollen characters. The present work has corroborated, by means of the pollen grains, the circumscription and generic delimitation concerning the Hippocrateaceae of South America.

  8. The Ayurvedic Medicine Salacia oblonga Attenuates Diabetic Renal Fibrosis in Rats: Suppression of Angiotensin II/AT1 Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Lan He; Yanfei Qi; Xianglu Rong; Jianmin Jiang; Qinglin Yang; Johji Yamahara; Michael Murray; Yuhao Li

    2011-01-01

    In human diabetic nephropathy, the extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease; fibrosis is closely correlated with renal dysfunction. Although a wide array of medicinal plants play a role in the prevention and treatment of diabetes, there are few reports of the application of herbal medicines in amelioration of renal fibrosis, or the underlying mechanisms by which such benefits are mediated. The efficacy of the Ayurvedic antidiabetic medicine Salacia...

  9. Biochemical studies in Ulva reticulata Forsskal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    Major metabolites like proteins, carbohydrates and lipids in the alga Ulva reticulata were estimated. Carbohydrate was found to decrease after December which may perhaps be due to the spore formation and extensive growth of the thallus. Protein...

  10. Additional Coumarins from Kielmeyera reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Frederico G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new 4-phenylcoumarins, 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(2'-hydroxy-3'-methyl-3'-butenyl-8-(4" -cinnamoyl-3"-methyl-1"-oxobutyl-4-phenylcoumarin, 7-hydroxy-8-(4"-cinnamoyl-3"-methyl-1" -oxobutyl-2'-(2-hydroxyisopropyl-dihydrofurano(5',4':5,6-4-phenylcoumarin, and 5,7-dihydroxy-8-(4"-cinnamoyl-3"-methyl-1"-oxobutyl-4-phenylcoumarin, along with the known 4-n-propylcoumarins, 7-hydroxy-8-(4"-cinnamoyl-3"-methyl-1"-oxobutyl-2',2'-dimethylpyrano (6',5':5,6-4-n-propylcoumarin, 5-hydroxy-6-(4"-cinnamoyl-3"-methyl-1"-oxobutyl-2',2' -dimethylpyrano(6',5':7,8-4-n-propylcoumarin, the xanthone, 2,3-methylenedioxyxanthone and delta-tocotrienol were isolated from the organic extracts of Kielmeyera reticulata stems .

  11. Additional Coumarins from Kielmeyera reticulata

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Frederico G., Cruz; Luciana de M., Moreira; Nelson A. S., Santos; Maria L. S., Guedes.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Do extrato hexânico e da fase extraída com diclorometano do extrato metanólico de Kielmeyera reticulata foram isoladas três novas 4-fenilcumarinas, 5,7-diidroxi-6-(2'-hidroxi-3'-metil-3'-butenil)-8-(4"-cinamoil-3"-metil-1"-oxobutil)-4-fenilcumarina, 7-hidroxi-8-(4"-cinamoil-3"-metil-1" -oxobutil)-2' [...] -(2-hidroxiisopropil)diidrofurano (5',4':5,6)-4-fenilcumarina e 5,7-diidroxi-8-(4"-cinamoil-3"-metil-1"-oxobutil)-4-fenilcumarina, além das substâncias já conhecidas, 7-hidroxi-8-(4"-cinamoil-3"-metil-1"-oxobutil)-2',2'-dimetilpirano(6',5':5,6)-4- n-propilcumarina, 5-hidroxi-6-(4"-cinamoil-3"-metil-1"-oxobutil)-2',2'-dimetilpirano(6',5':7,8)-4- n-propilcumarina, ?-tocotrienol e 2,3-metilenodioxixantona. Abstract in english Three new 4-phenylcoumarins, 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(2'-hydroxy-3'-methyl-3'-butenyl)-8-(4" -cinnamoyl-3"-methyl-1"-oxobutyl)-4-phenylcoumarin, 7-hydroxy-8-(4"-cinnamoyl-3"-methyl-1" -oxobutyl)-2'-(2-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano(5',4':5,6)-4-phenylcoumarin, and 5,7-dihydroxy-8-(4"-cinnamoyl-3"-methyl-1" [...] -oxobutyl)-4-phenylcoumarin, along with the known 4-n-propylcoumarins, 7-hydroxy-8-(4"-cinnamoyl-3"-methyl-1"-oxobutyl)-2',2'-dimethylpyrano (6',5':5,6)-4-n-propylcoumarin, 5-hydroxy-6-(4"-cinnamoyl-3"-methyl-1"-oxobutyl)-2',2' -dimethylpyrano(6',5':7,8)-4-n-propylcoumarin, the xanthone, 2,3-methylenedioxyxanthone and ?-tocotrienol were isolated from the organic extracts of Kielmeyera reticulata stems .

  12. Genotoxicity testing of a Salacia oblonga extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammang, A M; Erexson, G L; Mecchi, M S; Murli, H

    2006-11-01

    Salacia oblonga has been used for thousands of years in Ayurvedic medicine for the oral treatment of diabetes. The root extract has been shown to inhibit the activity of intestinal alpha-glucosidases, therefore S. oblonga holds potential as a natural method to mitigate the blood glucose response for people with diabetes. As part of a safety evaluation of novel ingredients for use in blood glucose control, the potential genotoxicity of a S. oblonga root extract (SOE) was evaluated using the standard battery of tests (reverse mutation assay; chromosomal aberrations assay; mouse micronucleus assay) recommended by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for food ingredients. SOE was determined not to be genotoxic under the conditions of the reverse mutation assay and mouse micronucleus assay, and weakly positive for the chromosomal aberrations assay. A reproducible, although weak, positive chromosomal aberrations response in human lymphocytes is of concern and further toxicity research is recommended. Use of SOE is presently expected to be safe, as anticipated intake is small compared to the doses administered in the genotoxicity assays and may, after further toxicity research, may prove be a useful ingredient in foodstuffs. PMID:16901601

  13. Constituintes químicos do caule de Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae: Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Nunes dos Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes a and b-amirin, the steroids b-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants.

  14. Constituintes químicos do caule de Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae): Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogério Nunes dos, Santos; Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos, Silva; Raimundo, Braz Filho.

    1979-19-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae) yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes a and b-amir [...] in, the steroids b-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants.

  15. Biochemical characterization of selected plant species from Brazilian Savannas

    OpenAIRE

    Caramori Samantha Salomão; Lima Claudinei Sousa; Fernandes Kátia Flávia

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the presence of antinutritional compounds such as lectins and trypsin-like inhibitors, polyphenols and tannins, and enzymatic activity of peroxidases and proteases in the seeds of Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá), Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca), Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada), Salacia crassiflora Mart G. Don. (bacupari), and Scle...

  16. Antidiabetic medicinal plants as a source of alpha glucosidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benalla, Wafaa; Bellahcen, Saïd; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study is to collate all available data on antidiabetic plants that inhibit alpha glucosidase, reported mainly by Medline (PubMed) these last years. In the present study, interest is focused on experimental researches conducted on hypoglycemic plants particularly those which show alpha glucosidase inhibitor activity alongside bioactive components. This study describes 47 species that belong to 29 families. The plant families, which enclose the species, studied most as inhibitors of alphaglucosidase, are Fabaceae (6 species.), Crassulaceae (3 species), Hippocrateacaea (3 species), Lamiaceae (3 species), and Myrtaceae (3 species), with most studied species being Salacia reticulata (Hippocrateaceae) and Morus alba (Moraceae). The study also covers natural products (active natural components and crude extracts) isolated from the medicinal plants which inhibit alpha glucosidase as reported this last decade. Many kinds of these isolated natural products show strong activity such as, Alkaloids, stilbenoids (polyphenol), triterpene, acids (chlorogenic acid, betulinic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, bartogenic acid, oleanolic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, corosolic acid, ellagic acid, ursolic acid, gallic acid), phytosterol, myoinositol, flavonoids, Flavonolignans, anthraquinones, anthrones, and xanthones, Feruloylglucosides, flavanone glucosides, acetophenone glucosides, glucopyranoside derivatives, genine derivatives, flavonol, anthocyanin and others. PMID:20522017

  17. Phenolic characterisation of selected Salacia species using LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, C T; Thushar, K V; Satheesh, George; Balachandran, Indira

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic characterisation was carried out on the leaf of three Salacia species such as Salacia chinensis, Salacia fruticosa and Salacia oblonga using liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry equipped with electrospray ionisation interface. The estimation of total phenolics was carried out spectrophotometrically using Folin-Ciocalteu method. HPLC diode-array detection has been used for the preliminary identification of phenolic compounds, and liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses were employed for their characterisation. The fragmentation patterns of the compounds during collision-induced dissociation led to the structural elucidation of the separated compounds. PMID:24730982

  18. Larvicidal activity of oil-resin fractions from the Brazilian medicinal plant Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae Atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina da planta medicinal brasileira Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae sobre o Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa Helena Garcia da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil-resin fractions from Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae were evaluated for larvicidal activity on third larval instars of Aedes aegypti, in searching for alternative control methods for this mosquito. The bioactive fractions were chemically monitored by thin-layer chromatography, ¹H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Bioassays were performed using five repetitions, at a temperature of 28 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 80 ± 5% and light and dark cycles of 12h. Mortality was indicated by darkening of the cephalic capsule after 24h of exposure of the larvae to the solutions. The most active fractions were CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenes and CRM5-7 (labdane diterpenes, which showed LC50 values of 0.2 and 0.8ppm, respectively.A atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae foi avaliada em larvas de 3º estádio de Aedes aegypti, na busca de alternativas para o controle desse mosquito. As frações bioativas foram monitoradas quimicamente através de cromatografia de camada delgada, analisada por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio (¹H e 13C e espectrometria de massas. Os bioensaios foram realizados à temperatura de 28±1°C, 80±5% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 12h, com cinco repetições. A mortalidade foi determinada através do escurecimento da cápsula cefálica, após 24h de exposição das larvas às soluções. As frações mais ativas foram CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenos e CRM5-7 (diterpeno labdano, que mostraram os valores de CL50 de 0,2 e 0,8ppm, respectivamente.

  19. New triterpenes from Salacia hainanensis Chun et How with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui-Yuan; Guo, Zheng-Hong; Cheng, Peng; Xu, Xiao-Min; Wu, Li-Jun

    2010-10-01

    Fractionation of the methanol extract from the roots of Salacia hainanensis Chun et How showing the potent inhibitory activity on ?-glucosidase afforded two new lupane derivatives, 3?,28-dihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-2-one (1) and 3?-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-2-one (2), a new friedelane derivative, D:A-friedo-oleanane-7?,30-dihydroxy-3-one (3), and a novel natural product, 2,3-seco-lup-20(29)-en-2,3-dioic acid (4), along with four known compounds (5-8). Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analysis, especially on the data afforded by 2D NMR and high-resolution mass spectra experiments. All of them showed a much stronger inhibiting activity on ?-glucosidase than the positive control (acarbose, IC?? = 5.83 ?M). Constituents with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity from this plant are reported for the first time. PMID:20924896

  20. Triterpenoids and ?-glucosidase inhibitory constituents from Salacia hainanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mei-Hua; Shi, Zheng-Feng; Yu, Bang-Wei; Pi, En-Hao; Wang, He-Yao; Hou, Ai-Jun; Lei, Chun

    2014-10-01

    Thirteen triterpenoids (1-13), including two new lupane triterpenoids, salacinins A and B (1 and 2), as well as one new friedelane triterpenoid, salacinin C (3), were isolated from the roots and stems of Salacia hainanensis. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR, and MS experiments. Compound 1 possesses rare 2,3-seco-lupane skeleton. Compounds 4, 6 and 7 showed inhibitory effects on ?-glucosidase in vitro. PMID:25073097

  1. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CHEMOCONSTITUENTS OF ROOTS OF SALACIA MACROSPERMA

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesarulu, V.; Kokate, C. K.; Rambhau, D.; Veeresham, C.

    1992-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of roots of Salacia macrosperma (Hippocrataceae) exhibited significant in vitro antimicrobial activity. The ethanolic extract was fractionated with different solvents and all the fractions were screened for their antimicrobial spectrum against eight gram-positive, five gram-negative and ten fungal strains. Chloroform fraction followed by benzene fraction of enthanolic extract showed significant antimicrobial effect against all the microorganisms tested. The dose-dependen...

  2. Social networks in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    OpenAIRE

    Croft, Darren P.; Krause, Jens; James, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Social network theory is used to elicit details of the social structure of a population of free-ranging guppies, Poecilia reticulata. They were found to have a complex and highly structured social network, which exhibited characteristics consistent with the 'small world' phenomenon. Stable partner associations between individuals were observed, a finding that fulfils the basic prerequisite for the evolution of reciprocal altruism. The findings are discussed in relation to the ecology and evol...

  3. Salacia campestris root bark extract: peroxidase inhibition, antioxidant and antiradical profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Rebuglio Vellosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS and free radical species have been implicated in initiating or accompanying many diseases in living organisms; there is thus, a continual need for antioxidants molecules to inactivate ROS/free radicals. Many studies of plants crude extracts have demonstrated free-radical scavenging and antioxidant action. Salacia species have long been used, in several countries, as traditional medicines against certain diseases and for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae root bark ethanol extract (ScEtOH was assessed for its ability to scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen species; the results were expressed as percentage inhibition of the active species. ScEtOH was efficient against studied species: DPPH radical (obtained inhibition = 30%, ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1.8±0.8 ?g/mL, HOCl (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.1 ?g/mL, O2•- (obtained inhibition = 32%, and NO• (obtained inhibition = 18 %. Peroxidase activity inhibition was evaluated through the guaiacol oxidation reaction catalyzed by hemin, HRP and myeloperoxidase (MPO; data showed that ScEtOH at 10 ?g/mL led to 54 and 51% of inhibition, respectively, for the hemin and HRP systems. In the MPO system, ScEtOH promoted a 50% inhibition at 8.9 ?g/mL, whereas quercetin, a powerful MPO inhibitor, inhibited this system at 1.35 ?g/mL.Espécies reativas do oxigênio (ERO e radicais livres estão relacionados ao início ou à exacerbação de muitas doenças em organismos vivos; existindo portanto uma necessidade contínua por moléculas antioxidantes que inativem as ERO e radicais livres. Muitos estudos com extratos brutos de plantas têm demonstrado propriedades antioxidantes e seqüestradoras de radicais livres. Espécies de Salacia são utilizadas, em muitos países, como remédio tradicional contra certas doenças e por suas propriedades antiinflamatórias. Neste estudo, o extrato bruto etanólico da casca da raiz da Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae foi avaliado quanto à sua habilidade em seqüestrar radicais livres e espécies reativas do oxigênio; os resultados são expressos como porcentagem de inibição das espécies ativas. ScEtOH mostrou-se eficiente frente as espécies estudadas: radical DPPH (inibição obtida = 30%, ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1,8±0,8 ?g/mL, HOCl (IC50 = 1,7 ± 0,1 ?g/mL, O2•- (inibição obtida = 32%, and NO• (inibição obtida = 18%. A inibição da atividade peroxidásica foi avaliada através da oxidação do guaiacol catalisada pela hemina, HRP e mieloperoxidase (MPO; os dados mostram que 10 ?g/mL de ScEtOH promovem 54 e 51% de inibição, respectivamente para os sistemas da hemina e da HRP. No sistema da MPO, ScEtOH promoveu 50% de inibição na dose de 8,9 ?g/mL, enquanto a quercetina, um potente inibidor da MPO promoveu tal inibição com 1,35 ?g/mL.

  4. Salacia campestris root bark extract: peroxidase inhibition, antioxidant and antiradical profile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Carlos Rebuglio, Vellosa; Najeh Maissar, Khalil; Vânia Ortega, Gutierres; Vânia Aparecida de Freitas Formenton Macedo dos, Santos; Maysa, Furlan; Iguatemy Lourenço, Brunetti; Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria, Oliveira.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Espécies reativas do oxigênio (ERO) e radicais livres estão relacionados ao início ou à exacerbação de muitas doenças em organismos vivos; existindo portanto uma necessidade contínua por moléculas antioxidantes que inativem as ERO e radicais livres. Muitos estudos com extratos brutos de plantas têm [...] demonstrado propriedades antioxidantes e seqüestradoras de radicais livres. Espécies de Salacia são utilizadas, em muitos países, como remédio tradicional contra certas doenças e por suas propriedades antiinflamatórias. Neste estudo, o extrato bruto etanólico da casca da raiz da Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae) foi avaliado quanto à sua habilidade em seqüestrar radicais livres e espécies reativas do oxigênio; os resultados são expressos como porcentagem de inibição das espécies ativas. ScEtOH mostrou-se eficiente frente as espécies estudadas: radical DPPH (inibição obtida = 30%), ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1,8±0,8 ?g/mL), HOCl (IC50 = 1,7 ± 0,1 ?g/mL), O2•- (inibição obtida = 32%), and NO• (inibição obtida = 18%). A inibição da atividade peroxidásica foi avaliada através da oxidação do guaiacol catalisada pela hemina, HRP e mieloperoxidase (MPO); os dados mostram que 10 ?g/mL de ScEtOH promovem 54 e 51% de inibição, respectivamente para os sistemas da hemina e da HRP. No sistema da MPO, ScEtOH promoveu 50% de inibição na dose de 8,9 ?g/mL, enquanto a quercetina, um potente inibidor da MPO promoveu tal inibição com 1,35 ?g/mL. Abstract in english Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radical species have been implicated in initiating or accompanying many diseases in living organisms; there is thus, a continual need for antioxidants molecules to inactivate ROS/free radicals. Many studies of plants crude extracts have demonstrated free-radica [...] l scavenging and antioxidant action. Salacia species have long been used, in several countries, as traditional medicines against certain diseases and for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae) root bark ethanol extract (ScEtOH) was assessed for its ability to scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen species; the results were expressed as percentage inhibition of the active species. ScEtOH was efficient against studied species: DPPH radical (obtained inhibition = 30%), ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1.8±0.8 ?g/mL), HOCl (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.1 ?g/mL), O2•- (obtained inhibition = 32%), and NO• (obtained inhibition = 18 %). Peroxidase activity inhibition was evaluated through the guaiacol oxidation reaction catalyzed by hemin, HRP and myeloperoxidase (MPO); data showed that ScEtOH at 10 ?g/mL led to 54 and 51% of inhibition, respectively, for the hemin and HRP systems. In the MPO system, ScEtOH promoted a 50% inhibition at 8.9 ?g/mL, whereas quercetin, a powerful MPO inhibitor, inhibited this system at 1.35 ?g/mL.

  5. Phyto-chemical evaluation of dried aqueous extract of Jivanti [Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wt. et Arn

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Atanu; Sharma, Parmeshwar P.; Pandya, Tarulata N.; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Patel, Bhupesh R.; Shukla, Vinay J; B. Ravishankar

    2012-01-01

    Jivanti (Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wt. et Arn) is a well known climber used for its innumerable therapeutic properties like antioxidant, antibacterial, vasodilator, galactogogue, Jivaniya, etc., Its use in veterinary practice is tremendous due to its lactogenic effect. The Ghana (dried aqueous extract) of the whole plant was prepared and evaluated phyto-chemically by subjecting it to various tests like physico-chemical, qualitative analysis; TLC and HPTLC. Qualitative tests revealed the p...

  6. Effects of Salacia oblonga on cardiovascular risk factors in chronic kidney disease patients: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rana Gopal; Rathore, Surendra Singh; Wani, Imtiyaz Ahmad; Agrawal, Aruna; Dubey, Govind Prasad

    2015-01-01

    The present study is aimed to evaluate the effect of the herbal drug Salacia oblonga on reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Sixty patients were randomized in four groups; group A1 = non-diabetic CKD given trial drug Salacia oblonga for six months, group A 2 = non-diabetic CKD intended to receive placebo, group B1 = diabetic CKD treated with Salacia oblonga for six months and group B 2 = diabetic CKD patients intended to receive placebo. Estimation of renal function tests including blood urea, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance was performed at baseline and after that at monthly intervals. Lipid profile, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at baseline and were repeated at three months and six months. After six months of treatment, Salacia oblonga could reduce the triglyceride levels by 23.66% (P = 0.008) in non-diabetic and by 17.45% (P = 0.01) in diabetic CKD patients. In comparison with placebo, both non-diabetic and diabetic CKD patients treated with Salacia oblonga showed significant reduction in CRP levels (P = 0.002 and 0.03, respectively), while significant reduction in IL-6 (P-value = 0.0003) and serum cholesterol levels (P-value = 0.0001) was seen only in diabetic CKD patients treated with Salacia oblonga. Stabilization of creatinine clearance with Salacia oblonga was observed in both non-diabetic (P = 0.05) and diabetic CKD (P = 0.04) patients in comparison with placebo. Salacia oblonga has significant beneficial effects on lipid profile and markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in CKD patients. Salacia oblonga also seems to have a reno-protective effect, as reflected by stabilization of creatinine clearance at six months in this study. PMID:25579717

  7. New inhibitors of ?-glucosidase in Salacia hainanensis Chun et How.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zheng-hong; Huang, Jian; Wan, Guo-sheng; Huo, Xiao-ling; Gao, Hui-yuan

    2013-10-01

    The methanol extract from roots of Salacia hainanensis Chun et How afforded three new compounds, 24,26-dihydroxy-25-methoxy-tirucall-9-en-3-one (1), 2?,3?,22?-trihydroxy-lup-20(29)-ene (2) and 3?-hydroxy-2-carbonyl-lupan-29-oic acid (3), along with six known triterpenoids (4-9). Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analysis, in particular according to the data obtained by two-dimensional-NMR and high-resolution mass spectra experiments. Some of them showed much stronger inhibitory activity towards ?-glucosidase than the positive control (acarbose, IC?? 10.2 ?M). PMID:23361306

  8. A new 1,3-diketofriedelane triterpene from Salacia verrucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somwong, Pathom; Suttisri, Rutt; Buakeaw, Anumart

    2011-10-01

    A new 1,3-diketofriedelane triterpene, 21?-hydroxyfriedelane-1,3-dione (1) together with six known friedelane triterpenes, 30-hydroxyfriedelane-1,3-dione (2), friedelane-1,3-dione (3), 26-hydroxyfriedelane-1,3-dione (4), friedelin (5), 21?-hydroxy-D:A-friedo-olean-3-one (6) and kokoonol (7), were isolated from the stems of Salacia verrucosa (Celastraceae). The structures of these triterpenes were characterized by spectroscopic methods (IR, MS and NMR). Compound 3 was strongly cytotoxic against SW620 cell line, whereas compounds 4 and 6 were moderately active against SW620, HepG2 and KATO-III cancer cell lines. PMID:21745551

  9. EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF IPOMEA CARNEA LEAVES ON GUPPY, POECILIA RETICULATA (PETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Wanule and J. V. Balkhande

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ipomea carnea is a toxic plant causes severe damage to intestine, liver and kidney. In the present investigation ethanolic extract of I. carnea leaves was tested for its toxicity against fresh water fish guppy Poecilia reticulata using 0.025, 0.050, 0.075 and 0.1 mg/ml concentrations. The experiment was run in triplicate along with suitable control. Ethanolic extract of Ipomea carnea leaves showed toxic effect, causes mortality in guppy fishes. All concentrations of ethanolic extracts of I. carnea leaves were found toxic. Mortality of fishes increases with increase of time and concentrations. The 0.1mg/ml concentration of ethanolic extract of I. carnea leaves showed three times higher mortality than control in guppy fishes, Poecilia reticulata Peters. Further study is needed to isolate toxic principles present in I. carnea leaves and to be studied separately against guppy fishes to determine their toxicity.

  10. Antiplasmodial sesquiterpenes from the seeds of Salacia longipes var. camerunensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mba'ning, Brice M; Lenta, Bruno N; Noungoué, Diderot T; Antheaume, Cyril; Fongang, Yanick F; Ngouela, Silvère A; Boyom, Fabrice F; Rosenthal, Philip J; Tsamo, Etienne; Sewald, Norbert; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2013-12-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Salacia longipes var. camerunensis led to the isolation of four sesquiterpenoid derivatives, salaterpene A (1) (1?,2?,8?-triacetoxy-6?,9?-dibenzoyloxy-4?-hydroxy-dihydro-?-agarofuran), salaterpene B (2) (1?,2?,8?-triacetoxy-9?-benzoyloxy-6?-cinnamoyloxy-4?-hydroxy-dihydro-?-agarofuran), salaterpene C (3) (1?,2?-diacetoxy-6?,9?-dibenzoyloxy-4?-hydroxy-dihydro-?-agarofuran) and salaterpene D (4) (2?-acetoxy-1?,6?-dibenzoyloxy-4?-hydroxy-9?-nicotinoyloxy-dihydro-?-agarofuran) together with two known compounds (5 and 6). The structures of the compounds were established by means of NMR spectroscopy. Compounds 1-4 and 6 were tested in vitro for their antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant strain W2. All the tested compounds exhibited a moderate potency with IC50 below 2.7 ?M. PMID:23863332

  11. de trembolona en el guppy (Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H\\u00E9ctor Salgado Zamora

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto del esteroide semisintético acetato de trembolona (ATB en el pez de ornato Poecilia reticulata (guppy. Especímenes juveniles de 30 días de edad fueron tratados con el esteroide a dosis de 300 mg/kg de alimento durante 60 días. Al término del tratamiento, 40 días después, se estimó el efecto residual del esteroide. Se analizó la sobrevivencia, la proporción de peces masculinizados, así como el efecto anabólico. Los resultados indicaron que el ATB es efi caz para inducir la masculinización, a diferencia del grupo testigo, donde se registraron 32% de machos. Asimismo, el ATB tuvo un efecto anabólico, ya que los peces tratados mostraron mayor peso y talla e incremento de la aleta caudal. El esteroide no causó daño en la población tratada, al sobrevivir 93.3% de los peces, comparado con 83% del grupo testigo

  12. ESTUDIO PRELIMINAR DE LOS EFECTOS HIPOGLICEMIANTES DE SENNA RETICULATA EN RATAS DIABÉTICAS / PRELIMINAR STUDY OF THE HIPOGLICEMIC EFFECTS OF SENNA RETICULATA IN DIABETIC RATS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luz Stella, Cristancho; Gustavo, Isaza Mejía; Sandra Milena, Acosta Agudelo.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación evaluó el efecto sobre la glicemia de los extractos acuosos de las hojas de Senna reticulata (nombre común: martingalvis o dorancé), administrados a ratas con diabetes inducida por aloxano. Al grupo control y al que recibió el extracto, se les midió la glicemia en ayunas lo [...] s días 0, 7 y 15. El análisis de los resultados mostró que la administración del extracto disminuye la glicemia cuando se compara con los valores del día 0 y con los del grupo control, durante los días 7 y 15; si bien estos efectos no fueron significativos estadísticamente muestran indicios de que esta planta posee acciones hipoglicemiantes que deberán ser estudiados en futuras investigaciones. Abstract in english This research evaluated the effect on blood sugar levels in the aqueous extract of Senna reticulata (common name: pasture killer) leaves, administered to rats with Aloxan induced diabetes. Blood glucose was measured on an empty stomach on day 0, 7 and 15 in the control group and the treatment group. [...] The analysis of results showed that administering the extract reduces blood sugar levels when compared with the values of day 0, and with the control group on days 7 and 15. Even though these effects were not statistically significant, they show clear signs that this plant has hypoglycemic actions that must be studied in future studies.

  13. Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae): CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa G., Rodrigues; Lucienir P., Duarte; Roqueline R., Silva; Grácia D. F., Silva; Maria O., Mercadante-Simões; Jacqueline A., Takahashi; Bibiane L. G., Matildes; Thaisa H. S., Fonseca; Maria A., Gomes; Sidney A., Vieira Filho.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical study of hexane extract from leaves of Salacia crassifolia resulted in the isolation of 3?-palmitoxy-urs-12-ene, 3-oxofriedelane, 3?-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-28-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane, 28,29-dihydroxyfriedelan-3-one, 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid, 3?-hydroxy- [...] olean-9(11):12-diene and the mixture of ?-amirin and ?-amirin. ?-sitosterol, the polymer gutta-percha, squalene and eicosanoic acid were also isolated. The chemical structures of these constituents were established by IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data. Crude extracts and the triterpenes were tested against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis and no activity was observed under the in vitro assay conditions. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol crude extracts, and the constituent 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid and 28,29-dihydroxyfriedelan-3-one showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus sanguinis and Candida albicans.

  14. Ecophysiological aspects of sun and shade leaves of Ponkan tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) / Aspectos ecofisiológicos de hojas de sol y sombra de Ponkan mandarina (Citrus reticulata Blanco)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Domingos, Grecco; Luiz Flávio, Vianna Silveira; Victor Luiz, de Souza Lima; José Eduardo, .

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ponkan mandarina (Citrus reticulata) tiene una amplia aceptación por los consumidores debido a varios aspectos: es una fruta colorida, cáscara dulce y fácil de pelar. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la respuesta a la sombra de las plantas de Ponkan mandarina (Citrus reticulata) respecto de [...] sus aspectos ecofisiológicos, de acuerdo con la intensidad relativa de la luz, a fin de evaluar la capacidad de adaptación de esta especie para dar sombra. Las hojas se obtienen de la cubierta superior (sol) y la cubierta inferior (sombra) para la determinación de los aspectos ecofisiológicos. Cortes en las manos se hicieron para la evaluación del espesor de parénquima de empalizada, número de estomas (mm²) y el espesor total de la hoja. Las secciones transversales de la parte media de la licencia se obtuvieron, para la evaluación de la parénquima, utilizando un cuerpo de evidencia, y para el estomática se hicieron cortes en la superficie abaxial. La clorofila se extrajo de las hojas de mandarina Ponkan y posteriormente se mide en espectrofotometría a longitudes de onda de 645nm y 663nm. La relación entre la clorofila a y b tendía a aumentar con una mayor intensidad de luz. El sombreado no afectó a las características anatómicas de las plantas de mandarina Ponkan. Sin embargo, los niveles de clorofila fueron diferentes en "sol" y se va "sombra". Abstract in english The Ponkan tangerine (Citrus reticulata) has wide acceptance by consumers due to several properties; it is a colorful, sweet, and easy to peel fruit. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ecophysiological aspects of the response of plants of Ponkan tangerine to shading, according to relative int [...] ensity of light, in order to assess the adaptability of this species to shade. Leaves were collected from the upper canopy (sun) and lower canopy (shade) to determine the ecophysiological aspects. Cuts were by hand made to assess the thickness of palisade parenchyma, number of stomata (mm²) and total thickness of the leaf. Cross-sections of the middle part of leaves were obtained to assess the parenchyma, using a body-of-evidence, and for the stomata cuts were made on the abaxial surfaces. Chlorophyll was extracted from the leaves of Ponkan Tangerine and subsequently measured in a spectrophotometer at wave lengths 645nm and 663nm The ratio between chlorophyll a and b tended to increase with increased intensity of light. Shading did not affect the anatomical characteristics of Ponkan tangerine plants. However, chlorophyll levels were different in sun and shade leaves.

  15. The diet of Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) in southeastern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo Q., Yokoyama; Antonia C. Z., Amaral.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O ofiuróide Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825) ocorre na interface sedimento rocha de costões rochosos, sob pequenas pedras. Alguns aspectos de sua dieta alimentar foram analisados nesta nota. A amostragem foi realizada na Praia Grande, localizada no litoral norte do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os [...] indivíduos, coletados em julho de 2002 e janeiro de 2003, foram fixados em álcool 70% e dissecados para obtenção de seus conteúdos estomacais. Do total (35), 77,1% (27) tinham ingerido algum tipo de alimento, e destes, 81,4% (22) possuíam mais de um item. O número médio de itens alimentares por estômago foi 1,9. Ophionereis reticulata é uma espécie onívora, consumindo sedimento, algas verdes e vermelhas, e poliquetas. Abstract in english The ophiuroid Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825) occurs in the sediment-rocky shore interface, under small stones. Its diet is analyzed in this short communication. Specimens were collected at the Praia Grande beach, located on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in July, 2002 and [...] January, 2003. The animals were fixed in 70% ethanol and dissected to obtain their stomach contents. Of the total (35), 77.1% (27) had ingested some kind of food and, among those, 81.4% (22) had more than one item. The mean number of food items per stomach was 1.9. Ophionereis reticulata is an omnivorous species, consuming sediment, green and red algae, and polychaetes.

  16. Evaluation of aeroponics for clonal propagation of Caralluma edulis, Leptadenia reticulata and Tylophora indica - three threatened medicinal Asclepiads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehandru, Pooja; Shekhawat, N S; Rai, Manoj K; Kataria, Vinod; Gehlot, H S

    2014-07-01

    The present study explores the potential of aeroponic system for clonal propagation of Caralluma edulis (Paimpa) a rare, threatened and endemic edible species, Leptadenia reticulata (Jeewanti), a threatened liana used as promoter of health and Tylophora indica (Burm.f.) Merill, a valuable medicinal climber. Experiments were conducted to asses the effect of exogenous auxin (naphthalene acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, indole-3-acetic acid) and auxin concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5gl(-1)) on various root morphological traits of cuttings in the aeroponic chamber. Amongst all the auxins tested, significant effects on the length, number and percentage of rooting was observed in IBA treated nodal cuttings. Cent per cent of the stem cuttings of C. edulis rooted if pre-treated with 2.0 gl(-1) of IBA for 5 min while 97.7 % of the stem cuttings of L. reticulata and 93.33 % of stem cuttings of Tylophora indica rooted with pre-treatment of 3.0 gl(-1) of IBA for 5 min. Presence of at least two leaves on the nodal cuttings of L. reticulata and T. indica was found to be a prerequisite for root induction. In all the species, the number of adventitious roots per cutting and the percentage of cuttings rooted aeroponically were significantly higher than the soil grown stem cuttings. Shoot growth measured in terms of shoot length was significantly higher in cuttings rooted aeroponically as compared to the cuttings rooted under soil conditions. All the plants sprouted and rooted aeroponically survived on transfer to soil. This is the first report of clonal propagation in an aeroponic system for these plants. This study suggests aeroponics as an economic method for rapid root induction and clonal propagation of these three endangered and medicinally important plants which require focused efforts on conservation and sustainable utilization. PMID:25049464

  17. Chemical features of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae and Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride revealed by GC-MS metabolomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lunzhao; Dong, Naiping; Liu, Shao; Yi, Zhibiao; Zhang, Yi

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces a detailed method to apply metabolic profiles conducting on tangerine peels (Citrus reticulata 'Dahongpao') at three maturity stages from July to December. Principal component analysis not only demonstrated the metabolic footprints of tangerine peels during ripening but also revealed the compounds (d-limonene and linalool) that mostly contributed to it. Furthermore, some other characteristic compounds were screened to further reveal the chemical features of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (PCR) and Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride (PCRV). In particular, compounds such as 4-carene (r=-0.94), 3-carene (r=-0.91), ?-pinene (r=-0.85) and ?-terpinene (r=-0.87) were screened as major components for the pungent smell of PCRV. Geranyl acetate (r=0.81), farnesyl acetate (r=0.87) and three alcohols (6-hepten-1-ol, 3-methyl-1-hexanol, 1-octanol) may lead to the pleasant odour of PCR. We therefore propose that the metabolomics analysis focusing on ripening process will be an effective strategy for quality control of closely related herbal medicines. PMID:25976810

  18. Assessment of genotoxic, cytotoxic, and protective effects of Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don. stem bark fractions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, C C; Silva, C R; Menezes, A C S; Pérez, C N; Chen-Chen, L

    2013-01-01

    Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don., popularly known in Brazil as "bacupari", "cascudo", and "saputá", is a shrub of the Celastraceae family that is unique to the Brazilian Cerrado region. In folk medicine, this plant has been mainly used to treat skin cancer and gastric ulcers. In the present study, the genotoxic, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic effects of S. crassifolia stem bark fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, and hydroalcoholic extracts) were evaluated using the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. Our results showed that none of the S. crassifolia fractions led to a significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) (P > 0.05), suggesting the absence of genotoxicity. In the antigenotoxicity assessment, a significant decrease in the MNPCE frequency was observed in all fractions of this plant (P < 0.05), demonstrating its protective action against genotoxicity induced by mitomycin C (MMC), which was used as the positive control. Only the hexane fraction of S. crassifolia significantly decreased the poly- and normochromatic erythrocyte ratio (PCE/NCE) in all doses tested (P < 0.05), demonstrating its cytotoxic activity. In association with MMC, both ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic fractions significantly increased the PCE/NCE ratio in almost all doses tested (P < 0.05), demonstrating the protective action of S. crassifolia against the cytotoxic effect of the positive control. In contrast, the hexane fraction presented a significant decrease in the PCE/NCE ratio in all treatments (P < 0.05), demonstrating an increase in this plant's cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells. PMID:23884760

  19. ENTOMOFAUNA ASSOCIADA AOS FRUTOS DO BACUPARI, Salacia folia (MART. PEYR, NOS CERRADOS DO BRASIL CENTRAL INSECTS ASSOCIED WITH BACUPARI FRUIT, Salacia crassifolia (Mart. PEYR, IN THE SAVANNAHS OF CENTRAL BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juracy Rocha Braga Filho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O bacupari, Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Peyr, (Hippocrateaceae é uma frutífera nativa da região dos cerrados, utilizada pela fauna e também pela população da região, embora seus frutos sejam muito atacados pelas moscas-das-frutas, e por isso seu consumo fica limitado. De polpa branca à alaranjada, de sabor levemente ácido e muito agradável os frutos dessa espécie podem ser consumidos ao natural ou na forma de sucos. Neste trabalho apresenta-se um levantamento da entomofauna associada aos frutos do bacupari, coletados em 11 municípios da região dos cerrados no Estado de Goiás, no período de setembro de 1995 a dezembro de 1999. No Laboratório de Entomologia da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, esses frutos foram, inicialmente, contados e pesados e, posteriormente, acondicionados em caixas de polipropileno com areia úmida para obtenção de pupários e insetos adultos. Tephritidae foi a família mais freqüente nos frutos do bacupari, com 54,22% dos insetos coletados. Nessa família foram registradas as espécies Anastrepha sp. (espécie nova em fase de descrição, A. zenildae, A. obliqua, A. fraterculus, A. sororcula e A. serpentina. Na família Lonchaeidae foi coletada Neosilba sp., em Muscidae, Atherigona orientalis e espécimes da família Oititidae. Dessas moscas foram obtidos os parasitóides Doryctobracon sp. (espécie nova, D. areolatus, Dicerataspis flavipes, Lopheucoila anastrephae, Aganaspis nordlanderi e A. pelleranoi. Foram coletados isoladamente no mesmo fruto exemplares de Anastrepha sp. e Lonchaeidae e Anastrepha sp. e A. zenildae comprovando a sobreposição dessas espécies por fruto.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Insecta; frutífera nativa; levantamento populacional.

    The bacupari (Salacia crassifolia is a native fruit plant of the Brazilian cerrado areas. Although a high fruit fly infestation limits its utilization, it is eaten by animals and humans. Fruits present orange colored pulp, with slightly acid flavour and can be apreciated in natura or juices. The objective of this study was to assay bacupari plant features in Goiás State cerrado and to verify insects associated to bacupari, to determine infestation index and to verify this plant as a natural reservoir of fruit flies for adjacent orchards. Samples were collected during the frutification stage from September to December from 1995 to 1999 on 11 counties in Goiás State. The insects found more often were from Tephritidae (54.22% as Anastrepha sp. (new species, A. zenildae, A. obliqua, A. fraterculus, A. sororcula, A. serpentina. Insects from other families were also identified: Lonchaeidae (Neosilba sp., Muscidae (Atherigona orientalis, Oititidae and their p

  20. Development of seedless fruits mutants in citrus including tangerine (C. reticulata) and pummelo (C. grandis) through induced mutations and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of seedless fruit mutants in citrus, including Tangerine (C. reticulata) and Pummelo (C. grandis), through induced mutation and biotechnology was studied at the Gamma Irradiation Service and Nuclear Technology Center, Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center for 4 years (August 2000 to September 2004). The results showed successful induction of mutants with gamma irradiation using both chronic and acute procedures for pot plants, scions and in vitro plantlets of tangerine (Citrus reticulata var. Shogun and Sai Nam Puaeng) and pummelo (Citrus grandis viz. Kao Thong Dee). MS medium with 2 mgL-1 of BA was found to be the most suitable medium for shoot proliferation. The seedlings were sub-cultured at least 4 times, and then they were treated with acute and chronic irradiation. Shoot induction from M1V0 to M1V4 generation was performed in basic MS medium with 2 mgL-1 added BA. Rooting was induced in the M1V4 in halfstrength MS enriched with BA 2 mgL-1. Later, the shoots were excised and grafted on mature plants or the plantlets directly transferred in the field and later the fruits from mature trees were evaluated for seedlessness in M1V4 at Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center. (author)

  1. Metacestodes of Glossocercus auritus (Cyclophyllidea, Gryporhynchidae in Poecilia reticulata (Pisces, Poeciliidae from Brazil Metacestoides de Glossocercus auritus (Cyclophyllidea, Gryporhynchidae em Poecilia reticulata (Pisces, Poeciliidae no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Alves Pinto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on fish parasites in Pampulha dam, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, found specimens of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 harboring natural infection by larval stages of tapeworms. A total of 250 specimens of P. reticulata were collected and analyzed between February and August 2010, of which 23 were found infected (prevalence 9.2% with one metacestode each (mean intensity 1, mean abundance 0.09. The analyses of the parasites, particularly the morphology of rostellar hooks, made it possible to identify Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1818. This is the first report of G. auritus metacestode in South America and P. reticulata is a newly known host for this parasite.Em estudo da helmintofauna de peixes oriundos da represa da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, exemplares de Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 foram encontrados naturalmente infectados por larvas de cestóides. De 250 espécimes de P. reticulata coletados e analisados entre fevereiro e agosto de 2010, 23 (prevalência de infecção 9,2% apresentavam-se infectados por um metacestóides cada (intensidade média 1, abundância média 0,09. A análise dos parasitos, em especial a morfologia dos acúleos rostelares, permitiram a identificação de Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1818. Este é o primeiro registro de metacestóide de G. auritus para a América do Sul, sendo P. reticulata um novo hospedeiro conhecido para o parasito.

  2. Metacestodes of Glossocercus auritus (Cyclophyllidea, Gryporhynchidae) in Poecilia reticulata (Pisces, Poeciliidae) from Brazil / Metacestoides de Glossocercus auritus (Cyclophyllidea, Gryporhynchidae) em Poecilia reticulata (Pisces, Poeciliidae) no Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hudson Alves, Pinto; Alan Lane de, Melo.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Em estudo da helmintofauna de peixes oriundos da represa da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, exemplares de Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 foram encontrados naturalmente infectados por larvas de cestóides. De 250 espécimes de P. reticulata coletados e analisados entre fevereiro e ago [...] sto de 2010, 23 (prevalência de infecção 9,2%) apresentavam-se infectados por um metacestóides cada (intensidade média 1, abundância média 0,09). A análise dos parasitos, em especial a morfologia dos acúleos rostelares, permitiram a identificação de Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1818). Este é o primeiro registro de metacestóide de G. auritus para a América do Sul, sendo P. reticulata um novo hospedeiro conhecido para o parasito. Abstract in english Studies on fish parasites in Pampulha dam, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, found specimens of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 harboring natural infection by larval stages of tapeworms. A total of 250 specimens of P. reticulata were collected and analyzed between February and August 2010, of w [...] hich 23 were found infected (prevalence 9.2%) with one metacestode each (mean intensity 1, mean abundance 0.09). The analyses of the parasites, particularly the morphology of rostellar hooks, made it possible to identify Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1818). This is the first report of G. auritus metacestode in South America and P. reticulata is a newly known host for this parasite.

  3. Influence of GAMMA radiation on morphological changes of Poecilia reticulata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our experiment were followed histological changes after gamma-irradiation with dose of 30 Gy in Poecilia reticulata. After radiation shyness and lethargy were observed. The most prominent clinical symptoms observed were emaciation, hampered breathing, ex ophthalmia and hemorrhages. The histological picture found were adequate to these symptoms. The enteritic villi compared with controls were relatively low. Enterocytes taking part on resorption processes were damaged and desquamated on some sites, and the number of microvilli was reduced on their surface. As our earlier findings on rats revealed, the decrease in number of microvilli designates malfunctioning intestinal resorption, which can lead to emaciation. (authors)

  4. The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked Orange and shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim, M.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked Orange and shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2006, 28(3 : 515-530 The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked orange and Shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun was investigated at the Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University during January, 2003 to October, 2004. Eighty-eight of three-year-old Necked orange and Shogun grafted onto 11 species of citrus rootstocks were raised in 35 litre pot. Complete randomized factorial design was used for evaluating the two factors, scions and rootstocks. The vegetative growth: upper and lower of trunk diameter, tree height, canopy volume and leaf area; the foliar nutrient: nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC and C/N ratio; flowering; fruit-set and fruit qualities were determined and analysed. Furthermore, the graft compatibility between stock and scion was also evaluated by the esterase isozymes technique. It was found that Necked orange grafted onto most of the rootstocks showed higher range of upper and lower trunk diameter and leaf area than that of Shogun. Both of the scions on rough lemon and volkamer lemon gave higher vegetative growth characteristics than on the other roostock species. Necked orange grafted onto Cleopatra mandarin, Swingle citrumelo, Volkamer lemon and Mawo rootstock had 5 times the flowering and fruit-set while Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange had 7 times the flowering and fruit-set. There was no significant difference on the foliar nutrient between scions and rootstocks except the foliar TNC of necked orange and Shogun on Manaao-khwaai (34.86%. Necked orange and Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange gave the highest number of fruits/tree (20.6 and 31.6 fruits/ tree and fruit weight/tree (3,906 g/tree and 5,114 g/tree respectively. Necked orange grafted onto Rough lemon showed the highest rind thickness (0.559 cm while Shogun grafted onto Cleopatra mandarin showed 0.275 cm rind thickness. Necked orange grafted on Troyer citrange and Mawo and Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange and Volkamer lemon gave the highest TSS: TA ratio. The esterase enzyme pattern of necked orange grafted on Manaao-khwaai was changed and most of the rootstock species affected the esterase enzyme activities of Shogun.

  5. TRIAGEM METABÓLICA POR PKS E NRPS EM ACTINOBACTÉRIAS ENDOFÍTICAS DE Citrus reticulata / METABOLIC SCREENING FOR PKS AND NRPS IN ENDOPHYTIC ACTINOBACTERIA FROM Citrus reticulata

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro L. R. da, Cruz; Leila R., Giarola; Suellen da Silva, Moraes; Déborah Ellen S. G. da, Silva; Joelma, Marcon; João L., Azevedo; Welington L., Araújo; Luciana G. de, Oliveira,.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides are natural products widely found in bacteria, fungi and plants. The biological activities associated with these metabolites have attracted special attention in biopharmaceutical studies. Polyketide synthases act similarly to fatty acids synthetases and the who [...] le multi-enzymatic set coordinating precursor and extending unit selection and reduction levels during chain growth. Acting in a similarly orchestrated model, non-ribosomal peptide synthetases biosynthesize NRPs. PKSs-I and NRPSs enzymatic modules and domains are collinearly organized with the parent gene sequence. This arrangement allows the use of degenerated PCR primers to amplify targeted regions in the genes corresponding to specific enzymatic domains such as ketosynthases and acyltransferases in PKSs and adenilation domains in NRPSs. Careful analysis of these short regions allows the classifying of a set of organisms according to their potential to biosynthesize PKs and NRPs. In this work, the biosynthetic potential of a set of 13 endophytic actinobacteria from Citrus reticulata for producing PKs and NRP metabolites was evaluated. The biosynthetic profile was compared to antimicrobial activity. Based on the inhibition promoted, 4 strains were considered for cluster analysis. A PKS/NRPS phylogeny was generated in order to classify some of the representative sequences throughout comparison with homologous genes. Using this approach, a molecular fingerprint was generated to help guide future studies on the most promising strains.

  6. Simultaneous Determination of Flavonoids in Different Parts of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ Fruit by High Performance Liquid Chromatography—Photodiode Array Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are important polyphenolic secondary metabolites in plant. Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit are rich in flavonoids and are being used as functional antioxidant ingredients for the treatment of atherosclerosis and cancer, etc. A high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection system was used to analyze five flavonoids, namely, naringin, hesperidin, didymin, tangeretin and nobiletin, in different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a C18 column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a photodiode array detector at 280 nm. The calibration curves for the determination of all analytes showed good linearity over the investigated ranges (R2 > 0.9995. Precision and reproducibility were evaluated by six replicated analyses, and the R.S.D. values were less than 0.9% and 2.7%. The recoveries were between 98.37 and 103.89%. This method is promising to improve the quality control of different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit.

  7. The Ayurvedic Medicine Salacia oblonga Attenuates Diabetic Renal Fibrosis in Rats: Suppression of Angiotensin II/AT1 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lan; Qi, Yanfei; Rong, Xianglu; Jiang, Jianmin; Yang, Qinglin; Yamahara, Johji; Murray, Michael; Li, Yuhao

    2011-01-01

    In human diabetic nephropathy, the extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease; fibrosis is closely correlated with renal dysfunction. Although a wide array of medicinal plants play a role in the prevention and treatment of diabetes, there are few reports of the application of herbal medicines in amelioration of renal fibrosis, or the underlying mechanisms by which such benefits are mediated. The efficacy of the Ayurvedic antidiabetic medicine Salacia oblonga (SO) root on rat renal fibrosis was investigated. An aqueous extract from SO (100 mg/kg, p.o., 6 weeks) diminished renal glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, as revealed by van Giesen-staining. SO also reduced renal salt-soluble, acid-soluble and salt-insoluble collagen contents. These changes were accompanied by normalization of hypoalbuminemia and BUN. Gene profiling revealed that the increase in transcripts encoding the glomerulosclerotic mediators collagen I, collagen IV, fibronectin, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1), transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 observed in ZDF rat kidney was suppressed by SO. In rat-derived mesangial cells, similar to the effect of the AT1 antagonist telmisartan, SO and its major component mangiferin suppressed the stimulatory effect of angiotensin II on proliferation and increased mRNA expression and/or activities of collagen I, collagen IV, fibronectin, AT1, TGF-?1 and PAI-1. Considered together the present findings demonstrate that SO attenuates diabetic renal fibrosis, at least in part by suppressing anigiotensin II/AT1 signaling. Further, it now emerges that mangiferin is an effective antifibrogenic agent. PMID:19706694

  8. Physical properties of trans-neptunian binaries (120347) Salacia-Actaea and (42355) Typhon-Echidna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansberry, J. A.; Grundy, W. M.; Mueller, M.; Benecchi, S. D.; Rieke, G. H.; Noll, K. S.; Buie, M. W.; Levison, H. F.; Porter, S. B.; Roe, H. G.

    2012-06-01

    We report new Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer Space Telescope results concerning the physical properties of the trans-neptunian object (TNO) binaries (120347) Salacia-Actaea (formerly 2004 SB60), and (42355) Typhon-Echidna (formerly 2002 CR46). The mass of the (120347) Salacia-Actaea system is 4.66 ± 0.22 × 1020 kg. The semi-major axis, period, and eccentricity of the binary orbit are a = 5619 ± 87 km, P = 5.49380 ± 0.00016 days, and e = 0.0084 ± 0.0076, respectively. In terms of the ratio of the semimajor axis to the radius of the Hill sphere, a/rH, (120347) Salacia-Actaea is the tightest TNO binary system with a known orbit. Based on hybrid Standard Thermal Model (hybrid-STM) fits to the data, the effective diameter and V-band geometric albedo of the system are D = 954 ± 109 km (making it one of the largest known TNOs), and pV=3.57-0.72+1.03%. Thermophysical models for (120347) Salacia suggest that it probably has a thermal inertia ?5 J m-2 s-1/2 K-1, although we cannot rule out values as high as 30 J m-2 s-1/2 K-1. Based on the magnitude difference between Salacia and Actaea, ? = 2.37 ± 0.06, we estimate their individual diameters to be d1 = 905 ± 103 km and d2 = 303 ± 35 km. The mass density of the components is ?=1.16-0.36+0.59 g/cm3. Hybrid-STM fits to new Spitzer data for Typhon-Echidna give an effective diameter and V-band geometric albedo for the system of D = 157 ± 34 km, and pV=6.00-2.08+4.10%. Thermophysical models for (42355) Typhon suggest somewhat lower albedos (probably no higher than about 8.2%, as compared to the hybrid-STM upper limit of 10.1%). Taken together with the previously reported mass, this diameter indicates a density of ?=0.60-0.29+0.72g/cm3, consistent with the very low densities of most other TNOs smaller than 500 km diameter. Both objects must have significant amounts of void space in their interiors, particularly if they contain silicates as well as water-ice (as is expected). The ensemble of binary-TNO densities suggests a trend of increasing density with size, with objects smaller than 400 km diameter all having densities less than 1 g/cm3, and those with diameters greater than 800 km all having densities greater than 1 g/cm3. If the eccentricity of the binary orbit of (42355) Typhon-Echidna is not due to recent perturbations, considerations of tidal evolution suggest that (42355) Typhon-Echidna must have a rigidity close to that of solid water ice, otherwise the orbital eccentricity of the system would have been damped by now.

  9. Blond: a regulatory gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Shaddock

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present letter is a response to the paper ?Interallelic interaction between the autosomal Blond and the sex-linked Nigrocaudatus gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata? (Petrescu-Mag et al 2007.

  10. Protective Effect against Hydroxyl-induced DNA Damage and Antioxidant Activity of Citri reticulatae Pericarpium

    OpenAIRE

    Dongfeng Chen; Yanping Huang; Xican Li

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: As a typical Chinese herbal medicine, Citri reticulatae pericarpium (CRP) possesses various pharmacological effects involved in antioxidant ability. However, its antioxidant effects have not been reported yet. The objective of this work was to investigate its antioxidant ability, then further discuss the antioxidant mechanism. Methods: CRP was extracted by ethanol to obtain ethanol extract of Citri reticulatae pericarpium (ECRP). ECRP was then measured by various antioxidant...

  11. Isolation Bacterial Symbiont from Ulva reticulata and Caulerpa racemosa as Candidate of Antimicrobial Producer

    OpenAIRE

    Sartini; Suryadi; Nur Afni; Ayu Permata Sari

    2013-01-01

    Isolation of bacterial symbionts from Ulva reticulata and Caulerpa racemosa was performed by crowded plate technique method using marine agar media. The purpose of this study was to search for antimicrobial-producing bacterial symbiont in green alga Ulva reticulata and Caulerpa racemosa from Takalar Coast, South Sulawesi. The isolates of bacterial symbiont were fermented in production media for seven days at 37oC. Antimicrobial activity was done by agar diffusion method using Bacillus subti...

  12. Cytoprotective and anti-diabetic effects of Derris reticulata aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumkrai, Pakarang; Kamonwannasit, Sirilak; Chudapongse, Nuannoi

    2014-09-01

    The current study was aimed to investigate pancreatic protective and anti-diabetic activities of the aqueous extract of Derris reticulata stem. First, we evaluated a cytoprotective potential of D. reticulata extract on alloxan-induced damage in vitro. Treatment with D. reticulata extract at the doses of 250 and 500 ?g/ml significantly increased cell viability of the pancreatic ?-cell line RINm5F after exposure of alloxan. The anti-hyperglycemic activity of D. reticulata extract was further studied in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. A significant reduction in blood glucose level along with an increase in body weight was observed in diabetic rats treated with D. reticulata extract at 250 mg/kg body weight for 15 days. Serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels were also significantly decreased compared to diabetic control rats. In accordance with in vitro cytoprotective effect, histopathological examination revealed that pancreatic islet cells of the extract-treated diabetic rat were less damage than those of the untreated diabetic group. In order to find another possible mechanism of action underling hypoglycemic activity, the effect on glucose absorption was examined using everted sac jejunum. The results showed that D. reticulata extract suppressed glucose absorption from small intestine. To corroborate safety use of D. reticulata extract, acute oral toxicity was also conducted in rats. Our results showed that none of the tested doses (250, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg) induced signs of toxicity or mortality after administration of the extract. The results suggested that D. reticulata extract possess anti-diabetic activity, which resulting from its pancreatic cytoprotective effect and inhibition of intestinal glucose absorption. PMID:24849669

  13. Sesquiterpenes and Other Natural Products from Roldana reticulata

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amira, Arciniegas; Jhon, Ironzi Maldonado; Karina, González; Ana L., Pérez-Castorena; José Luis, Villaseñor; Alfonso, Romo de Vivar.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available De Roldana reticulata se aislaron dos 9-oxo-furanoeremofilanos (1, 2), además de senecrassidiol, tirosol, icarisida D2 y rutina; no se detectaron alcaloides pirrolizidínicos, coincidiendo con el patrón químico del género reportado hasta ahora. La actividad anti-inflamatoria de los extractos y produc [...] tos aislados fue evaluada en el modelo de edema de inflamación aguda inducido con TPA. Abstract in english The chemical study of Roldana reticulate led to the isolation of two 9-oxo-furanoeremophilanes (1, 2), together with senecrassidiol, tyrosol, icariside D2, and rutin; no pyrrolizidine alkaloids were detected, in agreement with the chemistry of the genus reported so far. The anti-inflammatory activit [...] y of extracts and isolated products was tested using the TPA model of induced acute inflammation.

  14. Determinação do potencial larvófago de Poecilia reticulata em condições domésticas de controle biológico / Larvovirous potencial of Poecilia reticulata at domestic biological control conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Boscolli Barbosa, Pereira; Eidis Antônio de, Oliveira.

    Full Text Available Configurada como um dos mais importantes problemas de saúde pública do mundo, a dengue atinge especialmente países com clima tropical, como o Brasil. O controle biológico por meio da utilização de peixes larvófagos aparece como alternativa para reduzir os índices de infestação do vetor da dengue. O [...] presente trabalho objetiva avaliar e descrever condições em que peixes da espécie Poecilia reticulata possam ser utilizados como controladores biológicos de larvas de Aedes aegypti em ambiente doméstico. Para tanto, o potencial larvófago diário (observação direta) de diferentes grupos de P. reticulata foi calculado considerando-se a influência do sexo e do tamanho dos espécimes empregados. Os resultados dos ensaios revelaram que o potencial larvófago de P. reticulata varia com o sexo. Observou-se também que a capacidade controladora do grupo composto apenas por fêmeas foi cerca de duas vezes maior quando comparada à dos machos da espécie. Abstract in english Configured as an important public health problem in the world, the dengue fever affects tropical countries, like Brazil. Biological control through the use of larvivorous fish appears as an alternative to reduce the infestation rates of the dengue vector. This work aims to evaluate and describe cond [...] itions under which Poecilia reticulata fishes can be used as biological controllers of Aedes aegypti in a domestic environment. Thus, the daily larvivorous potential (direct observation) of different groups of P. reticulata was calculated, considering the influence of sex and size of the used specimens. The test results revealed that P. reticulata larvivorous potential ranges with sex, and found that the ability of the group composed only of females was about twice as high compared to that of males of the species.

  15. Chemical structures and hepatoprotective effects of constituents from the leaves of Salacia chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Seikou; Zhang, Yi; Matsuda, Hisashi; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Muraoka, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    The methanolic extract from the leaves of Salacia chinensis collected in Thailand was found to show a protective effect on D-galactosamine-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes. From the methanolic extract, eight new glycosides, named foliachinenosides E, F, G, H, and I, and foliasalaciosides J, K and L, were isolated together with 26 known constituents. The structures of new glycosides were determined on the basis of physicochemical and chemical evidence. In addition, the hepatoprotective effects of the isolated compounds on D-galactosamine-induced cytotoxicity were examined. Among them, lignans, eleutheroside E? and 7R,8S-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 4-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, were found to show the protective effects [inhibition (%) 41.4 ± 3.6 (p < 0.01), 45.5 ± 2.7 (p < 0.01) at 100 µM, respectively]. PMID:21804248

  16. Evaluation of antioxidant effect of Salacia oblonga against aluminum chloride induced visceral toxicity in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nathiya, S.; Nandhini, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aluminum is present in several manufactured foods and medicines and is also used in water purification. It is known that aluminum induces an oxidative stress characterized by an increase in lipid peroxidation and depletion of antioxidants. Therefore, the present experiment was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of hydroalcoholic extract of root bark of Salacia oblonga (SOHE) in modulating the aluminum chloride (AlCl3) induced oxidative stress in rats. Methods: Animals we...

  17. New triterpene constituents, foliasalacins A(1)-A(4), B(1)-B(3), and C, from the leaves of Salacia chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2008-07-01

    Four dammarane-type, three lupane-type, and an oleanane-type triterpenes named foliasalacins A(1) (1), A(2) (2), A(3) (3), A(4) (4), B(1) (5), B(2) (6), B(3) (7), and C (8) were isolated from the leaves of Salacia chinensis LINN. collected in Thailand. The structures of new triterpene constituents (1-8) were characterized on the basis of chemical and physiochemical evidence. PMID:18591801

  18. Descripción de los estadios ninfales de Edessa reticulata y Edessa jugata (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Edessinae) para Oaxaca y Veracruz / Description of nynphal states of Edessa reticulata and E. jugata (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Edessinae) from Oaxaca and Veracruz

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guillermina, Ortega-León; Martín Leonel, Zurita-García.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran fotográficamente los estadios ninfales y adultos de Edessa reticulata Dallas para el estado de Oaxaca y E. jugata Westwood para el estado de Veracruz. [...] Abstract in english The nimphal and adult stages of Edessa reticulata Dallas for the state of Oaxaca and E. jugata Westwood for the state of Veracruz are described and illustrated photographically. [...

  19. Aplicação de ácido giberélico (GA3 em précolheita de tangerina ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata blanco = Application of Gibberelic acid (GA3 on preharvest of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnior Cesar Modesto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi instalado em pomar comercial de tangerineira ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata Blanco, enxertadas sobre tangerineira ‘Cleópatra’ (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., em Pratânia, Estado de S??o Paulo, Brasil. Adotouse o delineamento experimental em blocoscasualizados com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos empregados foram: 0 (controle, 5, 10, 15 e 20 mg L1 de ácido giberélico (GA3. A aplicação dos tratamentos foi realizada com atomizador tratorizado. Na mudança de coloração dos frutos, utilizaramse 5,9 litros de solução por planta, com adição de 0,03% de surfatante não iônico com 25% de Alquil fenol poliglicoléter. As análises da qualidade dos frutos foram realizadas aos 13, 45, 75 e 111 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT. Não se verificou influência da aplicação de GA3 na massa fresca dos frutos, no conteúdo de sólidos solúveis totais, na acidez total titulável e “ratio”. No entanto foi observado atraso na colheita de frutos, induzido pelo efeito fisiológico do ácido giberélico. The experiment was carried out in a commercial orchard of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco, grafted on ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., in Pratânia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The utilized experimental design was composed of randomized blocks of four replications. The treatments consisted of: 0 (control,5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L1 of Gibberellic acid (GA3. Atomizer equipment was utilized for the application of the treatments. Each plant received 5.9 liters of solution, in which 0.03% of nonionic surfactant with 25% of alkylphenol ethoxylate was added, in order to change fruit coloration. The analyses of fruit quality were developed on the 13th, 45th, 75th and 111th days after the application of the treatments (DAT. Results showed that the application of GA3 did not affect fruit fresh mass, total soluble solids content, total titulable acidity and ratio. However, a delay in fruit harvesting was verified, which was induced by the physiological effect of Gibberellic acid.

  20. Avaliação citotóxica em três linhagens de células tumorais das frações obtidas da casca do caule de Salacia crassifolia (MART. ex. Schult.) G. Dom. (Celastraceae) / Assessment of cytotoxicity in three tumor cell lines of the fractions attained from the stem bark of Salacia crassifolia (Mart. ex. Schult.) G. Dom (Celastraceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clayton, Rodrigues de Oliveira; Antânio Calos, Severo Menezes; Manoel O., de Moraes; Letícia, de Melo Vieira; Adriana, Gomes Pereira; Rosa, Silva Lima; Mirley Luciene, dos Santos.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de plantas pela humanidade com fins medicinais é uma das formas mais antigas para tratamento, cura e prevenção de doenças, dentre elas o câncer, cujas espécies vegetais são encontradas em elevada diversidade no ecossistema. Com essa perspectiva, se optou por um arbusto típico do Cerrado [...] , Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae), para um screening inicial na determinação do potencial citotóxico desta espécie in vitro. Na medicina popular, S. crassifolia é utilizada no tratamento de problemas renais, tosse crônica, dores de cabeça, cicatrizantes, ulcerogênicas e na terapia da malaria. As frações: hidroalcoólica (SCCcM-W), diclorometânica(SCCcM-D), hexânica (SCCcM-H) e acetato de etila (SCCcM-A) da casca do caule foram submetidas a testes de citotoxicidade in vitro frente às linhagens MDA-MB-435(melanoma), HCT-8 (cólon-humano) e SF-295 (sistema nervoso central) utilizando o método colorimétrico MTT. As frações hexânica (SCCcM-H) e de acetato de etila(SCCcM-A) foram aquelas que proporcionaram citotoxicidade significativas frente às células tumorais analisadas. Abstract in english For millennia humans have been using plants for medicinal purposes to treat, cure, or prevent diseases, including cancer. Brazilian ecosystem has a high diversity of plant species. From this perspective, a species found in the Cerrado, Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae), was selected, for an initial [...] screening to determine the cytotoxic potential of this species "in vitro". S. crassifolia has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat kidney diseases, chronic cough, headaches, healing, ulcerogenic, and for treatment of malaria. The fractions: hydroalcoholic (SCCcM-W), dichloromethane(SCCcM-D), hexane (SCCcM-H) and ethyl acetate (SCCcM-A) from the stem bark were tested for cytotoxicity "in vitro" to within MDA -MB-435(melanoma), HCT-8 (human-colon), and SF-295 (CNS) using the MTT colorimetric method. The hexane (SCCcM-H) and ethyl acetate (SCCcM-A) fractions were those that provided significant cytotoxicity against analyzed tumor cells.

  1. Larvicidal activity of Copaifera reticulata ducke oil-resin against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) / Atividade larvicida do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata sobre Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ionizete G., Silva; Valéria O.M., Zanon; Heloisa H.G., Silva.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A evolução de resistência de Culex quinquefasciatus Say aos inseticidas sintéticos e a modificação da suscetibilidade desse mosquito aos piretróides, estimularam estudos sobre a atividade de plantas inseticidas, como alternativa para o seu controle. Neste trabalho foram realizados ensaios biológicos [...] para verificar a atividade larvicida do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata sobre C. quinquefasciatus. Para a realização dos bioensaios o óleo-resina foi solubilizado com dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO), na proporção de 0,4 ml do DMSO para 24,6 ml de água destilada. Para cada estádio, os bioensaios foram realizados em copos descartáveis, contendo 100 ml de solução na qual colocavam-se 20 larvas, com quatro réplicas para ajuste das concentrações letais. As leituras de mortalidade foram feitas após 48h de exposição das larvas à solução. O controle foi feito em água destilada e DMSO, com o mesmo número de réplicas dos bioensaios. Os experimentos foram realizados numa câmara biológica, climatizada a 28 ± 1°C, umidade relativa de 80 ± 5 % e fotofase de 12h e posteriormente, no campo. Foram consideradas mortas as larvas que não possuíam movimentos. O óleo-resina de C. reticulata demonstrou atividade larvicida para todos os estádios de C. quinquefasciatus. As LC50 encontradas para larvas de 1º, 2º, 3º e 4º estádios foram de 0,4; 0,9; 39 e 80 ppm, e as LC99 foram de 15; 15; 50 e 180 ppm, respectivamente. Abstract in english The appearance of resistance of Culex quinquefasciatus Say to chemical insecticides and the modification of the susceptibility of this mosquito to pyrethroid has stimulated studies on the activity of plants as alternative for its control. In this study, bioassays were carried out to verify the larvi [...] cidal activity of the oil-resin of Copaifera reticulata on C. quinquefasciatus. The bioassays were carried out with the oil dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), at the proportion of 0.4 ml of DMSO to 24.6 ml of distilled water. For each instar, the bioassays were carried out in plastic glasses with 100 ml solution using 20 larvae, wit four replications to adjust the lethal concentrations. The mortality observations were made after 48h exposure of the larvae to the solution. The control was carried out in distilled water and DMSO, with the same number of replications as the bioassays. The experiments were carried out in a biological chamber, controlled at 28 ± 1°C, 80 ± 5% relative humidity and 12h light. The larvae without movement were considered dead. The C. reticulata oil-resin demonstrated larvicide activity for all the C. quinquefasciatus instars. The LC50 found for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instars were: 0.4, 0.9, 39 and 80 ppm, and the LC99 were 15, 15, 50 and 180 ppm, respectively.

  2. Vulnerability of the mosquito larvae to the guppies (Poecilia reticulata in the presence of alternative preys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnali Manna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The predatory potential of the larvivorous fishes can be affected by the presence of alternative preys. In the present study the predation pattern of the sewage dwelling Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1872 on the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae was evaluated in the presence of alternative preys. Methods: The predation of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by different size groups of P. reticulata fishes was evaluated. In addition to this, the niche breadth (N and diet breadth (B were measured following Manly’s selectivity index (Si as an indicator of variation of such predation pattern in the presence of alternative prey types, like chironomid larvae and tubificid worms.Results: The consumption of IV instar Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by individual P. reticulata ranged between 65 and 84 in a 3 h feeding period and varied with the size of fish (F2, 33 = 34.91; p<0.001. The selectivity coefficient revealed a significantly low preference for the Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae (0.16, CL: 0.05 – 0.27; p< 0.05 compared to the chironomid larvae and tubificid worms, when all the three prey types were present. The niche breadth (N and diet breadth (B ranged from 0.77 to 0.92 and 0.69 to 0.93, respectively. The total consumption of all the prey types varied with the predator density, but the selectivity index for the mosquito larvae was significantly low in all the instances.Interpretation & conclusion: P. reticulata can consume a good number of mosquito larvae, with the consumption rate varying with the body size. P. reticulata fishes exhibit low preference for mosquito larvae as prey in the presence of alternative controphic preys like chironomid larvae and tubificid worms. Though establishment and sustenance of P. reticulata in new habitats will be favoured by the presence of alternative preys, but vulnerability of mosquito larvae may be reduced with availability of multiple preys in natural conditions.

  3. The Effects of Gokshura, Tribulus terrestris on Sex Reversal of Guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oehriban cek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT on sex reversal in guppy, Poecilia reticulata. The objective of this study was to introduce a new environmentally friendly method for masculinization in P. reticulata. Since male guppy has higher commercial value than female. TT is a natural, non-toxic herb which helps enhance testosterone levels in human and animals. It was prepared in a laboratory in France. Different concentration (0.0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 g L-1 of TT was investigated for sex reversal in the Poecilia reticulata. TT extract was administered by immersion of newly born offspring once weekly for two months. Among the dosages used in the present study 0.15 g L-1 TT was the most effective dosage that ensured maximum male ratio (80%, p<0.01. Although, sex ratios of 0.05 and 0.1 g L-1 TT were not significantly different from the expected 1:1 ratio, in these two groups treatment with TT also result in higher number of males (58.25 and 59.77%, respectively, than control (p>0.05. Total survival rates in all treatments and control were uniformly high ranging from 83 to 87% (p>0.05. It is concluded that TT has no negative effect on survival rate of P. reticulata. All groups of TT-treated fish exhibited successful growth acceleration comparing to the control group, but only TT treatment at the concentration of 0.15 and 0.1 g L-1 TT significantly improved growth rate of P. reticulata (p<0.01. Histological examinations revealed that testes of fish treated with TT-extract contained all stages of spermatogenesis. Sex reversal in P. reticulata demonstrated that TT treated new-born progenies showed successful sex reversal, spermatogenesis and better growth rate than untreated progenies.

  4. HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN POECILIA RETICULATA AFTER INTERACTION OF IONIZING RADIATION AND ZINC SULFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Špalková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In our experiment we have studied interaction of ionizing radiation and zinc at Poecilia reticulata. Fish were irradiated with a 20 Gy of gamma-rays. Zinc sulphate in concentration 25 mg.l-1 was added to water in aquarium. Food intake, clinicl symptoms and histological changes were followed after gamma-irradiation and zinc sulfid in guppy Poecilia reticulata. In the first days timidity and lethargy were observed. The most prominent clinical symptoms observed were emaciation, hampered breathing and haemorrhages. Histological findings corresponded with these symptoms.doi:10.5219/228

  5. Determination of the Presence of Huanglongbing in Seeds and Movement of the Pathogen in Citrus reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajivand Shokrollah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Huanglongbing (HLB also known as citrus greening disease is a fastidious phloem-inhabiting bacterium in the genus Candidatus Liberibacter. Using universal primers, the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence of three strains of the bacterium were obtained by PCR. However there is very little information on seed transmission and HLB pathogen movement to find a way for control or reduce the severity of HLB on the field. The study was conducted to detect HLB pathogen in seeds of Citrus, to determine pathogen movement in citrus seedling after infection and to detect the HLB pathogen in citrus roots. Approach: Seeds of Citrus reticulata cv. Limau Madu were collected from infected orchard and were germinated in screenhouse condition. The seeds of Citrus reticlata cv. L. Madu were planted in screenhouse too for HLB pathogen movement and HLB detection in roots. The seedlings were inoculated using infected grafting methods. Results: HLB was not amplified in new seedlings after germination. HLB moved slowly reaching up to 1.5 cm after 2 weeks, 1.5-4.5 cm after eight weeks and detected on 4.5-9 cm after 14 weeks below the grafting area. HLB was also detected up to 9-15 cm after 16 weeks, 15-24 cm after twenty weeks, 24-28.5 cm after 22 weeks and 28.5-30 cm after 24 weeks below the grafting area. Conclusion: Base on conventional PCR test, HLB disease in citrus is not seed borne and it can reach to the roots 26 weeks after inoculation.

  6. Toxicological and cytogenetic assessment of a Salacia oblonga extract in a rat subchronic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammang, A M; Erexson, G L; Mirwald, J M; Henwood, S M

    2007-10-01

    Salacia oblonga holds potential as a natural method to mitigate the blood glucose response for people with diabetes by inhibiting the activity of intestinal alpha-glucosidases. As part of a safety evaluation of novel ingredients for use in blood glucose control, the toxicity of a S. oblonga root extract (SOE) was evaluated in a subchronic 90-day feeding study in rats. An in vivo-in vitro rat peripheral blood lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations assay was added at termination of the subchronic rat study to examine cultured lymphocytes for possible chromosomal aberration induction. This was conducted due to a previous weak; although reproducible, positive chromosomal aberrations response in cultured peripheral blood human lymphocytes after acute in vitro treatment with SOE. The present study results indicate that SOE was negative for the induction of chromosomal aberrations in cultured rat peripheral blood lymphocytes after 90 consecutive days of treatment with SOE. The no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) was determined to be 2,500 mg/kg/day following daily subchronic oral gavage administrations to rats. PMID:17566623

  7. Alelopatia de Salacia campestris Walp. sobre a germinação e crescimento inicial de alface e tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Santana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Muitos metabólitos sintetizados pelas plantas e liberados no ambiente, afetam o desenvolvimento de outras espécies vegetais, afetando principalmente a germinação e o crescimento inicial das plântulas, fenômeno este chamado de alelopatia. Em vista disso o trabalho teve como objetivo investigar os efeitos alelopáticos do extrato etanólico do caule de Salacia campestris Walp. na germinação e crescimento inicial de alface e tomate. O extrato foi ensaiado nas concentrações 0, 250, 500 e 1000 mg/L. Foram avaliados a porcentagem de germinação (%G, índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG, comprimento da radícula (CR e hipocótilo (CH. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância, sendo as médias comparadas pelo teste Scott Knott ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. O extrato promoveu estímulo médio no índice de velocidade de germinação de 60 e 12%, para alface e tomate, respectivamente. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada no crescimento radicular e do hipocótilo de plântulas de alface. Em plântulas de tomate observou-se decréscimo médio de 20,5% no comprimento do hipocótilo. Assim, a espécie em estudo apresenta potencial alelopatico evidenciado pelo aumento do IVG no alface, e redução das plántulas de tomate, porém novos estudos são necessários.

  8. Biodiesel from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seed oil, a potential non-food feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil extracted from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seeds was investigated as a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was prepared by sodium methoxide-catalyzed transesterification of the oil with methanol. Fuel properties that were determined include cetane numb...

  9. Changes of ionizing radiation on palace reticulata exposed to various doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of the effect of radiation on animal organisms help us to develop methods of protection against its unfavourable influences. The present study focused on changes, clinical symptoms and survival of Poecilia reticulata exposed to various doses of ionizing radiation. The fish were exposed to a single dose whole-body gamma radiation of 10, 20, 30, 35 and 40 Gy. (authors)

  10. Mutational changes in the courtship activity of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The courtship activity of male F2 descendants of irradiated and control guppies, Poecilia reticulata, of the inbred strain Istanbul was compared. The results of Spieser and Schroeder (1978), who found a decrease in courtship activity of descendants of irradiated guppies, were confirmed under more natural conditions

  11. ADENOCARCINOMA OF THE RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM IN THE GUPPY POECILIA RETICULATA PETERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A single case of adenocarcinoma of the retinal pigment epithelium occurred in a guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters. his is the first such tumor reported from fishes. he left eye of the affected fish was severely exophthalmic because of a large intraocular tumor mass. he tumor, whi...

  12. Morfo-anatomia comparada das folhas do par vicariante Plathymenia foliolosa Benth. e Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Irene da Costa A., Mendes; Therezinha Isaia, Paviani.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available (Morfo-anatomia comparada das folhas do par vicariante Plathymenia foliolosa Benth. e Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae)). Folhas bipinadas adultas de P. foliolosa e P. reticulata da mata (Minas Gerais) e do cerrado (Distrito Federal) respectivamente, foram estudadas, sob o pont [...] o de vista comparativo, quanto à morfologia externa e à anatomia. Todas as partes foliares foram examinadas sob microscopia óptica, em luz normal e em luz polarizada. Os folíolos de P. reticulata são maiores que os de P. foliolosa. A organização do sistema vascular é semelhante nas duas espécies. Em P. reticulata, os estômatos estão no mesmo nível ou levemente depressionados em relação às demais células epidérmicas e, em P. foliolosa, estas estruturas mostram posição ligeiramente elevada. A lâmina foliolar é mais espessa e o mesofilo é mais compacto em P. reticulata. As lâminas foliolares são hipoestomáticas e dorsiventrais com dois estratos de parênquima paliçádico em P. reticulata e um estrato em P. foliolosa. A cutinização é mais intensa nas paredes das células epidérmicas de P. reticulata. Cristais de oxalato de cálcio são mais abundantes em P. foliolosa embora a redissolução dos mesmos tenha sido observada, para ambas as espécies, sobretudo no pulvino primário. O escleromorfismo, encarado sob o ponto de vista anatômico, é mais acentuado em P. reticulata e, nesta espécie, a quantidade de taninos e de fibras gelatinosas também é maior. A semelhança constatada na organização estrutural como um todo é condizente com a proximidade taxonômica das duas espécies e os aspectos anatômicos diferenciais sugerem estar relacionados com o habitat de P. foliolosa e P. reticulata. Abstract in english (Comparative morpho-anatomy of leaves from the vicariant pair Plathymenia foliolosa Benth. and Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae)). The bipinnate adult leaves of P. foliolosa from the forest (Minas Gerais) and P. reticulata from the cerrado vegetation of Brasília (DF), Brazil, w [...] ere studied. All parts of the leaves were examined under the light microscope with normal and polarized light. P. reticulata leaflets are larger than those of P. foliolosa. The anatomical structure in all parts shows subtle differences which may be of ecological importance. The stomata occur either at the same level as the adjacent epidermal cells or they may be slightly sunken in P. reticulata or slightly raised in P.foliolosa. The leaflet blade is wider in P. reticulata and the mesophyll cells are more tightly arranged. The leaflet blade is hypostomatic, dorsiventral with two layers of palisade parenchyma in P. reticulata and one layer in P. foliolosa. The cutinization process is more intense in the epidermal cell walls of P. reticulata. Calcium oxalate crystals are more abundant in P. foliolosa although crystal redissolution was seen in both species. Stronger scleromorphism (from the anatomical point of view), greater amount of phenolic deposits and gelatinous fibers are features more conspicuous in P. reticulata. The similar structural organization recorded for the two vicariant species agrees with their close taxonomic relationship and the differential anatomical features may be related to the environmental factors of the species' habitat.

  13. Sequencing and characterization of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodd F Helen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next-generation sequencing is providing researchers with a relatively fast and affordable option for developing genomic resources for organisms that are not among the traditional genetic models. Here we present a de novo assembly of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata transcriptome using 454 sequence reads, and we evaluate potential uses of this transcriptome, including detection of sex-specific transcripts and deployment as a reference for gene expression analysis in guppies and a related species. Guppies have been model organisms in ecology, evolutionary biology, and animal behaviour for over 100 years. An annotated transcriptome and other genomic tools will facilitate understanding the genetic and molecular bases of adaptation and variation in a vertebrate species with a uniquely well known natural history. Results We generated approximately 336 Mbp of mRNA sequence data from male brain, male body, female brain, and female body. The resulting 1,162,670 reads assembled into 54,921 contigs, creating a reference transcriptome for the guppy with an average read depth of 28×. We annotated nearly 40% of this reference transcriptome by searching protein and gene ontology databases. Using this annotated transcriptome database, we identified candidate genes of interest to the guppy research community, putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and male-specific expressed genes. We also showed that our reference transcriptome can be used for RNA-sequencing-based analysis of differential gene expression. We identified transcripts that, in juveniles, are regulated differently in the presence and absence of an important predator, Rivulus hartii, including two genes implicated in stress response. For each sample in the RNA-seq study, >50% of high-quality reads mapped to unique sequences in the reference database with high confidence. In addition, we evaluated the use of the guppy reference transcriptome for gene expression analyses in a congeneric species, the sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna. Over 40% of reads from the sailfin molly sample aligned to the guppy transcriptome. Conclusions We show that next-generation sequencing provided a reliable and broad reference transcriptome. This resource allowed us to identify candidate gene variants, SNPs in coding regions, and sex-specific gene expression, and permitted quantitative analysis of differential gene expression.

  14. Quantitative analysis of neosalacinol and neokotalanol, another two potent ?-glucosidase inhibitors from Salacia species, by LC-MS with ion pair chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Osamu; Morikawa, Toshio; Miyake, Sohachiro; Akaki, Junji; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Pongpiriyadacha, Yutana; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative analytical method for the highly polar sulfonium pseudo-sugar constituents neosalacinol (3) and neokotalanol (4), another two potent ?-glucosidase inhibitors isolated from Ayurvedic traditional medicine Salacia species, was developed by employing an ion pair reagent upon chromatographic separation. The optimum conditions for separation and detection of these two constituents were achieved on an ODS column (3-µm particle size, 2.1-mm i.d. × 100 mm) with 5 mM undecafluorohexanoic acid-MeOH (99:1, v/v) as the mobile phase and using MS equipped with an electrospray ionization source. More than ten samples of Salacia from different origins were analyzed, and the results indicated that the assay was reproducible and precise and could be readily utilized for evaluation of ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Salacia species. By combining this assay with the quantitative analytical method previously developed for salacinol (1) and kotalanol (2), a more precise and strict evaluation of ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of extracts from Salacia species (R = 0.959 for maltase and 0.795 for sucrase) was achieved. PMID:20981499

  15. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Some Nigerian Medicinal Plant Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Sofidiya, M. O.; Odukoya, O. A.; Familoni, O. B.; Inya-agha, S. I.

    2006-01-01

    The present research evaluates the DPPH radical scavenging, total antioxidant activities, reducing power and total contents of phenolic compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of five Nigerian medicinal plants (Dalbergia saxatilis Hook.f. (Papilionacae), Ekebergia senegalensis A.Juss.(Meliaceae), Hymenocardia acida Tul. (Hymenocardiaceae), Icacina tricantha Oliv. (Icacinaceae) and Salacia pallescens Oliv.(Celastraceae). Total phenols were analysed according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Each s...

  16. Beneficial effects of mangiferin isolated from Salacia chinensis on biochemical and hematological parameters in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellamuthu, Periyar Selvam; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Kandasamy, Murugesan

    2014-01-01

    Salacia chinensis L. is a traditional Southeast Asian herbal medicine and used in the treatment of diabetes. To investigate the antidiabetic properties of mangiferin from Salacia chinensis and its beneficial effect on toxicological and hematological parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Mangiferin was orally treated with the dose of 40 mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days to diabetic rats. Biochemical (blood glucose, uric acid, urea and creatinine), toxicological (AST, ALT and ALP) and hematological parameters (red and white blood cells) and their functional indices were evaluated in diabetic treated groups with mangiferin and glibenclamide. Mangiferin treated diabetic rats significantly (p<0.05) lowered the level of blood glucose, in addition, altered the levels of biochemical parameters including urea, uric acid, and creatinine. Toxicological parameters including AST, ALT and ALP were also significantly reduced after treatment with mangiferin in diabetic rats. Similarly, the levels of red blood, white blood cells and their functional indices were significantly improved through the administration of mangiferin. Thus, our results indicate that mangiferin present in S. chinensis possesses antidiabetic properties and nontoxic nature against chemically induced diabetic rats. Further experimental investigations are warrant to make use of its relevant therapeutic effect to substantiate its ethno-medicinal usage. PMID:24374436

  17. Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil / Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 e Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 de peixes ornamentais de água doce no Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ML, Martins; N, Marchiori; K, Roumbedakis; F, Lami.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho Trichodina reticulata e T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) de peixes ornamentais de água doce cultivados no estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil são caracterizadas morfologicamente. A prevalência de infecção e uma lista comparative de medidas são discutidas. Foram examinados "pl [...] atis" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "kinguios" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppys" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "molinésias" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "betas" Betta splendens (n = 2) e "espada" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). Após a anestesia com solução de benzocaína, os peixes foram submetidos à avaliação parasitológca. Um total de 51,57% peixes estavam parasitados por Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus foi a espécie mais parasitada, seguida por X. maculatus e P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus e P. latipinna não estavam parasitados por tricodinídeos. Duas species de Trichodina foram coletadas da superfície corporal dos peixes: T. nobilis foi encontrada em C. auratus, P. reticulata e X. maculatus e T. reticulata foi observada apenas em C. auratus. A importância do manejo adequado em cultivos de peixes ornamentais também foi discutida. Abstract in english In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southe [...] rn platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2) and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed.

  18. Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 e Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 de peixes ornamentais de água doce no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML Martins

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35, "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31, "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20, "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6, "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2 and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1. After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed.No presente trabalho Trichodina reticulata e T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae de peixes ornamentais de água doce cultivados no estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil são caracterizadas morfologicamente. A prevalência de infecção e uma lista comparative de medidas são discutidas. Foram examinados "platis" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35, "kinguios" Carassius auratus (n = 31, "guppys" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20, "molinésias" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6, "betas" Betta splendens (n = 2 e "espada" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1. Após a anestesia com solução de benzocaína, os peixes foram submetidos à avaliação parasitológca. Um total de 51,57% peixes estavam parasitados por Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus foi a espécie mais parasitada, seguida por X. maculatus e P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus e P. latipinna não estavam parasitados por tricodinídeos. Duas species de Trichodina foram coletadas da superfície corporal dos peixes: T. nobilis foi encontrada em C. auratus, P. reticulata e X. maculatus e T. reticulata foi observada apenas em C. auratus. A importância do manejo adequado em cultivos de peixes ornamentais também foi discutida.

  19. Population differentiation and sexual isolation among Poecilia reticulata (the guppy) populations

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Heather Jane

    2007-01-01

    Guppy populations in Trinidad have been a model for studies of evolutionary ecology and sexual selection. This thesis extends these studies to examine the phylogeographic history of Poecilia reticulata Peters (the guppy), and to test whether patterns of parallel morphological divergence seen in Trinidad extend across the natural range. In Chapter 1, phylogenetic, nested clade, and population genetic analyses of nuclear (X-src) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences were used to investigate p...

  20. Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine)

    OpenAIRE

    Amine Elleuch; Fattouma Djilani Khouaja; Imen Hamdi; Nabiha Bsais; Jean-Pierre Perreault; Mohamed Marrakchi; Hatem Fakhfakh

    2006-01-01

    We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III) isolated from a single natural infected Citrus reticulata var. Clementine tree growing in a tree nursery in Manouba (near Tunis Capital). We describe the sequence variability of these viroids from their natural host without using an alternative passage by an indicator host or an artificial inoculation. This work...

  1. Investigation of LC50, NOEC and LOEC of Glyphosate, Deltamethrin and Pretilachlor in Guppies (Poecilia Reticulata)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sadeghi; Aliakbar Hedayati

    2014-01-01

    Background: The presence of pesticides is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran. These toxic substances may accumulate in the food chain and cause serious ecological and health problems. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor as potential dangerous organic pesticides to assess lethal effects of these chemicals agents to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Methods: Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of glypho...

  2. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of citrus jambhiri lush and citrus reticulata blanco essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time interval in which we can get maximum concentration of essential oil from the peels of Citrus jambhiri Lush and Citrus reticulata Blanco, to determine the composition of peel oils and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracted oils. It was observed that in case of Citrus jambhiri Lush maximum oil yield (I %) was obtained when fruits were immature (during October). As the fruit samples got matured, the oil yield decreased. In December the oil yield decreased to 0.2 %. In case of Citrus reticulata Blanco maximum oil yield (0.189 %) was obtained during the last week of January. Chemical analysis of essential oils showed that limonene was the most abundant compound (86 %-93 %) followed by alpha terpinene (2 %-4.5 %), beta-pinene(1 0/0-2 %) and nerol (0.5 %-1.5 %). The radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of essential oils were determined by DPPH and linoleic acid test. The essential oil of Citrus jambhiri Lush inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid by 54.98 % and that of Citrus reticulata Blanco inhibited by 49.98 %. Moreover, the essential oils also showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms. (author)

  3. Protective Effect against Hydroxyl-induced DNA Damage and Antioxidant Activity of Citri reticulatae Pericarpium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng Chen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As a typical Chinese herbal medicine, Citri reticulatae pericarpium (CRP possesses various pharmacological effects involved in antioxidant ability. However, its antioxidant effects have not been reported yet. The objective of this work was to investigate its antioxidant ability, then further discuss the antioxidant mechanism. Methods: CRP was extracted by ethanol to obtain ethanol extract of Citri reticulatae pericarpium (ECRP. ECRP was then measured by various antioxidant methods, including DNA damage assay, DPPH assay, ABTS assay, Fe3+-reducing assay and Cu2+-reducing assay. Finally, the content of total flavonoids was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. Results: Our results revealed that ECRP could effectively protect against hydroxyl-induced DNA damage (IC50 944.47±147.74 ?g/mL. In addition, it could also scavenge DPPH· radical (IC50349.67±1.91 ?g/mL and ABTS+• radical (IC5011.33±0.10 ?g/mL, reduce Fe3+ (IC50 140.95±2.15 ?g/mL and Cu2+ (IC50 70.46±1.77 ?g/mL. Chemical analysis demonstrated that the content of total flavonoids in ECRP was 198.29±12.24 mg quercetin/g. Conclusion: Citri reticulatae pericarpium can effectively protect against hydroxyl-induced DNA damage. One mechanism of protective effect may be radical-scavenging which is via donating hydrogen atom (H·, donating electron (e. Its antioxidant ability can be mainly attributed to the flavonoids, especially hesperidin and narirutin.

  4. PENGARUH INSEKTISIDA KARBOFURAN TERHADAP IKAN PEMAKAN JENTIK Poecilia reticulata DI LABORATORIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Harsono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Untuk mengetahui pengaruh insektisida karbofuran (Faradan 3G yang biasa digunakan sebagai pengendaii hama padi di sawah oleh petani terhadap ikan pemakan jentik Poecifia reticulata telah dilakukan penelitian di laboratorium. Berdasarkan dosis yang digunakan oleh petani yakni 8-10 g/m2 atau setara dengan 200 ppm dibuat 5 variasi dosis berturut-turut sebesar 60; 140; 200; 260 dan 340 ppm untuk diuji coba. Pengamatan Jumiah kematian ikan, suhu dan pH dilakukan seteiah pemaparan 2; 4; 8; 16 dan 24 jam. Kematian P. reticulata lebih banyak pada dosis yang lebih besar pada waktu pemaparan lebih lama. Kematian 100% ditemukan setelah pemaparan selama 24; 16 dan 8 jam untuk berturut-turut dosis 200; 260 dan 340 ppm. LD50 insektisida karbofuran untuk jangka waktu pemaparan 2; 4; 8; 16 dan 24 jam berturut-turut sebesar 271; 119; 60; 46; dan 41 ppm. Penelitian di lapangan (sawah perlu dilakukan mengingat bahwa pada penelitian di laboratorium dosis 200 ppm atau setara dengan 8-10 g/m2 (biasa digunakan petani menyebabkan kematian P. reticulata sebesar 100% setelah 24 jam pemaparan.

  5. Efecto anabólico y androgénico del esteroide acetato de trembolona en el guppy (Poecilia reticulata) / Anabolic and androgenic effect of steroid trenbolone acetate on guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Héctor, Salgado Zamora; Aída, Azpeitia Hernández; Samuel, Marañón Herrera; Eduardo, Maya Peña.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto del esteroide semisintético acetato de trembolona (ATB) en el pez de ornato Poecilia reticulata (guppy). Especímenes juveniles de 30 días de edad fueron tratados con el esteroide a dosis de 300 mg/kg de alimento durante 60 días. Al término del tratamiento, 40 días después, se [...] estimó el efecto residual del esteroide. Se analizó la sobrevivencia, la proporción de peces masculinizados, así como el efecto anabólico. Los resultados indicaron que el ATB es eficaz para inducir la masculinización, a diferencia del grupo testigo, donde se registraron 32% de machos. Asimismo, el ATB tuvo un efecto anabólico, ya que los peces tratados mostraron mayor peso y talla e incremento de la aleta caudal. El esteroide no causó daño en la población tratada, al sobrevivir 93.3% de los peces, comparado con 83% del grupo testigo. Abstract in english The effect of semi-synthetic steroid trenbolone acetate (TBA) on the ornamental fish Poecilia reticulata (guppy) was studied. The steroid at a dose of 300 mg/kg feed was administered to 30 days old juvenile specimens during 60 days. Forty days after treatment was ended, an evaluation aimed to determ [...] ine the steroid residual effect was undertaken. Survival, masculinization ratio and the drug anabolic effect were analyzed. Results showed TBA to be effective to induce masculinization, differing (P

  6. Potent glucosidase inhibitors: de-O-sulfonated ponkoranol and its stereoisomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Razieh; Kuntz, Douglas A; Rose, David R; Pinto, B Mario

    2010-04-01

    Ponkoranol, a glucosidase inhibitor isolated from the plant Salacia reticulata, comprises a sulfonium ion with an internal sulfate counterion. An efficient synthetic route to de-O-sulfonated ponkoranol and its 5'-stereoisomer is reported, and it is shown that these compounds are potent glucosidase inhibitors that inhibit a key intestinal human glucosidase, the N-terminal catalytic domain of maltase glucoamylase, with K(i) values of 43 +/- 3 and 15 +/- 1 nM, respectively. PMID:20218632

  7. Absolute structures of new megastigmane glycosides, foliasalaciosides E(1), E(2), E(3), F, G, H, and I from the leaves of Salacia chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Nakamura, Seikou; Pongpiriyadacha, Yutana; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2008-04-01

    Following the investigation of foliasalaciosides A(1), A(2), B(1), B(2), C, and D, seven new megastigmane glycosides named foliasalaciosides E(1)-I (1-7), together with four known constituents, were isolated from the leaves of Salacia chinensis LINN. collected in Thailand. The absolute stereostructures of the new compounds were characterized on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence, including the application of the modified Mosher's method. PMID:18379106

  8. Utilization of chemically modified citrus reticulata peels for biosorptive removal of acid yellow-73 dye from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Textile effluents contain several varieties of natural and synthetic dyes, which are non-biodegradable. Acid Yellow-73 is one of them. In this research work, adsorptive removal of this dye was investigated using chemically modified Citrus reticulata peels, in batch mode. It was noted that adsorption of dye on Citrus reticulata peels increased by increasing contact time and decreased in basic pH conditions. Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal models were followed by equilibrium data, but the first isotherm fitted the data better, showing that chemisorption occurred more as compared to physiosorption, showing maximum adsorption capacity 96.46 mg.g-1.L-1. The thermodynamic study showed that adsorption of Acid Yellow-73 on chemically modified Citrus reticulata peels was favorable in nature, following pseudo-second order kinetics. (author)

  9. Copper removal from aqueous solution by marine green alga Ulva reticulata

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kuppusamy, Vijayaraghavan; Joseph, Raj Jegan; Kandasamy, Palanivelu; Manickam, Velan.

    2004-04-15

    Full Text Available The batch removal of copper (II) ions from aqueous solution under different experimental conditions using Ulva reticulata was investigated in this study. The copper (II) uptake was dependent on initial pH and initial copper concentration, with pH 5.5 being the optimum value. The equilibrium data wer [...] e fitted using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model, with the maximum copper (II) uptake of 74.63 mg/g determined at a pH of 5.5. The Freundlich model regression resulted in high correlation coefficients and the model parameters were largely dependent on initial solution pH. At various initial copper (II) concentrations (250 to 1000 mg/L), sorption equilibrium was attained between 30 and 120 min. The copper (II) uptake by U. reticulata was best described by Pseudo-second order rate model and the rate constant, the initial sorption rate and the equilibrium sorption capacity were also reported. The elution efficiency for copper-desorption from U. reticulata was determined for 0.1 M HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 and CaCl2 at various Solid-to-Liquid ratios (S/L). The solution CaCl2 (0.1 M) in HCl at pH 3 was chosen to be the most suitable copper-desorbing agent. The biomass was also employed in three sorption-desorption cycles with 0.1 M CaCl2 (in HCl, pH 3) as the elutant.

  10. Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amine, Elleuch; Fattouma Djilani, Khouaja; Imen, Hamdi; Nabiha, Bsais; Jean-Pierre, Perreault; Mohamed, Marrakchi; Hatem, Fakhfakh.

    Full Text Available We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III) isolated from a single natural infected Citrus reticulata var. Clementine tree growing in a tree nursery in Manouba [...] (near Tunis Capital). We describe the sequence variability of these viroids from their natural host without using an alternative passage by an indicator host or an artificial inoculation. This work confirms that naturally occurring viroid infections contain a mixture of sequence variants. These are the first sequences of citrus viroids from Africa.

  11. VARIATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF FRUIT PEELS OF CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO BY PHYSICAL EFFECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammed; Husain Shahnaz Sultana; Ansari Shahid Husain

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition of volatile oil of the fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) of Delhi Region has been studied under different physical factors. The oil was composed mainly monoterpenes (99.1 %) constituting l-limonene (92.4 %), ?-terpene (2.6 %) and ?-phellandrene (1.8 %). The volatile oil after heating at 110?C for 24 hours, exposing to sunlight for 48 hours and UV light for 24 hours and after treatment with silica gel and alumina neutral for 24 hours contained t...

  12. Acute Toxicity of Premium Motor Spirit to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J .K. Saliu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Static bioassays were made to determine acute toxicity of premium motor spirit on poecilia reticulata. Lethal doses of the oil were determined using LC50 software programmes based on Finneys probit statistical method. The 96 LC50 value of the oil for guppy was estimated as 1.69 (1.13-2.43 mg L-1. The fish exhibited behavioural changes in the form of aggression, rapid gulping of water, increased opercular movement and abnormal swimming movements. The significance of this sublethal effect particularly as a stress indicator of petrol oil contamination was discussed.

  13. Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Elleuch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd, Hop stunt viroid (HSVd and Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III isolated from a single natural infected Citrus reticulata var. Clementine tree growing in a tree nursery in Manouba (near Tunis Capital. We describe the sequence variability of these viroids from their natural host without using an alternative passage by an indicator host or an artificial inoculation. This work confirms that naturally occurring viroid infections contain a mixture of sequence variants. These are the first sequences of citrus viroids from Africa.

  14. Efficacy of Citrus reticulata and Mirazid in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manal A, Hamed; Mona H, Hetta.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid), as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for di [...] fferent cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH); lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase); acid phosphatase (AP) and 5'- nucleotidase. Liver function enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST); alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also estimated. Parasitological studies through ova count and worm burden will also be taken into consideration. The results showed a marked reduction in SDH, LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities and a significant increase in G-6-Pase, AP, 5'- nucleotidase, and ALP after S. mansoni infection. A noticeable alteration in LDH subunits were also noticed. Treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all the previous enzyme activities with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden.

  15. Efficacy of Citrus reticulata and Mirazid in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal A Hamed

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid, as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for different cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase; acid phosphatase (AP and 5'- nucleotidase. Liver function enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST; alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were also estimated. Parasitological studies through ova count and worm burden will also be taken into consideration. The results showed a marked reduction in SDH, LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities and a significant increase in G-6-Pase, AP, 5'- nucleotidase, and ALP after S. mansoni infection. A noticeable alteration in LDH subunits were also noticed. Treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all the previous enzyme activities with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden.

  16. Toxicity response of Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae to some agricultural pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIAKBAR HEDAYATI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hedayati A, Tarkhani R, Shadi A. 2012. Mortality response of Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae to some agricultural pesticides. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 6-10. This research was performed to determine and compare acute toxicity of diazinon and deltamethrin as potential dangerous organic pesticides to assess mortality effects of these chemicals to the freshwater guppy Poecilia reticulata. LC50 of 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h was attained by probit analysis by Finney’s and using the maximum-likelihood procedure (SPSS. The 24-96 h LC50 for the diazinon were 40.9±0.98, 33.2±0.84, 23.2±0.74 and 16.8±0.57 ppm respectively. The 24-96 h LC50 for the deltamethrin were 0.297±0.13, 0.236±0.16, 0.204±0.47 and 0.195±0.06 ppm respectively. In the present study, LC50 values indicated that deltamethrin was more toxic than diazinon to this species. LC50 values obtained in the present study were different from the corresponding values that have been published in the literature for other species of fish.

  17. Development and Characterization of Somatic Hybrids of Ulva reticulata Forsskål (×) Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.)Doty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Kumari, Puja; Reddy, Crk

    2015-01-01

    Ulvophycean species with diverse trait characteristics provide an opportunity to create novel allelic recombinant variants. The present study reports the development of seaweed variants with improved agronomic traits through protoplast fusion between Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.) Doty and Ulva reticulata Forsskål. A total of 12 putative hybrids were screened based on the variations in morphology and total DNA content over the fusion partners. DNA-fingerprinting by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis confirmed genomic introgression in the hybrids. The DNA fingerprint revealed sharing of parental alleles in regenerated hybrids and a few alleles that were unique to hybrids. The epigenetic variations in hybrids estimated in terms of DNA methylation polymorphism also revealed sharing of methylation loci with both the fusion partners. The functional trait analysis for growth showed a hybrid with heterotic trait (DGR% = 36.7 ± 1.55%) over the fusion partners U. reticulata (33.2 ± 2.6%) and M. oxyspermum (17.8 ± 1.77%), while others were superior to the mid-parental value (25.2 ± 2.2%) (p cellulose content and antioxidative potential in hybrids over fusion partners. The hybrid varieties with superior traits developed in this study unequivocally demonstrate the significance of protoplast fusion technique in developing improved varients of macroalgae. PMID:25688248

  18. Cultivo de Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poecilidae) en cuerpos de agua tropicales,Veracruz,México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia, Devezé Murillo; Juan Lorenzo, Reta Mendiola; Basilio, Sánchez Luna.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Los peces ornamentales cultivados se han popularizado como mascotas,generando una demanda local que no se ha podido cubrir con la producción de México y por lo tanto deben importarse.Poecilia reticulata "guppy ",es un pez muy popular en el ámbito acuarístico,hoy en día se ha logrado desarrollar una [...] gran cantidad de variedades según su coloración,tipo y forma de cola.Son peces vivíparos que toleran un ámbito extremo de temperatura,siendo la más adecuada entre 25ºC y 28ºC.El tiempo que tardan las hembras en expulsar a las crías una vez que quedan preñadas,oscila entre los 25 y 30 días dependiendo de la temperatura.En esta investigación,el ciclo reproductivo completo se desarrolló en jaulas flotantes,en una laguna tropical situada en la Llanura Costera del Golfo Sur, Veracruz, México.Se diseñó la infraestructura necesaria para producir guppys (P.reticulata )incluyendo el manejo de reproductores,crianza,engorda,alimentación y comercialización,evaluando su factibilidad técnica y financiera.Se realizó un estudio de mercado,a través de una encuesta aplicada a los propietarios de los 22 acuarios existentes en la Ciudad de Veracruz,México.Se analizaron las frecuencias de oferta y demanda de cada especie con respecto a la temporada del año,lugar de origen y resistencia al manejo.Las características hidrobiológicas presentaron valores medios de temperatura (31.4ºC),oxígeno disuelto (4.5 mgl-1)y pH (6.8).Con los datos obtenidos en campo se realizó un modelo para producción de P.reticulata ,obteniendo una relación beneficio/costo=1.16,correspondiente al ingreso mínimo potencial con una ganancia bruta de US$257.67, proporcionando empleo a dos personas El aprovechamiento de cuerpos de agua en regiones tropicales a través de la producción de peces de ornato representa una alternativa para disminuir la presión sobre las poblaciones silvestres y las tierras de cultivo,proporcionar fuentes de empleo e incrementar los ingresos para el productor en comparación con sistemas tradicionales de producción. Abstract in english Culture of Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poecilidae)in tropical water bodies, Veracruz, México. Poecilia reticulata,also known as guppy,is the most popular fish in the aquarium environment. Guppys are viviparous fish with high tolerance to extreme temperatures.The development of the offspring takes be [...] tween 25 and 30 days.We developed a technology for raising guppys,which outlines infrastructure and devices for reproduction,nursery,feeding,and commercialization,evaluating the financial and technical feasibility of this technology in a case study.The complete reproductive cycle occured in floating cages with 1 mm mesh and the method was tested in a tropical lagoon in Mexico.Water quality was monitored throughout the study period (temperature,dissolved oxygen and pH levels).A marketing survey was carried out at all existing aquarium shops in Veracruz City.Data collected depict quantities demanded and offered for each species by season,place of origin,and resistance to handling.The hydrobiological characteristics were:average temperature 31.4 ºC, dissolved oxygen 4.5 mgl-1,and pH level 6.8.With these values we built a production function,and used it to evaluate profitability.We estimate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.16,with a net annual income of US$257.67.The system may provide two permanent jobs.Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4):951-958.Epub 2005 Jun 24.

  19. Cultivo de Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poecilidae en cuerpos de agua tropicales,Veracruz,México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Devezé Murillo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Los peces ornamentales cultivados se han popularizado como mascotas,generando una demanda local que no se ha podido cubrir con la producción de México y por lo tanto deben importarse.Poecilia reticulata "guppy ",es un pez muy popular en el ámbito acuarístico,hoy en día se ha logrado desarrollar una gran cantidad de variedades según su coloración,tipo y forma de cola.Son peces vivíparos que toleran un ámbito extremo de temperatura,siendo la más adecuada entre 25ºC y 28ºC.El tiempo que tardan las hembras en expulsar a las crías una vez que quedan preñadas,oscila entre los 25 y 30 días dependiendo de la temperatura.En esta investigación,el ciclo reproductivo completo se desarrolló en jaulas flotantes,en una laguna tropical situada en la Llanura Costera del Golfo Sur, Veracruz, México.Se diseñó la infraestructura necesaria para producir guppys (P.reticulata incluyendo el manejo de reproductores,crianza,engorda,alimentación y comercialización,evaluando su factibilidad técnica y financiera.Se realizó un estudio de mercado,a través de una encuesta aplicada a los propietarios de los 22 acuarios existentes en la Ciudad de Veracruz,México.Se analizaron las frecuencias de oferta y demanda de cada especie con respecto a la temporada del año,lugar de origen y resistencia al manejo.Las características hidrobiológicas presentaron valores medios de temperatura (31.4ºC,oxígeno disuelto (4.5 mgl-1y pH (6.8.Con los datos obtenidos en campo se realizó un modelo para producción de P.reticulata ,obteniendo una relación beneficio/costo=1.16,correspondiente al ingreso mínimo potencial con una ganancia bruta de US$257.67, proporcionando empleo a dos personas El aprovechamiento de cuerpos de agua en regiones tropicales a través de la producción de peces de ornato representa una alternativa para disminuir la presión sobre las poblaciones silvestres y las tierras de cultivo,proporcionar fuentes de empleo e incrementar los ingresos para el productor en comparación con sistemas tradicionales de producción.Culture of Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poecilidaein tropical water bodies, Veracruz, México. Poecilia reticulata,also known as guppy,is the most popular fish in the aquarium environment. Guppys are viviparous fish with high tolerance to extreme temperatures.The development of the offspring takes between 25 and 30 days.We developed a technology for raising guppys,which outlines infrastructure and devices for reproduction,nursery,feeding,and commercialization,evaluating the financial and technical feasibility of this technology in a case study.The complete reproductive cycle occured in floating cages with 1 mm mesh and the method was tested in a tropical lagoon in Mexico.Water quality was monitored throughout the study period (temperature,dissolved oxygen and pH levels.A marketing survey was carried out at all existing aquarium shops in Veracruz City.Data collected depict quantities demanded and offered for each species by season,place of origin,and resistance to handling.The hydrobiological characteristics were:average temperature 31.4 ºC, dissolved oxygen 4.5 mgl-1,and pH level 6.8.With these values we built a production function,and used it to evaluate profitability.We estimate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.16,with a net annual income of US$257.67.The system may provide two permanent jobs.Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4:951-958.Epub 2005 Jun 24.

  20. Upstream guppies (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859) go against the flow / Gupies (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859) de áreas de cabeceira se posicionam contra a corrente

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ryan Simon, Mohammed; Cock, van Oosterhout; Bettina, Schelkle; Joanne, Cable; Mark, McMullan.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Populações de guppies (Poecilia reticulata Peters) que vivem em lagos e em cativeiro podem demonstrar menos reotaxia em comparação com populações que habitam rios e que estão frequentemente expostas a enchentes e que provocam a migração involuntária para jusante. Neste trabalho, vamos testar esta hi [...] pótese num rio artificial utilizando guppies de duas populações selvagens que habitam em rios, uma população que habita em lagos, e uma linhagem ornamental. Os resultados demonstram que os guppies de rios que provêm de localidades a montante demonstram maior reotaxia, diminuindo assim probabilidade de serem arrastados para jusante em períodos de enchentes. No entanto, não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre guppies de localidades a jusante, do lago Pitch ou ornamentais. Este resultado pode dever-se ao facto de existirem grandes diferenças ecológicas entre os habitats localizados a jusante e a montante dos rios. Devido ao facto de estas localidades estarem separadas por cachoeiras, impossibilitando a migração rio-acima, a seleção natural poderá estar a actuar contra guppies que sejam arrastados rio abaixo durantes os períodos de cheias Abstract in english Guppies (Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859) in lakes and from captive-bred populations are predicted to show little rheotaxis compared to conspecifics in a stream environment that are regularly exposed to flash floods associated with involuntary downstream migration. Here we test this hypothesis using [...] an artificial stream, examining guppies of two wild riverine populations, one lake population, and one ornamental strain. Guppies from the most upstream riverine habitat show the most pronounced rheotaxis and are less likely to be swept downstream during flooding events. However, there is no significant difference between guppies from the lowland riverine habitat, the Pitch Lake and ornamental strain. We propose that station-keeping behaviours are most strongly selected in the upstream population because large spatial differences exist in ecology and environment between up- and downstream habitats. Given that these sites are separated by barrier waterfalls that prevent compensatory upstream migration, natural selection operates particularly strong against upstream guppies that have been displaced downstream during flooding events.

  1. Modeling Kuiper belt objects Charon, Orcus and Salacia by means of a new equation of state for porous icy bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, Uri; Prialnik, Dina

    2015-01-01

    We use a one-dimensional adaptive-grid thermal evolution code to model Kuiper belt objects Charon, Orcus and Salacia and compare their measured bulk densities with those resulting from evolutionary calculations at the end of 4.6 Gyr. Our model assumes an initial homogeneous composition of mixed ice and rock, and follows the multiphase flow of water through the porous rocky medium, consequent differentiation and aqueous chemical alterations in the rock. Heating sources include long-lived radionuclides, serpentinization reactions, release of gravitational potential energy due to compaction, and crystallization of amorphous ice. The density profile is calculated by assuming hydrostatic equilibrium to be maintained through changes in composition, pressure and temperature. To this purpose, we construct an equation of state suitable for porous icy bodies with radii of a few hundred km, based on the best available empirical studies of ice and rock compaction, and on comparisons with rock porosities in Earth analog and Solar System silicates. We show that the observed bulk densities can be reproduced by assuming the same set of initial and physical parameters, including the same rock/ice mass ratio for all three bodies. We conclude that the mass of the object uniquely determines the evolution of porosity, and thus explains the observed differences in bulk density. The final structure of all three objects is differentiated, with an inner rocky core, and outer ice-enriched mantle. The degree of differentiation, too, is determined by the object's mass.

  2. [Inheritance of organelle genomes of the somatic hybrid between Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and flying dragon (Poncirus trifoliata)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Guo, Wen-Wu; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2002-04-01

    Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequence (CAPS) was successfully applied to analyze the organelle composition of three eight-year-old trees of the somatic hybrid between Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and Flying Dragon (Poncirus trifoliata). Five chloroplast and five mitochondrial universal primer pairs were used. All chloroplast primer pairs (rbcL-rbcL, rbcL-PSA I, TrnH-Trnk, TrnD-TrnT, TrnK-TrnK) and three (nad 1 exon B-nad 1 exon C, 18S rRNA-5S rRNA, nad 4 exon 1-nad 4 exon 2) of the five mitochondrial primer pairs, were efficiently amplified, but no polymorphism was detected, when the PCR products were digested by eleven restriction endonucleases, including, Hin6 I, Bus RI, Taq I, Msp I, HinfI, AluI, Dra I, EcoR I, Hind III, BamH I and Pst I respectively, three polymorphic cpDNA-CAPS markers (rbcL-rbcL/Hin 6 I, TrnD-TrnT/BusR I, TrnD-TrnT/Taq I) and one mtDNA-CAPS marker (nad 1-nad1/Msp I) were found. The results showed that cpDNA in the somatic hybrid plants came from Flying Dragon, the mesophyll parent, and mtDNA from Cleopatra mandarin, the embryogenic suspension parent uniformly. In order to prove the reliability of CAPS results, and to get more detailed information about the mtDNA inheritance, RFLP analyses was conducted. Genomic DNA of the somatic hybrids and their corresponding parents were digested by five restriction endonucleases (Dra I, EcoR I, Hind III, BamH I and Pst I), and hybridized with five mitochondrial probes (Cob, Pro 2, Pro I, atp 6, 26S rRNA) as well as one chloroplast probe, i.e. the PCR product of Flying Dragon with the primer pair of trnd 1-trnt 1. The results were in line with those of CAPS, and no novel bands were detected, which indicated that no organelle DNA recombination or rearrangement have been detected in the hybrid plants. The research showed that novel pattern of nuclear-mitochondria-chloroplast interaction could be reached via protoplast fusion. PMID:11985273

  3. Biometria de frutos e sementes e germinação de Plathymenia reticulata benth. e Plathymenia foliolosa benth. (Fabaceae - mimosoideae) / Biometry of fruits and seeds and germination of Plathymenia reticulata benth. and Plathymenia foliolosa benth. (Fabaceae - mimosoideae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata de Melo Ferreira, Lopes; Valéria Lúcia de Oliveira, Freitas; José Pires de, Lemos Filho.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou comparar características biométricas de frutos e sementes e o efeito de diferentes escarificações, temperaturas e luz na germinação de Plathymenia reticulata Benth. e Plathymenia foliolosa Benth. Foram registrados comprimento, largura, espessura, massa da matéria seca e fresca [...] de frutos (n = 100) e sementes (n = 100) de cada espécie. Os diferentes tratamentos foram escarificações mecânica e química e temperaturas (fotoperíodo/nictoperíodo) de 20, 30 e 35/15 °C (12/12 e 0/24) e 25 e 35 °C (12/12). Os frutos de P. foliolosa mostraram-se mais largos, espessos e pesados e as sementes, mais compridas e espessas do que as de P. reticulata. As sementes de ambas as espécies não apresentaram fotoblastismo. A escarificação ácida não aumentou significativamente a germinabilidade das sementes em relação ao grupo-controle, enquanto a escarificação mecânica incrementou significativamente a germinabilidade apenas de P. foliolosa. As germinabilidades a 25 °C das sementes de P. reticulata intactas, escarificadas com ácido e lixa foram, respectivamente, de 55%, 60% e 89%. Para as sementes de P. foliolosa esses valores foram 48%, 37,5% e 83%, respectivamente.Esses resultados apontam limitações na germinação de P. foliolosa impostas pelo tegumento, entretanto o efeito deste restringindo a germinação das sementes intactas decresceu com a elevação da temperatura. Abstract in english This study aimed to compare the biometry of fruits and seeds, as well as the effect of different scarification, temperature and light conditions on the germination of Plathymenia reticulata Benth. and Plathymenia foliolosa Benth. We measured the length, width, thickness, and fresh mass of fruits (n= [...] 100) and seeds (n= 100) of each specie. The different treatments were mechanic and acid scarification, temperatures (photoperiod/nictoperiod) of 20, 30 and 35/15 °C (12/12 and 0/24) and 25 and 35 °C (12/12). P. foliolosa fruits were wider, thickener and heavier. Its seeds are longer and thicker than those of P. reticulata. Seeds of both species were not photosensitive. Acid scarification did not increase significantly the percentage of seed germination of both species, but mechanic scarification increased significantly the percentage of seed germination for P. foliolosa. The percentage of germination at 25 °C of intact seeds of P. reticulata, scarified with acid and with sandpaper was, respectively, 55%, 60% and 89%. For seeds of P. foliolosa values obtained were, respectively, 48%, 37.5% and 83%. These results indicate limitations of germination of P. foliolosa imposed by the tegument but the effect of tegument restringing the germination of intact seeds decrease with the increase of temperature.

  4. EFECTOS ECOTOXICOLOGICOS DEL CARTAP SOBRE POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE Y PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE ECOTOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CARTAP ON POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE AND PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Iannacone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el impacto ecotoxicológico del insecticida carbámico cartap (1,3 di (carbamoytio-2-dimetiloaminopropano usado para el control de plagas agrícolas y como molusquicida de vectores de importancia en Salud Pública, sobre dos especies de peces del ecosistema acuático continental: Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859 "guppy" (Poecilidae y Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936 ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae. Ellos fueron utilizados como organismos no destinatarios en ensayos de corta duración, para determinar el impacto toxicológico del cartap. Para ambas especies de peces se evaluó el porcentaje de mortalidad, y dos respuestas subletales: el incremento del movimiento opercular y el nado extraño. A 3 h de exposición para P. reticulata, se encontró un valor de CL50 (Concentración letal media de 6,75 mg•L-1 y valores de CE50 (Concentración efectiva media de The ecotoxicological impact of the carbamate insecticide cartap (1,3 di (carbamoythio-2-dimethyloaminopropan used for agriculture pests and as mollusquicide of vectors of Public Health importance was evaluated, on two fish species of the continental aquatic ecosystem. Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859 ``guppy" (Poecilidae and Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936 ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae were employed as non-target organisms in assays of short duration to determine the toxicological impact of cartap. For both fish, percentage of mortality and two sublethal responses: increase of opercula movement and strange swim, were evaluated. In P. reticulata after 3 h exposure it was found a LC50 (mean Lethal Concentration of 6.75 mg'•L-1 and values of EC50 (mean Effective Concentration of <7.55 and <8.16 mg•L-1 as speed up of opercula movement and strange swim, respectively. For P. innesi, it was found an LC50 value of <0.02 mg•L-1 and values of EC50 of <0.01 and <0.03 mg•L-1, as speed up of opercula movement and strange swim, respectively. P. innesi was more sensitive to cartap than P. reticulata. Risk Quotients (RQ to evaluate environmental risk (ERA of this insecticide on aquatic ecosystem were calculated, indicating that P. innesi was more accurate than P. reticulata as ecotoxicological tool to evaluate cartap.

  5. Pseudobrânquia do guaru Poecilia reticulata (Peter, 1859): análise estrutural, morfométrica e histoquímica para detecção de glicoconjugados / Pseudo-gill of guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Peter, 1859): structural, morphometric, and histochemical analyses for the detection of glycoconjugates

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thiago L., Rocha; Ana P.R., Santos; Simone M.T., Sabóia-Morais.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A morfologia, os parâmetros citomorfométricos e os glicoconjugados presentes na pseudobrânquia de guaru, Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae), foram investigados por microscopia de luz acoplada ao sistema de captura e análise de imagens, juntamente por histoquímica com l [...] ectinas. A anatomia microscópica indicou que P. reticulata possui pseudobrânquia glandular formada por dois lóbulos, a qual se localiza abaixo do epitélio faringiano. O órgão é constituído por parênquima vascularizado e rico em células pseudobranquiais. Esse tipo celular exibe estado citofisiológico ativo, com abundante sistema de biomembranas e ausência de óstio na superfície apical,que por sua vez é encontrado nas células ricas em mitocôndrias das holobrânquias. Assim, indica-se que as células da pseudobrânquia se distinguem das células das holobrânquias em relação à morfologia, histoquímica e fisiologia. Em decorrência dessas características intrínsecas, a pseudobrânquia de alevinos do guaru pode desempenhar funções não respiratórias nas fases iniciais do desenvolvimento. Além disso, a caracterização da pseudobrânquia do guaru possibilitará estudos futuros sobre o efeito de poluentes aquáticos em espécies biomonitoras, como P. reticulata. Abstract in english The morphology, cytomorphometric parameters, and glycoconjugates present in the pseudo-gill of guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae), were investigated by light microscopy coupled to image capture and analysis system, and also by lectin histochemistry. The microsco [...] pic anatomy indicates that P. reticulata has a glandular pseudo-gill formed by two lobes, located underneath the pharynx epithelium. The organ is formed by vascularized parenchyma rich in pseudo-gill cells. This cell type exhibits active cytophysiological state with an abundant system of biomembranes and lacking of ostium in apical surface, which in turn is found in the mitochondria-rich cells of the holobranch. This indicates that the pseudo-gill cells distinguishe from the holobranch cells in their morphology, histochemistry and physiology. Due to these intrinsic characteristics, the pseudo-gill of guppy fingerlings may have non-respiratory function in the initial phase of their development. The characterization of guppy's pseudo-gill could facilitate further studies about the effect of water pollutants on biomonitor species, such as P. reticulata.

  6. A mixture of Salacia oblonga extract and IP-PA1 reduces fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels

    OpenAIRE

    Nakata, Kazue; Taniguchi, Yoshie; Yoshioka, Noriko; Yoshida, Aya; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Takeru; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Miyake, Shin-ichiro; Kohchi, Chie; Kuroki, Masahide; Soma, Gen-ichiro

    2011-01-01

    At present, lifestyle-related diseases are one of the most critical health issues worldwide. It has been reported that lipopolysaccharide derived from a Gram-negative bacteria (IP-PA1) symbiotic with wheat exhibited several advantageous biological effects, such as the reduction of plasma glucose levels in NOD mice and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in WHHL rabbits. In this study, the beneficial effects on plasma glucose and lipids of a tea (SI tea) consisting of IP-PA1 and Salacia (whic...

  7. Antipodal Crambescin A2 Homologues from the Marine Sponge Pseudaxinella reticulata. Antifungal Structure-Activity Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Matthew T; Molinski, Tadeusz F

    2015-03-27

    Investigation of antifungal natural products from the marine sponge Pseudaxinella reticulata from the Bahamas led to the discovery of new crambescin homologues (1, 2) and enantiomers (3, 4) of known natural products. The cyclic-guanidine structures were solved through analysis of 2D NMR, MS-MS, and CD data. The absolute configurations of 1-4 were established as 13R-opposite of known homologues reported from Crambe crambe obtained from the Mediterranean Sea-by comparison of their CD spectra with predicted Cotton effects obtained from DFT calculations. Antifungal activities of 1-4 against the pathogenic strains Candida albicans and Cryptococcus sp. were observed to correlate potency (MIC50 and MIC90) with the length of the alkyl side chain. PMID:25738226

  8. DETAILED COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA LINN. AND ANNONA RETICULATA LINN. LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Switu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Annona squamosa Linn. and Annona reticulata Linn. are locally known as Sitaphala and Ramphala respectively both belongs to family Annonaceae. Leaves of both are used in various diseases like suppurant, toothache, anthelmintic commonly. Individually A. squamosa is used in anti diabetic, antispasmodic, dandruff and A. reticulate is used in flatulence and toothache. Till date there is no scientific comparative study has been reported. Pharmacognostical study of A. squamosa shows lysogenous cavity and sparse trichome where as, A. reticulate shows multicellular trichomes filled with tannin and stone cells. The powder characters of A. squamosa are stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate whereas A. reticulate shows pitted stones cells and micro rosettes crystals of calcium oxalate. Annular vessels, lysogenous cavity and paracytic stomata are common characters observed in both the leaves.

  9. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Gao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (PCR essential oil obtained using an improved Clevenger type apparatus were studied. Among the five different PCRs examined the highest yield of essential oil was found in Chachi 2004 (harvested and stored in 2004 and the lowest in Chachi 2008 (harvested and stored in 2008. Fifty three different volatile compounds were determined, including terpenic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters. D-limonene, one of terpenes, was the major constituent in PCR. The antioxidant capacity of PCR essential oil varied considerably with the duration of storage time, and the oil from Chachi 1994 has the strongest ferric-reducing antioxidant power. In addition, the essential oil possessed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, except Streptococcus faecalis, while had no effect on Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae.

  10. Influence of the protein quantity from combined fodder on the corporal development of guppy (Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gruber

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the effects of various concentrations of protein premixtures onthe growth in length and weight of adult specimens of ornamental fish Poecilia reticulata, bred incaptivity. Of this consideration, the experiment was set up with six groups: R1, R2, R3, TG, TP and TD,which were fed differently as follows: R1 with mixed fodder containing 30% CP (crude protein, ownrecipe; R2 with mixed fodder containing 30% GP, own recipe; R3 with mixed fodder containing 30%CP, own recipe; TG with Troco Grower fodder containing 43% CP; TP with Troco Prim fodder containing44% CP; TD with Tetra Discus fodder containing 48% CP. The research was conducted over a period ofthree months in which there have been followed the length and weight, to determine body indices(average increase of the weight gain, Fulton index and average weight ratio multiplier.

  11. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of Pirimiphos-Methyl (Actellic®, 25%EC on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Lawal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pirimiphos-methyl is a broad spectrum organophosphate insecticide and potential toxic pollutant in aquatic ecosystems. The acute toxicity of Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic® was investigated using Guppy (Poecilia reticulata in a 96 h static renewal laboratory bioassay. Based on probit analysis, the LC50 was 0.026, 0.024, 0.022 and 0.019 ml L-1 at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA showed that there was significant difference (p<0.05 in the quantal response (mortality of P. reticulata to different concentrations of Actellic at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure. Actellic insecticide is toxic to fish; therefore its indiscriminate use in aquatic environment should be discouraged.

  12. Study on the volatile oil contents of Annona glabra L., Annona squamosa L., Annona muricata L. and Annona reticulata L., from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, T D; Dai, D N; Hoi, T M; Ogunwande, I A

    2013-01-01

    The volatile compounds identified from four species of Annona from Vietnam are being reported. The oils were obtained from aliquots of plant samples by steam distillation and subjected to GC and GC-MS analysis. The main compounds of Annona glabra L., were ?-caryophyllene (21.5%) germacrene D (17.7%), ?-cadinol (5.4%) and ?-elemene (5.2%). Annona squamosa L., comprised mainly of ?-pinene (1.0-11.9%), limonene (0.8-11.7%), ?-cubebene (0.5-13.0%), ?-caryophyllene (11.6-24.5%), spathulenol (0.8-9.0%), caryophyllene oxide (1.0-10.6%) and ?-cadinol (3.3-7.8%). The significant constituents of Annona muricata L., were ?-pinene (9.4%), ?-pinene (20.6%), ?-mentha-2,4(8)-diene (9.8%), ?-elemene (9.1%) and germacrene D (18.1%). However, camphene (0.2-6.6%), ?-copaene (2.0-7.3%), ?-elemene (5.9-16.6%), ?-caryophyllene (8.3-14.9%), ?-bisabolene (0.4-10.2%), ?-cadinene (1.7-4.8%) and germacrene D (9.3-22.8%) were the main compounds common to samples of Annona reticulata L. There were significant amounts of sabinene (11.2% and 2.7%; leaf and stem bark) and bicycloelemene (9.6% and 6.1%; stem and bark). PMID:22989376

  13. Salacia oblonga root improves postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: activation of PPAR-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Peng, Gang; Li, George Qian; Yamahara, Johji; Roufogalis, Basil D; Li, Yuhao

    2006-02-01

    Salacia oblonga (SO) root is an Ayurvedic medicine with anti-diabetic and anti-obese properties. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha, a nuclear receptor, plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of lipid metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that chronic oral administration of the water extract from the root of SO to Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, a genetic model of type 2 diabetes and obesity, lowered plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol (TC) levels, increased plasma high-density lipoprotein levels and reduced the liver contents of triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and the ratio of fatty droplets to total tissue. By contrast, the extract had no effect on plasma triglyceride and TC levels in fasted ZDF rats. After olive oil administration to ZDF the extract also inhibited the increase in plasma triglyceride levels. These results suggest that SO extract improves postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in ZDF rats. Additionally, SO treatment enhanced hepatic expression of PPAR-alpha mRNA and protein, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and acyl-CoA oxidase mRNAs in ZDF rats. In vitro, SO extract and its main component mangiferin activated PPAR-alpha luciferase activity in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and lipoprotein lipase mRNA expression and enzyme activity in THP-1 differentiated macrophages; these effects were completely suppressed by a selective PPAR-alpha antagonist MK-886. The findings from both in vivo and in vitro suggest that SO extract functions as a PPAR-alpha activator, providing a potential mechanism for improvement of postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in diabetes and obesity. PMID:15975614

  14. Salacinol and related analogs: new leads for type 2 diabetes therapeutic candidates from the Thai traditional natural medicine Salacia chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Toshio; Akaki, Junji; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Kinouchi, Eri; Tanabe, Genzoh; Pongpiriyadacha, Yutana; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu

    2015-03-01

    The antidiabetic effect of a hot water extract of stems of Salacia chinensis (SCE) was evaluated in vivo in KK-Ay mice, a typical type 2 diabetes mellitus mice model. Administration of CE-2 dietary feed containing 0.25 and/or 0.50% of SCE for three weeks to KK-Ay mice significantly suppressed the elevation of both blood glucose and HbA1c levels without significant changes in body weight or food intake. Glucose tolerance was improved by administration to KK-Ay mice for 27 days of AIN93M purified dietary feed containing 0.12% of SCE. No suppressive effect with respect to HbA1c level was observed when AIN93M/Glc dietary feed in which all digestible glucides were replaced with glucose was administered with SCE. Thus, ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity approved as the mechanism of action of the antidiabetic effect of SCE by in vitro investigation was reconfirmed also in in vivo studies. Evaluation of the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the active constituents, salacinol (1), kotalanol (3), and neokotalanol (4), by employing human ?-glucosidases revealed that these compounds inhibited them as potently (IC50 = 3.9-4.9 ?M for maltase) as they inhibited rat small intestinal ?-glucosidase. The principal sulfonium constituents (1-4) were highly stable in an artificial gastric juice. In addition, 1-4 were hardly absorbed from the intestine in an experiment using the in situ rat ligated intestinal loop model. The results indicate that these sulfoniums are promising leads for a new type of anti-diabetic agents. PMID:25734563

  15. Salacinol and Related Analogs: New Leads for Type 2 Diabetes Therapeutic Candidates from the Thai Traditional Natural Medicine Salacia chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Morikawa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic effect of a hot water extract of stems of Salacia chinensis (SCE was evaluated in vivo in KK-Ay mice, a typical type 2 diabetes mellitus mice model. Administration of CE-2 dietary feed containing 0.25 and/or 0.50% of SCE for three weeks to KK-Ay mice significantly suppressed the elevation of both blood glucose and HbA1c levels without significant changes in body weight or food intake. Glucose tolerance was improved by administration to KK-Ay mice for 27 days of AIN93M purified dietary feed containing 0.12% of SCE. No suppressive effect with respect to HbA1c level was observed when AIN93M/Glc dietary feed in which all digestible glucides were replaced with glucose was administered with SCE. Thus, ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity approved as the mechanism of action of the antidiabetic effect of SCE by in vitro investigation was reconfirmed also in in vivo studies. Evaluation of the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the active constituents, salacinol (1, kotalanol (3, and neokotalanol (4, by employing human ?-glucosidases revealed that these compounds inhibited them as potently (IC50 = 3.9–4.9 ?M for maltase as they inhibited rat small intestinal ?-glucosidase. The principal sulfonium constituents (1–4 were highly stable in an artificial gastric juice. In addition, 1–4 were hardly absorbed from the intestine in an experiment using the in situ rat ligated intestinal loop model. The results indicate that these sulfoniums are promising leads for a new type of anti-diabetic agents.

  16. Salacia oblonga root improves postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: Activation of PPAR-?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salacia oblonga (SO) root is an Ayurvedic medicine with anti-diabetic and anti-obese properties. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-?, a nuclear receptor, plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of lipid metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that chronic oral administration of the water extract from the root of SO to Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, a genetic model of type 2 diabetes and obesity, lowered plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol (TC) levels, increased plasma high-density lipoprotein levels and reduced the liver contents of triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and the ratio of fatty droplets to total tissue. By contrast, the extract had no effect on plasma triglyceride and TC levels in fasted ZDF rats. After olive oil administration to ZDF the extract also inhibited the increase in plasma triglyceride levels. These results suggest that SO extract improves postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in ZDF rats. Additionally, SO treatment enhanced hepatic expression of PPAR-? mRNA and protein, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and acyl-CoA oxidase mRNAs in ZDF rats. In vitro, SO extract and its main component mangiferin activated PPAR-? luciferase activity in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and lipoprotein lipase mRNA expression and enzyme activity in THP-1 differentiated macrophages; these effects were completely suppressed by a selective PPAR-? antagonist MK-886. The findings from both in vivo and in The findings from both in vivo and in vitro suggest that SO extract functions as a PPAR-? activator, providing a potential mechanism for improvement of postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in diabetes and obesity

  17. Diterpenos de Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Ducke com atividade larvicida contra Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera, Culicidae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Regina Geris; Ionizete Garcia da Silva; Heloísa Helena Garcia da Silva; Andersson Barison; Edson Rodrigues-Filho; Antônio Gilberto Ferreira</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of diterpenoids obtained from the oil-resin of Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> against Aedes aegypti larvae, the principal vector of dengue and urban yellow fever. Four diterpenes were obtained from oil-resin extraction with organic solvents and subsequent chromatographic and spectroscopic procedures allowed to isolation and identification of these compounds as 3-b-acetoxylabdan-8(17)-13-dien-15-oic acid (1), alepterolic acid (2), 3-b-h...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.irjponline.com/admin/php/uploads/1608_pdf.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLLASE ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO L. USING SEAWEED EXTRACT OF ULVA <span class="hlt">RETICULATA</span> FORSSKAL.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Ganapathy Selvam G.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The effect of seaweed extract prepared from Ulva <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> on seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyllase activity of Vigna mungo L. was studied. 100% germination was recorded in the seeds treated with lower concentration of seaweed extract. The V. mungo seeds soaked with lower concentrations of the seaweed extracts showed higher rates of germination, while the higher concentrations of the extracts inhibited the germination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S2179-975X2013000100006-scl"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of artificial sediment to assess toxicity of chromium on Chironomus xanthus, Danio rerio and Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> / Utilização de sedimento artificial na avaliação da toxicidade do cromo sobre Chironomus xanthus, Danio rerio e Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Aline Fernanda, Campagna; Beatriz Kawamura, Rodrigues; Roberta Corrêa, Nogueirol; Nelsy Fenerich, Verani; Evaldo Luiz Gaeta, Espíndola; Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú, Alleoni.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Sedimentos artificiais com formulações simples foram utilizados para avaliar a toxicidade do Cr em C. xanthus, D. rerio e P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. MÉTODOS: Os organismos foram expostos a duas formulações: sem matéria orgânica (S0) e com 1% de matéria orgânica (SIII), contaminadas com Cr nas concentr [...] ações de 90; 180; 360; 720 e 1440 mg/kg para os ensaios com C. xanthus e 375; 750; 1500 e 3000 mg/kg para os ensaios com peixes. RESULTADOS: Os resultados dos ensaios agudos demonstraram uma redução de até quatro vezes na toxicidade frente à presença de matéria orgânica detrital biodegradável (MO). C. xanthus apresentou maior sensibilidade ao metal em relação aos peixes. A redução na toxicidade do Cr frente à presença de MO foi verificada nos valores de CL50, que estiveram mais elevados nos em SIII (C. xanthus = 1234,43 mg/kg ; D. rerio = 2263,54 m/kg e P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> = 2244,48 mg/kg) em relação à S0 (C. xanthus = 340,56 mg/kg; D. rerio = 1731,04 mg/kg e P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> = 1733,55 mg/kg). CONCLUSÕES: Os sedimentos artificiais com formulações simples foram satisfatórios na avaliação da toxicidade e asseguram resultados confiáveis em estudos ecotoxicológicos Abstract in english AIM: Artificial sediments with simple formulations were used to assess the toxicity of Cr to C. xanthus, D. rerio and P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. METHODS: The organisms were exposed to two sediment formulations: one without organic matter (S0) and one with 1% organic matter (SIII), both contaminated with Cr at c [...] oncentrations of 90, 180, 360, 720 and 1440 mg/kg for the assays with C. xanthus, and 375, 750, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg for those with the two fish species. Chromium was obtained from the potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). RESULTS: The results of the acute toxicity tests demonstrated a reduction of up to four times in toxicity with the presence of OM, consisting of biodegradable detritus, even at the low concentration used (1%), and that C. xanthus was most sensitive to the metal. The reduction in the chromium toxicity was indicated by the LC50 values, which were higher in SIII (1234.43 mg/kg; 2263.54 m/kg; 2244.48 mg/kg) than in S0 (340.56 mg/kg; 1731.04 mg/kg; 1733.55 mg/kg) for C. xanthus, D. rerio and P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Because of the repeatability of the results obtained, the artificial sediments with simple formulations were satisfactory to assess toxicity and can thus provide reliable results in ecotoxicological studies</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/ansinet/pjbs/2006/1438-1441.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Some Nigerian Medicinal <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Extracts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>M.O. Sofidiya</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The present research evaluates the DPPH radical scavenging, total antioxidant activities, reducing power and total contents of phenolic compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of five Nigerian medicinal <span class="hlt">plants</span> (Dalbergia saxatilis Hook.f. (Papilionacae, Ekebergia senegalensis A.Juss.(Meliaceae, Hymenocardia acida Tul. (Hymenocardiaceae, Icacina tricantha Oliv. (Icacinaceae and <span class="hlt">Salacia</span> pallescens Oliv.(Celastraceae. Total phenols were analysed according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Each sample under assay condition, showed a dose-dependent effect both on free radical scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH and also on Fe3+ reducing power. The antioxidant activity of the <span class="hlt">plant</span> extracts with the DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power method, were in the order Hymenocardia> Ekebergia> <span class="hlt">Salacia</span>> Icacina> Dalbergia. H. acida and E. senegalensis possess very high radical scavenging activity in both assays. Potency of H. acida extract was of the same magnitude as that of reference ?-tocopherol. Total phenols in all the samples expressed as GAE (Gallic Acid Equivalent varied from 1.83 to 15.47mg g-1 of dry <span class="hlt">plant</span> material. Total antioxidant activities correlated with total phenols (R2 = 0.6640 an indication that 66% of the antioxidant capacity of these extracts results from contribution of phenolic compounds. A linear positive relationship existed between the reducing power and total phenolics of the tested <span class="hlt">plant</span> extracts (R2 = 0.9564.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-77442004000400016"><span id="translatedtitle">Fecundidad,fertilidad e índice gonadosomático de Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Pisces:Poeciliidaeen Heredia,Costa Rica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Mario Urriola Hernández</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Entre setiembre y noviembre de 1998 se determinó la fecundidad,fertilidad e índice gonadosomático de Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Peters 1859,a partir de especímenes recolectados en un estanque en Santo Domingo de Heredia,Costa Rica.Las hembras presentaron una longitud total promedio de 34.43 ± 7.26 mm con un ámbito entre 17.80 y 51.50 mm y un peso total promedio de 0.69 ± 0.48 g,con un ámbito entre 0.06 y 2.32 g.Se determinó que esta especie presenta superfetación,matrotrofía y se mantuvo sexualmente activa durante todo el período de estudio.La fertilidad se rigió por la ecuación F =0.527e0.1171Lt (r² =0.9404y con una fertilidad promedio para la población de 56.1 ± 43.6,con un ámbito entre 7.98 y 197.58 (huevos +embriones.La fecundidad se rigió por la ecuación Fo = 0.695e0.1076 Lt (r² =0.9376con una fecundidad promedio para la población de 48.95 ± 35.99, con un ámbito entre 6.98 y 178.99 (ovocitos +óvulos. El índice gonadosomático en hembras se rigió por la ecuación IGS =0.0014e 0.134 Lt (r 2 =0.8581y se encontró un índice gonadosomático promedio de 0.25 ± 0.27%con un ámbito entre 0.02 y 1.31%.Fertility,fecundity and gonadosomatic index of Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Pisces:Poeciliidaein Heredia,Costa Rica.Between September and November of 1998,1 432 females of Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> were collected in a pond in Santo Domingo,Heredia,Costa Rica.The average total length of females was 34.43 ± 7.26 mm (range 17.80 and 51.50 mmand the average total weight of 0.69 ± 0.48 g (range 0.06 and 2.32 g. This species is a viviparous matrotrofic and the specimens were sexually mature.The total length-fertility relationship was F =0.527e 0.1171Lt (r² =0.9404.The average fertility was 56.1 ± 43.6 (eggs +embryos(range 8.0 and 197.6.The total length-fecundity relationship was Fo =0.695e0.1076 Lt (r² =0.9376.The average fecundity was of 49.0 ± 36.0 (oocytes +ova(range 7.0 and 179.0.The total length-gonadosomatic index relationship was IGS =0.0014 e0.134 Lt (r² =0.8581.The average gonadosomatic index was 0.25 ± 0.27%(range 0.02 and 1.31%.Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4:945-950.Epub 2005 Jun 24.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21351753"><span id="translatedtitle">Isolation, characterization and antifungal activity of major constituents of the Himalayan lichen Parmelia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Tayl.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Goel, Mayurika; Dureja, Prem; Rani, Archna; Uniyal, Prem L; Laatsch, Hartmut</p> <p>2011-03-23</p> <p>Antifungal activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Parmelia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> was evaluated against soilborne pathogenic fungi, namely, Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, R. bataticola, Fusarium udum, Pythium aphanidermatum and P. debaryanum by poisoned food technique. Maximum antifungal activity was exhibited by hexane and ethyl acetate extracts against most of the test pathogens. Secondary metabolites, namely, (±)-isousnic acid, (±)-protolichesterinic acid, atranorin, evernyl, ethyl hematommate, ethyl orsellinate, methyl hematommate (3-formyl-2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoic acid methyl ester), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3,6-dimethylbenzoic acid, 1-hydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy-8-methyl-xanthen-9-one, baeomycesic acid and salazinic acid, were isolated from the above extracts and identified by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopic methods. When these metabolites were tested for antifungal activity against test pathogens, maximum antifungal activity was exhibited by (±)-protolichesterinic acid against R. solani (ED50=23.09 ?g mL(-1)) and P. debaryanum (ED50=16.07 ?g mL(-1)) and by atranorin against S. rolfsii (ED50=39.70 ?g mL(-1)). The antifungal activity of protolichesterinic acid was found to be comparable to that of hexaconazole, a commercial fungicide. PMID:21351753</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-29452008000300016"><span id="translatedtitle">Crescimento de frutos da tangerineira 'Poncã' (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco Fruit gowth of 'Ponkan' mandarin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Marlon Dutra Degli Esposti</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de frutos da tangerineira Poncã, desde o pegamento até a colheita dos frutos, em Viçosa - Minas Gerais. O desenvolvimento do fruto seguiu uma curva do tipo sigmóide simples, sendo a fase I compreendida da antese até o 85º dia após o pleno florescimento, com um período de transição na fase II, que foi até o 101º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase II teve início logo após a fase de transição, prolongando-se até o 251º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase III, de amadurecimento do fruto, iniciou-se no 251º dia após o pleno florescimento e prolongou-se até a colheita dos frutos, a qual foi realizada no 276º dia após o pleno florescimento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit development of Ponkan mandarin (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco. Fruit development followed a simple sigmoid curve, with phase I extending from anthesis to the 85th day after full flowering, with a transition period to phase II that lasted up to the 101st day after full flowering. Phase II began soon after the transition phase, extending up to the 251st day after full flowering. Phase III, fruit ripening, began at the 251st day after full flowering and it was prolonged until harvest, which was carried out at the 276th day after full flowering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0100-29452008000300016-scl"><span id="translatedtitle">Crescimento de frutos da tangerineira 'Poncã' (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco) / Fruit gowth of 'Ponkan' mandarin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Marlon Dutra Degli, Esposti; Dalmo Lopes de, Siqueira; Paulo Roberto, Cecon.</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de frutos da tangerineira Poncã, desde o pegamento até a colheita dos frutos, em Viçosa - Minas Gerais. O desenvolvimento do fruto seguiu uma curva do tipo sigmóide simples, sendo a fase I compreendida da antese até o 85º dia ap [...] ós o pleno florescimento, com um período de transição na fase II, que foi até o 101º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase II teve início logo após a fase de transição, prolongando-se até o 251º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase III, de amadurecimento do fruto, iniciou-se no 251º dia após o pleno florescimento e prolongou-se até a colheita dos frutos, a qual foi realizada no 276º dia após o pleno florescimento. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit development of Ponkan mandarin (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco). Fruit development followed a simple sigmoid curve, with phase I extending from anthesis to the 85th day after full flowering, with a transition period to phase II that lasted up to the 101 [...] st day after full flowering. Phase II began soon after the transition phase, extending up to the 251st day after full flowering. Phase III, fruit ripening, began at the 251st day after full flowering and it was prolonged until harvest, which was carried out at the 276th day after full flowering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.biomedcentral.com/1756-0500/4/31"><span id="translatedtitle">The MC1R gene in the guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>: Genotypic and phenotypic polymorphisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Yokoyama Jun</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Abstract Background The guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> is an important model organism for studying sexual selection; male guppies have complex and conspicuous pigmentation, and female guppies exhibit preferences for males with specific color spots. Understanding the genetic basis underlying pigmentation variation in the guppy is important for exploring the factors causing the maintenance of color polymorphism in wild populations. Findings We focused on the melanic black pigmentation of guppies, and examined genetic variations in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene because variation in this gene is known to contribute to polymorphism of melanin pigmentation in several animal species. The complete coding sequence of the guppy MC1R gene was determined, and two different MC1R alleles (963 and 969 bp were found in wild populations. Ornamental strain guppies with a 963-bp MC1R tended to show less black pigmentation than those with a 969-bp MC1R, although the association between MC1R genotype and black pigmentation disappeared in the F2 offspring. Conclusions The guppy MC1R gene showed variation in the five wild Trinidadian populations we examined, and these populations also differed in terms of allele frequencies. We identified a significant association between black pigmentation and MC1R genotype in fish obtained from aquarium shops. However, the results from F2 families suggest that there are other genes that modify the effects of the MC1R gene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006NW.....93..431B"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of different predator species on antipredator behavior in the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Botham, M. S.; Kerfoot, C. J.; Louca, V.; Krause, J.</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>Different types of predators often elicit different antipredator responses in a common type of prey. Alternatively, some prey species may adopt a general response, which provides limited protection from many different types of predator. The Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, is faced with a wide range of different predators throughout its range and is known to display varying levels of antipredator behavior depending on the predator assemblage. Pike cichlids, Crenicichla frenata, are regarded as the primary aquatic guppy predator in streams in the northern mountain range in Trinidad. As such, they are seen to be responsible for many of the differences in morphology, life history traits, and behavior between guppy populations from areas with few predators and those from areas with many pike cichlids. In this study we investigated how guppies responded when faced with different predator species using three common aquatic predators. We exposed shoals of ten guppies to one out of four treatments: no predator (control), pike cichlid, acara cichlid ( Aequidens pulcher), and wolf fish ( Hoplias malabaricus); and we made behavioral observations on both focal individuals and the shoal as a whole. Guppies showed significantly greater levels of predator inspection and shoaling behavior, foraged less, spent more time in the surface water, and stayed in significantly larger shoals when faced with pike cichlids than in other treatments. We discuss these results in the context of multiple predator effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://ijt.arakmu.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=338&sid=1&slc_lang=en"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of LC50, NOEC and LOEC of Glyphosate, Deltamethrin and Pretilachlor in Guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">Reticulata</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Ali Sadeghi</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Background: The presence of pesticides is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran. These toxic substances may accumulate in the food chain and cause serious ecological and health problems. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor as potential dangerous organic pesticides to assess lethal effects of these chemicals agents to the Guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. Methods: Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate (41% (0, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 25 ppm, deltamethrin (2.5% (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.10 and 0.30 ppm and pretilachlor (50% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm for 96 h and cumulative mortality of the guppies was calculated with 24 h intervals. Results: LC50-96h was 12.01±1.00, 0.08±0.47 and 8.24±0.42 for glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor respectively. The very low LC50 obtained for glyphosate (12.01±1.00 ppm, deltamethrin (0.08±0.47 ppm and pretilachlor (8.24±0.42 ppm indicate that glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor are highly toxic to guppies. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that deltamethrin and glyphosate had the lowest and highest rate of mortality on the guppy respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/BPK/article/view/531"><span id="translatedtitle">CONTROL DEMONSTRATION OF THE RICEFIELD BREEDING MOSQUITO ANOPHELES ACONITUS DONITZ IN CENTRAL JAVA, USING POECILIA <span class="hlt">RETICULATA</span> THROUGH COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION: 2. CULTURING, DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF FISH IN THE FIELD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Sustriayu Nalim</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Suatu percobaan pemberantasan vektor malaria Anopheles aconitus dengan penyebaran ikan pema­kan jentik Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> di sawah telah dilakukan. Untuk memacu peran serta petani, penyebaran ikan P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> dilakukan bersamaan dengan minapadi di mana ikan Cyprinus carpio dipelihara di sawah. Beberapa aspek yang diteliti dalam percobaan ini adalah (1 biologi jentik An. aconitus dan ikan dan (2 cara-cara berkembangbiaknya ikan. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penyebaran An. aconitus di sawah pada umumnya 1/2 — 1 meter dari tepi pematang sawah, daya makan ikan P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> rata rata adalah 119,4 jentik/hari, daya reproduksi rata-rata ikan P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> adalah 109,3 ikan/bulan, daya produksi ikan C. carpio berkisar antara 5000 — 10.000 telur/3 bulan tergantung pada umur ikan betina. Kepadatan ikan P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> 2 ikan/m2 dapat menanggulangi populasi jentik di sawah.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0717-65382007000200005-chl"><span id="translatedtitle">EFECTOS ECOTOXICOLOGICOS DEL CARTAP SOBRE POECILIA <span class="hlt">RETICULATA</span> "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE) Y PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE) / ECOTOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CARTAP ON POECILIA <span class="hlt">RETICULATA</span> "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE) AND PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Jose, Iannacone; Roxana, Onofre; Olga, Huanqui.</p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available Se evaluó el impacto ecotoxicológico del insecticida carbámico cartap (1,3 di (carbamoytio)-2-dimetiloaminopropano) usado para el control de plagas agrícolas y como molusquicida de vectores de importancia en Salud Pública, sobre dos especies de peces del ecosistema acuático continental: Poecilia ret [...] iculata (Peters 1859) "guppy" (Poecilidae) y Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936) ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae). Ellos fueron utilizados como organismos no destinatarios en ensayos de corta duración, para determinar el impacto toxicológico del cartap. Para ambas especies de peces se evaluó el porcentaje de mortalidad, y dos respuestas subletales: el incremento del movimiento opercular y el nado extraño. A 3 h de exposición para P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, se encontró un valor de CL50 (Concentración letal media) de 6,75 mg•L-1 y valores de CE50 (Concentración efectiva media) de Abstract in english The ecotoxicological impact of the carbamate insecticide cartap (1,3 di (carbamoythio)-2-dimethyloaminopropan) used for agriculture pests and as mollusquicide of vectors of Public Health importance was evaluated, on two fish species of the continental aquatic ecosystem. Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Peters 1 [...] 859) ``guppy" (Poecilidae) and Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936) ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae) were employed as non-target organisms in assays of short duration to determine the toxicological impact of cartap. For both fish, percentage of mortality and two sublethal responses: increase of opercula movement and strange swim, were evaluated. In P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> after 3 h exposure it was found a LC50 (mean Lethal Concentration) of 6.75 mg'•L-1 and values of EC50 (mean Effective Concentration) of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45088699"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of multi species freshwater bio monitor (MFB) to assess behavioral changes of guppy Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> and freshwater prawn Macrobrachium lanchesteri in response to cadmium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Multi species Freshwater Bio monitor (MFB) uses the measurement and analysis of different types of behaviours from different aquatic organisms for monitoring the water quality in freshwater ecosystem. The aim of this study was to determine the specific response of freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium lanchesteri) and guppy fish (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) to cadmium (Cd) in the laboratory. Different concentrations of Cd were exposed to M. lanchesteri (1 ppb and 10 ppb) and P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (100 ppb and 560 ppb) and the behavioural changes of the organisms were recorded by MFB for 2 hours. Results showed that the behavioural and ventilation response of M. lanchesteri and P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> increased with increasing exposure concentrations of Cd. Results also showed that the shrimp was more sensitive to Cd than the guppy fish and these local species were suitable as indicator organism for the MFB. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22125681"><span id="translatedtitle">A mixture of <span class="hlt">Salacia</span> oblonga extract and IP-PA1 reduces fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Nakata, Kazue; Taniguchi, Yoshie; Yoshioka, Noriko; Yoshida, Aya; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Takeru; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Miyake, Shin-Ichiro; Kohchi, Chie; Kuroki, Masahide; Soma, Gen-Ichiro</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>At present, lifestyle-related diseases are one of the most critical health issues worldwide. It has been reported that lipopolysaccharide derived from a Gram-negative bacteria (IP-PA1) symbiotic with wheat exhibited several advantageous biological effects, such as the reduction of plasma glucose levels in NOD mice and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in WHHL rabbits. In this study, the beneficial effects on plasma glucose and lipids of a tea (SI tea) consisting of IP-PA1 and <span class="hlt">Salacia</span> (which contains an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase) were investigated in the KK-Ay/TaJcl type 2 diabetic model mice and in human subjects with premetabolic syndrome in a double-blind, randomized study. SI tea significantly decreased plasma glucose levels in KK-Ay/TaJcl mice. A clinical trial of SI tea was performed with 41 subjects between the ages of 40 and 69, who belonged either to a high plasma glucose group (HG: FPG 100-125 mg/dl) or to a hyperlipidemia group (HL: TG ? 150 mg/dl, or LDL ? 120 mg/dl, or HDL <span class="hlt">Salacia</span> without IP-PA1 (the control) or SI tea. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, and 60 days after initiating SI tea treatment, and were measured for FPG, HbA1c, TG, LDL, and HDL. These results showed that SI tea reduced FPG and HbA1c more rapidly than the control in the HL group, and also significantly improved LDL and HDL levels in the HG group. Thus, SI tea may be helpful in preventing lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:22125681</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/BPK/article/view/450"><span id="translatedtitle">CONTROL DEMONSTRATION OF THE RICEFIELD BREEDING MOSQUITO ANOPHELES ACONITUS DONITZ IN CENTRAL JAVA, USING POECILIA <span class="hlt">RETICULATA</span> THROUGH COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION : 3. FIELD TRIAL AND EVALUATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Sustriayu Nalim</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Suatu penelitian dilakukan untuk menjajagi kemungkinan menggunakan minapadi sebagai cara pemberantasan nyamuk Anopheles aconitus. Minapadi dilakukan dengan ikan Cyprinus carpio. Dengan tersedianya air di sawah untuk ikan, ikan pemakan jentik Poecilia <span class="hlt">Reticulata</span> yang ditebarkan dapat hidup pula. Penebaran dilakukan oleh masyarakat. Hasil Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa melalui minapadi yaitu dengan penebaran, ikan P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> pada kepadatan 2 ekor /m2, populasi An. aconitus selama 5 tahun dapat diturunkan sebanyak 99,7% dan S.P.R. malaria sebanyak 98.8%. [1] Regency Health Service, Banjarnegara Regency, Central Java.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25482318"><span id="translatedtitle">Asymmetric reduction of ketones by biocatalysis using clementine mandarin (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) fruit grown in Annaba or by ruthenium catalysis for access to both enantiomers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Bennamane, Manhel; Zeror, Saoussen; Aribi-Zouioueche, Louisa</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Biocatalytic reduction of prochiral ketones using freshly ripened clementine mandarin (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) in aqueous medium is reported. High enantioselectivities were observed, especially for the bioreduction of indanone , tetralone , and thiochromanone with respectively 95%, 99%, and 86% enantiomeric excess (ee). Enantioselective bio- and metal-catalyzed reactions were compared. Chiral ruthenium catalysts afforded good asymmetric inductions (>75% ee) in most cases, enantiomeric excesses depending on the nature of substrate and ligand. N-aminoindanol prolinamide was revealed as the best ligand for most ketones. Interestingly, for several substrates both enantiomers could be obtained using either Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> or ruthenium complex. PMID:25482318</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=tubitakulakb::d117af4383d3bc75a9310c6bec410717"><span id="translatedtitle">Acute Toxicity of Carbaryl, Methiocarb, and Carbosulfan to the Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Boran, Muhammet; ALTINOK, ?lhan; ÇAPKIN, Erol; Karaçam, Hikmet; B?ÇER, Veysel</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The acute toxicity of carbaryl, methiocarb and carbosulfan to juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 1.92 ± 0.5 g) and guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>; 0.45 ± 0.04 g) was evaluated in 96-h toxicity tests under static conditions. Concentrations in the toxicity test ranged from 0.85 to 8.5 mg/l for carbaryl, from 0.7 to 28.0 mg/l for methiocarb, and from 0.031 to 12.5 mg/l for carbosulfan. Carbaryl and methiocarb were more toxic to rainbow trout than to guppies. However, compared with rain...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S1516-89132013000500010-scl"><span id="translatedtitle">In vitro evaluation of adhesion and aggregation abilities of four potential probiotic strains isolated from guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Aparna, Balakrishna.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the probiotic-related characteristics of four strains of bacteria isolated from the normal flora of the guppy, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. In vitro results showed that the strains, namely, MBTU_PB1, MBTU_PB2, MBTU_PB3 and MBTU_PB4 had higher adhesion abilities than the tes [...] ted indicator strains. However, an association between the cell-surface hydrophobicity and the ability to adhere to the intestinal mucus was not observed for these strains. Further, the selected strains were strongly autoaggregating (autoaggregation percentage ? 80) and also showed strain-specific coaggregation abilities with the tested indicator strains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0036-46652008000100006-scl"><span id="translatedtitle">/ Diterpenos de Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Ducke com atividade larvicida contra Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera, Culicidae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Regina, Geris; Ionizete Garcia da, Silva; Heloísa Helena Garcia da, Silva; Andersson, Barison; Edson, Rodrigues-Filho; Antônio Gilberto, Ferreira.</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade larvicida de diterpenos isolados do óleo-resina de Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> sobre Aedes aegypti, principal vetor de dengue e febre amarela urbana. Quatro diterpenóides foram obtidos a partir da extração do óleo-resina com solventes orgânicos e, subseqüen [...] tes procedimentos cromatográficos e espectroscópicos permitiram o isolamento e a identificação desses compostos como ácido 3-b-acetoxylabdan-8(17)-13-dien-15-óico (1), ácido alepterólico (2), ácido 3-b-hidroxylabdan-8(17)-en-15-óico (3) e ácido ent-agático (4). Cada um desses compostos foi previamente solubilizado em dimetilsulfóxido, acrescentando-se água, até se obterem as concentrações desejadas. Em cada bioensaio foram utilizadas 20 larvas de 3° estádio de Ae. aegypti colocadas em 25 mL da solução-teste. Foram feitas cinco repetições, e a mortalidade avaliada 48 h após a exposição, indicada pela ausência de movimentos e escurecimento da cápsula cefálica. Os dados obtidos da mortalidade x concentração (ppm) foram analisados, em gráfico de Probit para avaliar as concentrações letais (CL50 e CL90). Este estudo revelou que os diterpenóides 1 e 2 mostraram atividade larvicida com CL50 de 0,8 e 87,3 ppm, respectivamente, sendo o diterpeno 1 o composto mais promissor a ser usado como larvicida para o controle de Ae. aegypti. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of diterpenoids obtained from the oil-resin of Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> against Aedes aegypti larvae, the principal vector of dengue and urban yellow fever. Four diterpenes were obtained from oil-resin extraction with organic solvents a [...] nd subsequent chromatographic and spectroscopic procedures allowed to isolation and identification of these compounds as 3-b-acetoxylabdan-8(17)-13-dien-15-oic acid (1), alepterolic acid (2), 3-b-hidroxylabdan-8(17)-en-15-oic acid (3), and ent-agatic acid (4). Each compound was previously dissolved in dimethylsulphoxide, and distilled water was added to obtain the desired concentrations. Twenty larvae of third instars were placed into plastic beckers, containing the solution test (25 mL), in a five repetitions scheme, and their mortality, indicated by torpor and darkening of the cephalic capsule, was recorded after 48h. Probit analyses were used to determine lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) and their respective 95% confidence intervals. This study showed that only diterpenoids 1 and 2 exhibited larvicidal properties with LC50 of 0.8 ppm and 87.3 ppm, respectively, revealing the former as the most toxic compound against third instars of Ae. aegypti. Therefore, this compound seems to be an interesting source for new metabolite to be exploited.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20336233"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards the elusive structure of kotalanol, a naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Mohan, Sankar; Pinto, B Mario</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>This Highlight describes the detailed approach used to determine the absolute stereochemistry of the stereogenic centers in the acyclic side chain of kotalanol, a naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor isolated from the <span class="hlt">plant</span> <span class="hlt">Salacia</span> <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. The <span class="hlt">plant</span> extract itself is used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. We highlight the syntheses of proposed candidates based on structure-activity relationships, the total synthesis of kotalanol, and crystallographic studies of kotalanol and its de-O-sulfonated derivative complexed with recombinant human maltase glucoamylase (MGA), a critical intestinal glucosidase involved in the breakdown of glucose oligomers into glucose. PMID:20336233</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25540224"><span id="translatedtitle">Functional territories in primate substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> separately signaling stable and flexible values.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Yasuda, Masaharu; Hikosaka, Okihide</p> <p>2015-03-15</p> <p>Gaze is strongly attracted to visual objects that have been associated with rewards. Key to this function is a basal ganglia circuit originating from the caudate nucleus (CD), mediated by the substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (SNr), and aiming at the superior colliculus (SC). Notably, subregions of CD encode values of visual objects differently: stably by CD tail [CD(T)] vs. flexibly by CD head [CD(H)]. Are the stable and flexible value signals processed separately throughout the CD-SNr-SC circuit? To answer this question, we identified SNr neurons by their inputs from CD and outputs to SC and examined their sensitivity to object values. The direct input from CD was identified by SNr neuron's inhibitory response to electrical stimulation of CD. We found that SNr neurons were separated into two groups: 1) neurons inhibited by CD(T) stimulation, located in the caudal-dorsal-lateral SNr (cdlSNr), and 2) neurons inhibited by CD(H) stimulation, located in the rostral-ventral-medial SNr (rvmSNr). Most of CD(T)-recipient SNr neurons encoded stable values, whereas CD(H)-recipient SNr neurons tended to encode flexible values. The output to SC was identified by SNr neuron's antidromic response to SC stimulation. Among the antidromically activated neurons, many encoded only stable values, while some encoded only flexible values. These results suggest that CD(T)-cdlSNr-SC circuit and CD(H)-rvmSNr-SC circuit transmit stable and flexible value signals, largely separately, to SC. The speed of signal transmission was faster through CD(T)-cdlSNr-SC circuit than through CD(H)-rvmSNr-SC circuit, which may reflect automatic and controlled gaze orienting guided by these circuits. PMID:25540224</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24598083"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficacy of garlic based treatments against monogenean parasites infecting the guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Peters)).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Fridman, S; Sinai, T; Zilberg, D</p> <p>2014-06-16</p> <p>Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a well-known spice which also possesses anti-microbial and anti-parasitical properties. The current work aimed to test the efficacy of garlic-based treatments against infection with monogenean sp. in the guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>). Clipped sections of tail fins of guppies heavily infected with Gyrodactylus turnbulli were exposed to aqueous garlic extract (7.5 to 30 mL L(-1)) and visually observed under a dissecting microscope. Results revealed that exposure to garlic caused detachment of parasite and cessation of movement indicating death. A positive correlation was seen between garlic concentration and time to detachment and death of parasites, which, at the highest concentration of 30 mL L(-1), occurred at 4.1 and 8.6 min, respectively. Bathing in aqueous garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) was tested in guppies infected with G. turnbulli. Prior acute toxicity tests revealed the maximum tolerance levels of guppies to garlic extract to be 12.5 mL L(-1) for 1h. Bathing of infected fish in garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) significantly (ptreatments using dry garlic powder-supplemented diet were tested on guppies infected with G. turnbulli and Dactylogyrus sp. Fish were fed with food containing 10% and 20% dry garlic powder for 14 days. Groups fed with garlic supplemented diets showed significantly reduced (ptreatment was seen to significantly reduce (pmuscular dystrophy in the 20% garlic-fed group, as compared to control. These findings demonstrate the potential of garlic as a natural alternative to currently used chemical treatments for monogenean sp. infection in the guppy. PMID:24598083</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://sisbib.unmsm.edu.pe/BVRevistas/biologist/v06_n2/pdf/a02v6n2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">ACUTE TOXICITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK OF FIPRONIL TO GUPPY (POECILIA <span class="hlt">RETICULATA</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Gómez-Manrique, W.</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The fipronil is an insecticide that has broad-spectrum of action to insect's control. Due the great volume applied in agriculture, it has the possibility of the fipronil to be leached, to suffer to runoff or drift, being able to reach the aquatic way and to provide danger for the aquatic population. To determine the acute toxicity and fipronil environmental risk on guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> 105 adult fishes were exposed at seven concentrations: 0.00, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, 0.125, and 0.15 mg·L-1, in aquariums with capacity for 7 L in static system. The exposed fishes to 0.1, 0.125, and 0.15 mg·L-1 had presented happened hyper-excitation symptoms alternated with lethargy and erratic swimming in 12 h first. The mortality after 96 h exposition were of 100.0, 86.6, and 80.0% to 0.15, 0.25 and 0.1 mg·L-1 respectively, and in the concentrations of 0.025, 0.05 and 0.075 mg·L-1, mortality were of 13.3, 20.0, and 33.3%, respectively. The LC of fipronil for guppy was of 50-96h 0.08 mg·L-1 classifying it as toxic extremely. The environment concentration estimated (CAS and the environment risk (RQ for a 0.3 water column in the recommended dosage highest (400 g ia·ha-1 was of 133.33 and 0.02 mg·L-1, and for 2.0 m was of 1666.63 and 0.25 mg·L-1, classified environmental with adverse effect and adverse possibility effect respectively.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00068/full"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial discounting of food and social rewards in guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>JeffreyRStevens</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Full Text Available In temporal discounting, animals trade off the time to obtain a reward against the quality of a reward, choosing between a smaller reward available sooner versus a larger reward available later. Similar discounting can apply over space, when animals choose between smaller and closer versus larger and more distant rewards. Most studies of temporal and spatial discounting in nonhuman animals use food as the reward, and it is not established whether animals trade off other preferred stimuli in similar ways. Here, we offered female guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> a spatial discounting task in which we measured preferences for a larger reward as the distance to it increased relative to a closer but smaller reward. We tested whether the fish discounted reward types differently by offering subjects either food items or same-sex conspecifics as rewards. Before beginning the discounting tasks, we conducted validation tests to ensure that subjects equally valued the food and social stimuli in the quantities provided. In the discounting task, subjects switched their preferences from the larger to the smaller reward as the distance to the larger reward increased (spatial discounting, but the pattern and magnitude of discounting did not differ across the two reward types. These findings indicate that guppies show similar patterns of discounting food and social rewards in a spatial task. In an analysis of travel times, however, the fish swam faster to food rewards than to shoaling partners. This difference in travel times implies that fish temporally discounted social rewards less steeply than food rewards. Thus, reward type influences temporal discounting, suggesting a dissociation between temporal and spatial discounting. Our results illustrate how animals adjust choices and travel times depending on both the type of cost (time, distance and benefits (food, social partners.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0102-695X2013000500724-scl"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical and pharmacognostical characterization of two Malaysian <span class="hlt">plants</span> both known as Ajisamat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Tengku Azlan S. Tengku, Mohamad; Humera, Naz; Ratni S., Jalal; Khatijah, Hussin; Mohd R. Abd, Rahman; Aishah, Adam; Jean-Frederic F., Weber.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Ajisamat, an herb commonly used as an aphrodisiac in the Malaysian traditional medicine, corresponds to two different species from different families - <span class="hlt">Salacia</span> macrophylla Blume, Celastraceae, and Prismatomeris glabra (Korth.) Valeton, Rubiaceae. Macromorphological inspection of the vegetative parts [...] both <span class="hlt">plants</span> reveals only a slight difference in the arrangement of the petioles. Microscopic investigation of the <span class="hlt">plants</span> roots used as crude drugs revealed however distinctive anatomical features. Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and banded paratracheal parenchyma are characteristics of S. macrophylla while P. glabra displays an abundance as crystals. Other features such as vessels diameters and arrangements are also of diagnostic importance. Some of these characters were also identified in the powder of thes e <span class="hlt">plant</span> materials and proposed for diagnostic purpose. The values for extraction of ethanol and water as well as total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash and sulfated ash were determined for both <span class="hlt">plants</span>. Phytochemical studies were carried out on hexane and chloroform extracts of S. macrophylla and methanolic extract of P. glabra. S. macrophylla was shown to contain highly oxidized pentacyclic triterpenes while P. glabra contains anthraquinones. The pharmacognostical and hytochemical information can be utilised as the identification tools for <span class="hlt">Salacia</span> macrophylla and Prismatomeris glabra</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.acgpubs.org/RNP/2010/Volume%204/Issue%201/17_RNP-0907-130.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Citrus Essential Oil of Nigeria Part IV: Volatile Constituents of Leaf Oils of Mandarins (Citrus <span class="hlt">Reticulata</span> Blanco From Nigeria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Adeleke A. Kasali</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The chemical composition of hydrodistilled oils obtained from the leaves of six Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco (mandarin cultivars grown in Nigeria were examined by GC and GC/MS, the result of their chemical composition were further submitted to cluster analysis. Fifty seven constituents were characterized accounting for 88.2 - 96.7% of the total oils. Sabinene, g -terpinene, P-cymene, d -3-carene and (E- b -ocimene were observed in great variability in all the oils. Other constituents include linalool, myrcene, terpinen-4-ol and cis-sabinenehydrate. In addition, limonene, terpinolene, b -pinene, and a -pinene were also detected in appreciable concentrations. b -sinensal and a -sinensal were isolated by preparative GC and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://spasb.ro/index.php/spasb/article/view/286"><span id="translatedtitle">Nutritional Evaluation of Raw Materials Entering the Structure to Mixed Fodder for the Specie Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Guppy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Adrian Gruber</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>Full Text Available In the ornamental pisciculture is a especial emphasis on the exterior shape and color to the fishes, issues that are dependent directly to the structure of compound feeds in relation to the nutritional characteristics of the raw materials.Own research or focused on analyzing the crude chemical composition with Weende scheme (water content and dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, SEN of raw materials can be used in the structure of a compound feeds for the Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (guppy species, for most of these materials there are no current data in the literature.These materials were analyzed: gelatin, wheat flour, sunflower meal, soybean meal, meal Spirulina platensis, carrot (Daucus carota, Pangasius fillet, Daphnia pulex, grount dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, grount nettle (Urtica dioica and yeast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApNan...5...73K"><span id="translatedtitle">The green synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the biological activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Leptadenia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> leaf extract</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Kumara Swamy, M.; Sudipta, K. M.; Jayanta, K.; Balasubramanya, S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag Nps) was carried out using methanol leaves extract of L. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. Ag Nps were characterized based on the observations of UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. These Ag Nps were tested for antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method against different pathogenic microorganisms and antioxidant activity was performed using DPPH assay. Further, the in vitro cytotoxic effects of Ag Nps were screened against HCT15 cancer cell line and viability of tumor cells was confirmed using MTT ((3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole)) assay. The nuclear condensation was studied using the propidium iodide-staining method. The color change from green to dark brown and the absorbance peak at about 420 nm indicated the formation of nanoparticles. XRD pattern showed characteristic peaks indexed to the crystalline planes (111), (200) and (220) of face-centered cubic silver. The nanoparticles were of spherical shape with varying sizes ranging from 50 to 70 nm. Biosynthesized Ag Nps showed potent antibacterial activity and effective radical scavenging activity. MTT assay revealed a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability. Microscopic observations showed distinct cellular morphological changes indicating unhealthy cells, whereas the control appeared normal. Increase in the number of propidium iodide positive cells were observed in maximum concentration. Methanolic leaf extract of L. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> acts as an excellent capping agent for the formation of silver nanoparticles and demonstrates immense biological activities. Hence, these Ag NPs can be used as antibacterial, antioxidant as well as cytotoxic agent in treating many medical complications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://ia.usu.edu/viewproject.php?project=ia:2528"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>SRowley</p> <p>2006-04-28</p> <p>Children will learn a variety of themes that will teach children about spring and how to grow <span class="hlt">plants</span> while incorporating core related material. Flowers, The children will learn about different qualities of flowers while learning shapes, counting, and colors. Flowers Gardens, The children will learn how to <span class="hlt">plant</span> and take care of a garden. Gardens Rain, The children will learn that gardens need rain to grow. Students will also learn about evaporation. Rain Making Rain Story Time Flower Story ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0798-22592006000400011-ven"><span id="translatedtitle">Capacidad Larvívora del Gold Fish (Carassius auratus auratus) y del Guppy Salvaje (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) Sobre Larvas de Aedes aegypti en Condiciones de Laboratorio / Larvivorous Capacity of the Gold Fish (Carassius auratus auratus) and the Wild Guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) on Larvaes of Aedes aegypti in Laboratory Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Nereida, Valero; Eddy, Meleán; Mery, Maldonado; Milagros, Montiel; Yraima, Larreal; Luz Marina, Espina.</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>Full Text Available El control biológico de vectores de importancia médica se presenta como una alternativa al uso de plaguicidas. La utilización de peces larvívoros se promueve como una nueva estrategia para el control de vectores. El propósito de este estudio es evaluar el potencial de dos especies ícticas para el co [...] ntrol biológico de mosquitos Aedes aegypti (principal vector del dengue) en condiciones de laboratorio. Un creciente número de larvas de A. aegypti en estadíos I, II y III (n: 25, 50 y 100) fueron colocados en acuarios con goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) y guppys salvajes (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>). Se cuantificó la relación peso corporal/larvas ingeridas/hora en diez ensayos. La especie Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> reflejó una mayor (P Abstract in english The biological control of vectors of medical importance is presented as an alternative to the use of plaguicides. The utilization of larvivorous fishes is promoted as a new strategy for the control of vectors. The proposal of this study is to evaluate the potential of two species of fishes for the b [...] iological control of mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (main vector of Dengue) under laboratory conditions. A growing number of larvaes in stages I, II and III of A. aegypti (n: 25, 50 and 100) was placed in aquariums with goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and wild guppys (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>). The ratio body weight/eliminated larvaes/hour was quantified in ten assays. The species Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> had a higher (P</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0121-37092010000100002-col"><span id="translatedtitle">Comportamiento de la producción de lima Tahití (Citrus latifolia Tanaka), injertada sobre el patrón de Mandarina Cleopatra (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco) y la influencia del virus de la tristeza (CTV) en condiciones del piedemonte del Meta, 1997-2008 / Performance of the production of Tahiti lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) grafted on the pattern of Cleopatra Mandarin (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco) and the influence of tristeza virus (CTV) under the piedemont of Meta, 1997-2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Julio, Quiroga - Cardona; Francy L, Hernández- Parrado; María del Rosario, Silva- Herrera; Javier O., Orduz-Rodríguez.</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Full Text Available La lima ácida Tahití (Citrus latifolia T) ocupa el tercer lugar dentro de las especies cítricas cultivadas en Colombia. Sus frutos se consumen en el mercado interno y presenta un creciente mercado de exportación. Entre las enfermedades virales que afectan a los cultivos de cítricos el Virus de la Tr [...] isteza de los Cítricos (CTV) es uno de los más limitantes para la producción y longevidad de las plantas en particular en las de lima Tahití. Este estudio se llevó a cabo bajo las condiciones agroecológicas del Centro de Investigación Corpoica La Libertad, en el piedemonte del departamento del Meta. Las plantas utilizadas se injertaron en vivero en 1996 con yemas provenientes de cultivos comerciales utilizándose como patrón la mandarina Cleopatra (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco). El cultivo se estableció en campo en 1997, ocupando una extensión de una hectárea, con una densidad de 490 plantas ha-1. Para determinar la producción del cultivo se llevaron registros anuales; y para la incidencia y severidad de la (CTV) se realizaron dos lecturas en las plantas, durante el séptimo y onceavo año después del transplante (addt). En el año 2008 (11 addt) se realizó la descripción de la sintomatología del daño ocasionado por la tristeza de los cítricos en la planta y se realizó el registro fotográfico. La producción de la lima Tahití se inicio en el 3 año después del transplante con 4 t/ha y se incremento anualmente hasta presentar el pico de producción en el 8 año con 62 t/ha, posteriormente decrece hasta obtener 2 t/ha en el año 11. La incidencia de CTV en el año 2003 (6 addt) fue de 16.5 % para un total de 80 plantas afectadas y en el 2008 (11 addt) el 100 % de las plantas estaban afectadas (490 plantas) La severidad del CTV, en el año 2003 fue de 29.4 %, mientras que en el 2008 fue del 84 %. Abstract in english Tahiti limes (Citrus latifolia T) is in third place among the citrus species cultivated in Colombia. Its fruits are consumed in the domestic market and has a growing export market. Among the viral diseases affecting citrus crops Virus Citrus Tristeza (CTV) is one of the most limiting for production [...] and longevity of <span class="hlt">plants</span> especially in Tahiti lime. This study was carried out under the ecological conditions of the Research Center Corpoica La Libertad, in the foothills of the department of Meta. The <span class="hlt">plants</span> used in the nursery in 1996 grafted with buds from crops used as standard Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco). The crop field was established in 1997, occupying an area of one hectare, with a density of 490 <span class="hlt">plants</span> ha-1. To determine crop production took annual records, and the incidence and severity of the (CTV) were two readings in <span class="hlt">plants</span>, during the seventh and eleventh year after transplantation (addt). In 2008 (11 addt) A description of the symptoms of the damage caused by citrus tristeza in the <span class="hlt">plant</span> and the photographic record was made. The Tahiti lime production started three years after transplantation with 4 t / ha and increased annually to present the peak of production in the eighth year with 62 t/ha, then decreased until 2 t/ha in year 11. The incidence of CTV in 2003 (6 addt) was 16.5 % for a total of 80 affected <span class="hlt">plants</span> and in 2008 (11 addt) 100 % of <span class="hlt">plants</span> were affected (490 <span class="hlt">plants</span>). The severity of CTV, in the 2003 was 29.4 %, while the reading of 2008 was 84 %.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16229969"><span id="translatedtitle">Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal <span class="hlt">plants</span> from India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Samy, R Perumal</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>The results of a preliminary antimicrobial screening of the methanol extracts of Zingiber officinale, Asteracantha longifolia, Citrus acida, <span class="hlt">Salacia</span> microsperma and Tinospora cordifolia are reported. PMID:16229969</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/BPK/article/view/156"><span id="translatedtitle">CONTROL DEMONSTRATION OF THE RICEFIELD BREEDING MOSQUITO ANOPHELES ACONITUS DONITZ IN CENTRAL JAVA, USING; POECILIA <span class="hlt">RETICULATA</span> THROUGH COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION : 1. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND CONCEPT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Sustriayu Nalim</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Penelitian dilakukan untuk menjajagi cara memberantas vektor malaria Anopheles aconitus di sawah dengan ikan pemakan jentik Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. Dalam penelitian ini terlihat bahwa dalam pelaksanaan program pemberantasan ini, partisipasi petani untuk mina padi dapat digalakkan melalui rapat kelompok tani. Program mina padi menye­diakan tempat hidup bagi ikan pemakan jentik. Rencana pelaksanaan program ini serta cara penggalakan   petani dibicarakan dalam makalah ini.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::9972f24072f5c078f9c90a2528d20668"><span id="translatedtitle">Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove) and Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Tangerine Fruit)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>OO Johnson; GA Ayoola; T Adenipekun</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum) and tangerine fruits (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0100-736X2013000700011-scl"><span id="translatedtitle">Atividade antimicrobiana do oleorresina de copaíba (Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) frente a Staphylococcus coagulase positiva isolados de casos de otite em cães / Antimicrobial activity of copaiba oil (Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) against coagulase positive Staphylococcus of canine otitis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Rosangela E., Ziech; Luana D., Farias; Cláudia, Balzan; Magnos F., Ziech; Berta M., Heinzmann; Osmar A., Lameira; Agueda C. de, Vargas.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar o potencial antimicrobiano do oleorresina de Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Ducke em isolados de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (SCP) provenientes de casos de otite externa em cães. O método de microdiluição em caldo foi utilizado para determinação da concentr [...] ação inibitória mínima (CIM) e concentração bactericida mínima (CBM) de oleorresina de copaíba. Em adição, foi determinado o perfil de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos dos isolados de SCP pelo método de difusão em ágar. Oito classes de antimicrobianos foram usadas para o cálculo de multirresistência antimicrobiana. A determinação da composição química do oleorresina de copaíba foi realizada por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (GC/MS), sendo que ?-cariofileno, ?-bisaboleno e (E)-?-bergamoteno foram os compostos majoritários. O oleorresina de copaíba demonstrou CIM90 de 0,164mg/mL e CBM90 de 1,31mg/mL. A multirresistência foi verificada em 27% das cepas testadas. Os resultados sugerem que o oleorresina de copaíba exerceu atividade bacteriostática e bactericida mesmo em cepas multirresistentes de Staphylococcus coagulase-positiva. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the oleoresin Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Ducke against Staphylococcus coagulase positive (SCP) isolated from otitis externa in dogs. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the oleores [...] in were determined by broth microdilution method. In addition, we verified the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates of SCP by agar diffusion method. Eight classes of antimicrobial were used to calculate the multidrug resistance. The chemical composition of the oleoresin was performed by gas chromatography coupled to the mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and ?-caryophyllene, ?-bisabolene, and (E)-?-bergamotene were the main compounds found. The copaiba oleoresin showed a MIC90 of 0.164mg/mL and a CBM90 of 1.3mg/mL. The multidrug resistance was found in 27% of the strains tested. The results suggest that copaiba oleoresin has bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity even in multidrug-resistant coagulase-positive strains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-04202008000300005"><span id="translatedtitle">Populational approach in ecophysiological studies: the case of Plathymenia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, a tree from Cerrado and Atlantic Forest Abordagem populacional em estudos ecofisiológicos: o caso de /Plathymenia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>/, uma árvore do Cerrado e da Mata Atlântica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>José Pires de Lemos Filho</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The variability of ecophysiological traits among populations can be a result of selection in response to environmental pressure and/or due to random factors, like the genetic drift. The analysis of both genetic and phenotypic variation within populations can lead to better understanding of adaptation in order to colonize different habitats. In the last years we have developed several studies with an widely ecogeographic distributed legume tree species, Plathymenia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, which were focused on identifying specific morphological and physiological traits related to adaptation to the habitats of origin of each studied population. We studied populations from Atlantic Forest, Cerrado and ecotonal sites in relation to phenology, seed morphological traits and their relation with seed dispersion, seed dormancy and germination, and growth traits in a common garden experiment. In several analyzed traits we found high diversity in this species that can explain its occurrence in a broad geographical range. The existence of genetically based differences of traits in an adaptive way among savanna and forest populations suggests a degree of divergence that characterizes the existence of ecotypes from Cerrado and Atlantic Forest. We also pointed future perspectives in studies at population level in evolutionary ecophysiology and implications of these studies for flora conservation and habitat restoration.A variação em características ecofisiológicas entre populações pode ser devido ao resultado da seleção em resposta a pressão ambiental e/ou pode ser devido a fatores aleatórios como a deriva genética. A análise tanto da variação genética quanto da variação fenotípica das populações, pode levar ao melhor conhecimento sobre adaptações necessárias para a ocupação de diferentes ambientes. Nos últimos anos, nós temos desenvolvido diversos estudos com populações de Plathymenia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, uma leguminosa arbórea de ocorrência em ampla extensão ecogeográfica, com o objetivo de identificar características morfológicas e fisiológicas envolvidas na adaptação das populações aos seus ambientes de origem. Populações provenientes da Mata Atlântica, do Cerrado e de áreas ecotonais entre estes biomas foram avaliadas em relação à fenologia, morfologia e germinação de sementes, bem como em relação à características de crescimento de plantas cultivadas em um mesmo ambiente experimental. Em muitas das características analisadas nessa espécie foi encontrada grande diversidade, o que poderia explicar a sua ocorrência em uma ampla extensão geográfica. A existência de diferenças genéticas em características na direção adaptativa entre as populações provenientes de ambientes de savana e florestais sugere a existência de ecótipos de Cerrado e de Mata Atlântica. Nós também apontamos perspectivas futuras para estudos de ecofisiologia evolutiva em nível populacional, bem como implicações desta abordagem para a conservação da flora e restauração de ambientes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0034-77442004000400016-cri"><span id="translatedtitle">Fecundidad,fertilidad e índice gonadosomático de Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Pisces:Poeciliidae)en Heredia,Costa Rica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Mario, Urriola Hernández; Jorge, Cabrera Peña; Maurizio, Protti Quesada.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Entre setiembre y noviembre de 1998 se determinó la fecundidad,fertilidad e índice gonadosomático de Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Peters 1859),a partir de especímenes recolectados en un estanque en Santo Domingo de Heredia,Costa Rica.Las hembras presentaron una longitud total promedio de 34.43 ± 7.26 mm con [...] un ámbito entre 17.80 y 51.50 mm y un peso total promedio de 0.69 ± 0.48 g,con un ámbito entre 0.06 y 2.32 g.Se determinó que esta especie presenta superfetación,matrotrofía y se mantuvo sexualmente activa durante todo el período de estudio.La fertilidad se rigió por la ecuación F =0.527e0.1171Lt (r² =0.9404)y con una fertilidad promedio para la población de 56.1 ± 43.6,con un ámbito entre 7.98 y 197.58 (huevos +embriones).La fecundidad se rigió por la ecuación Fo = 0.695e0.1076 Lt (r² =0.9376)con una fecundidad promedio para la población de 48.95 ± 35.99, con un ámbito entre 6.98 y 178.99 (ovocitos +óvulos). El índice gonadosomático en hembras se rigió por la ecuación IGS =0.0014e 0.134 Lt (r 2 =0.8581)y se encontró un índice gonadosomático promedio de 0.25 ± 0.27%con un ámbito entre 0.02 y 1.31%. Abstract in english Fertility,fecundity and gonadosomatic index of Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Pisces:Poeciliidae)in Heredia,Costa Rica.Between September and November of 1998,1 432 females of Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> were collected in a pond in Santo Domingo,Heredia,Costa Rica.The average total length of females was 34.43 ± 7.26 m [...] m (range 17.80 and 51.50 mm)and the average total weight of 0.69 ± 0.48 g (range 0.06 and 2.32 g). This species is a viviparous matrotrofic and the specimens were sexually mature.The total length-fertility relationship was F =0.527e 0.1171Lt (r² =0.9404).The average fertility was 56.1 ± 43.6 (eggs +embryos)(range 8.0 and 197.6).The total length-fecundity relationship was Fo =0.695e0.1076 Lt (r² =0.9376).The average fecundity was of 49.0 ± 36.0 (oocytes +ova)(range 7.0 and 179.0).The total length-gonadosomatic index relationship was IGS =0.0014 e0.134 Lt (r² =0.8581).The average gonadosomatic index was 0.25 ± 0.27%(range 0.02 and 1.31%).Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4):945-950.Epub 2005 Jun 24.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0103-50532013000600024-scl"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of nickel in alcoholic beverages by FAAS after online preconcentration using mandarin peel (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) as biosorbent</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Gabriela C., Ribeiro; Luciana M., Coelho; Nívia M. Melo, Coelho.</p> <p>1072-10-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Um método de extração por fase sólida foi desenvolvido para determinação direta de níquel em bebidas alcóolicas. Este método baseia-se na adsorção de níquel em cascas de Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, conhecida como mexerica. O pH de solução, quantidade de adsorvente, vazão da amostra e do eluente, concentração [...] do eluente e efeito de matriz foram investigados usando estratégias de otimização multivariada. Estudos de dessorção foram feitos com HCl 1 mol L-1. As condições ideais de extração foram obtidas usando amostra em pH 6,0, vazão da amostra de 4,3 mL min-1, massa de adsorvente de 50 mg e HCl 1,0 mol L-1 na vazão de 2,0 mL min-1 usado como eluente. Fator de pré-concentração, precisão, limite de detecção (LOD), limite de quantificação (LOQ), índice de consumo e frequência analítica foram estimados como 12, 0,9% (30,0 µg L-1, n = 7), 3,1 µg L-1, 10,3 µg L-1, 0,85 mL e 15 amostras por h, respectivamente. O método foi aplicado em amostras de cachaça e uísque e os resultados para os testes de recuperação foram maiores que 99%. Abstract in english A solid phase extraction method was developed for the direct determination of nickel in alcoholic beverages. This method is based on the adsorption of nickel onto the peel of Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (mandarin orange). The solution pH, amount of adsorbent, sample and eluent flow rates, eluent concentration [...] and matrix effects were investigated using multivariate optimization strategies. Desorption studies were carried out with 1 mol L-1 HCl. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained using a sample pH of 6.0, sample flow rate of 4.3 mL min-1, 50 mg of sorbent mass and 1.0 mol L-1 HCl at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min-1 used as eluent. The preconcentration factor, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), consumption index and sample throughput were estimated as 12, 0.9% (30.0 µg L-1, n = 7), 3.1 µg L-1, 10.3 µg L-1, 0.85 mL and 15 samples per h, respectively. The method was applied to sugar cane spirit and whisky samples and the results for recovery tests were higher than 99%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:37086619"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Salacia</span> oblonga root improves cardiac lipid metabolism in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: Modulation of cardiac PPAR-?-mediated transcription of fatty acid metabolic genes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Excess cardiac triglyceride accumulation in diabetes and obesity induces lipotoxicity, which predisposes the myocytes to death. On the other hand, increased cardiac fatty acid (FA) oxidation plays a role in the development of myocardial dysfunction in diabetes. PPAR-? plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis of lipid metabolism. We have previously demonstrated that the extract from <span class="hlt">Salacia</span> oblonga root (SOE), an Ayurvedic anti-diabetic and anti-obesity medicine, improves hyperlipidemia in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats (a genetic model of type 2 diabetes and obesity) and possesses PPAR-? activating properties. Here we demonstrate that chronic oral administration of SOE reduces cardiac triglyceride and FA contents and decreases the Oil red O-stained area in the myocardium of ZDF rats, which parallels the effects on plasma triglyceride and FA levels. Furthermore, the treatment suppressed cardiac overexpression of both FA transporter protein-1 mRNA and protein in ZDF rats, suggesting inhibition of increased cardiac FA uptake as the basis for decreased cardiac FA levels. Additionally, the treatment also inhibited overexpression in ZDF rat heart of PPAR-? mRNA and protein and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, acyl-CoA oxidase and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase mRNAs and restored the downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA. These results suggest that SOE inhibits cardiac FA oxidation in ZDF rats. Thus, our findings suggest that improvement by SOE of excessggest that improvement by SOE of excess cardiac lipid accumulation and increased cardiac FA oxidation in diabetes and obesity occurs by reduction of cardiac FA uptake, thereby modulating cardiac PPAR-?-mediated FA metabolic gene transcription</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16129467"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Salacia</span> oblonga root improves cardiac lipid metabolism in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: modulation of cardiac PPAR-alpha-mediated transcription of fatty acid metabolic genes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Yang, Qinglin; Harada, Masaki; Uberai, Jasna; Radford, Jane; Li, George Q; Yamahara, Johji; Roufogalis, Basil D; Li, Yuhao</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Excess cardiac triglyceride accumulation in diabetes and obesity induces lipotoxicity, which predisposes the myocytes to death. On the other hand, increased cardiac fatty acid (FA) oxidation plays a role in the development of myocardial dysfunction in diabetes. PPAR-alpha plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis of lipid metabolism. We have previously demonstrated that the extract from <span class="hlt">Salacia</span> oblonga root (SOE), an Ayurvedic anti-diabetic and anti-obesity medicine, improves hyperlipidemia in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats (a genetic model of type 2 diabetes and obesity) and possesses PPAR-alpha activating properties. Here we demonstrate that chronic oral administration of SOE reduces cardiac triglyceride and FA contents and decreases the Oil red O-stained area in the myocardium of ZDF rats, which parallels the effects on plasma triglyceride and FA levels. Furthermore, the treatment suppressed cardiac overexpression of both FA transporter protein-1 mRNA and protein in ZDF rats, suggesting inhibition of increased cardiac FA uptake as the basis for decreased cardiac FA levels. Additionally, the treatment also inhibited overexpression in ZDF rat heart of PPAR-alpha mRNA and protein and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, acyl-CoA oxidase and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase mRNAs and restored the downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA. These results suggest that SOE inhibits cardiac FA oxidation in ZDF rats. Thus, our findings suggest that improvement by SOE of excess cardiac lipid accumulation and increased cardiac FA oxidation in diabetes and obesity occurs by reduction of cardiac FA uptake, thereby modulating cardiac PPAR-alpha-mediated FA metabolic gene transcription. PMID:16129467</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45110822"><span id="translatedtitle">Change of mitotic behavior and ultra structure of 'Fuju' (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco) stem-apex clones after space flight</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>By using conventional squash stain technique and ultrathin sectioning technique, the effects of space flight on mitotic behavior and ultrastructure were studied in the shoot apical meristem of 'Fuju' (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco), which had been carried by China's seed-breeding satellite, Shijian-8. The results showed that space flight had effect on the mutagenesis of stem-apical meristem. Abnormal mitosis with various degrees had been detected in 13 mutant clones, of which mitotic aberrations in clone '08004' were significantly higher than the others. The aberration rate of numerical abnormalities of chromosomes at metaphase, lagging chromosome, micronucleus, C-spindle, S-spindle and polyarch spindle in the clone '08004' was 0.34%, 0.669%, 0.86%, 0.17%, 1.20% and 1.03%, respectively. The ultrastructure of mesophyll cell in most clones was unchanged, but nucleus chromatin agglutination, chloroplast thylakoid disintegrated, autophagosome appeared, cell vacuolated, plasmolysis and the formation of apoptotic body were found in the clone '08004', suggesting that programmed cell death (PCD) Nevertheless, no change in the mitochondrial structure was observed until terminal phase of PCD. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ejh.it/index.php/ejh/article/view/986"><span id="translatedtitle">Cell proliferation and growth-associated protein 43 expression in the olfactory epithelium in Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> after copper solution exposure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>S Bettini</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Full Text Available This study investigated the regeneration in the olfactory mucosa of the teleostean fish Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> when returned to dechlorinated tap water after 4-day exposure to 30 ?g/L of Cu2+. The regeneration process in the olfactory tissue was examined in fishes at 0, 3, 6 and 10 days of recovery in well water. Jade B staining permitted to evaluate the rate of the damage which was especially extended to olfactory neurons. Immediately after the end of exposure, a massive mitotic activity in the basal region of the mucosa was detected by immunostaining with PCNA. After 3 days of recovery the nuclei of the newly formed cells had already finished their migration to the upper portion of the epithelium, and cellular division was much less intense. Simultaneously, immunoreactivity for the neural growth-associated phosphoprotein GAP-43 increased respect to control levels, revealing that the new differentiating PCNA-positive elements belonged to immature neurons. After 6 days in well water no mitotic activity was detected, while the GAP-43 labelling appeared particularly concentrated in the apical surface of the olfactory epithelium.After 10 days the aspect of the olfactory epithelium was almost identical to the control. The present results suggest that after 10 days regeneration seems to be complete and integrity of the tissue restored. Furthermore, the epithelium reconstitution does not show apparent divergence from other fishes or mammals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.bioflux.com.ro/docs/vol1/2008.1.1-10.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Crossing-over between Y chromosomes: another possible source of phenotypic variability in the guppy, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Peters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>I. Valentin Petrescu-Mag</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Genetic linkage acting through crossing-over between X and X chromosomes, X and Y chromosomes, and autosomal gene recombination are the most important sources of color pattern polymorphisms in animals. Variability in male color patterns and fin morphologies in the guppy, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, a livebearing fish is an example of extreme pattern polymorphism. We explored the possibility that crossing-over between Y chromosomes can also contribute to the high degree of pattern polymorphism in guppies because YY individuals are easily induced in the boratory. However, note that YY individuals are also produced in natural populations. Our results indicated that YY crossing-over was another important source of phenotypic variability - probably because recombination may be possible ver the entire length of Y chromosomes, and at very high frequencies due to high degrees of homology. Thus, crossing-over between Y chromosomes is yet another mechanism that can contribute to extreme pattern polymorphism in the guppy, a popular aquarium and important research model species.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.bioflux.com.ro/docs/2010.3.163-170.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of vitamin C on growth factors, survival, reproduction and sex ratio in guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Bahareh Mehrad</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid, AA ongrowth factors, survival, reproductive performance and sex ratio in guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>Peters,1859. Guppies were divided into 5 treatments with triplicate groups and fed with one of 5 dietsfor 20 weeks. The experimental vitamin C diets were formulated to contain 400, 800, 1200 and 2000 mgAA kg-1 (treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively with 1 control group. The data obtained from the trial weresubjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA to test for effects of dietary treatments. In vitamin Ctreatments the body weight increase (BWI, percent body weight increase (PBWI, specific growth rate(SGR, daily growth rate (DGR and reproductive performance of guppies were increased significantlywith increasing the levels of vitamin C (P<0.05 and highest BWI, PBWI, SGR and DGR were observed intreatment 4. There were no significant differences in sex ratio observed between the treatments. Insurvival rate there was significant difference between treatment 2 with treatments 1, 3 and control(P<0.05. This study indicates that BWI, PBWI, SGR and DGR and reproductive performance can beimproved by dietary vitamin C supplementation and also may be concluded that the vitamin Crequirement of guppies fish for optimum growth and reproductive performance is 2000 mg/kg of drydiet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/8/269"><span id="translatedtitle">ESTs and EST-linked polymorphisms for genetic mapping and phylogenetic reconstruction in the guppy, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Tripathi Namita</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Abstract Background The guppy, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, is a well-known model organism for studying inheritance and variation of male ornamental traits as well as adaptation to different river habitats. However, genomic resources for studying this important model were not previously widely available. Results With the aim of generating molecular markers for genetic mapping of the guppy, cDNA libraries were constructed from embryos and different adult organs to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs. About 18,000 ESTs were annotated according to BLASTN and BLASTX results and the sequence information from the 3' UTRs was exploited to generate PCR primers for re-sequencing of genomic DNA from different wild type strains. By comparison of EST-linked genomic sequences from at least four different ecotypes, about 1,700 polymorphisms were identified, representing about 400 distinct genes. Two interconnected MySQL databases were built to organize the ESTs and markers, respectively. A robust phylogeny of the guppy was reconstructed, based on 10 different nuclear genes. Conclusion Our EST and marker databases provide useful tools for genetic mapping and phylogenetic studies of the guppy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3432312"><span id="translatedtitle">The neostriatal inhibition of catalepsy, but not of muscle rigidity, evoked from the substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Kolasiewicz, W; Cools, A; Ossowska, K; Wolfarth, S</p> <p>1987-12-01</p> <p>The effects of a bilateral blockade of neo- and palleostriatal GABAergic mechanisms on catalepsy and muscle rigidity resulting from picrotoxin injection into the substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (SNR) were studied. The catalepsy and rigidity were induced by a unilateral injection of 100 ng/0.5 microliter of picrotoxin. Bilateral injections of 250 ng/l microliter of picrotoxin into the intermediate-ventral parts of the caudato-putamen (CP) abolished the catalepsy but had no effect on the muscle rigidity induced by an intranigral injection of the drug. Bilateral injections of 250 ng/l microliter of picrotoxin into the globus pallidus (GP) did not influence the catalepsy and rigidity induced by the intranigral injection of the drug. The results indicate that the impulses, connected with the catalepsy evoked from the SNR seem to be transmitted back to the CP and blocked therein by inhibition of GABAergic synapses in its intermediate-ventral part. The impulses, connected with the muscle rigidity evoked from the SNR, presumably do not return to the striatum. PMID:3432312</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::036ac0aced190d156ba9968af4086855"><span id="translatedtitle">Regulation of substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> GABAergic neuron activity by hydrogen peroxide via flufenamic acid-sensitive channels and KATP channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>MargaretERice; PaulWitkovsky</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (SNr) GABAergic neurons are key output neurons of the basal ganglia. Given the role of these neurons in motor control, it is important to understand factors that regulate their firing rate and pattern. One potential regulator is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen species that is increasingly recognized as a neuromodulator. We used whole-cell current clamp recordings of SNr GABAergic neurons in guinea-pig midbrain slices to determine how H2O2 affects t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::6b8512853e50765e621dbacefb237bc6"><span id="translatedtitle">Regulation of Substantia Nigra Pars <span class="hlt">Reticulata</span> GABAergic Neuron Activity by H2O2 via Flufenamic Acid-Sensitive Channels and KATP Channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Lee, Christian R.; Witkovsky, Paul; RICE, MARGARET E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (SNr) GABAergic neurons are key output neurons of the basal ganglia. Given the role of these neurons in motor control, it is important to understand factors that regulate their firing rate and pattern. One potential regulator is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen species that is increasingly recognized as a neuromodulator. We used whole-cell current clamp recordings of SNr GABAergic neurons in guinea-pig midbrain slices to determine how H2O2 affects t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=62912210"><span id="translatedtitle">Crecimiento, Abundancia Y Biomasa De Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> En El Lago Urbano Del Parque Tezozomoc De La Ciudad De México</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>G. El\\u00EDas-Fern\\u00E1ndez</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Los lagos urbanos tienen importancia estética, recreativa, cultural y biológica por albergar organismos generalmente alóctonos, como aves, reptiles, insectos y peces, en particular poecilidos, los cuales son muy tolerantes y se reproducen con facilidad. Por lo anterior, el objetivo de este trabajo fue: determinar la variación en la abundancia y biomasa de Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> en el lago del parque Tezozomoc, así como obtener la ecuación de crecimiento. Se realizaron muestreos mensuales de julio del año 2000 a junio del 2001. Se establecieron tres estaciones donde se registraron las siguientes variables físicas y químicas; transparencia, alcalinidad, dureza, pH, conductividad, temperatura y turbiedad por métodos convencionales. Los peces se capturaron con una red de cuchara de marco rectangular de 100 x 50 cm (área barrida de 0.5 m2, con luz de malla de 0.5 cm. Los organismos se fijaron con formalina al 10 %. Se registraron las siguientes variables morfométricas de los organismos; peso (gr y longitud patrón (mm. Se calculó la abundancia y biomasa, así como la ecuación de crecimiento de acuerdo al modelo de Von Bertalanffy. Se encontró que el agua del sistema es templada, turbia, alcalina, dura y somera. La mayor abundancia (6,148 organismos y biomasa (677.28 g se presentó en la estación I, caracterizada por la mayor presencia de visitantes al lago que arroja desperdicios alimenticios al sistema. Los meses con mayor abundancia fueron julio (1,483 org y agosto (1,252 org y los de mayor biomasa agosto (145.12 gr y marzo (138.63 gr. La longitud máxima obtenida de 61.55 mm y la tasa de crecimiento de 0.2987 son valores similares a los obtenidos en sistemas naturales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=83708302"><span id="translatedtitle">Reproductive performance of the guppy fish Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> [Peters, 1859] fed with live Artemia franciscana [Kellog, 1906] cultured with inert and live diets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>M. Garc\\u00EDa-Ulloa</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available El comportamiento reproductivo del guppy Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> ?evaluado como número de crías, longitud estándar, peso húmedo y seco de las crías y su proporción sexual? fue estudiado usando varias dietas para los reproductores. Los tratamientos consistieron en adultos vivos de Artemia franciscana cultivada con microalgas vivas (Tetraselmis suecica y Chaetoceros calcitrans, harina de Spirulina, harina de soya, harina de trigo, una mezcla 50%/50% de dichas harinas y una dieta comercial como grupo control. Después de 45 días bajo condiciones experimentales de laboratorio, no se encontraron diferencias significativas (P > 0.05 en el número de crías producidas por hembra y en la longitud estándar individual de las crías entre los tratamientos. Las crías producidas por el grupo control fueron más pesadas que las del resto de los tratamientos (4.14 y 1.06 mg de peso húmedo y seco, respectivamente. En promedio, el grupo de reproductores alimentado con Spirulina produjo mayor cantidad de machos. Los resultados destacan el uso de la dieta comercial para cubrir con los requerimientos reproductivos de P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DEFFRD-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Effects+of+intraspecific+variation+in+reproductive+traits%2C+pectoral+fin+use+and+burst+swimming+on+metabolic+rates+and+swimming+performance+in+the+Trinidadian+guppy+%28Poecilia+reticulata%29"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Svendsen, Jon Christian; Banet, Amanda I.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>There is considerable intraspecific variation in metabolic rates and locomotor performance in aquatic ectothermic vertebrates; however, the mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. Using pregnant Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>), a livebearing teleost, we examined the effects of reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burse-assisted swimming on swimming metabolic rate, standard metabolic rate (MO2std) and prolonged swimming performance (Ucrit). Reproductive traits included reproductive allocation and pregnancy stage, the former defined as the mass of the reproductive tissues divided by the total body mass. Results showed that the metabolic rate increased curvilinearly with swimming speed. The slope of the relationship was used as an index of swimming cost. There was no evidence that reproductive traits correlated with swimming cost, MO2std or Ucrit. In contrast, data revealed strong effects of pectoral fin use on swimming cost and Ucrit. Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> employed body-caudal fin (BCF) swimming at all tested swimming speeds; however, fish with a high simultaneous use of the pectoral fins exhibited increased swimming cost and decreased Ucrit. These data indicated that combining BCF swimming and pectoral fin movement over a wide speed range, presumably to support swimming stability and control, is an inefficient swimming behaviour. Finally, transition to burst-assisted swimming was associated with an increase in aerobic metabolic rate. Our study highlights factors other than swimming speed that affect swimming cost and suggests that intraspecific diversity in biomechanical performance, such as pectoral fin use, is an important source of variation in both locomotor cost and maximal performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/417/"><span id="translatedtitle">A new genus and species of Callipogonini, description of the male of Strongylaspis boliviana Monne & Santos-Silva, 2003, and a new distributional record for Chorenta <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Robert Perger</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Seticeros gen. n. and Seticeros tunupai sp. n. of the tribe Callipogonini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae from Yungas, Bolivia and the male of Strongylaspis boliviana Monne & Santos-Silva, 2003 are described and illustrated. Chorenta aquilus (Thomson, 1865 is transferred to Seticeros gen. n. A new distributional record for Chorenta <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Dalman, 1817 is given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-70542006000400027"><span id="translatedtitle">Alterações químicas, físicas e físico-químicas da tangerina 'ponkan' (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco durante o armazenamento refrigerado Chemical, physical and physical-chemical changes on tangerina 'ponkan' (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco under refrigerated storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Adriana Aparecida Souza Vale</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>Full Text Available O objetivo proposto neste trabalho foi o de avaliar as alterações químicas, físicas e físico-químicas da tangerina 'Ponkan' (citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco durante o armazenamento refrigerado a 5 ± 2° C e umidade relativa de 85 ± 3% por um período de 28 dias, em dois estádios de maturação (frutos coletados no início da safra; com a casca mais verde e frutos coletados no final da safra com a casca amarela. Os frutos foram coletados com pedúnculo, ao acaso de um pomar comercial com sete anos de idade, localizado no município de Perdões, região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram realizadas duas colheitas, uma no mês de Abril quando os frutos estavam com a casca verde, mas já estavam aptos para o consumo; e outra mais no final da safra no mês de Julho quando os frutos já estavam com a casca bem amarela. Os frutos coletados foram levados ao Laboratório de Bioquímica da Universidade Federal de Lavras, onde foram selecionados 100 (cem frutos de tamanho uniforme e com ausência de injúrias a cada colheita, estes foram lavados com uma solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%, protocolados, pesados, medidos e realizadas as leituras de cor. Os frutos foram então armazenados em refrigerador a 5 ± 2° C e umidade relativa de 85 ± 3% por um período de 28 dias, e as análises foram realizadas nos frutos e no suco dos frutos aos 0, 7 14, 21 e 28 dias de armazenamento. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com 5 repetições de 4 frutos . Os resultados mostraram que quase todas as análises realizadas apresentaram variações significativas. A perda de massa, os diâmetros transversais e longitudinais apresentaram diminuições significativas com os dias de armazenamento refrigerado. Os açúcares também tiveram variações significativas com tendência de aumento com os dias de armazenamento.O pH não apresentou variações significativas. Os teores de Vitamina C não apresentaram variações significativas com os dias de armazenamento refrigerado. A coloração da casca dos frutos foi medida com um colorímetro e foram medidos três variáveis de cor: luminosidade, teor de amarelo e teor de vermelho. Pode-se observar visualmente que os frutos coletados no início da safra apresentaram um ressecamento das vesículas de suco, ou seja, frutos com granulação, principalmente a partir da segunda semana de armazenamento, enquanto os frutos coletados mais maduros com maiores teores de açúcares solúveis foram mais resistentes ao ressecamento interno das vesículas.(análise visual e tátil.This work was aimed to evaluating chemical, physical and physical-chemical changes on tangerine 'Ponkan' (citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco during the storage at 5 ± 2° C under relative humidity of 85 ± 3%, for a period of 28 days, in two maturation stadiums (fruits collected at the beginning of the crop; with the greenest peel and yellow peel fruits,, collected by the end of the crop. Fruits with stalf were alleatory collected in a seven-years old commercial orchard, located at Perdões, South area of the State of Minas Gerais. Fruits were collectd twice: on April, when they got a green peel, but they were already edible; and on July, by the end of the crop, when fruits got a very yellow peel. Then fruits were taken to the Laboratory of Biochemistry of the Federal University of Lavras, where a hundred aff them with uniform size and injury were washed with a 1% sodium hypochoride solution, marked, weigthted measured and submitted to color readings. After 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days in a refrigerator at fruits of uniform size and with absence of offenses to each crop, these were washed with a hipoclorito of sodium solution to 1%, recorded, heavy, measured and accomplished the color readings. Then the fruits were stored then in refrigerator at 5 ± 2° C, under relative humidity of 85 ± 3%, fruits as well as thein juice were analysed. The experimental outline used was entirely randomized, with five replicates containig four fruits in each one. Almost all rescelts were significantly depende</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S1413-70542006000400027-scl"><span id="translatedtitle">Alterações químicas, físicas e físico-químicas da tangerina 'ponkan' (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco) durante o armazenamento refrigerado / Chemical, physical and physical-chemical changes on tangerina 'ponkan' (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco) under refrigerated storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Adriana Aparecida Souza, Vale; Custódio Donizete dos, Santos; Celeste Maria Patto de, Abreu; Angelita Duarte, Corrêa; Juliana Araújo, Santos.</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>Full Text Available O objetivo proposto neste trabalho foi o de avaliar as alterações químicas, físicas e físico-químicas da tangerina 'Ponkan' (citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco) durante o armazenamento refrigerado a 5 ± 2° C e umidade relativa de 85 ± 3% por um período de 28 dias, em dois estádios de maturação (frutos coletad [...] os no início da safra; com a casca mais verde e frutos coletados no final da safra com a casca amarela). Os frutos foram coletados com pedúnculo, ao acaso de um pomar comercial com sete anos de idade, localizado no município de Perdões, região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram realizadas duas colheitas, uma no mês de Abril quando os frutos estavam com a casca verde, mas já estavam aptos para o consumo; e outra mais no final da safra no mês de Julho quando os frutos já estavam com a casca bem amarela. Os frutos coletados foram levados ao Laboratório de Bioquímica da Universidade Federal de Lavras, onde foram selecionados 100 (cem) frutos de tamanho uniforme e com ausência de injúrias a cada colheita, estes foram lavados com uma solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%, protocolados, pesados, medidos e realizadas as leituras de cor. Os frutos foram então armazenados em refrigerador a 5 ± 2° C e umidade relativa de 85 ± 3% por um período de 28 dias, e as análises foram realizadas nos frutos e no suco dos frutos aos 0, 7 14, 21 e 28 dias de armazenamento. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com 5 repetições de 4 frutos . Os resultados mostraram que quase todas as análises realizadas apresentaram variações significativas. A perda de massa, os diâmetros transversais e longitudinais apresentaram diminuições significativas com os dias de armazenamento refrigerado. Os açúcares também tiveram variações significativas com tendência de aumento com os dias de armazenamento.O pH não apresentou variações significativas. Os teores de Vitamina C não apresentaram variações significativas com os dias de armazenamento refrigerado. A coloração da casca dos frutos foi medida com um colorímetro e foram medidos três variáveis de cor: luminosidade, teor de amarelo e teor de vermelho. Pode-se observar visualmente que os frutos coletados no início da safra apresentaram um ressecamento das vesículas de suco, ou seja, frutos com granulação, principalmente a partir da segunda semana de armazenamento, enquanto os frutos coletados mais maduros com maiores teores de açúcares solúveis foram mais resistentes ao ressecamento interno das vesículas.(análise visual e tátil). Abstract in english This work was aimed to evaluating chemical, physical and physical-chemical changes on tangerine 'Ponkan' (citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco) during the storage at 5 ± 2° C under relative humidity of 85 ± 3%, for a period of 28 days, in two maturation stadiums (fruits collected at the beginning of the crop; w [...] ith the greenest peel and yellow peel fruits,, collected by the end of the crop). Fruits with stalf were alleatory collected in a seven-years old commercial orchard, located at Perdões, South area of the State of Minas Gerais. Fruits were collectd twice: on April, when they got a green peel, but they were already edible; and on July, by the end of the crop, when fruits got a very yellow peel. Then fruits were taken to the Laboratory of Biochemistry of the Federal University of Lavras, where a hundred aff them with uniform size and injury were washed with a 1% sodium hypochoride solution, marked, weigthted measured and submitted to color readings. After 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days in a refrigerator at fruits of uniform size and with absence of offenses to each crop, these were washed with a hipoclorito of sodium solution to 1%, recorded, heavy, measured and accomplished the color readings. Then the fruits were stored then in refrigerator at 5 ± 2° C, under relative humidity of 85 ± 3%, fruits as well as thein juice were analysed. The experimental outline used was entirely randomized, with five replicates containig four fruits in each one. Almos</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S1519-69842009000100005-scl"><span id="translatedtitle">Distribution of guppies Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Peters, 1860) and Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868) along a polluted stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil / Distribuição dos guppies Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Peters, 1860) e Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868) ao longo de um trecho poluído do rio Paraíba do Sul, Brasil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>FG., Araújo; MG., Peixoto; BCT., Pinto; TP., Teixeira.</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Peixes Cyprinodontiformes (guppies) são largamente distribuídos na região Neotropical e usam microhábitats deteriorados em rios onde poucas espécies podem ocorrer. Este estudo foi realizado em um trecho do rio Paraíba do Sul compreendendo um grande complexo urbano-industrial. O objetivo foi avaliar [...] eventuais efeitos que o complexo industrial poderia ter na distribuição de duas espécies de guppies proximamente relacionadas, Phalloceros caudimaculatus e Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. A área foi dividida em três zonas: Z1, 40 km rio acima do complexo urbano-industrial de Volta Redonda; Z2, imediatamente abaixo do complexo industrial; e Z3, 30 km abaixo do complexo. Seis locais (dois em cada zona) foram amostrados mensalmente entre novembro de 1998 e outubro de 1999, usando um esforço de pesca estandardizado com tarrafas, peneiras e arrastos, cobrindo diferentes microhábitats, isto é, corredeiras, remansos e a proximidade da margem dos rios. Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> foi largamente distribuído, apresentando pico na Z2, área mais poluída, enquanto P. caudimaculatus apresentou a maior abundância na Z3, sendo quase ausente na Z1. Ambas as espécies ocorreram em elevados números ao longo do ano, mas foram escassas entre abril e junho. Fêmeas foram mais numerosas do que machos para ambas as espécies na maioria das classes de tamanho e em todos os locais. Jovens foram mais abundantes que adultos, com fêmeas não grávidas predominando sobre fêmeas grávidas. Fator de condição foi sempre maior nos machos do que nas fêmeas, mas somente machos de P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> apresentaram diferenças significantes entre as três zonas, com os mais elevados valores na Z2. Maior número de fêmeas confirma as expectativas de que estas espécies podem usar áreas bem poluídas e que a disponibilidade de alimento provida pela carga orgânica permite sua distribuição ao longo de toda a área. Embora estas duas espécies tenham apresentado indicações de separação especial, seus similares padrões de ocorrência sazonal sugerem que elas respondem de maneira similar às variações das condições ambientais. Abstract in english Cyprinodontiformes fishes (guppies) are widely distributed in Neotropical regions and use deteriorated microhabitats in rivers where few species can occur. This study was carried out in a stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River in bracketing a large urban-industrial complex. The aim was to assess eventu [...] al effects that the industrial complex could have on distribution of two closely related fish species of guppies, Phalloceros caudimaculatus and Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. The area was divided into three zones: Z1, 40 km upriver of the major urban-industrial complex of Volta Redonda; Z2, just down river of the complex; and Z3, 30 km down river of the complex. Six sites (two in each zone) were sampled monthly between November 1998 and October 1999, using a standardized fishing effort with cast net throws, trays lifts and seine hauls, covering different microhabitats, that is, riffles, pools and the proximity of the river's margins. Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> was widely distributed, peaking at Z2, the most polluted area, while P. caudimaculatus showed the highest abundance at Z3, being almost absent in Z1. Both species occurred in high numbers throughout the year but they were scarce between April and June. Females outnumbered males for both species in most size classes and at all sites. Juveniles were more abundant than adults, with non-pregnant females outnumbering pregnant ones. Condition factor was always higher in males than females but only males P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> showed significant difference among the three zones, with the highest values at Z2. The higher number of females confirms the expectation that these species can use very polluted areas and that availability of food provided by organic loads allowed their distribution all over the area. Although these two species have shown indication of spatial separation in the study area, their similar seasonal patterns of occurrence suggest that they respo</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1519-69842009000100005"><span id="translatedtitle">Distribution of guppies Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Peters, 1860 and Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868 along a polluted stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil Distribuição dos guppies Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Peters, 1860 e Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868 ao longo de um trecho poluído do rio Paraíba do Sul, Brasil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>FG. Araújo</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Cyprinodontiformes fishes (guppies are widely distributed in Neotropical regions and use deteriorated microhabitats in rivers where few species can occur. This study was carried out in a stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River in bracketing a large urban-industrial complex. The aim was to assess eventual effects that the industrial complex could have on distribution of two closely related fish species of guppies, Phalloceros caudimaculatus and Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. The area was divided into three zones: Z1, 40 km upriver of the major urban-industrial complex of Volta Redonda; Z2, just down river of the complex; and Z3, 30 km down river of the complex. Six sites (two in each zone were sampled monthly between November 1998 and October 1999, using a standardized fishing effort with cast net throws, trays lifts and seine hauls, covering different microhabitats, that is, riffles, pools and the proximity of the river's margins. Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> was widely distributed, peaking at Z2, the most polluted area, while P. caudimaculatus showed the highest abundance at Z3, being almost absent in Z1. Both species occurred in high numbers throughout the year but they were scarce between April and June. Females outnumbered males for both species in most size classes and at all sites. Juveniles were more abundant than adults, with non-pregnant females outnumbering pregnant ones. Condition factor was always higher in males than females but only males P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> showed significant difference among the three zones, with the highest values at Z2. The higher number of females confirms the expectation that these species can use very polluted areas and that availability of food provided by organic loads allowed their distribution all over the area. Although these two species have shown indication of spatial separation in the study area, their similar seasonal patterns of occurrence suggest that they respond in a similar way to changes in environmental conditions.Peixes Cyprinodontiformes (guppies são largamente distribuídos na região Neotropical e usam microhábitats deteriorados em rios onde poucas espécies podem ocorrer. Este estudo foi realizado em um trecho do rio Paraíba do Sul compreendendo um grande complexo urbano-industrial. O objetivo foi avaliar eventuais efeitos que o complexo industrial poderia ter na distribuição de duas espécies de guppies proximamente relacionadas, Phalloceros caudimaculatus e Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. A área foi dividida em três zonas: Z1, 40 km rio acima do complexo urbano-industrial de Volta Redonda; Z2, imediatamente abaixo do complexo industrial; e Z3, 30 km abaixo do complexo. Seis locais (dois em cada zona foram amostrados mensalmente entre novembro de 1998 e outubro de 1999, usando um esforço de pesca estandardizado com tarrafas, peneiras e arrastos, cobrindo diferentes microhábitats, isto é, corredeiras, remansos e a proximidade da margem dos rios. Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> foi largamente distribuído, apresentando pico na Z2, área mais poluída, enquanto P. caudimaculatus apresentou a maior abundância na Z3, sendo quase ausente na Z1. Ambas as espécies ocorreram em elevados números ao longo do ano, mas foram escassas entre abril e junho. Fêmeas foram mais numerosas do que machos para ambas as espécies na maioria das classes de tamanho e em todos os locais. Jovens foram mais abundantes que adultos, com fêmeas não grávidas predominando sobre fêmeas grávidas. Fator de condição foi sempre maior nos machos do que nas fêmeas, mas somente machos de P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> apresentaram diferenças significantes entre as três zonas, com os mais elevados valores na Z2. Maior número de fêmeas confirma as expectativas de que estas espécies podem usar áreas bem poluídas e que a disponibilidade de alimento provida pela carga orgânica permite sua distribuição ao longo de toda a área. Embora estas duas espécies tenham apresentado indicações de separação especial, seus similares padrões de ocorrência sazonal sugerem que elas respondem de maneira similar às variações das co</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:44056031"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of natural radioactivity and the concentration of heavy metal in tissue of Guppy Fish, Poecilia <span class="hlt">Reticulata</span> and sediment on urban drawn in Klang, Selangor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This study has been carried out to determine the natural radioactivity and concentration of heavy metal in guppy fish, Poecilia <span class="hlt">Reticulata</span> and sediment sample on urban drawn in Klang, Selangor. Natural radioactivity (U-238, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40) was determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The concentration of heavy metal was determined using Coupled-Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Guppy fish and sediment sample was taken from three different locations in research area. Sample treatment process was starting with separation of impurities in sample. Samples were dried in the oven at 100 degree Celsius in 72 hours, homogenization process, and then samples were filled into counts bottles, sealed and kept for a month to achieved secular equilibrium. The activities found for each location varied. In sediment samples the activity concentration of U-238, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 were in the range of 87.61 ± 13.47 to 180.88 ± 30.50 Bq/ kg, 59.45 ± 9.12 to 88.29 ± 2.73 Bq/ kg, 6.70 ± 3.13 to 8.53 ± 4.90 Bq/ kg and 246.83 ± 12.27 to 495.28 ± 22.30 Bq/ kg. For sediment samples, have 12 elements of heavy metals found are Mg, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Al, As, Ba and Pb. For guppy fish, P. <span class="hlt">Reticulata</span> have 7 elements of heavy metals achieved found are Mg, K, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Al. Concentration of U-238 and K-40 is higher than the world average value reported by UNSCEAR (2000). Th-232 is below the world average value. From comparative with IAEA (1990) reporcomparative with IAEA (1990) report showed that the concentration of heavy metals in sediment sample was at background level except for As and Pb. For concentration of heavy metal in guppy fish, P. <span class="hlt">Reticulata</span> showed that the values are highly than value of IAEA-407 report except for Zn and Mn. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S1676-06032011000300007-scl"><span id="translatedtitle">Length-weight relationship and reproduction of the guppy Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) in urban drainage channels in the Brazilian city of Belém / Relação peso-comprimento e reprodução do guppy Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) em canais de coleta residual na região metropolitana de Belém, Pará, Brasil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Luciano Fogaça de Assis, Montag; Tiago Magalhães da Silva, Freitas; Roberta Dannyele de Oliveira, Raiol; Marlene Vasconcelos da, Silva.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo descrever aspectos populacionais relacionados ao estabelecimento da relação peso/comprimento, estimativa de tamanho de primeira maturação (L) e período reprodutivo de Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> encontrados em sistemas de coleta residual no campus da Universidade Federal [...] do Pará, região metropolitana de Belém - PA (Brasil). Foram realizadas coletas mensais no período de junho de 2006 a março de 2007, utilizando um puçá, que resultou na captura de 1.936 exemplares, sendo 942 machos e 994 fêmeas. As fêmeas apresentaram-se maiores e mais pesadas que os machos. A relação peso/comprimento para machos foi estabelecida pela equação Pt = 5 × 10-5 × Ct2,397 e para fêmeas esta foi dada pela fórmula Pt = 3 × 10-6 × Ct3,419. Os valores estimados para L foi 17,5 mm para machos 20,4 mm para fêmeas, sugerindo que os machos iniciam atividades reprodutivas em tamanhos menores que as fêmeas. A frequência mensal de fêmeas maduras não variou significativamente. Além disso, também não foram encontradas diferenças na proporção sexual durante os períodos investigados, sendo no geral, a proporção de fêmeas iguais as de machos. Desta forma, verificamos que, apesar das condições presentes nos sistemas de coleta residual da UFPA, a espécie P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> parece ter adaptado seus processos biológicos. Abstract in english This paper describes the length-weight relationship, size at first maturation (L), and breeding season of Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> found in drainage channels on the campus of the Federal University of Pará (UFPA) in the Brazilian city of Belém. A total of 1.936 specimens (942 males and 994 females) were [...] collected in monthly samples of the study area between June, 2006, and March, 2007. Females were significantly longer and heavier than males. The length-weight relationship for males was established by the equation Pt = 5 × 10-5 × Ct2.397 and for females by Pt = 3 × 10-6 × Ct3.419. The estimated value of L was 17.5 mm for males and 20.4 mm for females, suggesting that males initiate reproductive activity at a smaller size than females. The abundance of mature females did not vary significantly among months, and there was little variation in the sex ratio, which was close to parity overall. Despite the adverse conditions encountered in the UFPA drainage system, P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> appeared to have adapted its biological processes adequately.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23790942"><span id="translatedtitle">Polymethoxylated, C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids in tangelo (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>×Citrus paradisi) juice and their influence on antioxidant properties.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Barreca, Davide; Bisignano, Carlo; Ginestra, Giovanna; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Bellocco, Ersilia; Leuzzi, Ugo; Gattuso, Giuseppe</p> <p>2013-11-15</p> <p>A separation/identification protocol based on RP-LC-DAD-ESI-MS-MS has been employed for the characterisation of the flavonoid fraction of the juice from tangelos (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>×Citrus paradisi) grown in Southern Italy. Eleven compounds were identified in a single chromatographic course. Of these, two C-glycosyl flavones (lucenin-2 and vicenin-2) and an O-triglycosyl flavanone (narirutin 4'-O-glucoside) were identified for the first time. Fruit juice antioxidant activity was evaluated on the basis of its ability to scavenge DPPH, O2(-), OH and ABTS(+) radicals, and to reduce iron (FRAP). Moreover, the influence of the identified polymethoxylated, C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids on the total antioxidant activity has been elucidated. We also checked the antimicrobial activity of a broad fraction, containing all the detected flavonoids obtained by preparative HPLC, in terms of MICs for Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:23790942</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.periodico.ebras.bio.br/ojs/index.php/ebras/article/view/29/74"><span id="translatedtitle">Insetos Sugadores (Sternorrhyncha em Cultivo Orgânico de Tangerina cv. Poncã (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco: Diversidade, Constância, Freqüência e Flutuação Populacional</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>William Costa Rodrigues</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a diversidade, constância, freqüência e a flutuação populacional de insetos sugadores da subordem Sternorrhyncha associados à tangerina cv. Poncã sob o sistema de cultivo orgânico. Os levantamentos foram realizados entre outubro de 2002 e outubro de 2003. Dentre os aleirodídeos, Aleurothrixus floccosus Maskell destacou-se dos demais, com média populacional igual a 74,06%. Aleurotrachelus cruzi Cassino obteve média de 52,6%. Entre as cochonilhas destacaram-se Selenaspidus articulatus (Morgan (23,96% e Pinnaspis aspidistrae (Signoret (19,38%. O psilídeo Diaphorina citri Kuwayama obteve média de 52,6%, sendo a segunda espécie com maior média. Os pulgões Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy e Toxoptera aurantii (Boyer, somente ocorreram em período de brotação e floração, com média populacional de 7,6% e 6,25%, respectivamente. Quanto à diversidade das espécies o período com maior diversidade, ocorreu na 1ª quinzena de setembro de 2003 (H’= 0,964, coincidindo com a menor dominância (D= 0,200, e menor diversidade na 1º quinzena de maio de 2003 (H’= 0,657 e maior dominância (D= 0,522. As espécies constantes foram: A. floccosus (100%, A. cruzi (96%, Coccus viridis (Green (100%, P. aspidistrae (100% e D. citri (100%. As espécies mais freqüentes foram: A. floccosus (30,79% e D. citri (21,87%. Os resultados sugerem que as espécies verificadas possuem a dinâmica populacional em parte influenciada pela competição interespecífica, pois quando há um aumento populacional dos aleirodídeos, há um decréscimo da população das cochonilhas e vice-versa, além dos fatores ambientais, a predação e o parasitismo.Sucker Insects (Sternorrhyncha in Organic Cropping of Tangerine cv. Ponkan (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco: Diversity, Constancy, Frequency and Populational FluctuationAbstract. The aim of this work was to study the diversity, constancy, frequency and the population fluctuation of the sucker insects of the suborder Sternorrhyncha associated with the tangerine cv. Ponkan cultivated under the organic. The study was conducted from October 2002 to October 2003. Among the whiteflies, Aleurothrixus floccosus Maskell had a population average equivalent to 74.06%. Aleurotrachelus cruzi Cassino reached 52.6%. Among the scale, Selenapidus articulatus Morgan reached 23.96% and Pinnaspis aspidistrae (Signoret 19.38%. The Diaphorina citri Kuwayama average was 52.6%, the second bigger average. The aphids Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy and Toxoptera aurantii (Boyer took place only during the budding and blooming, presenting a population average of 7.6% and 6.25%, respectively. The period in which occurred the largest diversity was the first fifteen days of September 2003 (H’= 0.964, simultaneously to the least dominance (D = 0.200, and in the first fifteen days of May 2003 occurred the least diversity (H’= 0.657 and the largest dominance (D = 0.522. The constant species that were more prominent were: A. floccosus (100%, A. cruzi (96%, Coccus viridis (Green (100%, P. aspidistrae (100% and D. citri (100%. The most frequent species were A. floccosus (30.79% and D. citri (21.87%. To sum up, the results show that all the species studied have a population dynamics in part influenced by the interspecific competition, as there is a population increasing of whiteflies, there is a population decrease of scale and vice-versa, as well as the environmental and predatory factors and the parasitism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.jcimjournal.com/en/FullText2.aspx?articleID=jcim20120211"><span id="translatedtitle">Preventive effects of Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> essential oil on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats and the mechanism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Xian-mei Zhou</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of essential oil of Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (EOCR on proliferation of human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELFs, and to explore its protective effects on bleomycin (BLM-induced lung fibrosis in rats.METHODS: Routinely cultured HELFs during the logarithmic phase of growth were divided into control and treated groups, and applied for evaluation of inhibitory activity using methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT assay. A rat model of BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis was used for the evaluation of antifibrotic effect of EOCR. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, prednisone group and different doses of EOCR groups. BLM was intratracheally instilled into all the rats except those in the normal group, and EOCR was orally given to BLM-treated rats at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg once per day for four weeks. The rats in the normal group were intratracheally administered the same volume of saline. On the 28th day, rats were sacrificed under anesthesia, and the serum and lung tissues were collected. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activities and malondialdehyde (MDA contents in serum and lung tissues were analyzed with corresponding kits; type ? collagen (Col ? content in lung tissues was evaluated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; pulmonary fibrosis was assessed by lung histology; protein and mRNA expressions of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF in lung tissues were measured with immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization semiquantitative image analyses, respectively.RESULTS: The EOCR at different concentrations displayed inhibitory activity on proliferation of HELFs. In in vivo experiment, the weight gain of the rats in groups treated with EOCR at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg per day was significantly higher than those in the model group at the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day (P?0.05 or P?0.01. The scores of alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis in the groups treated with EOCR at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg per day were significantly lower than those in the model group (P?0.01; the SOD levels in serum and pulmonary tissues of the EOCR (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg groups were markedly increased compared with the model group (P?0.01 , while the MDA levels in both serum and pulmonary tissues were markedly reduced (P?0.05; the Col ? level in pulmonary tissues of the EOCR (100 and 200 mg/kg per day groups were markedly lower than that of the model group (P?0.01; the protein and mRNA expressions of CTGF in the groups treated with EOCR at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg per day were down-regulated compared with the model group (P?0.01.CONCLUSION: The results indicate that EOCR has preventive effects on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. The mechanism may be via adjusting the unbalance of oxidation and antioxidation, down-regulating CTGF protein and mRNA expressions, and reducing collagen deposition and fibrosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0004-06222005000300013-ven"><span id="translatedtitle">composicion quimica y compuestos bioactivos de las harinas de cascaras de naranja (citrus sinensis), mandarina (citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) y toronja (citrus paradisi) cultivadas en Venezuela / Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of flour of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peels cultivated in Venezuela</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Alicia M, Rincón; A, Vásquez; Marina, Padilla; Fanny, C.</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la composición química y algunos compuestos bioactivos en las harinas de cáscaras de varias frutas cítricas de mayor consumo, que se cultivan en Venezuela. Se determinó la composición química, algunos elementos trazas, ácido ascórbico, carotenoides, fibr [...] a dietética, polifenoles totales y la eficiencia antirradical de los polifenoles utilizando 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracil (DPPH· ) en las cáscaras de naranja (Citrus sinensis), mandarina (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) y toronja, variedad blanca, (Citrus paradisi). Las muestras presentaron diferencias significativas (p Abstract in english The purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some bioactive compounds in the peel’s flour of some of the most consumed citrus fruits cultivated in Venezuela. Chemical composition as well as some trace elements, ascorbic acid, carotenoids dietary fiber, total polyphenols [...] and their antiradical efficiency, using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidracyl (DPPH· ) were assessed in the dried peels of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) and white grapefruit (Citrus paradisi). Moisture, fat, protein and ash content for all samples showed statistical differences (p</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/acta_agronomica/article/view/15317"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparación del "Tabog" (Swinglea glutinosa Merr con el limón "rugoso" (Citrus jambhiri Swingle y la mandarina "Cleopatra" (C. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Swingle como porta-injerto para la lima acida ''Tahiti" (C. aurantifolia Swingle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Restrepo C. Orlando</p> <p>1987-09-01</p> <p>Full Text Available At the C.N.I.-I.C.A. Palmira, fruit trees program the influence of "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa was evaluated as rootstock for acid lime "Tahiti" Citrus aurantifolia, taking into account the following aspects: development and productivility of the trees quality and growth of fruits, demands of nutriments, and resistance or susceptibility to pest and disease; comparing its behavior with the commercial rootstocks rough, lemon C. jambhiri and mandarina, "Cleopatra" C. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>.En el C.N.l. Palmira del Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (lCA, se evaluó la influencia del "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa como porta-injerto para la lima "Tahiti " Citrus aurantifolia, teniendo en cuenta los siguientes aspectos: desarrollo y productividad del árbol, calidad y desarrollo de los frutos, exigencias de nutrimentos, resistencia o susceptibilidad a plagas y enfermedades; comparando su comportamiento con los porta-injertos comerciales limón "Rugoso" C. jambhiri y la mandarina "Cleopatra " C. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18397819"><span id="translatedtitle">An aqueous extract of <span class="hlt">Salacia</span> oblonga root, a herb-derived peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activator, by oral gavage over 28 days induces gender-dependent hepatic hypertrophy in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Rong, Xianglu; Kim, Moon Sun; Su, Ning; Wen, Suping; Matsuo, Yukimi; Yamahara, Johji; Murray, Michael; Li, Yuhao</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha by natural and synthetic chemicals induces hepatic hypertrophy. An aqueous extract of <span class="hlt">Salacia</span> oblonga root (SOW) is an Ayurvedic medicine with anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties. In the present study, it was found that SOW (100, 300 and 900mg/kg, once daily by oral gavage over a 28 day period) elicited dose-related increases in liver weight (LW) by 1.6%, 13.4% and 42.5%, respectively, and in the ratio of LW to body weight by 8.8%, 16.7% and 40.2%, respectively, in male rats. These effects were less pronounced in females. SOW selectively increased liver mass in male rats but Sudan red staining was not different, which indicates that hepatic lipid accumulation was similar in both genders. However, SOW even at the highest dosage did not influence serum ALT and AST activities in male or female rats. Moreover, SOW was found to activate PPAR-alpha in human hepatoma-derived HepG2 cells, as evidenced by the upregulation of PPAR-alpha and acyl-CoA oxidase mRNA expression. Thus, SOW-dependent PPAR-alpha activation may precede the development of the gender difference in hepatic hypertrophy; this process may be influenced by sex hormone status. PMID:18397819</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2009000600025"><span id="translatedtitle">Avaliação da toxicidade aguda e potencial neurotóxico do óleo-resina de copaíba (Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Ducke, Fabaceae Assessment of the neurotoxic potential and acute toxicity of copaiba</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Camile Giaretta Sachetti</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available O óleo-resina de copaíba obtido do gênero Copaifera L., Fabaceae, é largamente utilizado na medicina popular como antiinflamatório, antimicrobiano e antitumoral. Porém, informações sobre seu potencial tóxico são escassos na literatura. O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer a toxicidade oral aguda e os possíveis efeitos neurotóxicos relacionados à ingestão do óleo-resina de Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Ducke, Fabaceae, em ratas Wistar. O estudo foi conduzido com quinze ratas nulíparas distribuídas nos grupos de doses 300 e 2000 mg/kg pc de óleo-resina administrado por gavagem. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que nestas doses não houve sinais clínicos de toxicidade ou neurotoxicidade, alteração no consumo de ração ou alteração no peso corpóreo. A dose letal aguda foi estimada como maior que 2000 mg/kg pc e classificada como categoria 5, segundo o Guia OECD 423. Estes resultados indicam que existe uma relativa margem de segurança para o uso do óleo-resina de copaíba como agente terapêutico, embora estudos toxicológicos adicionais sejam ainda necessários, principalmente com a administração repetida de baixas doses.Copaiba oil-resin obtained from Copaifera L. genus, Fabaceae, is largely used in popular medicine as antinflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumoral. Information concerning the potential toxicity of this oil is limited in the literature. The goal of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity and the possible neurotoxic effects related to the ingestion of Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Ducke, Fabaceae, oil-resin using female Wistar rats. Fifteen nulliparous rats were used and distributed in the experimental groups orally exposed to doses of 300 e 2000 mg/kg bw of oil-resin (gavage. No overt clinical signs of toxicity or neurotoxicity, alteration of food consumption or body weight were observed in the animals at the tested doses. The lethal oral toxicity was estimated to be higher than 2000 mg/kg bw, classified as category 5 according to OECD Guide 423. These results indicate that there is a certain safety margin associated with the use of copaiba as therapeutic agent, although additional toxicological studies are still necessary, mainly using repeated low doses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0102-695X2009000600025-scl"><span id="translatedtitle">Avaliação da toxicidade aguda e potencial neurotóxico do óleo-resina de copaíba (Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Ducke, Fabaceae) / Assessment of the neurotoxic potential and acute toxicity of copaiba</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Camile Giaretta, Sachetti; Maria Luiza, Fascineli; Juliana Alves, Sampaio; Osmar Alves, Lameira; Eloisa Dutra, Caldas.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available O óleo-resina de copaíba obtido do gênero Copaifera L., Fabaceae, é largamente utilizado na medicina popular como antiinflamatório, antimicrobiano e antitumoral. Porém, informações sobre seu potencial tóxico são escassos na literatura. O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer a toxicidade oral aguda [...] e os possíveis efeitos neurotóxicos relacionados à ingestão do óleo-resina de Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Ducke, Fabaceae, em ratas Wistar. O estudo foi conduzido com quinze ratas nulíparas distribuídas nos grupos de doses 300 e 2000 mg/kg pc de óleo-resina administrado por gavagem. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que nestas doses não houve sinais clínicos de toxicidade ou neurotoxicidade, alteração no consumo de ração ou alteração no peso corpóreo. A dose letal aguda foi estimada como maior que 2000 mg/kg pc e classificada como categoria 5, segundo o Guia OECD 423. Estes resultados indicam que existe uma relativa margem de segurança para o uso do óleo-resina de copaíba como agente terapêutico, embora estudos toxicológicos adicionais sejam ainda necessários, principalmente com a administração repetida de baixas doses. Abstract in english Copaiba oil-resin obtained from Copaifera L. genus, Fabaceae, is largely used in popular medicine as antinflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumoral. Information concerning the potential toxicity of this oil is limited in the literature. The goal of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity an [...] d the possible neurotoxic effects related to the ingestion of Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Ducke, Fabaceae, oil-resin using female Wistar rats. Fifteen nulliparous rats were used and distributed in the experimental groups orally exposed to doses of 300 e 2000 mg/kg bw of oil-resin (gavage). No overt clinical signs of toxicity or neurotoxicity, alteration of food consumption or body weight were observed in the animals at the tested doses. The lethal oral toxicity was estimated to be higher than 2000 mg/kg bw, classified as category 5 according to OECD Guide 423. These results indicate that there is a certain safety margin associated with the use of copaiba as therapeutic agent, although additional toxicological studies are still necessary, mainly using repeated low doses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0121-37092014000100003-col"><span id="translatedtitle">Parámetros de calidad en la etapa de desarrollo y maduración en frutos de dos variedades y un cultivar de mandarina (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco) / Parameters regarding quality during development and maturation stages in fruit from two varieties of a mandarin orange cultivar (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco) / Os parâmetros de qualidade na fase de desenvolvimento ematuração dos frutos em duas variedades e cultivares de tangerina (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> branco)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Leonardo, Villalba-Campos; Aníbal O, Herrera-Arévalo; Javier Orlando, Orduz-Rodríguez.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Se determino o comportamento das variáveis de qualidade de frutos de três variedades de tangerina (C. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco): Dancy, Arrayan a e experimental cultivar chamado LL053, enxertadosempadrão Cleopatra (C. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco). As variáveis avaliadas foram peso, firmeza, diâmetro (polar e equator [...] ial), volume, Sólidos Solúveis Totais (SST), Acidez Total Titulável (ATT), Relacao de Maturidade (RM) e índice da cor (IC). Com quatro tratamentos correspondentes a os materiais, um delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC) com quatro árvores por parcela e quatro repetições. Quatro coletas for am feitas de forma aleatória na fase II de crescimento do fruto cada três semanas a partir dos 148 dias de pois deanteses ea última no dia 208 dda. No amadurecimento de consumo realizou-se uma amostragemà 222 daàtangerina Dancy ea os 260 dda para Arrayana e LL053. O índice de relacao de maturidade (RM) mostra um comportamento cedo para os frutos de tangerina Dancy, a relaçãoatingi-o 10 (SST/ATT), aproximadamente à206 dda; enquanto que Arrayana y LL053 chegouà244 e 252dda, respectivamente. Arrayana apresentou os maiores valores de peso do fruto, diâmetro equatorial, pH e volume. O cultivar "LL053" e variedade "Dancy" exibiram os mai orespercentuais de teor de suco (10% a mais do que Arrayana) e maiores valores de firmeza. O maior valor de SST é apresentado no cultivar LL053, em quanto a variedade Dancy apresentou os menores valores. O índice dacorfoimaiorna arrayana y LL053 à260dda, em quanto avariedade Dancy presento u os frutos mais verdes à 220dda, atingindo umacorlaranja intenso comuma maiorvelocidade no tempo com o aumento da RM. O comportamento no início do am adurecimento de consumo da tangerina Dancy é importante para o desenvolvimento da produção de tangerina nos trópicos baixos da Colômbia; ja que permite ampliar o período de colheita e competir com a qualidade interna e externa com o fruto importado. Abstract in spanish Se determinó el comportamiento de las variables de calidad del fruto de tres variedades de mandarina (C. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco): Dancy, Arrayana y un cultivar experimental denominado LL053; injertadas sobre el patrón Cleopatra (C. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco). Las variables evaluadas fueron peso, firmeza, diámetr [...] o (polar y ecuatorial), volumen, sólidos solubles totales (SST), acidez total titulable (ATT), relación de madurez (RM) e índice de color (IC). Con cuatro tratamientos correspondientes a los materiales, se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar (DCA), con cuatro árboles por unidad experimental y cuatro repeticiones. Se realizaron cuatro muestreos de forma aleatoria en la fase II de crecimiento del fruto cada cerca de tres semanas a partir de los 148 días después de antesis y el último en el día 208 dda. En la madurez de consumo se les hizo un muestreo a los 222 dda a la mandarina Dancy y 260 dda para Arrayana y LL053. El índice de relación de madurez (RM) muestra un comportamiento temprano para los frutos de mandarina Dancy, alcanzando la relación 10 (SST/ATT), aproximadamente a los 206 dda; mientras que Arrayana y LL053 lo alcanzaron a los 244 y 252 dda respectivamente. Arrayana presentó los mayores valores de peso de frutos, diámetro ecuatorial, pH y volumen. El cultivar "LL053" y la variedad "Dancy" exhibieron los mayores porcentajes de contenido de jugo (10% más que Arrayana) y mayores valores de firmeza. El mayor valor de SST se presentó en el cultivar LL053, mientras que la variedad Dancy presentó los valores menores. El índice de color fue mayor en Arrayana y LL053 a los 260 dda, mientras que la variedad Dancy presentó los frutos más verdes a los 220 dda, alcanzando un color naranja intenso con una mayor velocidad en el tiempo, con el aumento de la RM. El comportamiento temprano de la madurez de consumo de la mandarina Dancy es importante para el desarrollo de la producción de mandarinas en el trópico bajo de Colombia, ya que permite ampliar la época de cosecha y competir con la calidad interna y externa con la fru</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.periodicos.uem.br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciAnimSci/article/view/1183"><span id="translatedtitle">Comportamento, sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de lebistes, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, submetidos a agentes utilizados na profilaxia de doenças - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1183 Behaviour, survival, and development of guppies, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, submitted to agents used in the prophylaxis of diseases - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1183</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Wilson Rogério Boscolo</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento, a sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de larvas saudáveis de Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> submetidas à profilaxia contra bactérias, fungos e parasitas, foi conduzido no Laboratório de Aqüicultura da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, um experimento delineado ao acaso com 6 tratamentos (controle, azul de metileno, cloranfenicol, formalina, KMnO4 e NaCl e 4 repetições. Os banhos profiláticos variaram conforme o tratamento, de 30 minutos a 48 horas. Posteriormente, avaliou-se, por 20 dias, o desenvolvimento dos animais. A análise comportamental realizada durante o banho mostrou que, quando expostos à formalina, os animais perdiam o senso de direção e chocavam-se contra a parede. O desenvolvimento das larvas no tratamento com cloranfenicol apresentou-se melhor (P Aiming to evaluate the behavioural, survival and developmental responses of healthy larvae of Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> subjected to the prophyllatic against bacteria, fungi and parasites, a randomized experiment was carried out at the Aquaculture Laboratory of the State University of Maringá, state of Paraná, using six treatments (control, methylene blue, chloramphenicol, formalin, KMnO4 and NaCl and four repetitions. Length prophylactic treatment varied from 30 minutes to 48 hours. After bath treatment, animals’ growth was evaluated during the following 20 days. Behavioural analysis during bath treatment showed that when the animals were exposed to formalin, they lost their sense of direction and collided against the wall. In the treatment with chloramphenicol, development of the larvae was better (P < 0.05 when treated with formalin. In relation to survival, there were no differences between the treatments. Thus, any methodology may be applied in this study when related to survival. Prophylaxis with chloramphenicol is the preferred treatment to formalin when evaluating growth</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-29452004000100005"><span id="translatedtitle">Indução do florescimento e crescimento de tangerineira 'Poncã' (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco em função da irrigação e da aplicação de paclobutrazol Flowering induction and vegetative development of 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco by irrigation and paclobutrazol application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Carlos Henrique dos Santos</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP/Câmpus de Botucatu (SP, com o objetivo de avaliar o florescimento fora de época e o crescimento vegetativo da tangerineira 'Poncã'. Nesse contexto, adotou-se o delineamento estatístico em blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas, com duas repetições, na instalação do ensaio. Os dois tratamentos de -0,03 e -0,05 MPa, como potenciais mínimos da água no solo, constituíram as parcelas e as quatro doses de paclobutrazol: 0; 4; 8 e 12 g por planta, nas subparcelas. No segundo ano de pesquisa, foram mantidas as mesmas parcelas e foram aplicadas nas plantas das subparcelas as doses de 0; 500; 1000 e 2000 mg l-1 de paclobutrazol, via foliar. Cada parcela foi constituída de 16 plantas, sendo oito destinadas à avaliação. Utilizou-se, em ambas as combinações, de um tratamento sem irrigação (-0,07 MPa e sem aplicação de paclobutrazol, como testemunha. Foram avaliados parâmetros, como a altura, diâmetro médio, volume e área de projeção da copa e condutância estomática para caracterizar a resposta das plantas aos tratamentos empregados. Concluiu-se que a aplicação do paclobutrazol e a variação do potencial da água no solo não proporcionaram a indução do florescimento fora de época das tangerineiras, e que os níveis de paclobutrazol influenciaram no desenvolvimento das plantas.The aim of this research was to study the flowering out of season in no induction conditions and the vegetative development of 'Ponkan' mandarin by irrigation and paclobutrazol application. The experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences - UNESP/Botucatu, State of São Paulo. The treatments followed a randomized blocks experimental design, being distributed in split-splots, and two replications. Each experimental unit was represented per 16 <span class="hlt">plants</span>, being 8 destined for the evaluations. The treatments consisted of two soil water potential, -0,03 e -0,05 MPa that constituted the main experimental unit and the paclobutrazol levels that represented the sub units. In the second year of the experiment the units were maintained and it was applied the paclobutrazol: 0; 500; 1000 e 2000 mg L-1, by foliar application, in the <span class="hlt">plants</span> of the sub units. Both treatments was compared with the treatments without irrigation (control <span class="hlt">plants</span>: -0,07MPa and whitout paclobutrazol application <span class="hlt">plants</span>. It was evaluated the following parameters: height, scion diameter medium, scion projection area, scion volume and stomatic condutance showing the <span class="hlt">plant</span>'s response to treatments. It was concluded that the paclobutrazol application and the irrigation did not influence the <span class="hlt">plant</span>'s flowering out of season and that the paclobutrazol levels influenced the growth of 'Ponkan' mandarin <span class="hlt">plants</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0100-29452004000100005-scl"><span id="translatedtitle">Indução do florescimento e crescimento de tangerineira 'Poncã' (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco) em função da irrigação e da aplicação de paclobutrazol / Flowering induction and vegetative development of 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco) by irrigation and paclobutrazol application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Carlos Henrique dos, Santos; Antonio Evaldo, Klar; Hélio, Grassi Filho; João Domingos, Rodrigues; Fernanda Cristina, Pierre.</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP/Câmpus de Botucatu (SP), com o objetivo de avaliar o florescimento fora de época e o crescimento vegetativo da tangerineira 'Poncã'. Nesse contexto, adotou-se o delineamento estatístico em blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdi [...] vididas, com duas repetições, na instalação do ensaio. Os dois tratamentos de -0,03 e -0,05 MPa, como potenciais mínimos da água no solo, constituíram as parcelas e as quatro doses de paclobutrazol: 0; 4; 8 e 12 g por planta, nas subparcelas. No segundo ano de pesquisa, foram mantidas as mesmas parcelas e foram aplicadas nas plantas das subparcelas as doses de 0; 500; 1000 e 2000 mg l-1 de paclobutrazol, via foliar. Cada parcela foi constituída de 16 plantas, sendo oito destinadas à avaliação. Utilizou-se, em ambas as combinações, de um tratamento sem irrigação (-0,07 MPa) e sem aplicação de paclobutrazol, como testemunha. Foram avaliados parâmetros, como a altura, diâmetro médio, volume e área de projeção da copa e condutância estomática para caracterizar a resposta das plantas aos tratamentos empregados. Concluiu-se que a aplicação do paclobutrazol e a variação do potencial da água no solo não proporcionaram a indução do florescimento fora de época das tangerineiras, e que os níveis de paclobutrazol influenciaram no desenvolvimento das plantas. Abstract in english The aim of this research was to study the flowering out of season in no induction conditions and the vegetative development of 'Ponkan' mandarin by irrigation and paclobutrazol application. The experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences - UNESP/Botucatu, State of São Paulo. T [...] he treatments followed a randomized blocks experimental design, being distributed in split-splots, and two replications. Each experimental unit was represented per 16 <span class="hlt">plants</span>, being 8 destined for the evaluations. The treatments consisted of two soil water potential, -0,03 e -0,05 MPa that constituted the main experimental unit and the paclobutrazol levels that represented the sub units. In the second year of the experiment the units were maintained and it was applied the paclobutrazol: 0; 500; 1000 e 2000 mg L-1, by foliar application, in the <span class="hlt">plants</span> of the sub units. Both treatments was compared with the treatments without irrigation (control <span class="hlt">plants</span>: -0,07MPa) and whitout paclobutrazol application <span class="hlt">plants</span>. It was evaluated the following parameters: height, scion diameter medium, scion projection area, scion volume and stomatic condutance showing the <span class="hlt">plant</span>'s response to treatments. It was concluded that the paclobutrazol application and the irrigation did not influence the <span class="hlt">plant</span>'s flowering out of season and that the paclobutrazol levels influenced the growth of 'Ponkan' mandarin <span class="hlt">plants</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16454058"><span id="translatedtitle">[Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of flour of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peels cultivated in Venezuela].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Rincón, Alicia M; Vásquez, A Marina; Padilla, Fanny C</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>The purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some bioactive compounds in the peel's flour of some of the most consumed citrus fruits cultivated in Venezuela. Chemical composition as well as some trace elements, ascorbic acid, carotenoids dietary fiber, total polyphenols and their antiradical efficiency, using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidracyl (DPPH) were assessed in the dried peels of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) and white grapefruit (Citrus paradisi). Moisture, fat, protein and ash content for all samples showed statistical differences (p < 0.05). Tangerine's peel showed the highest magnesium and carotenoid content, while highest ascorbic acid and carotenoid content was found in the grapefruit's peel. Dietary fiber content presented significant high value in the tangerine peel. All samples presented high content of extractable polyphenols (4.33; 7.6 and 5.1 g/100g). The highest antiradical efficiency was shown by the tangerine's peel, value which correlates with the polyphenol content. These results suggest that tangerine peel should be the most suitable, to reduce risk of some diseases such as cardiovascular and some associated to lipid oxidation. Studied samples are good sources of dietary fiber and phenolic compounds, whose use could be useful in the formulation of functional foods, taking advantage of the presence of dietary fiber and antioxidant compounds in only one ingredient. PMID:16454058</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25814056"><span id="translatedtitle">Disruptions in aromatase expression in the brain, reproductive behavior, and secondary sexual characteristics in male guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) induced by tributyltin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Tian, Hua; Wu, Peng; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Although bioaccumulation of tributyltin (TBT) in fish has been confirmed, information on possible effects of TBT on reproductive system of fish is still relatively scarce, particularly at environmentally relevant levels. To evaluate the adverse effects and intrinsic toxicological properties of TBT in male fish, we studied aromatase gene expression in the brain, sex steroid contents, primary and secondary sexual characteristics, and reproductive behavior in male guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) exposed to tributyltin chloride at the nominal concentrations of 5, 50, and 500ng/L for 28 days in a semi-static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay demonstrated that treatment with 50ng/L TBT caused an increase in systemic levels of testosterone of male guppies. Gonopodial index, which showed a positive correlation with testosterone levels, was elevated in the 5ng/L and 50ng/L TBT treated groups. Real-time PCR revealed that TBT exposure had inhibiting effects on expression of two isoforms of guppy aromatase in the brain, and these changes at the molecular levels were associated with a disturbance of reproductive behavior of the individuals, as measured by decreases in frequencies of posturing, sigmoid display, and chase activities when males were paired with females. This study provides the first evidence that TBT can cause abnormalities of secondary sexual characteristics in teleosts and that suppression of reproductive behavior in teleosts by TBT is due to its endocrine-disrupting action as an aromatase inhibitor targeting the nervous system. PMID:25814056</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DEFFRD-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Sexual+characteristics+are+altered+by+4-tert-octylphenol+and+17beta-estradiol+in+the+adult+male+guppy+%28Poecilia+reticulata%29."><span id="translatedtitle">Sexual characteristics are altered by 4-tert-octylphenol and 17beta-estradiol in the adult male guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Toft, G; Baatrup, E</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are believed to interfere with animal reproduction, but only few biomarkers above the cellular level have been developed to assess the adverse effects of these chemicals. Using the guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) as a model organism, studies have been undertaken with the object of comparing biomarker responses to EDCs at increasing levels of biological complexity. Short-term exposure to the xenoestrogen 4-tert-octylphenol and the natural estrogen 17beta-estradiol (E2) changed important sexual characteristics in the adult male guppy. Both compounds increased the number of sperm cells in the ejaculates, reduced the area and color intensity of the sexually attractive orange spots, and inhibited testis growth. In the case of E2, the effects on sperm count and coloration were still evident after 3 months of recovery in clean water. Preliminary results on male reproductive capability demonstrated that treated males produced fewer offspring than untreated fish, indicating an impairment of reproduction itself. Udgivelsesdato: 2001-Jan</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=316571"><span id="translatedtitle">Cybrids between Dancy tangerine (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanca) and Ruby Red grapefruit (C. paradisi Mafc.) for improvement of citrus fruit traits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In cybridization, new combinations of nuclear and cytoplasmic genes result in a unique genotype that may bring cellular, physical, physiological and biochemical changes to the <span class="hlt">plant</span>. This has been demonstrated in cybrids generated from the fusion of citrus protoplasts in two independent experiments....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21750824"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of heteroatom substitution of sulfur for selenium in glucosidase inhibitors on intestinal ?-glucosidase activities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Eskandari, Razieh; Jones, Kyra; Rose, David R; Pinto, B Mario</p> <p>2011-08-28</p> <p>The synthesis of selenium analogues of de-O-sulfonated ponkoranol, a naturally occurring sulfonium-ion glucosidase inhibitor isolated from <span class="hlt">Salacia</span> <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, and their evaluation as glucosidase inhibitors against two recombinant intestinal enzymes maltase glucoamylase (MGAM) and sucrase isomaltase (SI) are described. PMID:21750824</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20143790"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis and biological evaluation of heteroanalogues of kotalanol and de-O-sulfonated kotalanol.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Mohan, Sankar; Jayakanthan, Kumarasamy; Nasi, Ravindranath; Kuntz, Douglas A; Rose, David R; Pinto, B Mario</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>The synthesis of nitrogen and selenium analogues of kotalanol and de-O-sulfonated kotalanol, naturally occurring sulfonium-ion glucosidase inhibitors isolated from <span class="hlt">Salacia</span> <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, and their evaluation as glucosidase inhibitors against the N-terminal catalytic domain of human maltase glucoamylase (ntMGAM) are described. PMID:20143790</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:31018789"><span id="translatedtitle">Histamine H3 receptor activation selectively inhibits dopamine D1 receptor-dependent [3H]GABA release from depolarization-stimulated slices of rat substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The release of [3H]GABA from slices of rat substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> induced by increasing extracellular K+ from 6 to 15 mM in the presence of 10 ?M sulpiride was inhibited by 73±3% by 1 ?M SCH 23390, consistent with a large component of release dependent upon D1 receptor activation. The histamine H3 receptor-selective agonist immepip (1 ?M) and the non-selective agonist histamine (100 ?M) inhibited [3H]GABA release by 78±2 and 80±2%, respectively. The inhibition by both agonists was reversed by the H3 receptor antagonist thioperamide (1 ?M). However, in the presence of 1 ?M SCH 23390 depolarization-induced release of [3H]GABA was not significantly decreased by 1 ?M immepip. In rats depleted of dopamine by pretreatment with reserpine, immepip no longer inhibited control release of [3H]GABA, but in the presence of 1 ?M SKF 38393, which produced a 7±1-fold stimulation of release, immepip reduced the release to a level not statistically different from that in the presence of immepip alone. Immepip (1 ?M) also inhibited the depolarization-induced release of [3H]dopamine from substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> slices, by 38±3%.The evidence is consistent with the proposition that activation of histamine H3 receptors leads to the selective inhibition of the component of depolarization-induced [3H]GABA release in substantia nigra pars retin substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> slices which is dependent upon D1 receptor activation. This appears to be largely an action at the terminals of the striatonigral GABA projection neurons, which may be enhanced by a partial inhibition of dendritic [3H]dopamine release. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0034-77442004000100021-cri"><span id="translatedtitle">Composición, crecimiento e índice de condición de una población de Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Pisces: Poeciliidae), en un estanque en Heredia, Costa Rica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Mario, Urriola Hernández; Jorge, Cabrera Peña; Maurizio, Protti Quesada.</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Se determinó la composición, crecimiento e índice de condición de una población de Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, en un estanque en Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica, entre setiembre y noviembre de 1998. La proporción sexual promedio fue de 1 macho: 0.49 hembras. Las hembras presentaron una longitud promed [...] io total de 34.43 ± 7.26 mm y un peso total promedio de 0.69 ± 0.48 g, mientras que en los machos la longitud total promedio fue de 23.46 ± 2.24 mm y el peso total promedio de 0.16 ± 0.05 g. En los indeterminados la longitud total promedio fue 12.27 ± 3.41 mm y un peso total promedio de 0.026 ± 0.027 g. La relación longitud total-peso total para toda la población se rigió por la ecuación P = 6 x 10-5 Lt3.3272 (r² = 0.9613). El índice de condición para hembras se rigió por la ecuación K= 25.755 e0.004Lt (r² = 0.8925), con un promedio de 31.29 ± 0.55 y para machos por la ecuación K= 26.767e 0.003Lt (r² =0.907), con un promedio de 28.52 ± 0.19. La talla al momento de la primera reproducción para machos fue de 20.00 mm de Lt y para las hembras de 23.5 mm Abstract in english A pond population of Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> was studied in Santo Domingo, Heredia, Costa Rica, between September and November of 1998. The sex ratio was 1:0.49 (males:females). The mean total length was 34.43 ± 7.26 mm for females, 23.50 ± 2.24 mm for males and 12.27 ± 3.41 mm for juveniles. The mean t [...] otal weight was 0.69 ± 0.48 g for females; and 0.16 ± 0.05 g for males and 0.026 ± 0.027 g for juveniles. The total length-weight relationship for the total population was P= 6 x 10-5 Lt 3.3272 (r 2 = 0.9613). The condition index equation was K = 25.755 e0.004Lt (r² = 0.8925) for females and K=26.767 e0.003Lt (r² =0.907) for males. The mean condition index was 31.29 ±0.55 % for females and 28.52 ± 0.19 % for males. Both sexes reached the sexual maturity when the males and females overcame the 20.00 mm and 23.5 mm of Lt respectively</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-77442004000100021"><span id="translatedtitle">Composición, crecimiento e índice de condición de una población de Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Pisces: Poeciliidae, en un estanque en Heredia, Costa Rica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Mario Urriola Hernández</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Se determinó la composición, crecimiento e índice de condición de una población de Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, en un estanque en Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica, entre setiembre y noviembre de 1998. La proporción sexual promedio fue de 1 macho: 0.49 hembras. Las hembras presentaron una longitud promedio total de 34.43 ± 7.26 mm y un peso total promedio de 0.69 ± 0.48 g, mientras que en los machos la longitud total promedio fue de 23.46 ± 2.24 mm y el peso total promedio de 0.16 ± 0.05 g. En los indeterminados la longitud total promedio fue 12.27 ± 3.41 mm y un peso total promedio de 0.026 ± 0.027 g. La relación longitud total-peso total para toda la población se rigió por la ecuación P = 6 x 10-5 Lt3.3272 (r² = 0.9613. El índice de condición para hembras se rigió por la ecuación K= 25.755 e0.004Lt (r² = 0.8925, con un promedio de 31.29 ± 0.55 y para machos por la ecuación K= 26.767e 0.003Lt (r² =0.907, con un promedio de 28.52 ± 0.19. La talla al momento de la primera reproducción para machos fue de 20.00 mm de Lt y para las hembras de 23.5 mmA pond population of Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> was studied in Santo Domingo, Heredia, Costa Rica, between September and November of 1998. The sex ratio was 1:0.49 (males:females. The mean total length was 34.43 ± 7.26 mm for females, 23.50 ± 2.24 mm for males and 12.27 ± 3.41 mm for juveniles. The mean total weight was 0.69 ± 0.48 g for females; and 0.16 ± 0.05 g for males and 0.026 ± 0.027 g for juveniles. The total length-weight relationship for the total population was P= 6 x 10-5 Lt 3.3272 (r 2 = 0.9613. The condition index equation was K = 25.755 e0.004Lt (r² = 0.8925 for females and K=26.767 e0.003Lt (r² =0.907 for males. The mean condition index was 31.29 ±0.55 % for females and 28.52 ± 0.19 % for males. Both sexes reached the sexual maturity when the males and females overcame the 20.00 mm and 23.5 mm of Lt respectively</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22215892"><span id="translatedtitle">Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo, E-mail: rusg@ouc.edu.cn</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine?disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi?static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long?term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17??estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine?disrupting action. -- Highlights: ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17??estradiol levels of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male guppies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45036855"><span id="translatedtitle">Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine?disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi?static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long?term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17??estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine?disrupting action. -- Highlights: ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17??estradiol levels of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male guppies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://ijpsdr.com/pdf/vol5-issue4/11.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove and Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Tangerine Fruit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>OO Johnson</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum and tangerine fruits (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity. The microorganisms used include, Staphylococcus aureus isolate, Escherichia coli isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans isolate, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 90028. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs ranged from 9.31×10-13 – 7.88 mg/ml for garlic oil, 0.16 – 2.66 mg/ml for tangerine oil and 5.95×10-31 – 1.24 mg/ml for the essential oil blend. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration indicated that the Garlic oil and Tangerine oil blend was better at inhibiting the tested microorganisms than the individual oils except for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (30.32% as the major component in the garlic oil extract and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha 4-trimethyl (33.38% in the tangerine oil. While the equal volume of the oil blend also revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (15.92% and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha.4-trimethyl (12.02% as the major constituents though in lower concentrations. Hence, the more potent antimicrobial properties demonstrated by the oil blend can be exploited further with a view to generate new effective antimicrobial compounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0100-29452007000200027-scl"><span id="translatedtitle">Regeneração de plantas após fusão de protoplastos de tangelo 'Page' e toranja 'Lau Tau' / <span class="hlt">Plant</span> regeneration after protoplast fusion of 'Page' tangelo and 'Lau Tau' pummelo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Dayse Cristina de, Carvalho; Francisco de Assis Alves, Mourão Filho; Beatriz Madalena Januzzi, Mendes; Carlos Roberto de, Carvalho.</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Buscou-se a hibridação somática entre tangelo 'Page' e toranja 'Lau Tau' visando à produção de porta-enxerto semelhante à laranja-azeda, por esta espécie ser considerada um provável híbrido entre C. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> e C. grandis. Após isolamento, fusão e cultivo de protoplastos, obtiveram-se brotações que [...] foram enxertadas in vitro, em laranja 'Hamlin'. Dezessete plantas foram aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação. A análise de citometria de fluxo confirmou a constituição diplóide dessas plantas. Marcadores moleculares RAPD das plantas regeneradas apresentaram padrão de bandas similar ao de tangelo 'Page'. Entretanto, todas as plantas apresentaram conformação fenotípica diferente dos genitores. Abstract in english This work aimed to produce somatic hybrid between 'Page' tangelo and 'Lau Tau' pummelo in an attempt to regenerate a similar rootstock to sour orange, because this species is considered a probable hybrid between C. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> and C. grandis. After protoplast isolation, fusion and culture regenerated [...] shoots were in vitro grafted on 'Hamlin' sweet orange. Seventeen <span class="hlt">plants</span> were acclimatized in a greenhouse. Citometric flow analyses revealed that all <span class="hlt">plants</span> are diploid. RAPD molecular markers of regenerated <span class="hlt">plants</span> had the same pattern as compared to 'Page' tangelo. However, all <span class="hlt">plants</span> had phenotypic traits different from both genitors.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-29452007000200027"><span id="translatedtitle">Regeneração de plantas após fusão de protoplastos de tangelo 'Page' e toranja 'Lau Tau' <span class="hlt">Plant</span> regeneration after protoplast fusion of 'Page' tangelo and 'Lau Tau' pummelo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Dayse Cristina de Carvalho</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Buscou-se a hibridação somática entre tangelo 'Page' e toranja 'Lau Tau' visando à produção de porta-enxerto semelhante à laranja-azeda, por esta espécie ser considerada um provável híbrido entre C. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> e C. grandis. Após isolamento, fusão e cultivo de protoplastos, obtiveram-se brotações que foram enxertadas in vitro, em laranja 'Hamlin'. Dezessete plantas foram aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação. A análise de citometria de fluxo confirmou a constituição diplóide dessas plantas. Marcadores moleculares RAPD das plantas regeneradas apresentaram padrão de bandas similar ao de tangelo 'Page'. Entretanto, todas as plantas apresentaram conformação fenotípica diferente dos genitores.This work aimed to produce somatic hybrid between 'Page' tangelo and 'Lau Tau' pummelo in an attempt to regenerate a similar rootstock to sour orange, because this species is considered a probable hybrid between C. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> and C. grandis. After protoplast isolation, fusion and culture regenerated shoots were in vitro grafted on 'Hamlin' sweet orange. Seventeen <span class="hlt">plants</span> were acclimatized in a greenhouse. Citometric flow analyses revealed that all <span class="hlt">plants</span> are diploid. RAPD molecular markers of regenerated <span class="hlt">plants</span> had the same pattern as compared to 'Page' tangelo. However, all <span class="hlt">plants</span> had phenotypic traits different from both genitors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0375-07602006000200007-cub"><span id="translatedtitle">Control de larvas de Aedes aegypti (L) con Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Peter, 1895: una experiencia comunitaria en el municipio Taguasco, Sancti Spíritus, Cuba / Control of Aedes aegypti larvae (L) with Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Peter, 1895: a community experience in Taguasco municipality, Sancti Spíritus, Cuba</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Eugenia, Hernández Hernández; María, Marques Pina.</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Se determinó la eficacia del control de larvas de Aedes aegypti (L) con Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Peter, 1895, en depósitos para almacenar agua destinada al consumo doméstico, en el municipio Taguasco, al centro de la Provincia de Sancti Spíritus, Cuba. Con anterioridad a las epidemias de Santiago de Cuba [...] y Provincia Habana, este municipio no había sido positivo a Aedes aegypti (L). Ante el temor a una epidemia de dengue, las crecientes infestaciones del vector comenzaron a preocupar a la población. Antes de iniciar las siembras de peces, se realizó un levantamiento, durante el cual se encuestaron 1 298 viviendas y locales con extensos patios y un deficiente suministro de agua; eso hace que sus habitantes utilicen todo tipo de depósitos, entre estos 458 tanques bajos donde se observaron 40 focos de mosquitos. Los peces se distribuyeron a razón de no menos de 3 por recipiente, controlándose los focos en 2 meses, excepto en un tanque donde los huevos llegaron a eclosionar. Los resultados además, facilitan la labor del personal sanitario al prescindir de una constante revisión de los depósitos. Por lo que se propone extender la experiencia de Taguasco a otras provincias del país con situación similar. Abstract in english The efficacy of the control of Aedes aegypti (L) with Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Peter, 1895, was determined in containers used for domestic consumption water in Taguasco municipality in the center of Sancti Spiritus province, Cuba. Before the epidemic of Santiago de Cuba and Havana Province, this municipa [...] lity had not been positive to Aedes aegypti (L). The increasing infections caused by the vector started to worry the population that feared an outbreak of dengue epidemic. Previous to the fish growth, a survey was done in 1 298 houses and places with large backyards and a deficient water supply that made its dwellers use all kinds of containers. Among them 458 low tanks where 40 mosquito foci were detected. Fishes were distributed at a rate of no less than 3 per container. The foci were controlled in 2 months, excepting a tank where eclosion occurred. The results also make easy the work of the health personnel on avoiding the constant checking of the containers. That’s why, it is recommended to extend the experience of Taguasco to other provinces of the country under similar situations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0375-07602006000200007"><span id="translatedtitle">Control de larvas de Aedes aegypti (L con Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Peter, 1895: una experiencia comunitaria en el municipio Taguasco, Sancti Spíritus, Cuba Control of Aedes aegypti larvae (L with Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Peter, 1895: a community experience in Taguasco municipality, Sancti Spíritus, Cuba</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Eugenia Hernández Hernández</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Se determinó la eficacia del control de larvas de Aedes aegypti (L con Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Peter, 1895, en depósitos para almacenar agua destinada al consumo doméstico, en el municipio Taguasco, al centro de la Provincia de Sancti Spíritus, Cuba. Con anterioridad a las epidemias de Santiago de Cuba y Provincia Habana, este municipio no había sido positivo a Aedes aegypti (L. Ante el temor a una epidemia de dengue, las crecientes infestaciones del vector comenzaron a preocupar a la población. Antes de iniciar las siembras de peces, se realizó un levantamiento, durante el cual se encuestaron 1 298 viviendas y locales con extensos patios y un deficiente suministro de agua; eso hace que sus habitantes utilicen todo tipo de depósitos, entre estos 458 tanques bajos donde se observaron 40 focos de mosquitos. Los peces se distribuyeron a razón de no menos de 3 por recipiente, controlándose los focos en 2 meses, excepto en un tanque donde los huevos llegaron a eclosionar. Los resultados además, facilitan la labor del personal sanitario al prescindir de una constante revisión de los depósitos. Por lo que se propone extender la experiencia de Taguasco a otras provincias del país con situación similar.The efficacy of the control of Aedes aegypti (L with Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Peter, 1895, was determined in containers used for domestic consumption water in Taguasco municipality in the center of Sancti Spiritus province, Cuba. Before the epidemic of Santiago de Cuba and Havana Province, this municipality had not been positive to Aedes aegypti (L. The increasing infections caused by the vector started to worry the population that feared an outbreak of dengue epidemic. Previous to the fish growth, a survey was done in 1 298 houses and places with large backyards and a deficient water supply that made its dwellers use all kinds of containers. Among them 458 low tanks where 40 mosquito foci were detected. Fishes were distributed at a rate of no less than 3 per container. The foci were controlled in 2 months, excepting a tank where eclosion occurred. The results also make easy the work of the health personnel on avoiding the constant checking of the containers. That’s why, it is recommended to extend the experience of Taguasco to other provinces of the country under similar situations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://periodicos.uem.br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciAgron/article/view/5964/5964"><span id="translatedtitle">Moscas frugívoras (Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae: ocorrência em pomares comerciais de tangerina (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco do município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba = Frugivorous flies (Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae: occurrence in commercials tangerine orchards (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco in Matinhas, state of Paraíba, Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Edson Batista Lopes</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available O município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba com aproximadamente 1,3 milhões de plantas de tangerina, é responsável por 90% da produção do Estado. A pesquisa foi conduzida em cinco regiões geográficas do município de Matinhas, onde foram coletados 20 frutos na copa e 20 sob a copa da planta, objetivando pesquisar a ocorrência de moscasfrugívoras e seus níveis de infestação em tangerina. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a tangerina é infestada por Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann,1824, Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal e Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann,1830. O índice médio de infestação de C. capitata nas cinco regiões não ultrapassou 0,5 pupa fruto-1. A percentagem de emergência (P.E. de C. capitata em frutos coletados na planta e solo variou entre 14,0 a 54,0% de adultos fruto-1. Osíndices de infestação de N. zadolicha, em frutos coletados na planta e solo, variaram entre 0,4 a 4,3 pupários fruto-1. Os dados da percentagem de emergência (P.E. de N. zadolicha variaram entre 49,9 a 65,9% de adultos fruto-1, sendo considerada a espécie mais abundante, dominante e com uma alta taxa de sobrevivência. N. zadolicha foi considerada praga primária da tangerina nas condições de Matinhas. Este é, também, o primeiro relato das espécies N. zadolicha e N. glaberrima infestando tangerina na Paraíba.The municipality of Matinhas, with approximately 1.3 million tangerinetrees, is responsible for 90% of the tangerine production in the state of Paraíba. This research was carried out in five geographic regions of Matinhas, where 20 fruits on <span class="hlt">plant</span> and 20 fruits in soil were collected, with the aim of searching for the frugivorous flies and their levels of infestation in tangerine. The results showed that tangerine is infested by frugivorous flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann, 1824, Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal and Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann, 1830. The mean infestation index of C. capitata in five regions did not exceed 0.5 pupae fruit-1. The emergence percentage (EP of C. capitata adults in fruits collected on <span class="hlt">plant</span> and in soil varied between 14.0% and 54.0% of adults fruit-1. The infestation index for N. zadolicha had variations between 0.4 and 4.3 pupae fruit-1. The data on the emergence percentage (EP of N. zadolicha varied between 49.9% and 65.9% of adults fruit-1, which made it the most abundant and dominant species, with a high survival rate. N. zadolicha was considered the pest with the highest economic impact to tangerines in Matinhas. The present work is also the first report of the N. zadolicha and N. glaberiimaspecies causing infestation in tangerine fruits in the state of Paraíba.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S1807-86212008000500006-scl"><span id="translatedtitle">Moscas frugívoras (Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae): ocorrência em pomares comerciais de tangerina (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco) do município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba / Frugivorous flies (Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae): occurrence in commercials tangerine orchards (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco) in Matinhas, state of Paraíba, Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Edson Batista, Lopes; Jacinto de Luna, Batista; Ivanildo Cavalcanti de, Albuquerque; Carlos Henrique de, Brito.</p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available O município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba com aproximadamente 1,3 milhões de plantas de tangerina, é responsável por 90% da produção do Estado. A pesquisa foi conduzida em cinco regiões geográficas do município de Matinhas, onde foram coletados 20 frutos na copa e 20 sob a copa da planta, objetivan [...] do pesquisar a ocorrência de moscas frugívoras e seus níveis de infestação em tangerina. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a tangerina é infestada por Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann,1824), Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal) e Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann,1830). O índice médio de infestação de C. capitata nas cinco regiões não ultrapassou 0,5 pupa fruto-1. A percentagem de emergência (P.E.) de C. capitata em frutos coletados na planta e solo variou entre 14,0 a 54,0% de adultos fruto-1. Os índices de infestação de N. zadolicha, em frutos coletados na planta e solo, variaram entre 0,4 a 4,3 pupários fruto-1. Os dados da percentagem de emergência (P.E.) de N . zadolicha variaram entre 49,9 a 65,9% de adultos fruto-1, sendo considerada a espécie mais abundante, dominante e com uma alta taxa de sobrevivência. N. zadolicha foi considerada praga primária da tangerina nas condições de Matinhas. Este é, também, o primeiro relato das espécies N. zadolicha e N. glaberrima infestando tangerina na Paraíba. Abstract in english The municipality of Matinhas, with approximately 1.3 million tangerine trees, is responsible for 90% of the tangerine production in the state of Paraíba. This research was carried out in five geographic regions of Matinhas, where 20 fruits on <span class="hlt">plant</span> and 20 fruits in soil were collected, with the aim [...] of searching for the frugivorous flies and their levels of infestation in tangerine. The results showed that tangerine is infested by frugivorous flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann, 1824), Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal) and Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann, 1830). The mean infestation index of C. capitata in five regions did not exceed 0.5 pupae fruit-1. The emergence percentage (EP) of C . capitata adults in fruits collected on <span class="hlt">plant</span> and in soil varied between 14.0% and 54.0% of adults fruit-1. The infestation index for N . zadolicha had variations between 0.4 and 4.3 pupae fruit-1. The data on the emergence percentage (EP) of N . zadolicha varied between 49.9% and 65.9% of adults fruit-1, which made it the most abundant and dominant species, with a high survival rate. N. zadolicha was considered the pest with the highest economic impact to tangerines in Matinhas. The present work is also the first report of the N. zadolicha and N. glaberiima species causing infestation in tangerine fruits in the state of Paraíba.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25819871"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficacy of ginger-based treatments against infection with Gyrodactylus turnbulli in the guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Peters)).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Levy, G; Zilberg, D; Paladini, G; Fridman, S</p> <p>2015-04-30</p> <p>Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses and existing chemical therapeutants, often stressful to the fish, pose associated risks. As part of a recent trend to move towards the use of alternative, <span class="hlt">plant</span>-based remedies for commonly occurring aquaculture-related diseases, the efficiency of ginger (Zingiber officinale) was investigated against the monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli in the guppy. In vitro trials revealed the clear anti-parasitic effects of ginger. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts, prepared from freeze dried ginger, were tested. An increase in extract concentration was associated with reduced time to parasite immobilisation, with ethanolic extract being more efficient; at 75 and 200ppt aqueous ginger extract parasites died at 65.6±2.8 and 1.8±0.2min, respectively, whereas at 5 and 40ppt ethanolic extract parasites died at 26.1±0.7 and 4.9±0.3min, respectively. Bathing G. turnbulli-infected fish in ethanolic ginger extract (i.e. 5 and 7.5ppt for 90 and 30min, respectively) significantly reduced infection prevalence and intensity when compared to the water and ethanol controls. The higher concentration (i.e. 7.5ppt) proved as equally effective as Praziquantel, the conventionally used chemical treatment for gyrodactylosis, with the fish appearing to be completely cleared of the infection in both cases. Oral treatments of G. turnbulli-infected guppies with diets supplemented with 10 and 20% ginger powder proved to be ineffective in decreasing parasite load. These findings demonstrate that immersion in ginger extract offers an effective, alternative treatment against monogenean infection in fish. PMID:25819871</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/lessons.cfm?BenchmarkID=5&DocID=91"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plants</span> 1: <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Parents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Science Netlinks</p> <p>2001-10-20</p> <p>This is the first of two lessons about reproduction in <span class="hlt">plants</span>. This lesson covers how most <span class="hlt">plants</span> normally reproduce - sexually. The second Science NetLinks lesson in this series, <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Propagation, teaches how <span class="hlt">plants</span> can be forced to reproduce asexually. In this lesson, students will learn the parts of the flower and the process of sexual reproduction in <span class="hlt">plants</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0037-86822011000200014-scl"><span id="translatedtitle">Alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de Aedes aegypti submetidas ao diterpeno labdano, isolado de Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Leguminosae), e à uma fração rica em taninos de Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae) / Ultrastructural alterations in larvae of Aedes aegypti subject to labdane diterpene isolated from Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Leguminosae) and a fraction enriched with tannins of Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Cleyde Ferreira Barreto, Valotto; Heloisa Helena Garcia da, Silva; Gláucia, Cavasin; Regina, Geris; Edson, Rodrigues Filho; Ionizete Garcia da, Silva.</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública, em vários países, e tem como principal vetor o Aedes aegypti, mosquito mais adaptado às áreas urbanizadas. Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, as alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de 3º estádio, desse mosquito, causadas pelos larvicidas [...] naturais, um diterpeno labdano, extraído de Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, e uma fração rica em taninos catéquicos, extraída de Magonia pubescens, evidenciando o mecanismo de ação dessas substâncias. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados com larvas de 3º estádio em solução de 0,9ppm, do diterpeno (3-?-acetoxylabdan-8(17)-13-dien-15-óico) e de 3,7ppm, da fração majoritária de tanino catéquico de massa molecular 864Da. Obtiveram-se as substâncias através de fracionamentos cromatográficos sucessivos, identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. As larvas que atingiram estado letárgico foram coletadas e dissecadas e seus tubos digestórios fixados, desidratados, emblocados e polimerizados. Cortes ultrafinos foram feitos e contrastados com acetato de uranila 3% e citrato de chumbo, posteriormente, levados ao microscópio eletrônico. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações ultraestruturais provocadas pelos diterpeno e tanino sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti foram vacuolização citoplasmática, desorganização e degeneração celular, mudança estrutural dos microvilos e deslocamento das células da lâmina basal. CONCLUSÕES: O diterpeno e a fração rica em taninos catéquicos provocaram a morte das larvas de Aedes aegypti através da destruição celular no intestino médio. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Dengue is an important public health problem in many countries and its main vector Aedes aegypti, is the mosquito most adapted to urban areas. For the first time, the mechanism of action of labdane diterpenoid extracted from Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> and the fraction enriched of catechin ta [...] nnins extracted from Magonia pubescens is demonstrated through ultrastructural alterations of Aedes aegypti larvae. METHODS: Experiments were performed using a 0.9ppm solution of diterpenoid and 3.7ppm of the fraction as the main catechin tannin of molecular mass 846Da. The compounds were obtained by thin layer chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen and mass spectrometry. Larvae that achieved lethargic state were collected and dissected. Next, they were contrasted with 1% uranyl acetate, dehydrated, embedded and polymerized. Ultrathin sections were made, mixed with 3% uranyl acetate and lead citrate and placed in an electron microscope. RESULTS: The main ultrastructural alterations caused by the diterpenoid and by tanins in larvae of Aedes aegypti were: cytoplasmic vacuolation, alteration of microvilli, cellular aging, cell disruption and degeneration, formation of secretion vesicles and structural changes in microvilli, irregular nuclei and displacement of cells in the basal lamina. CONCLUSIONS: The fraction containing tannins and the diterpenoid caused the death of Aedes aegypti larvae by cell destruction in the midgut.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822011000200014"><span id="translatedtitle">Alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de Aedes aegypti submetidas ao diterpeno labdano, isolado de Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Leguminosae, e à uma fração rica em taninos de Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae Ultrastructural alterations in larvae of Aedes aegypti subject to labdane diterpene isolated from Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Leguminosae and a fraction enriched with tannins of Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Cleyde Ferreira Barreto Valotto</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública, em vários países, e tem como principal vetor o Aedes aegypti, mosquito mais adaptado às áreas urbanizadas. Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, as alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de 3º estádio, desse mosquito, causadas pelos larvicidas naturais, um diterpeno labdano, extraído de Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, e uma fração rica em taninos catéquicos, extraída de Magonia pubescens, evidenciando o mecanismo de ação dessas substâncias. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados com larvas de 3º estádio em solução de 0,9ppm, do diterpeno (3-?-acetoxylabdan-8(17-13-dien-15-óico e de 3,7ppm, da fração majoritária de tanino catéquico de massa molecular 864Da. Obtiveram-se as substâncias através de fracionamentos cromatográficos sucessivos, identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. As larvas que atingiram estado letárgico foram coletadas e dissecadas e seus tubos digestórios fixados, desidratados, emblocados e polimerizados. Cortes ultrafinos foram feitos e contrastados com acetato de uranila 3% e citrato de chumbo, posteriormente, levados ao microscópio eletrônico. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações ultraestruturais provocadas pelos diterpeno e tanino sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti foram vacuolização citoplasmática, desorganização e degeneração celular, mudança estrutural dos microvilos e deslocamento das células da lâmina basal. CONCLUSÕES: O diterpeno e a fração rica em taninos catéquicos provocaram a morte das larvas de Aedes aegypti através da destruição celular no intestino médio.INTRODUCTION: Dengue is an important public health problem in many countries and its main vector Aedes aegypti, is the mosquito most adapted to urban areas. For the first time, the mechanism of action of labdane diterpenoid extracted from Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> and the fraction enriched of catechin tannins extracted from Magonia pubescens is demonstrated through ultrastructural alterations of Aedes aegypti larvae. METHODS: Experiments were performed using a 0.9ppm solution of diterpenoid and 3.7ppm of the fraction as the main catechin tannin of molecular mass 846Da. The compounds were obtained by thin layer chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen and mass spectrometry. Larvae that achieved lethargic state were collected and dissected. Next, they were contrasted with 1% uranyl acetate, dehydrated, embedded and polymerized. Ultrathin sections were made, mixed with 3% uranyl acetate and lead citrate and placed in an electron microscope. RESULTS: The main ultrastructural alterations caused by the diterpenoid and by tanins in larvae of Aedes aegypti were: cytoplasmic vacuolation, alteration of microvilli, cellular aging, cell disruption and degeneration, formation of secretion vesicles and structural changes in microvilli, irregular nuclei and displacement of cells in the basal lamina. CONCLUSIONS: The fraction containing tannins and the diterpenoid caused the death of Aedes aegypti larvae by cell destruction in the midgut.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132008000100023"><span id="translatedtitle">Analyses of the sediment toxicity of Monjolinho River, São Carlos, São Paulo State, Brazil, using survey, growth and gill morphology of two fish species (Danio rerio and Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Aline Fernanda Campagna</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the toxicity of the sediments of the Monjolinho River (São Carlos - São Paulo/Brazil, through partial chronic toxicity bioassays with juveniles of D. rerio and P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. Histological analyses of the gills and biometric measurements were conducted to detect the possible deleterious effects that caused the death. In all points the sampled the alterations were found in the gills (hyperplasia, fusion of secondary lamellas and dilation of blood vessels, with the most intense lesions (second stage occurring at the point two. The biometric analysis pointed to inadequate conditions for the growth of the test-organisms when exposed to the sediment samples. These results showed that the conditions of these environments were not suitable for the survival and growth of these fishes.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a toxicidade dos sedimentos do rio Monjolinho (São Carlos - São Paulo/Brasil, por meio de bioensaios de toxicidade crônicos parciais com juvenis de D. rerio e P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. Foram realizadas análises histológicas das brânquias dos organismos para detectar possíveis efeitos deletérios que antecedam a mortalidade. Em todos os pontos amostrados, foram verificadas alterações nas brânquias (hiperplasia, fusão de lamelas secundárias e dilatação de vasos sanguíneos, sendo no ponto dois foram encontradas lesões mais acentuadas (segundo estágio. A análise biométrica dos indivíduos expostos em amostras de sedimento demonstrou condições inadequadas para o crescimento e desenvolvimentos dos organismos-teste em todo o ambiente estudado. Os sedimentos apresentaram maior toxicidade no período chuvoso, sendo estes resultados confirmados por meio das análises histológicas das brânquias dos organismos expostos, as quais demonstraram lesões mais acentuadas no mesmo período. Tal situação possivelmente decorre dos impactos antrópicos os quais o sistema está suscetível (efluentes domésticos, industriais e agrícolas, que foram constatados pelas análises físicas e químicas dos sedimentos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S1516-89132008000100023-scl"><span id="translatedtitle">Analyses of the sediment toxicity of Monjolinho River, São Carlos, São Paulo State, Brazil, using survey, growth and gill morphology of two fish species (Danio rerio and Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>Aline Fernanda, Campagna; Renata, Fracácio; Beatriz Kawamura, Rodrigues; Márcia Noélia, Eler; Nelsy Fenerich, Verani; Evaldo Luiz Gaeta, Espíndola.</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a toxicidade dos sedimentos do rio Monjolinho (São Carlos - São Paulo/Brasil), por meio de bioensaios de toxicidade crônicos parciais com juvenis de D. rerio e P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. Foram realizadas análises histológicas das brânquias dos organismos para detectar po [...] ssíveis efeitos deletérios que antecedam a mortalidade. Em todos os pontos amostrados, foram verificadas alterações nas brânquias (hiperplasia, fusão de lamelas secundárias e dilatação de vasos sanguíneos), sendo no ponto dois foram encontradas lesões mais acentuadas (segundo estágio). A análise biométrica dos indivíduos expostos em amostras de sedimento demonstrou condições inadequadas para o crescimento e desenvolvimentos dos organismos-teste em todo o ambiente estudado. Os sedimentos apresentaram maior toxicidade no período chuvoso, sendo estes resultados confirmados por meio das análises histológicas das brânquias dos organismos expostos, as quais demonstraram lesões mais acentuadas no mesmo período. Tal situação possivelmente decorre dos impactos antrópicos os quais o sistema está suscetível (efluentes domésticos, industriais e agrícolas), que foram constatados pelas análises físicas e químicas dos sedimentos. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the toxicity of the sediments of the Monjolinho River (São Carlos - São Paulo/Brazil), through partial chronic toxicity bioassays with juveniles of D. rerio and P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. Histological analyses of the gills and biometric measurements were conducted to d [...] etect the possible deleterious effects that caused the death. In all points the sampled the alterations were found in the gills (hyperplasia, fusion of secondary lamellas and dilation of blood vessels), with the most intense lesions (second stage) occurring at the point two. The biometric analysis pointed to inadequate conditions for the growth of the test-organisms when exposed to the sediment samples. These results showed that the conditions of these environments were not suitable for the survival and growth of these fishes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:28054444"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of the contents and distribution characteristics of REE in natural <span class="hlt">plants</span> by NAA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The concentration of 8 REEs (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in 17 species of <span class="hlt">plants</span> and their host soil, which were collected from a rare earth ore area located in the south of China, have been determined by INAA. The chondritic normalized REE patterns for different parts of <span class="hlt">plants</span> (e.g., leaf, stem and root) and their host soils were studied. The results showed that the concentration levels of REE for most <span class="hlt">plants</span> in the sampling area were elevated. Particularly, the leaves of the fern (Dicranopteris dichotoma) contain extremely high concentration of the total REE (675-3358 ?g/g). Generally, these REE distribution patterns in every part of <span class="hlt">plants</span> were very similar and reflected the characteristics of their host soils. However, the chondritic normalized REE patterns in some <span class="hlt">plants</span> relative to the host soil revealed obvious fractionation, such as the depletion of the heavy REE (for fern, Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> and Brassia campestris), the heavy REE enrichment (for Camellia sinensis, Camellia oleifera and Ziziphus) and the Ce positive anomaly (for Gardenia jasminoides). (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12324338"><span id="translatedtitle">Diversity of endophytic bacterial populations and their interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in citrus <span class="hlt">plants</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Araújo, Welington L; Marcon, Joelma; Maccheroni, Walter; Van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Van Vuurde, Jim W L; Azevedo, João Lúcio</p> <p>2002-10-01</p> <p>Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus <span class="hlt">plants</span> were studied by using cultivation as well as cultivation-independent techniques. The endophytic communities were assessed in surface-disinfected citrus branches by plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Dominant isolates were characterized by fatty-acid methyl ester analysis as Bacillus pumilus, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter cloacae, Methylobacterium spp. (including Methylobacterium extorquens, M. fujisawaense, M. mesophilicum, M. radiotolerans, and M. zatmanii), Nocardia sp., Pantoea agglomerans, and Xanthomonas campestris. We observed a relationship between CVC symptoms and the frequency of isolation of species of Methylobacterium, the genus that we most frequently isolated from symptomatic <span class="hlt">plants</span>. In contrast, we isolated C. flaccumfaciens significantly more frequently from asymptomatic <span class="hlt">plants</span> than from those with symptoms of CVC while P. agglomerans was frequently isolated from tangerine (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) and sweet-orange (C. sinensis) <span class="hlt">plants</span>, irrespective of whether the <span class="hlt">plants</span> were symptomatic or asymptomatic or showed symptoms of CVC. DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total <span class="hlt">plant</span> DNA resulted in several bands that matched those from the bacterial isolates, indicating that DGGE profiles can be used to detect some endophytic bacteria of citrus <span class="hlt">plants</span>. However, some bands had no match with any isolate, suggesting the occurrence of other, nonculturable or as yet uncultured, endophytic bacteria. A specific band with a high G+C ratio was observed only in asymptomatic <span class="hlt">plants</span>. The higher frequency of C. flaccumfaciens in asymptomatic <span class="hlt">plants</span> suggests a role for this organism in the resistance of <span class="hlt">plants</span> to CVC. PMID:12324338</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11724251"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis of a nitrogen analogue of salacinol and its alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Muraoka, O; Ying, S; Yoshikai, K; Matsuura, Y; Yamada, E; Minematsu, T; Tanabe, G; Matsuda, H; Yoshikawa, M</p> <p>2001-11-01</p> <p>A nitrogen analogue 4 of the naturally occurring sulfonium ion salacinol (1), a potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from the Ayruvedic medicine <span class="hlt">Salacia</span> <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, was synthesized and its inhibitory activity against alpha-glucosidase tested. Substitution of the sulfur atom in 1 with a nitrogen reduced the activity considerably. The solid-state stereostructure of the related compound (5) was determined on the basis of single crystal X-ray measurement. PMID:11724251</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______497::b54e5d4b1e2386ed9afc50c7a4961727"><span id="translatedtitle">A novel class of glycosidase inhibitors related to salacinol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Chen, Wang</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This thesis focuses on the design and synthesis of analogues of salacinol, together with the investigation of their enzyme inhibitory activities. Salacinol is a naturally occurring sulfonium ion with an internal sulfate counterion, and is one of the active principles in the aqueous extracts of <span class="hlt">Salacia</span> <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> that are traditionally used in Sri Lanka and India for the treatment of diabetes. The syntheses of two novel amino acids, nitrogen analogues of salacinol, containing a carboxylate inn...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/8/210"><span id="translatedtitle">The molecular basis of color vision in colorful fish: Four Long Wave-Sensitive (LWS opsins in guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> are defined by amino acid substitutions at key functional sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Ward Pam R</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparisons of functionally important changes at the molecular level in model systems have identified key adaptations driving isolation and speciation. In cichlids, for example, long wavelength-sensitive (LWS opsins appear to play a role in mate choice and male color variation within and among species. To test the hypothesis that the evolution of elaborate coloration in male guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> is also associated with opsin gene diversity, we sequenced long wavelength-sensitive (LWS opsin genes in six species of the family Poeciliidae. Results Sequences of four LWS opsin genes were amplified from the guppy genome and from mRNA isolated from adult guppy eyes. Variation in expression was quantified using qPCR. Three of the four genes encode opsins predicted to be most sensitive to different wavelengths of light because they vary at key amino acid positions. This family of LWS opsin genes was produced by a diversity of duplication events. One, an intronless gene, was produced prior to the divergence of families Fundulidae and Poeciliidae. Between-gene PCR and DNA sequencing show that two of the guppy LWS opsins are linked in an inverted orientation. This inverted tandem duplication event occurred near the base of the poeciliid tree in the common ancestor of Poecilia and Xiphophorus. The fourth sequence has been uncovered only in the genus Poecilia. In the guppies surveyed here, this sequence is a hybrid, with the 5' end most similar to one of the tandem duplicates and the 3' end identical to the other. Conclusion Enhanced wavelength discrimination, a possible consequence of opsin gene duplication and divergence, might have been an evolutionary prerequisite for color-based sexual selection and have led to the extraordinary coloration now observed in male guppies and in many other poeciliids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:28038298"><span id="translatedtitle">Power <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The power <span class="hlt">plant</span> of simplified construction ensuring to increase the effectivness of transformation of solar and wind power with wide functional possibilities in autonomous work regime was elaborated. The power <span class="hlt">plant</span> has solar and wind <span class="hlt">plants</span>, electro generator and accumulating device. Solar <span class="hlt">plant</span> includes solar transformers with gears of azimuthal-zenithal shadowing for sun, the power <span class="hlt">plant</span> is supplied with shadowing sensor for sun. Solar and wind <span class="hlt">plants</span> have been made in the kind of two independent units. The wind wheel of <span class="hlt">plant</span> is fixed strongly on vertical rotation axle and the disk-multiplicator joined with rotor of electrogenerator is installed. (E.V.Kh.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24498985"><span id="translatedtitle">Isolation, screening, characterization, and selection of superior rhizobacterial strains as bioinoculants for seedling emergence and growth promotion of Mandarin orange (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Thokchom, Elizabeth; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Mandarin orange (MO) is an important fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions of the world. A total of 217 morphologically distinct rhizobacteria from MO orchards in 3 states of northeastern India were isolated and analyzed for 4 <span class="hlt">plant</span>-growth-promoting (PGP) attributes: nitrogen fixation, production of indole acetic acid like substances, solubilization of phosphate, and ability to antagonize pathogenic fungi. Isolates were ranked based on in-vitro-assayed PGP attributes, and 10 superior isolates were selected to test their effect on seedling emergence and seedling growth in a completely randomized pot experiment. These 10 isolates increased seedling emergence over a noninoculated control within 45 days after sowing. Five isolates, namely RCE1, RCE2, RCE3, RCE5, and RCE7, significantly increased shoot length, shoot dry biomass, and root dry biomass of 120-day-old seedlings over the noninoculated control. The beneficial effects of 4 selected strains, namely Enterobacter hormaechei RCE-1, Enterobacter asburiae RCE-2, Enterobacter ludwigii RCE-5, and Klebsiella pneumoniae RCE-7, on growth of the seedlings were visible up to 1 year after their transfer to 8 kg capacity pots. These strains were superior both in terms of in-vitro-assayed PGP attributes and of their beneficial effect in low phosphorus soil and, thus, may be promising bioinoculants for promoting early emergence and growth of MO seedlings. PMID:24498985</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWSCERN-EN&redirectUrl=http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/2021061"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> physiology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Duca, Maria</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This book covers all aspects of <span class="hlt">plant</span> physiology: <span class="hlt">plant</span> cell physiology, water regime of <span class="hlt">plants</span>, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition, <span class="hlt">plant</span> respiration, <span class="hlt">plant</span> growth and development, movements in <span class="hlt">plants</span>, signal perception and transduction etc. It focuses on the fundamental principles of <span class="hlt">plant</span> physiology and biochemistry from the molecular level to whole <span class="hlt">plants</span>, on the mechanisms of <span class="hlt">plant</span>-environment interactions. The book is intended for students (biologists, physiologists, biochemists, biophysicists, ecologists, geneticists), teachers and researchers. Particular emphasis is given to recent research advances made on national and international levels, as well as to personal experimental results of the author that are relevant for a deeper understanding of processes and for practical implementation of gained knowledge. An essential amount of illustrative material (graphics, images, schemes, illustrations) completes the text and supplies additional information in an accessible manner. At the end of each chapter...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/11/81"><span id="translatedtitle">RT-qPCR reveals opsin gene upregulation associated with age and sex in guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> - a species with color-based sexual selection and 11 visual-opsin genes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Taylor John S</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Abstract Background PCR-based surveys have shown that guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> have an unusually large visual-opsin gene repertoire. This has led to speculation that opsin duplication and divergence has enhanced the evolution of elaborate male coloration because it improves spectral sensitivity and/or discrimination in females. However, this conjecture on evolutionary connections between opsin repertoire, vision, mate choice, and male coloration was generated with little data on gene expression. Here, we used RT-qPCR to survey visual-opsin gene expression in the eyes of males, females, and juveniles in order to further understand color-based sexual selection from the perspective of the visual system. Results Juvenile and adult (male and female guppies express 10 visual opsins at varying levels in the eye. Two opsin genes in juveniles, SWS2B and RH2-2, accounted for >85% of all visual-opsin transcripts in the eye, excluding RH1. This relative abundance (RA value dropped to about 65% in adults, as LWS-A180 expression increased from approximately 3% to 20% RA. The juvenile-to-female transition also showed LWS-S180 upregulation from about 1.5% to 7% RA. Finally, we found that expression in guppies' SWS2-LWS gene cluster is negatively correlated with distance from a candidate locus control region (LCR. Conclusions Selective pressures influencing visual-opsin gene expression appear to differ among age and sex. LWS upregulation in females is implicated in augmenting spectral discrimination of male coloration and courtship displays. In males, enhanced discrimination of carotenoid-rich food and possibly rival males are strong candidate selective pressures driving LWS upregulation. These developmental changes in expression suggest that adults possess better wavelength discrimination than juveniles. Opsin expression within the SWS2-LWS gene cluster appears to be regulated, in part, by a common LCR. Finally, by comparing our RT-qPCR data to MSP data, we were able to propose the first opsin-to-?max assignments for all photoreceptor types in the cone mosaic.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/plants/"><span id="translatedtitle">Poisonous <span class="hlt">Plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Home Workplace Safety & Health Topics NIOSH Share Compartir POISONOUS <span class="hlt">PLANTS</span> On this Page How Poison Ivy Works ... poison oak) NIOSH Fast Facts Protecting Yourself from Poisonous <span class="hlt">Plants</span> Print or order this free card for ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=plants+AND+medicinal+AND+pharmaceutical&id=EJ548075"><span id="translatedtitle">Medicinal <span class="hlt">Plants</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Phillipson, J. David</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Highlights the demand for medicinal <span class="hlt">plants</span> as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from <span class="hlt">plants</span>, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of <span class="hlt">plants</span>. Contains 30 references. (JRH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20462477"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> volatiles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Baldwin, Ian T</p> <p>2010-05-11</p> <p><span class="hlt">Plant</span> volatiles are the metabolites that <span class="hlt">plants</span> release into the air. The quantities released are not trivial. Almost one-fifth of the atmospheric CO2 fixed by land <span class="hlt">plants</span> is released back into the air each day as volatiles. <span class="hlt">Plants</span> are champion synthetic chemists; they take advantage of their anabolic prowess to produce volatiles, which they use to protect themselves against biotic and abiotic stresses and to provide information - and potentially disinformation - to mutualists and competitors alike. As transferors of information, volatiles have provided <span class="hlt">plants</span> with solutions to the challenges associated with being rooted in the ground and immobile. PMID:20462477</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:34014808"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> walkdown</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This report covers the following: preparatory steps for performing <span class="hlt">plant</span> walk-down; the objective of the first <span class="hlt">plant</span> walk-down; <span class="hlt">plant</span> walk-down procedures; earthquake screening evaluation; walk-down documentation; second <span class="hlt">plant</span> walk-down. The following objectives concerning the <span class="hlt">plant</span> walk-down(s) were achieved. The <span class="hlt">plant</span> system configuration is verified in order to proceed with event tree and fault tree analyses. Systems interactions, other types of dependencies or <span class="hlt">plant</span> unique features are identified. he safety related components that are judged to generically possess high capacities (i.e., larger than the earthquake review level) have been verified to contain no weaknesses. Further analyses needed to establish the capacities of remaining safety-related components are identified and necessary field data are obtained. Information on components is obtained to assist in HCLPF (fragility) evaluation and peer review of the seismic margin study</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20801033"><span id="translatedtitle">Probing the active-site requirements of human intestinal N-terminal maltase glucoamylase: the effect of replacing the sulfate moiety by a methyl ether in ponkoranol, a naturally occurring ?-glucosidase inhibitor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Eskandari, Razieh; Jones, Kyra; Rose, David R; Pinto, B Mario</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Ponkoranol is a naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor isolated from the <span class="hlt">plant</span> <span class="hlt">Salacia</span> <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. The compound comprises a sulfonium ion with an internal sulfate counter ion. We report here an efficient synthetic route to 3'-O-methyl ponkoranol to test the hypothesis that occupation of a hydrophobic pocket by a methyl group instead of the polar sulfate ion within the active site of human N-terminal maltase glucoamylase would be beneficial. The synthetic strategy relies on the nucleophilic attack of 2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl-1,4-anhydro-4-thio-D-arabinitol at the C-6 position of benzyl 6-O-p-toluenesulfonyl ?-D-glucopyranoside, followed by deprotection using boron trichloride and reduction with sodium borohydride. The target compound inhibited the N-terminal catalytic domain of intestinal human maltase glucoamylase (ntMGAM) with a K(i) value of 0.50 ± 0.04 ?M, higher than those of de-O-sulfonated ponkoranol (K(i)=43 ± 3 nM), or its 5'-stereoisomer (K(i)=15 ± 1 nM). We conclude that the interaction of the methyl group with hydrophobic residues in the active site is not as beneficial to inhibition of ntMGAM as the other interactions of the polyhydroxylated chain with active-site residues. PMID:20801033</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0030-24652009000100006-sza"><span id="translatedtitle">Poisonous <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>T.S., Kellerman.</p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available South Africa is blessed with one of the richest floras in the world, which-not surprisingly-includes many poisonous <span class="hlt">plants</span>. Theiler in the founding years believed that <span class="hlt">plants</span> could be involved in the aetiologies of many of the then unexplained conditions of stock, such as gousiekte and geeldikkop. H [...] is subsequent investigations of <span class="hlt">plant</span> poisonings largely laid the foundation for the future Sections of Toxicology at the Institute and the Faculty of Veterinary Science (UP). The history of research into <span class="hlt">plant</span> poisonings over the last 100 years is briefly outlined. Some examples of sustained research on important <span class="hlt">plant</span> poisonings, such as cardiac glycoside poisoning and gousiekte, are given to illustrate our approach to the subject and the progress that has been made. The collation and transfer of information and the impact of <span class="hlt">plant</span> poisonings on the livestock industry is discussed and possible avenues of future research are investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14503581"><span id="translatedtitle">Native and introduced host <span class="hlt">plants</span> of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 <span class="hlt">plant</span> families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host <span class="hlt">plant</span> associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native <span class="hlt">plant</span> species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host <span class="hlt">plant</span> species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications. PMID:14503581</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DEFFRD-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Annual+Plant+Reviews+%3A+Plant+Proteomics"><span id="translatedtitle">Annual <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Reviews : <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Proteomics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The proteome comprises all protein species resulting from gene expression in a cell, organelle, tissue or organism. By definition, proteomics aims to identify and characterise the expression pattern, cellular location, activity, regulation, post-translational modifications, molecular interactions, three dimensional structures and functions of each protein in a biological system. In <span class="hlt">plant</span> science, the number of proteome studies is rapidly expanding after the completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence, and proteome analyses of other important or emerging model systems and crop <span class="hlt">plants</span> are in progress or are being initiated. Proteome analysis in <span class="hlt">plants</span> is subject to the same obstacles and limitations as in other organisms, but the nature of <span class="hlt">plant</span> tissues, with their rigid cell walls and complex variety of secondary metabolites, means that extra challenges are involved that may not be faced when analysing other organisms. This volume aims to highlight the ways in which proteome analysis has been used to probe the complexities of <span class="hlt">plant</span> biochemistry and physiology. It is aimed at researchers in <span class="hlt">plant</span> biochemistry, genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics who wish to gain an up-to-date insight into <span class="hlt">plant</span> proteomes, the information <span class="hlt">plant</span> proteomics can yield and the directions <span class="hlt">plant</span> proteome research is taking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.kew.org/science-conservation/plants-fungi/useful"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Cultures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>With its radiant colors and well-thought-out design, the <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Cultures website's primary goal is "to convey the richness and complexity of links between Britain and South Asia, through the story of <span class="hlt">plants</span> and people". The project covers both the historical and contemporary aspects of Britain and South Asia through a wide range of resources, including historic images, recipes, and other items. Through a series of tabs at the top of the homepage (such as "Themes" and "Stories"), visitors can begin to explore the diverse content offered here. The "<span class="hlt">Plants</span>" area is a good place to start, as visitors can learn about garlic, henna, holy basil, sugar cane, and 21 other <span class="hlt">plants</span>. One rather fun area of the site is the Story Library, where visitors can place their own stories regarding the use of different <span class="hlt">plants</span>, and read those from previous guests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.sciencemag.org/content/317/5840/910.full?sid=e12ed4b4-9664-47d9-9b54-e767fbb55b2a"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Speciation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Loren H. Rieseberg (University of British Columbia/Indiana University; Department of Botany/Department of Biology)</p> <p>2007-08-17</p> <p>Like the formation of animal species, <span class="hlt">plant</span> speciation is characterized by the evolution of barriers to genetic exchange between previously interbreeding populations. Prezygotic barriers, which impede mating or fertilization between species, typically contribute more to total reproductive isolation in <span class="hlt">plants</span> than do postzygotic barriers, in which hybrid offspring are selected against. Adaptive divergence in response to ecological factors such as pollinators and habitat commonly drives the evolution of prezygotic barriers, but the evolutionary forces responsible for the development of intrinsic postzygotic barriers are virtually unknown and frequently result in polymorphism of incompatibility factors within species. Polyploid speciation, in which the entire genome is duplicated, is particularly frequent in <span class="hlt">plants</span>, perhaps because polyploid <span class="hlt">plants</span> often exhibit ecological differentiation, local dispersal, high fecundity, perennial life history, and self-fertilization or asexual reproduction. Finally, species richness in <span class="hlt">plants</span> is correlated with many biological and geohistorical factors, most of which increase ecological opportunities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25734263"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> grafting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Melnyk, Charles W; Meyerowitz, Elliot M</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Since ancient times, people have cut and joined together <span class="hlt">plants</span> of different varieties or species so they would grow as a single <span class="hlt">plant</span> - a process known as grafting (Figures 1 and 2). References to grafting appear in the Bible, ancient Greek and ancient Chinese texts, indicating that grafting was practised in Europe, the Middle East and Asia by at least the 5(th) century BCE. It is unknown where or how grafting was first discovered, but it is likely that natural grafting, the process by which two <span class="hlt">plants</span> touch and fuse limbs or roots in the absence of human interference (Figure 3), influenced people's thinking. Such natural grafts are generally uncommon, but are seen in certain species, including English ivy. Parasitic <span class="hlt">plants</span>, such as mistletoe, that grow and feed on often unrelated species may have also contributed to the development of grafting as a technique, as people would have observed mistletoe growing on trees such as apples or poplars. PMID:25734263</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-DATAGOV&redirectUrl=http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/plant-macrofossils"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Macrofossils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past vegetation and environmental change derived from <span class="hlt">plant</span> remains large enough to be seen without a microscope (macrofossils), such as leaves, needles,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16142448"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> intelligence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Trewavas, Anthony</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>Intelligent behavior is a complex adaptive phenomenon that has evolved to enable organisms to deal with variable environmental circumstances. Maximizing fitness requires skill in foraging for necessary resources (food) in competitive circumstances and is probably the activity in which intelligent behavior is most easily seen. Biologists suggest that intelligence encompasses the characteristics of detailed sensory perception, information processing, learning, memory, choice, optimisation of resource sequestration with minimal outlay, self-recognition, and foresight by predictive modeling. All these properties are concerned with a capacity for problem solving in recurrent and novel situations. Here I review the evidence that individual <span class="hlt">plant</span> species exhibit all of these intelligent behavioral capabilities but do so through phenotypic plasticity, not movement. Furthermore it is in the competitive foraging for resources that most of these intelligent attributes have been detected. <span class="hlt">Plants</span> should therefore be regarded as prototypical intelligent organisms, a concept that has considerable consequences for investigations of whole <span class="hlt">plant</span> communication, computation and signal transduction. PMID:16142448</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20920544"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">Salacia</span> chinensis extract on reproductive outcome in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Jihong, Yang; Shaozhong, Luo; Jingfeng, Song; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Akaki, Junji; Yamashita, Kousaku; Tamesada, Makoto; Umemura, Tatsuo</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Salaciachinensis is a traditional South and Southeast Asian herb medicine and has been reported to have an antidiabetic function via ?-glucosidases inhibitory activity. In this study, the effects of S. chinensis extract (SCE) on reproductive functions of F0 males and females and the effects on survival and growth of F1 offspring were examined using Sprague-Dawley rats. SCE was administered at dose levels of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day orally to groups consisting of 25 males and 25 females. Males were dosed once a day in the morning from 8 weeks before mating, throughout the mating period and until the day before necropsy and females were dosed once a day in the morning for 2 weeks before mating and through the mating, gestation and lactation periods (until day 20 of lactation). In all SCE treatment groups, no toxic signs were noted on reproductive outcome such as estrous cycle of F0 females or any parameters for reproductive function or survival, growth, sensory reflex or function development of F1 pups. Therefore, we concluded that SCE has no effects on the reproductive outcome even at a remarkably high dosage level, 2000 mg/kg/day, in Sprague-Dawley rats. PMID:20920544</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::d6351e813d26bb80952f1ba9ba9adcaf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> biotechnology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Khalid Mahmood Khawar; Selma Onarici; Cigdem Alev Ozel; Muhammad Aasim; Allah Bakhsh; Abdul Qayyum Rao</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The first decade of the 21st century has seen an intense debate of the potential contribution of <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Biotechnology to meeting present and future world demands of food and biomass. The discussion started in 1997 when the first genetically modified (GM) crops were approved by the EPA for commercial production. The debate has been later stimulated by the increasing awareness of the potential effects of global climate change on agricultural production, as the current crops may be poorly adapted...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ableweb.org/volumes/vol-11/9-mineo.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Tissue Culture Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Lorraine Mineo (Lafayette College; )</p> <p>1989-06-06</p> <p><span class="hlt">Plant</span> tissue culture techniques are essential to many types of academic inquiry, as well as to many applied aspects of <span class="hlt">plant</span> science. Currently, tissue-cultured <span class="hlt">plants</span> that have been genetically engineered provide insight into <span class="hlt">plant</span> molecular biology and gene regulation. <span class="hlt">Plant</span> tissue culture techniques are also central to innovative areas of applied <span class="hlt">plant</span> science, including <span class="hlt">plant</span> biotechnology and agriculture. Thus, tissue culture techniques have been, and still are, prominent in academic and applied <span class="hlt">plant</span> science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.sciencenter.org/chemistry/d/plantpower.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Power</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Sciencenter</p> <p>2014-08-27</p> <p>In this chemistry challenge, learners identify which <span class="hlt">plants</span> have the enzyme "catalase" that breaks hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. Multiple fruits and vegetables, both raw and cooked (a few seconds in boiling water, or 30 seconds in the microwave) should be available for testing. Preparation time can be shortened by using a food processor. Background information is provided about enzymes (proteins that act as catalysts), and the specific enzyme catalase, which catalyzes hydrogen peroxide. Since heating destroys enzymes, cooked fruits and vegetables have no catalytic activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:17020030"><span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Data concerning the existing nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span> in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear <span class="hlt">plants</span>, its status and type; installed nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span> by country; nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span> under construction by country; planned nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span> by country; cancelled nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span> by country; shut-down nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span> by country. (E.G.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:28038245"><span id="translatedtitle">LNG <span class="hlt">plant</span> combined with power <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The LNG <span class="hlt">plant</span> consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG <span class="hlt">plant</span> location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG <span class="hlt">plant</span> is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG <span class="hlt">plant</span> with power <span class="hlt">plant</span> will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power <span class="hlt">plant</span> by keeping higher average load of the power <span class="hlt">plant</span>, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power <span class="hlt">plant</span> can be extracted from the LNG <span class="hlt">plant</span>, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25841876"><span id="translatedtitle">Dissociation between the panicolytic effect of cannabidiol microinjected into the substantia nigra, pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, and fear-induced antinociception elicited by bicuculline administration in deep layers of the superior colliculus: The role of CB1-cannabinoid receptor in the ventral mesencephalon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>da Silva, Juliana Almeida; Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; Almada, Rafael Carvalho; de Souza Crippa, José Alexandre; Cecílio Hallak, Jaime Eduardo; Zuardi, Antônio Waldo; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Many studies suggest that the substantia nigra, pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (SNpr), a tegmental mesencephalic structure rich in ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)- and cannabinoid receptor-containing neurons, is involved in the complex control of defensive responses through the neostriatum-nigral disinhibitory and nigro-tectal inhibitory GABAergic pathways during imminently dangerous situations. The aim of the present work was to investigate the role played by CB1-cannabinoid receptor of GABAergic pathways terminal boutons in the SNpr or of SNpr-endocannabinoid receptor-containing interneurons on the effect of intra-nigral microinjections of cannabidiol in the activity of nigro-tectal inhibitory pathways. GABAA receptor blockade in the deep layers of the superior colliculus (dlSC) elicited vigorous defensive behaviour. This explosive escape behaviour was followed by significant antinociception. Cannabidiol microinjection into the SNpr had a clear anti-aversive effect, decreasing the duration of defensive alertness, the frequency and duration of defensive immobility, and the frequency and duration of explosive escape behaviour, expressed by running and jumps, elicited by transitory GABAergic dysfunction in dlSC. However, the innate fear induced-antinociception was not significantly changed. The blockade of CB1 endocannabinoid receptor in the SNpr decreased the anti-aversive effect of canabidiol based on the frequency and duration of defensive immobility, the frequency of escape expressed by running, and both the frequency and duration of escape expressed by jumps. These findings suggest a CB1 mediated endocannabinoid signalling in cannabidiol modulation of panic-like defensive behaviour, but not of innate fear-induced antinociception evoked by GABAA receptor blockade with bicuculline microinjection into the superior colliculus, with a putative activity in nigro-collicular GABAergic pathways. PMID:25841876</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002863.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Caladium <span class="hlt">plant</span> poisoning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... <span class="hlt">plant</span> Note: All parts of the <span class="hlt">plants</span> are poisonous if large amounts are eaten. ... Hostetler MA, Schneider SM. Poisonous <span class="hlt">plants</span>. In: Tintinalli JE, Kelen GD, Stapczynski JS, Ma OJ, Cline DM, eds. Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide . 6th ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.mbgnet.net/bioplants/"><span id="translatedtitle">Biology of <span class="hlt">Plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-01-05</p> <p>Younger students can learn about <span class="hlt">plant</span> biology. Topics include characteristics of living things, germination and growth, the basic parts of <span class="hlt">plants</span>, photosynthesis, reproduction, and ecological adaptations of <span class="hlt">plants</span>. The information presented can also be ordered as a video.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::dd5c8407bda9dfecfa334d49cf9f48c3"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">plant</span> microbiome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Turner, TR; James, EK; Poole, PS</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Plant</span> genomes contribute to the structure and function of the <span class="hlt">plant</span> microbiome, a key determinant of <span class="hlt">plant</span> health and productivity. High-throughput technologies are revealing interactions between these complex communities and their hosts in unprecedented detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://emergency.cdc.gov/radiation/pdf/infographic_nuclear_power_plant.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear Power <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Accidents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>NUCLEAR POWER <span class="hlt">PLANT</span> ACCIDENTS Nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span> have safety and security procedures in place and are closely ... a plume). What are the main dangers of nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span> accidents? Radioactive materials in the plume ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://stke.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/2006/322/eg3"><span id="translatedtitle">Focus Issue: <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Communication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Nancy R. Gough (American Association for the Advancement of Science; Science's STKE REV)</p> <p>2006-02-14</p> <p>This week’s issues of Science and Science’s STKE focus on <span class="hlt">plant</span> signaling with an emphasis on volatile organic compounds. Science emphasizes the chemistry of and information encoded by <span class="hlt">plant</span> volatiles and how <span class="hlt">plants</span>, <span class="hlt">plant</span> pathogens, or humans utilize this aromatic information. Articles and resources at STKE highlight the evolution of olfactory signal transduction, describe the biosynthetic and signaling pathways of the <span class="hlt">plant</span> hormone jasmonate, and provide an animated overview of how the <span class="hlt">plant</span> hormone auxin regulates gene expression.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://ia.usu.edu/viewproject.php?project=ia:14484"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Development and Reproduction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Elizabeth</p> <p>2010-09-28</p> <p>Here you will find basic information on the reproduction and growth of <span class="hlt">plants</span>; from a seed that develops into a full grown <span class="hlt">plant</span> and then, when sexually mature, produces its own seeds. <span class="hlt">Plant</span> development and reproduction Standard 3, objective 3 (4 th grade). Observe <span class="hlt">plant</span> growth and relate it to soil conditions. Objectives : List the resources needed for the healthy growth of <span class="hlt">plants</span>. Explain how a seed germinates and <span class="hlt">plants</span> grow. Describe the ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=135075"><span id="translatedtitle">THE <span class="hlt">PLANT</span> ONTOLOGY CONSORTIUM AND <span class="hlt">PLANT</span> ONTOLOGIES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The goal of the <span class="hlt">Plant</span> OntologyTM Consortium is to produce structured controlled vocabularies, arranged in ontologies, that can be applied to <span class="hlt">plant</span>-based database information even as knowledge of the biology of the relevant <span class="hlt">plant</span> taxa (e.g., development, anatomy, morphology, genomics, proteomics) is ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://serc.carleton.edu/sp/merlot/biology/visualizations/examples/growth_reg.html"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Growth Regulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>This page authored by Jim Bidlack, University of Central Oklahoma, based on original activities by Long Ashton Research Station, KScience, Cynthia Herbrandson, Kellogg Community College, Ross Koning, Eastern Connecticut State University, and A.G. Scientific, Inc.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Plant</span> growth regulators, including auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, and ethylene, are investigated in this learning activity to demonstrate how these chemicals (hormones) affect <span class="hlt">plant</span> growth and development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:17062126"><span id="translatedtitle">Curium in <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Published information on the occurrence and distribution of curium in <span class="hlt">plants</span> is surveyed. Results from field studies are limited and the majority of the relevant data derive from glasshouse experiments in which (nominally) root uptake was the only means of entry of curium into the <span class="hlt">plant</span>. Often, experiments designed to investigate the effect of a particular factor on the uptake of curium by <span class="hlt">plants</span> (e.g. a soil chemical property, species of <span class="hlt">plant</span>) have, due to analytical difficulties, yielded inconclusive results. Occurrence in <span class="hlt">plants</span>; soil-<span class="hlt">plant</span> relationships; species-dependence of its concentration ratios; root uptake; and the distribution within <span class="hlt">plants</span> are considered. (Auth./G.J.P.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperDownload.aspx?DOI=10.4236/as.2012.32029"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of flooding on grafted annona <span class="hlt">plants</span> of different scion/rootstock combinations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Jian-Yun Zhu</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Full Text Available <i>Annona atemoya</i> Hort cv. African Pride (AP is highly valued due to its high quality and unique flavor, but highly susceptible to water-logging. Prevalence of root diseases in saturated soils is one of the main problems in production, which restricts the development of AP in south China, where flooding frequently occurs in rainy seasons. However, some annona species, e.g. <i>A. montana</i>, <i>A. glabra</i> and <i>A. muricata</i>, are relatively tolerant to continuous flooding and periodic water-logging conditions, but of limited commercial value. Yet, the potential may exist to increase flood tolerance of commercial annona varieties by the use of flood tolerant rootstocks. An experiment was conducted with the aim to study the effects of continuous or periodical soil flooding on tree performances of four different annona scion/rootstock combinations: AP/AR/G (scion/interstock/rootstock, AR/G (scion/rootstock, AP/AR/M and AR/M, where AP stands for Annona atemoya Hort cv. African Pride, AR for the hybrid of “AP” atemoya × <i>A. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span></i>, used as an interstock, G for pond apple (<i>A. glabra</i>, and M for mountain soursop (<i>A. montana</i>. <span class="hlt">Plant</span> growth, leaf net photosynthetic rates and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were measured regularly after flooding treatments were applied. Flooding treatments reduced shoot extension, leaf production, net photosynthetic rates and maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (F<sub>v</sub>/F<sub>m</sub> in <span class="hlt">plants</span> of AP/AR/M and AR/M, which displayed wilting within 2 weeks of flooding, with a higher wilting percentage in AP/AR/M than in AR/M. The wilted <span class="hlt">plants</span> shed all leaves but remained alive and sprouted new but weak shoots after 16 weeks of flooding. Long term flooding did not suppress but enhanced photosynthesis as well as tree growth in AP/AR/G and AR/G, with vigorous growth of adventitious roots. Thus, we suggest the use <i>A. glabra</i> instead of <i>A. montana</i> as a rootstock and AR as an interstock to increase flood tolerance of commercial annona varieties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.teachengineering.org/view_activity.php?url=collection/cub_/activities/cub_bio/cub_bio_lesson04_activity1.xml"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Cycles: Photosynthesis & Transpiration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,</p> <p></p> <p>What do <span class="hlt">plants</span> need? Students examine the effects of light and air on green <span class="hlt">plants</span>, learning the processes of photosynthesis and transpiration. Student teams <span class="hlt">plant</span> seeds, placing some in sunlight and others in darkness. They make predictions about the outcomes and record ongoing observations of the condition of the stems, leaves and roots. Then, several healthy <span class="hlt">plants</span> are placed in glass jars with lids overnight. Condensation forms, illustrating the process of transpiration, or the release of moisture to the atmosphere by <span class="hlt">plants</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:17062120"><span id="translatedtitle">Plutonium in <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A bibliography on plutonium in <span class="hlt">plants</span> is presented. It covers the subjects occurrence of plutonium in <span class="hlt">plants</span>; soil-<span class="hlt">plant</span> relationships; root uptake; distribution and translocation; foliar deposition and loss. Compiled data are presented on: recorded and calculated concentration factors of plutonium as well as those for uranium; concentration ratios for several crop types; proportion of plutonium removed from soil by <span class="hlt">plants</span>; concentration ratios according to <span class="hlt">plant</span> parts of cereal and vegetable crops. (G.J.P.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/5930051/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Research '75</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Research is reported on stomatal regulation of the gas exchanges between <span class="hlt">plant</span> and environment; inhibitory effects in flower formation; <span class="hlt">plant</span> growth and development through hormones; hormone action; development and nitrogen fixation in algae; primary cell wall glycoprotein ectensin; enzymic mechanisms and control of polysaccharide and glycoprotein synthesis; molecular studies of membrane studies; sensory transduction in <span class="hlt">plants</span>; regulation of formation of protein complexes and enzymes in higher <span class="hlt">plant</span> cell and mechanism of sulfur dioxide toxicity in <span class="hlt">plants</span>. (PCS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.rain-tree.com/plants.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Raintree: Tropical <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Database</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Hosted by Raintree, the Tropical <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Database is authored and maintained by Board Certified Naturopath, Ms. Leslie Taylor to provide accurate information about rainforest <span class="hlt">plants</span> and to help promote rainforest conservation. Including over 300 pages of documentation on rainforest <span class="hlt">plants</span> and very well-organized, the Tropical <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Database lists <span class="hlt">plants</span> by Common name, Botanical name, Ethnic uses, and Action/disorder. The Database File for each <span class="hlt">plant</span> includes an illustration and information about family, genus, species, common names, <span class="hlt">plant</span> description, and more. Visitors can link to great illustrations and photos as well as web resources for each <span class="hlt">plant</span> including Medline Abstracts, W3 TROPICOS Database, Ethnobotany Database, and Phtyochem Database among others. <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Database File pages include references as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/850165-RcWXM4/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Phenotype Characterization System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels</p> <p>2005-09-09</p> <p>This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of <span class="hlt">plant</span> root systems. The root systems of <span class="hlt">plants</span> are thought to be important in <span class="hlt">plant</span> yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of <span class="hlt">plant</span> root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing <span class="hlt">plant</span> root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow <span class="hlt">plant</span> specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same <span class="hlt">plant</span> can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in <span class="hlt">plant</span> physiology, <span class="hlt">plant</span> morphology, <span class="hlt">plant</span> breeding, <span class="hlt">plant</span> functional genomics and <span class="hlt">plant</span> genotype screening.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12740212"><span id="translatedtitle">Aspects of <span class="hlt">plant</span> intelligence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Trewavas, Anthony</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>Intelligence is not a term commonly used when <span class="hlt">plants</span> are discussed. However, I believe that this is an omission based not on a true assessment of the ability of <span class="hlt">plants</span> to compute complex aspects of their environment, but solely a reflection of a sessile lifestyle. This article, which is admittedly controversial, attempts to raise many issues that surround this area. To commence use of the term intelligence with regard to <span class="hlt">plant</span> behaviour will lead to a better understanding of the complexity of <span class="hlt">plant</span> signal transduction and the discrimination and sensitivity with which <span class="hlt">plants</span> construct images of their environment, and raises critical questions concerning how <span class="hlt">plants</span> compute responses at the whole-<span class="hlt">plant</span> level. Approaches to investigating learning and memory in <span class="hlt">plants</span> will also be considered. PMID:12740212</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-DATAGOV&redirectUrl=http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/invasive-plant-locations"><span id="translatedtitle">Invasive <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Locations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the most recent measurement of Invasive <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Infestation polygons collected by the National Invasive <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Inventory Protocol....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-DATAGOV&redirectUrl=http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/kansas-power-plants"><span id="translatedtitle">Kansas Power <span class="hlt">Plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power <span class="hlt">Plants</span> database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power <span class="hlt">plant</span> locations in Kansas. The locations of the power...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ready.gov/nuclear-power-plants"><span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear Power <span class="hlt">Plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... cause serious illness or death. Before Before a Nuclear Power <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Emergency The following are things you ... Executive Office of the President. During During a Nuclear Power <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Emergency If an accident at a ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761991000600008"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> tissue culture techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Rolf Dieter Illg</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available <span class="hlt">Plant</span> cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single <span class="hlt">plant</span> cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.apsnet.org/careers/careersinplantpathology/Pages/default.aspx"><span id="translatedtitle">Careers in <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Pathology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Margaret Daughtrey (American Phytopathological Society; )</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This brochure reads easily and features pictures of <span class="hlt">plant</span> pathologists in action, curious-looking disease symptoms and microscopic views of pathogens. This tool is intended to inspire more young scientists to consider <span class="hlt">plant</span> pathology as a career choice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.amnh.org/education/resources/rfl/pdf/plant_insect_int.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span>/Insect Interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This list of 12 investigative questions is designed to help students observe how insects interact with <span class="hlt">plants</span> in their habitat. The one-page printable PDF list includes questions about the insect behavior and the <span class="hlt">plant</span> characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21177994"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalogue of the Lower Cretaceous fossil <span class="hlt">plant</span> collection from the Autonomous Region of La Rioja (Spain) held at the Geominero Museum (Spanish Geological Survey); Catalogo de la coleccion de plantas fosiles del Cretacico Inferior de la Comunidad Autonoma de La Rioja (Espana) depositada en el Museo Geominero (Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espana)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Fuente, M de la; Gomez, B.</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>The Collection of Fossil Invertebrate and Flora from Spain constitutes a 76% of the total collections in the Geominero Museum. The fossil <span class="hlt">plant</span> mega remains form the Lower Cretaceous of La Rioja, included in such collection, have been revised from the bibliographical, museological, systematic and taxonomic points of view, and have shown significant historical and palaeobotanical interests. The 22 specimens come from the localities of Ortigosa de Cameros and Prejano. The samples from Prejano, collected during the production of the Spanish Geological Map of Calahorra in 1947, have an outstanding interest. They allowed giving an accurate age to the lignite in which the fossil <span class="hlt">plants</span> were found (Lower Cretaceous), after several wrong determinations. The museological study has allowed reorganizing the collections through inventorying, correction of errors and inclusion of new data. In relation to the taxonomic and systematic revision, it has provided a catalogue in which diverse genera and species of ferns (Sphenopteris [Brongniart] Sternberg, 1825; Weichselia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> [Stokes and Webb] Fontaine emend. Alvin, 1971) and conifers (Brachyphyllum Brongniart, 1828, Pagiophyllum Heer, 1881, Sphenolepis cf. debile Heer, 1881) have been identified. Moreover, the analysis of the collection from those points of view enabled the detection of specimens that do not belong to it (Pagiophyllum pedreranum Barale, 1989; Montsechia vidalii [Zeiller] Teixeira, 1954). Lower Cretaceous flora collections known from Cameros Basin are rare and fragmentary; as a result, the collection held at the Geominero Museum has additional interest. (Author) 40 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::65b380b3680019da0881944812a47b6d"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of <span class="hlt">plant</span> breeding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Hallauer, Arnel R.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Plant</span> breeding is considered one of the longest ongoing activities undertaken by humans, who select plantsmore productive and useful to themselves and the animals for at least 10,000 years ago. The evolution of civilizationsparalleled the success of <span class="hlt">plant</span> breeding, although this has not been recognized by the public. The reason may be lack ofunderstanding of what <span class="hlt">plant</span> breeding encompasses. The concept of <span class="hlt">plant</span> breeding evolved, depending on the time it wasformulated, but without losing the e...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://ia.usu.edu/viewproject.php?project=ia:16535"><span id="translatedtitle">Life Cycle of <span class="hlt">Plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Miss Johnson</p> <p>2011-04-07</p> <p>What is the life cycle of <span class="hlt">plants</span>? First, look at pictures of Apple seeds , A Peach Seed , and Corn Seeds . Second, look at pictures of a Tomato Seedling , a Coconut Seedling , and Lettuce Seedlings . Third, look at pictures of Adult Palm Trees , Adult Rice <span class="hlt">Plants</span> , and an Adult Grape Vine . Next, read about Seed Growth and How Seeds Start to Grow. After doing so, watch the <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Life Cycle Video and fill out the <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Life Cycle Organizer . ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::c2c5c74c9723409b6e814882337f35b0"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Plant</span> – Pathogen Interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>CAHYA PRIHATNA</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Interaction between <span class="hlt">plants</span> and their pathogens is complex, involving multifaceted recognition of pathogens by the <span class="hlt">plants</span> and, on the other hand, subtle evasion from the pathogens. <span class="hlt">Plants</span> perceive pathogens through direct recognition of common molecular patterns in microbes and direct recognition of effectors or their perturbation on cellular components by the pathogens. Recognition of microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns triggers innate immunity that renders <span class="hlt">plants</span> resistant to ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::a6a8a0c7d6beab4a5a09766bf075ed59"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> abiotic stress signaling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Akpinar, B. Ani; Avsar, Bihter; Lucas, Stuart J.; Budak, Hikmet</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Stress signaling is central to <span class="hlt">plants</span> which—as immobile organisms—have to endure environmental fluctuations that constantly interfere with vigorous growth. As a result, <span class="hlt">plant</span>-specific, elaborate mechanisms have evolved to perceive and respond to stress conditions. Currently, these stress responses are plausibly being revealed to involve crosstalks with energy signaling pathways as any growth-limiting factor alters <span class="hlt">plant’s</span> energy status. Among these, autophagy, conventionally regarded as...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.teachengineering.org/view_activity.php?url=collection/cub_/activities/cub_desal/cub_desal_lesson01_activity2.xml"><span id="translatedtitle">Water Desalination <span class="hlt">Plant</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,</p> <p></p> <p>Students use a thermal process approach to design, build and test a small-scale desalination <span class="hlt">plant</span> that is capable of significantly removing the salt content from a saltwater solution. Students use a saltwater circuit to test the efficiency of their model desalination <span class="hlt">plant</span> and learn how the water cycle is the basis for the thermal processes that drive their desalination <span class="hlt">plant</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______370::48d8c3b5e65397553fdd1815ac617e98"><span id="translatedtitle">Classification of cultivated <span class="hlt">plants</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Brandenburg, W.A.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Agricultural practice demands principles for classification, starting from the basal entity in cultivated <span class="hlt">plants</span>: the cultivar. In establishing biosystematic relationships between wild, weedy and cultivated <span class="hlt">plants</span>, the species concept needs re-examination. Combining of botanic classification, based on biosystematic research, and agricultural classification starting from the cultivar, into one unequivocal classification system for cultivated <span class="hlt">plants</span>, is urgently needed. This is illustrated by t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/1046269/"><span id="translatedtitle">Power <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Cycling Costs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power <span class="hlt">plant</span> cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power <span class="hlt">plant</span> cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, <span class="hlt">plant</span> personnel and power utilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19143994"><span id="translatedtitle">What is <span class="hlt">plant</span> behaviour?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Trewavas, Anthony</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>The nature of <span class="hlt">plant</span> behaviour is discussed, and it is concluded that it is best described as what <span class="hlt">plants</span> do. The possibility that <span class="hlt">plant</span> behaviour is simply signal-induced phenotypic plasticity is outlined, and some limitations of this assumption are considered. Natural environments present many challenges to growing <span class="hlt">plants</span>, and the consequent signalling that <span class="hlt">plants</span> perceive is becoming extremely complex. <span class="hlt">Plant</span> behaviour is active, purposeful and intentional, and examples are discussed. Much <span class="hlt">plant</span> behaviour, concerned with stress and herbivory, is also based on an assessment of the future likelihood of further damaging episodes and is therefore predictive. <span class="hlt">Plant</span> behaviour involves the acquisition and processing of information. Informational terminology provides a suitable way of incorporating the concepts of learning, memory and intelligence into <span class="hlt">plant</span> behaviour, capabilities that <span class="hlt">plants</span> are rarely credited with. Finally, trade-offs, cost-benefit assessments and decision making are common <span class="hlt">plant</span> behavioural attributes. It is suggested that intelligent assessments that involve the whole <span class="hlt">plant</span> are essential to optimize these adaptive capabilities. PMID:19143994</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::02176ebb8b97c08b85a7546cb18d5eb8"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> perceptions of <span class="hlt">plant</span> growth-promoting Pseudomonas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Preston, GM</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Plant</span>-associated Pseudomonas live as saprophytes and parasites on <span class="hlt">plant</span> surfaces and inside <span class="hlt">plant</span> tissues. Many <span class="hlt">plant</span>-associated Pseudomonas promote <span class="hlt">plant</span> growth by suppressing pathogenic micro-organisms, synthesizing growth-stimulating <span class="hlt">plant</span> hormones and promoting increased <span class="hlt">plant</span> disease resistance. Others inhibit <span class="hlt">plant</span> growth and cause disease symptoms ranging from rot and necrosis through to developmental dystrophies such as galls. It is not easy to draw a clear distinction between pathoge...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:31062559"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydroelectric Power <span class="hlt">Plants</span> Dobsina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this brochure the Hydroelectric Power <span class="hlt">Plants</span> Dobsina, (VED), subsidiary of the utility Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, plc. Bratislava) are presented. VED is mainly aimed at generating peak-load electrical energy and maintenance of operational equipment. Reaching its goals, company is first of all focused on reliability of production, economy and effectiveness, keeping principles of work safety and industry safety standards and also ecology. VED operates eight hydroelectric power <span class="hlt">plants</span>, from which PVE Ruzin I and PVE Dobsina I are pump storage ones and they are controlled directly by the Slovak Energy Dispatch Centre located in Zilina thought the system LS 3200. Those power <span class="hlt">plants</span> participate in secondary regulation of electrical network of Slovakia. They are used to compensate balance in reference to foreign electrical networks and they are put into operation independently from VED. Activity of the branch is focused mainly on support of fulfilment of such an important aim as electric network regulation. Beginnings of the subsidiary Hydroelectric Power <span class="hlt">Plants</span> Dobsina are related to the year of 1948. After commissioning of the pump storage Hydroelectric Power <span class="hlt">Plants</span> Dobsina in 1953, the <span class="hlt">plant</span> started to carry out its mission. Since that time the subsidiary has been enlarged by other seven power <span class="hlt">plants</span>, through which it is fulfilling its missions nowadays. The characteristics of these hydroelectric power <span class="hlt">plants</span> (The pump-storage power <span class="hlt">plant</span> Dobsina, Small hydroelectric power <span class="hlt">plant</span> Dobsina II, Small hydroelectric power <span class="hlt">plant</span> Rakovec, Small hydroelectric power <span class="hlt">plant</span> Svedlar, Hydroelectric power <span class="hlt">plant</span> Domasa, The pump-storage power <span class="hlt">plant</span> Ruzin, and Small hydroelectric power <span class="hlt">plant</span> Krompachy) are described in detail. Employees welfare and public relations are presented</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.plant-hormones.info/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span>-Hormones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Long Ashton Research Station -- part of the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (UK) -- will close in March 2003, but its online resource <span class="hlt">Plant</span>-Hormones will continue to provide general information and references on gibberellins, auxins, cytokinins, and other hormone groups. Additionally, this Web site provides a link to a listserver for <span class="hlt">plant</span> hormone scientists, a discussion forum "intended to promote communication between professionals in the <span class="hlt">plant</span> hormone field." <span class="hlt">Plant</span>-Hormones also lists job vacancies, meetings announcements, and Web links for botany and molecular biology resources, while offering an online directory of <span class="hlt">plant</span> hormone researchers searchable by country.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39057666"><span id="translatedtitle">Safe genetically engineered <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The application of genetic engineering to <span class="hlt">plants</span> has provided genetically modified <span class="hlt">plants</span> (GMPs, or transgenic <span class="hlt">plants</span>) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into <span class="hlt">plants</span> allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the <span class="hlt">plant</span> genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic <span class="hlt">plants</span> to non-transgenic crops or wild <span class="hlt">plants</span>. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated <span class="hlt">plants</span>, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage <span class="hlt">plant</span>. These emergfa, an important forage <span class="hlt">plant</span>. These emerging methods for <span class="hlt">plant</span> genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21037674"><span id="translatedtitle">Safe genetically engineered <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Rosellini, D; Veronesi, F [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale e Biotecnologie Agroambientali e Zootecniche, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Borgo XX giugno 74, 06121 Perugia (Italy)</p> <p>2007-10-03</p> <p>The application of genetic engineering to <span class="hlt">plants</span> has provided genetically modified <span class="hlt">plants</span> (GMPs, or transgenic <span class="hlt">plants</span>) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into <span class="hlt">plants</span> allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the <span class="hlt">plant</span> genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic <span class="hlt">plants</span> to non-transgenic crops or wild <span class="hlt">plants</span>. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated <span class="hlt">plants</span>, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage <span class="hlt">plant</span>. These emerging methods for <span class="hlt">plant</span> genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPCM...19M5005R"><span id="translatedtitle">Safe genetically engineered <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>The application of genetic engineering to <span class="hlt">plants</span> has provided genetically modified <span class="hlt">plants</span> (GMPs, or transgenic <span class="hlt">plants</span>) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into <span class="hlt">plants</span> allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the <span class="hlt">plant</span> genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic <span class="hlt">plants</span> to non-transgenic crops or wild <span class="hlt">plants</span>. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated <span class="hlt">plants</span>, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage <span class="hlt">plant</span>. These emerging methods for <span class="hlt">plant</span> genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/1015196-Tv9sO9/"><span id="translatedtitle">Conditional sterility in <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Meagher, Richard B. (Athens, GA); McKinney, Elizabeth (Athens, GA); Kim, Tehryung (Taejeon, KR)</p> <p>2010-02-23</p> <p>The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic <span class="hlt">plant</span> cells, <span class="hlt">plant</span> tissue and <span class="hlt">plants</span> which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic <span class="hlt">plants</span> are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such <span class="hlt">plants</span> are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic <span class="hlt">plants</span> also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::6ec6fff6892d795ed14b811307a7e74b"><span id="translatedtitle">Aspects of <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Intelligence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Trewavas, Anthony</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Intelligence is not a term commonly used when <span class="hlt">plants</span> are discussed. However, I believe that this is an omission based not on a true assessment of the ability of <span class="hlt">plants</span> to compute complex aspects of their environment, but solely a reflection of a sessile lifestyle. This article, which is admittedly controversial, attempts to raise many issues that surround this area. To commence use of the term intelligence with regard to <span class="hlt">plant</span> behaviour will lead to a better understanding of the complexity of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::7ba0a6cd22a6e9c2df835db2f3fd3505"><span id="translatedtitle">Medicinal <span class="hlt">plants</span> in therapy*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Farnsworth, Norman R.; Akerele, Olayiwola; Bingel, Audrey S.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Guo, Zhengang</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>One of the prerequisites for the success of primary health care is the availability and use of suitable drugs. <span class="hlt">Plants</span> have always been a common source of medicaments, either in the form of traditional preparations or as pure active principles. It is thus reasonable for decision-makers to identify locally available <span class="hlt">plants</span> or <span class="hlt">plant</span> extracts that could usefully be added to the national list of drugs, or that could even replace some pharmaceutical preparations that need to be purchased and import...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:7248759"><span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear <span class="hlt">plant</span> safety</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>French regulations governing nuclear <span class="hlt">plants</span> other than reactors are reviewed. The problems raised by the different fuel cycle <span class="hlt">plants</span> are mentioned together with the risks encountered. Emphasis is laid on the importance of the definition of safety principles which, if correctly applied, will allow a satisfactory safety standard to be reached and maintained throughout the lifetime of the <span class="hlt">plant</span> and under all circumstances. Methods of safety analysis are then developed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::6d65c7427b1530ac0f0b6294fc7f5e9d"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plants</span> as Environmental Biosensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Volkov, Alexander G.; Ranatunga, Don Rufus A</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Plants</span> are continuously exposed to a wide variety of perturbations including variation of temperature and/or light, mechanical forces, gravity, air and soil pollution, drought, deficiency or surplus of nutrients, attacks by insects and pathogens, etc., and hence, it is essential for all <span class="hlt">plants</span> to have survival sensory mechanisms against such perturbations. Consequently, <span class="hlt">plants</span> generate various types of intracellular and intercellular electrical signals mostly in the form of action and variati...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::bbac34184449c4baed189e1e4939bab0"><span id="translatedtitle">ANTIMICROBIAL CONSTITUENTS FROM <span class="hlt">PLANTS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Murgananthan, G.; Sathya Chethan Pabbithi</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Research on medicinal <span class="hlt">plants</span> showed promising constituents for effective treatment and management of various illnesses. Microbes are commonly found everywhere which causes many diseases to the man kind. Antibiotics available in the markets are often reported of microbial resistance. Scientist realized that the effective life span of any Antibiotic is limited hence new sources from <span class="hlt">plants</span> need be investigated. A multitude of <span class="hlt">plant</span> compounds as always promised as a Antimicrobial agents. In this...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15169264"><span id="translatedtitle">Phyllotactic patterns on <span class="hlt">plants</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Shipman, Patrick D; Newell, Alan C</p> <p>2004-04-23</p> <p>We demonstrate how phyllotaxis (the arrangement of leaves on <span class="hlt">plants</span>) and the deformation configurations seen on <span class="hlt">plant</span> surfaces may be understood as the energy-minimizing buckling pattern of a compressed shell (the <span class="hlt">plant</span>'s tunica) on an elastic foundation. The key new idea is that the strain energy is minimized by configurations consisting of special triads of almost periodic deformations. We reproduce a wide spectrum of <span class="hlt">plant</span> patterns, all with the divergence angles observed in nature, and show how the occurrences of Fibonacci-like sequences and the golden angle are natural consequences. PMID:15169264</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWSCERN-EN&redirectUrl=http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1620143"><span id="translatedtitle">The Kuroshio power <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p>Chen, Falin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>By outlining a new design or the Kuroshio power <span class="hlt">plant</span>, new approaches to turbine design, anchorage system planning, deep sea marine engineering and power <span class="hlt">plant</span> operations and maintenance are explored and suggested. The impact on the local environment, particularly in the face of natural disasters, is also considered to provide a well rounded introduction to plan and build a 30MW pilot power <span class="hlt">plant</span>. Following a literature review, the six chapters of this book propose a conceptual design by focusing on the <span class="hlt">plant</span>'s core technologies and establish the separate analysis logics for turbine design and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27072880"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> operation control device</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The device of the present invention, upon occurrence of abnormality of a BWR type power <span class="hlt">plant</span>, enables operators to conduct operations accurately at an appropriate timing while recognizing the state of the <span class="hlt">plant</span>. Namely, a <span class="hlt">plant</span> data monitoring device monitors <span class="hlt">plant</span> data from measuring equipments in the <span class="hlt">plant</span>. An abnormality judging device judges values from monitoring sensors in the <span class="hlt">plant</span> and outputs information such as presence or absence of abnormality, the portion, the kind and the extent of the abnormality to a procedure guidance device. The procedure guidance device outputs a procedure guidance in terms of the operation based on the information of abnormality and the <span class="hlt">plant</span> data. In addition, there are disposed a means for estimating the probability for transition of the efficiency (performance) and the safety of the <span class="hlt">plant</span> (probability after accident) based on information on abnormality and data change of the <span class="hlt">plant</span>, a statistical intent deciding means using the probability after accident, and a means for displaying to operators what operation should be preformed among operations in the procedure guidance based on the obtained results. This can prevent operators from erroneous operation and erroneous instruction upon occurrence of abnormality. (I.S.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://urbanext.illinois.edu/gpe/index.cfm"><span id="translatedtitle">The Great <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Escape</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This entertaining and educational Web site from the University of Illinois Extension asks students to help Detective Le <span class="hlt">Plant</span> and his assistants, Bud and Sprout, solve mysteries of the <span class="hlt">plant</span> kingdom. As they work through the cases, students can learn facts about <span class="hlt">plant</span> structures, functions, and life cycles; develop an understanding of <span class="hlt">plants</span> as an important food source; and complete a variety of hands-on activities. The site is designed for 4th and 5th grade students, and each case includes a teacher's guide to help steer students through the activities. Activities and cases can be used in series as they are presented, or as stand alone activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-DATAGOV&redirectUrl=http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/mbs-native-plant-communities"><span id="translatedtitle">MBS Native <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Communities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native <span class="hlt">plant</span> communities...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:8343930"><span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span> simulator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this paper, real time nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span> simulator for student education is described. The simulator is composed of a hybrid computer and an operating console. Simulated power <span class="hlt">plant</span> is a 36 MWt PWR <span class="hlt">plant</span>, and the average temperature of the primary coolant within the reactor is controlled to be constant. Reactor Kinetics, fuel temperature, primary coolant temperature, temperature and pressure of steam within the steam generator, steam flow, control rod driving system, and feed water controlling system are simulated. The use of the hybrid computer made it possible to simulate a relatively large scale power <span class="hlt">plant</span> with a comparatively small size computing system. (auth.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DEFFRD-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Plant+integrity%3A+an+important+factor+in+plant-pathogen+interactions"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> integrity: an important factor in <span class="hlt">plant</span>-pathogen interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Orlowska, Elzbieta Zofia; Llorente, Briardo</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The effect of <span class="hlt">plant</span> integrity and of aboveground-belowground defense signaling on <span class="hlt">plant</span> resistance against pathogens and herbivores is emerging as a subject of scientific research. There is increasing evidence that <span class="hlt">plant</span> defense responses to pathogen infection differ between whole intact <span class="hlt">plants</span> and detached leaves. Studies have revealed the importance of aboveground-belowground defense signaling for <span class="hlt">plant</span> defenses against herbivores, while our studies have uncovered that the roots as well as the <span class="hlt">plant</span> integrity are important for the resistance of the potato cultivar Sarpo Mira against the hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Furthermore, in the Sarpo Mira–P. infestans interactions, the <span class="hlt">plant’s</span> meristems, the stalks or both, seem to be associated with the development of the hypersensitive response and both the <span class="hlt">plant’s</span> roots and shoots contain antimicrobial compounds when the aerial parts of the <span class="hlt">plants</span> are infected. Here, we present a short overview of the evidence indicating the importance of <span class="hlt">plant</span> integrity on <span class="hlt">plant</span> defense responses</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=CZAPUBDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0185508"><span id="translatedtitle">Cryptosporidium muris in a Reticulated Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.library.sk/i2/i2.entry.cls?ictx=cav&op=advsrch&qt=3">Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database</a></p> <p>Kodádková, A.; Kvá?, M.; Ditrich, Oleg; Sak, Bohumil; Xiao, L.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Ro?. 96, ?. 1 (2010), s. 211-212. ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA524/05/0992; GA ?R GP523/07/P117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cryptosporidium muris * Reticulated giraffe * natural infection Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2010</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/124976-XdXGzz/webviewable/"><span id="translatedtitle">Pilot <span class="hlt">plant</span> becomes demonstration <span class="hlt">plant</span> design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Robertson, A.; Hook, J. van; Burkhard, F. [and others</p> <p>1995-11-01</p> <p>Advanced or second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion <span class="hlt">plants</span> (APFBC) that generate electricity offer utilities the potential for significantly increased efficiencies with reduced costs of electricity and lower emissions while burning the nation`s abundant supply of high-sulfur coal. The three major objectives of Phase 3 are: test a 1.2-MWe equivalent carbonizer and Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor (CPFBC) with their associated ceramic candle filters as an integrated subsystem; evaluate the effect of coal-water paste feed on carbonizer performance; and revise the commercial <span class="hlt">plant</span> performance and economic predictions where necessary. This report describes the project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/5426/380.full?sid=af43328f-7145-415a-aea0-0981dd4769e5"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Functional Genomics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Chris Somerville (Carnegie Institution of Washington; Department of Plant Biology)</p> <p>1999-07-16</p> <p>Nucleotide sequencing of the Arabidopsis genome is nearing completion, sequencing of the rice genome has begun, and large amounts of expressed sequence tag information are being obtained for many other <span class="hlt">plants</span>. There are many opportunities to use this wealth of sequence information to accelerate progress toward a comprehensive understanding of the genetic mechanisms that control <span class="hlt">plant</span> growth and development and responses to the environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780000482&hterms=otec&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dotec"><span id="translatedtitle">Ocean thermal <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Owens, L. J.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Modular Ocean Thermal-Energy Conversion (OTEC) <span class="hlt">plant</span> permits vital component research and testing and serves as operational generator for 100 megawatts of electric power. Construction permits evaporators and condensers to be tested in same environment in which they will be used, and could result in design specifications for most efficient <span class="hlt">plant</span> facilities in future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/1080288"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> pathogen resistance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Greenberg, Jean T; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy</p> <p>2012-11-27</p> <p>Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in <span class="hlt">plants</span>. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a <span class="hlt">plant</span>'s defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.fastplants.org/pdf/grow/fastplantscare.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Fast <span class="hlt">Plants</span> Care</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program</p> <p></p> <p>This four-page handout explains the key steps to follow when caring for Wisconsin Fast <span class="hlt">Plants</span> (Brassica rapa) throughout their life cycle, from sowing through harvesting seeds. This handout includes information about the materials needed, methods for tending and caring for your <span class="hlt">plants</span>, and troubleshooting tips.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/399371-WJTihr/webviewable/"><span id="translatedtitle">Power <span class="hlt">plant</span> chemical technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>NONE</p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power <span class="hlt">plant</span> materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=293059"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress detection in <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>How can the status of <span class="hlt">plant</span> stress be measured rapidly and accurately in the hundreds of trees managed within a commercial orchard? Two technologies have been developed over the past two decades that will provide useful information to detect <span class="hlt">plant</span> stress in orchard systems: 1) Reflectance of visibl...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://energyquest.ca.gov/projects/geothermal-pp.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Geothermal Power <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>California Energy Commission</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In this activity, learners make a model of a power <span class="hlt">plant</span> that uses steam. Learners use simple materials like foil, a tin can, and a pot of water to model a geothermal power <span class="hlt">plant</span>. Learners use a pinwheel to observe the power produced by the steam. SAFETY NOTE: Adult assistance required.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/1082674"><span id="translatedtitle">Modulating lignin in <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke</p> <p>2013-01-29</p> <p>Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in <span class="hlt">plants</span> are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic <span class="hlt">plants</span> having a modulated lignin content.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://learningcenter.nsta.org/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/4/sc09_046_06_61"><span id="translatedtitle">Science 101: Do <span class="hlt">plants</span> communicate?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>William C. Robertson, Ph.D.</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>Oh yes. Sometimes their conversation is flowery, sometimes not. <span class="hlt">Plants</span> with problems try to converse and get to the root of the problem, but if not, they have been known to stalk one another. This often creates a situation where one <span class="hlt">plant</span> leaves town, reputation soiled. But seriously, folks ? <span class="hlt">Plants</span> do communicate with other <span class="hlt">plants</span> and organisms as well as with insects, although it's unlikely they use lame puns about <span class="hlt">plant</span> parts. In this column, the author discusses this communication with separate categories: communication within a <span class="hlt">plant</span>, communication between <span class="hlt">plants</span>, communication between <span class="hlt">plants</span> and insects, and communication between <span class="hlt">plants</span> and insects together.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants/plants.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Poisonous <span class="hlt">Plants</span> Web Pages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Spearheaded by Dr. Mary C. Smith and Professor Dan Brown of Cornell University's College of Veterinary Medicine and Department of Animal Science respectively, Poisonous <span class="hlt">Plants</span> Web Pages contains color images of poisonous <span class="hlt">plants</span> and affected animals, and provides information concerning the biological mechanisms, diagnosis and prevention of animal poisoning due to toxic <span class="hlt">plants</span> and other natural flora (fungi, etc.). Pictures and information can be accessed through an alphabetical list of Latin botanical names (common names are also included), a list of the specific type of poisons present, or a list of species of animals commonly affected. Additionally, there are several links to related poisonous <span class="hlt">plant</span> sites. Although text is not yet complete for many species, pictures for each <span class="hlt">plant</span> and links to related sites are provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:13692675"><span id="translatedtitle">Kruemmel nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This short description of the site and the nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span> with information on the presumable effects on the environment and the general public is to provide some data material to the population in a popular form so that the citizens may in form themselves about the <span class="hlt">plant</span>. In this description which shall be presented to the safety report, the site, the technical design and the operation mode of the nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span> are described. Some problems of the emission and the effects of radioactive materials as well as other issues related to the <span class="hlt">plant</span> which are of interest to the public are dealt with. The supposed accidents and their handling are discussed. The description shows that the selected site is suitable for both setting-up and operation of the <span class="hlt">plant</span> without affecting the safety of the people living there and that in admissible burdens of the environment shall not have to be expected. (orig./HP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:35038007"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> tissue culture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Plant</span> tissue culture refers to growing and multiplication of cells, tissues and organs of <span class="hlt">plants</span> on defined solid or liquid media under aseptic and controlled environment. The commercial technology is primarily based on micropropagation, in which rapid proliferation is achieved from tiny stem cuttings, axillary buds, and to a limited extent from somatic embryos, cell clumps in suspension cultures and bioreactors. The cultured cells and tissue can take several pathways. The pathways that lead to the production of true-to-type <span class="hlt">plants</span> in large numbers are the preferred ones for commercial multiplication. The process of micropropagation is usually divided into several stages i.e., pre-propagation, initiation of explants, subculture of explants for proliferation, shooting and rooting, and hardening. These stages are universally applicable in large-scale multiplication of <span class="hlt">plants</span>. The delivery of hardened small micropropagated <span class="hlt">plants</span> to growers and market also requires extra care. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27005841"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> performance enhancement program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Performance Enhancement Program (P2EP), an initiative of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), responds to strong industry incentives to improve nuclear <span class="hlt">plant</span> thermal efficiency and electrical output. Launched by EPRI's Nuclear Power Division, P2EP operates within the purview of the <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Support Engineering (PSE) Program, with day-to-day activities conducted out of the P2EP office headquartered at EPRI's facility in Charlotte, North Carolina. This alignment is consistent with EPFU's strategic targets in support of industry goals, keeping P2EP's mission in clear focus: Helping utility thermal performance engineers improve the heat rate of nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span>, thereby increasing unit average capacity and reducing <span class="hlt">plant</span> operations and maintenance costs per kilowatt-hour</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:23002083"><span id="translatedtitle">Technical services for power <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The services offered cover damage investigations, preventive investigations, advice, damage research, and development of new methods to prevent damage. The power <span class="hlt">plant</span> technology for electricity supply to communities and industries is a priority area. Activities cover coal-, oil- and gas-fired power <span class="hlt">plants</span>, hydroelectric power stations, nuclear and solar power <span class="hlt">plants</span> as well as wind power <span class="hlt">plants</span>, including practically all <span class="hlt">plant</span> components. (DG)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://passel.unl.edu/pages/informationmodule.php?idinformationmodule=956783940"><span id="translatedtitle">Theories Behind <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Tissue Culture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>When introducing a foreign gene into a target genome in <span class="hlt">plant</span> tissue, you need to grow the transgenic cell to a complete <span class="hlt">plant</span>. This is done by <span class="hlt">plant</span> tissue culture, a biotechnique based on the concept that an organ, tissue or cell of a <span class="hlt">plant</span> can be manipulated to grow back into a complete <span class="hlt">plant</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38115793"><span id="translatedtitle">Encapsulation <span class="hlt">plant</span> at Forsmark</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation <span class="hlt">plant</span> detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation <span class="hlt">plant</span> was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation <span class="hlt">plant</span> and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation <span class="hlt">plant</span> is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation <span class="hlt">plant</span> placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation <span class="hlt">plant</span> at Clab and an encapsulation <span class="hlt">plant</span> at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation <span class="hlt">plant</span> in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation <span class="hlt">plant</span> sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation <span class="hlt">plant</span> at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate report</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/20956231-c5GE1d/"><span id="translatedtitle">Encapsulation <span class="hlt">plant</span> at Forsmark</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Nystroem, Anders</p> <p>2007-08-15</p> <p>SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation <span class="hlt">plant</span> detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation <span class="hlt">plant</span> was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation <span class="hlt">plant</span> and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation <span class="hlt">plant</span> is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation <span class="hlt">plant</span> placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation <span class="hlt">plant</span> at Clab and an encapsulation <span class="hlt">plant</span> at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation <span class="hlt">plant</span> in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation <span class="hlt">plant</span> sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation <span class="hlt">plant</span> at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4390985"><span id="translatedtitle">Shaping <span class="hlt">plant</span> architecture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Teichmann, Thomas; Muhr, Merlin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Plants</span> exhibit phenotypical plasticity. Their general body plan is genetically determined, but <span class="hlt">plant</span> architecture and branching patterns are variable and can be adjusted to the prevailing environmental conditions. The modular design of the <span class="hlt">plant</span> facilitates such morphological adaptations. The prerequisite for the formation of a branch is the initiation of an axillary meristem. Here, we review the current knowledge about this process. After its establishment, the meristem can develop into a bud which can either become dormant or grow out and form a branch. Many endogenous factors, such as photoassimilate availability, and exogenous factors like nutrient availability or shading, have to be integrated in the decision whether a branch is formed. The underlying regulatory network is complex and involves phytohormones and transcription factors. The hormone auxin is derived from the shoot apex and inhibits bud outgrowth indirectly in a process termed apical dominance. Strigolactones appear to modulate apical dominance by modification of auxin fluxes. Furthermore, the transcription factor BRANCHED1 plays a central role. The exact interplay of all these factors still remains obscure and there are alternative models. We discuss recent findings in the field along with the major models. <span class="hlt">Plant</span> architecture is economically significant because it affects important traits of crop and ornamental <span class="hlt">plants</span>, as well as trees cultivated in forestry or on short rotation coppices. As a consequence, <span class="hlt">plant</span> architecture has been modified during <span class="hlt">plant</span> domestication. Research revealed that only few key genes have been the target of selection during <span class="hlt">plant</span> domestication and in breeding programs. Here, we discuss such findings on the basis of various examples. Architectural ideotypes that provide advantages for crop <span class="hlt">plant</span> management and yield are described. We also outline the potential of breeding and biotechnological approaches to further modify and improve <span class="hlt">plant</span> architecture for economic needs. PMID:25914710</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25914710"><span id="translatedtitle">Shaping <span class="hlt">plant</span> architecture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Teichmann, Thomas; Muhr, Merlin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Plants</span> exhibit phenotypical plasticity. Their general body plan is genetically determined, but <span class="hlt">plant</span> architecture and branching patterns are variable and can be adjusted to the prevailing environmental conditions. The modular design of the <span class="hlt">plant</span> facilitates such morphological adaptations. The prerequisite for the formation of a branch is the initiation of an axillary meristem. Here, we review the current knowledge about this process. After its establishment, the meristem can develop into a bud which can either become dormant or grow out and form a branch. Many endogenous factors, such as photoassimilate availability, and exogenous factors like nutrient availability or shading, have to be integrated in the decision whether a branch is formed. The underlying regulatory network is complex and involves phytohormones and transcription factors. The hormone auxin is derived from the shoot apex and inhibits bud outgrowth indirectly in a process termed apical dominance. Strigolactones appear to modulate apical dominance by modification of auxin fluxes. Furthermore, the transcription factor BRANCHED1 plays a central role. The exact interplay of all these factors still remains obscure and there are alternative models. We discuss recent findings in the field along with the major models. <span class="hlt">Plant</span> architecture is economically significant because it affects important traits of crop and ornamental <span class="hlt">plants</span>, as well as trees cultivated in forestry or on short rotation coppices. As a consequence, <span class="hlt">plant</span> architecture has been modified during <span class="hlt">plant</span> domestication. Research revealed that only few key genes have been the target of selection during <span class="hlt">plant</span> domestication and in breeding programs. Here, we discuss such findings on the basis of various examples. Architectural ideotypes that provide advantages for crop <span class="hlt">plant</span> management and yield are described. We also outline the potential of breeding and biotechnological approaches to further modify and improve <span class="hlt">plant</span> architecture for economic needs. PMID:25914710</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:13661534"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental mutagenesis in <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Considerable progress has been made in directed or controlled mutagenesis with bacterial systems, the genetic resolving power of which is much greater than that of higher <span class="hlt">plants</span>. The mutagen specificity in higher <span class="hlt">plants</span> has been of great interest, and numerous results and observations have been reported. The advances in the culture of <span class="hlt">plant</span> cells and tissues have created much interest concerning the possibility of inducing and recovering mutants at the cellular level. There are great problems including the failure to regenerate <span class="hlt">plants</span> from cells in all but a few species. The genetic and cytogenetic instability in the culture of <span class="hlt">plant</span> tissues is well known, and the most common nuclear change is polyploidy including aneuploidy. The degree of polyploidy increases with calluses or culture age. In rice, the frequency of aneuploidy is greater in the calluses derived from roots than those derived from stem internodes. Polyploid and/or self-incompatible <span class="hlt">plant</span> species are not as amenable to conventional mutation breeding techniques as diploid, self-fertilizing species. Inducing mutations in somatic tissues creates the problem of chimeras. However, the new cultivars of highly heterozygous, outcrossing, self-incompatible species are produced by combining several different clones. The performance of the progeny of at least 4 generations removed from the polycross of the parent clones is the important factor, and a high amount of heterozygocity is tolerated within cultivars and evocity is tolerated within cultivars and even on the same <span class="hlt">plants</span>. (Yamashita, S.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12287843"><span id="translatedtitle">Medicinal <span class="hlt">plants</span>: conception / contraception.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of <span class="hlt">plants</span>. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of <span class="hlt">plants</span>/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal <span class="hlt">plants</span> but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of <span class="hlt">plants</span> used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local <span class="hlt">plants</span>, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous <span class="hlt">plants</span> and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal <span class="hlt">plants</span> used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned. PMID:12287843</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://pcp.oxfordjournals.org/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> and Cell Physiology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This journal has recently been made available online. The Japanese Society of <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Physiologists, in combination with Oxford Journals Online, has posted recent issues of the journal <span class="hlt">Plant</span> and Cell Physiology, an international journal covering original research in the fields of "physiology, biochemistry, biophysics, chemistry, molecular biology, cell biology and gene engineering of <span class="hlt">plants</span> and micro-organisms." Online coverage includes full-text and abstracts from July 2000 to the present. Note that the electronic version of this journal is free through the end of 2000.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/policy/army/fm/1-506/ch1.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Fundamentals of Power <span class="hlt">Plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This site has information regarding the U.S. Armyâ??s requirements for the construction and performance of aircraft power <span class="hlt">plants</span>, brought to you by GlobalSecurity.org. The basic requirements, including reliability, durability, and ease of maintenance are each clearly and succinctly defined. Along with labeled images of aircraft power <span class="hlt">plants</span>, policy descriptions of the required fuels, combustion, lubrication, and bearings are provided. This would be a helpful tool for students studying aircraft power <span class="hlt">plant</span> technology, especially those heading into government military service, to gain an understanding of the Armyâ??s requirements for this aircraft component.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:31034679"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiation hormesis in <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose ?-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as acid rain or soil types could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from <span class="hlt">plant</span> culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed <span class="hlt">plants</span> from antioxidant enzyme (POD) were accomplished in the <span class="hlt">plant</span> irradiated with difference dosage of ?-ray</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:31047813"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiation hormesis in <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose ?-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from <span class="hlt">plant</span> culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed <span class="hlt">plants</span> from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the <span class="hlt">plant</span> irradiated with different dose of ?-ray. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://plantphys.info/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Physiology Information Website</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This extensive <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Physiology Information Website was created by Ross E. Koning, professor of biology at Eastern Connecticut State University. Dr. Koning provides links to lecture notes, lab exercises, and other resources for a variety of his courses including Biology of <span class="hlt">Plants</span>, <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Physiology, Principles of Biology, and more. In addition, the site offers a diverse assortment of other resources such as an Elementary Education Energy Workshop handout, a science fair project on lettuce seed germination, and related website links. The site also provides guidelines for CBE, APA, and MLA citation styles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/20101217-YiIO65/"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiation hormesis in <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Byung Hun; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek</p> <p>2000-04-01</p> <p>This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from <span class="hlt">plant</span> culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed <span class="hlt">plants</span> from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the <span class="hlt">plant</span> irradiated with different dose of {gamma}-ray. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/20077245-FF1377/"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiation hormesis in <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Cun, Ki Jung; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek</p> <p>1999-04-01</p> <p>This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as acid rain or soil types could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from <span class="hlt">plant</span> culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed <span class="hlt">plants</span> from antioxidant enzyme (POD) were accomplished in the <span class="hlt">plant</span> irradiated with difference dosage of {gamma}-ray.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIELO-EN&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0716-97602002000300013-chl"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> genomics: an overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p>HUGO, CAMPOS-DE QUIROZ.</p> <p></p> <p>Full Text Available Recent technological advancements have substantially expanded our ability to analyze and understand <span class="hlt">plant</span> genomes and to reduce the gap existing between genotype and phenotype. The fast evolving field of genomics allows scientists to analyze thousand of genes in parallel, to understand the genetic a [...] rchitecture of <span class="hlt">plant</span> genomes and also to isolate the genes responsible for mutations. Furthermore, whole genomes can now be sequenced. This review addresses these issues and also discusses ways to extract biological meaning from DNA data. Although genomic issuesare addressed from a <span class="hlt">plant</span> perspective, this review provides insights into the genomic analyses of other organisms</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/316666-BkLT9i/"><span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span> outages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>NONE</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span> safety in Finland. In addition to controlling the design, construction and operation of nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span>, STUK also controls refuelling and repair outages at the <span class="hlt">plants</span>. According to section 9 of the Nuclear Energy Act (990/87), it shall be the licence-holder`s obligation to ensure the safety of the use of nuclear energy. Requirements applicable to the licence-holder as regards the assurance of outage safety are presented in this guide. STUK`s regulatory control activities pertaining to outages are also described</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:29058779"><span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span> outages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span> safety in Finland. In addition to controlling the design, construction and operation of nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span>, STUK also controls refuelling and repair outages at the <span class="hlt">plants</span>. According to section 9 of the Nuclear Energy Act (990/87), it shall be the licence-holder's obligation to ensure the safety of the use of nuclear energy. Requirements applicable to the licence-holder as regards the assurance of outage safety are presented in this guide. STUK's regulatory control activities pertaining to outages are also described</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:17017742"><span id="translatedtitle">Projected electric power <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Projections show over 250 steam-electric and hydroelectric units beginning operation within the next 20 years in the US. The coal-fired, nuclear, geothermal, and hydroelectric <span class="hlt">plants</span> listed in this report will add about 137 GWe (gross) to US electric capacity. Seven new units have begun operation since the last report. Other notable changes include the licensing of several nuclear <span class="hlt">plants</span>, the removal of 14 coal-fired units from the data base, and the addition of five hydroelectric units. The report describes all known projected <span class="hlt">plants</span> and lists architect/engineering firms, construction companies, and boiler and turbine/generator manufacturers if they are known</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/1149534/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Vascular Biology 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Ding, Biao</p> <p>2014-11-17</p> <p>This grant supported the Second International Conference on <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in <span class="hlt">plants</span>, under conditions of normal <span class="hlt">plant</span> growth and development as well as of <span class="hlt">plant</span> interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:44056136"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in Hydropower <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The new organisational structure of the Operation Function completed the process of transformation of the Points of Operation to Hydro-Centres in the Hydro Power <span class="hlt">Plants</span> in the Slovenske elektrarne. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.actionbioscience.org/biodiversity/hawtin_cherfas.html#educatorresources"><span id="translatedtitle">Maintaining <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Genebanks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Brian R. Shmaefsky (Kingwood College; )</p> <p>2003-06-02</p> <p>This lesson explores the benefits and problems of maintaining <span class="hlt">plant</span> genebanks globally. Students can plan a genebank or agricultural cryopreservation business venture, write a biography about a famous botanist, present views at a genebank symposium for developing nations and more!</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.vidacollection.org/browse/browseRecords/detail?recordId=137"><span id="translatedtitle">Power <span class="hlt">plant</span> releasing smoke</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)</p> <p>2007-01-12</p> <p>Power <span class="hlt">plants</span> are a well-known source of pollution. They drain directly into bodies of water such as the ocean. In addition, they burn fossil fuels to create energy. The smoke that results causes acid rain and global warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.eduplace.com/science/hmsc/2/a/unit.html"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plants</span> and Animals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Houghton Mifflin Science</p> <p></p> <p>This self-contained module on <span class="hlt">plant</span> and animals includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.eduplace.com/science/hmsc/1/a/unit.html"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plants</span>, Animals, and People</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Houghton Mifflin Science</p> <p></p> <p>This self-contained module on <span class="hlt">plants</span> and animals includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWWISTC-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.istc.ru/istc/db/projects.nsf/All/6CDA66BB8D12CCEEC32571760025449A?OpenDocument&search=1"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> for Demercurization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.istc.ru/istc/db/projects.nsf/projectsSearchByKeywords?OpenForm&type=All&lang=Eng">International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Development, Testing and Transfer to the «PKhZ» OJSC of a New Continuous Operating Full-Scale Industrial Vibro-Vacuum <span class="hlt">Plant</span> for the Anthropogenic Waste Demercurization, and Organization of the Maintenance Personnel Training</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24556876"><span id="translatedtitle">Memristors in <span class="hlt">plants</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Volkov, Alexander G; Tucket, Clayton; Reedus, Jada; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We investigated electrical circuitry of the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera. The goal was to discover if these <span class="hlt">plants</span> might have a new electrical component--a resistor with memory. This element was postulated recently and the researchers were looking for its presence in different systems. The analysis was based on cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation of <span class="hlt">plants</span> by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in <span class="hlt">plant</span> tissue. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of <span class="hlt">plants</span> has properties of a memristor. This study can be a starting point for understanding mechanisms of memory, learning, circadian rhythms, and biological clocks. PMID:24556876</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:17601"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> science [electronic resource].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Provides citations and some abstracts to the literature on <span class="hlt">plant</span> science, focusing especially on pathology, symbiosis, biochemistry, genetics, biotechnology, techniques and environmental biology. Major areas of coverage include physiology;</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=issn13960466::3b58a77f838684c55d58e00aa26057b9"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">plant</span> information center</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Daniel, Evelyn; White, Peter; Greenberg, Jane; Massey, James</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Information Center is a partnership of the North Carolina Botanical Garden, Unviersity of North Carolina (UNC) Herbarium, UNC School of Information and Library Science, McDougle Middle School, and Orange County Public Library. The intent of the Project is to connect the research community and the general public (including school children) to make greater use of primary research material and to nurture the public interest and enthusiasm in the study of trees, <span class="hlt">plants</span>, and natural hist...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______370::827c4bfb770b0825ddd43be06d04e3cf"><span id="translatedtitle">Chromatin dynamics in <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Fransz, P. F.; Jong, J. H.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Recent studies in yeast, animals and <span class="hlt">plants</span> have provided major breakthroughs in unraveling the molecular mechanism of higher-order gene regulation. In conjunction with the DNA code, proteins that are involved in chromatin remodeling, histone modification and epigenetic imprinting form a large network of interactions that control the nuclear programming of cell identity. New insight into how chromatin conformations are regulated in <span class="hlt">plants</span> sheds light on the relationships between chromosome fu...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:13693373"><span id="translatedtitle">NMR, water and <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This thesis describes the application of a non-destructive pulsed proton NMR method mainly to measure water transport in the xylem vessels of <span class="hlt">plant</span> stems and in some model systems. The results are equally well applicable to liquid flow in other biological objects than <span class="hlt">plants</span>, e.g. flow of blood and other body fluids in human and animals. The method is based on a pulse sequence of equidistant ? pulses in combination with a linear magnetic field gradient. (Auth.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009twbo.book...23J"><span id="translatedtitle">Selection of Transformed <span class="hlt">Plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Jones, Huw D.; Sparks, Caroline A.</p> <p></p> <p>The low frequency and randomness of transgene integration into host cells, combined with the significant challenges of recovering whole <span class="hlt">plants</span> from those rare events, makes the use of selectable marker genes routine in <span class="hlt">plant</span> transformation experiments. For research applications that are unlikely to be grown in the field, strong herbicide- or antibiotic resistance is commonly used. Here we use genes conferring resistance to glufosinate herbicides as an example of a selectable marker in wheat transformation by either Agrobacterium or biolistics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::a542cdbc5c3d0f0f4ec707819614fec1"><span id="translatedtitle">Detergent zeolite filtration <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Stankovi? Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for detergent zeolite filtration <span class="hlt">plant</span>, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production <span class="hlt">plant</span> with a capacity of 75,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Zeolite Mira", Mira (VE), Italy, in 1997, for increasing detergent zeolite production, from 50,000 to 100,000 t/y. The main goal was to increase the detergent zeoli...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:33029172"><span id="translatedtitle">Technology and power <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this paper the contributions presented at the 18th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in the field of technology and power <span class="hlt">plants</span> are summarised with reference to the following distinct issues: ITER EDA Design, ITER Technology R and D, Progress Towards Advanced Performance and Steady State, Compact Cu Burning Plasma Experiments and Neutron Sources, Advanced Materials Research, Power <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Design and Economic Forecasts, and Conclusions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::cd542eb0118fee7be2c478a30078428e"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding <span class="hlt">plant</span> reproductive diversity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>BARRETT, SPENCER C. H.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Flowering <span class="hlt">plants</span> display spectacular floral diversity and a bewildering array of reproductive adaptations that promote mating, particularly outbreeding. A striking feature of this diversity is that related species often differ in pollination and mating systems, and intraspecific variation in sexual traits is not unusual, especially among herbaceous <span class="hlt">plants</span>. This variation provides opportunities for evolutionary biologists to link micro-evolutionary processes to the macro-evolutionary patterns ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::cf5ecab442218bd093b3a7ee2e8e352d"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenolics and <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Allelopathy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>De-An Jiang; Cun-De Pan; Xiao Ruan; Qiang Wang; Zhao-Hui Li</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Phenolic compounds arise from the shikimic and acetic acid (polyketide) metabolic pathways in <span class="hlt">plants</span>. They are but one category of the many secondary metabolites implicated in <span class="hlt">plant</span> allelopathy. Phenolic allelochemicals have been observed in both natural and managed ecosystems, where they cause a number of ecological and economic problems, such as declines in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure of natural forests, and replanting problems in orchards. Phenolic allelochemical ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:35061262"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plants</span> for cleansing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Phyto-remediation, an emergent and promising technique, uses the natural abilities of <span class="hlt">plants</span> to accumulate or to degrade some noxious compounds present in soils, waters or sediments. It is an ecological and cheap alternative to the classical techniques used for cleansing. Very recently, a new <span class="hlt">plant</span> has been found: Lupinus; it is able to exhaust the soils of herbicides and insecticides as toxic as atrazine. (O.M.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______603::365a788164ea947c878e674dcec5c259"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> names in Yiddish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Schaechter, Mordkhe</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Yiddish linguist Dr. Mordkhe Schaechter confronts the stereotype that "there aren't any plantnames in Yiddish” with the meticulously researched, long-awaited <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Names in Yiddish, to be published by YIVO in August 2005. This groundbreaking Yiddish-English botanical dictionary draws on literary, scientific, linguistic and religious sources to document a wealth of Yiddish <span class="hlt">plant</span> names - including many dialectal and regional variants. It is an essential reference work for Yiddish speakers and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/835750-kEq58A/webviewable/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Formate Dehydrogenase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>John Markwell</p> <p>2005-01-10</p> <p>The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer <span class="hlt">plants</span> with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco <span class="hlt">plants</span> with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::2873b8e7bfa1fb284cfe76731b1ad378"><span id="translatedtitle">Resistant <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Responses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Finkers-Tomczak, A.M.; Koropacka, K.B.; Smant, G; Goverse, A.; Bakker, E.H.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Resistance to nematodes takes place at different functional and morphological levels. The first level of resistance is the so-called pre-infectional resistance and occurs before the nematode has had a chance to enter the <span class="hlt">plant</span>. Against pathogens that can overcome this first level of resistance, <span class="hlt">plants</span> have evolved a second level of basic resistance, called nonhost immunity. The nonhost immune system has many similarities to the innate immune system of animals. Host resistance, however, is onl...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::e3a597a5173a79ede3a280a305284ebe"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> secretome proteomics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Alexandersson, Erik; Ali, Ashfaq; Resjö, Svante; Andreasson, Erik</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">plant</span> secretome refers to the set of proteins secreted out of the <span class="hlt">plant</span> cell into the surrounding extracellular space commonly referred to as the apoplast. Secreted proteins maintain cell structure and acts in signaling and are crucial for stress responses where they can interact with pathogen effectors and control the extracellular environment. Typically, secreted proteins contain an N-terminal signal peptide and are directed through the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi pathway. However, in p...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::968d739ce8a1e04e236906b1468c3988"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Plastid Engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Shabir H. Wani; HAIDER, Nadia; Kumar, Hitesh; Singh, N B</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Genetic material in <span class="hlt">plants</span> is distributed into nucleus, plastids and mitochondria. Plastid has a central role of carrying out photosynthesis in <span class="hlt">plant</span> cells. Plastid transformation is becoming more popular and an alternative to nuclear gene transformation because of various advantages like high protein levels, the feasibility of expressing multiple proteins from polycistronic mRNAs, and gene containment through the lack of pollen transmission. Recently, much progress in plastid engineering has...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::1bd9b5c8423ae637c73edc944e187bdd"><span id="translatedtitle">Powder detergents production <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Stankovi? Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for powder detergent production <span class="hlt">plant</span>, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories, in 1998. - 2000. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production <span class="hlt">plant</span> with a capacity of 25,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Delta In", Zrenjanin, in 2000.This technology was an innovation, because new approach in mixing a powder materials was used, as well as introducing ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:21095097"><span id="translatedtitle">Wolsung: innovations in <span class="hlt">plant</span> operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">plant</span> could achieve the remarkable performance owing to the thoughtful management of the <span class="hlt">plant</span> staffs by corporate and <span class="hlt">plant</span> senior managements, devotion of faithful and hard working <span class="hlt">plant</span> staffs, AECL's supports, and the inherent features of CANDU reactor. Even though the <span class="hlt">plant</span> achieved the excellent performance, the <span class="hlt">plant</span> still needs many improvements in system and equipment designs, operation and maintenance techniques and <span class="hlt">plant</span> administration and management details. The <span class="hlt">plant</span> performance of this year (1986), in terms of annual gross capacity factor, may not be comparable to the performance achieved in 1985, as the <span class="hlt">plant</span> is, currently, shutdown to perform 50 days annual maintenance works. Nevertheless, it is envisaged that <span class="hlt">plant</span> will achieve better cumulative life time capacity factor at the end of this year and within few years, the <span class="hlt">plant</span> will demonstrate to the world even better performances, because that is the fact of CANDU reactors and there is a group of people who are willing to and can do that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25514681"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">plant</span> microbiome at work.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Schlaeppi, Klaus; Bulgarelli, Davide</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Plants</span> host distinct microbial communities on and inside their tissues designated the <span class="hlt">plant</span> microbiota. Microbial community profiling enabled the description of the phylogenetic structure of the <span class="hlt">plant</span> microbiota to an unprecedented depth, whereas functional insights are largely derived from experiments using individual microorganisms. The binary interplay between isolated members of the <span class="hlt">plant</span> microbiota and host <span class="hlt">plants</span> ranges from mutualistic to commensalistic and pathogenic relationships. However, how entire microbial communities capable of executing both growth-promoting and growth-compromising activities interfere with <span class="hlt">plant</span> fitness remains largely unknown. Ultimately, unravelling the net result of microbial activities encoded in the extended <span class="hlt">plant</span> genome-the <span class="hlt">plant</span> microbiome-will be key to understanding and exploiting the full yield potential of a crop <span class="hlt">plant</span>. In this perspective, we summarize first achievements of <span class="hlt">plant</span>-microbiome research, we discuss future research directions, and we provide ideas for the translation of basic science to application to capitalize on the <span class="hlt">plant</span> microbiome at work. PMID:25514681</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:17028518"><span id="translatedtitle">A modular reactor <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This paper describes a new concept in liquid metal reactors that is being developed by General Electric under contract to the Department of Energy. This concept is called the Modular Reactor <span class="hlt">Plant</span>. While this effort is not expected to have a near-term impact, it is directed toward three principal issues currently affecting nuclear power in the United States. First, <span class="hlt">plant</span> costs have escalated to the point where the startup of new <span class="hlt">plants</span> require large electric rate increases. Second, the cost of new <span class="hlt">plants</span> coming on-line today vary by as much as a factor of three. And, third, nuclear construction times often exceed the utilities prudent planning cycle. This paper describes how General Electric's Modular Reactor <span class="hlt">Plant</span> addreses these issues through shop fabrication and assembly, rail shipment to the site for rapid installation of nuclear components and inherent reactor protection. In addition, it is expected the modular reactor <span class="hlt">plant</span> will reduce the current cost of development and demonstration of liquid metal reactors to an affordable level</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=5715021"><span id="translatedtitle">Power <span class="hlt">plant</span> siting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Winter, J.V.; Conner, D.A.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Just to keep up with expected demand, the US will need over 500 new power generation units by 1985. Where these power <span class="hlt">plants</span> will be located is the subject of heated debate among utility officials, government leaders, conservationists, concerned citizens and a multitude of special interest groups. This book offers a balanced review of all of the salient factors that must be taken into consideration in selecting power <span class="hlt">plant</span> locations. To deal with this enormously complex subject, the authors (1) offer a general overview of the history and reasoning behind present legislation on the state and national levels; (2) describe the many different agencies that have jurisdiction in power <span class="hlt">plant</span> location, from local water authorities and city councils to state conservation boards and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; and (3) include a state-by-state breakdown of siting laws, regulations and present licensing procedures. Architects, engineers, contractors, and others involved in <span class="hlt">plant</span> construction and site evaluation will learn of the trade-offs that must be made in balancing the engineering, economic, and environmental impacts of <span class="hlt">plant</span> location. The book covers such areas as availability of water supplies for generation or cooling; geology, typography, and demography of the proposed site; and even the selection of the fuel best suited for the area. Finally, the authors examine the numerous environmental aspects of power <span class="hlt">plant</span> siting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020062122&hterms=stress+detection&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dstress%2Bdetection"><span id="translatedtitle">Detecting <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Stress</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Through an exclusive patent license from NASA Stennis Space Center, Spectrum Technologies, Inc., has developed a hand-held tool that helps farmers, foresters and other growers detect unhealthy crops before the human eye can see the damage. Developed by two NASA researchers, the Observer,TM shows the viewer which <span class="hlt">plants</span> are under stress through multispectral imaging, a process that uses specific wavelengths of the light spectrum to obtain information about objects-in this case, <span class="hlt">plants</span>. With this device, several wavelengths of light collect information about the <span class="hlt">plant</span> and results are immediately processed and displayed. NASA research found that previsible signs of stress, such as such as a lack of nutrients, insufficient water, disease, or insect damage, can be detected by measuring the chlorophyll content based on light energy reflected from the <span class="hlt">plant</span>. The Observer detects stress up to 16 days before deterioration is visible to the eye. Early detection provides an opportunity to reverse stress and save the <span class="hlt">plant</span>. The hand-held, easily operated unit works in both natural and artificial light, making it suitable for outdoor or indoor <span class="hlt">planting</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:21087795"><span id="translatedtitle">Precluding forced <span class="hlt">plant</span> shutdown</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Several operating nuclear <span class="hlt">plants</span> have been forced to shut down for extended periods because of transient events, equipment failures or information pointing to degradation in programmatic elements such as overall corporate and <span class="hlt">plant</span> management, material condition, maintenance and design control. The consequent management and programmatic overhauls, and demonstration of <span class="hlt">plant</span> operational readiness takes a substantial toll on the financial and management health of the owner utility. The accompanying regulatory and political attention makes it difficult, at best, for the utility to be master of its own destiny regarding recovery of the troubled <span class="hlt">plant</span>. How best can a utility control its own destiny in these circumstances? The preferred approach,of course, is to preclude an unrecognized problem in any of the above-mentioned areas from causing the forced shutdown of a <span class="hlt">plant</span>. Based on experience at a formerly troubled <span class="hlt">plant</span>,this paper suggests how to preclude forced shutdown, or if forced into an extended shutdown, how the utility can manage and control its own actions for recovery</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:29000201"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> extracts as radioprotectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Several studies show that the extracts of some <span class="hlt">plants</span>, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates <span class="hlt">plants</span> are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different <span class="hlt">plants</span> to protect against the radiation damages. These <span class="hlt">plants</span> are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each <span class="hlt">plant</span> extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on <span class="hlt">plant</span>. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:34066981"><span id="translatedtitle">Uranium speciation in <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Detailed knowledge of the nature of uranium complexes formed after the uptake by <span class="hlt">plants</span> is an essential prerequisite to describe the migration behavior of uranium in the environment. This study focuses on the determination of uranium speciation after uptake of uranium by lupine <span class="hlt">plants</span>. For the first time, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy were used to determine the chemical speciation of uranium in <span class="hlt">plants</span>. Differences were detected between the uranium speciation in the initial solution (hydroponic solution and pore water of soil) and inside the lupine <span class="hlt">plants</span>. The oxidation state of uranium did not change and remained hexavalent after it was taken up by the lupine <span class="hlt">plants</span>. The chemical speciation of uranium was identical in the roots, shoot axis, and leaves and was independent of the uranium speciation in the uptake solution. The results indicate that the uranium is predominantly bound as uranyl(VI) phosphate to the phosphoryl groups. Dandelions and lamb's lettuce showed uranium speciation identical to lupine <span class="hlt">plants</span>. (orig.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:29005486"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> extracts as radioprotectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Several studies show that the extracts of some <span class="hlt">plants</span>, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates <span class="hlt">plants</span> are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different <span class="hlt">plants</span> to protect against the radiation damages. These <span class="hlt">plants</span> are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each <span class="hlt">plant</span> extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on <span class="hlt">plant</span>. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=134708"><span id="translatedtitle">A REVISION OF THE ANASTREPHA HASTATA SPECIES GROUP (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Anastrepha hastata species group is recognized with three included species: A. apicata, spec. nov. (Costa Rica, Panama), A. cocorae spec. nov. (Costa Rica), and A. hastata Stone (Brazil). <span class="hlt">Salacia</span> petenensis is recorded as a host <span class="hlt">plant</span> of A. apicata, and Cheiloclinium cognatum as a host of A. coc...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ecology&pg=7&id=EJ817847"><span id="translatedtitle">Designing the Perfect <span class="hlt">Plant</span>: Activities to Investigate <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Ecology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Lehnhoff, Erik; Woolbaugh, Walt; Rew, Lisa</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Plant</span> ecology is an important subject that often receives little attention in middle school, as more time during science classes is devoted to <span class="hlt">plant</span> biology. Therefore, the authors have developed a series of activities, including a card game--Designing the Perfect <span class="hlt">Plant</span>--to introduce student's to <span class="hlt">plant</span> ecology and the ecological trade offs…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Middle+AND+Ages+AND+%22Renaissance%22&pg=2&id=EJ531584"><span id="translatedtitle">Promoting Interest in <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Biology with Biographies of <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Hunters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Daisey, Peggy</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Describes the use of biographical stories to promote student interest in <span class="hlt">plant</span> biology. Discusses <span class="hlt">plant</span> hunters of various time periods, including ancient, middle ages, renaissance, colonial Americas, and 18th and 19th centuries; women <span class="hlt">plant</span> hunters of the 1800s and early 1900s; and modern <span class="hlt">plant</span> hunters. Discusses classroom strategies for the…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:33022555"><span id="translatedtitle">Biofuelled heating <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of this report is to serve as a basis to enable establishment and operation of small and medium-sized bio-fuel <span class="hlt">plants</span>, district heating <span class="hlt">plants</span> and local district heating <span class="hlt">plants</span>. Furthermore, the purpose of this report is to serve as a guideline and basis when realizing projects, from the first concept to established <span class="hlt">plant</span>. Taking into account all the phases, from selection of heating system, fuel type, selection of technical solutions, authorization request or application to operate a <span class="hlt">plant</span>, planning, construction and buying, inspection, performance test, take-over and control system of the <span class="hlt">plant</span>. Another purpose of the report is to make sure that best available technology is used and to contribute to continuous development of the technology. The report deals mainly with bio-fuelled <span class="hlt">plants</span> in the effect range 0.3 to10 MW. The term '<span class="hlt">plant</span>' refers to combined power and heating <span class="hlt">plants</span> as well as 'simpler' district heating <span class="hlt">plants</span>. The last-mentioned is also often referred to as 'local heating <span class="hlt">plant</span>'. In this context, the term bio fuel refers to a wide range of fuel types. The term bio fuel includes processed fractions like powders, pellets, and briquettes along with unprocessed fractions, such as by-products from the forest industry; chips and bark. Bio fuels also include straw, energy crops and cereal waste products, but these have not been expressly studied in this report. The report is structured with appendixes regarding the various phases of the projects,arding the various phases of the projects, with the purpose of serving as a helping handbook, or manual for new establishment, helping out with technical and administrative advice and environmental requirements. <span class="hlt">Plants</span> of this size are already expanding considerably, and the need for guiding principles for design/technology and environmental requirements is great. These guiding principles should comply with the environmental legislation requirements, and must contain advice and recommendations for bio fuel <span class="hlt">plants</span> in this effect range, also in reference to the environmental legislation. This means, among other things, that the suggested environmental requirements should be realistic so that they can be fulfilled, but there will also be a strong motive to raise the requirements, but not so high that the new establishment of bio fuelled <span class="hlt">plants</span> is held back in favour of old-fashioned routine technology or fossil fuels. Concurrent with the expansion of bio fuel <span class="hlt">plants</span> in Sweden, there is an increasing need for clear and simple practical handling of this type of project in its different phases: The selection of heating system/fuel; The selection of technical solutions; Application or authorization according to environmental legislation; Design and purchasing; Inspection and performance test; Operation and control system. The selection of burning and flue gas cleaning techniques is dependent on the kind of fuel used, and the fuel's moisture content. Pellet burning furnace is the easiest and most developed solution for <span class="hlt">plants</span> in the smaller range, and grate firing is the best solution for the bigger <span class="hlt">plants</span>. Pulverized bio fuel burning is not used to a great extent in this particular effect range. Depending on the size and effect of the <span class="hlt">plant</span>, the <span class="hlt">plant</span> establishment requires authorization request according to the environmental legislation. The authorization request is different depending on the effect of the <span class="hlt">plant</span> and the distinction between the two possible kinds is at 10 MW. The term <span class="hlt">plant</span> size refer to the fuel supplied for all the <span class="hlt">plant</span>'s existing furnaces, which means that several <span class="hlt">plants</span> need authorization although the effects of the individual bio fuel furnace is lower than 10 MW. An example of an EIA, which is a part of an application or authorization request, is included as an appendix. Flue gas dust cleaning is always required in this effect range. The most frequent cleaning equipment is dynamic separators, (such as multi cyclone batteries), fabric filters, (such as bag filters), and electrical partition filters. Fabric filters or electrical partition filte</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::af615ac9cf92cbc6a48087fcbbf16884"><span id="translatedtitle">The i<span class="hlt">Plant</span> Collaborative: Cyberinfrastructure for <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Biology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Goff, Stephen A.; Vaughn, Matthew; McKay, Sheldon; Lyons, Eric; Stapleton, Ann E; Gessler, Damian; Matasci, Naim; Wang, Liya; Hanlon, Matthew; Lenards, Andrew; Muir, Andy; Merchant, Nirav; Lowry, Sonya; Mock, Stephen; Helmke, Matthew</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The i<span class="hlt">Plant</span> Collaborative (i<span class="hlt">Plant</span>) is a United States National Science Foundation (NSF) funded project that aims to create an innovative, comprehensive, and foundational cyberinfrastructure in support of <span class="hlt">plant</span> biology research (PSCIC, 2006). i<span class="hlt">Plant</span> is developing cyberinfrastructure that uniquely enables scientists throughout the diverse fields that comprise <span class="hlt">plant</span> biology to address Grand Challenges in new ways, to stimulate and facilitate cross-disciplinary research, to promote biology and com...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/7/6/932/"><span id="translatedtitle">Electroanalysis of <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Thiols</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Rene Kizek</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Due to unique physico-chemical properties of –SH moiety thiols comprise widegroup of biologically important compounds. A review devoted to biological functions ofglutathione and phytochelatins with literature survey of methods used to analysis of thesecompounds and their interactions with cadmium(II ions and Murashige-Skoog medium ispresented. For these purposes electrochemical techniques are used. Moreover, we revealedthe effect of three different cadmium concentrations (0, 10 and 100 μM on cadmiumuptake and thiols content in maize <span class="hlt">plants</span> during 192 hours long experiments usingdifferential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry to detect cadmium(II ions and highperformance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection to determineglutathione. Cadmium concentration determined in tissues of the <span class="hlt">plants</span> cultivated innutrient solution containing 10 μM Cd was very low up to 96 hours long exposition andthen the concentration of Cd markedly increased. On the contrary, the addition of 100 μMCd caused an immediate sharp increase in all maize <span class="hlt">plant</span> parts to 96 hours Cd expositionbut subsequently the Cd concentration increased more slowly. A high performance liquidchromatography with electrochemical detection was used for glutathione determination intreated maize <span class="hlt">plants</span> after 96 and 192 hours of treatment. The highest total content of glutathione per one <span class="hlt">plant</span> was 6 μg (96 h, 10 μM Cd in comparison with non-treated <span class="hlt">plant</span> (control where glutathione content was 1.5 μg. It can be concluded that electrochemical techniques have proved to be useful to analyse <span class="hlt">plant</span> thiols.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:31034931"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plants</span> cultivation in controlled containments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">plants</span> cultivation in controlled containments permits to the - Departement d'Ecophysiologie Vegetale et de Microbiologie (DVEM) - of the CEA to lead several topics of research. The works of DVEM which are based on the molecular labelling, technique adapted to <span class="hlt">plants</span>, contribute to understand the <span class="hlt">plant</span> - soil relationships and the <span class="hlt">plant</span> growth process. In addition, the staff of DVEM study the impact of pollutant heavy metals, existing in the soil, on <span class="hlt">plants</span> and the <span class="hlt">plant</span> stress induced by oxygen, light, ionizing radiations,... and defence mechanisms of <span class="hlt">plants</span> (F. M.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.bioresearch.ro/bioresearch/2011-2/168-175-AUOFB.18.2.2011%20-%20SZILAGYI%20B.%20-%20N.U.B.M.Biol.Ro.%20-%20Morphological%20ans%20physiological.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Morphological and physiological features of the species Asimina triloba (L. dunal, introduced as an ornamental <span class="hlt">plant</span> in Baia Mare (Maramure? county, Romania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Beatrice SZILAGYI</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Tree species Asimina triloba (L. Dunal, is native to North America. In the area of origin is cultivated, both as food species because the edible fruit, and as ornamental species. Ornamental value derives both from decorative flowers, that open in early spring, and because habitus species. The species is demanding from slightly acidic soils (pH 5.5 to 7.0 and well drained. Seedlings are susceptible to heatstroke and need areas of the sun, but since the second year, vegetate well in bright light conditions [27]. Optimum climate is temperate to subtropical one. The species exhibits unique quality traits for a temperate fruit that are similar to other fruit in the Annonaceae family, including cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill., sugar apple or sweetsop, (A. squamosa L., soursop (A. muricata L., custard apple (A. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> L., and atemoya (A. squamosa X A. cherimola, all of which are tropical [2].This study follows the behavior of the species, in particular conditions of the Baia Mare and its surroundings. In this area a fewindividuals were introduced, in order to diversigy the range of species of ornamental <span class="hlt">plants</span>. In Baia Mare, topoclimate is specifically depression, sheltered by mountains, more atenuated as temperature and winds, than in surrounding areas. As a result ofclimatic conditions, chestnut Castanea sativa, grows in good conditions in Baia Mare. Instead, the area is heavily polluted,especially at ground level. Pollution by heavy metals is a historical being generated by the mining industry.The introduction and use of a new <span class="hlt">plant</span> species into a new area involves: 1. easy to obtain seed; 2.- maintaining the crown shape habitus and and leaf shape and size, respectively; 3 – determination of optimal physiological parameters. Therefore have been performed, the following experimental determinations: 1. - germination of seed obtained in the particular conditions of the Baia Mare; 2. - some morphomtric characteristics of leaves, in the juveniles of the 1-2 years; 3. – the dynamic of photosynthesis intensity in these <span class="hlt">plants</span>, during the day, during summer/autumn months.The study results are promising for acclimatization of the species Asimina triloba (L. Dunal in particular conditions of Baia Mare. Morphological and physiological parametres tested are maintaned at similar to those of native habitat, described in the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:42010184"><span id="translatedtitle">Power <span class="hlt">plants</span> 2009. Lectures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Within the Annual Conference 2009 of the VGB PowerTech e.V. (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) from 23rd to 25th May, 2009, in Lyon (France) the following lectures were held: (1) Electricity demand, consequences of the financial and economic crisis - Current overview 2020 for the EU-27 (Hans ten Berge); (2) Status and perspectives of the electricity generation mix in France (Bernard Dupraz); (3) European electricity grid - status and perspective (Dominique Maillard); (4) Technologies and acceptance in the European energy market (Gordon MacKerran); (5) EPR construction in Finland, China, France, (Claude Jaouen); (6) EPR Flamanville 3: A project on the path towards nuclear revival (Jacques Alary); (7) Worldwide nuclear Revival and acceptance (Luc Geraets); (8) An overview on the status of final disposal of radioactive wastes worldwide (Piet Zuidema); (9) Who needs pumped storage <span class="hlt">plants</span>? PSP are partner to grid stability and renewable energies (Hans-Christoph Funke); (10) Sustainable use of water resources to generate electricity safely and efficiently (Patrick Tourasse); (11) The growth strategy of RWE Innogy - Role of RES in RWE strategy (Fritz Vahrenholt); (12) Solar technologies towards grid parity - key factors and timeframe (G. Gigliucci); (13) Overview on CCS technologies and results of Vattenfalls oxyfuel pilot <span class="hlt">plant</span> (Philippe Paelinck); (14) Development perspectives of lignite-based IGCC-<span class="hlt">plants</span> with CCS (Dietmar Keller); (15) Post combustion capture <span class="hlt">plants</span> - c); (15) Post combustion capture <span class="hlt">plants</span> - concept and <span class="hlt">plant</span> integration (Wolfgang Schreier); (16) CCS fossil power generation in a carbon constraint world (Daniel Hofmann); (17) CEZ group strategy in Central and South Eastern Europe (Jan Zizka); (18) Strategy and projects of DONG Energy (Jens Erik Pedersen); (19) E.ON coal-based power generation of the future - The highly efficient power <span class="hlt">plant</span> and downstream separation of carbon dioxide (Gerhard Seibel); (20) Final sage of first supercritical 460 MWel. CFB Boiler construction - firs experience (Damian Goral); (21) Technological development and actual quality in new power <span class="hlt">plants</span> - rights and reality (M. Kehr); (22) Actual challenges in new materials and quality assurance for high efficiency power <span class="hlt">plants</span> (M. Giehl).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DEFFRD-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Terrestrial+plant+methane+production"><span id="translatedtitle">Terrestrial <span class="hlt">plant</span> methane production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p>Mikkelsen, Teis NØrgaard; Bruhn, Dan</p> <p></p> <p>We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial <span class="hlt">plants</span>. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic <span class="hlt">plant</span> CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature, ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species. Further, we analyze rates of measured emission of aerobically produced CH4 in pectin and in <span class="hlt">plant</span> tissues from different studies and argue that pectin is very far from the sole contributing precursor. Hence, scaling up of aerobic CH4 emission needs to take into consideration other potential sources than pectin. Due to the large uncertainties related to effects of stimulating factors, genotypic responses and type of precursors, we conclude that current attempts for upscaling aerobic CH4 into a global budget is insufficient. Thus it is too early to draw the line under the aerobic methane emission in <span class="hlt">plants</span>. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution ofseveral proven potential CH4 precursors in <span class="hlt">plant</span> material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/1163767/"><span id="translatedtitle">GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION <span class="hlt">PLANT</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Boyd, Tonya</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power <span class="hlt">plant</span> (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The <span class="hlt">plant</span> would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power <span class="hlt">plant</span> will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of <span class="hlt">plant</span> selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power <span class="hlt">plant</span>, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23451785"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plants</span>, diet, and health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Martin, Cathie; Zhang, Yang; Tonelli, Chiara; Petroni, Katia</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Chronic disease is a major social challenge of the twenty-first century. In this review, we examine the evidence for discordance between modern diets and those on which humankind evolved as the cause of the increasing incidence of chronic diseases, and the evidence supporting consumption of <span class="hlt">plant</span> foods as a way to reduce the risk of chronic disease. We also examine the evidence for avoiding certain components of <span class="hlt">plant</span>-based foods that are enriched in Western diets, and review the mechanisms by which different phytonutrients are thought to reduce the risk of chronic disease. This body of evidence strongly suggests that consuming more fruits and vegetables could contribute both to medical nutrition therapies, as part of a package of treatments for conditions like type 2 diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and obesity, and to the prevention of these diseases. <span class="hlt">Plant</span> science should be directed toward improving the quality of <span class="hlt">plant</span>-based foods by building on our improved understanding of the complex relationships between <span class="hlt">plants</span>, our diet, and our health. PMID:23451785</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25438782"><span id="translatedtitle">Engineered <span class="hlt">plant</span> virus resistance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Galvez, Leny C; Banerjee, Joydeep; Pinar, Hasan; Mitra, Amitava</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Virus diseases are among the key limiting factors that cause significant yield loss and continuously threaten crop production. Resistant cultivars coupled with pesticide application are commonly used to circumvent these threats. One of the limitations of the reliance on resistant cultivars is the inevitable breakdown of resistance due to the multitude of variable virus populations. Similarly, chemical applications to control virus transmitting insect vectors are costly to the farmers, cause adverse health and environmental consequences, and often result in the emergence of resistant vector strains. Thus, exploiting strategies that provide durable and broad-spectrum resistance over diverse environments are of paramount importance. The development of <span class="hlt">plant</span> gene transfer systems has allowed for the introgression of alien genes into <span class="hlt">plant</span> genomes for novel disease control strategies, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to <span class="hlt">plant</span> breeders. Genetic engineering offers various options for introducing transgenic virus resistance into crop <span class="hlt">plants</span> to provide a wide range of resistance to viral pathogens. This review examines the current strategies of developing virus resistant transgenic <span class="hlt">plants</span>. PMID:25438782</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:6218678"><span id="translatedtitle">Obrigheim nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In 1973 the 345 MW pressurized water nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span> at Obrigheim operated on base load, generating approximately 2.63 TWh, approximately 2.5 TWh of which was supplied to the KWO members. The <span class="hlt">plant</span> availability for the year was 89.9%. Of the 10.1% non-availability, 6.4% (23 d) was caused by refuelling, including inspection, overhaul and repair operations and routine tests carried out in September 1973. 3.3% was due to stoppages for repairs to a steam generator and the two main cooling pumps, while 0.4% resulted from failures in the electrical section of the <span class="hlt">plant</span>. The <span class="hlt">plant</span> was shut down seven times in all, including three scrams. The average core burnup at the end of the fourth cycle (1 September 1973) was 18900 MWd/tU, representing an average burnup of approximately 37500 MWd/tU for a fuel element used in all four cycles. The operating performance of the steam generators and the result of the steam generator inspection carried out during refuelling in 1973 suggest no progressive damage. The quantities of radioactive materials released to the environment in 1973 were well below the officially permitted levels. The availability of the <span class="hlt">plant</span> from the beginning of pilot operation in 1969 to the end of 1973 was 83.7 %</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24005119"><span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear fuel reprocessing <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The present invention concerns an improvement for corrosion resistance of the welded portion of materials which constitutes a reprocessing <span class="hlt">plant</span> of spent nuclear fuels. That is, Mo-added austenite stainless steel is used for a <span class="hlt">plant</span> member at the portion in contact with a nitric acid solution. Then, laser beams are irradiated to the welded portion of the <span class="hlt">plant</span> member and the surface layer is heated to higher than 1,000degC. If such a heat treatment is applied, the degradation of corrosion resistance of the welded portion can be eliminated at the surface. Further, since laser beams are utilized, heating can be limited only to the surface. Accordingly, undesired thermal deformation of the <span class="hlt">plant</span> members can be prevented. As a result, the <span class="hlt">plant</span> member having high pit corrosion resistance against a dissolution solution for spent fuels containing sludges comprising insoluble residue and having resistance to nitric acid solution also in the welded portion substantially equal to that of the matrix can be attained. (I.S.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://journals.tums.ac.ir/PdfMed.aspx?pdf_med=/upload_files/pdf/19476.pdf&manuscript_id=19476"><span id="translatedtitle">Antidiabetic <span class="hlt">Plants</span> of Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Ashrafeddin Goushegir</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Full Text Available To identify the antidiabetic <span class="hlt">plants</span> of Iran, a systematic review of the published literature on the efficacy of Iranian medicinal <span class="hlt">plant</span> for glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was conducted. We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus, Proquest, Ebsco, Googlescholar, SID, Cochrane Library Database, from 1966 up to June 2010. The search terms were complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, diabetes mellitus, <span class="hlt">plant</span> (herb, Iran, patient, glycemic control, clinical trial, RCT, natural or herbal medicine, hypoglycemic <span class="hlt">plants</span>, and individual herb names from popular sources, or combination of these key words. Available Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT published in English or Persian language examined effects of an herb (limited to Iran on glycemic indexes in type 2 diabetic patients were included. Among all of the articles identified in the initial database search, 23 trials were RCT, examining herbs as potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The key outcome for antidiabetic effect was changes in blood glucose or HbA1 c, as well as improves in insulin sensitivity or resistance. Available data suggest that several antidiabetic <span class="hlt">plants</span> of Iran need further study. Among the RCT studies, the best evidence in glycemic control was found in Citrullus colocynthus, Ipomoea betatas, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum graecum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:31042441"><span id="translatedtitle">AECL's <span class="hlt">plant</span> Information Technologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The competitiveness of the world-wide energy market is a continual driving force for improvements to CANDU performance and lower operating, maintenance, and administration costs. As in other industries, advanced Information Technologies (IT) are changing the way we work and conduct business. The nuclear industry is no different and there exists strong incentives to improve work processes and provide faster and more flexible access to the information needed to effectively manage and maintain nuclear <span class="hlt">plant</span> assets. AECL has responded to these forces through the development of a vision of integrated IT systems addressing all phases of nuclear <span class="hlt">plant</span> development and operations. This includes the initial engineering, design, and construction processes as well as support to the long-term operations and maintenance. Integral to the AECL vision is the need for cost-effective engineering and operational configuration management systems, proactive maintenance processes and systems, and advanced <span class="hlt">plant</span> surveillance and diagnostics. This paper presents the vision and describes the integrated information systems needed to manage both the design basis and operating <span class="hlt">plant</span> data systems to ensure the cost-effective, long-term viability of CANDU <span class="hlt">plants</span>. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:22066355"><span id="translatedtitle">Individual <span class="hlt">plant</span> examination: Submittal guidance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Based on a Policy Statement on Severe Accidents Regarding Future Designs and Existing <span class="hlt">Plants</span>, the performance of a <span class="hlt">plant</span> examination is requested from the licensee of each nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span>. The <span class="hlt">plant</span> examination looks for vulnerabilities to severe accidents and cost-effective safety improvements that reduce or eliminate the important vulnerabilities. This document delineates guidance for reporting the results of that <span class="hlt">plant</span> examination. 38 refs., 2 tabs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::f92547e1e810a7ebd1cd3cc10f9550f3"><span id="translatedtitle">Mammalian sex hormones in <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Andrzej Skoczowski; Anna Janeczko</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The occurrence of mammalian sex hormones and their physiological role in <span class="hlt">plants</span> is reviewed. These hormones, such as 17?-estradiol, androsterone, testosterone or progesterone, were present in 60-80% of the <span class="hlt">plant</span> species investigated. Enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis and conversion were also found in <span class="hlt">plants</span>. Treatment of the <span class="hlt">plants</span> with sex hormones or their precursors influenced <span class="hlt">plant</span> development: cell divisions, root and shoot growth, embryo growth, flowering, pollen tube ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20969907"><span id="translatedtitle">US prep <span class="hlt">plant</span> census 2007</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Fiscor, S.</p> <p>2007-11-15</p> <p>Nine new <span class="hlt">plants</span> are listed in this year's Coal Age census of US coal preparation <span class="hlt">plants</span>. Six of these were built by Taggart Global. The census also noted a lot of activity especially from sales and renaming by new owners. The <span class="hlt">plants</span> are tabulated by state, giving basic details including company owner, <span class="hlt">plant</span> name, raw feed, product ash %, quality, type of <span class="hlt">plant</span>, builder and year built. 1 tab., 1 photo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17148227"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant-plant</span> interactions vary with different mycorrhizal fungus species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Hoeksema, Jason D</p> <p>2005-12-22</p> <p>Because different species of mycorrhizal fungi have different effects on the growth of particular <span class="hlt">plant</span> species, variation in mycorrhizal fungus species composition could cause changes in the strength of <span class="hlt">plant-plant</span> interactions. Results are presented from a growth chamber experiment that compared the strength of interactions among seedlings of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) when the pines were colonized by two different groups of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the genus Rhizopogon. <span class="hlt">Plant</span> density effects differed between the two groups of mycorrhizal fungi: <span class="hlt">plant</span> growth was low regardless of density when <span class="hlt">plants</span> were colonized with pine-specific Rhizopogon species, while <span class="hlt">plant</span> growth declined with <span class="hlt">plant</span> density when <span class="hlt">plants</span> were colonized by Rhizopogon species having a broader host range. This result parallels results from previous studies showing that <span class="hlt">plant</span> interactions are more antagonistic with mycorrhizal fungi than without, implying that <span class="hlt">plant</span> responsiveness to beneficial mycorrhizal fungi declines with increasing <span class="hlt">plant</span> density. If such effects are prevalent in <span class="hlt">plant</span> communities, then variation in mycorrhizal fungus community composition is predicted to have a density-dependent effect on <span class="hlt">plants</span>. PMID:17148227</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1626381"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant–plant</span> interactions vary with different mycorrhizal fungus species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Hoeksema, Jason D</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Because different species of mycorrhizal fungi have different effects on the growth of particular <span class="hlt">plant</span> species, variation in mycorrhizal fungus species composition could cause changes in the strength of <span class="hlt">plant–plant</span> interactions. Results are presented from a growth chamber experiment that compared the strength of interactions among seedlings of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) when the pines were colonized by two different groups of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the genus Rhizopogon. <span class="hlt">Plant</span> density effects differed between the two groups of mycorrhizal fungi: <span class="hlt">plant</span> growth was low regardless of density when <span class="hlt">plants</span> were colonized with pine-specific Rhizopogon species, while <span class="hlt">plant</span> growth declined with <span class="hlt">plant</span> density when <span class="hlt">plants</span> were colonized by Rhizopogon species having a broader host range. This result parallels results from previous studies showing that <span class="hlt">plant</span> interactions are more antagonistic with mycorrhizal fungi than without, implying that <span class="hlt">plant</span> responsiveness to beneficial mycorrhizal fungi declines with increasing <span class="hlt">plant</span> density. If such effects are prevalent in <span class="hlt">plant</span> communities, then variation in mycorrhizal fungus community composition is predicted to have a density-dependent effect on <span class="hlt">plants</span>. PMID:17148227</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/1178377/"><span id="translatedtitle">Geothermal <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Capacity Factors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this <span class="hlt">plant</span> performance metric had declined for geothermal power <span class="hlt">plants</span> since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a <span class="hlt">plant</span> to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:29001465"><span id="translatedtitle">Uranium uptake by <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This paper highlights the transport of uranium present in the soil to <span class="hlt">plants</span>. An increase in the uranium content in soil enhances its transport in various parts of <span class="hlt">plants</span>. The transport of uranium from the soil to the grain follows the order: black gram>maize>lentil>chick-pea>rice>wheat. In certain vegetables and fruits, this order is: spinach>carrot>radish> brinjal>banana>tomato>beet. In vegetables and fruits, the stem reflects minimum percentage of uranium present in the soil. The uranium transport is appreciably high in arecanut <span class="hlt">plant</span>. The chances of uranium transport to the human organs, are expected to be more through consumption of crops grown in uranium-rich soil. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/energy/hydropower-plant.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">How Hydropower <span class="hlt">Plants</span> Work</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Bonsor, Kevin</p> <p></p> <p>Worldwide, hydropower <span class="hlt">plants</span> produce about 24 percent of the world's electricity and supply more than 1 billion people with power. The world's hydropower <span class="hlt">plants</span> output a combined total of 675,000 megawatts, the energy equivalent of 3.6 billion barrels of oil, according to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. There are more than 2,000 hydropower <span class="hlt">plants</span> operating in the United States, making hydropower the country's largest renewable energy source. In this article, we'll take a look at how falling water creates energy and learn about the hydrologic cycle that creates the water flow essential for hydropower. You will also get a glimpse at one unique application of hydropower that may affect your daily life</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://plantsinmotion.bio.indiana.edu/plantmotion/starthere.html"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plants</span> in Motion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Roger P. Hangarter of Indiana University's Department of Biology has created this wonderful collection of time-lapse photography that allows us "to see the movements of <span class="hlt">plants</span> and clearly demonstrates that <span class="hlt">plants</span> are living and capable of some extraordinary things." The videos available show a broad range of <span class="hlt">plant</span> growth phenomena, including germination, circadian responses, phototropism, and much more. The movies are fun to watch in and of themselves, but don't miss out on the informative descriptions that accompany each video and category heading. Macintosh users can also print out a flip book using NIH Image, a free image analysis software (link provided). Even those with only a passing interest in botany will find this Web site entertaining and informative.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.oregonflora.org/oregonplantatlas.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Oregon <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Atlas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Oregon <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Atlas is an excellent online mapping program from the Oregon Flora Project at Oregon State University and the Native <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Society of Oregon. The program allows visitors to create customized <span class="hlt">plant</span> distribution maps derived from more than "385,000 records representing 96% of Oregon's 4516 taxa." Atlas users may choose up to six taxa (e.g. species, subspecies) for each map and selected taxa will be displayed at the locations in Oregon where they have been observed or collected. The Atlas offers users a number of base map options including shaded relief, precipitation, ecoregion, and county line maps of Oregon. In addition, Atlas visitors can access detailed information about different specimens by selecting location symbols on the map. The site provides a Help section, and links to other aspects of the Oregon Flora Project as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/sci;316/5829/1296?maxtoshow=&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=30&resourcetype=HWCIT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PLANT</span> SCIENCE: Infectious Heresy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>J. Allan Downie (John Innes Centre; Department of Molecular Microbiology)</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Leguminous <span class="hlt">plants</span>, such as peas and soybeans, enter into a symbiotic relationship with soil bacteria called rhizobia. For years it has been the accepted wisdom that Nodulation (Nod) factors secreted by rhizobia enable them to infect a legume and initiate formation of nodules on the host <span class="hlt">plant</span>'s roots. Within these nodules, the bacteria convert free nitrogen to ammonia, which the <span class="hlt">plant</span> uses for its growth. Giraud et al. provide evidence that overturns this orthodoxy. They determined that the genomes of two strains of legume-nodulating rhizobia do not contain genes that are necessary for the synthesis of Nod factors. This means that these bacteria must have an alternative way of initiating the dialogue that results in legume nodulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24063937"><span id="translatedtitle">Collective biogas <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Papers contributed to the European seminar on collective biogas <span class="hlt">plants</span> held at Herning, Denmark on October 22-23 under the auspices of the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy (DG XVII) are presented. Within the framework of the THERMIE programme, a network of OPETs (Organizations for the Promotion of Energy Technologies) was set up in order to disseminate information on new energy technologies throughout the European communities. The potential for further implementation of centralized capacity for the conversion of animal manures and other organic wastes to bio-fuels, not only in central and eastern Europe but also in the developing countries, is discussed in addition to the relevant technologies. Actual biomass conversion <span class="hlt">plants</span> are described and details are given on operational experience and <span class="hlt">plant</span> management. Agricultural, economic and policy aspects are also dealt with. (AB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24645920"><span id="translatedtitle">Trehalose metabolism in <span class="hlt">plants</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Lunn, John Edward; Delorge, Ines; Figueroa, Carlos María; Van Dijck, Patrick; Stitt, Mark</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Trehalose is a quantitatively important compatible solute and stress protectant in many organisms, including green algae and primitive <span class="hlt">plants</span>. These functions have largely been replaced by sucrose in vascular <span class="hlt">plants</span>, and trehalose metabolism has taken on new roles. Trehalose is a potential signal metabolite in <span class="hlt">plant</span> interactions with pathogenic or symbiotic micro-organisms and herbivorous insects. It is also implicated in responses to cold and salinity, and in regulation of stomatal conductance and water-use efficiency. In <span class="hlt">plants</span>, as in other eukaryotes and many prokaryotes, trehalose is synthesized via a phosphorylated intermediate, trehalose 6-phosphate (Tre6P). A meta-analysis revealed that the levels of Tre6P change in parallel with sucrose, which is the major product of photosynthesis and the main transport sugar in <span class="hlt">plants</span>. We propose the existence of a bi-directional network, in which Tre6P is a signal of sucrose availability and acts to maintain sucrose concentrations within an appropriate range. Tre6P influences the relative amounts of sucrose and starch that accumulate in leaves during the day, and regulates the rate of starch degradation at night to match the demand for sucrose. Mutants in Tre6P metabolism have highly pleiotropic phenotypes, showing defects in embryogenesis, leaf growth, flowering, inflorescence branching and seed set. It has been proposed that Tre6P influences <span class="hlt">plant</span> growth and development via inhibition of the SNF1-related protein kinase (SnRK1). However, current models conflict with some experimental data, and do not completely explain the pleiotropic phenotypes exhibited by mutants in Tre6P metabolism. Additional explanations for the diverse effects of alterations in Tre6P metabolism are discussed. PMID:24645920</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:23024411"><span id="translatedtitle">ITER <span class="hlt">plant</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>As part of a series of documents published by the IAEA that summarize the results of the Conceptual Design Activities for the ITER project, this publication describes the conceptual design of the ITER <span class="hlt">plant</span> systems, in particular (i) the heat transport system, (ii) the electrical distribution system, (iii) the requirements for radioactive equipment handling, the hot cell, and waste management, (iv) the supply system for fluids and operational chemicals, (v) the qualitative analyses of failure scenarios and methods of burn stability control and emergency shutdown control, (vi) analyses of tokamak building functions and design requirements, (vii) a <span class="hlt">plant</span> layout, and (viii) site requirements. Refs, figs and tabs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:14751067"><span id="translatedtitle">Power <span class="hlt">plant</span> process computer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The concept of instrumentation and control in nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span> incorporates the use of process computers for tasks which are on-line in respect to real-time requirements but not closed-loop in respect to closed-loop control. The general scope of tasks is: - alarm annunciation on CRT's - data logging - data recording for post trip reviews and <span class="hlt">plant</span> behaviour analysis - nuclear data computation - graphic displays. Process computers are used additionally for dedicated tasks such as the aeroball measuring system, the turbine stress evaluator. Further applications are personal dose supervision and access monitoring. (orig.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:14765031"><span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear district heating <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In Sweden district heating is based on petroleum. However, petroleum shortage requires its substitution by other energy resources. In this paper the nuclear district heating <span class="hlt">plant</span> SECURE, (ASEA-ATOM BWR) is discussed. Its construction and characteristics are detailed in the frame of a survey of recent trends in constructing district heating <span class="hlt">plants</span>. Economic as well as environmental aspects are discussed based on the characteristics of the reactor, operating at 400 MW. The long-term supply of fuel is also mentioned as an important criterion. (Sz.J.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39060265"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermodynamic solar <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The thermodynamic solar <span class="hlt">plants</span> include all techniques aiming at converting the solar radiation into high temperature heat, and then at converting this heat into mechanical or electrical energy through a thermodynamic cycle connected to a power generator. The first step, capture of the solar radiation, requires the use of optical systems and, in most cases, the use of solar concentrators which allow to reach temperatures above 250 deg. C. The hybridization with another heat generation source (fossil or biomass) allows to increase the availability of the solar facilities. The heat is then converted into electricity using classical thermodynamic cycles with efficiencies ranging from 23% to 50%, and above in the case of combined cycles. The immediate efficiency of solar-electricity conversion is comprised between 20% and 30% depending on the technology implemented, and the investment costs are evaluated between 2800 euro/kWe (20-80 MWe <span class="hlt">plant</span> with cylindro-parabolic collectors and Rankine cycle) and 4000 euro/KWe (40-200 MWe tower <span class="hlt">plant</span> with combined cycles) but can reach 14000 euro/kWe in the case of a 10-25 kWe parabola-Stirling decentralized <span class="hlt">plant</span>. The electricity cost ranges from 0.16 to 0.24 euro/kWhe for a big facility and is of about 0.30 euro/kWhe in the case of a parabola-Stirling <span class="hlt">plant</span> (to be compared with 0.04 euro/kWe in the case of a nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span>). The environmental impact of solar thermal electricity is lower than 20 kg CO2/MWhe and comparabhan 20 kg CO2/MWhe and comparable to the impact of hydro or nuclear power (4 and 6 kg CO2/MWhe, respectively), but much lower than the impact of photovoltaic energy (100 kg CO2/MWhe) or coal combustion (900 kg CO2/MWhe). The time of return on energy (duration of <span class="hlt">plant</span> operation to produce the energy needed for its fabrication) is of only 5 months and the lifetime of solar concentration facilities is estimated to 25-30 years. This article presents the state-of-the-art of solar <span class="hlt">plant</span> technologies and their economic aspects (market penetration strategy and R and D efforts). (J.S.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:18016228"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiplex tokamak power <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The concept of multiplexing for a fusion power core as an option for producing power is explored. Superconducting, as well as normal magnet, coils in either first or second stability regimes are considered. The results show that multiplex <span class="hlt">plants</span> with superconducting magnets operating in the second stability regime could be competitive with the single-unit <span class="hlt">plants</span> in some unit sizes. The key issues that impact the expected benefits of multiplexing must be investigated further. These are factory fabrication, economy of scale, the extent of equipment sharing, inherent safety, maintainability, and utility load management</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:9417393"><span id="translatedtitle">Power <span class="hlt">plant</span> effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Progress is reported on the following research projects: the impacts of entrainment; comparative thermal responses of largemouth bass from Minnesota-Wisconsin and Tennessee populations; temperature acclimation patterns of juvenile striped bass; effects of cold temperature on the survival and behavior of threadfin shad; field temperature selection by fish; predictive thermoregulation; size-selective predation by bluegills and smallmouth bass; largemouth bass cannibalism; snail production under constant and varying temperature; annual growth pattern of Corbicula manilensis as affected by the Kingston steam <span class="hlt">plant</span>; comparative temperature-dependent growth rates of bass fry; power <span class="hlt">plant</span> effect studies on burrowing mayfly populations; largemouth bass modeling; and interception and retention of simulated cooling tower drift</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:9402028"><span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The first part of this two part report deals with nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span> in general. It gives a survey of different energy sources and projected consumption for the next 50 years, a survey of the different types of reactors that are in use, the material used (including tensile and mechanical properties), design and construction and control and safety aspects of power reactors. Part two reports on the situation in the Netherlands. This entails the government standpoint and a description of two nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span>, the Dodewaard and the Borssele reactors. Finally, a model study of a pressure chamber is described</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:15067428"><span id="translatedtitle">Savannah River <span class="hlt">Plant</span> environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>On June 20, 1972, the Atomic Energy Commission designated 192,323 acres of land near Aiken, SC, as the nation's first National Environmental Research Park. The designated land surrounds the Department of Energy's Savannah River <span class="hlt">Plant</span> production complex. The site, which borders the Savannah River for 17 miles, includes swampland, pine forests, abandoned town sites, a large man-made lake for cooling water impoundment, fields, streams, and watersheds. This report is a description of the geological, hydrological, meteorological, and biological characteristics of the Savannah River <span class="hlt">Plant</span> site and is intended as a source of information for those interested in environmental research at the site. 165 references, 68 figures, 52 tables</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:24042569"><span id="translatedtitle">Hideout in power <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>As a result of the hideout effect, the concentration of specific salts in steam generator water following the commissioning of a high-pressure boiler increases noticeably with, and after, start-up. The later phenomenon is designated hideout return. Observations during operation of the hideout und hideout return effects in the steam generators of nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span> with pressurized water reactors (PWR) have confirmed these phenomena. Employing operational data from several nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span>, hideout return effects during the start-up of steam generators with vertical and horizontal tubing are being investigated. (orig.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:20012594"><span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear reactor <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">plant</span> consists mainly of a steam-raising unit and a steam turbine with high pressure and low pressure stages. There is at least one superheater or intermediate superheater between the steam-raising unit and the low pressure stage. In order to improve the <span class="hlt">plant</span> efficiency, a high temperature reactor is provided as a source of heat for the superheater or intermediate superheater, which supplies the superheater heat with an energy efficiency of over 60%. This increases the overall net efficiency from 33% to over 36%. (orig.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:18012627"><span id="translatedtitle">Fuel handling <span class="hlt">plant</span> and site ion exchange effluent <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Two new facilities at Sellafield are explained. The fuel handling <span class="hlt">plant</span> has been built to provide facilities for the receipt, storage and decanning of Magnox fuel and to increase the capacity and throughput for Magnox reprocessing. AGR fuel will also be stored and dismantled in the <span class="hlt">plant</span> but not reprocessed until the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing <span class="hlt">Plant</span> (THORP) comes into operation. The <span class="hlt">plant</span> is described and illustrated with photographs. The route of the fuel through the <span class="hlt">plant</span> is shown. The Site Ion Exchange Effluent <span class="hlt">Plant</span> (SIXEP) is designed to reduce liquid radioactive discharges to a few percent of peak levels. The SIXEP process is shown schematically and in photographs. (UK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:31006741"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> life management optimized utilization of existing nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>For safe, reliable and economical nuclear power generation it is of central importance to understand, analyze and manage aging-related phenomena and to apply this information in the systematic utilization and as-necessary extension of the service life of components and systems. An operator's overall approach to aging and <span class="hlt">plant</span> life management which also improves performance characteristics can help to optimize <span class="hlt">plant</span> operating economy. In view of the deregulation of the power generation industry with its increased competition, nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span> must today also increasingly provide for or maintain a high level of <span class="hlt">plant</span> availability and low power generating costs. This is a difficult challenge even for the newest, most modern <span class="hlt">plants</span>, and as <span class="hlt">plants</span> age they can only remain competitive if a <span class="hlt">plant</span> operator adopts a strategic approach which takes into account the various aging-related effects on a <span class="hlt">plant</span>-wide basis. The significance of aging and <span class="hlt">plant</span> life management for nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span> becomes apparent when looking at their age: By the year 2000 roughly fifty of the world's 434 commercial nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span> will have been in operation for thirty years or more. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency, as many as 110 <span class="hlt">plants</span> will have reached the thirty-year service mark by the year 2005. In many countries human society does not push the construction of new nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span> and presumably will not change mind within the next ten years. New constructionithin the next ten years. New construction licenses cannot be expected so that for economical and ecological reasons existing <span class="hlt">plants</span> have to be operated unchallengeably. On the other hand the deregulation of the power production market is asking just now for analysis of <span class="hlt">plant</span> life time to operate the <span class="hlt">plants</span> at a high technical and economical level until new nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span> can be licensed and constructed. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:38015811"><span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span> analyzer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The development of Nuclear Power <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Analyzers in USA is described. There are two different types of Analyzers under development in USA, the forst in Idaho and Los Alamos national Lab, the second in brookhaven National lab. That one is described in detail. The computer hardware and the mathematical models of the reactor vessel thermalhydraulics are described. (author)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:7279208"><span id="translatedtitle">Garigliano nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>During the period under review, the Garigliano power station produced 1,028,77 million kWh with a utilization factor of 73,41% and an availability factor of 85,64%. The disparity between the utilization and availability factors was mainly due to a shutdown of about one and half months owing to lack of staff at the <span class="hlt">plant</span>. The reasons for nonavailability (14.36%) break down as follows: nuclear reasons 11,49%; conventional reasons 2,81%; other reasons 0,06%. During the period under review, no fuel replacements took place. The <span class="hlt">plant</span> functioned throughout with a single reactor reticulation pump and resulting maximum available capacity of 150 MWe gross. After the month of August, the <span class="hlt">plant</span> was operated at levels slightly below the maximum available capacity in order to lengthen the fuel cycle. The total number of outages during the period under review was 11. Since the <span class="hlt">plant</span> was brought into commercial operation, it has produced 9.226 million kWh</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://ej.kubagro.ru/2012/01/pdf/33.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">AUTOMATION OF <span class="hlt">PLANTING</span> PROCESS ????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>Bartenev I. M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Full Text Available The article presents the results of research, design development to automate the process of <span class="hlt">planting</span> of seedlings and saplings with open and closed root system, in order to increase the operating speed, performance and level of mechanization, reducing manual labor and increase its security</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DOAJ-ART-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/15/12/8933/"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenolics and <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Allelopathy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p>De-An Jiang</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Full Text Available Phenolic compounds arise from the shikimic and acetic acid (polyketide metabolic pathways in <span class="hlt">plants</span>. They are but one category of the many secondary metabolites implicated in <span class="hlt">plant</span> allelopathy. Phenolic allelochemicals have been observed in both natural and managed ecosystems, where they cause a number of ecological and economic problems, such as declines in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure of natural forests, and replanting problems in orchards. Phenolic allelochemical structures and modes of action are diverse and may offer potential lead compounds for the development of future herbicides or pesticides. This article reviews allelopathic effects, analysis methods, and allelopathic mechanisms underlying the activity of <span class="hlt">plant</span> phenolic compounds. Additionally, the currently debated topic in <span class="hlt">plant</span> allelopathy of whether catechin and 8-hydroxyquinoline play an important role in Centaurea maculata and Centaurea diffusa invasion success is discussed. Overall, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the allelopacthic potential of phenolic compounds to provide us with methods to solve various ecology problems, especially in regard to the sustainable development of agriculture, forestry, nature resources and environment conservation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:10433098"><span id="translatedtitle">Irradiation <span class="hlt">plants</span> for foodstuffs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The author expounds the capabilities of irradiation as a means of improving the preservation of foodstuffs, describing the latest developments in this sector. This is followed by an account of the SULZER irradiation <span class="hlt">plant</span>, and in particular of a potato irradiation facility. Finally further possibilities are sketched for irradiating foodstuffs, cereals and fodder. (Auth.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23430779"><span id="translatedtitle">Cadmium-accumulating <span class="hlt">plants</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Küpper, Hendrik; Leitenmaier, Barbara</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Plants</span> are categorized in three groups concerning their uptake of heavy metals: indicator, excluder, and hyperaccumulator <span class="hlt">plants</span>, which we explain in this chapter, the former two groups briefly and the hyperaccumulators in detail. The ecological role of hyperaccumulation, for example, the prevention of herbivore attacks and a possible substitution of Zn by Cd in an essential enzyme, is discussed. As the mechanisms of cadmium hyperaccumulation are a very interesting and challenging topic and many aspects are studied worldwide, we provide a broad overview over compartmentation strategies, expression and function of metal transporting proteins and the role of ligands for uptake, transport, and storage of cadmium. Hyperaccumulators are not without reason a topic of great interest, they can be used biotechnologically for two main purposes which we discuss here for Cd: phytoremediation, dealing with the cleaning of anthropogenically contaminated soils as well as phytomining, i.e., the use of <span class="hlt">plants</span> for commercial metal extraction. Finally, the outlook deals with topics for future research in the fields of biochemistry/biophysics, molecular biology, and biotechnology. We discuss which knowledge is still missing to fully understand Cd hyperaccumulation by <span class="hlt">plants</span> and to use that phenomenon even more successfully for both environmental and economical purposes. PMID:23430779</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17286818"><span id="translatedtitle">Zinc in <span class="hlt">plants</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Broadley, Martin R; White, Philip J; Hammond, John P; Zelko, Ivan; Lux, Alexander</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Zinc (Zn) is an essential component of thousands of proteins in <span class="hlt">plants</span>, although it is toxic in excess. In this review, the dominant fluxes of Zn in the soil-root-shoot continuum are described, including Zn inputs to soils, the <span class="hlt">plant</span> availability of soluble Zn(2+) at the root surface, and <span class="hlt">plant</span> uptake and accumulation of Zn. Knowledge of these fluxes can inform agronomic and genetic strategies to address the widespread problem of Zn-limited crop growth. Substantial within-species genetic variation in Zn composition is being used to alleviate human dietary Zn deficiencies through biofortification. Intriguingly, a meta-analysis of data from an extensive literature survey indicates that a small proportion of the genetic variation in shoot Zn concentration can be attributed to evolutionary processes whose effects manifest above the family level. Remarkable insights into the evolutionary potential of <span class="hlt">plants</span> to respond to elevated soil Zn have recently been made through detailed anatomical, physiological, chemical, genetic and molecular characterizations of the brassicaceous Zn hyperaccumulators Thlaspi caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri. PMID:17286818</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/5998275/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> research '76</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Overall objective remains unchanged: to contribute to the knowledge, with strong emphasis on fundamental problems, of how <span class="hlt">plants</span> function, the roles they play in the environment and energy relations of the world, and how these roles may be optimized for the benefit of mankind. (PCS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:11558434"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiosensitivity in <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The report presents a compilation of available data on the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">plants</span> to ionizing radiation, and provides basic information on methods of determining such sensitivities, or of estimating radiosensitivities by calcuation of the nuclear factors upon which they depend. The scope of the data presented here is necessarily limited to the most generally useful radiobiological end points and to the most commonly-used types of radiation. Many of the factors which influence radiosensitivity, particularly nuclear factors, will be discussed. Emphasis will be upon whole-<span class="hlt">plant</span> studies done at Brookhaven National Laboratory by A.H. Sparrow and his associates, since these studies are the source of most of the available radiosensitivity data and of all the sensitivity predictions listed here. Data presented here include summaries of experimentally-determined radiosensitivities at various end points for both herbaceous and woody higher <span class="hlt">plants</span>, and for a few species of ferns and lower <span class="hlt">plants</span>. The algae and fungi have not been considered here due to space limitations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:20012935"><span id="translatedtitle">Helium leak finding <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The invention concerns a helium leak finding <span class="hlt">plant</span> with a mass spectrometer cell on the suction side of a molecular pump and a mechanical pre-pump, where a test sample or a test sensor is connected between the two pumps. The mechanical pre-pump consists of three successive stages. (orig./HP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:17038914"><span id="translatedtitle">Reprocessing <span class="hlt">plant</span>, Dounreay (Inquiry)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This debate, on the subject of the public enquiry into the fast reactor reprocessing <span class="hlt">plant</span> at Dounreay in Caithness, covered the following topics: collaborative European programme on fast reactors; transport of spent fuels and port of entry for fuels from abroad; proposal for joint planning inquiry commission; administrative procedures; discharges of effluent to the sea; safety and environmental aspects. (U.K.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=273523"><span id="translatedtitle">Glyphosate metabolism in <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Many soil microbes and <span class="hlt">plant</span> species metabolically degrade the herbicide glyphosate. The primary degradation routes are by a glyphosate oxidoreductase (GOX) to form aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) as the distinctive metabolite and by a C-P lyase that forms sarcosine as a main metabolite. AMPA app...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11337404"><span id="translatedtitle">ISOPRENE EMISSION FROM <span class="hlt">PLANTS</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Sharkey, Thomas D; Yeh, Sansun</p> <p>2001-06-01</p> <p>Very large amounts of isoprene are emitted from vegetation, especially from mosses, ferns, and trees. This hydrocarbon flux to the atmosphere, roughly equal to the flux of methane, has a large effect on the oxidizing potential of the atmosphere. Isoprene emission results from de novo synthesis by the deoxyxylulose phosphate/methyl erythritol 4-phosphate pathway in plastids. Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate made by this pathway is converted to isoprene by isoprene synthase. Isoprene synthase activity in <span class="hlt">plants</span> has a high pH optimum and requirement for Mg2+ that is consistent with its location inside chloroplasts. Isoprene emission costs the <span class="hlt">plant</span> significant amounts of carbon, ATP, and reducing power. Researchers hypothesize that <span class="hlt">plants</span> benefit from isoprene emission because it helps photosynthesis recover from short high-temperature episodes. The evolution of isoprene emission may have been important in allowing <span class="hlt">plants</span> to survive the rapid temperature changes that can occur in air because of the very low heat capacity of isoprene relative to water. PMID:11337404</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=218848"><span id="translatedtitle">Egg Processing <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Sanitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Hazard analysis and critical control programs (HACCP) will eventually be required for commercial shell egg processing <span class="hlt">plants</span>. Sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for HACCP and is based upon current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) as listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Good ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://plantsinmotion.bio.indiana.edu/plantmotion/movements/nastic/nastic.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Nastic Movements (<span class="hlt">Plants</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The phenomena are a set of different movements and growth in various <span class="hlt">plants</span> depicted by time lapse video clips. The movement and growth include closing of Venus Flytrap and Mimosa leaves, twining motion of morning glory vines and spiraling and elongation of Arabidopsis flower stems and sunflower seedlings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:26041510"><span id="translatedtitle">T <span class="hlt">Plant</span> hazards assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the T <span class="hlt">Plant</span> on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:26033684"><span id="translatedtitle">B <span class="hlt">Plant</span> hazards assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for B <span class="hlt">Plant</span> on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific , Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/5369196/"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiosensitivity in <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Nauman, A F</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The report presents a compilation of available data on the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">plants</span> to ionizing radiation, and provides basic information on methods of determining such sensitivities, or of estimating radiosensitivities by calcuation of the nuclear factors upon which they depend. The scope of the data presented here is necessarily limited to the most generally useful radiobiological end points and to the most commonly-used types of radiation. Many of the factors which influence radiosensitivity, particularly nuclear factors, will be discussed. Emphasis will be upon whole-<span class="hlt">plant</span> studies done at Brookhaven National Laboratory by A.H. Sparrow and his associates, since these studies are the source of most of the available radiosensitivity data and of all the sensitivity predictions listed here. Data presented here include summaries of experimentally-determined radiosensitivities at various end points for both herbaceous and woody higher <span class="hlt">plants</span>, and for a few species of ferns and lower <span class="hlt">plants</span>. The algae and fungi have not been considered here due to space limitations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Salinity&id=EJ659965"><span id="translatedtitle">Salinity and <span class="hlt">Plants</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Langsford, Simon; Meredith, Steve; Munday, Bruce</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Presents science activities that mirror real life issues relating to <span class="hlt">plants</span> and sustainability. Describes how to turn seed growing activities into an environmental simulation. Discusses the advantages of cross-curriculum learning opportunities. Includes student references and notes for teachers. (KHR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ETDEWEB-EN&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/1090744/"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanisms in <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p>Hake, Sarah [USDA ARS Plant Gene Expression Center</p> <p>2013-08-21</p> <p>This meeting has been held every other year for the past twenty-two years and is the only regularly held meeting focused specifically on <span class="hlt">plant</span> development. Topics covered included: patterning in developing tissues; short and long distance signaling; differentiation of cell types; the role of epigenetics in development; evolution; growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://actionbioscience.org/biodiversity/hawtin_cherfas.html"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Genebanks: Food Security</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Geoffrey C. Hawtin and Jeremy Cherfas (International Plant Genetic Resources Institute; )</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article shows how genebanks are like an insurance policy for the future of agriculture, for they: conserve the diversity of <span class="hlt">plant</span> species, offer resources for breeding of hardier crop varieties, provide food solutions in times of disaster, and safeguard food supplies for future generations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.vidacollection.org/browse/browseRecords/detail?recordId=163"><span id="translatedtitle">Moss <span class="hlt">plant</span> spore capsules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)</p> <p>2007-01-13</p> <p>Mosses are the most well-known bryophytes and lack vascular tissue. Bryophytes reproduce by spore germination. The spores are released by the capsule atop the stalk-like structure growing from the <span class="hlt">plant</span>. Because spores are dispersed by wind, bryophytes are found world-wide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:22049779"><span id="translatedtitle">Drug from <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this paper the authors make certain general observations and comments concerning the role of photosynthesis in the labeling of natural compounds, as well as some recommendations based on recent results regarding the labeling of a new anti-malaria drug extracted from a <span class="hlt">plant</span> and originally known to traditional Chinese medicine. (author). 6 refs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002885.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Poinsettia <span class="hlt">plant</span> exposure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Eating this <span class="hlt">plant</span> does not usually result in a trip to the hospital. Rinse the mouth out with water if leaves or stems were eaten. Rinse eyes with water, if needed. Wash the skin of any area that appears irritated with soap and ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/162/4/1767.short"><span id="translatedtitle">Topical Reviews in <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Physiology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The American Society of <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Physiologists has posted this bare-bones resource "for lecturers and students of <span class="hlt">plant</span> physiology." It includes several hundred recent references (1992-99) from relevant journals, for example the Annual Review of Biochemistry, Annual Review of Cell Developmental Biology, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, Annual Review of Phytopathology, Annual Review of <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Physiology and <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Molecular Biology, Photosynthesis Research, <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Physiology, and Trends in <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Science. The reference list is presented in chronological order, and, within each year, in alphabetical order. Although no search engine accompanies the reference list, visitors may use their browsers to conduct key word searches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:27057293"><span id="translatedtitle">Site treatment <span class="hlt">plant</span> delayed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A $21-million nuclear waste vitrification <span class="hlt">plant</span> at the U.S. Dept. of Energy's former uranium enrichment site in Fernald, Ohio, is facing design and procurement problems that have delayed its startup 17 months. But DOE says it will not delay the 10-year cleanup of the entire site. The pressure of Superfund-imposed deadlines forced the <span class="hlt">plant</span>'s fast-track design and construction. Portions of the project were designed in parallel rather than in sequence, say officials of DOE and Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Co. (FERMCO), the site's Fluor Corp.-led cleanup contractor. DOE opted to vitrify 9,700 tons of radioactive waste stored in four cement silos as part of a December 1994 agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The pact gave FERMCO 15 months to start remediation. The first glitch occurred when DOE could not get bids for a melter in the pilot vitrification <span class="hlt">plant</span> that could effectively operate at up to 1,450 degrees C. That forced DOE to revise the request for proposals for the melter to specify a one-ton-per-day furnace instead of a 5- tpd unit, says Nina Akgunduz, DOE project manager. The melter supplier is GTS Duratek Inc., Columbia, Md. The original operating schedule anticipated 100% in the pilot <span class="hlt">plant</span>, when completed test burns in three months. But the schedule was revised after European vitrification specialists specified 30% efficiency as a more realistic estimate. The pilot is now set to begin operating in February. Data collected gin operating in February. Data collected from the pilot <span class="hlt">plant</span> will be used to design the Site's $200-million, full-scale vitrification <span class="hlt">plant</span>, which will handle up to 30 tons of material a day. Reising says one lesson learned so far is to include operations and construction staff early on in the process. Design problems would have been caught earlier, he says. Meanwhile, design and construction of the larger <span class="hlt">plant</span> is also on a fast track, with the first construction package to be awarded in March</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11281771"><span id="translatedtitle">A new class of glycosidase inhibitor: synthesis of salacinol and its stereoisomers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Ghavami, A; Johnston, B D; Pinto, B M</p> <p>2001-04-01</p> <p>Salacinol (4) is one of the active principles in the aqueous extracts of <span class="hlt">Salacia</span> <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> that are traditionally used in Sri Lanka and India for the treatment of diabetes. The syntheses of salacinol (4), the enantiomer of salacinol (5), and a diastereomer (7) are described. The synthetic strategy relies on the selective nucleophilic attack of 2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl-1,4-anhydro-4-thio-D- or L-arabinitol at C-1 of 2,4-O-benzylidene D- or L-erythritol-1,3-cyclic sulfate. The work serves to resolve the ambiguity about the exact structure of salacinol and establishes conclusively the structure of the natural product. PMID:11281771</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20598536"><span id="translatedtitle">Docking and SAR studies of salacinol derivatives as alpha-glucosidase inhibitors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Nakamura, Shinya; Takahira, Kazunori; Tanabe, Genzoh; Morikawa, Toshio; Sakano, Mika; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu; Nakanishi, Isao</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>Salacinol is a potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from <span class="hlt">Salacia</span> <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, and a good lead compound for an antidiabetic drug. It is essential to clarify the binding state of salacinol to alpha-glucosidase for efficient optimization study using structure-based drug design. Redocking simulations of two inhibitors, acarbose and casuarine whose complex structures are known, were performed to assure the appropriate docking pose prediction. The simulation reproduced both experimental binding states with accuracy. Then, using the same simulation protocol, the binding mode of salacinol and its derivatives has been predicted. Salacinol bound to the protein with a similar binding mode as casuarine, and the predicted structures could explain most of the structure-activity relationships of salacinol derivatives. PMID:20598536</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23031648"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of the side chain stereochemistry in the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of kotalanol, a potent natural ?-glucosidase inhibitor. Part 2.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Tanabe, Genzoh; Matsuoka, Kanjyun; Yoshinaga, Masahiro; Xie, Weijia; Tsutsui, Nozomi; A Amer, Mumen F; Nakamura, Shinya; Nakanishi, Isao; Wu, Xiaoming; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>To examine the role of the side chain of kotalanol (2), a potent natural ?-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from <span class="hlt">Salacia</span> <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, on inhibitory activity, four diastereomers (11a-11d) with reversed configuration (S) at the C-4' position in the side chain were synthesized and evaluated. Two of the four (11b and 11d) significantly lost their inhibitory activity against both maltase and sucrase, while the other two (11a and 11c) sustained the inhibitory activity to a considerable extent, showing distinct activity in response to the change of stereochemistry of the hydroxyls at the 5'and 6' positions. Different activities were rationalized with reference to in silico docking studies on these inhibitors with hNtMGAM. Against isomaltase, all four analogs showed potent inhibitory activity as well as 2, and 11b and 11d exhibited enzyme selectivity. PMID:23031648</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:36086629"><span id="translatedtitle">Heating <span class="hlt">plant</span> privatization stagnates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The state has been talking about privatization of 6 municipal heating <span class="hlt">plants</span> since 2001. The tenders were to start last year. But nothing has happened and the future is uncertain. The city councils would prefer to receive, if not 100%, then at least a majority stake in the heating <span class="hlt">plants</span> free of charge. But the Cabinet has decided to sell 51% to investors. The privatization agency - the National Property Fund (FNM) is preparing a proposal to increase the stake offered for sale to 67%. According to information provided by the FNM the sale will begin after Cabinet approval. The Fund intends to apply the same model to the sale of all the heating <span class="hlt">plants</span>. Last year, a major German company Verbundnetz Gas declared its interest in purchasing large municipal heating <span class="hlt">plants</span> in Slovakia. But it has been waiting for a response ever since. The French company - Dalkia, which has 10-years' experience of doing business in Slovakia, is interested in all the heating <span class="hlt">plants</span> to be offered for sale. The Austrian company - Stefe is not new to the business either, it is interested mainly in the regions where it has already established itself - Central and Eastern Slovakia. Strategic investors expect financial groups to show interest too. The Penta Group has not hid its ambitions - it has already privatised a company which represents the key to the future development of heat management in Bratislava - Paroplynovy cyklus. Whereas Penta is not new to the heat production business another finanthe heat production business another financial group - Slavia Capital is still surveying the sector. Should it not succeed, it plans several projects that would allow it to take a stake in the sector</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39046482"><span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span> safety</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Action at the international level will assume greater importance as the number of nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span> increases, especially in the more densely populated parts of the world. Predictions of growth made prior to October 1973 [9] indicated that, by 1980, 14% of the electricity would be supplied by nuclear <span class="hlt">plants</span> and by the year 2000 this figure would be about 50%. This will make the topic of international co-operation and standards of even greater importance. The IAEA has long been active in providing assistance to Member States in the siting design and operation of nuclear reactors. These activities have been pursued through advisory missions, the publication of codes of practice, guide books, technical reports and in arranging meetings to promote information exchange. During the early development of nuclear power, there was no well-established body of experience which would allow formulation of internationally acceptable safety criteria, except in a few special cases. Hence, nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span> safety and reliability matters often received an ad hoc approach which necessarily entailed a lack of consistency in the criteria used and in the levels of safety required. It is clear that the continuation of an ad hoc approach to safety will prove inadequate in the context of a world-wide nuclear power industry, and the international trade which this implies. As in several other fields, the establishment of internationally acceptable safety standards and appropriate guides fosafety standards and appropriate guides for use by regulatory bodies, utilities, designers and constructors, is becoming a necessity. The IAEA is presently planning the development of a comprehensive set of basic requirements for nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span> safety, and the associated reliability requirements, which would be internationally acceptable, and could serve as a standard frame of reference for nuclear <span class="hlt">plant</span> safety and reliability analyses</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=DRIVER-EN&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::df0cc48e6c99dc33617e06df73182eeb"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant–plant</span> interactions vary with different mycorrhizal fungus species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://beta.openaire.eu/search">OpenAIRE</a></p> <p>Hoeksema, Jason D</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Because different species of mycorrhizal fungi have different effects on the growth of particular <span class="hlt">plant</span> species, variation in mycorrhizal fungus species composition could cause changes in the strength of <span class="hlt">plant–plant</span> interactions. Results are presented from a growth chamber experiment that compared the strength of interactions among seedlings of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) when the pines were colonized by two different groups of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the genus Rhizopogon. <span class="hlt">Plant</span> densi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:35002529"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy balances for power <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>An important aspect of a power <span class="hlt">plant</span> is its energy balance, i.e. the electrical energy produced by the <span class="hlt">plant</span> over its overall operation period, compared to the amount of non-renewable energy used to create and build the <span class="hlt">plant</span>. Tense discussions took place in the past between criticizers and promotors of a given technology, some technologies even being accused of having a negative energy balance. Mostly based on built examples the present study aims at giving objective data for the represented technologies, as follows: a 64 MW hydro power <span class="hlt">plant</span> in the Alps, with seasonal water storage in a lake; a 60 MW run-of-river high-head hydro power <span class="hlt">plant</span> in the Alps; two run-of-river low-head hydro power <span class="hlt">plants</span> in the Swiss Midlands (14 MW and 25 MW respectively); a small 30 kW wind power generator located near the Simplon Pass at 2000 m over sea level, in the Alps; a 3 kW photovoltaic generator in the roof of a single-family house; a 500 kW photovoltaic power <span class="hlt">plant</span> in the Jura, at 1000 m over sea level; a 0.9 MWel/8.8 MWtherm fossil-fuel co-generation <span class="hlt">plant</span> near Zuerich; a 200 MW natural-gas-fired gas/vapour turbine power <span class="hlt">plant</span>; a 300 MW heavy-fuel-fired power <span class="hlt">plant</span>; a 500 MW coal-fired power <span class="hlt">plant</span>; and the Leibstadt 990 MW nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span>. The best energy balances are obtained for the hydro power <span class="hlt">plants</span>, the worst for the Leibstadt nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span>. In between the photovoltaic <span class="hlt">plants</span> and the fossil-fuel-fired <span class="hlt">plants</span> are found. The figures differ by d <span class="hlt">plants</span> are found. The figures differ by more than two orders of magnitude</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/sci;324/5928/746?maxtoshow=&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span>-Microbe Interactions: Chemical Diversity in <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Defense</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Pawel Bednarek (Max-Planck-Institut für Züchtungsforschung; Department of Plant Microbe Interactions)</p> <p>2009-05-08</p> <p>Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The chemical diversity within the <span class="hlt">plant</span> kingdom is likely to be a consequence of niche colonization and adaptive evolution. <span class="hlt">Plant</span>-derived natural products have important functions in defense. They also have broader ecological roles and may in addition participate in <span class="hlt">plant</span> growth and development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10479241"><span id="translatedtitle">Convergence of <span class="hlt">plant</span>-rich and <span class="hlt">plant</span>-only diets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p>Dwyer, J</p> <p>1999-09-01</p> <p>Discussants at the Third International Congress on Vegetarian Nutrition considered the nutritional adequacy, benefits, and health outcomes of <span class="hlt">plant</span>-only (e.g., vegan and fruitarian), <span class="hlt">plant</span>-based (e.g., macrobiotic, lactovegetarian, semivegetarian, and meatless), and omnivorous dietary patterns. The increased availability of a variety of <span class="hlt">plant</span> foods, the advent of nutrient-fortified <span class="hlt">plant</span> foods, the use of vitamin and mineral supplements, and the widespread dissemination of sound information on dietary patterns mean that convergence between the essential nutrient profiles of <span class="hlt">plant</span>-only and <span class="hlt">plant</span>-rich, <span class="hlt">plant</span>-based diets is possible. Special attention should be paid to nutrition among vulnerable groups by age or physiologic status if they consume diets based solely on <span class="hlt">plants</span>. Research has shown that both <span class="hlt">plant</span>-only and <span class="hlt">plant</span>-based eating patterns have health benefits, most notably in reducing the risk of chronic, degenerative diseases. The panel concluded that evidence for a convergence of scientific opinion on the safety and healthfulness of <span class="hlt">plant</span>-only diets that are appropriately planned to meet all nutrient requirements compared with <span class="hlt">plant</span>-based diets is considerable. PMID:10479241</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:14727931"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> air systems safety study: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion <span class="hlt">Plant</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Air System facilities and operations are reviewed for potential safety problems not covered by standard industrial safety procedures. Information is presented under the following section headings: facility and process description (general); air <span class="hlt">plant</span> equipment; air distribution system; safety systems; accident analysis; <span class="hlt">plant</span> air system safety overview; and conclusion</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45111992"><span id="translatedtitle">Initiative against nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This publication of the Initiative of Austrian Nuclear Power <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Opponents contains articles on radiactive waste dispoasal in Austria and and discusses safety issues of the nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span> 'Zwentendorf'. (kancsar)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-EN&redirectUrl=http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2010-118/"><span id="translatedtitle">Protecting Yourself from Poisonous <span class="hlt">Plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Share Compartir NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous <span class="hlt">Plants</span> April 2010 DHHS (NIOSH) Publication Number 2010- ... working outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous <span class="hlt">plants</span>, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=IAEA-INISDB-EN&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:23074968"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbofuran distribution in rice <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS) </a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The distribution of carbofuran (2,2-dimethyl 2,3-dihydrobenzofuranyl 7-N methyl carbonate) in the rice <span class="hlt">plant</span> was studied by using 14-C3 labelled carbofuran. Study was conducted for the whole <span class="hlt">plant</span> as well as ground <span class="hlt">plant</span>. Results obtained show than ground <span class="hlt">plants</span> materials absorbed carbofuran and the equilibrium was reached after four hours of shaking. The distribution constant were 20 : 1 for stem and root, and 10 : 1 for leaves. Carbofuran was absorbed by <span class="hlt">plant</span> root through water absoption metabolism. Carbofuran absorbed by <span class="hlt">plant</span> was proportional with <span class="hlt">plant</span> weight. Radioactivity of 14-C was higher in <span class="hlt">plant</span> roots and leaves than stems. For the leave, it was more concentrated in the tip. (author). 3 refs, 1 fig, 3 tab</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-DATAGOV&redirectUrl=http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/aseptic-plant-culture-system-apcs-project-cc590"><span id="translatedtitle">Aseptic <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Culture System (APCS) Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aseptic <span class="hlt">plant</span> culture plays a significant role in biotechnology and <span class="hlt">plant</span> physiology research, and in vegetative propagation of many <span class="hlt">plant</span> species. The development...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=WWS-DATAGOV&redirectUrl=http://catalog.data.gov/dataset/aseptic-plant-culture-system-apcs-project"><span id="translatedtitle">Aseptic <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Culture System (APCS) Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aseptic <span class="hlt">plant</span> culture plays a significant role in biotechnology and <span class="hlt">plant</span> physiology research and in vegetative propagation of many <span class="hlt">plant</span> species. 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