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1

Effects of the Sri Lankan medicinal plant, Salacia reticulata, in rheumatoid arthritis  

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Salacia reticulata is a native plant of Sri Lanka. In the traditional medicine of Sri Lanka and India, Salacia reticulata bark is considered orally effective in the treatment of rheumatism, gonorrhea, skin disease and diabetes. We have investigated, both in vivo and in vitro, whether the leaf of Sal...

Sekiguchi, Yuusuke; Mano, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Sachie; Shimizu, Jun; Wada, Masahiro

2

Effects of the Sri Lankan medicinal plant, Salacia reticulata, in rheumatoid arthritis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salacia reticulata is a native plant of Sri Lanka. In the traditional medicine of Sri Lanka and India, Salacia reticulata bark is considered orally effective in the treatment of rheumatism, gonorrhea, skin disease and diabetes. We have investigated, both in vivo and in vitro, whether the leaf of Salacia reticulata (SRL) can ameliorate collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) in mice as the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) model. The mice were fed a lard containing chow diet (AIN-93G) or the same diet containing 1% (w/w) SRL powder. All mice were bred for 23 days. On day 7 or 14 after LPS injection, mice were killed, and tissue and blood samples were collected. Histological analysis was performed, and serum levels of inflammatory mediators and the mRNA levels of inflammation-related genes and osteoclast-related genes were measured. SRL treatment ameliorated the rapid initial paw swelling, inflammatory cells infiltration, skeletal tissues damage, osteoclast activation and the mRNA levels for osteoclast-related genes compared with the CAIA mice. However, the serum and mRNA levels of inflammatory mediators did not differ between the CAIA mice and the SRL-treated mice. SRL might reduce the inflammatory cells induction and skeletal tissue degradation by CAIA by the regulating osteoclastogenesis.

Sekiguchi Y; Mano H; Nakatani S; Shimizu J; Wada M

2010-03-01

3

Effects of the Sri Lankan medicinal plant, Salacia reticulata, in rheumatoid arthritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salacia reticulata is a native plant of Sri Lanka. In the traditional medicine of Sri Lanka and India, Salacia reticulata bark is considered orally effective in the treatment of rheumatism, gonorrhea, skin disease and diabetes. We have investigated, both in vivo and in vitro, whether the leaf of Salacia reticulata (SRL) can ameliorate collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) in mice as the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) model. The mice were fed a lard containing chow diet (AIN-93G) or the same diet containing 1% (w/w) SRL powder. All mice were bred for 23 days. On day 7 or 14 after LPS injection, mice were killed, and tissue and blood samples were collected. Histological analysis was performed, and serum levels of inflammatory mediators and the mRNA levels of inflammation-related genes and osteoclast-related genes were measured. SRL treatment ameliorated the rapid initial paw swelling, inflammatory cells infiltration, skeletal tissues damage, osteoclast activation and the mRNA levels for osteoclast-related genes compared with the CAIA mice. However, the serum and mRNA levels of inflammatory mediators did not differ between the CAIA mice and the SRL-treated mice. SRL might reduce the inflammatory cells induction and skeletal tissue degradation by CAIA by the regulating osteoclastogenesis. PMID:19727885

Sekiguchi, Yuusuke; Mano, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Sachie; Shimizu, Jun; Wada, Masahiro

2009-09-02

4

Role of medicinal plant Salacia Reticulata in the management of Type II Diabetic Subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading causes of death and ranks third among the chronic diseases. Recent studies have shown that up to 10 % of India's urban population and 2 % of the rural population above the age of 15 years have diabetes and WHO had declared India as the diabetic capital of the world. India has wealth of medicinalplants, and these plants have credited to the development of therapeutic agents for various ailments and diseases. Hark of Salacia Reticulata was screened for its hypoglycemic and hypo-lipidaemic effect. A- total of 60 type II diabetics were enrolled, consisting of experimental group 30 and control group 30. Experimental group received 2 grams of Kadalazhinjil powder daily for a period of 90 days and control group did not receive any supplements. Blood glucose levels before and after medications were estimated in both groups at baseline and at 90 days. There was insignificant reduction in fasting blood glucose, HbA(1) c and lipid levels at the end of 90 days in the supplemented group. The experimental group showed encouraging results which call for long term supplementation in Diabetes Mellitus. PMID:22557337

Radha, R; Amrithaveni, M

2009-07-01

5

Role of medicinal plant Salacia Reticulata in the management of Type II Diabetic Subjects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading causes of death and ranks third among the chronic diseases. Recent studies have shown that up to 10 % of India's urban population and 2 % of the rural population above the age of 15 years have diabetes and WHO had declared India as the diabetic capital of the world. India has wealth of medicinalplants, and these plants have credited to the development of therapeutic agents for various ailments and diseases. Hark of Salacia Reticulata was screened for its hypoglycemic and hypo-lipidaemic effect. A- total of 60 type II diabetics were enrolled, consisting of experimental group 30 and control group 30. Experimental group received 2 grams of Kadalazhinjil powder daily for a period of 90 days and control group did not receive any supplements. Blood glucose levels before and after medications were estimated in both groups at baseline and at 90 days. There was insignificant reduction in fasting blood glucose, HbA(1) c and lipid levels at the end of 90 days in the supplemented group. The experimental group showed encouraging results which call for long term supplementation in Diabetes Mellitus.

Radha R; Amrithaveni M

2009-07-01

6

Preventive Effects of Salacia reticulata on Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in TSOD Mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The extracts of Salacia reticulata (Salacia extract), a plant that has been used for the treatment of early diabetes, rheumatism and gonorrhea in Ayurveda, have been shown to have an anti-obesity effect and suppress hyperglycemia. In this study, the effects of Salacia extract on various symptoms of ...

Akase, Tomoko; Shimada, Tsutomu; Harasawa, Yukiko; Akase, Tomohide; Ikeya, Yukinobu; Nagai, Eiichi; Iizuka, Seiichi

7

Antimicrobial Activity of Root Bark of Salacia reticulata  

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Antimicrobial activity of chloroform and methanolic extracts of Salacia reticulata were tested against gram positive, gram negative and fungus strains using zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentrations. It was observed that both extracts have inhibitory effect towards all microorganisms ...

Choudhary, G. P.; Vijay Kanth, M. S.

8

Antimicrobial Activity of Root Bark of Salacia reticulata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antimicrobial activity of chloroform and methanolic extracts of Salacia reticulata were tested against gram positive, gram negative and fungus strains using zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentrations. It was observed that both extracts have inhibitory effect towards all microorganisms used in the test. Chloroform extract was more effective than methanolic extract. PMID:22557181

Choudhary, G P; Vijay Kanth, M S

2005-07-01

9

Antimicrobial Activity of Root Bark of Salacia reticulata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antimicrobial activity of chloroform and methanolic extracts of Salacia reticulata were tested against gram positive, gram negative and fungus strains using zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentrations. It was observed that both extracts have inhibitory effect towards all microorganisms used in the test. Chloroform extract was more effective than methanolic extract.

Choudhary GP; Vijay Kanth MS

2005-07-01

10

Preventive Effects of Salacia reticulata on Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in TSOD Mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The extracts of Salacia reticulata (Salacia extract), a plant that has been used for the treatment of early diabetes, rheumatism and gonorrhea in Ayurveda, have been shown to have an anti-obesity effect and suppress hyperglycemia. In this study, the effects of Salacia extract on various symptoms of metabolic disorder were investigated and compared using these TSOD mice and non-obese TSNO mice. Body weight, food intake, plasma biochemistry, visceral and subcutaneous fat (X-ray and CT), glucose tolerance, blood pressure and pain tolerance were measured, and histopathological examination of the liver was carried out. A significant dose-dependent decline in the gain in body weight, accumulation of visceral and subcutaneous fat and an improvement of abnormal glucose tolerance, hypertension and peripheral neuropathy were noticed in TSOD mice. In addition, hepatocellular swelling, fatty degeneration of hepatocytes, inflammatory cell infiltration and single-cell necrosis were observed on histopathological examination of the liver in TSOD mice. Salacia extract markedly improved these symptoms upon treatment. Based on the above results, it is concluded that Salacia extract has remarkable potential to prevent obesity and associated metabolic disorders including the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:19505975

Akase, Tomoko; Shimada, Tsutomu; Harasawa, Yukiko; Akase, Tomohide; Ikeya, Yukinobu; Nagai, Eiichi; Iizuka, Seiichi; Nakagami, Gojiro; Iizaka, Shinji; Sanada, Hiromi; Aburada, Masaki

2011-06-23

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Preventive Effects of Salacia reticulata on Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in TSOD Mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The extracts of Salacia reticulata (Salacia extract), a plant that has been used for the treatment of early diabetes, rheumatism and gonorrhea in Ayurveda, have been shown to have an anti-obesity effect and suppress hyperglycemia. In this study, the effects of Salacia extract on various symptoms of metabolic disorder were investigated and compared using these TSOD mice and non-obese TSNO mice. Body weight, food intake, plasma biochemistry, visceral and subcutaneous fat (X-ray and CT), glucose tolerance, blood pressure and pain tolerance were measured, and histopathological examination of the liver was carried out. A significant dose-dependent decline in the gain in body weight, accumulation of visceral and subcutaneous fat and an improvement of abnormal glucose tolerance, hypertension and peripheral neuropathy were noticed in TSOD mice. In addition, hepatocellular swelling, fatty degeneration of hepatocytes, inflammatory cell infiltration and single-cell necrosis were observed on histopathological examination of the liver in TSOD mice. Salacia extract markedly improved these symptoms upon treatment. Based on the above results, it is concluded that Salacia extract has remarkable potential to prevent obesity and associated metabolic disorders including the development of metabolic syndrome.

Akase T; Shimada T; Harasawa Y; Akase T; Ikeya Y; Nagai E; Iizuka S; Nakagami G; Iizaka S; Sanada H; Aburada M

2011-01-01

12

Capillary zone electrophoresis method for the separation of glucosidase inhibitors in extracts of Salacia reticulata, a plant used in ayurvedic treatments of type-2 diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple and reproducible capillary-zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the separation and quantitation of sulfonium-ion-containing compounds isolated from plants of the Salacia genus which are traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The method sufficiently resolved four different compounds with confirmed glucosidase inhibitory activity, namely, salacinol, ponkoranol, kotalanol and de-O-sulfonated kotalanol. Separation could be achieved in less than 9 min, and calibration curves showed good linearity. Detection limits were determined to be in the low mug/mL range. This method was used to demonstrate that de-O-sulfonated kotalanol isolated from natural sources has identical ionic mobility to a synthetic standard. Furthermore, new extraction conditions were developed by which the zwitterionic compounds (salacinol, ponkoranol, and kotalanol) could be separated from de-O-sulfonated kotalanol in a single solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. The extraction gave reproducibly high recoveries and was used to process four commercial Salacia extracts for CZE analysis to reduce the complexity of resulting electropherograms and to facilitate the detection of the four inhibitors in question. De-O-sulfonated kotalanol was detected in two of four Salacia samples while ponkoranol was present in all four. A comparison of all samples tested demonstrated that they had remarkably similar patterns of peaks, suggesting that this CZE method may be useful in the chemical fingerprinting of Salacia-containing products. PMID:20491445

Zandberg, Wesley F; Mohan, Sankar; Kumarasamy, Jayakanthan; Pinto, B Mario

2010-06-15

13

Capillary zone electrophoresis method for the separation of glucosidase inhibitors in extracts of Salacia reticulata, a plant used in ayurvedic treatments of type-2 diabetes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A simple and reproducible capillary-zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the separation and quantitation of sulfonium-ion-containing compounds isolated from plants of the Salacia genus which are traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The method sufficiently resolved four different compounds with confirmed glucosidase inhibitory activity, namely, salacinol, ponkoranol, kotalanol and de-O-sulfonated kotalanol. Separation could be achieved in less than 9 min, and calibration curves showed good linearity. Detection limits were determined to be in the low mug/mL range. This method was used to demonstrate that de-O-sulfonated kotalanol isolated from natural sources has identical ionic mobility to a synthetic standard. Furthermore, new extraction conditions were developed by which the zwitterionic compounds (salacinol, ponkoranol, and kotalanol) could be separated from de-O-sulfonated kotalanol in a single solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. The extraction gave reproducibly high recoveries and was used to process four commercial Salacia extracts for CZE analysis to reduce the complexity of resulting electropherograms and to facilitate the detection of the four inhibitors in question. De-O-sulfonated kotalanol was detected in two of four Salacia samples while ponkoranol was present in all four. A comparison of all samples tested demonstrated that they had remarkably similar patterns of peaks, suggesting that this CZE method may be useful in the chemical fingerprinting of Salacia-containing products.

Zandberg WF; Mohan S; Kumarasamy J; Pinto BM

2010-06-01

14

Anti-proliferative effects of Salacia reticulata leaves hot-water extract on interleukin-1?-activated cells derived from the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis model mice  

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Abstract Background Salacia reticulata (SR) is a plant native to Sri Lanka. In ayurvedic medicine, SR bark preparations, taken orally, are considered effective in the treatment of rheumatism and diabetes. We investigated the ability of SR leaves (SRL) to inhibit in vitr...

Sekiguchi Yuusuke; Mano Hiroshi; Nakatani Sachie; Shimizu Jun; Kobata Kenji; Wada Masahiro

15

Adverse pregnancy outcome in rats following exposure to a Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) root extract  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The root extract of Salacia reticulata Wight (family: Celastraceae) is used in Sri Lanka by traditional practitioners as a herbal therapy for glycemic control even during pregnancy. It is recognized that some clinically used antidiabetic drugs have harmful effects on pregnancy but the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on reproductive outcome is unknown and deserves examination. We determined the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on the reproductive outcome (more) of Wistar rats (250-260 g) when administered orally (10 g/kg) during early (days 1-7) and mid- (days 7-14) pregnancy. The root extract significantly (P

Ratnasooriya, W.D.; Jayakody, J.R.A.C.; Premakumara, G.A.S.

2003-07-01

16

Metabolic disease prevention and suppression of fat accumulation by Salacia reticulata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Ayurvedic medicine, Salacia reticulata is known to be useful against various metabolic diseases, including diabetes and obesity. In this study, we attempted to clarify the antiobesity mechanism and the safety of S. reticulata in vivo and in vitro. We gave ordinary MF feed, alone or mixed with S. reticulata (0.3 or 1.0%), to Tsumura Suzuki obesity diabetes (TSOD) mice (spontaneous obese type II diabetes model mice) and Tsumura Suzuki non-obese (TSNO) mice (the corresponding reference animals), ad libitum for 2 months. As compared with the TSNO control mice, the TSOD control mice became obese due to fat accumulation and developed various signs of metabolic diseases. The TSOD mouse group receiving S. reticulata showed the following effects: suppression of body weight increase and fat accumulation, alleviation of abnormal lipid metabolism and abnormal glucose tolerance, and suppression of intrahepatic fat accumulation. Also, S. reticulata prevented the mesenteric adipocyte hypertrophy recognized in TSOD mice. In the TSNO controls, the feed containing 1.0% S. reticulata exerted a suppressing effect on body weight increase and fat accumulation, but the feed containing 0.3% S. reticulata did not show any effect at all. In an in vitro experiment using mouse-derived adipocyte precursor 3T3-L1 cells, S. reticulata significantly suppressed fat accumulation in the differentiation induction phase and maturation phase. This suggested that the metabolic disease-preventing effects of S. reticulata, including the antiobesity effect, may involve suppression of differentiation and accumulation in the adipocytes.

Shimada T; Nagai E; Harasawa Y; Akase T; Aburada T; Iizuka S; Miyamoto K; Aburada M

2010-07-01

17

Metabolic disease prevention and suppression of fat accumulation by Salacia reticulata.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Ayurvedic medicine, Salacia reticulata is known to be useful against various metabolic diseases, including diabetes and obesity. In this study, we attempted to clarify the antiobesity mechanism and the safety of S. reticulata in vivo and in vitro. We gave ordinary MF feed, alone or mixed with S. reticulata (0.3 or 1.0%), to Tsumura Suzuki obesity diabetes (TSOD) mice (spontaneous obese type II diabetes model mice) and Tsumura Suzuki non-obese (TSNO) mice (the corresponding reference animals), ad libitum for 2 months. As compared with the TSNO control mice, the TSOD control mice became obese due to fat accumulation and developed various signs of metabolic diseases. The TSOD mouse group receiving S. reticulata showed the following effects: suppression of body weight increase and fat accumulation, alleviation of abnormal lipid metabolism and abnormal glucose tolerance, and suppression of intrahepatic fat accumulation. Also, S. reticulata prevented the mesenteric adipocyte hypertrophy recognized in TSOD mice. In the TSNO controls, the feed containing 1.0% S. reticulata exerted a suppressing effect on body weight increase and fat accumulation, but the feed containing 0.3% S. reticulata did not show any effect at all. In an in vitro experiment using mouse-derived adipocyte precursor 3T3-L1 cells, S. reticulata significantly suppressed fat accumulation in the differentiation induction phase and maturation phase. This suggested that the metabolic disease-preventing effects of S. reticulata, including the antiobesity effect, may involve suppression of differentiation and accumulation in the adipocytes. PMID:20225078

Shimada, Tsutomu; Nagai, Eiichi; Harasawa, Yukiko; Akase, Tomoko; Aburada, Takashi; Iizuka, Seiichi; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Aburada, Masaki

2010-03-12

18

Salacia reticulata inhibits differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: ETHOPARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Salacia reticulata, a herbal medicine which has been used for the treatment of early diabetes in Ayurvedic medicine, is reported to have an anti-obesity effect and to be useful in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and other metabolic diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was performed to elucidate the mechanism of action of Salacia reticulata with special attention to the adipocytes as the tissue primarily involved in the pathology of metabolic diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mouse-derived adipocyte precursor 3T3-L1 cells were treated with differentiation inducers in the presence or absence of Salacia reticulata (SRCD). We determined triacylglycerol accumulations, differentiation makers, released glycerol and adiponectin. Mangiferin, the primary component of SRCD, was also treated to 3T3-L1 cells. RESULT: Concurrent administration of the extract of SRCD and differentiation inducers resulted in a significant inhibition of differentiation into mature adipocytes. SRCD also exhibited significant inhibitory action on the expression of genes and proteins of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? and CCAAT-enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)?, as well as on the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), a differentiation marker, and caused a reduction in the concentration of released adiponectin. However, SRCD had no influence on lipolysis as indicated by the release of glycerol into the culture medium. The primary component of SRCD, mangiferin, was investigated for its effect on adipocytes; mangiferin caused no suppression of fat accumulation, suggesting that a component of SRCD other than mangiferin may be involved in the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: The above results suggest that the inhibitory action of SRCD on adipocyte differentiation, and not the promotion of lipolysis, is involved in the suppression of fat accumulation.

Shimada T; Nagai E; Harasawa Y; Watanabe M; Negishi K; Akase T; Sai Y; Miyamoto K; Aburada M

2011-06-01

19

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor from Kothala-himbutu (Salacia reticulata WIGHT).  

Science.gov (United States)

A polyhydroxylated cyclic 13-membered sulfoxide (1) was isolated from an aqueous extract of Kothala-himbutu ( Salacia reticulata WIGHT). The structure of compound 1 was elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR and APCI-MS methods. The alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of compound 1 (IC 50: maltase, 0.227 microM; sucrase, 0.186 microM; isomaltase, 0.099 microM) was much greater than the inhibitory activity of salacinol and kotalanol, which were previously isolated from Kothala-himbutu. PMID:18547114

Ozaki, Sei; Oe, Hiromi; Kitamura, Shinichi

2008-06-12

20

Hypoglycemic effect of 13-membered ring thiocyclitol, a novel alpha-glucosidase inhibitor from Kothala-himbutu (Salacia reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel 13-membered ring thiocyclitol, isolated from an aqueous extract of Kothala-himbutu (Salacia reticulata), inhibited alpha-glucosidase in vitro. The inhibitory activity was investigated by maltose- and sucrose-loading on Wistar rats. This study found significant lowering of postprandial glucose levels, and the potency of 13-membered ring thiocyclitol was confirmed in vivo. PMID:18603797

Oe, Hiromi; Ozaki, Sei

2008-07-07

 
 
 
 
21

Purified Methanolic Extract of Salacia reticulata Wight. Ameliorates Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Alterations in Rats Fed High Fructose Diet  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was carried-out to investigate the insulin sensitizing activity of purified methanolic extract of salacia reticulata roots in fructose-fed rats, a well-known model of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Feeding fructose enriched diet caused a hyperinsulinemic state and ...

Mohamed Rafiq; S.K. Mitra

22

Hypoglycemic effect of 13-membered ring thiocyclitol, a novel alpha-glucosidase inhibitor from Kothala-himbutu (Salacia reticulata).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A novel 13-membered ring thiocyclitol, isolated from an aqueous extract of Kothala-himbutu (Salacia reticulata), inhibited alpha-glucosidase in vitro. The inhibitory activity was investigated by maltose- and sucrose-loading on Wistar rats. This study found significant lowering of postprandial glucose levels, and the potency of 13-membered ring thiocyclitol was confirmed in vivo.

Oe H; Ozaki S

2008-07-01

23

Anti-diabetic activity of a leaf extract prepared from Salacia reticulata in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of a water extract prepared from the leaves of Salacia reticulata on the absorption of sugars in normal and type 1 diabetic mice were investigated. The simultaneous oral administration of the extract at a dose of 1.0 mg/mouse with maltose or sucrose inhibited the postprandial elevation of the plasma glucose and insulin levels and intestinal alpha-glucosidase activities in mice. In addition, the supply of a 0.01% solution of the extract as drinking water prevented the elevation of the plasma glucose level and intestinal alpha-glucosidase activities in type 1 diabetic mice. This treatment also prevented the elevation of the plasma, pancreatic, and kidney lipid peroxide levels, lowering of the plasma insulin level, and elevation of the kidney aldose reductase activities in diabetic mice. These results suggest that the water extract of the leaves of S. reticulata could be a beneficial food material for the prevention of diabetes and obesity because of its multiple effects. PMID:19420711

Yoshino, Kyoji; Miyauchi, Yuko; Kanetaka, Takashi; Takagi, Yasutaka; Koga, Kunimasa

2009-05-07

24

Anti-diabetic activity of a leaf extract prepared from Salacia reticulata in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of a water extract prepared from the leaves of Salacia reticulata on the absorption of sugars in normal and type 1 diabetic mice were investigated. The simultaneous oral administration of the extract at a dose of 1.0 mg/mouse with maltose or sucrose inhibited the postprandial elevation of the plasma glucose and insulin levels and intestinal alpha-glucosidase activities in mice. In addition, the supply of a 0.01% solution of the extract as drinking water prevented the elevation of the plasma glucose level and intestinal alpha-glucosidase activities in type 1 diabetic mice. This treatment also prevented the elevation of the plasma, pancreatic, and kidney lipid peroxide levels, lowering of the plasma insulin level, and elevation of the kidney aldose reductase activities in diabetic mice. These results suggest that the water extract of the leaves of S. reticulata could be a beneficial food material for the prevention of diabetes and obesity because of its multiple effects.

Yoshino K; Miyauchi Y; Kanetaka T; Takagi Y; Koga K

2009-05-01

25

Adverse pregnancy outcome in rats following exposure to a Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) root extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

The root extract of Salacia reticulata Wight (family: Celastraceae) is used in Sri Lanka by traditional practitioners as a herbal therapy for glycemic control even during pregnancy. It is recognized that some clinically used antidiabetic drugs have harmful effects on pregnancy but the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on reproductive outcome is unknown and deserves examination. We determined the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on the reproductive outcome of Wistar rats (250-260 g) when administered orally (10 g/kg) during early (days 1-7) and mid- (days 7-14) pregnancy. The root extract significantly (P<0.05) enhanced post-implantation losses (control vs treatment: early pregnancy, 4.7 2.4 vs 49.3 13%; mid-pregnancy, 4.7 2.4 vs 41.7 16.1%). Gestational length was unaltered but the pups born had a low birth weight (P<0.05) (early pregnancy, 6.8 0.1 vs 5.3 0.1 g; mid-pregnancy, 6.8 0.1 vs 5.0 0.1 g) and low birth index (P<0.05) (early pregnancy, 95.2 2.4 vs 50.7 12.9%; mid-pregnancy, 95.2 2.4 vs 58.3 16.1%), fetal survival ratio (P<0.05) (early pregnancy, 95.2 2.4 vs 50.7 12.9; mid-pregnancy, 95.2 2.4 vs 58.3 16.1), and viability index (P<0.05) (early pregnancy, 94.9 2.6 vs 49.5 12.5%; mid-pregnancy, 94.9 2.6 vs 57.1 16.1%). However, the root extract was non-teratogenic. We conclude that the S. reticulata root extract can be hazardous to successful pregnancy in women and should not be used in pregnancy complicated by diabetes. PMID:12845381

Ratnasooriya, W D; Jayakody, J R A C; Premakumara, G A S

2003-06-26

26

Adverse pregnancy outcome in rats following exposure to a Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) root extract  

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Full Text Available The root extract of Salacia reticulata Wight (family: Celastraceae) is used in Sri Lanka by traditional practitioners as a herbal therapy for glycemic control even during pregnancy. It is recognized that some clinically used antidiabetic drugs have harmful effects on pregnancy but the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on reproductive outcome is unknown and deserves examination. We determined the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on the reproductive outcome of Wistar rats (250-260 g) when administered orally (10 g/kg) during early (days 1-7) and mid- (days 7-14) pregnancy. The root extract significantly (P<0.05) enhanced post-implantation losses (control vs treatment: early pregnancy, 4.7 ± 2.4 vs 49.3 ± 13%; mid-pregnancy, 4.7 ± 2.4 vs 41.7 ± 16.1%). Gestational length was unaltered but the pups born had a low birth weight (P<0.05) (early pregnancy, 6.8 ± 0.1 vs 5.3 ± 0.1 g; mid-pregnancy, 6.8 ± 0.1 vs 5.0 ± 0.1 g) and low birth index (P<0.05) (early pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 50.7 ± 12.9%; mid-pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 58.3 ± 16.1%), fetal survival ratio (P<0.05) (early pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 50.7 ± 12.9; mid-pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 58.3 ± 16.1), and viability index (P<0.05) (early pregnancy, 94.9 ± 2.6 vs 49.5 ± 12.5%; mid-pregnancy, 94.9 ± 2.6 vs 57.1 ± 16.1%). However, the root extract was non-teratogenic. We conclude that the S. reticulata root extract can be hazardous to successful pregnancy in women and should not be used in pregnancy complicated by diabetes.

Ratnasooriya W.D.; Jayakody J.R.A.C.; Premakumara G.A.S.

2003-01-01

27

Adverse pregnancy outcome in rats following exposure to a Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) root extract.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The root extract of Salacia reticulata Wight (family: Celastraceae) is used in Sri Lanka by traditional practitioners as a herbal therapy for glycemic control even during pregnancy. It is recognized that some clinically used antidiabetic drugs have harmful effects on pregnancy but the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on reproductive outcome is unknown and deserves examination. We determined the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on the reproductive outcome of Wistar rats (250-260 g) when administered orally (10 g/kg) during early (days 1-7) and mid- (days 7-14) pregnancy. The root extract significantly (P<0.05) enhanced post-implantation losses (control vs treatment: early pregnancy, 4.7 2.4 vs 49.3 13%; mid-pregnancy, 4.7 2.4 vs 41.7 16.1%). Gestational length was unaltered but the pups born had a low birth weight (P<0.05) (early pregnancy, 6.8 0.1 vs 5.3 0.1 g; mid-pregnancy, 6.8 0.1 vs 5.0 0.1 g) and low birth index (P<0.05) (early pregnancy, 95.2 2.4 vs 50.7 12.9%; mid-pregnancy, 95.2 2.4 vs 58.3 16.1%), fetal survival ratio (P<0.05) (early pregnancy, 95.2 2.4 vs 50.7 12.9; mid-pregnancy, 95.2 2.4 vs 58.3 16.1), and viability index (P<0.05) (early pregnancy, 94.9 2.6 vs 49.5 12.5%; mid-pregnancy, 94.9 2.6 vs 57.1 16.1%). However, the root extract was non-teratogenic. We conclude that the S. reticulata root extract can be hazardous to successful pregnancy in women and should not be used in pregnancy complicated by diabetes.

Ratnasooriya WD; Jayakody JR; Premakumara GA

2003-07-01

28

Proanthocyanidin oligomers isolated from Salacia reticulata leaves potently inhibit pancreatic lipase activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The pancreatic lipase inhibitory (PLI) activity of leaf extracts (aqueous, 60 and 99.8 (v/v)% EtOH) of Salacia reticulata Wight, referred to "Kothala himbutu" (KT) in Singhalese, was compared with that of KT stem extracts. Evaporated residue contents and PLI activity of each leaf extract were higher than those of each stem extract, respectively. Among the extracts, the 60% EtOH leaf extract showed the most potent PLI activity. The 60% EtOH leaf extract was separated by a Diaion HP20/water-acetone system and furthermore the most potent fraction by a Sephadex LH20/water-ethanol-acetone system. The 60% acetone fraction from the LH20/water-ethanol-acetone system had the most potent PLI activity (IC(50) value; 15 ppm). The active compounds in the active fraction of KT leaves were most likely a polyphenol, as assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Based on these spectroscopic and chemical examinations, the active fraction was shown to be proanthocyanidin oligomers composed of epigallocatechin, epicathechin, and epiafzelechin as main constituents. The degree of polymerization was estimated to be about 5 from the ratio of the peak area of the thio ethers/flavan-3-ols at 230 nm. This was consistent with the results of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS, which showed the [M+Na](+) peaks corresponding to trimers-octamers. From the average molecular weight and IC(50) value of the active compounds estimated on these results, the active compounds from the KT leaf extract were one of the stronger effective lipid-lowering therapeutic agent, of which PLI activity (?M/L) was almost the same as epigallocatechin gallate. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Proanthocyanidin oligomers isolated from Salacia reticulata, referred to "Kothala himbutu" (KT) in Singhalese, leaves was proved to potently inhibit pancreatic lipase activity. After confirming in vivo examination, healthy foods, teas, and liquors containing the extracts of KT leaves are expected to be on market.

Koga K; Hisamura M; Kanetaka T; Yoshino K; Matsuo Y; Tanaka T

2013-01-01

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Mechanisms of blood glucose-lowering effect of aqueous extract from stems of Kothala himbutu (Salacia reticulata) in the mouse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Kothala himbutu (Salacia reticulata) is a medicinal plant that has been used in Ayurvedic system of Indian and Sri Lankan traditional medicine to treat diabetes. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to clarify the mechanism(s) by which aqueous extracts of Kothala himbutu (KTE) stems decreases fasting blood glucose levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gene expression profiles were assessed by DNA microarray and RT-PCR analyses of RNA from the liver of KK-Ay diabetic mice administered KTE or control distilled water for 4 weeks, and from cultured liver cells treated with freeze-dried KTE (KTED) or selected phenolic compounds. RESULTS: DNA microarray and RT-PCR analyses revealed that gluconeogenic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP) was decreased compared with the control in KTE-treated KK-Ay mice. RT-PCR analysis using cultured liver cells treated with KTED and/or actinomycin D or cycloheximide, revealed that KTED directly decreased FBP mRNA levels via destabilization of the mRNA. One compound in KTE, mangiferin, was demonstrated to dose-dependently down-regulate FBP mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the mangiferin in KTE acts directly on liver cells and down-regulates the gluconeogenic pathway through regulation of FBP expression, thereby decreasing fasting blood glucose levels in mice. Our results demonstrate that gluconeogenic gene regulation is one possible mechanism by which KT exerts its effects in traditional diabetic medicine.

Im R; Mano H; Matsuura T; Nakatani S; Shimizu J; Wada M

2009-01-01

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Salacia reticulata and its polyphenolic constituents with lipase inhibitory and lipolytic activities have mild antiobesity effects in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salacia (S.) reticulata, a Hippocrateaceae plant distributed in Sri Lankan and Indian forests, has been used as a supplementary food in Japan to prevent obesity and diabetes. We examined the antiobesity effects of the hot water-soluble extract (SRHW) from the roots of S. reticulata using obese rat models and an in vitro study. Body weight (P = 0.07) and periuterine fat storage (P = 0.10) in female Zucker fatty rats (8-9 wk old) tended to be suppressed by oral administration of SRHW (125 mg/kg) for 27 d. Male rats fed a high fat diet were not affected by SRHW. Furthermore, SRHW inhibited porcine pancreatic lipase (PL), rat adipose tissue-derived lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activities with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of 264 (95% confidence limits: 203-393) mg/L, 15 (12-18) mg/L and 54 (35-85) mg/L, respectively, but did not inhibit hormone-sensitive lipase activity in rat adipose tissue. Next, we examined the effects of polyphenols, di- and triterpenes and salacinol isolated from the roots of S. reticulata on lipid metabolizing enzymes and lipolysis. (-)-Epigallocatechin and (-)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-(-)-4'-O-methylepigallocatechin inhibited PL activity with IC(50) of 88 (not calculated) and 68 (26-122) mg/L, respectively. (-)-Epicatechin, 3beta, 22beta-dihydroxyolean-12-en-29-oic acid and the tannin fraction inhibited LPL activity with IC(50) of 81 (54-214), 89 (62-214) and 35 (24-62) mg/L. Only the tannin fraction inhibited GPDH activity with an IC(50) of 6.8 (3.4-10.9) mg/L. These constituents may be involved in the lipase and GPDH inhibitory activities of SRHW. On the other hand, SRHW at 100 mg/L tended to enhance lipolysis in rat adipocytes (P = 0.06). Significant lipolytic effects were exerted by mangiferin, (-)-4'-O-methylepigallocatechin and maytenfolic acid at 100 mg/L (P < 0.01). In conclusion, polyphenolic compounds may be involved in the antiobesity effects of SRHW in rats through inhibition of fat metabolizing enzymes (PL, LPL and GPDH) and enhanced lipolysis. PMID:12097653

Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Nishida, Norihisa; Takada, Miki; Matsuda, Hisashi

2002-07-01

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Absolute stereostructure of potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, Salacinol, with unique thiosugar sulfonium sulfate inner salt structure from Salacia reticulata.  

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A most potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor named salacinol has been isolated from an antidiabetic Ayurvedic traditional medicine, Salacia reticulata WIGHT, through bioassay-guided separation. The absolute stereostructure of salacinol was determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence, which included the alkaline degradation of salacinol to 1-deoxy-4-thio-D-arabinofuranose and the X-ray crystallographic analysis, to be the unique spiro-like configuration of the inner salt comprised of 1-deoxy-4-thio-D-arabinofuranosyl sulfonium cation and 1'-deoxy-D-erythrosyl-3'-sulfate anion. Salacinol showed potent inhibitory activities on several alpha-glucosidases, such as maltase, sucrase, and isomaltase, and the inhibitory effects on serum glucose levels in maltose- and sucrose-loaded rats (in vivo) were found to be more potent than that of acarbose, a commercial alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. PMID:11886816

Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Morikawa, Toshio; Matsuda, Hisashi; Tanabe, Genzoh; Muraoka, Osamu

2002-05-01

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Hepatoprotective and antioxidative properties of Salacia reticulata: preventive effects of phenolic constituents on CCl4-induced liver injury in mice.  

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The hepatoprotective effects of the hot water (SRHW) and methanolic (SRM) extracts from the roots and stems of Salacia reticulata were examined using an oxidative stress-induced liver injury model. Both SRHW and SRM extracts (400 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly suppressed the increase in glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activities in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated mice. These extracts also inhibited CCl4-induced thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBA-RS) formation, which indicates increased lipid peroxidation in the liver. A good correlation (r=0.945, p8)-(-)-4'-O-methylepigallocatechin, which a principal phenolic compounds, showed potent scavenging activity on DPPH radicals and their concentrations required for 50% reduction of 40 microM DPPH radicals were 5.9, 10, and 3.2 microM, respectively. On the other hand, against the CCl4-induced serum GOT and GPT elevations and TBA-RS formation in mice, mangiferin and (-)-4'-O-methylepigallocatechin showed potent activity at a dose of 100 mg/kg, but (-)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-(-)-4'-O-methylepigallocatechin did not. These results suggest that the antioxidative activity of the principal phenolic compounds is involved in the hepatoprotective activity of S. reticulata. PMID:11824561

Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Nishida, Norihisa; Matsuda, Hisashi

2002-01-01

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New glucosidase inhibitors from an ayurvedic herbal treatment for type 2 diabetes: structures and inhibition of human intestinal maltase-glucoamylase with compounds from Salacia reticulata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An approach to controlling blood glucose levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes is to target alpha-amylases and intestinal glucosidases using alpha-glucosidase inhibitors acarbose and miglitol. One of the intestinal glucosidases targeted is the N-terminal catalytic domain of maltase-glucoamylase (ntMGAM), one of the four intestinal glycoside hydrolase 31 enzyme activities responsible for the hydrolysis of terminal starch products into glucose. Here we present the X-ray crystallographic studies of ntMGAM in complex with a new class of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors derived from natural extracts of Salacia reticulata, a plant used traditionally in Ayuverdic medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Included in these extracts are the active compounds salacinol, kotalanol, and de-O-sulfonated kotalanol. This study reveals that de-O-sulfonated kotalanol is the most potent ntMGAM inhibitor reported to date (K(i) = 0.03 microM), some 2000-fold better than the compounds currently used in the clinic, and highlights the potential of the salacinol class of inhibitors as future drug candidates.

Sim L; Jayakanthan K; Mohan S; Nasi R; Johnston BD; Pinto BM; Rose DR

2010-01-01

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New glucosidase inhibitors from an ayurvedic herbal treatment for type 2 diabetes: structures and inhibition of human intestinal maltase-glucoamylase with compounds from Salacia reticulata.  

Science.gov (United States)

An approach to controlling blood glucose levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes is to target alpha-amylases and intestinal glucosidases using alpha-glucosidase inhibitors acarbose and miglitol. One of the intestinal glucosidases targeted is the N-terminal catalytic domain of maltase-glucoamylase (ntMGAM), one of the four intestinal glycoside hydrolase 31 enzyme activities responsible for the hydrolysis of terminal starch products into glucose. Here we present the X-ray crystallographic studies of ntMGAM in complex with a new class of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors derived from natural extracts of Salacia reticulata, a plant used traditionally in Ayuverdic medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Included in these extracts are the active compounds salacinol, kotalanol, and de-O-sulfonated kotalanol. This study reveals that de-O-sulfonated kotalanol is the most potent ntMGAM inhibitor reported to date (K(i) = 0.03 microM), some 2000-fold better than the compounds currently used in the clinic, and highlights the potential of the salacinol class of inhibitors as future drug candidates. PMID:20039683

Sim, Lyann; Jayakanthan, Kumarasamy; Mohan, Sankar; Nasi, Ravindranath; Johnston, Blair D; Pinto, B Mario; Rose, David R

2010-01-26

35

Salacia reticulata improves serum lipid profiles and glycemic control in patients with prediabetes and mild to moderate hyperlipidemia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy and safety of Salacia reticulata leaves and root bark extracts in 29 patients with prediabetes and mild to moderate hyperlipidemia. Patients received either Salacia extracts (500?mg/day) or placebo along with therapeutic lifestyle changes for a period of 6 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of change in lipid profile and glycemic levels. The safety and tolerability was evaluated by a physical examination and clinical laboratory evaluations. Improvements in lipid profiles and glycemic levels were observed in Salacia extract-treated groups when compared to placebo at week 6. A statistical significant reduction was observed in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels at week 3 and 6 when treated with root bark extract. The leaves extract-treated group showed statistically significant reduction in FBS levels at week 6 only. No adverse events occurred and all safety parameters were within normal ranges during the study. This study revealed that treatment with S. reticulata was safe and well-tolerated and may be beneficial in the management of prediabetes and mild to moderate hyperlipidemia. PMID:23767865

Shivaprasad, H N; Bhanumathy, M; Sushma, G; Midhun, T; Raveendra, K R; Sushma, K R; Venkateshwarlu, K

2013-06-01

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Biochemical investigation and gene expression analysis of the immunostimulatory functions of an edible Salacia extract in rat small intestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Roots and bark from plants belonging to genus Salacia of the family Hippocrateaceae (Salacia reticulata, Salacia oblonga, etc.) have been used for traditional Ayurvedic medicine, particularly for the treatment of diabetes. In our study, we evaluated the gene expression profiles in the small intestinal epithelium of rats that were given a Salacia plant extract to gain insight into its effects on the small intestine. In detail, DNA microarray analysis was performed to evaluate the gene expression profiles in the rat ileal epithelium. The intestinal bacterial flora was also studied using T-RFLP (Nagashima method) in these rats. Expressions of many immune-related genes, especially Th1-related genes associated with cell-mediated immunity, were found to increase in the small intestinal epithelium and the intestinal bacterial flora became similar to those in the case with Salacia plant extract administration. Our study thus revealed that Salacia plant extract exerts bioregulatory functions by boosting intestinal immunity. PMID:21328625

Oda, Yuriko; Ueda, Fumitaka; Kamei, Asuka; Kakinuma, Chihaya; Abe, Keiko

2010-11-29

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Biochemical investigation and gene expression analysis of the immunostimulatory functions of an edible Salacia extract in rat small intestine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Roots and bark from plants belonging to genus Salacia of the family Hippocrateaceae (Salacia reticulata, Salacia oblonga, etc.) have been used for traditional Ayurvedic medicine, particularly for the treatment of diabetes. In our study, we evaluated the gene expression profiles in the small intestinal epithelium of rats that were given a Salacia plant extract to gain insight into its effects on the small intestine. In detail, DNA microarray analysis was performed to evaluate the gene expression profiles in the rat ileal epithelium. The intestinal bacterial flora was also studied using T-RFLP (Nagashima method) in these rats. Expressions of many immune-related genes, especially Th1-related genes associated with cell-mediated immunity, were found to increase in the small intestinal epithelium and the intestinal bacterial flora became similar to those in the case with Salacia plant extract administration. Our study thus revealed that Salacia plant extract exerts bioregulatory functions by boosting intestinal immunity.

Oda Y; Ueda F; Kamei A; Kakinuma C; Abe K

2010-11-01

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Biochemical investigation and gene expression analysis of the immunostimulatory functions of an edible Salacia extract in rat small intestine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Roots and bark from plants belonging to genus Salacia of the family Hippocrateaceae (Salacia reticulata, Salacia oblonga, etc.) have been used for traditional Ayurvedic medicine, particularly for the treatment of diabetes. In our study, we evaluated the gene expression profiles in the small intestinal epithelium of rats that were given a Salacia plant extract to gain insight into its effects on the small intestine. In detail, DNA microarray analysis was performed to evaluate the gene expression profiles in the rat ileal epithelium. The intestinal bacterial flora was also studied using T-RFLP (Nagashima method) in these rats. Expressions of many immune-related genes, especially Th1-related genes associated with cell-mediated immunity, were found to increase in the small intestinal epithelium and the intestinal bacterial flora became similar to those in the case with Salacia plant extract administration. Our study thus revealed that Salacia plant extract exerts bioregulatory functions by boosting intestinal immunity.

Oda Y; Ueda F; Kamei A; Kakinuma C; Abe K

2011-01-01

39

Anti-proliferative effects of Salacia reticulata leaves hot-water extract on interleukin-1?-activated cells derived from the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis model mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Salacia reticulata (SR) is a plant native to Sri Lanka. In ayurvedic medicine, SR bark preparations, taken orally, are considered effective in the treatment of rheumatism and diabetes. We investigated the ability of SR leaves (SRL) to inhibit in vitro the interleukin-1? (IL-1?)-activated proliferation of synoviocyte-like cells derived from rheumatoid arthritis model mice. FINDINGS: Inflammatory synovial tissues were harvested from type II collagen antibody-induced arthritic mice. From these tissues, a synoviocyte-like cell line was established and named MTS-C H7. To determine whether SRL can suppress cell proliferation and gene expression in MTS-C H7 cells, fractionation of the SRL hot-water extract was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid-liquid extraction, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and protease digestion.The 50% inhibitory concentration of the SRL hot-water extract against MTS-C H7 cells proliferation was ~850 ?g/mL. Treatment with a low dose (25 ?g dry matter per millilitre) of the extract inhibited IL-1?-induced cell proliferation and suppressed the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes in MTS-C H7 cells. Various polyphenolic fractions obtained from HPLC and the fractions from liquid-liquid extraction did not affect cell proliferation. Only the residual water sample from liquid-liquid extraction significantly affected cell proliferation and the expression of MMP genes. The results of SDS-PAGE and protease digestion experiment showed that low molecular weight proteins present in SRL inhibited the IL-1?-activated cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: We surmised that the residual water fraction of the SRL extract was involved in the inhibition of IL-1?-activated cell proliferation and regulation of mRNA expression in MTS-C H7 cells. In addition, we believe that the active ingredients in the extract are low molecular weight proteins.

Sekiguchi Y; Mano H; Nakatani S; Shimizu J; Kobata K; Wada M

2012-01-01

40

Anti-proliferative effects of Salacia reticulata leaves hot-water extract on interleukin-1?-activated cells derived from the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis model mice  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Salacia reticulata (SR) is a plant native to Sri Lanka. In ayurvedic medicine, SR bark preparations, taken orally, are considered effective in the treatment of rheumatism and diabetes. We investigated the ability of SR leaves (SRL) to inhibit in vitro the interleukin-1? (IL-1?)-activated proliferation of synoviocyte-like cells derived from rheumatoid arthritis model mice. Findings Inflammatory synovial tissues were harvested from type II collagen antibody-induced arthritic mice. From these tissues, a synoviocyte-like cell line was established and named MTS-C H7. To determine whether SRL can suppress cell proliferation and gene expression in MTS-C H7 cells, fractionation of the SRL hot-water extract was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid-liquid extraction, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and protease digestion. The 50% inhibitory concentration of the SRL hot-water extract against MTS-C H7 cells proliferation was ~850??g/mL. Treatment with a low dose (25??g dry matter per millilitre) of the extract inhibited IL-1?-induced cell proliferation and suppressed the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes in MTS-C H7 cells. Various polyphenolic fractions obtained from HPLC and the fractions from liquid-liquid extraction did not affect cell proliferation. Only the residual water sample from liquid-liquid extraction significantly affected cell proliferation and the expression of MMP genes. The results of SDS-PAGE and protease digestion experiment showed that low molecular weight proteins present in SRL inhibited the IL-1?-activated cell proliferation. Conclusions We surmised that the residual water fraction of the SRL extract was involved in the inhibition of IL-1?-activated cell proliferation and regulation of mRNA expression in MTS-C H7 cells. In addition, we believe that the active ingredients in the extract are low molecular weight proteins.

Sekiguchi Yuusuke; Mano Hiroshi; Nakatani Sachie; Shimizu Jun; Kobata Kenji; Wada Masahiro

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Anti-proliferative effects of Salacia reticulata leaves hot-water extract on interleukin-1?-activated cells derived from the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis model mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Salacia reticulata (SR) is a plant native to Sri Lanka. In ayurvedic medicine, SR bark preparations, taken orally, are considered effective in the treatment of rheumatism and diabetes. We investigated the ability of SR leaves (SRL) to inhibit in vitro the interleukin-1? (IL-1?)-activated proliferation of synoviocyte-like cells derived from rheumatoid arthritis model mice. Findings Inflammatory synovial tissues were harvested from type II collagen antibody-induced arthritic mice. From these tissues, a synoviocyte-like cell line was established and named MTS-C H7. To determine whether SRL can suppress cell proliferation and gene expression in MTS-C H7 cells, fractionation of the SRL hot-water extract was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid-liquid extraction, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and protease digestion. The 50% inhibitory concentration of the SRL hot-water extract against MTS-C H7 cells proliferation was ~850??g/mL. Treatment with a low dose (25??g dry matter per millilitre) of the extract inhibited IL-1?-induced cell proliferation and suppressed the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes in MTS-C H7 cells. Various polyphenolic fractions obtained from HPLC and the fractions from liquid-liquid extraction did not affect cell proliferation. Only the residual water sample from liquid-liquid extraction significantly affected cell proliferation and the expression of MMP genes. The results of SDS-PAGE and protease digestion experiment showed that low molecular weight proteins present in SRL inhibited the IL-1?-activated cell proliferation. Conclusions We surmised that the residual water fraction of the SRL extract was involved in the inhibition of IL-1?-activated cell proliferation and regulation of mRNA expression in MTS-C H7 cells. In addition, we believe that the active ingredients in the extract are low molecular weight proteins.

2012-01-01

42

CONJOINTED TWIN AND TRIPLET SEEDLINGS IN SALACIA CHINENSIS LINN: AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT  

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Full Text Available Seed germination and seedling grading are important stages in nursery management. Abnormal seedlings are generally discarded from planting programme. Reporting of such abnormalities are important in further breeding programme. Such abnormalities in Salacia chinensis are reported in this article.

Rane A D; Gogate P P; Boat R I

2012-01-01

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A double blind randomised placebo controlled cross over study of a herbal preparation containing Salacia reticulata in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted a randomised single centre double blind cross over clinical trial to investigate the effects of a herbal tea containing Salacia reticulata (Kothala Himbutu tea) in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Fifty-one patients with type II diabetes mellitus for longer than 6 months and with evidence of stable glycaemic control over the preceding 6 months (as assessed by HbA1C) participated in the study. They were randomised to receive a standard preparation of Kothala Himbutu tea for 3 months followed by placebo in similar tea bags for a further 3 months (n = 28) or in reverse order (n = 23). All patients received detailed advice on diet, exercise and lifestyle modification. HbA1C was measured at recruitment, at 3 months and on completion of the study at 6 months. Liver and renal functions were assessed biochemically at baseline, at 3 and 6 months and adverse events were recorded. There were no significant differences between the two groups in age, body mass index, male/female ratio, glycaemic control and baseline laboratory tests. All patients completed both arms of the trial. The HbA1C at the end of drug treatment was significantly lower than after treatment with placebo (6.29 +/- S.D. 1.02 versus 6.65 +/- S.D. 1.04; P = 0.008). A statistically significant fall in HBA1c was seen with the active drug compared to a rise in HbA1C with the placebo group (0. 54 +/- S.D. 0.93) versus -0.3 +/-S.D. 1.05; P < 0.001. The daily mean dose of Glibenclamide fell by 1.89 (S.D. 6.2) mg in the drug treated group but rose by 2.25 mg in the placebo treated group (P = 0.07). The differences in the metformin dose were not significantly significant in the two groups. We conclude that Kothala Himbutu tea is an effective and safe treatment for type 2 diabetes. PMID:15707755

Jayawardena, M H S; de Alwis, N M W; Hettigoda, V; Fernando, D J S

2005-01-07

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Role of medicinal plant Salacia Reticulata in the management of Type II Diabetic Subjects  

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Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading causes of death and ranks third among the chronic diseases. Recent studies have shown that up to 10 % of India's urban population and 2 % of the rural population above the age of 15 years have diabetes and WHO had declared India as the diabetic capital of the ...

Radha, R.; Amrithaveni, M.

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A mixture of Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) aqueous extract and cyclodextrin reduces body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, and total cholesterol and insulin increases in male Wistar fatty rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of a mixture of an aqueous extract of Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) and cyclodextrin (SRCD) on various metabolic parameters and cecal fermentation in obese fa/fa male Wistar fatty rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Wistar fatty rats were fed 0% (control group) or 0.2% SRCD-supplemented diets and weighed weekly. The plasma glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, insulin, and adiponectin concentrations were measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 5. SRCD supplementation suppressed the time-dependent increase in the plasma total cholesterol and insulin concentrations. After 6 weeks of a 0.2% SRCD-supplemented diet, the body weight gain, food intake, visceral fat mass, liver mass, and liver triacylglycerol content of the rats were significantly lower, whereas the plasma adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher than those of the control group. SRCD supplementation had no significant effect on plasma glucose and triacylglycerol concentrations. SRCD supplementation significantly increased cecum mass, whereas it significantly decreased the cecal butyrate and short-chain fatty acid (sum of the acetate, butyrate, and propionate) concentrations. All of the rats were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test at the beginning of week 6. The area under the curve for insulin was significantly smaller with SRCD supplementation and showed no change in glucose tolerance compared to that of the control group. These results suggest that bioactive compounds in SRCD may suppress the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus by influencing glucose and lipid metabolism in male Wistar fatty rats and that SRCD may influence cecal fermentation. PMID:19185778

Kishino, Eriko; Ito, Tetsuya; Fujita, Koki; Kiuchi, Yoshihiro

2009-01-01

46

A mixture of Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) aqueous extract and cyclodextrin reduces body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, and total cholesterol and insulin increases in male Wistar fatty rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the effects of a mixture of an aqueous extract of Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) and cyclodextrin (SRCD) on various metabolic parameters and cecal fermentation in obese fa/fa male Wistar fatty rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Wistar fatty rats were fed 0% (control group) or 0.2% SRCD-supplemented diets and weighed weekly. The plasma glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, insulin, and adiponectin concentrations were measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 5. SRCD supplementation suppressed the time-dependent increase in the plasma total cholesterol and insulin concentrations. After 6 weeks of a 0.2% SRCD-supplemented diet, the body weight gain, food intake, visceral fat mass, liver mass, and liver triacylglycerol content of the rats were significantly lower, whereas the plasma adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher than those of the control group. SRCD supplementation had no significant effect on plasma glucose and triacylglycerol concentrations. SRCD supplementation significantly increased cecum mass, whereas it significantly decreased the cecal butyrate and short-chain fatty acid (sum of the acetate, butyrate, and propionate) concentrations. All of the rats were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test at the beginning of week 6. The area under the curve for insulin was significantly smaller with SRCD supplementation and showed no change in glucose tolerance compared to that of the control group. These results suggest that bioactive compounds in SRCD may suppress the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus by influencing glucose and lipid metabolism in male Wistar fatty rats and that SRCD may influence cecal fermentation.

Kishino E; Ito T; Fujita K; Kiuchi Y

2009-01-01

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A mixture of the Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) aqueous extract and cyclodextrin reduces the accumulation of visceral fat mass in mice and rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity.  

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The effects of a mixture of the Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) aqueous extract and cyclodextrin (SRCD) on the development of obesity were examined. We studied the effects of SRCD on the elevation of plasma triacylglycerol levels induced by oral administration of a high-fat (HF) liquid diet to male Sprague-Dawley rats. The plasma triacylglycerol concentration was significantly lower in the SRCD-treated rats than in the control rats 4 h after HF diet administration (P<0.05). In a study of female C57BL/6 mice that consumed a solid HF diet containing 0, 0.2 or 0.5% SRCD ad libitum for 8 wk, the increases in body weight and visceral fat mass were less in those fed the diet supplemented with 0.5% SRCD than in those fed the HF diet (P<0.05). In male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a solid HF diet with or without 0.2% SRCD and restricted in energy intake to that of rats fed a normal diet for 35 d, the increases in body weight and visceral fat mass were smaller in the SRCD-supplemented rats (P<0.05). In addition, the energy efficiency and the plasma leptin and adiponectin concentrations were lower in the mice and rats that were administered SRCD than in those fed the HF diet alone (P<0.05). The inhibitory effects of SRCD on HF diet-induced obesity may be attributable to the inhibition of carbohydrate and lipid absorption from the small intestine. Therefore, SRCD may suppress the accumulation of visceral fat and the glucose intolerance that accompany this type of obesity. PMID:16424124

Kishino, Eriko; Ito, Tetsuya; Fujita, Koki; Kiuchi, Yoshihiro

2006-02-01

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Mutagenicity induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the medicinal plant Plathymenia reticulata Benth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Plathymenia reticulata Benth has an anti-inflammatory effect and is capable of neutralizing the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu or Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, probably by precipitating venom proteins (an effect caused by plant tannins). The present study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic activity of P. reticulata by using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test) and the micronucleus test in CHO-K1 cells. P. reticulata extract concentrati (more) ons of 2.84, 5.68, 11.37, and 19.90 mg/plate were assayed by the Ames test using TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 bacterial strains, with (+S9) and without (-S9) metabolic activation. Concentrations of 5, 1.6 and 0.5 ?g/mL of P. reticulata extract were used for the micronucleus test. P. reticulata extract was mutagenic to TA98 (-S9) and showed signs of mutagenic activity in TA97a and TA102 (both -S9) strains. Micronucleus test CBPI values showed that the endogenous metabolic system increased the number of viable cells when compared to the non-activated samples and the micronucleus frequency increased when the cells were treated in the absence of S9. We concluded that P. reticulata extract may present direct mutagenic properties.

Della Torre, A; Albuquerque, LBL; Farrapo, NM; Oshima-Franco, Y; Santos, MG; Tavares, RVS; Rodas, ACD; Dal Belo, CA; Cardoso, CRP; Varanda, EA; Groppo, FC; Lopes, PS

2011-01-01

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Mutagenicity induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the medicinal plant Plathymenia reticulata Benth  

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Full Text Available Plathymenia reticulata Benth has an anti-inflammatory effect and is capable of neutralizing the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu or Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, probably by precipitating venom proteins (an effect caused by plant tannins). The present study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic activity of P. reticulata by using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test) and the micronucleus test in CHO-K1 cells. P. reticulata extract concentrations of 2.84, 5.68, 11.37, and 19.90 mg/plate were assayed by the Ames test using TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 bacterial strains, with (+S9) and without (-S9) metabolic activation. Concentrations of 5, 1.6 and 0.5 ?g/mL of P. reticulata extract were used for the micronucleus test. P. reticulata extract was mutagenic to TA98 (-S9) and showed signs of mutagenic activity in TA97a and TA102 (both -S9) strains. Micronucleus test CBPI values showed that the endogenous metabolic system increased the number of viable cells when compared to the non-activated samples and the micronucleus frequency increased when the cells were treated in the absence of S9. We concluded that P. reticulata extract may present direct mutagenic properties.

A Della Torre; LBL Albuquerque; NM Farrapo; Y Oshima-Franco; MG Santos; RVS Tavares; ACD Rodas; CA Dal Belo; CRP Cardoso; EA Varanda; FC Groppo; PS Lopes

2011-01-01

50

In silico design, synthesis and evaluation of 3'-O-benzylated analogs of salacinol, a potent ?-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from an Ayurvedic traditional medicine "Salacia".  

Science.gov (United States)

With the aid of an in silico method, ?-glucosidase inhibitors with far more potent activities than salacinol (1), a potent natural ?-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from an Ayurvedic traditional medicine Salacia reticulata, have been developed. PMID:22820468

Tanabe, Genzoh; Nakamura, Shinya; Tsutsui, Nozomi; Balakishan, Gorre; Xie, Weijia; Tsuchiya, Satoshi; Akaki, Junji; Morikawa, Toshio; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Nakanishi, Isao; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu

2012-07-20

51

In silico design, synthesis and evaluation of 3'-O-benzylated analogs of salacinol, a potent ?-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from an Ayurvedic traditional medicine "Salacia".  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With the aid of an in silico method, ?-glucosidase inhibitors with far more potent activities than salacinol (1), a potent natural ?-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from an Ayurvedic traditional medicine Salacia reticulata, have been developed.

Tanabe G; Nakamura S; Tsutsui N; Balakishan G; Xie W; Tsuchiya S; Akaki J; Morikawa T; Ninomiya K; Nakanishi I; Yoshikawa M; Muraoka O

2012-09-01

52

Safety evaluation of the aqueous extract Kothala himbutu (Salacia reticulata) stem in the hepatic gene expression profile of normal mice using DNA microarrays.  

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Kothala himbutu is a traditional Ayurvedic medicinal plant used to treat diabetes. We aimed to evaluate the safety of an aqueous extract of Kothala himbutu stem (KTE) in normal mice. The mice were divided into two groups: one was administered KTE and the other distilled water for 3 weeks. During the test period, the groups showed no significant differences in body weight gain or plasma parameters, such as fasting blood glucose level, oral glucose tolerance test, or aspartate transaminase (AST) or alanine transaminase (ALT) activity. DNA microarray analysis revealed that expression of genes of known function, such as those for the stress response, ribosomal proteins, transcription, cell function, the inflammatory/immune response, and metabolism (xenobiotic, glutathione, etc.) remained largely unaffected by KTE. However some genes such as catechol-o-methyltransferase and succinyl-CoA synthetase were regulated by KTE, indicating that KTE is not toxic to normal mice and might be effective as a functional food. PMID:19060410

Im, Ryanghyok; Mano, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Sachie; Shimizu, Jun; Wada, Masahiro

2008-12-07

53

Bisnortriterpenes from Salacia madagascariensis.  

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A new bisnortriterpene quinone methide, 20-epi-isoiguesterinol (2), and a new 6-oxophenolic triterpene, 6-oxoisoiguesterin (5), as well as two known compounds, isoiguesterin (1) and isoiguesterinol (4), were isolated from the petroleum ether extract of the roots of Salacia madagascariensis. Isoiguesterin (1) and 20-epi-isoiguesterinol (2) showed potent activity against Leishmania. PMID:15730255

Thiem, Deborah A; Sneden, Albert T; Khan, Shabana I; Tekwani, Babu L

2005-02-01

54

Bisnortriterpenes from Salacia madagascariensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new bisnortriterpene quinone methide, 20-epi-isoiguesterinol (2), and a new 6-oxophenolic triterpene, 6-oxoisoiguesterin (5), as well as two known compounds, isoiguesterin (1) and isoiguesterinol (4), were isolated from the petroleum ether extract of the roots of Salacia madagascariensis. Isoiguesterin (1) and 20-epi-isoiguesterinol (2) showed potent activity against Leishmania.

Thiem DA; Sneden AT; Khan SI; Tekwani BL

2005-02-01

55

SALACIA EXTRACT WITH REDUCED POLYPHENOL CONTENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed is a salacia extract which is highly safe to living organisms, namely a salacia extract which is reduced in cytotoxicity without deteriorating the melanin production inhibitory activity. Specifically disclosed is a salacia extract with a reduced polyphenol content, which is obtained by reducing the polyphenol content in a salacia crude extract that contains a polyphenol.

KUBO TOSHIAKI; HONMA TOSHIYUKI

56

Reinvestigation of derris reticulata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The novel compound 1'''-hydroxy-2''',3'''-epoxylupinifolin ( 1 ), together with three known prenylated flavanones were identified from the stem of Derris reticulata during our reinvestigation of the plant. The structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including detailed study of NMR spectral data (DEPT, 2D-COSY, HMQC and HMBC) as well as by chemical derivatizations.

Prawat H; Mahidol C; Ruchirawat S

2000-01-01

57

Reinvestigation of derris reticulata.  

Science.gov (United States)

The novel compound 1'''-hydroxy-2''',3'''-epoxylupinifolin ( 1 ), together with three known prenylated flavanones were identified from the stem of Derris reticulata during our reinvestigation of the plant. The structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including detailed study of NMR spectral data (DEPT, 2D-COSY, HMQC and HMBC) as well as by chemical derivatizations. PMID:23531140

Prawat, H; Mahidol, C; Ruchirawat, S

2000-01-01

58

REVIEW ON KIRGANELIA RETICULATA  

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Full Text Available In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and information on Kirganelia reticulata (Poir) Family Euphorbiaceae, a medicinal herb used in the indigenous system of medicine. K. reticulata has been adored in almost all ancient ayurvedic texts for its extraordinary medicinal properties. K. reticulata is annual herbaceous climbing plant with long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties and has utilized for treatment of various ailments including, diuretic, diarrhoea, small pox and astringent. Wild range of chemical compound including, flavanoids, triterpenoids, alkaloids and glycosides have been isolated from the species. Their extracts have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. A compressive review of its ethanomedical uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant is prepared. Particular attention is given to its antibacterial, antiviral, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant effects so that its potential uses can be better evaluated. This review will definitely help for the researchers as well as clinicians dealing with K. reticulata to know its proper usage as this herb is seemed to be highly valuable, possessing many pharmacological / medicinal properties. Keywords: Euphorbiaceae, Kirganelia reticulate, phytochemistry, Pharmacological properties

Amol Kharat

2013-01-01

59

Antibacterial activity of Salacia beddomei.  

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Leaves and stems of Salacia beddomei were extracted successively with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and chloroform and tested for their antibacterial activity. Ethyl acetate extracts were found to be most effective against all the tested organisms. PMID:15351115

Deepa, M A; Narmatha Bai, V

2004-09-01

60

Antibacterial activity of Salacia beddomei.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Leaves and stems of Salacia beddomei were extracted successively with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and chloroform and tested for their antibacterial activity. Ethyl acetate extracts were found to be most effective against all the tested organisms.

Deepa MA; Narmatha Bai V

2004-09-01

 
 
 
 
61

[Studies on chemical constituents of the roots of Salacia hainanensis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The chemical constituents of Salacia hainanensis were studied for the first time. Five compounds were isolated from the roots of the plant by silica-gel column chromatography and reverse phase preparative chromatography. Four of them have been identified as friedelin, beta-sitosterol, ursolic acid and mangiferin.

Yuan G; Yi Y

2005-01-01

62

[Studies on chemical constituents of the roots of Salacia hainanensis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical constituents of Salacia hainanensis were studied for the first time. Five compounds were isolated from the roots of the plant by silica-gel column chromatography and reverse phase preparative chromatography. Four of them have been identified as friedelin, beta-sitosterol, ursolic acid and mangiferin. PMID:15934239

Yuan, Ganjun; Yi, Yankui

2005-01-01

63

SALACIA IMPERATORIA URBS  

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Full Text Available Síntese acerca do que se tem investigado sobre Alcácer do Sal na época romana. Explicita-se a razão do nome; refere-se o interesse que, em todos os tempos, despertou nos historiadores; releva-se o papel fundamental que deteve do ponto de vista estratégico e económico (os Cornelli Bocchi, a emissão de moeda…). Analisa-se, nesse contexto, o pedestal dedicado por uma flamínia a I. O. M. (IRCP 183); a consagração de Vicanus, Bouti filius, ao imperador Augusto (IRCP 184), a presença da onomástica grega e a importância invulgar da tabella defixionis, em que se invocam Hércules e Átis. ENGLISH: Synthesis of the investigation about Salacia: the cause of its Roman designation, the interest of the researchers throughout time, the important strategic and economic position of the town (the family of the Cornelli Bocchi, emission of money…). Additionally, this synthesis includes the reanalysis of uncommon epigraphic texts: the dedication of a flaminica to I. O. M. (IRCP 183), the consecration of Vicanus Bouti filius to the Emperor August (IRCP 184), the significant presence of the Greek names and of a tabella defixionis where the power of Hercules and Atis are invoked.

José d’Encarnação

2013-01-01

64

Biochemical characterization of selected plant species from Brazilian Savannas  

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Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the presence of antinutritional compounds such as lectins and trypsin-like inhibitors, polyphenols and tannins, and enzymatic activity of peroxidases and proteases in the seeds of Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá), Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca), Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada), Salacia crassiflora Mart G. Don. (bacupari), and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro). The results suggested that these plants could be used as new source of food.

Caramori Samantha Salomão; Lima Claudinei Sousa; Fernandes Kátia Flávia

2004-01-01

65

[A new trincallane derivative from Salacia hainanensis Chun et How].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chemical constituents of the roots and stem of Salacia hainanensis Chun et How were isolated and purified with column chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated based on physicochemical and spectral spectroscopic analysis. Depending on the activities of anti-alpha-glucosidase and inhibiting AGEs (advanced glycation end products, AGEs) formation in vitro, nine compounds were identified as 26, 27-dihydroxy-7, 24-tirucalladien-3-one (1), abruslactone A (2), lupeol (3), 21alpha, 30-dihydroxy-D: A-friedooleanan-3-one (4), 15alpha-hydroxyfriedelan-3-one (5), friedelin (6), mangiferin (7), epicatechin (8) and beta-sitosterol (9), separately. Among them, compound 1 is a new compound, and compound 2 was isolated from the Salacia genus for the first time, while, compounds 3, 4, 5, 8 were obtained from this plant for the first time.

Guo ZH; Xi RG; Wang XB; Wu LJ; Gao HY

2009-10-01

66

[A new trincallane derivative from Salacia hainanensis Chun et How].  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical constituents of the roots and stem of Salacia hainanensis Chun et How were isolated and purified with column chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated based on physicochemical and spectral spectroscopic analysis. Depending on the activities of anti-alpha-glucosidase and inhibiting AGEs (advanced glycation end products, AGEs) formation in vitro, nine compounds were identified as 26, 27-dihydroxy-7, 24-tirucalladien-3-one (1), abruslactone A (2), lupeol (3), 21alpha, 30-dihydroxy-D: A-friedooleanan-3-one (4), 15alpha-hydroxyfriedelan-3-one (5), friedelin (6), mangiferin (7), epicatechin (8) and beta-sitosterol (9), separately. Among them, compound 1 is a new compound, and compound 2 was isolated from the Salacia genus for the first time, while, compounds 3, 4, 5, 8 were obtained from this plant for the first time. PMID:20055135

Guo, Zheng-Hong; Xi, Rong-Gang; Wang, Xiao-Bo; Wu, Li-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan

2009-10-01

67

Comparative Evaluation of Antihyperglycaemic Effect of Various Parts of Salacia chinensis L.  

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Full Text Available Salacia chinensis L. (Saptrangi) belongs to the family Hippocrateaceae. The plant extracts have been evaluated for number of activities like anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, sedative and neuromuscular. In traditional medicine, this plant has been used in the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, methanolic extracts of leaf, stem and root of Salacia chinensis were tested for antihyperglycaemic activities in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Glibenclamide (500 ?g kg-1) was used as the reference drug. Results showed that the methanolic extracts of leaf, stem and root exhibited antihyperglycaemic effect. Methanolic extracts of root exhibited better activity followed by stem and leaf which were equally effective.

S. Anitha; A. Martha Leema Rose

2013-01-01

68

Comparative Evaluation of Antihyperglycaemic Effect of Various Parts of Salacia chinensis L.  

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Salacia chinensis L. (Saptrangi) belongs to the family Hippocrateaceae. The plant extracts have been evaluated for number of activities like anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, sedative and neuromuscular. In traditional medicine, this plant has been used in the treatment o...

S. Anitha; A. Martha Leema Rose

69

Nephroprotective and antioxidant activities of Salacia oblonga on acetaminophen-induced toxicity in rats.  

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Salacia oblonga, a woody climbing plant belonging to the family Celastaceae, is widely distributed in India and other southeast Asian countries. The genus Salacia have been used particularly for the treatment of diabetes, obesity, gonorrhoea, rheumatism, pruritus and asthma. Acetaminophen (APAP), used as an analgesic drug, produces liver and kidney necrosis in mammals at high doses. The aim of this study was to investigate the nephroprotective and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of Salacia oblonga (EESO) at the two dose levels of 250 and 500 mg/kg?bw on APAP-induced toxicity in rats. The results showed that APAP significantly increases the levels of serum urea, creatinine, and reduces levels of uric acid concentration. The EESO reduces these by increasing anti-oxidative responses as assessed by biochemical and histopathological parameters. In conclusion, our results suggest that the EESO possesses nephroprotective and antioxidant effects against APAP-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. PMID:21848492

Palani, S; Raja, S; Kumar, S Nirmal; Kumar, B Senthil

2011-08-18

70

Nephroprotective and antioxidant activities of Salacia oblonga on acetaminophen-induced toxicity in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salacia oblonga, a woody climbing plant belonging to the family Celastaceae, is widely distributed in India and other southeast Asian countries. The genus Salacia have been used particularly for the treatment of diabetes, obesity, gonorrhoea, rheumatism, pruritus and asthma. Acetaminophen (APAP), used as an analgesic drug, produces liver and kidney necrosis in mammals at high doses. The aim of this study was to investigate the nephroprotective and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of Salacia oblonga (EESO) at the two dose levels of 250 and 500 mg/kg?bw on APAP-induced toxicity in rats. The results showed that APAP significantly increases the levels of serum urea, creatinine, and reduces levels of uric acid concentration. The EESO reduces these by increasing anti-oxidative responses as assessed by biochemical and histopathological parameters. In conclusion, our results suggest that the EESO possesses nephroprotective and antioxidant effects against APAP-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

Palani S; Raja S; Kumar SN; Kumar BS

2011-11-01

71

Studies on ?Kinnow? (Citrus reticulata Blanco.) Decline in Relation to Soil-Plant Nutritional Status  

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Full Text Available ?Kinnow? decline was studied in relation to soil plant nutritional status under semi arid condition of Hisar (India). There were no differences between the soil pH, electrical conductivity and calcium carbonate of healthy and declining trees. The soil under the healthy trees had significantly higher organic carbon (0.46%) than that under declining trees (0.35%). The nutrients viz., N, P, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe in the soil under healthy and declining trees did not differ significantly except K. Leaf N, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe were significantly more in the healthy trees. The deficiency of N, P, Zn and Mn in the leaves of both categories of trees could be attributed to low contents of these nutrients in the soil under healthy and declining trees. Growth, yield and fruit quality were better in healthy trees as compared to declining trees. The yield on kg per tree basis in declining trees reduced (8.43 kg/tree) as compared to that in healthy trees (20.74 kg/tree). Low organic carbon, soil N, Zn and Mn content could be associated with the declining problem of ?Kinnow?.

Parveen KUMAR; Suneel SHARMA; Surender S. DHANKHAR; Singh PARTAP

2011-01-01

72

Biochemical characterization of selected plant species from Brazilian Savannas  

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Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the presence of antinutritional compounds such as lectins and trypsin-like inhibitors, polyphenols and tannins, and enzymatic activity of peroxidases and proteases in the seeds of Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá), Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca), Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada), Salacia crassiflora Mart G. Don. (bacupari), and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro). The results suggested that these plants could be used as new source of food.O Cerrado é constituído por inúmeras espécies vegetais com potencial econômico, as quais são utilizadas para os mais variados fins, como medicinal e nutricional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar e quantificar a presença de atividade enzimática de peroxidases e proteases e fatores antinutricionais, como lectinas e inibidores de proteases, além de polifenóis e taninos em algumas espécies nativas do Cerrado. O material vegetal utilizado foram sementes de Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá), Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca), Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada), Salacia crassiflora (Mart.) G. Don. (bacupari) e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro), coletadas na cidade de Goiânia e municípios de Jataí e Caldas Novas, estado de Goiás. O uso potencial destas plantas e suas enzimas na indústria de alimentos, poderia resultar em aplicações ao aparecimento de novos produtos a partir das matérias-primas tradicionais, além do uso de novas fontes de alimentos.

Samantha Salomão Caramori; Claudinei Sousa Lima; Kátia Flávia Fernandes

2004-01-01

73

Biochemical characterization of selected plant species from Brazilian Savannas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O Cerrado é constituído por inúmeras espécies vegetais com potencial econômico, as quais são utilizadas para os mais variados fins, como medicinal e nutricional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar e quantificar a presença de atividade enzimática de peroxidases e proteases e fatores antinutricionais, como lectinas e inibidores de proteases, além de polifenóis e taninos em algumas espécies nativas do Cerrado. O material vegetal utilizado foram sementes de Ann (more) ona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá), Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca), Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada), Salacia crassiflora (Mart.) G. Don. (bacupari) e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro), coletadas na cidade de Goiânia e municípios de Jataí e Caldas Novas, estado de Goiás. O uso potencial destas plantas e suas enzimas na indústria de alimentos, poderia resultar em aplicações ao aparecimento de novos produtos a partir das matérias-primas tradicionais, além do uso de novas fontes de alimentos. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the presence of antinutritional compounds such as lectins and trypsin-like inhibitors, polyphenols and tannins, and enzymatic activity of peroxidases and proteases in the seeds of Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá), Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca), Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada), Salacia crassiflora Mart G. Don. (more) (bacupari), and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro). The results suggested that these plants could be used as new source of food.

Caramori, Samantha Salomão; Lima, Claudinei Sousa; Fernandes, Kátia Flávia

2004-06-01

74

Salacia root, a unique Ayurvedic medicine, meets multiple targets in diabetes and obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In many traditional schools of medicine it is claimed that a balanced modulation of several targets can provide a superior therapeutic effect and decrease in side effect profile compared to a single action from a single selective ligand, especially in the treatment of certain chronic and complex diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. Diabetes and obesity have a multi-factorial basis involving both genetic and environmental risk factors. A wide array of medicinal plants and their active constituents play a role in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Salacia roots have been used in Ayurvedic medicine for diabetes and obesity since antiquity, and have been extensively consumed in Japan, the United States and other countries as a food supplement for the prevention of obesity and diabetes. Recent pharmacological studies have demonstrated that Salacia roots modulate multiple targets: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha-mediated lipogenic gene transcription, angiotensin II/angiotensin II type 1 receptor, alpha-glucosidase, aldose reductase and pancreatic lipase. These multi-target actions may mainly contribute to Salacia root-induced improvement of type 2 diabetes and obesity-associated hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and related cardiovascular complications seen in humans and rodents. The results of bioassay-guided identification indicate that mangiferin, salacinol, kotalanol and kotalagenin 16-acetate are at least in part responsible for these multi-target regulatory activities of Salacia roots. The evidence suggests that this unique traditional medicine fulfills a multiple-target strategy in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and obesity. Although toxicological studies have suggested minimal adverse effects of the herbal medicine in rodents, a clinical trial is crucial to further confirm the safety of Salacia roots. In addition, further mechanistic studies are necessary in order to allow a better understanding of how use of Salacia root may interact with other therapeutic interventions.

Li Y; Huang TH; Yamahara J

2008-05-01

75

Salacia root, a unique Ayurvedic medicine, meets multiple targets in diabetes and obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many traditional schools of medicine it is claimed that a balanced modulation of several targets can provide a superior therapeutic effect and decrease in side effect profile compared to a single action from a single selective ligand, especially in the treatment of certain chronic and complex diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. Diabetes and obesity have a multi-factorial basis involving both genetic and environmental risk factors. A wide array of medicinal plants and their active constituents play a role in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Salacia roots have been used in Ayurvedic medicine for diabetes and obesity since antiquity, and have been extensively consumed in Japan, the United States and other countries as a food supplement for the prevention of obesity and diabetes. Recent pharmacological studies have demonstrated that Salacia roots modulate multiple targets: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha-mediated lipogenic gene transcription, angiotensin II/angiotensin II type 1 receptor, alpha-glucosidase, aldose reductase and pancreatic lipase. These multi-target actions may mainly contribute to Salacia root-induced improvement of type 2 diabetes and obesity-associated hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and related cardiovascular complications seen in humans and rodents. The results of bioassay-guided identification indicate that mangiferin, salacinol, kotalanol and kotalagenin 16-acetate are at least in part responsible for these multi-target regulatory activities of Salacia roots. The evidence suggests that this unique traditional medicine fulfills a multiple-target strategy in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and obesity. Although toxicological studies have suggested minimal adverse effects of the herbal medicine in rodents, a clinical trial is crucial to further confirm the safety of Salacia roots. In addition, further mechanistic studies are necessary in order to allow a better understanding of how use of Salacia root may interact with other therapeutic interventions. PMID:18433791

Li, Yuhao; Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Yamahara, Johji

2008-03-28

76

Strategy for the production of Citrus tristeza virus-free mandarin (Citrus reticulata) planting materials in the Darjeeling hills of India  

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Full Text Available CTV-free mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco.) mother stocks were identified based on biological indexing, direct antigen coated enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (DAC-ELISA) and reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Bud woods obtained from CTV-free mother stocks were grafted on Rangpur lime (C. limonia Osb.), rough lemon (C. jambhiri Lush.) and mandarin root stocks. The successful graft unions were maintained in insect-proof greenhouse and nurseries. Success of graft unions depended on the growing season but not on the citrus species used as the rootstock in the present study. Maximum number of graft unions were obtained in the month of March-April (60-82%) and August (60-65%). Three to four years old grafted mandarin plants were found to yield normal-sized fruits.

K.K. BISWAS*, A. TARAFDAR, B.K. JAYAKUMAR and K.B. PUN

2011-01-01

77

PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND HPTLC PROFILING OF EXTRACTS OF SALACIA OBLONGA  

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Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Plants of medicinal importance though are quite well known among the Ayurvedic practitioners since years, yet many of them have not been standardized, validated and documented completely. Among such medicinally valuable plants, Salacia holds a place as an effective antidiabetic herb and many species of this plant are in use as anti-diabetics. The present study reports the phytochemical analysis of one of its species Salacia oblonga (SO) (roots and stems), belonging to the family Celastraceae (bittersweet), through various biochemical and chromatographic methods. TLC and HPTLC analysis of six different extracts of SO revealed numerous bands, indicating the presence of diverse groups of phytocompounds, many of them are assumed to contribute significantly to its antioxidant activity as well as, other biological activities. This type of analysis can help in fingerprint profiling of the plant and its various species. The identification and characterization of the phytocompounds can further help in finding out molecular targets/mechanism of action of the constituents of this herb that are responsible for its biological activities.

Sujata Basu, Mamta Pant and Rachana*

2013-01-01

78

Total DNA extraction from Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two mwthods, i.e., CTAB, and modified CTAB with PVP, were used to extract total DNA from traditional Chinese medicinal material Pericarpium citric Reticulatae. The second method was preferable in removing pigments, polysaccharides, which disturbing PCR. This method can be used in extracting DNA from plant Chinese medicinal material that has high contents of pigments and polysaccharides.

Yan Hanjing; Gao Xiaoxia; Chen Xiaoying

2004-01-01

79

Quantitative determination of potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, salacinol and kotalanol, in Salacia species using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

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A practical HPLC-MS method for the quantitative determination of salacinol (1) and kotalanol (2), potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from Salacia species (Hippocrateaceae) as a specific remedy for diabetes in Ayurvedic system, was developed. The optimum conditions of separation and detection of these two constituents were achieved on a Asahipak NH2P-50 column (5 mcirom particle size, 2.0 mm i.d. x 150 mm) with a CH(3)CN-H(2)O mobile phase, associated with MS using electrospray ionization source. The overall recoveries of 1 (85.8-112.6%) and 2 (99.7-106.1%), and relative standard deviation values of intra- and inter-day precision were lower than 6.8 and 8.5%, respectively. The detection (S/N=3) and quantitation limits (S/N=10) were established to be 0.015 and 0.050 ng for 1, and 0.030 and 0.10 ng for 2, respectively. The correlation coefficients of all the calibration curves showed good linearity within test ranges. The extraction process was also optimized as 2 h immersion in water under reflux. The method was applied to evaluate extracts of three kinds of Salacia species, i.e. S. reticulata, S. oblonga, and S. chinensis, and those of four different parts, i.e. roots, stems, leaves and fruits of the same material, revealing that the extract from the roots of S. reticulata had the highest contents of these compounds. The results indicated that the assay was reproducible and precise and could be readily utilized for the evaluation of Salacia species. PMID:20303690

Muraoka, Osamu; Morikawa, Toshio; Miyake, Sohachiro; Akaki, Junji; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

2010-02-25

80

Quantitative determination of potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, salacinol and kotalanol, in Salacia species using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A practical HPLC-MS method for the quantitative determination of salacinol (1) and kotalanol (2), potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from Salacia species (Hippocrateaceae) as a specific remedy for diabetes in Ayurvedic system, was developed. The optimum conditions of separation and detection of these two constituents were achieved on a Asahipak NH2P-50 column (5 mcirom particle size, 2.0 mm i.d. x 150 mm) with a CH(3)CN-H(2)O mobile phase, associated with MS using electrospray ionization source. The overall recoveries of 1 (85.8-112.6%) and 2 (99.7-106.1%), and relative standard deviation values of intra- and inter-day precision were lower than 6.8 and 8.5%, respectively. The detection (S/N=3) and quantitation limits (S/N=10) were established to be 0.015 and 0.050 ng for 1, and 0.030 and 0.10 ng for 2, respectively. The correlation coefficients of all the calibration curves showed good linearity within test ranges. The extraction process was also optimized as 2 h immersion in water under reflux. The method was applied to evaluate extracts of three kinds of Salacia species, i.e. S. reticulata, S. oblonga, and S. chinensis, and those of four different parts, i.e. roots, stems, leaves and fruits of the same material, revealing that the extract from the roots of S. reticulata had the highest contents of these compounds. The results indicated that the assay was reproducible and precise and could be readily utilized for the evaluation of Salacia species.

Muraoka O; Morikawa T; Miyake S; Akaki J; Ninomiya K; Yoshikawa M

2010-09-01

 
 
 
 
81

PHARMACEUTICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON SALACIA MACROSPERMA-1  

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The chloroform, ethanol (95%) and aqueous extracts of roots of Salacia macrosperma (Hippocrataceae) were prepared by double maceration followed by vacuum evaporation. All the extracts were subjects to qualitative chemical tests to find out phytoconstituents present in them. The ethanolic extract sho...

Venkateswarlu, V.; Kokate, C.K.; Peddanna, G.; Veeresham, C.; Rambhau, D.

82

Bioefficacy of Plumbago zeylanica (Plumbaginaceae) and Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) plant extracts against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicide) and nontarget fish Poecilia reticulata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a search for natural products that could be used to control the vectors of tropical diseases, extracts of medicinal plants Plumbago zeylanica and Cestrum nocturnum have been tested for larvicidal activity against second, third, and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The LC(50) values of all the extracts in different solvents of both the plants were less than 50 ppm (15.40-38.50 ppm) against all tested larval instars. Plant extracts also affected the life cycle of A. aegypti by inhibition of pupal development and adult emergence with increasing concentrations. The larvicidal stability of the extracts at five constant temperatures (19°C, 22°C, 25°C, 28°C, and 31°C) evaluated against fourth instar larvae revealed that toxicity of both plant extracts increases with increase in temperature. Toxicity studies carried out against fish species Poecilia reticulata, the most common nontarget organism in the habitats of A. aegypti, showed almost nil to meager toxicity at LC(50) and LC(90) doses of the plant extracts. The qualitative analysis of crude extracts of P. Zeylanica and C. nocturnum revealed the presence of bioactive phytochemicals with predominance of plumbagin in P. zeylanica and saponins in C. nocturnum. Partially purified plumbagin from P. zeylanica and saponins from C. nocturnum were obtained, and their presence was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography and biochemical tests. The bioassay experiment of partially purified secondary metabolites showed potent mosquito larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larval form. Therefore, this study explored the safer and effective potential of plant extracts against vector responsible for diseases of public health importance.

Patil CD; Patil SV; Salunke BK; Salunkhe RB

2011-05-01

83

Bioefficacy of Plumbago zeylanica (Plumbaginaceae) and Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) plant extracts against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicide) and nontarget fish Poecilia reticulata.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a search for natural products that could be used to control the vectors of tropical diseases, extracts of medicinal plants Plumbago zeylanica and Cestrum nocturnum have been tested for larvicidal activity against second, third, and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The LC(50) values of all the extracts in different solvents of both the plants were less than 50 ppm (15.40-38.50 ppm) against all tested larval instars. Plant extracts also affected the life cycle of A. aegypti by inhibition of pupal development and adult emergence with increasing concentrations. The larvicidal stability of the extracts at five constant temperatures (19°C, 22°C, 25°C, 28°C, and 31°C) evaluated against fourth instar larvae revealed that toxicity of both plant extracts increases with increase in temperature. Toxicity studies carried out against fish species Poecilia reticulata, the most common nontarget organism in the habitats of A. aegypti, showed almost nil to meager toxicity at LC(50) and LC(90) doses of the plant extracts. The qualitative analysis of crude extracts of P. Zeylanica and C. nocturnum revealed the presence of bioactive phytochemicals with predominance of plumbagin in P. zeylanica and saponins in C. nocturnum. Partially purified plumbagin from P. zeylanica and saponins from C. nocturnum were obtained, and their presence was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography and biochemical tests. The bioassay experiment of partially purified secondary metabolites showed potent mosquito larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larval form. Therefore, this study explored the safer and effective potential of plant extracts against vector responsible for diseases of public health importance. PMID:21107859

Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Patil, Satish V; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Salunkhe, Rahul B

2010-11-25

84

Leptadenia reticulata a Rasayana Herbs: A Review  

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Full Text Available Leptadenia reticulata is very valuable medicinal plant belonging to family Asclepiadaceae popularly known as Jivanti. It is specially known for its stimulant and restorative properties in Ayurveda and it also important constituent of many well reputed ayurvedic formulations like Chywanprash, Speman etc. Its principal constituents are leptadenol, leptidin ?-sitosterol, ?-amyrin acetate. It possesses the appetizer, aphrodisiac, anticancerous and antibacterial properties. This review is to compile its valuable properties and pharmacological activities under one platform.

B. Bawra; M. Dixit; N.S. Chauhan; V.K. Dixit; D.K. Saraf

2010-01-01

85

[Biological activities of Salacia chinensis originating in Thailand: the quality evaluation guided by alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the course of our characterization studies on anti-obese and antidiabetogenic principles in medicinal foodstuffs, we found that the methanolic extract from the stems of Salacia chinensis (Hippocerateaceae) showed potent anti-hyperglycemic effects in oral sucrose or maltose-loaded rats, inhibitory effects on intestinal alpha-glucosidase, rat lens aldose reductase, formation of Amadori compounds and advanced glycation end-products, nitric oxide production from lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse peritoneal macrophage, and radical scavenging activities. Those in vivo and in vitro biological activities were compared with those of S. oblonga and S. reticulata. In addition, we isolated the principal alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, salacinol, from the stems of S. chinensis and examined alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities of eleven samples of S. chinensis collected in Thailand.

Yoshikawa M; Pongpiriyadacha Y; Kishi A; Kageura T; Wang T; Morikawa T; Matsuda H

2003-10-01

86

[Biological activities of Salacia chinensis originating in Thailand: the quality evaluation guided by alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity].  

Science.gov (United States)

In the course of our characterization studies on anti-obese and antidiabetogenic principles in medicinal foodstuffs, we found that the methanolic extract from the stems of Salacia chinensis (Hippocerateaceae) showed potent anti-hyperglycemic effects in oral sucrose or maltose-loaded rats, inhibitory effects on intestinal alpha-glucosidase, rat lens aldose reductase, formation of Amadori compounds and advanced glycation end-products, nitric oxide production from lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse peritoneal macrophage, and radical scavenging activities. Those in vivo and in vitro biological activities were compared with those of S. oblonga and S. reticulata. In addition, we isolated the principal alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, salacinol, from the stems of S. chinensis and examined alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities of eleven samples of S. chinensis collected in Thailand. PMID:14577333

Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Pongpiriyadacha, Yutana; Kishi, Akinobu; Kageura, Tadashi; Wang, Tao; Morikawa, Toshio; Matsuda, Hisashi

2003-10-01

87

Antioxidant quinonemethide triterpenes from Salacia campestris.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new quinonemethide triterpene named as salacin, has been isolated from the root bark of Salacia campestris in addition to the known pristimerin, maytenin, 20alpha-hydroxymaytenin, and netzahualcoyene. Salacin was identified on the basis of NMR-spectral and mass spectrometric analysis. The free-radical scavenging activities of the quinonemethide triterpenes salacin (1), pristimerin (2), maytenin (3), 20alpha-hydroxymaytenin (4), and netzahualcoyene (5) towards DPPH have been evaluated and showed absorbance variation (deltaA) of 19, 20, 39, 28, 55, and 10%, respectively, having rutin (74% at 50 microM) and BHT (7% at 50 microM) as standard compounds.

Carvalho PR; Silva DH; Bolzani VS; Furlan M

2005-03-01

88

Antioxidant quinonemethide triterpenes from Salacia campestris.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new quinonemethide triterpene named as salacin, has been isolated from the root bark of Salacia campestris in addition to the known pristimerin, maytenin, 20alpha-hydroxymaytenin, and netzahualcoyene. Salacin was identified on the basis of NMR-spectral and mass spectrometric analysis. The free-radical scavenging activities of the quinonemethide triterpenes salacin (1), pristimerin (2), maytenin (3), 20alpha-hydroxymaytenin (4), and netzahualcoyene (5) towards DPPH have been evaluated and showed absorbance variation (deltaA) of 19, 20, 39, 28, 55, and 10%, respectively, having rutin (74% at 50 microM) and BHT (7% at 50 microM) as standard compounds. PMID:17191985

Carvalho, Paulo R F; Silva, Dulce H S; Bolzani, Vanderlan S; Furlan, Maysa

2005-03-01

89

Antidiabetic Activity of Roots of Salacia macrosperma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Various fractions of the alcoholic extract of the roots of SALACIA MACROSPERMA were evaluated for their antidiabetic activity in alloxan-diabetic rats by estimating various biochemical parameters in blood, viz. glucose, proteins, lipids, cholesterol, and free fatty acids, after oral administration for 8 days. From the data obtained, it is concluded that the methanolic fraction followed by the residual fraction of the alcoholic extract exhibited significant antidiabetic activity. These biofractions were able to correct the metabolic abberations in diabetic rats. This activity may be due to their insulin-like properties.

Venkateswarlu V; Kokate CK; Rambhau D; Veeresham C

1993-10-01

90

Chemical constituents of Salacia elliptica (Celastraceae)  

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Full Text Available The chemical investigation of Salacia elliptica allowed to the isolation of 20 constituents: two polyols, one xanthone, a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons, one carboxylic acid, one polymer, two steroidal compounds, one aromatic ester and eleven pentacyclic triterpenes. These triterpenes include 3?-stearyloxy-oleanane, 3?-stearyloxy-ursane, one seco-friedelane, and eight compounds of the friedelane serie. The chemical structure and the relative configuration of a new triterpene 1,3-dioxo-16?-hydroxyfriedelane (15) were established through ¹H and 13C NMR including 2D experiments (HMBC, HMQC, COSY and NOESY) and herein reported for the first time.

Lucienir Pains Duarte; Rute Cunha Figueiredo; Grasiely Faria de Sousa; Débora Barbosa da Silva Soares; Salomão Bento Vasconcelos Rodrigues; Fernando César Silva; Grácia Divina de Fátima Silva; Sidney Augusto Vieira Filho

2010-01-01

91

Chemical constituents of Salacia elliptica (Celastraceae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical investigation of Salacia elliptica allowed to the isolation of 20 constituents: two polyols, one xanthone, a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons, one carboxylic acid, one polymer, two steroidal compounds, one aromatic ester and eleven pentacyclic triterpenes. These triterpenes include 3?-stearyloxy-oleanane, 3?-stearyloxy-ursane, one seco-friedelane, and eight compounds of the friedelane series. The chemical structure and the relative configuration of a new triterpene 1,3-dioxo-16?-hydroxyfriedelane (15) were established through 1H and 13C NMR including 2D experiments (HMBC, HMQC, COSY and NOESY) and herein reported for the first time (author)

2010-01-01

92

Chemical constituents of Salacia elliptica (Celastraceae)  

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The chemical investigation of Salacia elliptica allowed to the isolation of 20 constituents: two polyols, one xanthone, a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons, one carboxylic acid, one polymer, two steroidal compounds, one aromatic ester and eleven pentacyclic triterpenes. These triterpenes include 3{beta}-stearyloxy-oleanane, 3{beta}-stearyloxy-ursane, one seco-friedelane, and eight compounds of the friedelane series. The chemical structure and the relative configuration of a new triterpene 1,3-dioxo-16alpha-hydroxyfriedelane (15) were established through {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR including 2D experiments (HMBC, HMQC, COSY and NOESY) and herein reported for the first time (author)

Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Figueiredo, Rute Cunha; Sousa, Grasiely Faria de; Soares, Debora Barbosa da Silva; Rodrigues, Salomao Bento Vasconcelos; Silva, Fernando Cesar; Silva, Gracia Divina de Fatima, E-mail: lucienir@ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Vieira Filho, Sidney Augusto [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Escola de Farmacia. Dept. de Farmacia

2010-07-01

93

Chemical constituents of Salacia elliptica (Celastraceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The chemical investigation of Salacia elliptica allowed to the isolation of 20 constituents: two polyols, one xanthone, a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons, one carboxylic acid, one polymer, two steroidal compounds, one aromatic ester and eleven pentacyclic triterpenes. These triterpenes include 3?-stearyloxy-oleanane, 3?-stearyloxy-ursane, one seco-friedelane, and eight compounds of the friedelane serie. The chemical structure and the relative configuration of (more) a new triterpene 1,3-dioxo-16?-hydroxyfriedelane (15) were established through ¹H and 13C NMR including 2D experiments (HMBC, HMQC, COSY and NOESY) and herein reported for the first time.

Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Figueiredo, Rute Cunha; Sousa, Grasiely Faria de; Soares, Débora Barbosa da Silva; Rodrigues, Salomão Bento Vasconcelos; Silva, Fernando César; Silva, Grácia Divina de Fátima; Vieira Filho, Sidney Augusto

2010-01-01

94

Palinotaxonomia de espécies brasileiras de Salacia L. (Hippocrateaceae) Palynotaxonomy of the Brazilian species of Salacia L. (Hippocrateaceae)  

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Full Text Available O estudo palinotaxonômico de Salacia L. teve como objetivo contribuir para a melhor caracterização, circunscrição e delimitação deste gênero. Os grãos de pólen de 21 espécies de Salacia foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados sob microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV). A análise sob MEV foi utilizada visando a elucidação de dúvidas sobre a ornamentação da exina. Constatou-se que os grãos de pólen são predominantemente de tamanho médio, reticulados a microrreticulados, 3-colporados, geralmente com uma característica área apertural proeminente. Salacia é um gênero estenopolínico. Entretanto, o pólen permitiu a confecção da chave polínica e a separação de diferentes espécies ou grupo de espécies de Salacia com base nos resultados obtidos sob microscopia de luz. O presente trabalho confirmou, por meio dos grãos de pólen, a circunscrição e a delimitação genérica da Hippocrateaceae da América do Sul.The palynotaxonomic study of Salacia L. aimed to contribute to a better characterization as well as the circumscription and delimitation of this genus. The pollen grains of 21 species of the Salacia were studied. The pollen material was acetolyzed, measured, described and illustrated with photo or eletronmicrography (SEM). The analysis in SEM was used in order to elucidate the exine sculpture. The data obtained were statiscally analysed according to sample sizes. The pollen grains of Salacia are generally of medium size, oblate-spheroidal, reticulate to microreticulate, 3-colporate predominantly with a characteristic prominent apertural area. Salacia is a stenopalynous genus. However it was possible to make pollinic key with the results here obtained in light microscopy, and to segregate Salacia species or group of species using pollen characters. The present work has corroborated, by means of the pollen grains, the circumscription and generic delimitation concerning the Hippocrateaceae of South America.

VANIA GONÇALVES-ESTEVES; THEREZINHA SANT’ANNA MELHEM

2000-01-01

95

Palinotaxonomia de espécies brasileiras de Salacia L. (Hippocrateaceae)/ Palynotaxonomy of the Brazilian species of Salacia L. (Hippocrateaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O estudo palinotaxonômico de Salacia L. teve como objetivo contribuir para a melhor caracterização, circunscrição e delimitação deste gênero. Os grãos de pólen de 21 espécies de Salacia foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados sob microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV). A análise sob MEV foi utilizada visando a elucidação de dúvidas sobre a ornamentação da exina. Constatou-se que os grãos de pólen são predominantemen (more) te de tamanho médio, reticulados a microrreticulados, 3-colporados, geralmente com uma característica área apertural proeminente. Salacia é um gênero estenopolínico. Entretanto, o pólen permitiu a confecção da chave polínica e a separação de diferentes espécies ou grupo de espécies de Salacia com base nos resultados obtidos sob microscopia de luz. O presente trabalho confirmou, por meio dos grãos de pólen, a circunscrição e a delimitação genérica da Hippocrateaceae da América do Sul. Abstract in english The palynotaxonomic study of Salacia L. aimed to contribute to a better characterization as well as the circumscription and delimitation of this genus. The pollen grains of 21 species of the Salacia were studied. The pollen material was acetolyzed, measured, described and illustrated with photo or eletronmicrography (SEM). The analysis in SEM was used in order to elucidate the exine sculpture. The data obtained were statiscally analysed according to sample sizes. The poll (more) en grains of Salacia are generally of medium size, oblate-spheroidal, reticulate to microreticulate, 3-colporate predominantly with a characteristic prominent apertural area. Salacia is a stenopalynous genus. However it was possible to make pollinic key with the results here obtained in light microscopy, and to segregate Salacia species or group of species using pollen characters. The present work has corroborated, by means of the pollen grains, the circumscription and generic delimitation concerning the Hippocrateaceae of South America.

GONÇALVES-ESTEVES, VANIA; MELHEM, THEREZINHA SANT?ANNA

2000-12-01

96

Use of an infrared thermometer for assessment of plant water stress in neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco)  

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Full Text Available In general, water stress causes stomatal closure in citrus, and this leads to higher leaf temperature. Recently, it has been reported that infrared thermometry technique can be used for detecting stomatal closure indirectly to assess plant water stress. Therefore, it was proposed to apply to neck orange. An experiment was arranged as a completely randomized design. There were 3 treatments of watering levels: 1) wellwatering (W1), 2) 3-day interval watering (W2), and 3) 6-day interval watering (W3) with 6 replicates. Eighteen 2-year-old trees of neck orange were used, and each tree was grown in a container (0.4 m3) filled with mixed media of soil, compost and sand (1:1:1). During 18 days of the experimental period, it was found that leaf water potential and stomatal conductance of the plants in W2 and W3 treatments decreased with the progress of water stress. There was high correlation (r2 = 0.71**) between leaf water potential and stomatal conductance as a linear regression (Y = 0.0044X-1.8635). Canopy temperature (Tc) and air temperature (Ta) of each tree were measured by an infrared thermometer, and Tc-Ta was assessed. At the end of the experimental period, it was found that Tc-Ta was significantly highest in the W3 treatment (3.5ºC) followed by the of W2 treatment (2ºC), while it was lowest in the W1 treatment (1ºC). The relationship between Tc-Ta and stomatal conductance was high as polynomial (Y = 0.0002X2 0.0572X+3.9878, r2 = 0.70**). This indicated that stomatal closure or decreasing stomatal conductance caused increasing of Tc-Ta in the leaves. Hence, it suggests that infrared thermometer is a convenient device for the assessment of plant water stress in neck orange.

Sayan Sdoodee; Porntip Kaewkong

2006-01-01

97

NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION COMPRISING CEREAL BETA-GLUCAN AND SALACIA EXTRACT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed are nutritional compositions comprising a synergistic combination of cereal beta-glucans, including oat and or barley beta-glucans and Salacia extract, including Salacia oblonga, that are particularly useful in controlling the blood glucose response in a diabetic or other appropriate individual. The nutritional compositions are especially useful when formulated in powder form and then reconstituted with an appropriate liquid or sprinkled onto food during a meal, to thus control the postprandial blood glucose response to that meal.

DAS TAPAS; PATEL GAURAV C; SATHYAVAGEESWARAN SHREERAM

98

PHARMACEUTICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON SALACIA MACROSPERMA-1  

Science.gov (United States)

The chloroform, ethanol (95%) and aqueous extracts of roots of Salacia macrosperma (Hippocrataceae) were prepared by double maceration followed by vacuum evaporation. All the extracts were subjects to qualitative chemical tests to find out phytoconstituents present in them. The ethanolic extract showed significant hypoglycemic activity in fasted rabbits. The activity of ethanolic extract was also evaluated in alloxan induced hyperglycemic albino rats. It showed a mean blood sugar level reduction of 89.22 mg/100 ml which was significant when compared with mean variation in blood sugar levels of control group. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts were screened for their effect on both normal and hypodynamic isolated frog heart. Alcoholic extract showed considerable positive ionotropic activity and increased cardiac output without affecting heart rate both in normal and hypodynamic isolated frog heart.

Venkateswarlu, V.; Kokate, C.K.; Peddanna, G.; Veeresham, C.; Rambhau, D.

1990-01-01

99

METHODS FOR DELAYING PROGRESSION OF DIABETES USING SALACIA OBLONGA EXTRACT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed are nutritional compositions and methods for delaying the onset or progression of type 2 diabetes in a subject. The methods include administering to a glucose intolerant or diabetic subject a nutritional composition comprising an effective amount of a Salacia oblonga extract for increasing the incretin effect (and/or the glucagon-like peptide-1 and/or gastric inhibitory peptide activity) in the subject. The Salacia oblonga extract may also act to reduce the secretion of glucagon by the pancreas thus decreasing the glucose level in the bloodstream of the subject.

LOPEZ PEDROSA JOSE; MANZANO MARTIN MANUEL; RUEDA CABRERA RICARDO

100

Compositions for delaying progression of diabetes using Salacia oblonga extract  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed are nutritional compositions and methods for delaying the onset or progression of type 2 diabetes in a subject. The methods include administering to a glucose intolerant or diabetic subject a nutritional composition comprising an effective amount of a Salacia oblonga extract for increasing the incretin effect (and/or the glucagon-like peptide-1 and/or gastric inhibitory peptide activity) in the subject. The Salacia oblonga extract may also act to reduce the secretion of glucagon by the pancreas thus decreasing the glucose level in the bloodstream of the subject.

RUEDA CABRERA RICARDO; MANZANO MARTIN MANUEL; LOPEZ PEDROSA JOSE MARIA

 
 
 
 
101

Effect of the inoculation and distribution of mycorrhizae in Plathymenia reticulata Benth under monoculture and mixed plantation in Brazil  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper investigates the distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spores and AMF colonization in a field study in southeastern Brazil. Response to AMF and rhizobial inoculation was studied in monocultures of Plathymenia reticulata and mixed plantations with both Tabebuia heptaphylla and Eucalyptus camaldulensis in a sandy soil during two consecutive years. P. reticulata height and diameter and mycorrhizal colonization and AMF diversity were measured in dry and rainy periods. The inoculated treatment of E. camaldulensis, T. heptaphylla and P. reticulata mixed plants showed higher height and diameter growth of P. reticulata used as well as increased root colonization and AMF spore numbers. Spore populations were found to belong to five genera: Acaulospora, Entrophospora, Glomus, Gigaspora and Scutellospora, with Glomus dominating. Agroforestry practices including use of leguminous tree P. reticulata effectively maintained AMF spore numbers in soils and high AMF colonization levels compared with monocultures, proving an efficient system for productivity and sustainability.

Pagano MarcelaC; Scotti MariaR; Cabello MartaN

2009-09-01

102

Genotoxicity testing of a Salacia oblonga extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salacia oblonga has been used for thousands of years in Ayurvedic medicine for the oral treatment of diabetes. The root extract has been shown to inhibit the activity of intestinal alpha-glucosidases, therefore S. oblonga holds potential as a natural method to mitigate the blood glucose response for people with diabetes. As part of a safety evaluation of novel ingredients for use in blood glucose control, the potential genotoxicity of a S. oblonga root extract (SOE) was evaluated using the standard battery of tests (reverse mutation assay; chromosomal aberrations assay; mouse micronucleus assay) recommended by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for food ingredients. SOE was determined not to be genotoxic under the conditions of the reverse mutation assay and mouse micronucleus assay, and weakly positive for the chromosomal aberrations assay. A reproducible, although weak, positive chromosomal aberrations response in human lymphocytes is of concern and further toxicity research is recommended. Use of SOE is presently expected to be safe, as anticipated intake is small compared to the doses administered in the genotoxicity assays and may, after further toxicity research, may prove be a useful ingredient in foodstuffs. PMID:16901601

Flammang, A M; Erexson, G L; Mecchi, M S; Murli, H

2006-06-28

103

Genotoxicity testing of a Salacia oblonga extract.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salacia oblonga has been used for thousands of years in Ayurvedic medicine for the oral treatment of diabetes. The root extract has been shown to inhibit the activity of intestinal alpha-glucosidases, therefore S. oblonga holds potential as a natural method to mitigate the blood glucose response for people with diabetes. As part of a safety evaluation of novel ingredients for use in blood glucose control, the potential genotoxicity of a S. oblonga root extract (SOE) was evaluated using the standard battery of tests (reverse mutation assay; chromosomal aberrations assay; mouse micronucleus assay) recommended by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for food ingredients. SOE was determined not to be genotoxic under the conditions of the reverse mutation assay and mouse micronucleus assay, and weakly positive for the chromosomal aberrations assay. A reproducible, although weak, positive chromosomal aberrations response in human lymphocytes is of concern and further toxicity research is recommended. Use of SOE is presently expected to be safe, as anticipated intake is small compared to the doses administered in the genotoxicity assays and may, after further toxicity research, may prove be a useful ingredient in foodstuffs.

Flammang AM; Erexson GL; Mecchi MS; Murli H

2006-11-01

104

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CHEMOCONSTITUENTS OF ROOTS OF SALACIA MACROSPERMA  

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The ethanolic extract of roots of Salacia macrosperma (Hippocrataceae) exhibited significant in vitro antimicrobial activity. The ethanolic extract was fractionated with different solvents and all the fractions were screened for their antimicrobial spectrum against eight gram-positive, five gram-neg...

Venkatesarulu, V.; Kokate, C.K.; Rambhau, D.; Veeresham, C

105

Safety evaluation of an extract from Salacia oblonga.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plant extracts from the Salacia genus have been found to have intestinal alpha-glucosidase inhibitor activity, which may have application to the development of medical foods for people with diabetes. We evaluated the safety of a hot water extract of S. oblonga (salacinol extract) supplemented to or processed into a medical food. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned among one of three treatments: (1) EN-0178 (control, liquid diet), (2) EN-0178+salacinol (as 1 plus 500 mg of salacinol extract per 253 g diet, which was added to product immediately prior to feeding), (3) EN-0195 (as 1 plus 500 mg of salacinol extract per 253 g diet, which was added during product manufacture). After 14 days of free access to dietary treatments, rats were sacrificed, blood collected and organs weighed. Rats consuming salacinol extract had reduced (P <0.05) weight gain and feed intake. The relative (% of body weight) testicular weight was higher (P<0.05) for rats consuming salacinol extract, whereas, the relative liver and spleen weight was lower (P<0.05) for rats consuming salacinol extract. Of the serum chemistries analyzed, blood urea nitrogen and alkaline phosphatase was lower (P<0.05) for rats consuming salacinol extract. No differences in blood hematology were found. We conclude that salacinol extract, in a medical food consumed for 2 weeks in amounts estimated at 10-fold greater than proposed for human intake, did not result in clinical chemistry or histopathologic indications of toxic effects in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

Wolf BW; Weisbrode SE

2003-06-01

106

Safety evaluation of an extract from Salacia oblonga.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant extracts from the Salacia genus have been found to have intestinal alpha-glucosidase inhibitor activity, which may have application to the development of medical foods for people with diabetes. We evaluated the safety of a hot water extract of S. oblonga (salacinol extract) supplemented to or processed into a medical food. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned among one of three treatments: (1) EN-0178 (control, liquid diet), (2) EN-0178+salacinol (as 1 plus 500 mg of salacinol extract per 253 g diet, which was added to product immediately prior to feeding), (3) EN-0195 (as 1 plus 500 mg of salacinol extract per 253 g diet, which was added during product manufacture). After 14 days of free access to dietary treatments, rats were sacrificed, blood collected and organs weighed. Rats consuming salacinol extract had reduced (P <0.05) weight gain and feed intake. The relative (% of body weight) testicular weight was higher (P<0.05) for rats consuming salacinol extract, whereas, the relative liver and spleen weight was lower (P<0.05) for rats consuming salacinol extract. Of the serum chemistries analyzed, blood urea nitrogen and alkaline phosphatase was lower (P<0.05) for rats consuming salacinol extract. No differences in blood hematology were found. We conclude that salacinol extract, in a medical food consumed for 2 weeks in amounts estimated at 10-fold greater than proposed for human intake, did not result in clinical chemistry or histopathologic indications of toxic effects in male Sprague-Dawley rats. PMID:12738192

Wolf, B W; Weisbrode, S E

2003-06-01

107

New triterpenes from Salacia hainanensis Chun et How with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fractionation of the methanol extract from the roots of Salacia hainanensis Chun et How showing the potent inhibitory activity on ?-glucosidase afforded two new lupane derivatives, 3?,28-dihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-2-one (1) and 3?-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-2-one (2), a new friedelane derivative, D:A-friedo-oleanane-7?,30-dihydroxy-3-one (3), and a novel natural product, 2,3-seco-lup-20(29)-en-2,3-dioic acid (4), along with four known compounds (5-8). Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analysis, especially on the data afforded by 2D NMR and high-resolution mass spectra experiments. All of them showed a much stronger inhibiting activity on ?-glucosidase than the positive control (acarbose, IC?? = 5.83 ?M). Constituents with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity from this plant are reported for the first time.

Gao HY; Guo ZH; Cheng P; Xu XM; Wu LJ

2010-10-01

108

New triterpenes from Salacia hainanensis Chun et How with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fractionation of the methanol extract from the roots of Salacia hainanensis Chun et How showing the potent inhibitory activity on ?-glucosidase afforded two new lupane derivatives, 3?,28-dihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-2-one (1) and 3?-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-2-one (2), a new friedelane derivative, D:A-friedo-oleanane-7?,30-dihydroxy-3-one (3), and a novel natural product, 2,3-seco-lup-20(29)-en-2,3-dioic acid (4), along with four known compounds (5-8). Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analysis, especially on the data afforded by 2D NMR and high-resolution mass spectra experiments. All of them showed a much stronger inhibiting activity on ?-glucosidase than the positive control (acarbose, IC?? = 5.83 ?M). Constituents with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity from this plant are reported for the first time. PMID:20924896

Gao, Hui-Yuan; Guo, Zheng-Hong; Cheng, Peng; Xu, Xiao-Min; Wu, Li-Jun

2010-10-01

109

Antidiabetic medicinal plants as a source of alpha glucosidase inhibitors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to collate all available data on antidiabetic plants that inhibit alpha glucosidase, reported mainly by Medline (PubMed) these last years. In the present study, interest is focused on experimental researches conducted on hypoglycemic plants particularly those which show alpha glucosidase inhibitor activity alongside bioactive components. This study describes 47 species that belong to 29 families. The plant families, which enclose the species, studied most as inhibitors of alphaglucosidase, are Fabaceae (6 species.), Crassulaceae (3 species), Hippocrateacaea (3 species), Lamiaceae (3 species), and Myrtaceae (3 species), with most studied species being Salacia reticulata (Hippocrateaceae) and Morus alba (Moraceae). The study also covers natural products (active natural components and crude extracts) isolated from the medicinal plants which inhibit alpha glucosidase as reported this last decade. Many kinds of these isolated natural products show strong activity such as, Alkaloids, stilbenoids (polyphenol), triterpene, acids (chlorogenic acid, betulinic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, bartogenic acid, oleanolic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, corosolic acid, ellagic acid, ursolic acid, gallic acid), phytosterol, myoinositol, flavonoids, Flavonolignans, anthraquinones, anthrones, and xanthones, Feruloylglucosides, flavanone glucosides, acetophenone glucosides, glucopyranoside derivatives, genine derivatives, flavonol, anthocyanin and others. PMID:20522017

Benalla, Wafaa; Bellahcen, Saïd; Bnouham, Mohamed

2010-07-01

110

Antidiabetic medicinal plants as a source of alpha glucosidase inhibitors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study is to collate all available data on antidiabetic plants that inhibit alpha glucosidase, reported mainly by Medline (PubMed) these last years. In the present study, interest is focused on experimental researches conducted on hypoglycemic plants particularly those which show alpha glucosidase inhibitor activity alongside bioactive components. This study describes 47 species that belong to 29 families. The plant families, which enclose the species, studied most as inhibitors of alphaglucosidase, are Fabaceae (6 species.), Crassulaceae (3 species), Hippocrateacaea (3 species), Lamiaceae (3 species), and Myrtaceae (3 species), with most studied species being Salacia reticulata (Hippocrateaceae) and Morus alba (Moraceae). The study also covers natural products (active natural components and crude extracts) isolated from the medicinal plants which inhibit alpha glucosidase as reported this last decade. Many kinds of these isolated natural products show strong activity such as, Alkaloids, stilbenoids (polyphenol), triterpene, acids (chlorogenic acid, betulinic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, bartogenic acid, oleanolic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, corosolic acid, ellagic acid, ursolic acid, gallic acid), phytosterol, myoinositol, flavonoids, Flavonolignans, anthraquinones, anthrones, and xanthones, Feruloylglucosides, flavanone glucosides, acetophenone glucosides, glucopyranoside derivatives, genine derivatives, flavonol, anthocyanin and others.

Benalla W; Bellahcen S; Bnouham M

2010-07-01

111

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CHEMOCONSTITUENTS OF ROOTS OF SALACIA MACROSPERMA  

Science.gov (United States)

The ethanolic extract of roots of Salacia macrosperma (Hippocrataceae) exhibited significant in vitro antimicrobial activity. The ethanolic extract was fractionated with different solvents and all the fractions were screened for their antimicrobial spectrum against eight gram-positive, five gram-negative and ten fungal strains. Chloroform fraction followed by benzene fraction of enthanolic extract showed significant antimicrobial effect against all the microorganisms tested. The dose-dependent activity of fractions was evaluated against selected microbial strains and compared with appropriate standards.

Venkatesarulu, V.; Kokate, C.K.; Rambhau, D.; Veeresham, C

1992-01-01

112

Antimicrobial activity of chemoconstituents of roots of salacia macrosperma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ethanolic extract of roots of Salacia macrosperma (Hippocrataceae) exhibited significant in vitro antimicrobial activity. The ethanolic extract was fractionated with different solvents and all the fractions were screened for their antimicrobial spectrum against eight gram-positive, five gram-negative and ten fungal strains. Chloroform fraction followed by benzene fraction of enthanolic extract showed significant antimicrobial effect against all the microorganisms tested. The dose-dependent activity of fractions was evaluated against selected microbial strains and compared with appropriate standards.

Venkatesarulu V; Kokate CK; Rambhau D; Veeresham C

1992-07-01

113

Salacia campestris root bark extract: peroxidase inhibition, antioxidant and antiradical profile  

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Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radical species have been implicated in initiating or accompanying many diseases in living organisms; there is thus, a continual need for antioxidants molecules to inactivate ROS/free radicals. Many studies of plants crude extracts have demonstrated free-radical scavenging and antioxidant action. Salacia species have long been used, in several countries, as traditional medicines against certain diseases and for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae) root bark ethanol extract (ScEtOH) was assessed for its ability to scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen species; the results were expressed as percentage inhibition of the active species. ScEtOH was efficient against studied species: DPPH radical (obtained inhibition = 30%), ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1.8±0.8 ?g/mL), HOCl (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.1 ?g/mL), O2•- (obtained inhibition = 32%), and NO• (obtained inhibition = 18 %). Peroxidase activity inhibition was evaluated through the guaiacol oxidation reaction catalyzed by hemin, HRP and myeloperoxidase (MPO); data showed that ScEtOH at 10 ?g/mL led to 54 and 51% of inhibition, respectively, for the hemin and HRP systems. In the MPO system, ScEtOH promoted a 50% inhibition at 8.9 ?g/mL, whereas quercetin, a powerful MPO inhibitor, inhibited this system at 1.35 ?g/mL.Espécies reativas do oxigênio (ERO) e radicais livres estão relacionados ao início ou à exacerbação de muitas doenças em organismos vivos; existindo portanto uma necessidade contínua por moléculas antioxidantes que inativem as ERO e radicais livres. Muitos estudos com extratos brutos de plantas têm demonstrado propriedades antioxidantes e seqüestradoras de radicais livres. Espécies de Salacia são utilizadas, em muitos países, como remédio tradicional contra certas doenças e por suas propriedades antiinflamatórias. Neste estudo, o extrato bruto etanólico da casca da raiz da Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae) foi avaliado quanto à sua habilidade em seqüestrar radicais livres e espécies reativas do oxigênio; os resultados são expressos como porcentagem de inibição das espécies ativas. ScEtOH mostrou-se eficiente frente as espécies estudadas: radical DPPH (inibição obtida = 30%), ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1,8±0,8 ?g/mL), HOCl (IC50 = 1,7 ± 0,1 ?g/mL), O2•- (inibição obtida = 32%), and NO• (inibição obtida = 18%). A inibição da atividade peroxidásica foi avaliada através da oxidação do guaiacol catalisada pela hemina, HRP e mieloperoxidase (MPO); os dados mostram que 10 ?g/mL de ScEtOH promovem 54 e 51% de inibição, respectivamente para os sistemas da hemina e da HRP. No sistema da MPO, ScEtOH promoveu 50% de inibição na dose de 8,9 ?g/mL, enquanto a quercetina, um potente inibidor da MPO promoveu tal inibição com 1,35 ?g/mL.

José Carlos Rebuglio Vellosa; Najeh Maissar Khalil; Vânia Ortega Gutierres; Vânia Aparecida de Freitas Formenton Macedo dos Santos; Maysa Furlan; Iguatemy Lourenço Brunetti; Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria Oliveira

2009-01-01

114

Salacia campestris root bark extract: peroxidase inhibition, antioxidant and antiradical profile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Espécies reativas do oxigênio (ERO) e radicais livres estão relacionados ao início ou à exacerbação de muitas doenças em organismos vivos; existindo portanto uma necessidade contínua por moléculas antioxidantes que inativem as ERO e radicais livres. Muitos estudos com extratos brutos de plantas têm demonstrado propriedades antioxidantes e seqüestradoras de radicais livres. Espécies de Salacia são utilizadas, em muitos países, como remédio tradicional contr (more) a certas doenças e por suas propriedades antiinflamatórias. Neste estudo, o extrato bruto etanólico da casca da raiz da Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae) foi avaliado quanto à sua habilidade em seqüestrar radicais livres e espécies reativas do oxigênio; os resultados são expressos como porcentagem de inibição das espécies ativas. ScEtOH mostrou-se eficiente frente as espécies estudadas: radical DPPH (inibição obtida = 30%), ABTS?+ (IC50 = 1,8±0,8 ?g/mL), HOCl (IC50 = 1,7 ± 0,1 ?g/mL), O2?- (inibição obtida = 32%), and NO? (inibição obtida = 18%). A inibição da atividade peroxidásica foi avaliada através da oxidação do guaiacol catalisada pela hemina, HRP e mieloperoxidase (MPO); os dados mostram que 10 ?g/mL de ScEtOH promovem 54 e 51% de inibição, respectivamente para os sistemas da hemina e da HRP. No sistema da MPO, ScEtOH promoveu 50% de inibição na dose de 8,9 ?g/mL, enquanto a quercetina, um potente inibidor da MPO promoveu tal inibição com 1,35 ?g/mL. Abstract in english Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radical species have been implicated in initiating or accompanying many diseases in living organisms; there is thus, a continual need for antioxidants molecules to inactivate ROS/free radicals. Many studies of plants crude extracts have demonstrated free-radical scavenging and antioxidant action. Salacia species have long been used, in several countries, as traditional medicines against certain diseases and for their anti-inflammator (more) y properties. In this study, Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae) root bark ethanol extract (ScEtOH) was assessed for its ability to scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen species; the results were expressed as percentage inhibition of the active species. ScEtOH was efficient against studied species: DPPH radical (obtained inhibition = 30%), ABTS?+ (IC50 = 1.8±0.8 ?g/mL), HOCl (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.1 ?g/mL), O2?- (obtained inhibition = 32%), and NO? (obtained inhibition = 18 %). Peroxidase activity inhibition was evaluated through the guaiacol oxidation reaction catalyzed by hemin, HRP and myeloperoxidase (MPO); data showed that ScEtOH at 10 ?g/mL led to 54 and 51% of inhibition, respectively, for the hemin and HRP systems. In the MPO system, ScEtOH promoted a 50% inhibition at 8.9 ?g/mL, whereas quercetin, a powerful MPO inhibitor, inhibited this system at 1.35 ?g/mL.

Vellosa, José Carlos Rebuglio; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Gutierres, Vânia Ortega; Santos, Vânia Aparecida de Freitas Formenton Macedo dos; Furlan, Maysa; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço; Oliveira, Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria

2009-03-01

115

Constituintes químicos do caule de Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae): Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd.  

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Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae) yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes a and b-amirin, the steroids b-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants.

Rogério Nunes dos Santos; Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos Silva; Raimundo Braz Filho

2008-01-01

116

Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae); Constituintes quimicos do caule de Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae)  

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The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae) yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes {alpha} and {beta}-amirin, the steroids {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants. (author)

Santos, Rogerio Nunes dos; Silva, Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: mgvsilva@ufc.br; Braz Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais

2008-07-01

117

A new 1,3-diketofriedelane triterpene from Salacia verrucosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new 1,3-diketofriedelane triterpene, 21?-hydroxyfriedelane-1,3-dione (1) together with six known friedelane triterpenes, 30-hydroxyfriedelane-1,3-dione (2), friedelane-1,3-dione (3), 26-hydroxyfriedelane-1,3-dione (4), friedelin (5), 21?-hydroxy-D:A-friedo-olean-3-one (6) and kokoonol (7), were isolated from the stems of Salacia verrucosa (Celastraceae). The structures of these triterpenes were characterized by spectroscopic methods (IR, MS and NMR). Compound 3 was strongly cytotoxic against SW620 cell line, whereas compounds 4 and 6 were moderately active against SW620, HepG2 and KATO-III cancer cell lines. PMID:21745551

Somwong, Pathom; Suttisri, Rutt; Buakeaw, Anumart

2011-07-02

118

A new 1,3-diketofriedelane triterpene from Salacia verrucosa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new 1,3-diketofriedelane triterpene, 21?-hydroxyfriedelane-1,3-dione (1) together with six known friedelane triterpenes, 30-hydroxyfriedelane-1,3-dione (2), friedelane-1,3-dione (3), 26-hydroxyfriedelane-1,3-dione (4), friedelin (5), 21?-hydroxy-D:A-friedo-olean-3-one (6) and kokoonol (7), were isolated from the stems of Salacia verrucosa (Celastraceae). The structures of these triterpenes were characterized by spectroscopic methods (IR, MS and NMR). Compound 3 was strongly cytotoxic against SW620 cell line, whereas compounds 4 and 6 were moderately active against SW620, HepG2 and KATO-III cancer cell lines.

Somwong P; Suttisri R; Buakeaw A

2011-10-01

119

New inhibitors of ?-glucosidase in Salacia hainanensis Chun et How.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The methanol extract from roots of Salacia hainanensis Chun et How afforded three new compounds, 24,26-dihydroxy-25-methoxy-tirucall-9-en-3-one (1), 2?,3?,22?-trihydroxy-lup-20(29)-ene (2) and 3?-hydroxy-2-carbonyl-lupan-29-oic acid (3), along with six known triterpenoids (4-9). Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analysis, in particular according to the data obtained by two-dimensional-NMR and high-resolution mass spectra experiments. Some of them showed much stronger inhibitory activity towards ?-glucosidase than the positive control (acarbose, IC50 10.2 ?M).

Guo ZH; Huang J; Wan GS; Huo XL; Gao HY

2013-10-01

120

New inhibitors of ?-glucosidase in Salacia hainanensis Chun et How.  

Science.gov (United States)

The methanol extract from roots of Salacia hainanensis Chun et How afforded three new compounds, 24,26-dihydroxy-25-methoxy-tirucall-9-en-3-one (1), 2?,3?,22?-trihydroxy-lup-20(29)-ene (2) and 3?-hydroxy-2-carbonyl-lupan-29-oic acid (3), along with six known triterpenoids (4-9). Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analysis, in particular according to the data obtained by two-dimensional-NMR and high-resolution mass spectra experiments. Some of them showed much stronger inhibitory activity towards ?-glucosidase than the positive control (acarbose, IC50 10.2 ?M). PMID:23361306

Guo, Zheng-Hong; Huang, Jian; Wan, Guo-Sheng; Huo, Xiao-Ling; Gao, Hui-Yuan

2013-01-30

 
 
 
 
121

Biologically active principles isolated from Salacia oblonga wall.  

Science.gov (United States)

From the petroleum ether extract of the root bark of Salacia Oblonga wall, two biologically active fractions have been isolated by column and thin layer chromatography. The methanol eluted fraction of the extract absorbed on a column of silica gel at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml showed 100 percent cytotoxicity on Ehrlich ascites tumour cells. The chloroform eluted fraction of the pet. ether extract and a fluorescent compound separated from it by TLC demonstrated about 60% and 76% hypoglycemic potency of an equal dose of tolbutamide (250 mg/kg) in albino rats. The results indicate the therapeutic importance of S. Oblonga wall. PMID:8582758

Augusti, K T; Joseph, P; Babu, T D

1995-10-01

122

Biologically active principles isolated from Salacia oblonga wall.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

From the petroleum ether extract of the root bark of Salacia Oblonga wall, two biologically active fractions have been isolated by column and thin layer chromatography. The methanol eluted fraction of the extract absorbed on a column of silica gel at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml showed 100 percent cytotoxicity on Ehrlich ascites tumour cells. The chloroform eluted fraction of the pet. ether extract and a fluorescent compound separated from it by TLC demonstrated about 60% and 76% hypoglycemic potency of an equal dose of tolbutamide (250 mg/kg) in albino rats. The results indicate the therapeutic importance of S. Oblonga wall.

Augusti KT; Joseph P; Babu TD

1995-10-01

123

Larvicidal activity of oil-resin fractions from the Brazilian medicinal plant Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae)/ Atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina da planta medicinal brasileira Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) sobre o Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) foi avaliada em larvas de 3º estádio de Aedes aegypti, na busca de alternativas para o controle desse mosquito. As frações bioativas foram monitoradas quimicamente através de cromatografia de camada delgada, analisada por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio (¹H e 13C) e espectrometria de massas. Os bioensaios foram realizados à temperatura de 2 (more) 8±1°C, 80±5% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 12h, com cinco repetições. A mortalidade foi determinada através do escurecimento da cápsula cefálica, após 24h de exposição das larvas às soluções. As frações mais ativas foram CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenos) e CRM5-7 (diterpeno labdano), que mostraram os valores de CL50 de 0,2 e 0,8ppm, respectivamente. Abstract in english Oil-resin fractions from Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) were evaluated for larvicidal activity on third larval instars of Aedes aegypti, in searching for alternative control methods for this mosquito. The bioactive fractions were chemically monitored by thin-layer chromatography, ¹H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Bioassays were performed using five repetitions, at a temperature of 28 ± 1°C, relative humidity (more) of 80 ± 5% and light and dark cycles of 12h. Mortality was indicated by darkening of the cephalic capsule after 24h of exposure of the larvae to the solutions. The most active fractions were CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenes) and CRM5-7 (labdane diterpenes), which showed LC50 values of 0.2 and 0.8ppm, respectively.

Silva, Heloísa Helena Garcia da; Geris, Regina; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Rocha, Cleonice; Silva, Ionizete Garcia da

2007-06-01

124

Larvicidal activity of oil-resin fractions from the Brazilian medicinal plant Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae) Atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina da planta medicinal brasileira Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) sobre o Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae)  

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Full Text Available Oil-resin fractions from Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) were evaluated for larvicidal activity on third larval instars of Aedes aegypti, in searching for alternative control methods for this mosquito. The bioactive fractions were chemically monitored by thin-layer chromatography, ¹H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Bioassays were performed using five repetitions, at a temperature of 28 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 80 ± 5% and light and dark cycles of 12h. Mortality was indicated by darkening of the cephalic capsule after 24h of exposure of the larvae to the solutions. The most active fractions were CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenes) and CRM5-7 (labdane diterpenes), which showed LC50 values of 0.2 and 0.8ppm, respectively.A atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) foi avaliada em larvas de 3º estádio de Aedes aegypti, na busca de alternativas para o controle desse mosquito. As frações bioativas foram monitoradas quimicamente através de cromatografia de camada delgada, analisada por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio (¹H e 13C) e espectrometria de massas. Os bioensaios foram realizados à temperatura de 28±1°C, 80±5% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 12h, com cinco repetições. A mortalidade foi determinada através do escurecimento da cápsula cefálica, após 24h de exposição das larvas às soluções. As frações mais ativas foram CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenos) e CRM5-7 (diterpeno labdano), que mostraram os valores de CL50 de 0,2 e 0,8ppm, respectivamente.

Heloísa Helena Garcia da Silva; Regina Geris; Edson Rodrigues Filho; Cleonice Rocha; Ionizete Garcia da Silva

2007-01-01

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Antiplasmodial sesquiterpenes from the seeds of Salacia longipes var. camerunensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Salacia longipes var. camerunensis led to the isolation of four sesquiterpenoid derivatives, salaterpene A (1) (1?,2?,8?-triacetoxy-6?,9?-dibenzoyloxy-4?-hydroxy-dihydro-?-agarofuran), salaterpene B (2) (1?,2?,8?-triacetoxy-9?-benzoyloxy-6?-cinnamoyloxy-4?-hydroxy-dihydro-?-agarofuran), salaterpene C (3) (1?,2?-diacetoxy-6?,9?-dibenzoyloxy-4?-hydroxy-dihydro-?-agarofuran) and salaterpene D (4) (2?-acetoxy-1?,6?-dibenzoyloxy-4?-hydroxy-9?-nicotinoyloxy-dihydro-?-agarofuran) together with two known compounds (5 and 6). The structures of the compounds were established by means of NMR spectroscopy. Compounds 1-4 and 6 were tested in vitro for their antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant strain W2. All the tested compounds exhibited a moderate potency with IC50 below 2.7?M.

Mba'ning BM; Lenta BN; Noungoué DT; Antheaume C; Fongang YF; Ngouela SA; Boyom FF; Rosenthal PJ; Tsamo E; Sewald N

2013-07-01

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Extract of Salacia oblonga lowers acute glycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Two previous studies tested the efficacy of Salacia oblonga extract in healthy adults. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of an herbal extract of Salacia oblonga on postprandial glycemia and insulinemia in patients with type 2 diabetes after ingestion of a high-carbohydrate meal. DESIGN: Sixty-six patients with diabetes were studied in this randomized, double-blinded crossover study. In a fasted state, subjects consumed 1 of the following 3 meals: a standard liquid control meal, a control meal + 240 mg Salacia oblonga extract, and a control meal + 480 mg Salacia oblonga extract. Serum glucose and insulin samples were measured at baseline and at postprandial intervals up to 180 min. RESULTS: Both doses of the Salacia extract significantly lowered the postprandial positive area under the glucose curve (14% for the 240 mg extract and 22% for the 480 mg extract) and the adjusted peak glucose response (19% for the lower dose and 27% for the higher dose of extract) to the control meal. In addition, both doses of the herbal extract significantly decreased the postprandial insulin response, lowering both the positive area under the insulin curve and the adjusted peak insulin response (14% and 9%, respectively, for the 240 mg extract; 19% and 12%, respectively, for the 480 mg extract) in comparison with the control meal. CONCLUSIONS: The extract of Salacia oblonga lowers acute glycemia and insulinemia in persons with type 2 diabetes after a high-carbohydrate meal. The results from this study suggest that Salacia may be beneficial to this population for postprandial glucose control.

Williams JA; Choe YS; Noss MJ; Baumgartner CJ; Mustad VA

2007-07-01

127

Nephroprotective role of salacia chinensis in diabetic CKD patients: a pilot study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Present study aimed to study effect of Salacia Chinensis, a herbal drug, on stabilization of renal functions, and markers of endothelial dysfunction in diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 30 stable diabetic CKD patients were randomized into 2 groups; group A and B of 15 patients each. Group A was given trial drug Salacia chinensis 1000 mg twice-daily while group B received placebo. Measures of renal function: Serum creatinine and creatinine clearance; markers of endothelial dysfunction: Interleukin-6 and serum Homocysteine, and lipid profile were measured at baseline and during follow-up period of 6 months. RESULTS : There was stabilization of renal function as measured by serum creatinine and creatinine clearance in patients who received Salacia Chinensis compared to placebo (P value < 0.05), suggesting that Salacia chinensis may retard the progression of chronic kidney disease. Similarly, there was significant decline in both serum homocysteine and IL-6 levels. [P value < 0.05 for both]. CONCLUSION: This pilot study showed a promising role for Salacia chinensis as a renoprotective drug, but further prospective studies involving large number of patients are needed to confirm this and also to delineate possible mechanisms.

Singh RG; Rathore SS; Kumar R; Agarwal A; Dubey GP

2010-08-01

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Microsatellite markers for Plathymenia reticulata (Leguminosae)1.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: • PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Microsatellite markers were developed and characterized to investigate genetic diversity and gene flow and to help in conservation efforts for the endangered timber species Plathymenia reticulata. • METHODS AND RESULTS: Eleven microsatellite loci were characterized using 60 adult trees of two populations of P. reticulata from the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil. Of these, nine loci were polymorphic, with an average of 4.39 alleles per locus. The average expected heterozygosity per population ranged from 0.47 to 0.55. The combined exclusion probability was 0.99996. • CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal that the microsatellite markers developed in this study are an effective tool for paternity and genetic structure analysis that may be useful for conservation strategies.

Oliveira FA; Tarazi R; Menezes IP; Van Den Berg C; Tsai SM; Gaiotto FA

2012-10-01

129

Anti-hyperglycemic activity of methanolic extract of Salacia fruticosa leaves in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti hyperglycemic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Salacia fruticosa (Family:Hippocrataceae) in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The hyperglycemic rats were divided into different groups and were treated with methanolic extract of S. fruticosa at a dose of 125 & 250mg/kg. Treatment with extract produced a significant dose dependent reduction in blood glucose levels and this anti hyperglycemic activity was comparable with the reference standard, metformin. The results of the present study revealed the anti-diabetic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Salacia fruticosa in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

E. Venkateshwarlu1*, A. Rama Narsimha Reddy2, A. Shyam Sunder1, G. Kiran3, J. Venkateshwar Rao3 and S. Madhusudhan1

2009-01-01

130

EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF IPOMEA CARNEA LEAVES ON GUPPY, POECILIA RETICULATA (PETERS)  

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Full Text Available Ipomea carnea is a toxic plant causes severe damage to intestine, liver and kidney. In the present investigation ethanolic extract of I. carnea leaves was tested for its toxicity against fresh water fish guppy Poecilia reticulata using 0.025, 0.050, 0.075 and 0.1 mg/ml concentrations. The experiment was run in triplicate along with suitable control. Ethanolic extract of Ipomea carnea leaves showed toxic effect, causes mortality in guppy fishes. All concentrations of ethanolic extracts of I. carnea leaves were found toxic. Mortality of fishes increases with increase of time and concentrations. The 0.1mg/ml concentration of ethanolic extract of I. carnea leaves showed three times higher mortality than control in guppy fishes, Poecilia reticulata Peters. Further study is needed to isolate toxic principles present in I. carnea leaves and to be studied separately against guppy fishes to determine their toxicity.

D. D. Wanule and J. V. Balkhande

2012-01-01

131

In vitro efficacy of Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides and Copaifera reticulata against Leishmania chagasi.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the murine monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To determine the IC50 a MTT test (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was performed on promastigotes, and an in situ ELISA assay was conducted on amastigotes. Here, we demonstrate that oleoresin from C. reticulata was effective against both promastigotes (IC50 of 7.88 µg.mL-1) and amastigotes (IC50 of 0.52 µg.mL-1), and neither of the two treatments differed significantly (p > 0.05) from pentamidine (IC50 of 2.149 µg.mL-1) and amphotericin B (IC50 of 9.754 µg.mL-1). Of the three plant oils tested, only oleoresin showed no toxicity toward monocyte, with 78.45% viability after treatment. Inhibition of promastigote and amastigote growth and the lack of cytotoxicity by C. reticulata demonstrate that oleoresin may be a viable option for analyzing the in vivo therapeutic effects of leishmanicidal plants.

Rondon FC; Bevilaqua CM; Accioly MP; de Morais SM; de Andrade-Júnior HF; de Carvalho CA; Lima JC; Magalhães HC

2012-07-01

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In vitro efficacy of Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides and Copaifera reticulata against Leishmania chagasi.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the murine monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To determine the IC50 a MTT test (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was performed on promastigotes, and an in situ ELISA assay was conducted on amastigotes. Here, we demonstrate that oleoresin from C. reticulata was effective against both promastigotes (IC50 of 7.88 µg.mL-1) and amastigotes (IC50 of 0.52 µg.mL-1), and neither of the two treatments differed significantly (p > 0.05) from pentamidine (IC50 of 2.149 µg.mL-1) and amphotericin B (IC50 of 9.754 µg.mL-1). Of the three plant oils tested, only oleoresin showed no toxicity toward monocyte, with 78.45% viability after treatment. Inhibition of promastigote and amastigote growth and the lack of cytotoxicity by C. reticulata demonstrate that oleoresin may be a viable option for analyzing the in vivo therapeutic effects of leishmanicidal plants. PMID:23070424

Rondon, Fernanda Cristina Macedo; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Accioly, Marina Parissi; de Morais, Selene Maia; de Andrade-Júnior, Heitor Franco; de Carvalho, Camila Aparecida; Lima, Josemar Coelho; Magalhães, Hilton César Rodrigues

133

Genetic diversity and structure of natural populations of Plathymenia reticulata (Mimosoideae), a tropical tree from the Brazilian Cerrado.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plathymenia reticulata is a tropical tree native to the Brazilian Cerrado, one of the most important and endangered ecosystems in Brazil. This species presents high-quality wood and potential for recovery of degraded areas. Despite its importance, almost nothing is known about its genetic or ecological features. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity and structure of six natural populations of P. reticulata. DNAs from 117 adult individuals were amplified with 10 random primers and Shannon's index and amova were used to evaluate the levels of genetic diversity within and among populations. Through 72 markers, 70.8% of which were polymorphic, it was possible to obtain 117 unique RAPD phenotypes. The levels of genetic variability found in the six populations of P. reticulata were considerable and most of the genetic variation was found between individuals within populations, although pairwise PH(ST) values indicated significant divergence between populations. The among-population component accounted for, respectively, 12.3% and 16% of the genetic variation, according to amova and Shannon's index. These results were compared with other genetic studies on plant species and such a level of differentiation among populations corresponds to that which has usually been observed for outcrossing plants. The importance of maintenance of the P. reticulata populations and implications of the analysis of adult individuals, considering the longevity of this species and the relatively recent Cerrado fragmentation, are discussed.

Lacerda DR; Acedo MD; Filho JP; Lovato MB

2001-05-01

134

Female preference in guppies, Poecilia reticulata Peters  

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Full Text Available Observation was made to examine mode of female preference in guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters, to see whether females used relative or absolute preference modes. The materials included used six adult males and six adult females and independently manipulated the mean and the standard deviation (SD) of a preferred secondary sexual character of males (percentage of body area covered in orange). Female preference functions did not differ significantly with changes in the mean or the SD of orange coloration in the test males. This is indicative of an absolute preference.

Mullica Jaroensutasinee

2001-01-01

135

Anti-hyperglycemic activity of methanolic extract of Salacia fruticosa leaves in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti hyperglycemic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Salacia fruticosa (Family

E. Venkateshwarlu1*, A. Rama Narsimha Reddy2, A. Shyam Sunder1, G. Kiran3, J. Venkateshwar Rao3 and S. Madhusudhan1

136

COMPOSITION FOR WEIGHT LOSS COMPRISING MULBERRY LEAF, PINOLENIC ACID AND SALACIA OBLONGA EXTRACT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A nutritional composition for promoting weight loss by jointly and simultaneously suppressing appetite, increasing satiation, decreasing the metabolic breakdown of carbohydrates and decreasing the absorption of carbohydrates in an individual comprising, effective amounts of an extract of Mulberry leaf, pinolenic acid and an extract of Salacia oblonga is provided. Both a composition and a method are provided by the present disclosure.

HEUER MARVIN A; CLEMENT KEN; CHAUDHURI SHAN

137

Somatic embryogenesis in Citrus sinensis, C. reticulata AND C. nobilis x C. deliciosa Embriogênese somática em Citrus sinensis, C. reticulata E C. nobilis x C. deliciosa  

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Full Text Available Most of the plant regeneration processes in citrus, through tissue culture, involve indirect somatic embryogenesis. The optimization of these processes is important for the development of in vitro plant improvement and micropropagation studies. Studies to evaluate the effect of different carbohydrates in somatic embryogenesis were conducted using calli from 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata, Blanco), 'Cravo' mandarin (C. reticulata), 'Itaboraí' sweet orange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck.), 'Valencia' sweet orange (C. sinensis) and 'Kinnow' mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro x C. deliciosa Tenore). The culture medium used was MT supplemented with sucrose, galactose, glucose, maltose or lactose with the following concentrations of 18, 37, 75, 110, and 150 mM. The culture medium used for the maturation of somatic embryos had 0, 15, 29, 44, 58 and 73 mM of sucrose, in presence or absence of 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal. Seventy-three mM of sucrose with 0.1 mg L-1 of GA3 in the presence or absence 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal was also tested. Overall, the carbohydrates galactose or lactose induced a higher number of somatic embryos. Sucrose concentrations of 58 and 73 mM generated a higher number of plantlets from mature embryos of 'Ponkan' mandarin and 'Valencia' sweet orange.A maioria dos processos de regeneração de plantas em citros por cultura de tecidos envolve embriogênese somática indireta. A otimização desse processo é importante para o desenvolvimento de trabalhos de melhoramento in vitro e micropropagação. Realizaram-se estudos em calos de tangerina 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco), tangerina 'Cravo' (C. reticulata), laranja 'Itaboraí' (C. sinensis L. Osbeck.), laranja 'Valência' (C. sinensis) e tangerina 'Kinnow' (C. nobilis Loureiro x C. deliciosa, Tenore) visando avaliar o efeito de diferentes carboidratos na embriogênese somática. Utilizou-se o meio MT acrescido de sacarose, galactose, glicose, maltose e lactose nas concentrações de 18, 37, 75, 110 e 150 mM. O meio de cultura utilizado para a maturação dos embriões somáticos continha sacarose nas concentrações de 0, 15, 29, 44, 58 e 73 mM, na presença ou não de 0,5 g L-1 de carvão ativado; 73 mM de sacarose e GA3 na concentração de 0,1 mg L-1, na presença ou não de 0,5 g L-1 de carvão ativado. O estímulo à embriogênese somática foi mais eficiente em meio de cultura suplementado com lactose e galactose. Quanto à maturação de embriões, os meios de cultura contendo 58 e 73 mM de sacarose foram aqueles que geraram um maior número de plantas em tangerina 'Ponkan' e laranja 'Valência'.

Adriana Patrícia Ricci; Francisco de Assis Alves Mourão Filho; Beatriz Madalena Januzzi Mendes; Sonia Maria de Stefano Piedade

2002-01-01

138

Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae) yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes ? and ?-amirin, the steroids ?-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants. (author)

2008-01-01

139

Simultaneous Determination of Flavonoids in Different Parts of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ Fruit by High Performance Liquid Chromatography—Photodiode Array Detection  

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Flavonoids are important polyphenolic secondary metabolites in plant. Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit are rich in flavonoids and are being used as functional antioxidant ingredients for the treatment of atherosclerosis and cancer, etc. A high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detec...

Yinshi Sun; Jianhua Wang; Shubo Gu; Zhengbo Liu; Yujie Zhang; Xiaoxia Zhang

140

Effect of NR-Salacia on post-prandial hyperglycemia: A randomized double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in healthy volunteers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Salacia chinensis (S. chinensis) is widely distributed in India and Sri Lanka. Most of the species of genus Salacia are known to have effects on blood glucose levels; however, the effects of S. chinensis on glucose levels are seldom reported. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the oral hypoglycemic activity of NR- Salacia (1000 mg extract of S. chinensis) in healthy adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted in healthy volunteers. Single dose of NR-Salacia (1000 mg extract of Salacia chinensis) and placebo were administered before carbohydrate-rich diet. A 6-point plasma glucose profile was performed at different time intervals up to 180 min. RESULTS: NR-Salacia treatment significantly lowered plasma glucose level at 90 min, and the percentage reduction in glucose concentration was found to be 13.32 as compared to placebo group. A 33.85% decrease in the plasma glucose positive incremental area under curve (AUC) (0 to 180 min) was observed in comparison to placebo. No adverse events were recorded throughout the study period, except for some mild cases of abdominal discomforts like cramping and distention, vomiting, and headache in both placebo and NR-Salacia-treated groups. CONCLUSION: The study findings revealed that NR-Salacia lowered the post-prandial plasma glucose levels after a carbohydrate-rich meal and can be used as an oral hypoglycemic agent.

Koteshwar P; Raveendra KR; Allan JJ; Goudar KS; Venkateshwarlu K; Agarwal A

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
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Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea)/ Regeneração dos braços em duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este estudo comparou as frequências de regeneração dos braços de duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825), de São Sebastião, sudeste do Brasil. Além disso, foram observadas diferenças nas frequências de regeneração entre classes etárias (juvenis e adultos) e entre machos e fêmeas. Dos 1.170 indivíduos coletados, 1.089 (92,2%) mostraram sinais de regeneração nos braços. A frequência relativa de braços em regeneração entre as duas áreas (more) não diferiu significativamente (Istmo do Baleeiro: 91,3% e Praia Grande: 99,5%). Ambas as áreas apresentaram valores semelhantes no número de braços regenerando/indivíduo e na frequência de indivíduos em regeneração. A maior parte das marcas de regeneração concentraram-se na porção distal dos braços, o que indica a influência de predação subletal como a causa principal da regeneração em O. reticulata. Além disso, não houve diferença significativa nos índices de regeneração entre fêmeas (3,57 ± 1,36 braços regenerando/indivíduo) e machos (3,47 ± 1,42). Abstract in english This study compared the arm regeneration frequencies in two different populations of Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825) in São Sebastião, Southeast Brazil and observed arm regeneration between age classes (juvenile and adults) and sexes (male and female). From the 1,170 individuals sampled, 1,089 (92.2%) showed signs of arm regeneration. The relative frequencies of regenerating arms in the two areas were not different (Baleeiro Isthmus: 91.3% and Grande Beach: 99.5%). B (more) oth areas also presented similar values for the number of arms regenerating/individual and in the frequency of regenerating individuals. The major part of the regenerating scars was concentrated in the distal portion of the arm. Sub-lethal predation is most likely the cause to the high rates of arm regeneration in O. reticulata. There was no significant differences in the regeneration rates between females (3.57 ± 1.36 arms regenerating/individual) and males (3.47 ± 1.42).

Yokoyama, Leonardo Q.; Amaral, Antonia Cecília Z.

2010-06-01

142

Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) Regeneração dos braços em duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea)  

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Full Text Available This study compared the arm regeneration frequencies in two different populations of Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825) in São Sebastião, Southeast Brazil and observed arm regeneration between age classes (juvenile and adults) and sexes (male and female). From the 1,170 individuals sampled, 1,089 (92.2%) showed signs of arm regeneration. The relative frequencies of regenerating arms in the two areas were not different (Baleeiro Isthmus: 91.3% and Grande Beach: 99.5%). Both areas also presented similar values for the number of arms regenerating/individual and in the frequency of regenerating individuals. The major part of the regenerating scars was concentrated in the distal portion of the arm. Sub-lethal predation is most likely the cause to the high rates of arm regeneration in O. reticulata. There was no significant differences in the regeneration rates between females (3.57 ± 1.36 arms regenerating/individual) and males (3.47 ± 1.42).Este estudo comparou as frequências de regeneração dos braços de duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825), de São Sebastião, sudeste do Brasil. Além disso, foram observadas diferenças nas frequências de regeneração entre classes etárias (juvenis e adultos) e entre machos e fêmeas. Dos 1.170 indivíduos coletados, 1.089 (92,2%) mostraram sinais de regeneração nos braços. A frequência relativa de braços em regeneração entre as duas áreas não diferiu significativamente (Istmo do Baleeiro: 91,3% e Praia Grande: 99,5%). Ambas as áreas apresentaram valores semelhantes no número de braços regenerando/indivíduo e na frequência de indivíduos em regeneração. A maior parte das marcas de regeneração concentraram-se na porção distal dos braços, o que indica a influência de predação subletal como a causa principal da regeneração em O. reticulata. Além disso, não houve diferença significativa nos índices de regeneração entre fêmeas (3,57 ± 1,36 braços regenerando/indivíduo) e machos (3,47 ± 1,42).

Leonardo Q. Yokoyama; Antonia Cecília Z. Amaral

2010-01-01

143

Antihyperlipidemic activity of Salacia chinensis root extracts in triton-induced and atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study has been to investigate the possible antihyperlipidemic effect of Salacia chinensis root extract in triton (400mg/kg b.w.)-induced and atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Petroleum ether (60-80°C), chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Salacia chinensis roots were evaluated for antihyperlipidemic activity in triton- and atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. A comparison was also made between the action of Salacia chinensis root extract and a known antihyperlipidemic drug simvastatin (10 mg/kg body wt.). The results of the study were expressed as mean± S.E. and data was analyzed by using one way analysis of variance test (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's t-test for multiple comparisons. Values with P < 0.05 were considered as significant. RESULTS: Oral administration of 500 mg/kg body wt. of the chloroform extract and alcoholic extract of Salacia chinensis root exhibited a significant reduction (P<0.01) in serum lipid parameters like total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipopreotein (VLDL) and increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) in hyperlipidemic rats of both models as compared to hyperlipidemic control statistically. These extracts were found to possess better antihyperlipidemic potential as compared to pet ether and aqueous extract. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that chloroform and alcoholic extract of Salacia chinensis roots possessed significant antihyperlipidemic activity and hence it could be a potential herbal medicine as adjuvant with existing therapy for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.

Sikarwar MS; Patil MB

2012-01-01

144

In vitro efficacy of Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides and Copaifera reticulata against Leishmania chagasi/ Eficácia in vitro de Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides e Copaifera reticulata sobre Leishmania chagasi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O aumento na incidência da Leishmaníase Visceral (LV) no Brasil deve-se à ineficácia das medidas de controle da doença. Além disso, não há tratamento efetivo para LV canina com drogas sintéticas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos óleos essenciais de Coriandrum sativum e de Lippia sidoides e do óleo-resina de Copaiferareticulata sobre promastigotas e amastigotas de Leishmania chagasi e analisar o grau de toxicidade sobre células monocít (more) icas murinas RAW 264.7. Para determinar a CI50 sobre promastigotas foi usado teste MTT (brometo de 3-[4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il]-2,5-difeniltetrazólio) e sobre amastigotas foi realizado imunoensaio in situ pela técnica de ELISA. Os resultados obtidos comprovaram que o óleo-resina de C. reticulata foi o mais eficaz contra as formas promastigotas (CI50 de 7,88 µg.mL-1) e amastigotas (CI50 de 0,52 µg.mL-1) e em nenhum dos dois testes diferiu do controle pentamidina que obteve CI50 de 2,149 µg.mL-1, no teste sobre promastigotas, e anfotericina B que obteve CI50 de 9,754 µg.mL-1, nos testes com amastigotas (p > 0.05). Quanto à citotoxicidade apenas o óleo-resina não apresentou toxicidade com 78,45% de monócitos viáveis. Os resultados obtidos sobre promastigotas e amastigotas e a ausência de citotoxicidade do óleo-resina de C. reticulata evidenciam que este óleo-resina pode ser viável para a análise de seus efeitos terapêuticos em testes in vivo. Abstract in english The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these (more) treatments on the murine monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To determine the IC50 a MTT test (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was performed on promastigotes, and an in situ ELISA assay was conducted on amastigotes. Here, we demonstrate that oleoresin from C. reticulata was effective against both promastigotes (IC50 of 7.88 µg.mL-1) and amastigotes (IC50 of 0.52 µg.mL-1), and neither of the two treatments differed significantly (p > 0.05) from pentamidine (IC50 of 2.149 µg.mL-1) and amphotericin B (IC50 of 9.754 µg.mL-1). Of the three plant oils tested, only oleoresin showed no toxicity toward monocyte, with 78.45% viability after treatment. Inhibition of promastigote and amastigote growth and the lack of cytotoxicity by C. reticulata demonstrate that oleoresin may be a viable option for analyzing the in vivo therapeutic effects of leishmanicidal plants

Rondon, Fernanda Cristina Macedo; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Accioly, Marina Parissi; Morais, Selene Maia de; Andrade-Júnior, Heitor Franco de; Carvalho, Camila Aparecida de; Lima, Josemar Coelho; Magalhães, Hilton César Rodrigues

2012-09-01

145

In vitro efficacy of Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides and Copaifera reticulata against Leishmania chagasi Eficácia in vitro de Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides e Copaifera reticulata sobre Leishmania chagasi  

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Full Text Available The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the murine monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To determine the IC50 a MTT test (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was performed on promastigotes, and an in situ ELISA assay was conducted on amastigotes. Here, we demonstrate that oleoresin from C. reticulata was effective against both promastigotes (IC50 of 7.88 µg.mL-1) and amastigotes (IC50 of 0.52 µg.mL-1), and neither of the two treatments differed significantly (p > 0.05) from pentamidine (IC50 of 2.149 µg.mL-1) and amphotericin B (IC50 of 9.754 µg.mL-1). Of the three plant oils tested, only oleoresin showed no toxicity toward monocyte, with 78.45% viability after treatment. Inhibition of promastigote and amastigote growth and the lack of cytotoxicity by C. reticulata demonstrate that oleoresin may be a viable option for analyzing the in vivo therapeutic effects of leishmanicidal plantsO aumento na incidência da Leishmaníase Visceral (LV) no Brasil deve-se à ineficácia das medidas de controle da doença. Além disso, não há tratamento efetivo para LV canina com drogas sintéticas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos óleos essenciais de Coriandrum sativum e de Lippia sidoides e do óleo-resina de Copaiferareticulata sobre promastigotas e amastigotas de Leishmania chagasi e analisar o grau de toxicidade sobre células monocíticas murinas RAW 264.7. Para determinar a CI50 sobre promastigotas foi usado teste MTT (brometo de 3-[4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il]-2,5-difeniltetrazólio) e sobre amastigotas foi realizado imunoensaio in situ pela técnica de ELISA. Os resultados obtidos comprovaram que o óleo-resina de C. reticulata foi o mais eficaz contra as formas promastigotas (CI50 de 7,88 µg.mL-1) e amastigotas (CI50 de 0,52 µg.mL-1) e em nenhum dos dois testes diferiu do controle pentamidina que obteve CI50 de 2,149 µg.mL-1, no teste sobre promastigotas, e anfotericina B que obteve CI50 de 9,754 µg.mL-1, nos testes com amastigotas (p > 0.05). Quanto à citotoxicidade apenas o óleo-resina não apresentou toxicidade com 78,45% de monócitos viáveis. Os resultados obtidos sobre promastigotas e amastigotas e a ausência de citotoxicidade do óleo-resina de C. reticulata evidenciam que este óleo-resina pode ser viável para a análise de seus efeitos terapêuticos em testes in vivo.

Fernanda Cristina Macedo Rondon; Claudia Maria Leal Bevilaqua; Marina Parissi Accioly; Selene Maia de Morais; Heitor Franco de Andrade-Júnior; Camila Aparecida de Carvalho; Josemar Coelho Lima; Hilton César Rodrigues Magalhães

2012-01-01

146

Antifungal activity of Leptadenia reticulata Wight and Arn. aerial parts  

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Full Text Available The petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of Leptadenia reticulata Wight and Arn. (Asclepiadaceae) were studied for in vitro antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ruantti, Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Trichodermata viride and Trichodermata koningii respectively. The methanolic extract exhibited prominent antifungal activity against all the selected strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the extracts was performed by broth dilution method and the zone of inhibition was studied by agar disc diffusion method at concentrations of 2, 5 and 10mg/ml in DMSO. Cotrimazole (25?g/ml) was used as reference control for antifungal studies. Results of MIC study revealed the antifungal activities of the extracts against the tested strains in between concentration ranges 50-400?g/ml. The present study indicates the potential usefulness of L. reticulata aerial parts as antifungal agent.Keywords: Leptadenia reticulata Wight and Arn., Antifungal activity, Minimum inhibitory concentration, Zone of inhibition, Clotrimazole

M. K. Mishra; P Tiwari; D K Dash; Rajesh S Jadon; G Ghosh; B B Barik

2011-01-01

147

Somatic embryogenesis in Citrus sinensis, C. reticulata AND C. nobilis x C. deliciosa  

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Full Text Available Most of the plant regeneration processes in citrus, through tissue culture, involve indirect somatic embryogenesis. The optimization of these processes is important for the development of in vitro plant improvement and micropropagation studies. Studies to evaluate the effect of different carbohydrates in somatic embryogenesis were conducted using calli from 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata, Blanco), 'Cravo' mandarin (C. reticulata), 'Itaboraí' sweet orange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck.), 'Valencia' sweet orange (C. sinensis) and 'Kinnow' mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro x C. deliciosa Tenore). The culture medium used was MT supplemented with sucrose, galactose, glucose, maltose or lactose with the following concentrations of 18, 37, 75, 110, and 150 mM. The culture medium used for the maturation of somatic embryos had 0, 15, 29, 44, 58 and 73 mM of sucrose, in presence or absence of 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal. Seventy-three mM of sucrose with 0.1 mg L-1 of GA3 in the presence or absence 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal was also tested. Overall, the carbohydrates galactose or lactose induced a higher number of somatic embryos. Sucrose concentrations of 58 and 73 mM generated a higher number of plantlets from mature embryos of 'Ponkan' mandarin and 'Valencia' sweet orange.

Ricci Adriana Patrícia; Mourão Filho Francisco de Assis Alves; Mendes Beatriz Madalena Januzzi; Piedade Sonia Maria de Stefano

2002-01-01

148

Assessment of genotoxic, cytotoxic, and protective effects of Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don. stem bark fractions in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don., popularly known in Brazil as "bacupari", "cascudo", and "saputá", is a shrub of the Celastraceae family that is unique to the Brazilian Cerrado region. In folk medicine, this plant has been mainly used to treat skin cancer and gastric ulcers. In the present study, the genotoxic, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic effects of S. crassifolia stem bark fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, and hydroalcoholic extracts) were evaluated using the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. Our results showed that none of the S. crassifolia fractions led to a significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) (P > 0.05), suggesting the absence of genotoxicity. In the antigenotoxicity assessment, a significant decrease in the MNPCE frequency was observed in all fractions of this plant (P < 0.05), demonstrating its protective action against genotoxicity induced by mitomycin C (MMC), which was used as the positive control. Only the hexane fraction of S. crassifolia significantly decreased the poly- and normochromatic erythrocyte ratio (PCE/NCE) in all doses tested (P < 0.05), demonstrating its cytotoxic activity. In association with MMC, both ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic fractions significantly increased the PCE/NCE ratio in almost all doses tested (P < 0.05), demonstrating the protective action of S. crassifolia against the cytotoxic effect of the positive control. In contrast, the hexane fraction presented a significant decrease in the PCE/NCE ratio in all treatments (P < 0.05), demonstrating an increase in this plant's cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells.

Carneiro CC; Silva CR; Menezes AC; Pérez CN; Chen-Chen L

2013-01-01

149

Assessment of genotoxic, cytotoxic, and protective effects of Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don. stem bark fractions in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don., popularly known in Brazil as "bacupari", "cascudo", and "saputá", is a shrub of the Celastraceae family that is unique to the Brazilian Cerrado region. In folk medicine, this plant has been mainly used to treat skin cancer and gastric ulcers. In the present study, the genotoxic, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic effects of S. crassifolia stem bark fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, and hydroalcoholic extracts) were evaluated using the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. Our results showed that none of the S. crassifolia fractions led to a significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) (P > 0.05), suggesting the absence of genotoxicity. In the antigenotoxicity assessment, a significant decrease in the MNPCE frequency was observed in all fractions of this plant (P < 0.05), demonstrating its protective action against genotoxicity induced by mitomycin C (MMC), which was used as the positive control. Only the hexane fraction of S. crassifolia significantly decreased the poly- and normochromatic erythrocyte ratio (PCE/NCE) in all doses tested (P < 0.05), demonstrating its cytotoxic activity. In association with MMC, both ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic fractions significantly increased the PCE/NCE ratio in almost all doses tested (P < 0.05), demonstrating the protective action of S. crassifolia against the cytotoxic effect of the positive control. In contrast, the hexane fraction presented a significant decrease in the PCE/NCE ratio in all treatments (P < 0.05), demonstrating an increase in this plant's cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells. PMID:23884760

Carneiro, C C; Silva, C R; Menezes, A C S; Pérez, C N; Chen-Chen, L

2013-07-03

150

INSECTS ASSOCIED WITH BACUPARI FRUIT, Salacia crassifolia (Mart.) PEYR, IN THE SAVANNAHS OF CENTRAL BRAZIL ENTOMOFAUNA ASSOCIADA AOS FRUTOS DO BACUPARI, Salacia folia (MART.) PEYR, NOS CERRADOS DO BRASIL CENTRAL  

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Full Text Available The bacupari (Salacia crassifolia ) is a native fruit plant of the Brazilian cerrado areas. Although a high fruit fly infestation limits its utilization, it is eaten by animals and humans. Fruits present orange colored pulp, with slightly acid flavour and can be apreciated in natura or juices. The objective of this study was to assay bacupari plant features in Goiás State cerrado and to verify insects associated to bacupari, to determine infestation index and to verify this plant as a natural reservoir of fruit flies for adjacent orchards. Samples were collected during the frutification stage from September to December from 1995 to 1999 on 11 counties in Goiás State. The insects found more often were from Tephritidae (54.22%) as Anastrepha sp. (new species), A. zenildae, A. obliqua, A. fraterculus, A. sororcula, A. serpentina. Insects from other families were also identified: Lonchaeidae (Neosilba sp.), Muscidae (Atherigona orientalis), Oititidae and their parasitoids: Braconidae (Doryctobracon areolatus, Doryctobracon sp.-new species), Pteromalidae (Dicerataspis flavipes) and Figitidae (Eucoilinae - Lopheucoila anastrephae, Aganaspis nordlanderi, A. pelleranoi). Anstrepha sp. and Lonchaeidae, Anastrepha sp. and A. zenildae were found in the same fruit, proving overposition of fruit fly species in the fruit. KEY-WORDS: Insecta; native fruit plant; insects population. O bacupari, Salacia crassifolia (Mart.) Peyr, (Hippocrateaceae) é uma frutífera nativa da região dos cerrados, utilizada pela fauna e também pela população da região, embora seus frutos sejam muito atacados pelas moscas-das-frutas, e por isso seu consumo fica limitado. De polpa branca à alaranjada, de sabor levemente ácido e muito agradável os frutos dessa espécie podem ser consumidos ao natural ou na forma de sucos. Neste trabalho apresenta-se um levantamento da entomofauna associada aos frutos do bacupari, coletados em 11 municípios da região dos cerrados no Estado de Goiás, no período de setembro de 1995 a dezembro de 1999. No Laboratório de Entomologia da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, esses frutos foram, inicialmente, contados e pesados e, posteriormente, acondicionados em caixas de polipropileno com areia úmida para obtenção de pupários e insetos adultos. Tephritidae foi a família mais freqüente nos frutos do bacupari, com 54,22% dos insetos coletados. Nessa família foram registradas as espécies Anastrepha sp. (espécie nova em fase de descrição), A. zenildae, A. obliqua, A. fraterculus, A. sororcula e A. serpentina. Na família Lonchaeidae foi coletada Neosilba sp., em Muscidae, Atherigona orientalis e espécimes da família Oititidae. Dessas moscas foram obtidos os parasitóides Doryctobracon sp. (espécie nova), D. areolatus, Dicerataspis flavipes, Lopheucoila anastrephae, Aganaspis nordlanderi e A. pelleranoi. Foram coletados isoladamente no mesmo fruto exemplares de Anastrepha sp. e Lonchaeidae e Anastrepha sp. e A. zenildae comprovando a sobreposição dessas espécies por fruto. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Insecta; frutífera nativa; levantamento populacional.

Juracy Rocha Braga Filho; Valquíria da Rocha Santos Veloso; Ronaldo Veloso Naves; Gislene Auxiliadora Ferreira

2007-01-01

151

ENTOMOFAUNA ASSOCIADA AOS FRUTOS DO BACUPARI, Salacia folia (MART.) PEYR, NOS CERRADOS DO BRASIL CENTRAL INSECTS ASSOCIED WITH BACUPARI FRUIT, Salacia crassifolia (Mart.) PEYR, IN THE SAVANNAHS OF CENTRAL BRAZIL  

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Full Text Available O bacupari, Salacia crassifolia (Mart.) Peyr, (Hippocrateaceae) é uma frutífera nativa da região dos cerrados, utilizada pela fauna e também pela população da região, embora seus frutos sejam muito atacados pelas moscas-das-frutas, e por isso seu consumo fica limitado. De polpa branca à alaranjada, de sabor levemente ácido e muito agradável os frutos dessa espécie podem ser consumidos ao natural ou na forma de sucos. Neste trabalho apresenta-se um levantamento da entomofauna associada aos frutos do bacupari, coletados em 11 municípios da região dos cerrados no Estado de Goiás, no período de setembro de 1995 a dezembro de 1999. No Laboratório de Entomologia da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, esses frutos foram, inicialmente, contados e pesados e, posteriormente, acondicionados em caixas de polipropileno com areia úmida para obtenção de pupários e insetos adultos. Tephritidae foi a família mais freqüente nos frutos do bacupari, com 54,22% dos insetos coletados. Nessa família foram registradas as espécies Anastrepha sp. (espécie nova em fase de descrição), A. zenildae, A. obliqua, A. fraterculus, A. sororcula e A. serpentina. Na família Lonchaeidae foi coletada Neosilba sp., em Muscidae, Atherigona orientalis e espécimes da família Oititidae. Dessas moscas foram obtidos os parasitóides Doryctobracon sp. (espécie nova), D. areolatus, Dicerataspis flavipes, Lopheucoila anastrephae, Aganaspis nordlanderi e A. pelleranoi. Foram coletados isoladamente no mesmo fruto exemplares de Anastrepha sp. e Lonchaeidae e Anastrepha sp. e A. zenildae comprovando a sobreposição dessas espécies por fruto. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Insecta; frutífera nativa; levantamento populacional. The bacupari (Salacia crassifolia ) is a native fruit plant of the Brazilian cerrado areas. Although a high fruit fly infestation limits its utilization, it is eaten by animals and humans. Fruits present orange colored pulp, with slightly acid flavour and can be apreciated in natura or juices. The objective of this study was to assay bacupari plant features in Goiás State cerrado and to verify insects associated to bacupari, to determine infestation index and to verify this plant as a natural reservoir of fruit flies for adjacent orchards. Samples were collected during the frutification stage from September to December from 1995 to 1999 on 11 counties in Goiás State. The insects found more often were from Tephritidae (54.22%) as Anastrepha sp. (new species), A. zenildae, A. obliqua, A. fraterculus, A. sororcula, A. serpentina. Insects from other families were also identified: Lonchaeidae (Neosilba sp.), Muscidae (Atherigona orientalis), Oititidae and their parasitoids: Braconidae (Doryctobracon areolatus, Doryctobracon sp.-new species), Pteromalidae (Dicerataspis flavipes) and Figitidae (Eucoilinae - Lopheucoila anastrephae, Aganaspis nordlanderi, A. pelleranoi). Anstrepha sp. and Lonchaeidae, Anastrepha sp. and A. zenildae were found in the same fruit, proving overposition of fruit fly species in the fruit. KEY-WORDS: Insecta; native fruit plant; insects population.

Juracy Rocha Braga Filho; Valquíria da Rocha Santos Veloso; Ronaldo Veloso Naves; Gislene Auxiliadora Ferreira

2007-01-01

152

Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Studies on the Leaf and Stem Bark of Annona reticulata Linn.  

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Full Text Available The present work was undertaken to establish the pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards of Leaf and Stem bark of Annona reticulata L. It is a highly apparent plant in ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The plant is traditionally used for the treatment of epilepsy, dysentery, cardiac problems, worm infestation, constipation, haemorrhage, antibacterial infection, dysuria, fever, and ulcer . No reports are available on the pharmacognostic nature and phytochemical studies of the leaf and stem bark , hence, the present study was carried out to investigate the same. All the parameters were studied according to the WHO & Pharmacopoeial guidelines. This parameters will help for correct identification of this plant for the future references.

Kamaruz Zaman; Kalyani Pathak

2013-01-01

153

Larvicidal activity of Copaifera reticulata ducke oil-resin against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)  

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Full Text Available The appearance of resistance of Culex quinquefasciatus Say to chemical insecticides and the modification of the susceptibility of this mosquito to pyrethroid has stimulated studies on the activity of plants as alternative for its control. In this study, bioassays were carried out to verify the larvicidal activity of the oil-resin of Copaifera reticulata on C. quinquefasciatus. The bioassays were carried out with the oil dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), at the proportion of 0.4 ml of DMSO to 24.6 ml of distilled water. For each instar, the bioassays were carried out in plastic glasses with 100 ml solution using 20 larvae, wit four replications to adjust the lethal concentrations. The mortality observations were made after 48h exposure of the larvae to the solution. The control was carried out in distilled water and DMSO, with the same number of replications as the bioassays. The experiments were carried out in a biological chamber, controlled at 28 ± 1°C, 80 ± 5% relative humidity and 12h light. The larvae without movement were considered dead. The C. reticulata oil-resin demonstrated larvicide activity for all the C. quinquefasciatus instars. The LC50 found for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instars were: 0.4, 0.9, 39 and 80 ppm, and the LC99 were 15, 15, 50 and 180 ppm, respectively.

Silva Ionizete G.; Zanon Valéria O.M.; Silva Heloisa H.G.

2003-01-01

154

Delivery of an antisense ACC oxidase gene into Citrus reticulata Blanco. mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to optimize the conditions for plantlet regeneration and genetictransformation of Citrus reticulataBlanco. with an antisense ACC oxidase gene mediated byAgrobacterium tumefaciens. The highest percentage of plantlet regeneration of 100 was successfullyachieved on the MS medium supplemented with 3 ?M BA, while the half-strength MS medium amendedwith 8 ?M NAA was suitable for root induction. Explants that had high potency of regeneration wereshoots, nodes and internodes, respectively. The delivery of an antisense ACC oxidase gene into thespecies C. reticulata mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 was successful by cocultivatingexplants with the strain EHA105 for 15 min, following that by eliminating the bacterium with200 mg/l cefotaxime, and subsequently selecting transformed embryoid with 20 mg/l hygromycin.Verified histochemically by GUS assay, putative transformants showed the percentage of gus geneexpression of 100. Molecular analysis using PCR confirmed the integration of the antisense ACC oxidasegene into plant genome.

Sumontip Bunnag; Duangkamol Tangpong

2013-01-01

155

Application of EPR spectroscopy to identify irradiated Indian medicinal plant products.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: A study of gamma-irradiated Indian medicinal plant products was carried out using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Improved approaches like high-power measurement, microwave saturation, and thermal behavior of the radicals were explored for detection of irradiation. Aswagandha (Withania somnifera), vairi (Salacia reticulata), amla (Emblica officinalis), haldi (Curcumin longa), and guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) exhibited a weak singlet at g = 2.005 before irradiation. Aswagandha, immediately after radiation treatment, revealed a complex EPR spectrum characterized by EPR spectrum simulation technique as superposition of 3 paramagnetic centers. One group of signal with organic origin was carbohydrate and cellulose radical and the other was isotropic signal of inorganic origin (g? =2.0044 and g|| = 1.9980). However, other products did not exhibit any radiation-specific signal after irradiation. Power saturation and thermal behavior techniques were not suitable for these products. However, amongst all the 3 approaches, high-power measurement of EPR spectra emerged as a suitable technique in identification of the irradiated aswagandha. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Gamma-irradiation confirms hygienic quality and improves shelf life of food and other products. However, there is a lack of international consensus over considering this as a general application and different regulations are being enforced. EPR is one of the most promising techniques to identify irradiated foodstuffs for regulatory requirements but it has many limitations. Improved approaches based on the EPR technique explained in this study may be useful to identify irradiated products and become beneficial to food regulators and food irradiation enterprises to enhance confidence in irradiation technology.

Sanyal B; Chatterjee S; Variyar PS; Sharma A

2012-06-01

156

EXOCRINE PANCREATIC CARCINOGENESIS IN THE GUPPY POECILIA RETICULATA  

Science.gov (United States)

Exocrine pancreatic neoplasms developed in the guppy Poecilia reticulata following exposure to the direct acting carcinogen, methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM-Ac). Fish 6- to 10-days old were exposed to nominal, nontoxic concentrations of 4 and 10 mg MAM-Ac 1-1 for 2 h and then tr...

157

EXOCRINE PANCREATIC CARCINOGENESIS IN THE GUPPY (POECILIA RETICULATA).  

Science.gov (United States)

Exocrine pancreatic neoplasms developed in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) following exposure to the direct acting carcinogen, methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM-Ac). Fish 6- to 10-days old were exposed to nominal, nontoxic concentrations of 4 and 10 mg MAM-Ac/L for 2 hr and then t...

158

New acridone from the wood of Citrus reticulata Blanco.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new acridone, named citruscridone (1) together with five known compounds were isolated from the wood of Citrus reticulata Blanco. Their structures were established based on spectroscopic evidence. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the wood extracts and pure compounds were evaluated.

Phetkul U; Wanlaso N; Mahabusarakam W; Phongpaichit S; Carroll AR

2013-05-01

159

The diet of Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) in southeastern Brazil  

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Full Text Available The ophiuroid Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825) occurs in the sediment-rocky shore interface, under small stones. Its diet is analyzed in this short communication. Specimens were collected at the Praia Grande beach, located on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in July, 2002 and January, 2003. The animals were fixed in 70% ethanol and dissected to obtain their stomach contents. Of the total (35), 77.1% (27) had ingested some kind of food and, among those, 81.4% (22) had more than one item. The mean number of food items per stomach was 1.9. Ophionereis reticulata is an omnivorous species, consuming sediment, green and red algae, and polychaetes.O ofiuróide Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825) ocorre na interface sedimento rocha de costões rochosos, sob pequenas pedras. Alguns aspectos de sua dieta alimentar foram analisados nesta nota. A amostragem foi realizada na Praia Grande, localizada no litoral norte do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os indivíduos, coletados em julho de 2002 e janeiro de 2003, foram fixados em álcool 70% e dissecados para obtenção de seus conteúdos estomacais. Do total (35), 77,1% (27) tinham ingerido algum tipo de alimento, e destes, 81,4% (22) possuíam mais de um item. O número médio de itens alimentares por estômago foi 1,9. Ophionereis reticulata é uma espécie onívora, consumindo sedimento, algas verdes e vermelhas, e poliquetas.

Leonardo Q. Yokoyama; Antonia C. Z. Amaral

2008-01-01

160

The diet of Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) in southeastern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O ofiuróide Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825) ocorre na interface sedimento rocha de costões rochosos, sob pequenas pedras. Alguns aspectos de sua dieta alimentar foram analisados nesta nota. A amostragem foi realizada na Praia Grande, localizada no litoral norte do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os indivíduos, coletados em julho de 2002 e janeiro de 2003, foram fixados em álcool 70% e dissecados para obtenção de seus conteúdos estomacais. Do total (35), 77,1% (27) (more) tinham ingerido algum tipo de alimento, e destes, 81,4% (22) possuíam mais de um item. O número médio de itens alimentares por estômago foi 1,9. Ophionereis reticulata é uma espécie onívora, consumindo sedimento, algas verdes e vermelhas, e poliquetas. Abstract in english The ophiuroid Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825) occurs in the sediment-rocky shore interface, under small stones. Its diet is analyzed in this short communication. Specimens were collected at the Praia Grande beach, located on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in July, 2002 and January, 2003. The animals were fixed in 70% ethanol and dissected to obtain their stomach contents. Of the total (35), 77.1% (27) had ingested some kind of food and, among th (more) ose, 81.4% (22) had more than one item. The mean number of food items per stomach was 1.9. Ophionereis reticulata is an omnivorous species, consuming sediment, green and red algae, and polychaetes.

Yokoyama, Leonardo Q.; Amaral, Antonia C. Z.

2008-09-01

 
 
 
 
161

Somatic embryogenesis in Citrus sinensis, C. reticulata AND C. nobilis x C. deliciosa/ Embriogênese somática em Citrus sinensis, C. reticulata E C. nobilis x C. deliciosa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A maioria dos processos de regeneração de plantas em citros por cultura de tecidos envolve embriogênese somática indireta. A otimização desse processo é importante para o desenvolvimento de trabalhos de melhoramento in vitro e micropropagação. Realizaram-se estudos em calos de tangerina 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco), tangerina 'Cravo' (C. reticulata), laranja 'Itaboraí' (C. sinensis L. Osbeck.), laranja 'Valência' (C. sinensis) e tangerina 'Kinnow' (C. no (more) bilis Loureiro x C. deliciosa, Tenore) visando avaliar o efeito de diferentes carboidratos na embriogênese somática. Utilizou-se o meio MT acrescido de sacarose, galactose, glicose, maltose e lactose nas concentrações de 18, 37, 75, 110 e 150 mM. O meio de cultura utilizado para a maturação dos embriões somáticos continha sacarose nas concentrações de 0, 15, 29, 44, 58 e 73 mM, na presença ou não de 0,5 g L-1 de carvão ativado; 73 mM de sacarose e GA3 na concentração de 0,1 mg L-1, na presença ou não de 0,5 g L-1 de carvão ativado. O estímulo à embriogênese somática foi mais eficiente em meio de cultura suplementado com lactose e galactose. Quanto à maturação de embriões, os meios de cultura contendo 58 e 73 mM de sacarose foram aqueles que geraram um maior número de plantas em tangerina 'Ponkan' e laranja 'Valência'. Abstract in english Most of the plant regeneration processes in citrus, through tissue culture, involve indirect somatic embryogenesis. The optimization of these processes is important for the development of in vitro plant improvement and micropropagation studies. Studies to evaluate the effect of different carbohydrates in somatic embryogenesis were conducted using calli from 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata, Blanco), 'Cravo' mandarin (C. reticulata), 'Itaboraí' sweet orange (C. sinens (more) is L. Osbeck.), 'Valencia' sweet orange (C. sinensis) and 'Kinnow' mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro x C. deliciosa Tenore). The culture medium used was MT supplemented with sucrose, galactose, glucose, maltose or lactose with the following concentrations of 18, 37, 75, 110, and 150 mM. The culture medium used for the maturation of somatic embryos had 0, 15, 29, 44, 58 and 73 mM of sucrose, in presence or absence of 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal. Seventy-three mM of sucrose with 0.1 mg L-1 of GA3 in the presence or absence 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal was also tested. Overall, the carbohydrates galactose or lactose induced a higher number of somatic embryos. Sucrose concentrations of 58 and 73 mM generated a higher number of plantlets from mature embryos of 'Ponkan' mandarin and 'Valencia' sweet orange.

Ricci, Adriana Patrícia; Mourão Filho, Francisco de Assis Alves; Mendes, Beatriz Madalena Januzzi; Piedade, Sonia Maria de Stefano

2002-03-01

162

The Ayurvedic Medicine Salacia oblonga Attenuates Diabetic Renal Fibrosis in Rats: Suppression of Angiotensin II/AT1 Signaling.  

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In human diabetic nephropathy, the extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease; fibrosis is closely correlated with renal dysfunction. Although a wide array of medicinal plants play a role in the prevention and treatment of diabetes, there are few reports of the application of herbal medicines in amelioration of renal fibrosis, or the underlying mechanisms by which such benefits are mediated. The efficacy of the Ayurvedic antidiabetic medicine Salacia oblonga (SO) root on rat renal fibrosis was investigated. An aqueous extract from SO (100 mg/kg, p.o., 6 weeks) diminished renal glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, as revealed by van Giesen-staining. SO also reduced renal salt-soluble, acid-soluble and salt-insoluble collagen contents. These changes were accompanied by normalization of hypoalbuminemia and BUN. Gene profiling revealed that the increase in transcripts encoding the glomerulosclerotic mediators collagen I, collagen IV, fibronectin, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1), transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 observed in ZDF rat kidney was suppressed by SO. In rat-derived mesangial cells, similar to the effect of the AT1 antagonist telmisartan, SO and its major component mangiferin suppressed the stimulatory effect of angiotensin II on proliferation and increased mRNA expression and/or activities of collagen I, collagen IV, fibronectin, AT1, TGF-?1 and PAI-1. Considered together the present findings demonstrate that SO attenuates diabetic renal fibrosis, at least in part by suppressing anigiotensin II/AT1 signaling. Further, it now emerges that mangiferin is an effective antifibrogenic agent. PMID:19706694

He, Lan; Qi, Yanfei; Rong, Xianglu; Jiang, Jianmin; Yang, Qinglin; Yamahara, Johji; Murray, Michael; Li, Yuhao

2011-06-08

163

The Ayurvedic Medicine Salacia oblonga Attenuates Diabetic Renal Fibrosis in Rats: Suppression of Angiotensin II/AT1 Signaling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In human diabetic nephropathy, the extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease; fibrosis is closely correlated with renal dysfunction. Although a wide array of medicinal plants play a role in the prevention and treatment of diabetes, there are few reports of the application of herbal medicines in amelioration of renal fibrosis, or the underlying mechanisms by which such benefits are mediated. The efficacy of the Ayurvedic antidiabetic medicine Salacia oblonga (SO) root on rat renal fibrosis was investigated. An aqueous extract from SO (100 mg/kg, p.o., 6 weeks) diminished renal glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, as revealed by van Giesen-staining. SO also reduced renal salt-soluble, acid-soluble and salt-insoluble collagen contents. These changes were accompanied by normalization of hypoalbuminemia and BUN. Gene profiling revealed that the increase in transcripts encoding the glomerulosclerotic mediators collagen I, collagen IV, fibronectin, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1), transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 observed in ZDF rat kidney was suppressed by SO. In rat-derived mesangial cells, similar to the effect of the AT1 antagonist telmisartan, SO and its major component mangiferin suppressed the stimulatory effect of angiotensin II on proliferation and increased mRNA expression and/or activities of collagen I, collagen IV, fibronectin, AT1, TGF-?1 and PAI-1. Considered together the present findings demonstrate that SO attenuates diabetic renal fibrosis, at least in part by suppressing anigiotensin II/AT1 signaling. Further, it now emerges that mangiferin is an effective antifibrogenic agent.

He L; Qi Y; Rong X; Jiang J; Yang Q; Yamahara J; Murray M; Li Y

2011-01-01

164

Physical properties of trans-neptunian binaries (120347) Salacia-Actaea and (42355) Typhon-Echidna  

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We report new Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer Space Telescope results concerning the physical properties of the trans-neptunian object (TNO) binaries (120347) Salacia-Actaea (formerly 2004 SB60), and (42355) Typhon-Echidna (formerly 2002 CR46). The mass of the (120347) Salacia-Actaea system is 4.66 ± 0.22 × 1020 kg. The semi-major axis, period, and eccentricity of the binary orbit are a = 5619 ± 87 km, P = 5.49380 ± 0.00016 days, and e = 0.0084 ± 0.0076, respectively. In terms of the ratio of the semimajor axis to the radius of the Hill sphere, a/rH, (120347) Salacia-Actaea is the tightest TNO binary system with a known orbit. Based on hybrid Standard Thermal Model (hybrid-STM) fits to the data, the effective diameter and V-band geometric albedo of the system are D = 954 ± 109 km (making it one of the largest known TNOs), and pV=3.57-0.72+1.03%. Thermophysical models for (120347) Salacia suggest that it probably has a thermal inertia ?5 J m-2 s-1/2 K-1, although we cannot rule out values as high as 30 J m-2 s-1/2 K-1. Based on the magnitude difference between Salacia and Actaea, ? = 2.37 ± 0.06, we estimate their individual diameters to be d1 = 905 ± 103 km and d2 = 303 ± 35 km. The mass density of the components is ?=1.16-0.36+0.59 g/cm3. Hybrid-STM fits to new Spitzer data for Typhon-Echidna give an effective diameter and V-band geometric albedo for the system of D = 157 ± 34 km, and pV=6.00-2.08+4.10%. Thermophysical models for (42355) Typhon suggest somewhat lower albedos (probably no higher than about 8.2%, as compared to the hybrid-STM upper limit of 10.1%). Taken together with the previously reported mass, this diameter indicates a density of ?=0.60-0.29+0.72g/cm3, consistent with the very low densities of most other TNOs smaller than 500 km diameter. Both objects must have significant amounts of void space in their interiors, particularly if they contain silicates as well as water-ice (as is expected). The ensemble of binary-TNO densities suggests a trend of increasing density with size, with objects smaller than 400 km diameter all having densities less than 1 g/cm3, and those with diameters greater than 800 km all having densities greater than 1 g/cm3. If the eccentricity of the binary orbit of (42355) Typhon-Echidna is not due to recent perturbations, considerations of tidal evolution suggest that (42355) Typhon-Echidna must have a rigidity close to that of solid water ice, otherwise the orbital eccentricity of the system would have been damped by now.

Stansberry, J. A.; Grundy, W. M.; Mueller, M.; Benecchi, S. D.; Rieke, G. H.; Noll, K. S.; Buie, M. W.; Levison, H. F.; Porter, S. B.; Roe, H. G.

2012-06-01

165

Florescimento de tangerineiras 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) submetidas a diferentes períodos de temperatura invernal/ Flowering of 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) submitted to differents periods of winter temperature  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do acúmulo de temperaturas abaixo de 20° C, sobre a floração de tangerineiras 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Foi adotado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram formados por sete datas de transferência das mudas, mantidas a céu aberto, para a câmara de crescimento. Foram utilizadas plantas de tangerineira 'Ponkan' enxertadas sobre l (more) imoeiro 'Cravo', cultivadas em recipientes, que inicialmente foram mantidas a céu aberto. O experimento foi iniciado no dia 16-05-2007 (início do período de redução da temperatura na região) e conduzido até 17-08-2005. Quinzenalmente, quatro plantas que estavam a céu aberto foram transferidas para câmara de crescimento, com temperaturas de 27°C/20°C (dia/noite), umidade relativa de 75%, fotoperíodo de 12 horas e radiação fotossinteticamente ativa de 170 µmol m-2 s-1. Foram avaliados a data do florescimento e o número total de flores de todas as plantas. Quanto maior foi o tempo de permanência das plantas a céu aberto em temperaturas inferiores a 20° C, maiores foram a antecipação do florescimento e o número de flores produzidas. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate the effect of low temperature accumulation below 20° C, on the flowering of mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. 'Ponkan'). A completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications was used in this experiment. The treatments comprised seven different dates of transference of 'Ponkan' plants growing in open field into growth room. The 'Ponkan' trees used in this experiment were originated from grafting onto Rangpur lime, grown (more) in containers. The experiment began on 05-16-2007, when the cold season initiated. In 15-days intervals, four plants were removed randomly from the open field and taken into the growth room, with controlled temperature and humidity. The date of the flowering and total number of flowers were evaluated. The longest time of maintenance of the plants in the open field in temperatures below 20° C advanced the flowering and increased the number of produced flowers.

Lelis, Flávia Mara Vieira; Siqueira, Dalmo Lopes de; Santos, Dierlei dos

2008-09-01

166

Anti-inflammatory activity of Salacia oblonga Wall. and Azima tetracantha Lam.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The anti-inflammatory activity of Salacia oblonga rootbark powder and Azima tetracantha leaf powder was assayed in male albino rats using carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema (acute inflammation) and cotton pellet granuloma (chronic inflammation) methods. Both the crude drugs were maximally active at a dose of 1000 mg/kg. In the cotton pellet granuloma assay, these drugs were able to suppress the transudative, exudative and proliferative components of chronic inflammation. Furthermore, these drugs were able to lower the lipid peroxide content of exudate and liver, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity in the exudate of cotton pellet granuloma. The increased acid and alkaline phosphatase activity and decreased serum albumin in cotton pellet granulomatous rats were normalised after treatment with these drugs. It is likely that these drugs may exert their activity by antiproliferative, antioxidative and lysosomal membrane stabilization.

Ismail TS; Gopalakrishnan S; Begum VH; Elango V

1997-04-01

167

Anti-peroxidative and hypoglycaemic activity of salacia oblonga extract in diabetic rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hypoglycaemic activity of a petroleum ether extract of the root bark of Salacia oblonga Wall. (Celastraceae) (SOB) was studied in streptozotocin (STZ) hyperglycaemic rats. In addition, the anti-lipid peroxidative activity of SOB was studied in hyperglycaemic rats. The extract showed significant hypoglycaemia ( p < 0.001), which was supported by an insulin assay. A detailed biochemical study (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, conjugated dienes, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) in the renal tissue of diabetic animals treated with SOB demonstrated promising anti-lipid peroxidative activity. These results suggest that S. oblonga root bark possesses anti-diabetic and anti-peroxidative principles, and may be of value in the treatment of diabetes and associated renal complications.

Krishnakumar K; Augusti KT; Vijayammal PL

2000-01-01

168

Anti-peroxidative and hypoglycaemic activity of salacia oblonga extract in diabetic rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypoglycaemic activity of a petroleum ether extract of the root bark of Salacia oblonga Wall. (Celastraceae) (SOB) was studied in streptozotocin (STZ) hyperglycaemic rats. In addition, the anti-lipid peroxidative activity of SOB was studied in hyperglycaemic rats. The extract showed significant hypoglycaemia ( p < 0.001), which was supported by an insulin assay. A detailed biochemical study (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, conjugated dienes, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) in the renal tissue of diabetic animals treated with SOB demonstrated promising anti-lipid peroxidative activity. These results suggest that S. oblonga root bark possesses anti-diabetic and anti-peroxidative principles, and may be of value in the treatment of diabetes and associated renal complications. PMID:21214447

Krishnakumar, K; Augusti, K T; Vijayammal, P L

2000-01-01

169

Anti-inflammatory activity of Salacia oblonga Wall. and Azima tetracantha Lam.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anti-inflammatory activity of Salacia oblonga rootbark powder and Azima tetracantha leaf powder was assayed in male albino rats using carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema (acute inflammation) and cotton pellet granuloma (chronic inflammation) methods. Both the crude drugs were maximally active at a dose of 1000 mg/kg. In the cotton pellet granuloma assay, these drugs were able to suppress the transudative, exudative and proliferative components of chronic inflammation. Furthermore, these drugs were able to lower the lipid peroxide content of exudate and liver, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity in the exudate of cotton pellet granuloma. The increased acid and alkaline phosphatase activity and decreased serum albumin in cotton pellet granulomatous rats were normalised after treatment with these drugs. It is likely that these drugs may exert their activity by antiproliferative, antioxidative and lysosomal membrane stabilization. PMID:9174976

Ismail, T S; Gopalakrishnan, S; Begum, V H; Elango, V

1997-04-01

170

Chemical structures and hepatoprotective effects of constituents from the leaves of Salacia chinensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The methanolic extract from the leaves of Salacia chinensis collected in Thailand was found to show a protective effect on D-galactosamine-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes. From the methanolic extract, eight new glycosides, named foliachinenosides E, F, G, H, and I, and foliasalaciosides J, K and L, were isolated together with 26 known constituents. The structures of new glycosides were determined on the basis of physicochemical and chemical evidence. In addition, the hepatoprotective effects of the isolated compounds on D-galactosamine-induced cytotoxicity were examined. Among them, lignans, eleutheroside E? and 7R,8S-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 4-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, were found to show the protective effects [inhibition (%) 41.4 ± 3.6 (p < 0.01), 45.5 ± 2.7 (p < 0.01) at 100 µM, respectively]. PMID:21804248

Nakamura, Seikou; Zhang, Yi; Matsuda, Hisashi; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Muraoka, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

2011-01-01

171

Chemical structures and hepatoprotective effects of constituents from the leaves of Salacia chinensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The methanolic extract from the leaves of Salacia chinensis collected in Thailand was found to show a protective effect on D-galactosamine-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes. From the methanolic extract, eight new glycosides, named foliachinenosides E, F, G, H, and I, and foliasalaciosides J, K and L, were isolated together with 26 known constituents. The structures of new glycosides were determined on the basis of physicochemical and chemical evidence. In addition, the hepatoprotective effects of the isolated compounds on D-galactosamine-induced cytotoxicity were examined. Among them, lignans, eleutheroside E? and 7R,8S-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 4-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, were found to show the protective effects [inhibition (%) 41.4 ± 3.6 (p < 0.01), 45.5 ± 2.7 (p < 0.01) at 100 µM, respectively].

Nakamura S; Zhang Y; Matsuda H; Ninomiya K; Muraoka O; Yoshikawa M

2011-01-01

172

The Effects of Gokshura, Tribulus terrestris on Sex Reversal of Guppy, Poecilia reticulata  

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This study examined the effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on sex reversal in guppy, Poecilia reticulata. The objective of this study was to introduce a new environmentally friendly method for masculinization in P. reticulata. Since male guppy has higher commercial value t...

Oehriban cek; Funda Turan; Esin Atik

173

EFFECT OF LEPTADENIA RETICULATA LINN ON STRESS MODULATED SEXUAL BEHAVIOR OF MALE RATS  

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Full Text Available In the day today life the persons living and working in the area were the environmental factors such as chemical, physical, or emotional, stress may adversely affect the testicular functions that is enhancement of testicular germ cell apoptosis will takes place. All the organisms survive by maintaining a dynamic equilibrium with their environment. The organization of this homeostasis exists at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels. But some of the physical, mental, or emotional stress acts as a threat to this equilibrium, So this alteration in the homeostasis by stress will cause decreased libido, changes in the motor activity, increased arousal, vigilance and increased tolerance of pain.So the aim of the present study was to determine whether the Leptadenia reticulata plant methanolic and chloroform extracts in the low 50mg/kg, mid 100mg/kg, high 250mg/kg and a safety 200mg/kg oral dose will overcome the stress induced sexual dysfunction or not. So to evaluate whether the Leptadenia reticulata active constituents have got aphrodisiac as well as infertility treatment activity was assessed by studying the following sexual behavioral parameters, number of mounts, ejaculation latency, intromission interval, number of ejaculations and the histopathological study of testis, will give a clear idea of the study.In this study the obtained results will show that chloroform extract is having more potent aphrodisiac activity when compared to normal, because it has got increased number of mounts, intromission interval, Number of ejaculations and decreased latency of first mount as well as the increase in post ejaculation time shows its potent aphrodisiac in both normal and stressed rats. Significant (P<0.05) weight gain in testis, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, vasdeferens, epididymis, with declined weight gain in adrenal gland indicating HPA/HPG axis regulatory mechanism. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for significant aphrodisiac and male infertility treatment activity with improved testicular performance.

Santosh B. T; Chitme H. R; Rabbani G; Jafar M

2011-01-01

174

New triterpene constituents, foliasalacins A(1)-A(4), B(1)-B(3), and C, from the leaves of Salacia chinensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four dammarane-type, three lupane-type, and an oleanane-type triterpenes named foliasalacins A(1) (1), A(2) (2), A(3) (3), A(4) (4), B(1) (5), B(2) (6), B(3) (7), and C (8) were isolated from the leaves of Salacia chinensis LINN. collected in Thailand. The structures of new triterpene constituents (1-8) were characterized on the basis of chemical and physiochemical evidence. PMID:18591801

Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi

2008-07-01

175

New triterpene constituents, foliasalacins A(1)-A(4), B(1)-B(3), and C, from the leaves of Salacia chinensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four dammarane-type, three lupane-type, and an oleanane-type triterpenes named foliasalacins A(1) (1), A(2) (2), A(3) (3), A(4) (4), B(1) (5), B(2) (6), B(3) (7), and C (8) were isolated from the leaves of Salacia chinensis LINN. collected in Thailand. The structures of new triterpene constituents (1-8) were characterized on the basis of chemical and physiochemical evidence.

Yoshikawa M; Zhang Y; Wang T; Nakamura S; Matsuda H

2008-07-01

176

Occurrence of Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida) in Immatures of Kempnyia reticulata (Enderlein) (Insecta: Plecoptera: Perlidae) Primeiro Registro de Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida) em Imaturos de Kempnyia reticulata (Enderlein) (Plecoptera: Perlidae)  

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Full Text Available First register of Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida) in immature of Kempnyia reticulata (Enderlein) (Plecoptera: Perlidae). The insects were collected in rivers of Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia, Santa Teresa, Espirito Santo, Brazil.Primeiro registro de Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida) em imaturos de Kempnyia reticulata (Enderlein) (Plecoptera: Perlidae). Os insetos foram coletados em um riacho da Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia, Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brasil.

Fernanda Avelino-Capistrano; Leandro Silva Barbosa

2013-01-01

177

Metacestodes of Glossocercus auritus (Cyclophyllidea, Gryporhynchidae) in Poecilia reticulata (Pisces, Poeciliidae) from Brazil Metacestoides de Glossocercus auritus (Cyclophyllidea, Gryporhynchidae) em Poecilia reticulata (Pisces, Poeciliidae) no Brasil  

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Full Text Available Studies on fish parasites in Pampulha dam, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, found specimens of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 harboring natural infection by larval stages of tapeworms. A total of 250 specimens of P. reticulata were collected and analyzed between February and August 2010, of which 23 were found infected (prevalence 9.2%) with one metacestode each (mean intensity 1, mean abundance 0.09). The analyses of the parasites, particularly the morphology of rostellar hooks, made it possible to identify Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1818). This is the first report of G. auritus metacestode in South America and P. reticulata is a newly known host for this parasite.Em estudo da helmintofauna de peixes oriundos da represa da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, exemplares de Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 foram encontrados naturalmente infectados por larvas de cestóides. De 250 espécimes de P. reticulata coletados e analisados entre fevereiro e agosto de 2010, 23 (prevalência de infecção 9,2%) apresentavam-se infectados por um metacestóides cada (intensidade média 1, abundância média 0,09). A análise dos parasitos, em especial a morfologia dos acúleos rostelares, permitiram a identificação de Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1818). Este é o primeiro registro de metacestóide de G. auritus para a América do Sul, sendo P. reticulata um novo hospedeiro conhecido para o parasito.

Hudson Alves Pinto; Alan Lane de Melo

2011-01-01

178

Metacestodes of Glossocercus auritus (Cyclophyllidea, Gryporhynchidae) in Poecilia reticulata (Pisces, Poeciliidae) from Brazil/ Metacestoides de Glossocercus auritus (Cyclophyllidea, Gryporhynchidae) em Poecilia reticulata (Pisces, Poeciliidae) no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Em estudo da helmintofauna de peixes oriundos da represa da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, exemplares de Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 foram encontrados naturalmente infectados por larvas de cestóides. De 250 espécimes de P. reticulata coletados e analisados entre fevereiro e agosto de 2010, 23 (prevalência de infecção 9,2%) apresentavam-se infectados por um metacestóides cada (intensidade média 1, abundância média 0,09). A análise dos parasi (more) tos, em especial a morfologia dos acúleos rostelares, permitiram a identificação de Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1818). Este é o primeiro registro de metacestóide de G. auritus para a América do Sul, sendo P. reticulata um novo hospedeiro conhecido para o parasito. Abstract in english Studies on fish parasites in Pampulha dam, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, found specimens of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 harboring natural infection by larval stages of tapeworms. A total of 250 specimens of P. reticulata were collected and analyzed between February and August 2010, of which 23 were found infected (prevalence 9.2%) with one metacestode each (mean intensity 1, mean abundance 0.09). The analyses of the parasites, particularly the morphology of r (more) ostellar hooks, made it possible to identify Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1818). This is the first report of G. auritus metacestode in South America and P. reticulata is a newly known host for this parasite.

Pinto, Hudson Alves; Melo, Alan Lane de

2011-06-01

179

The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked Orange) and shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun)  

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Full Text Available The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked Orange) and shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun) Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2006, 28(3) : 515-530 The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked orange) and Shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun) was investigated at the Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University during January, 2003 to October, 2004. Eighty-eight of three-year-old Necked orange and Shogun grafted onto 11 species of citrus rootstocks were raised in 35 litre pot. Complete randomized factorial design was used for evaluating the two factors, scions and rootstocks. The vegetative growth: upper and lower of trunk diameter, tree height, canopy volume and leaf area; the foliar nutrient: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC) and C/N ratio; flowering; fruit-set and fruit qualities were determined and analysed. Furthermore, the graft compatibility between stock and scion was also evaluated by the esterase isozymes technique. It was found that Necked orange grafted onto most of the rootstocks showed higher range of upper and lower trunk diameter and leaf area than that of Shogun. Both of the scions on rough lemon and volkamer lemon gave higher vegetative growth characteristics than on the other roostock species. Necked orange grafted onto Cleopatra mandarin, Swingle citrumelo, Volkamer lemon and Mawo rootstock had 5 times the flowering and fruit-set while Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange had 7 times the flowering and fruit-set. There was no significant difference on the foliar nutrient between scions and rootstocks except the foliar TNC of necked orange and Shogun on Manaao-khwaai (34.86%). Necked orange and Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange gave the highest number of fruits/tree (20.6 and 31.6 fruits/ tree) and fruit weight/tree (3,906 g/tree and 5,114 g/tree respectively). Necked orange grafted onto Rough lemon showed the highest rind thickness (0.559 cm) while Shogun grafted onto Cleopatra mandarin showed 0.275 cm rind thickness. Necked orange grafted on Troyer citrange and Mawo and Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange and Volkamer lemon gave the highest TSS: TA ratio. The esterase enzyme pattern of necked orange grafted on Manaao-khwaai was changed and most of the rootstock species affected the esterase enzyme activities of Shogun.

Lim, M.; Te-chato, S.

2006-01-01

180

Avaliação citotóxica em três linhagens de células tumorais das frações obtidas da casca do caule de Salacia crassifolia (MART. ex. Schult.) G. Dom. (Celastraceae)/ Assessment of cytotoxicity in three tumor cell lines of the fractions attained from the stem bark of Salacia crassifolia (Mart. ex. Schult.) G. Dom (Celastraceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A utilização de plantas pela humanidade com fins medicinais é uma das formas mais antigas para tratamento, cura e prevenção de doenças, dentre elas o câncer, cujas espécies vegetais são encontradas em elevada diversidade no ecossistema. Com essa perspectiva, se optou por um arbusto típico do Cerrado, Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae), para um screening inicial na determinação do potencial citotóxico desta espécie in vitro. Na medicina popular, S. crassifoli (more) a é utilizada no tratamento de problemas renais, tosse crônica, dores de cabeça, cicatrizantes, ulcerogênicas e na terapia da malaria. As frações: hidroalcoólica (SCCcM-W), diclorometânica(SCCcM-D), hexânica (SCCcM-H) e acetato de etila (SCCcM-A) da casca do caule foram submetidas a testes de citotoxicidade in vitro frente às linhagens MDA-MB-435(melanoma), HCT-8 (cólon-humano) e SF-295 (sistema nervoso central) utilizando o método colorimétrico MTT. As frações hexânica (SCCcM-H) e de acetato de etila(SCCcM-A) foram aquelas que proporcionaram citotoxicidade significativas frente às células tumorais analisadas. Abstract in english For millennia humans have been using plants for medicinal purposes to treat, cure, or prevent diseases, including cancer. Brazilian ecosystem has a high diversity of plant species. From this perspective, a species found in the Cerrado, Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae), was selected, for an initial screening to determine the cytotoxic potential of this species "in vitro". S. crassifolia has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat kidney diseases, chronic cough, (more) headaches, healing, ulcerogenic, and for treatment of malaria. The fractions: hydroalcoholic (SCCcM-W), dichloromethane(SCCcM-D), hexane (SCCcM-H) and ethyl acetate (SCCcM-A) from the stem bark were tested for cytotoxicity "in vitro" to within MDA -MB-435(melanoma), HCT-8 (human-colon), and SF-295 (CNS) using the MTT colorimetric method. The hexane (SCCcM-H) and ethyl acetate (SCCcM-A) fractions were those that provided significant cytotoxicity against analyzed tumor cells.

Rodrigues de Oliveira, Clayton; Severo Menezes, Antânio Calos; de Moraes, Manoel O.; de Melo Vieira, Letícia; Gomes Pereira, Adriana; Silva Lima, Rosa; dos Santos, Mirley Luciene

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

Cryptosporidium muris in a reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cryptosporidium spp. infection in captive exotic mammals was investigated using staining and molecular biological methods. A total of 323 fecal samples from 100 mammalian species (62 Artiodactyla, 33 Rodentia, 3 Perissodactyla, and 2 Paenungultata) in 4 zoological gardens in the Czech Republic was examined. Only in a reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) sample was Cryptosporidium sp. infection detected. The partial small subunit rRNA sequence obtained from the isolate was identical to sequences of Cryptosporidium muris in rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) and Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus). Neonatal BALB/c mice inoculated with 1 x 10(3) fresh oocysts of the C. muris giraffe isolate did not produce a detectable infection.

Kodádková A; Kvác M; Ditrich O; Sak B; Xiao L

2010-02-01

182

Simultaneous Determination of Flavonoids in Different Parts of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ Fruit by High Performance Liquid Chromatography—Photodiode Array Detection  

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Full Text Available Flavonoids are important polyphenolic secondary metabolites in plant. Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit are rich in flavonoids and are being used as functional antioxidant ingredients for the treatment of atherosclerosis and cancer, etc. A high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection system was used to analyze five flavonoids, namely, naringin, hesperidin, didymin, tangeretin and nobiletin, in different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a C18 column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a photodiode array detector at 280 nm. The calibration curves for the determination of all analytes showed good linearity over the investigated ranges (R2 > 0.9995). Precision and reproducibility were evaluated by six replicated analyses, and the R.S.D. values were less than 0.9% and 2.7%. The recoveries were between 98.37 and 103.89%. This method is promising to improve the quality control of different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit.

Yinshi Sun; Jianhua Wang; Shubo Gu; Zhengbo Liu; Yujie Zhang; Xiaoxia Zhang

2010-01-01

183

Simultaneous determination of flavonoids in different parts of Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' fruit by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flavonoids are important polyphenolic secondary metabolites in plant. Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' fruit are rich in flavonoids and are being used as functional antioxidant ingredients for the treatment of atherosclerosis and cancer, etc. A high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection system was used to analyze five flavonoids, namely, naringin, hesperidin, didymin, tangeretin and nobiletin, in different parts of C. reticulata 'Chachi' fruit. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a C(18) column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a photodiode array detector at 280 nm. The calibration curves for the determination of all analytes showed good linearity over the investigated ranges (R2 > 0.9995). Precision and reproducibility were evaluated by six replicated analyses, and the R.S.D. values were less than 0.9% and 2.7%. The recoveries were between 98.37 and 103.89%. This method is promising to improve the quality control of different parts of C. reticulata 'Chachi' fruit. PMID:20714303

Sun, Yinshi; Wang, Jianhua; Gu, Shubo; Liu, Zhengbo; Zhang, Yujie; Zhang, Xiaoxia

2010-08-05

184

Aerial jumping in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Many fishes are able to jump out of the water and launch themselves into the air. Such behavior has been connected with prey capture, migration and predator avoidance. We found that jumping behavior of the guppy Poecilia reticulata is not associated with any of the above. The fish jump spontaneously, without being triggered by overt sensory cues, is not migratory and does not attempt to capture aerial food items. Here, we use high speed video imaging to analyze the kinematics of the jumping behavior P. reticulata. Fish jump from a still position by slowly backing up while using its pectoral fins, followed by strong body trusts which lead to launching into the air several body lengths. The liftoff phase of the jump is fast and fish will continue with whole body thrusts and tail beats, even when out of the water. This behavior occurs when fish are in a group or in isolation. Geography has had substantial effects on guppy evolution, with waterfalls reducing gene flow and constraining dispersal. We suggest that jumping has evolved in guppies as a behavioral phenotype for dispersal. PMID:23613883

Soares, Daphne; Bierman, Hilary S

2013-04-16

185

Aerial jumping in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many fishes are able to jump out of the water and launch themselves into the air. Such behavior has been connected with prey capture, migration and predator avoidance. We found that jumping behavior of the guppy Poecilia reticulata is not associated with any of the above. The fish jump spontaneously, without being triggered by overt sensory cues, is not migratory and does not attempt to capture aerial food items. Here, we use high speed video imaging to analyze the kinematics of the jumping behavior P. reticulata. Fish jump from a still position by slowly backing up while using its pectoral fins, followed by strong body trusts which lead to launching into the air several body lengths. The liftoff phase of the jump is fast and fish will continue with whole body thrusts and tail beats, even when out of the water. This behavior occurs when fish are in a group or in isolation. Geography has had substantial effects on guppy evolution, with waterfalls reducing gene flow and constraining dispersal. We suggest that jumping has evolved in guppies as a behavioral phenotype for dispersal.

Soares D; Bierman HS

2013-01-01

186

The effect of social environment during ontogeny on life history expression in the guppy Poecilia reticulata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of the social environment during development on life-history decisions and adult behaviour were assessed using male guppies Poecilia reticulata. Males raised with adults developed secondary sexual characteristics later than males raised either singly or with four of their siblings indicating social inhibition of maturation was evident in P. reticulata. There was no effect, however, of rearing environment on male behaviour. The results reveal that social environment during development can influence life-history decisions but is less important than immediate social context in determining male behavioural phenotype in P. reticulata.

Magellan K; Magurran AE

2009-07-01

187

Metacestodes of Glossocercus auritus (Cyclophyllidea, Gryporhynchidae) in Poecilia reticulata (Pisces, Poeciliidae) from Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies on fish parasites in Pampulha dam, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, found specimens of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 harboring natural infection by larval stages of tapeworms. A total of 250 specimens of P. reticulata were collected and analyzed between February and August 2010, of which 23 were found infected (prevalence 9.2%) with one metacestode each (mean intensity 1, mean abundance 0.09). The analyses of the parasites, particularly the morphology of rostellar hooks, made it possible to identify Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1818). This is the first report of G. auritus metacestode in South America and P. reticulata is a newly known host for this parasite.

Pinto HA; Melo AL

2011-04-01

188

The MC1R gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata): Genotypic and phenotypic polymorphisms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The guppy (Poecilia reticulata) is an important model organism for studying sexual selection; male guppies have complex and conspicuous pigmentation, and female guppies exhibit preferences for males with specific color spots. Understanding the genetic ba...

Tezuka Ayumi; Yamamoto Hiroaki; Yokoyama Jun; van Oosterhout Cock; Kawata Masakado

189

Blond: a regulatory gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859)  

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Full Text Available The present letter is a response to the paper ?Interallelic interaction between the autosomal Blond and the sex-linked Nigrocaudatus gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)? (Petrescu-Mag et al 2007).

Philip Shaddock

2008-01-01

190

Blond: a regulatory gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present letter is a response to the paper ?Interallelic interaction between the autosomal Blond and the sex-linked Nigrocaudatus gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)? (Petrescu-Mag et al 2007).

Philip Shaddock

191

Toxicological and cytogenetic assessment of a Salacia oblonga extract in a rat subchronic study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salacia oblonga holds potential as a natural method to mitigate the blood glucose response for people with diabetes by inhibiting the activity of intestinal alpha-glucosidases. As part of a safety evaluation of novel ingredients for use in blood glucose control, the toxicity of a S. oblonga root extract (SOE) was evaluated in a subchronic 90-day feeding study in rats. An in vivo-in vitro rat peripheral blood lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations assay was added at termination of the subchronic rat study to examine cultured lymphocytes for possible chromosomal aberration induction. This was conducted due to a previous weak; although reproducible, positive chromosomal aberrations response in cultured peripheral blood human lymphocytes after acute in vitro treatment with SOE. The present study results indicate that SOE was negative for the induction of chromosomal aberrations in cultured rat peripheral blood lymphocytes after 90 consecutive days of treatment with SOE. The no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) was determined to be 2,500 mg/kg/day following daily subchronic oral gavage administrations to rats.

Flammang AM; Erexson GL; Mirwald JM; Henwood SM

2007-10-01

192

Toxicological and cytogenetic assessment of a Salacia oblonga extract in a rat subchronic study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salacia oblonga holds potential as a natural method to mitigate the blood glucose response for people with diabetes by inhibiting the activity of intestinal alpha-glucosidases. As part of a safety evaluation of novel ingredients for use in blood glucose control, the toxicity of a S. oblonga root extract (SOE) was evaluated in a subchronic 90-day feeding study in rats. An in vivo-in vitro rat peripheral blood lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations assay was added at termination of the subchronic rat study to examine cultured lymphocytes for possible chromosomal aberration induction. This was conducted due to a previous weak; although reproducible, positive chromosomal aberrations response in cultured peripheral blood human lymphocytes after acute in vitro treatment with SOE. The present study results indicate that SOE was negative for the induction of chromosomal aberrations in cultured rat peripheral blood lymphocytes after 90 consecutive days of treatment with SOE. The no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) was determined to be 2,500 mg/kg/day following daily subchronic oral gavage administrations to rats. PMID:17566623

Flammang, A M; Erexson, G L; Mirwald, J M; Henwood, S M

2007-05-03

193

Salacia oblonga ameliorates hypertriglyceridemia and excessive ectopic fat accumulation in laying hens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Salacia oblonga root (SOR) is an Ayurvedic medicine for obesity and diabetes, those are associated with glucose and lipid metabolism. AIM OF THE STUDY: SOR has been demonstrated previously to improve glucose and lipid metabolism in animal models of obesity and diabetes and to be a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activator. However, the anti-obesogenic and anti-diabetic mechanisms of SOR are still not largely understood. Here, we investigated the effects of SOR on lipid metabolism using laying hen, a unique animal model with a very high rate of triglyceride synthesis in the liver. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Laying hens and preadolescent pullets were treated with the layer ration containing 0%, 0.5%, or 1% SOR water extract for 4 weeks. Biochemical variables were determined enzymatically. RESULTS: Laying hens showed much higher fasted triglyceride concentrations (increased by 5-13 folds) in plasma, liver, skeletal muscle and heart than pullets. 1% SOR extract treatment inhibited body weight increase without affecting food intake. Importantly, this treatment substantially attenuated hypertriglyceridemia and inhibited increases in triglyceride contents in the non-adipose tissues. However, SOR extract did not induce change in plasma glucose concentration. Moreover, SOR extract did not alter all variables in pullets. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that SOR ameliorates hypertriglyceridemia and excessive ectopic fat accumulation in laying hens. These findings suggest that the triglyceride-lowering property is one of the primary effects of SOR, possibly via hepatic mechanisms.

Wang J; Rong X; Li W; Yamahara J; Li Y

2012-06-01

194

Structures of new friedelane-type triterpenes and eudesmane-type sesquiterpene and aldose reductase inhibitors from Salacia chinensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three new friedelane-type triterpenes named salasones A (1), B (2), and C (3), a new norfriedelane-type triterpene, salaquinone A (4), and a new acylated eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, salasol A (5), were isolated from the 80% aqueous methanolic extract of the stems of Salacia chinensis collected in Thailand. Their stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. In addition, six constituents, 3beta,22beta-dihydroxyolean-12-en-29-oic acid, tingenone, tingenine B, regeol A, triptocalline A, and mangiferin, were found to show an inhibitory effect on rat lens aldose reductase.

Morikawa T; Kishi A; Pongpiriyadacha Y; Matsuda H; Yoshikawa M

2003-09-01

195

Structures of new friedelane-type triterpenes and eudesmane-type sesquiterpene and aldose reductase inhibitors from Salacia chinensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three new friedelane-type triterpenes named salasones A (1), B (2), and C (3), a new norfriedelane-type triterpene, salaquinone A (4), and a new acylated eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, salasol A (5), were isolated from the 80% aqueous methanolic extract of the stems of Salacia chinensis collected in Thailand. Their stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. In addition, six constituents, 3beta,22beta-dihydroxyolean-12-en-29-oic acid, tingenone, tingenine B, regeol A, triptocalline A, and mangiferin, were found to show an inhibitory effect on rat lens aldose reductase. PMID:14510595

Morikawa, Toshio; Kishi, Akinobu; Pongpiriyadacha, Yutana; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

2003-09-01

196

Cryptosporidium muris in a reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptosporidium spp. infection in captive exotic mammals was investigated using staining and molecular biological methods. A total of 323 fecal samples from 100 mammalian species (62 Artiodactyla, 33 Rodentia, 3 Perissodactyla, and 2 Paenungultata) in 4 zoological gardens in the Czech Republic was examined. Only in a reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) sample was Cryptosporidium sp. infection detected. The partial small subunit rRNA sequence obtained from the isolate was identical to sequences of Cryptosporidium muris in rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) and Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus). Neonatal BALB/c mice inoculated with 1 x 10(3) fresh oocysts of the C. muris giraffe isolate did not produce a detectable infection. PMID:19685941

Kodádková, A; Kvác, M; Ditrich, O; Sak, B; Xiao, L

2010-02-01

197

Colonic obstruction in three captive reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fatal colonic obstructions were diagnosed in three captive, adult, reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). Clinical presentations varied, but all cases displayed decreased activity, anorexia, and considerably decreased fecal production, consistent with intestinal obstruction. Case 1 was diagnosed at necropsy with a phytobezoar obstructing the spiral colon. Case 2 was diagnosed at necropsy with a fecal impaction of the colon. Case 3 was diagnosed during surgery with colonic ileus. Cases 2 and 3 underwent surgical intervention but were markedly compromised by the time of surgery and died during surgery or 24 hr postoperatively. Gastrointestinal obstruction, requiring aggressive supportive care and early surgical intervention, should be considered in giraffe in which anorexia and substantially decreased fecal production are observed. Abdominal exploratory surgery will likely be necessary for diagnosis and treatment. Based on a small number of cases, gastrointestinal obstruction has a poor prognosis in giraffe.

Davis MR; Langan JN; Mylniczenko ND; Benson K; Lamberski N; Ramer J

2009-03-01

198

Colonic obstruction in three captive reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatal colonic obstructions were diagnosed in three captive, adult, reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). Clinical presentations varied, but all cases displayed decreased activity, anorexia, and considerably decreased fecal production, consistent with intestinal obstruction. Case 1 was diagnosed at necropsy with a phytobezoar obstructing the spiral colon. Case 2 was diagnosed at necropsy with a fecal impaction of the colon. Case 3 was diagnosed during surgery with colonic ileus. Cases 2 and 3 underwent surgical intervention but were markedly compromised by the time of surgery and died during surgery or 24 hr postoperatively. Gastrointestinal obstruction, requiring aggressive supportive care and early surgical intervention, should be considered in giraffe in which anorexia and substantially decreased fecal production are observed. Abdominal exploratory surgery will likely be necessary for diagnosis and treatment. Based on a small number of cases, gastrointestinal obstruction has a poor prognosis in giraffe. PMID:19368259

Davis, Michelle R; Langan, Jennifer N; Mylniczenko, Natalie D; Benson, Keith; Lamberski, Nadine; Ramer, Jan

2009-03-01

199

Viscous polysaccharide and starch synthesis in Rhodella reticulata (Porphyridiales, Rhodophyta)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rhodella reticulata Deason, Butler and Rhyne produces copious amounts of a viscous polysaccharide (VP) during growth in batch cultures. The VPs accumulated on the cell surface and in the culture medium once cells ceased growth; starch concurrently accumulated within the cells. Light-saturated 14C-uptake declined steadily as the cells aged. Net synthesis rates for starch and mucilage were two- and four-fold lower, respectively, in non-growing cells than in growing cells, while the relative partitioning of newly-fixed carbon into these materials was not different. These data suggest that total photosynthetic loading, rather than partitioning into one specific pool, controls cellular synthesis rates. No preferential synthesis of VPs occurred during the stationary phase. The findings have important implications for the commercial production of VPs.

1990-01-01

200

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for Plathymenia reticulata (Fabaceae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for use in population genetic studies of Plathymenia reticulata (Fabaceae), a tropical tree widespread in the Atlantic Forest and cerrado biomes of South America. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nine microsatellite markers were developed using a simple sequence repeat-enriched library. Polymorphism was analyzed in 51 individuals from two populations. All loci were polymorphic, with the number of alleles per loci ranging from five to 15 (mean number of alleles: 10.22). Observed and expected heterozygosities per loci and population ranged from 0.313 to 1.000 and 0.280 to 0.869, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These highly informative loci are potentially useful to estimate population genetic structure and to understand evolutionary processes and taxonomy of the species.

Cruz MV; Rodrigues JG; Souza HA; Lovato MB

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
201

Quality control of Citri reticulatae pericarpium: exploratory analysis and discrimination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts of Citri reticulatae pericarpium (PCR) are commonly used in the Traditional Chinese Medicine. The quality control of PCR is currently performed by single marker analysis, which can hardly describe the complexity of such natural samples. In this study, a fingerprint methodology for PCR based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed and validated. A total of 69 fingerprints of authenticated PCR samples, commercial PCR samples, mixed peel samples, and other Citrus peels were recorded. Exploratory data analysis allowed optimizing the extraction procedure and detecting mixed peel samples. Once the optimizations were performed and the method validated, discrimination between the authentic PCR samples and all other samples was performed by p-Discriminant Partial Least Squares. The established model was able to differentiate between classes with a high reliability for each sample. Furthermore, evaluation of the score and loading plots of the model indicated nobiletin, tangeretin, naringin and hesperidin as important markers for the quality control of PCR. PMID:21962354

Tistaert, Christophe; Thierry, Line; Szandrach, Andrzej; Dejaegher, B; Fan, Guorong; Frédérich, Michel; Vander Heyden, Yvan

2011-04-22

202

Quality control of Citri reticulatae pericarpium: exploratory analysis and discrimination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Extracts of Citri reticulatae pericarpium (PCR) are commonly used in the Traditional Chinese Medicine. The quality control of PCR is currently performed by single marker analysis, which can hardly describe the complexity of such natural samples. In this study, a fingerprint methodology for PCR based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed and validated. A total of 69 fingerprints of authenticated PCR samples, commercial PCR samples, mixed peel samples, and other Citrus peels were recorded. Exploratory data analysis allowed optimizing the extraction procedure and detecting mixed peel samples. Once the optimizations were performed and the method validated, discrimination between the authentic PCR samples and all other samples was performed by p-Discriminant Partial Least Squares. The established model was able to differentiate between classes with a high reliability for each sample. Furthermore, evaluation of the score and loading plots of the model indicated nobiletin, tangeretin, naringin and hesperidin as important markers for the quality control of PCR.

Tistaert C; Thierry L; Szandrach A; Dejaegher B; Fan G; Frédérich M; Vander Heyden Y

2011-10-01

203

Quantitative analysis of neosalacinol and neokotalanol, another two potent ?-glucosidase inhibitors from Salacia species, by LC-MS with ion pair chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

A quantitative analytical method for the highly polar sulfonium pseudo-sugar constituents neosalacinol (3) and neokotalanol (4), another two potent ?-glucosidase inhibitors isolated from Ayurvedic traditional medicine Salacia species, was developed by employing an ion pair reagent upon chromatographic separation. The optimum conditions for separation and detection of these two constituents were achieved on an ODS column (3-µm particle size, 2.1-mm i.d. × 100 mm) with 5 mM undecafluorohexanoic acid-MeOH (99:1, v/v) as the mobile phase and using MS equipped with an electrospray ionization source. More than ten samples of Salacia from different origins were analyzed, and the results indicated that the assay was reproducible and precise and could be readily utilized for evaluation of ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Salacia species. By combining this assay with the quantitative analytical method previously developed for salacinol (1) and kotalanol (2), a more precise and strict evaluation of ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of extracts from Salacia species (R = 0.959 for maltase and 0.795 for sucrase) was achieved. PMID:20981499

Muraoka, Osamu; Morikawa, Toshio; Miyake, Sohachiro; Akaki, Junji; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Pongpiriyadacha, Yutana; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

2010-10-28

204

Quantitative analysis of neosalacinol and neokotalanol, another two potent ?-glucosidase inhibitors from Salacia species, by LC-MS with ion pair chromatography.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A quantitative analytical method for the highly polar sulfonium pseudo-sugar constituents neosalacinol (3) and neokotalanol (4), another two potent ?-glucosidase inhibitors isolated from Ayurvedic traditional medicine Salacia species, was developed by employing an ion pair reagent upon chromatographic separation. The optimum conditions for separation and detection of these two constituents were achieved on an ODS column (3-µm particle size, 2.1-mm i.d. × 100 mm) with 5 mM undecafluorohexanoic acid-MeOH (99:1, v/v) as the mobile phase and using MS equipped with an electrospray ionization source. More than ten samples of Salacia from different origins were analyzed, and the results indicated that the assay was reproducible and precise and could be readily utilized for evaluation of ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Salacia species. By combining this assay with the quantitative analytical method previously developed for salacinol (1) and kotalanol (2), a more precise and strict evaluation of ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of extracts from Salacia species (R = 0.959 for maltase and 0.795 for sucrase) was achieved.

Muraoka O; Morikawa T; Miyake S; Akaki J; Ninomiya K; Pongpiriyadacha Y; Yoshikawa M

2011-01-01

205

Induction of seedlessness in kinow (citrus reticulata blanco) with gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Dormant budwood of KINNOW mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) were subjected to acute exposures of gamma radiations. Doses of 0, 40, 60, 80 and 120 Gy were applied at ambient temperature (25 -+ 2 deg. C) with air as the medium of irradiation. The irradiated and un-irradiated scions were grafted onto 2 years old Citrus jambhiri rootstock already established in the field using the side-graft technique. Based on the bud survival percentage, Ld-50 was found to be 18.5 Gy under field conditions. A sparsely seeded (2 - 8 seeds/fruit) mutant was detected in the mV/sub 1/ progeny of shoots from 20 Gy exposed buds. The induced sparse seedy character was retained by the mV/sub 2/ and mV/sub 3/ propagations. Parent Kinnow contained 18-28 seeds per fruit. The peel of mutant Kinnows was thicker which may protect the fruit during transit and may compensate for the slightly lower juice yield as compared to parent Kinnow. Sparsely seeded mutant Kinnow fruit and plant resembled with the parent kinnow in most of the morphological, physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics. (author)

2000-01-01

206

Acute toxic effects of fenpyroximate acaricide on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fenpyroximate (FP), an acaricide, is widely used in the prevention of acarids (mites) in fruit plant gardens. In this study, the acute toxic effects of different concentrations of FP were investigated using adult guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859). Guppy adults were exposed to a range of FP concentrations (25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 µg/L) during 48 h. Static method, which is one of the acute toxicity experiments, has been used in this study. According to probit analysis, the 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) value of FP at 26°C was found to be 72.821 µg/L. Sublethal exposures were predetermined based on 48-h LC50 value. Guppies were exposed to low concentrations (15, 25, and 50 µg/L) of FP for 48 h. Signs of paralysis and behavior deformations were monitored every 12 h in a number of live and dead adults. Low concentrations of FP were also responsible for erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, and being lethargic. Liver histology revealed several pathological damages including congestion, picnotic nucleus, sinusoidal dilatation, increase in melanomacrophagic centers, and endothelial degeneration. Finally, the toxicity test results provided 48-h LC50 value for FP, and low concentrations of FP can be highly detrimental to guppy adults with clear evidence of behavioral and histologic effects.

Dogan N; Yazici Z; Sisman T; Askin H

2013-09-01

207

Acute toxic effects of fenpyroximate acaricide on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859).  

Science.gov (United States)

Fenpyroximate (FP), an acaricide, is widely used in the prevention of acarids (mites) in fruit plant gardens. In this study, the acute toxic effects of different concentrations of FP were investigated using adult guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859). Guppy adults were exposed to a range of FP concentrations (25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 µg/L) during 48 h. Static method, which is one of the acute toxicity experiments, has been used in this study. According to probit analysis, the 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) value of FP at 26°C was found to be 72.821 µg/L. Sublethal exposures were predetermined based on 48-h LC50 value. Guppies were exposed to low concentrations (15, 25, and 50 µg/L) of FP for 48 h. Signs of paralysis and behavior deformations were monitored every 12 h in a number of live and dead adults. Low concentrations of FP were also responsible for erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, and being lethargic. Liver histology revealed several pathological damages including congestion, picnotic nucleus, sinusoidal dilatation, increase in melanomacrophagic centers, and endothelial degeneration. Finally, the toxicity test results provided 48-h LC50 value for FP, and low concentrations of FP can be highly detrimental to guppy adults with clear evidence of behavioral and histologic effects. PMID:22508399

Dogan, Nesli; Yazici, Zehra; Sisman, Turgay; Askin, Hakan

2012-04-16

208

Pollution Effect on the Cambial Structure of Citrus reticulata var. tangelos  

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Full Text Available This study includes investigation of the effect of pollution (radiations and coal-smoke) on the structure of vascular cambium of Citrus reticulata var. tangelos of family Rutaceae. The results obtained from the observations clearly shows that the plants under investigation shows a retarded radial growth under the influence of radiations as the length of fusiform initials reduces from 240 ?m under normal condition to 204 ?m under irradiated condition while the width of fusiform initial shows a similar decrease from 12 to 9 ?m. A similar trend is observed for ray initials where the anticlinal and periclinal diameter decreases from 12/10 to 10/9 ?m, respectively. In case of coal smoke pollution results obtained were almost similar to those under normal condition. The length of fusiform initials decreased considerably from 240 to 216 ?m while the width of fusiform initials is almost constant and is 11 ?m. Similarly the periclinal diameter shows constancy and is 10 ?m while the anticlinal diameter decreases slightly to 11 ?m. The ratio of ray to fusiform initials also shows variation from 23% under normal condition to 28% under radiations and 24% under coal smoke pollution.

Moin A. Khan; M. Badruzzaman Siddiqui; Saima Bhat; Danish Shahab

2007-01-01

209

Salacia oblonga improves cardiac fibrosis and inhibits postprandial hyperglycemia in obese Zucker rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetes has a markedly greater incidence of cardiovascular disease than the non-diabetic population. The heart shows a slowly developing increase in fibrosis in diabetes. Extended cardiac fibrosis results in increased myocardial stiffness, causing ventricular dysfunction and, ultimately, heart failure. Reversal of fibrosis may improve organ function survival. Postprandial hyperglycemia plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications, and has been proposed as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Salacia oblonga (S.O.) is traditionally used in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. We investigated the effects of its water extract on cardiac fibrosis and hyperglycemia in a genetic model of type 2 diabetes, the obese Zucker rat (OZR). Chronic administration of the extract markedly improved interstitial and perivascular fibrosis in the hearts of the OZR. It also reduced plasma glucose levels in non-fasted OZR, whereas it had little effect in the fasted animals, suggesting inhibition of postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic animals, which might play a role in improvement of the cardiac complications of OZR. Furthermore, S.O. markedly suppressed the overexpression of mRNAs encoding transforming growth factor betas 1 and 3 in the OZR heart, which may be an important part of the overall molecular mechanisms. S.O. dose-dependently inhibited the increase of plasma glucose in sucrose-, but not in glucose-loaded mice. S.O. demonstrated a strong inhibition of alpha-glucosidase activity in vitro, which is suggested to contribute to the improvement of postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:15268973

Li, Yuhao; Peng, Gang; Li, Qian; Wen, Suping; Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Roufogalis, Basil D; Yamahara, Johji

2004-08-20

210

Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect of salacia oblonga in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a standardized hydroalcoholic root extract of Sala¬cia oblonga (SOE) on the Random Blood Glucose (RBG) levels, serum insulin, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and the serum lipid profile in long standing, experimentally induced Diabetes Mellitus (DM) with glibenclamide (Glb) as the standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Streptozotocin (STZ) induced, dia-betic, Wistar rats of either sex were treated with two oral doses of SOE, 100 and 50mg/kg body wt /day, for a period of 16 weeks. The RBG was estimated at day-1 and at the end of the 16 weeks by using a glucometer. The fasting serum insulin was determined by an ELISA technique. The plasma HbA1c was evaluated by a Turbidimetric Inhibition Immunoassay (TINIA) and the lipid profile was estimated enzymatically. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS: A 45% decrease in the RBG was seen after the treatment with the higher dose of SOE, whereas a 44% decrease was observed with the lower dose as com¬pared to the diabetic control. Serum insulin was significantly increased (P<0.05) in all the treated groups as compared to the diabetic control. Plasma HbA1c was significantly decreased (P<0.05). The serum Triacyl Glycerol (TG) levels were signifi¬cantly decreased (P<0.05) in the treated rats as compared to the diabetic control. A significant increase in HDL-cholesterol (P<0.05) in the diabetic rats as a result of the 100mg/kg SOE treatment was a remarkable finding. CONCLUSION: SOE improves the glycaemic parameters in diabetic rats after a prolonged treatment. The serum TG levels were normalized on treatment. A higher dose of the extract could not alter the parameters significantly, except for HDL-C.

Bhat BM; C V R; D'Souza V; Manjrekar PA

2012-12-01

211

Salacia oblonga improves cardiac fibrosis and inhibits postprandial hyperglycemia in obese Zucker rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Diabetes has a markedly greater incidence of cardiovascular disease than the non-diabetic population. The heart shows a slowly developing increase in fibrosis in diabetes. Extended cardiac fibrosis results in increased myocardial stiffness, causing ventricular dysfunction and, ultimately, heart failure. Reversal of fibrosis may improve organ function survival. Postprandial hyperglycemia plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications, and has been proposed as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Salacia oblonga (S.O.) is traditionally used in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. We investigated the effects of its water extract on cardiac fibrosis and hyperglycemia in a genetic model of type 2 diabetes, the obese Zucker rat (OZR). Chronic administration of the extract markedly improved interstitial and perivascular fibrosis in the hearts of the OZR. It also reduced plasma glucose levels in non-fasted OZR, whereas it had little effect in the fasted animals, suggesting inhibition of postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic animals, which might play a role in improvement of the cardiac complications of OZR. Furthermore, S.O. markedly suppressed the overexpression of mRNAs encoding transforming growth factor betas 1 and 3 in the OZR heart, which may be an important part of the overall molecular mechanisms. S.O. dose-dependently inhibited the increase of plasma glucose in sucrose-, but not in glucose-loaded mice. S.O. demonstrated a strong inhibition of alpha-glucosidase activity in vitro, which is suggested to contribute to the improvement of postprandial hyperglycemia.

Li Y; Peng G; Li Q; Wen S; Huang TH; Roufogalis BD; Yamahara J

2004-08-01

212

Geographical variation in allometry in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Variation in static allometry, the power relationship between character size and body size among individuals at similar developmental stages, remains poorly understood. We tested whether predation or other ecological factors could affect static allometry by comparing the allometry between the caudal fin length and the body length in adult male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) among populations from different geographical areas, exposed to different predation pressures. Neither the allometric slopes nor the allometric elevations (intercept at constant slope) changed with predation pressure. However, populations from the Northern Range in Trinidad showed allometry with similar slopes but lower intercepts than populations from the Caroni and the Oropouche drainages. Because most of these populations are exposed to predation by the prawn Macrobrachium crenulatum, we speculated that the specific selection pressures exerted by this predator generated this change in relative caudal fin size, although effects of other environmental factors could not be ruled out. This study further suggests that the allometric elevation is more variable than the allometric slope. PMID:21955207

Egset, C K; Bolstad, G H; Rosenqvist, G; Endler, J A; Pélabon, C

2011-09-28

213

Larvicidal activity of Copaifera reticulata ducke oil-resin against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) Atividade larvicida do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata sobre Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)  

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Full Text Available The appearance of resistance of Culex quinquefasciatus Say to chemical insecticides and the modification of the susceptibility of this mosquito to pyrethroid has stimulated studies on the activity of plants as alternative for its control. In this study, bioassays were carried out to verify the larvicidal activity of the oil-resin of Copaifera reticulata on C. quinquefasciatus. The bioassays were carried out with the oil dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), at the proportion of 0.4 ml of DMSO to 24.6 ml of distilled water. For each instar, the bioassays were carried out in plastic glasses with 100 ml solution using 20 larvae, wit four replications to adjust the lethal concentrations. The mortality observations were made after 48h exposure of the larvae to the solution. The control was carried out in distilled water and DMSO, with the same number of replications as the bioassays. The experiments were carried out in a biological chamber, controlled at 28 ± 1°C, 80 ± 5% relative humidity and 12h light. The larvae without movement were considered dead. The C. reticulata oil-resin demonstrated larvicide activity for all the C. quinquefasciatus instars. The LC50 found for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instars were: 0.4, 0.9, 39 and 80 ppm, and the LC99 were 15, 15, 50 and 180 ppm, respectively.A evolução de resistência de Culex quinquefasciatus Say aos inseticidas sintéticos e a modificação da suscetibilidade desse mosquito aos piretróides, estimularam estudos sobre a atividade de plantas inseticidas, como alternativa para o seu controle. Neste trabalho foram realizados ensaios biológicos para verificar a atividade larvicida do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata sobre C. quinquefasciatus. Para a realização dos bioensaios o óleo-resina foi solubilizado com dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO), na proporção de 0,4 ml do DMSO para 24,6 ml de água destilada. Para cada estádio, os bioensaios foram realizados em copos descartáveis, contendo 100 ml de solução na qual colocavam-se 20 larvas, com quatro réplicas para ajuste das concentrações letais. As leituras de mortalidade foram feitas após 48h de exposição das larvas à solução. O controle foi feito em água destilada e DMSO, com o mesmo número de réplicas dos bioensaios. Os experimentos foram realizados numa câmara biológica, climatizada a 28 ± 1°C, umidade relativa de 80 ± 5 % e fotofase de 12h e posteriormente, no campo. Foram consideradas mortas as larvas que não possuíam movimentos. O óleo-resina de C. reticulata demonstrou atividade larvicida para todos os estádios de C. quinquefasciatus. As LC50 encontradas para larvas de 1º, 2º, 3º e 4º estádios foram de 0,4; 0,9; 39 e 80 ppm, e as LC99 foram de 15; 15; 50 e 180 ppm, respectivamente.

Ionizete G. Silva; Valéria O.M. Zanon; Heloisa H.G. Silva

2003-01-01

214

Larvicidal activity of Copaifera reticulata ducke oil-resin against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)/ Atividade larvicida do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata sobre Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A evolução de resistência de Culex quinquefasciatus Say aos inseticidas sintéticos e a modificação da suscetibilidade desse mosquito aos piretróides, estimularam estudos sobre a atividade de plantas inseticidas, como alternativa para o seu controle. Neste trabalho foram realizados ensaios biológicos para verificar a atividade larvicida do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata sobre C. quinquefasciatus. Para a realização dos bioensaios o óleo-resina foi solubiliz (more) ado com dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO), na proporção de 0,4 ml do DMSO para 24,6 ml de água destilada. Para cada estádio, os bioensaios foram realizados em copos descartáveis, contendo 100 ml de solução na qual colocavam-se 20 larvas, com quatro réplicas para ajuste das concentrações letais. As leituras de mortalidade foram feitas após 48h de exposição das larvas à solução. O controle foi feito em água destilada e DMSO, com o mesmo número de réplicas dos bioensaios. Os experimentos foram realizados numa câmara biológica, climatizada a 28 ± 1°C, umidade relativa de 80 ± 5 % e fotofase de 12h e posteriormente, no campo. Foram consideradas mortas as larvas que não possuíam movimentos. O óleo-resina de C. reticulata demonstrou atividade larvicida para todos os estádios de C. quinquefasciatus. As LC50 encontradas para larvas de 1º, 2º, 3º e 4º estádios foram de 0,4; 0,9; 39 e 80 ppm, e as LC99 foram de 15; 15; 50 e 180 ppm, respectivamente. Abstract in english The appearance of resistance of Culex quinquefasciatus Say to chemical insecticides and the modification of the susceptibility of this mosquito to pyrethroid has stimulated studies on the activity of plants as alternative for its control. In this study, bioassays were carried out to verify the larvicidal activity of the oil-resin of Copaifera reticulata on C. quinquefasciatus. The bioassays were carried out with the oil dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), at the propor (more) tion of 0.4 ml of DMSO to 24.6 ml of distilled water. For each instar, the bioassays were carried out in plastic glasses with 100 ml solution using 20 larvae, wit four replications to adjust the lethal concentrations. The mortality observations were made after 48h exposure of the larvae to the solution. The control was carried out in distilled water and DMSO, with the same number of replications as the bioassays. The experiments were carried out in a biological chamber, controlled at 28 ± 1°C, 80 ± 5% relative humidity and 12h light. The larvae without movement were considered dead. The C. reticulata oil-resin demonstrated larvicide activity for all the C. quinquefasciatus instars. The LC50 found for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instars were: 0.4, 0.9, 39 and 80 ppm, and the LC99 were 15, 15, 50 and 180 ppm, respectively.

Silva, Ionizete G.; Zanon, Valéria O.M.; Silva, Heloisa H.G.

2003-12-01

215

Isolation and antioxidant property of the extracellular polysaccharide from Rhodella reticulata  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The extracellular polysaccharide from Rhodella reticulata was separated from the culture medium followed by concentration and ethanol precipitation, and purified by anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow. This study compared the free radical-scavenging property and antioxidant activity with various treatments of crude extracellular polysaccharides of R. reticulata. The results showed that both the crude extracellular polysaccharide and deproteinized crude extracellular polysaccharide gave evidence of the free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner. The crude extracellular polysaccharide exhibited higher free radical scavenging capacity and better antioxidant activity than the various treatments of crude extracellular polysaccharide samples. The superoxide anion radical scavenging ability of various samples was significantly higher compared to standard antioxidant (?-tocopherol). These results indicate that the extracellular polysaccharide of R. reticulata is a potent natural antioxidant.

Chen Bilian; You Wenlang; Huang Jian; Yu Ying; Chen Weiping

2010-05-01

216

Moisture adsorption-desorption isotherms of Citrus reticulata leaves at three temperatures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The equilibrium moisture contents of Citrus reticulata leaves were measured by the gravimetric static method. The equilibrium was achieved after 12 days for desorption and 10 days for adsorption at 30, 40 and 50 degrees C with water activity ranging from 5% to 90%. The sorption isotherms of C. reticulata leaves decreased with increase in temperature at constant relative humidity. An hysteresis effect was observed. The experimental data of sorption were fitted by six models (Modified Henderson, Modified Chung-Pfost, Modified Oswin, Modified Halsey, GAB and Modified BET). Only the GAB and modified BET models were found to be the most suitable for describing the sorption curves. The net isosteric heat of sorption of C. reticulata leaves decreases with an increase in moisture content and was found to be a polynomial function of moisture content for adsorption and desorption.

Jamali A; Kouhila M; Mohamed LA; Idlimam A; Lamharrar A

2006-11-01

217

The Effects of Gokshura, Tribulus terrestris on Sex Reversal of Guppy, Poecilia reticulata  

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Full Text Available This study examined the effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on sex reversal in guppy, Poecilia reticulata. The objective of this study was to introduce a new environmentally friendly method for masculinization in P. reticulata. Since male guppy has higher commercial value than female. TT is a natural, non-toxic herb which helps enhance testosterone levels in human and animals. It was prepared in a laboratory in France. Different concentration (0.0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 g L-1) of TT was investigated for sex reversal in the Poecilia reticulata. TT extract was administered by immersion of newly born offspring once weekly for two months. Among the dosages used in the present study 0.15 g L-1 TT was the most effective dosage that ensured maximum male ratio (80%, p-1 TT were not significantly different from the expected 1:1 ratio, in these two groups treatment with TT also result in higher number of males (58.25 and 59.77%, respectively), than control (p>0.05). Total survival rates in all treatments and control were uniformly high ranging from 83 to 87% (p>0.05). It is concluded that TT has no negative effect on survival rate of P. reticulata. All groups of TT-treated fish exhibited successful growth acceleration comparing to the control group, but only TT treatment at the concentration of 0.15 and 0.1 g L-1 TT significantly improved growth rate of P. reticulata (pP. reticulata demonstrated that TT treated new-born progenies showed successful sex reversal, spermatogenesis and better growth rate than untreated progenies.

Oehriban cek; Funda Turan; Esin Atik

2007-01-01

218

HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN POECILIA RETICULATA AFTER INTERACTION OF IONIZING RADIATION AND ZINC SULFID  

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Full Text Available In our experiment we have studied interaction of ionizing radiation and zinc at Poecilia reticulata. Fish were irradiated with a 20 Gy of gamma-rays. Zinc sulphate in concentration 25 mg.l-1 was added to water in aquarium. Food intake, clinicl symptoms and histological changes were followed after gamma-irradiation and zinc sulfid in guppy Poecilia reticulata. In the first days timidity and lethargy were observed. The most prominent clinical symptoms observed were emaciation, hampered breathing and haemorrhages. Histological findings corresponded with these symptoms.doi:10.5219/228

Viera Almasiova; Andrej Ren?ko; Katarína Holovská; Michaela Špalková

2012-01-01

219

Determination of the Presence of Huanglongbing in Seeds and Movement of the Pathogen in Citrus reticulata  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening disease is a fastidious phloem-inhabiting bacterium in the genus Candidatus Liberibacter. Using universal primers, the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence of three strains of the bacterium were obtained by PCR. However there is very little information on seed transmission and HLB pathogen movement to find a way for control or reduce the severity of HLB on the field. The study was conducted to detect HLB pathogen in seeds of Citrus, to determine pathogen movement in citrus seedling after infection and to detect the HLB pathogen in citrus roots. Approach: Seeds of Citrus reticulata cv. Limau Madu were collected from infected orchard and were germinated in screenhouse condition. The seeds of Citrus reticlata cv. L. Madu were planted in screenhouse too for HLB pathogen movement and HLB detection in roots. The seedlings were inoculated using infected grafting methods. Results: HLB was not amplified in new seedlings after germination. HLB moved slowly reaching up to 1.5 cm after 2 weeks, 1.5-4.5 cm after eight weeks and detected on 4.5-9 cm after 14 weeks below the grafting area. HLB was also detected up to 9-15 cm after 16 weeks, 15-24 cm after twenty weeks, 24-28.5 cm after 22 weeks and 28.5-30 cm after 24 weeks below the grafting area. Conclusion: Base on conventional PCR test, HLB disease in citrus is not seed borne and it can reach to the roots 26 weeks after inoculation.

Hajivand Shokrollah; Thohirah L. Abdullah; Kamaruzaman Sijam; Siti N.A. Abdullah

2009-01-01

220

Intrinsic and integrative properties of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The GABA projection neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) are output neurons for the basal ganglia and thus critical for movement control. Their most striking neurophysiological feature is sustained, spontaneous high frequency spike firing. A fundamental question is: what are the key ion channels supporting the remarkable firing capability in these neurons? Recent studies indicate that these neurons express tonically active type 3 transient receptor potential (TRPC3) channels that conduct a Na-dependent inward current even at hyperpolarized membrane potentials. When the membrane potential reaches -60 mV, a voltage-gated persistent sodium current (I(NaP)) starts to activate, further depolarizing the membrane potential. At or slightly below -50 mV, the large transient voltage-activated sodium current (I(NaT)) starts to activate and eventually triggers the rapid rising phase of action potentials. SNr GABA neurons have a higher density of I(NaT), contributing to the faster rise and larger amplitude of action potentials, compared with the slow-spiking dopamine neurons. I(NaT) also recovers from inactivation more quickly in SNr GABA neurons than in nigral dopamine neurons. In SNr GABA neurons, the rising phase of the action potential triggers the activation of high-threshold, inactivation-resistant Kv3-like channels that can rapidly repolarize the membrane. These intrinsic ion channels provide SNr GABA neurons with the ability to fire spontaneous and sustained high frequency spikes. Additionally, robust GABA inputs from direct pathway medium spiny neurons in the striatum and GABA neurons in the globus pallidus may inhibit and silence SNr GABA neurons, whereas glutamate synaptic input from the subthalamic nucleus may induce burst firing in SNr GABA neurons. Thus, afferent GABA and glutamate synaptic inputs sculpt the tonic high frequency firing of SNr GABA neurons and the consequent inhibition of their targets into an integrated motor control signal that is further fine-tuned by neuromodulators including dopamine, serotonin, endocannabinoids, and H?O?.

Zhou FM; Lee CR

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
221

Absolute structures of new megastigmane glycosides, foliasalaciosides E(1), E(2), E(3), F, G, H, and I from the leaves of Salacia chinensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the investigation of foliasalaciosides A(1), A(2), B(1), B(2), C, and D, seven new megastigmane glycosides named foliasalaciosides E(1)-I (1-7), together with four known constituents, were isolated from the leaves of Salacia chinensis LINN. collected in Thailand. The absolute stereostructures of the new compounds were characterized on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence, including the application of the modified Mosher's method. PMID:18379106

Zhang, Yi; Nakamura, Seikou; Pongpiriyadacha, Yutana; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

2008-04-01

222

Absolute structures of new megastigmane glycosides, foliasalaciosides E(1), E(2), E(3), F, G, H, and I from the leaves of Salacia chinensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Following the investigation of foliasalaciosides A(1), A(2), B(1), B(2), C, and D, seven new megastigmane glycosides named foliasalaciosides E(1)-I (1-7), together with four known constituents, were isolated from the leaves of Salacia chinensis LINN. collected in Thailand. The absolute stereostructures of the new compounds were characterized on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence, including the application of the modified Mosher's method.

Zhang Y; Nakamura S; Pongpiriyadacha Y; Matsuda H; Yoshikawa M

2008-04-01

223

Molecular and Biological Characterization of a Cryptosporidium molnari-Like Isolate from a Guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

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Histological, morphological, genetic, and phylogenetic analyses of a Cryptosporidium molnari-like isolate from a guppy (Poecilia reticulata) identified stages consistent with those of C. molnari and revealed that C. molnari is genetically very distinct from all other species of Cryptosporidium. This...

Ryan, Una; O'Hara, Amanda; Xiao, Lihua

224

PROLIFERATIVE LESIONS IN SWIMBLADDER OF JAPANESE MEDAKA ORYZIAS LATIPES AND GUPPY POECILIA RETICULATA  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirteen cases of proliferative lesions of the swimbladder were encountered in Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes and guppy Poecilia reticulata from about 10,000 medaka and 5,000 guppies used in carcinogenicity tests and histologically examined. Two of the four cases from medaka and...

225

ADENOCARCINOMA OF THE RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM IN THE GUPPY POECILIA RETICULATA PETERS  

Science.gov (United States)

A single case of adenocarcinoma of the retinal pigment epithelium occurred in a guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters. his is the first such tumor reported from fishes. he left eye of the affected fish was severely exophthalmic because of a large intraocular tumor mass. he tumor, whi...

226

The effects of chronic irradiation on the breeding performance of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Osteichthyes: Teleostei)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of chronic irradiation on the life-time breeding performance of the small tropical fish, Poecilia reticulata, have been investigated at mean dose-rates of 0.17, 0.40 and 1.27 rad hour-1. The total fecundity was markedly (P

1977-01-01

227

Joint toxicity of mixtures of groups of organic aquatic pollutants to the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

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In this study acute lethal concentrations (LC50) to the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) were determined for mixtures of 4 groups of aquatic pollutants. The groups were composed of 11 nonreactive, nonionized organic chemicals, 11 chloroanilines, 11 chlorophenols, and 9 reactive organic halides. Earlier s...

Hermens, J.L.M.; Leeuwangh, Peter; Musch, Aalt

228

Enhancement of stress resistance of the guppy Poecilia reticulata through feeding with vitamin C supplement  

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This study investigated the use of vitamin C supplement in formulated diets and live Artemia juveniles to enhance the stress resistance of the guppy Poecilia reticulata. To evaluate the stress resistance, fish were subjected to osmotic shock in pre-aerated water containing 35 ppt sodiu...

Lim, L.C.; Dhert, P.; Chew, W.Y.; Dermaux, V.; Nelis, H.; Sorgeloos, P.

229

Insemination efficiency of two alternative male mating tactics in the guppy Poecilia reticulata  

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In this study we compared the insemination efficiency of two alternative mating tactics (courtship and sneak mating) in the guppy Poecilia reticulata by quantifying the number of sperm delivered during a copulation. During a single copulation, guppies delivered between zero and 92% of the sperm avai...

Pilastro, A.; Bisazza, A.

230

Population differentiation and sexual isolation among Poecilia reticulata (the guppy) populations  

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Guppy populations in Trinidad have been a model for studies of evolutionary ecology and sexual selection. This thesis extends these studies to examine the phylogeographic history of Poecilia reticulata Peters (the guppy), and to test whether patterns of parallel morphological divergence seen in Trin...

Alexander, Heather Jane

231

Chemical Constituents from the Leaves of Annona reticulata and Their Inhibitory Effects on NO Production  

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In the present study, the chemical investigation of the leaves of Annona reticulata has resulted in the identification of nine compounds, including annonaretin A, (1), a new triterpenoid. The purified compounds were subjected to the examination of their effects on NO inhibition in LPS-activated mous...

Tran Dinh Thang; Ping-Chung Kuo; Guan-Jhong Huang; Nguyen Huy Hung; Bow-Shin Huang; Mei-Lin Yang; Ngo Xuan Luong

232

In vitro antiproliferativeactivity of Annona reticulata roots on human cancer cell lines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The phytochemical and pharmacological activities of Annona reticulata components suggest a wide range of clinical application in lieu of cancer chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethanol and aqueous extracts of roots of Annona reticulata Linn were studied for their in vitro antiproliferative activity on A-549 (human lung carcinoma), K-562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia bone marrow), HeLa (human cervix) and MDA-MB (human adenocarcinoma mammary gland) cancer cell lines by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] colorimetric assay. RESULTS: The ethanol extract exhibited a prominent inhibitory effect against A-549, K-562, HeLa and MDA-MB human cancer cell lines at a concentration range between 10 and 40 ?g/ml, whereas the aqueous extract showed a lower activity at the same concentration. Simultaneously, the effect of the ethanol extract toward the inhibition of Vero cell line proliferation was lower in comparison with the cancer cell lines. CONCLUSION: The significant antiproliferative activity of the ethanol extract of Annona reticulata roots against A-549, K-562, HeLa and MDA-MB human cancer cell lines may be attributed toward the collective presence of acetogenins, alkaloids and lower inhibitory effect on Vero cell line, which suggests Annona reticulata be used as a chemopreventive agent in cancer therapy.

Suresh HM; Shivakumar B; Hemalatha K; Heroor SS; Hugar DS; Rao KR

2011-01-01

233

Morfo-anatomia comparada das folhas do par vicariante Plathymenia foliolosa Benth. e Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae)  

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Full Text Available (Morfo-anatomia comparada das folhas do par vicariante Plathymenia foliolosa Benth. e Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae)). Folhas bipinadas adultas de P. foliolosa e P. reticulata da mata (Minas Gerais) e do cerrado (Distrito Federal) respectivamente, foram estudadas, sob o ponto de vista comparativo, quanto à morfologia externa e à anatomia. Todas as partes foliares foram examinadas sob microscopia óptica, em luz normal e em luz polarizada. Os folíolos de P. reticulata são maiores que os de P. foliolosa. A organização do sistema vascular é semelhante nas duas espécies. Em P. reticulata, os estômatos estão no mesmo nível ou levemente depressionados em relação às demais células epidérmicas e, em P. foliolosa, estas estruturas mostram posição ligeiramente elevada. A lâmina foliolar é mais espessa e o mesofilo é mais compacto em P. reticulata. As lâminas foliolares são hipoestomáticas e dorsiventrais com dois estratos de parênquima paliçádico em P. reticulata e um estrato em P. foliolosa. A cutinização é mais intensa nas paredes das células epidérmicas de P. reticulata. Cristais de oxalato de cálcio são mais abundantes em P. foliolosa embora a redissolução dos mesmos tenha sido observada, para ambas as espécies, sobretudo no pulvino primário. O escleromorfismo, encarado sob o ponto de vista anatômico, é mais acentuado em P. reticulata e, nesta espécie, a quantidade de taninos e de fibras gelatinosas também é maior. A semelhança constatada na organização estrutural como um todo é condizente com a proximidade taxonômica das duas espécies e os aspectos anatômicos diferenciais sugerem estar relacionados com o habitat de P. foliolosa e P. reticulata.(Comparative morpho-anatomy of leaves from the vicariant pair Plathymenia foliolosa Benth. and Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae)). The bipinnate adult leaves of P. foliolosa from the forest (Minas Gerais) and P. reticulata from the cerrado vegetation of Brasília (DF), Brazil, were studied. All parts of the leaves were examined under the light microscope with normal and polarized light. P. reticulata leaflets are larger than those of P. foliolosa. The anatomical structure in all parts shows subtle differences which may be of ecological importance. The stomata occur either at the same level as the adjacent epidermal cells or they may be slightly sunken in P. reticulata or slightly raised in P.foliolosa. The leaflet blade is wider in P. reticulata and the mesophyll cells are more tightly arranged. The leaflet blade is hypostomatic, dorsiventral with two layers of palisade parenchyma in P. reticulata and one layer in P. foliolosa. The cutinization process is more intense in the epidermal cell walls of P. reticulata. Calcium oxalate crystals are more abundant in P. foliolosa although crystal redissolution was seen in both species. Stronger scleromorphism (from the anatomical point of view), greater amount of phenolic deposits and gelatinous fibers are features more conspicuous in P. reticulata. The similar structural organization recorded for the two vicariant species agrees with their close taxonomic relationship and the differential anatomical features may be related to the environmental factors of the species' habitat.

Irene da Costa A. Mendes; Therezinha Isaia Paviani

1997-01-01

234

Potent glucosidase inhibitors: de-O-sulfonated ponkoranol and its stereoisomer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ponkoranol, a glucosidase inhibitor isolated from the plant Salacia reticulata, comprises a sulfonium ion with an internal sulfate counterion. An efficient synthetic route to de-O-sulfonated ponkoranol and its 5'-stereoisomer is reported, and it is shown that these compounds are potent glucosidase inhibitors that inhibit a key intestinal human glucosidase, the N-terminal catalytic domain of maltase glucoamylase, with K(i) values of 43 +/- 3 and 15 +/- 1 nM, respectively. PMID:20218632

Eskandari, Razieh; Kuntz, Douglas A; Rose, David R; Pinto, B Mario

2010-04-01

235

Potent glucosidase inhibitors: de-O-sulfonated ponkoranol and its stereoisomer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ponkoranol, a glucosidase inhibitor isolated from the plant Salacia reticulata, comprises a sulfonium ion with an internal sulfate counterion. An efficient synthetic route to de-O-sulfonated ponkoranol and its 5'-stereoisomer is reported, and it is shown that these compounds are potent glucosidase inhibitors that inhibit a key intestinal human glucosidase, the N-terminal catalytic domain of maltase glucoamylase, with K(i) values of 43 +/- 3 and 15 +/- 1 nM, respectively.

Eskandari R; Kuntz DA; Rose DR; Pinto BM

2010-04-01

236

Sequencing and characterization of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) transcriptome  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Next-generation sequencing is providing researchers with a relatively fast and affordable option for developing genomic resources for organisms that are not among the traditional genetic models. Here we present a de novo assembly of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) transcriptome using 454 sequence reads, and we evaluate potential uses of this transcriptome, including detection of sex-specific transcripts and deployment as a reference for gene expression analysis in guppies and a related species. Guppies have been model organisms in ecology, evolutionary biology, and animal behaviour for over 100 years. An annotated transcriptome and other genomic tools will facilitate understanding the genetic and molecular bases of adaptation and variation in a vertebrate species with a uniquely well known natural history. Results We generated approximately 336 Mbp of mRNA sequence data from male brain, male body, female brain, and female body. The resulting 1,162,670 reads assembled into 54,921 contigs, creating a reference transcriptome for the guppy with an average read depth of 28×. We annotated nearly 40% of this reference transcriptome by searching protein and gene ontology databases. Using this annotated transcriptome database, we identified candidate genes of interest to the guppy research community, putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and male-specific expressed genes. We also showed that our reference transcriptome can be used for RNA-sequencing-based analysis of differential gene expression. We identified transcripts that, in juveniles, are regulated differently in the presence and absence of an important predator, Rivulus hartii, including two genes implicated in stress response. For each sample in the RNA-seq study, >50% of high-quality reads mapped to unique sequences in the reference database with high confidence. In addition, we evaluated the use of the guppy reference transcriptome for gene expression analyses in a congeneric species, the sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna). Over 40% of reads from the sailfin molly sample aligned to the guppy transcriptome. Conclusions We show that next-generation sequencing provided a reliable and broad reference transcriptome. This resource allowed us to identify candidate gene variants, SNPs in coding regions, and sex-specific gene expression, and permitted quantitative analysis of differential gene expression.

Fraser Bonnie A; Weadick Cameron J; Janowitz Ilana; Rodd F Helen; Hughes Kimberly A

2011-01-01

237

Sequencing and characterization of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) transcriptome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing is providing researchers with a relatively fast and affordable option for developing genomic resources for organisms that are not among the traditional genetic models. Here we present a de novo assembly of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) transcriptome using 454 sequence reads, and we evaluate potential uses of this transcriptome, including detection of sex-specific transcripts and deployment as a reference for gene expression analysis in guppies and a related species. Guppies have been model organisms in ecology, evolutionary biology, and animal behaviour for over 100 years. An annotated transcriptome and other genomic tools will facilitate understanding the genetic and molecular bases of adaptation and variation in a vertebrate species with a uniquely well known natural history. RESULTS: We generated approximately 336 Mbp of mRNA sequence data from male brain, male body, female brain, and female body. The resulting 1,162,670 reads assembled into 54,921 contigs, creating a reference transcriptome for the guppy with an average read depth of 28×. We annotated nearly 40% of this reference transcriptome by searching protein and gene ontology databases. Using this annotated transcriptome database, we identified candidate genes of interest to the guppy research community, putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and male-specific expressed genes. We also showed that our reference transcriptome can be used for RNA-sequencing-based analysis of differential gene expression. We identified transcripts that, in juveniles, are regulated differently in the presence and absence of an important predator, Rivulus hartii, including two genes implicated in stress response. For each sample in the RNA-seq study, >50% of high-quality reads mapped to unique sequences in the reference database with high confidence. In addition, we evaluated the use of the guppy reference transcriptome for gene expression analyses in a congeneric species, the sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna). Over 40% of reads from the sailfin molly sample aligned to the guppy transcriptome. CONCLUSIONS: We show that next-generation sequencing provided a reliable and broad reference transcriptome. This resource allowed us to identify candidate gene variants, SNPs in coding regions, and sex-specific gene expression, and permitted quantitative analysis of differential gene expression.

Fraser BA; Weadick CJ; Janowitz I; Rodd FH; Hughes KA

2011-01-01

238

Intrinsic and integrative properties of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons.  

Science.gov (United States)

The GABA projection neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) are output neurons for the basal ganglia and thus critical for movement control. Their most striking neurophysiological feature is sustained, spontaneous high frequency spike firing. A fundamental question is: what are the key ion channels supporting the remarkable firing capability in these neurons? Recent studies indicate that these neurons express tonically active type 3 transient receptor potential (TRPC3) channels that conduct a Na-dependent inward current even at hyperpolarized membrane potentials. When the membrane potential reaches -60 mV, a voltage-gated persistent sodium current (I(NaP)) starts to activate, further depolarizing the membrane potential. At or slightly below -50 mV, the large transient voltage-activated sodium current (I(NaT)) starts to activate and eventually triggers the rapid rising phase of action potentials. SNr GABA neurons have a higher density of I(NaT), contributing to the faster rise and larger amplitude of action potentials, compared with the slow-spiking dopamine neurons. I(NaT) also recovers from inactivation more quickly in SNr GABA neurons than in nigral dopamine neurons. In SNr GABA neurons, the rising phase of the action potential triggers the activation of high-threshold, inactivation-resistant Kv3-like channels that can rapidly repolarize the membrane. These intrinsic ion channels provide SNr GABA neurons with the ability to fire spontaneous and sustained high frequency spikes. Additionally, robust GABA inputs from direct pathway medium spiny neurons in the striatum and GABA neurons in the globus pallidus may inhibit and silence SNr GABA neurons, whereas glutamate synaptic input from the subthalamic nucleus may induce burst firing in SNr GABA neurons. Thus, afferent GABA and glutamate synaptic inputs sculpt the tonic high frequency firing of SNr GABA neurons and the consequent inhibition of their targets into an integrated motor control signal that is further fine-tuned by neuromodulators including dopamine, serotonin, endocannabinoids, and H?O?. PMID:21839148

Zhou, F-M; Lee, C R

2011-08-02

239

The growth of Neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco) scion on seedling and cutting of trifoliate orange hybrid rootstocks  

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Full Text Available The growth of Neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco) on seedling and cutting of trifoliate orange hybrid rootstocks was studied at the Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University in order to select the appropriate rootstock. The stem cross section, growth characteristic and isozyme pattern of Neck orange scion were investigated. One-year-old seedlings and cuttings (both with 0.3-0.4 mm stem diameter) of Troyer citrange, Swingle citrumelo and Neck orange were used as root stock for grafting with Neck orange scions. The diameter of upper and lower graft union, number of branches and leaves, height, root length, shoot and root dry weight and shoot: root dry weight ratio of grafted plants were measured at 24 weeks after grafting. The results showed that the structure of stem cross section of Troyer citrange and Neck orange i.e. the size of periderm, vascular bundle and pith, were similar to that of Neck orange. The vascular bundle of Swingle citrumelo was larger than that of the two rootstocks. Troyer citrange rootstock gave the best results in all growth parameters of Neck orange. The study of isozymes recorded an extra locus (Est 3) of Swingle citrumelo rootstock occurred in Neck orange at 24 and 48 weeks after grafting.

Lim, M.; Te-chato, S.; Thavorat, S.

2003-01-01

240

USE OF THE JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES) AND GUPPY (POECILIA RETICULATA) IN CARCINOGENESIS TESTING UNDER NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM PROTOCOLS  

Science.gov (United States)

that are economical, sensitive, and scientifically acceptable. Among small fish models, the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) is preeminent for investigating effects of carcinogenic and/or toxic waterborne hazards to humans. The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), although less widely u...

 
 
 
 
241

[Study on the contents of flavonoids in Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' from various habitats and different collecting periods].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the contents of hesperidin, nobiletin and tangeretin in Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' from various habitats and different collecting periods (from October to December) and study the dynamic change of three flavonoids constituents. METHODS: The HPLC method was used for analysis the contents of flavonoids in Citrus reticulata 'Chachi'. The system used a Diamonsil C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile-methanol (80:20)-2% acetic acid. The monitoring wavelength was at 283 nm and 330 nm and the column temperature was at 25 degrees C with the flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. RESULTS: The contents of hesperidin, nobiletin and tangeretin in Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' collecting from various habitats descended gradually with the mature of fruit, especially in nobiletin and tangeretin. CONCLUSION: The method was simple, convenient and can be used to provide some foundation for the quality control of Citrus reticulata 'Chachi'.

Lin LW; Jiang L; Zheng GD

2010-02-01

242

Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 e Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 de peixes ornamentais de água doce no Brasil  

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Full Text Available In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2) and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed.No presente trabalho Trichodina reticulata e T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) de peixes ornamentais de água doce cultivados no estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil são caracterizadas morfologicamente. A prevalência de infecção e uma lista comparative de medidas são discutidas. Foram examinados "platis" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "kinguios" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppys" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "molinésias" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "betas" Betta splendens (n = 2) e "espada" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). Após a anestesia com solução de benzocaína, os peixes foram submetidos à avaliação parasitológca. Um total de 51,57% peixes estavam parasitados por Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus foi a espécie mais parasitada, seguida por X. maculatus e P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus e P. latipinna não estavam parasitados por tricodinídeos. Duas species de Trichodina foram coletadas da superfície corporal dos peixes: T. nobilis foi encontrada em C. auratus, P. reticulata e X. maculatus e T. reticulata foi observada apenas em C. auratus. A importância do manejo adequado em cultivos de peixes ornamentais também foi discutida.

ML Martins; N Marchiori; K Roumbedakis; F Lami

2012-01-01

243

Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil/ Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 e Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 de peixes ornamentais de água doce no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho Trichodina reticulata e T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) de peixes ornamentais de água doce cultivados no estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil são caracterizadas morfologicamente. A prevalência de infecção e uma lista comparative de medidas são discutidas. Foram examinados "platis" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "kinguios" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppys" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "molinésias" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "betas" Bett (more) a splendens (n = 2) e "espada" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). Após a anestesia com solução de benzocaína, os peixes foram submetidos à avaliação parasitológca. Um total de 51,57% peixes estavam parasitados por Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus foi a espécie mais parasitada, seguida por X. maculatus e P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus e P. latipinna não estavam parasitados por tricodinídeos. Duas species de Trichodina foram coletadas da superfície corporal dos peixes: T. nobilis foi encontrada em C. auratus, P. reticulata e X. maculatus e T. reticulata foi observada apenas em C. auratus. A importância do manejo adequado em cultivos de peixes ornamentais também foi discutida. Abstract in english In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Be (more) tta splendens (n = 2) and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed.

Martins, ML; Marchiori, N; Roumbedakis, K; Lami, F

2012-05-01

244

Mutagenicity and Genotoxicity in Gill Erythrocyte Cells of Poecilia reticulata Exposed to a Glyphosate Formulation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Poecilia reticulata were exposed to herbicide Roundup Transorb(®) for micronucleus test, nuclear abnormalities and comet assay. The exposure-concentrations were based on CL50-96 h following 0, 1.41, 2.83, 4.24 and 5.65 ?L L(-1) for 24 h. Micronucleus and comets were significantly increased in the gill erythrocyte cells after herbicide exposure compared with the non-exposed group. Results showed a gradual increase in the number of damaged cells, indicating a concentration-dependent effect and that this herbicide was mutagenic and genotoxic to P. reticulata and this effect could be attributed to a combination of compounds contained in the formulation with the active ingredient glyphosate.

De Souza Filho J; Sousa CC; Da Silva CC; De Sabóia-Morais SM; Grisolia CK

2013-09-01

245

Mutagenicity and Genotoxicity in Gill Erythrocyte Cells of Poecilia reticulata Exposed to a Glyphosate Formulation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Poecilia reticulata were exposed to herbicide Roundup Transorb(®) for micronucleus test, nuclear abnormalities and comet assay. The exposure-concentrations were based on CL50-96 h following 0, 1.41, 2.83, 4.24 and 5.65 ?L L(-1) for 24 h. Micronucleus and comets were significantly increased in the gill erythrocyte cells after herbicide exposure compared with the non-exposed group. Results showed a gradual increase in the number of damaged cells, indicating a concentration-dependent effect and that this herbicide was mutagenic and genotoxic to P. reticulata and this effect could be attributed to a combination of compounds contained in the formulation with the active ingredient glyphosate.

De Souza Filho J; Sousa CC; Da Silva CC; De Sabóia-Morais SM; Grisolia CK

2013-11-01

246

Salacia oblonga extract increases glucose transporter 4-mediated glucose uptake in L6 rat myotubes: role of mangiferin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To evaluate if the antidiabetic properties of Salacia oblonga extract are mediated not only by inhibiting intestinal alpha-glycosidases but also by enhancing glucose transport in muscle and adipose cells. METHODS: S. oblonga extract effects on 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake were assayed in muscle L6-myotubes and 3T3-adipocytes. In L6-myotubes, the amount and translocation of glucose transporters were assayed. A fractionation of the extract was carried out to identify the active compounds. Furthermore, we analyzed the phosphorylation status of key components of signaling pathways that are involved in the molecular mechanisms regulating glucose uptake. RESULTS: S. oblonga extract increased 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake by 50% in L6-myotubes and 3T3-adipocytes. In L6-myotubes, the extract increased up to a 100% the GLUT4 content, activating GLUT4 promoter transcription and its translocation to the plasma membrane. Mangiferin was identified as the bioactive compound. Furthermore, mangiferin effects were concomitant with the phosphorylation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase without the activation of PKB/Akt. The effect of mangiferin on 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake was blocked by GW9662, an irreversible PPAR-gamma antagonist. CONCLUSIONS: S. oblonga extract and mangiferin may exert their antidiabetic effect by increasing GLUT4 expression and translocation in muscle cells. These effects are probably mediated through two independent pathways that are related to 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase and PPAR-gamma.

Girón MD; Sevillano N; Salto R; Haidour A; Manzano M; Jiménez ML; Rueda R; López-Pedrosa JM

2009-10-01

247

Chemical constituents from the leaves of Annona reticulata and their inhibitory effects on NO production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, the chemical investigation of the leaves of Annona reticulata has resulted in the identification of nine compounds, including annonaretin A, a new triterpenoid. The purified compounds were subjected to the examination of their effects on NO inhibition in LPS-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages and most of them exhibited significant NO inhibition, with IC?? values in the range of 48.6 ± 1.2 and 99.8 ± 0.4 ?M.

Thang TD; Kuo PC; Huang GJ; Hung NH; Huang BS; Yang ML; Luong NX; Wu TS

2013-01-01

248

Chemical Constituents from the Leaves of Annona reticulata and Their Inhibitory Effects on NO Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, the chemical investigation of the leaves of Annona reticulata has resulted in the identification of nine compounds, including annonaretin A, (1), a new triterpenoid. The purified compounds were subjected to the examination of their effects on NO inhibition in LPS-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages and most of them exhibited significant NO inhibition, with IC50 values in the range of 48.6 ± 1.2 and 99.8 ± 0.4 ?M.

Tran Dinh Thang; Ping-Chung Kuo; Guan-Jhong Huang; Nguyen Huy Hung; Bow-Shin Huang; Mei-Lin Yang; Ngo Xuan Luong; Tian-Shung Wu

2013-01-01

249

Chemical constituents from the leaves of Annona reticulata and their inhibitory effects on NO production.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, the chemical investigation of the leaves of Annona reticulata has resulted in the identification of nine compounds, including annonaretin A, a new triterpenoid. The purified compounds were subjected to the examination of their effects on NO inhibition in LPS-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages and most of them exhibited significant NO inhibition, with IC?? values in the range of 48.6 ± 1.2 and 99.8 ± 0.4 ?M. PMID:23591927

Thang, Tran Dinh; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Hung, Nguyen Huy; Huang, Bow-Shin; Yang, Mei-Lin; Luong, Ngo Xuan; Wu, Tian-Shung

2013-04-16

250

Inhibitory effects of alkaline extract of Citrus reticulata on pulmonary fibrosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The pericarp of Citrus reticulata possesses medical functions of regulating Qi and expelling phlegm, and has been clinically used for the treatment of lung related diseases in traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. Our previous research revealed that Citrus reticulata exhibited inhibitory effects on pulmonary fibrosis; however, its active principles are still unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the inhibitory effects on pulmonary fibrosis of alkaline extract from ethanol extract of Citrus reticulata and clarify its possible mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The citrus alkaline extract (CAE) was prepared from ethanol extract of Citrus reticulata and MRC-5 cells were used for the evaluation of inhibitory activity in vitro. CAE was further orally administrated to bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis rats. The rat body weight, hydroxyproline levels in serum and lung, pathological changes of lung, as well as mRNA and protein expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in rat lung tissues were analyzed. RESULTS: CAE dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of MRC-5 cells, and the LDH assay clearly revealed that the inhibitory activity of CAE was not due to its cytotoxicity. CAE treatment significantly increased rat weight gain, ameliorated alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis degree, and lowered hydroxyproline contents in both serum and lung tissues. RT-PCR and western blot revealed that mRNA and protein expressions of MMP-9 were significantly elevated, while mRNA and protein levels of TIMP-1 and TNF-? were markedly decreased in lung tissues of CAE treated rats. CONCLUSIONS: The results collectively demonstrated that CAE possessed an inhibitory activity on the proliferation of MRC-5 and a preventive effect on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. The preliminary mechanisms of the effects may be through upregulation of MMP-9 expression and inhibition of the expressions of TNF-? and TIMP-1.

Zhou XM; Wen GY; Zhao Y; Liu YM; Li JX

2013-03-01

251

Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of citrus jambhiri lush and citrus reticulata blanco essential oils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to investigate the time interval in which we can get maximum concentration of essential oil from the peels of Citrus jambhiri Lush and Citrus reticulata Blanco, to determine the composition of peel oils and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracted oils. It was observed that in case of Citrus jambhiri Lush maximum oil yield (I %) was obtained when fruits were immature (during October). As the fruit samples got matured, the oil yield decreased. In December the oil yield decreased to 0.2 %. In case of Citrus reticulata Blanco maximum oil yield (0.189 %) was obtained during the last week of January. Chemical analysis of essential oils showed that limonene was the most abundant compound (86 %-93 %) followed by alpha terpinene (2 %-4.5 %), beta-pinene(1 0/0-2 %) and nerol (0.5 %-1.5 %). The radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of essential oils were determined by DPPH and linoleic acid test. The essential oil of Citrus jambhiri Lush inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid by 54.98 % and that of Citrus reticulata Blanco inhibited by 49.98 %. Moreover, the essential oils also showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms. (author)

2009-01-01

252

Formulations of alpha-amylase inhibitors of P. vulgaris with alpha-glucosidade inhibitores of S. oblonga or S. reticulata useful in the treatment of diabetes and obesity  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This invention relates to the combination of +--amylase inhibitors prepared from Phaseolus vulgaris with +--glucosidase inhibitors obtained from Salacia oblonga and other species. The +--amylase inhibitor is accompanied by a quantity of lectins that reduces the amount of glucose originating from the starches present in the diet, and considerably reduces the appetite after repeated administration. The combination with +--glucosidase inhibitors, such as extracts of Salacia or the thiosugars present in it, further reduce the blood glucose, acting synergically, and consequently reduce the synthesis of fats from carbohydrates.

BOMBARDELLI EZIO; MORAZZONI PAOLO; PONZONE CESARE; RONCHI MASSIMO

253

Efecto anabólico y androgénico del esteroide acetato de trembolona en el guppy (Poecilia reticulata)/ Anabolic and androgenic effect of steroid trenbolone acetate on guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se investigó el efecto del esteroide semisintético acetato de trembolona (ATB) en el pez de ornato Poecilia reticulata (guppy). Especímenes juveniles de 30 días de edad fueron tratados con el esteroide a dosis de 300 mg/kg de alimento durante 60 días. Al término del tratamiento, 40 días después, se estimó el efecto residual del esteroide. Se analizó la sobrevivencia, la proporción de peces masculinizados, así como el efecto anabólico. Los resultados indicaron (more) que el ATB es eficaz para inducir la masculinización, a diferencia del grupo testigo, donde se registraron 32% de machos. Asimismo, el ATB tuvo un efecto anabólico, ya que los peces tratados mostraron mayor peso y talla e incremento de la aleta caudal. El esteroide no causó daño en la población tratada, al sobrevivir 93.3% de los peces, comparado con 83% del grupo testigo. Abstract in english The effect of semi-synthetic steroid trenbolone acetate (TBA) on the ornamental fish Poecilia reticulata (guppy) was studied. The steroid at a dose of 300 mg/kg feed was administered to 30 days old juvenile specimens during 60 days. Forty days after treatment was ended, an evaluation aimed to determine the steroid residual effect was undertaken. Survival, masculinization ratio and the drug anabolic effect were analyzed. Results showed TBA to be effective to induce masculi (more) nization, differing (P

Salgado Zamora, Héctor; Azpeitia Hernández, Aída; Marañón Herrera, Samuel; Maya Peña, Eduardo

2008-09-01

254

Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2) and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed. PMID:22735135

Martins, M L; Marchiori, N; Roumbedakis, K; Lami, F

2012-05-01

255

Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2) and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed.

Martins ML; Marchiori N; Roumbedakis K; Lami F

2012-05-01

256

Salacia oblonga root improves postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: activation of PPAR-alpha.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salacia oblonga (SO) root is an Ayurvedic medicine with anti-diabetic and anti-obese properties. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha, a nuclear receptor, plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of lipid metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that chronic oral administration of the water extract from the root of SO to Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, a genetic model of type 2 diabetes and obesity, lowered plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol (TC) levels, increased plasma high-density lipoprotein levels and reduced the liver contents of triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and the ratio of fatty droplets to total tissue. By contrast, the extract had no effect on plasma triglyceride and TC levels in fasted ZDF rats. After olive oil administration to ZDF the extract also inhibited the increase in plasma triglyceride levels. These results suggest that SO extract improves postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in ZDF rats. Additionally, SO treatment enhanced hepatic expression of PPAR-alpha mRNA and protein, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and acyl-CoA oxidase mRNAs in ZDF rats. In vitro, SO extract and its main component mangiferin activated PPAR-alpha luciferase activity in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and lipoprotein lipase mRNA expression and enzyme activity in THP-1 differentiated macrophages; these effects were completely suppressed by a selective PPAR-alpha antagonist MK-886. The findings from both in vivo and in vitro suggest that SO extract functions as a PPAR-alpha activator, providing a potential mechanism for improvement of postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in diabetes and obesity. PMID:15975614

Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Peng, Gang; Li, George Qian; Yamahara, Johji; Roufogalis, Basil D; Li, Yuhao

2005-06-21

257

LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE IN GUPPY FISH (Poecilia reticulata) AS A BIOMARKER FOR HEAVY-METAL POLLUTION IN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heavy-metal concentrations and allozyme variations were determined in females of guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) populations collected from polluted and unpolluted sites. The concentrations of Cu and Fe were significantly (P 0.05) in the Zn concentrations between the polluted and the unpolluted populations indicated that Zn, as a major essential metal, was regulated in this freshwater fish. Seven enzyme systems EST, G6PDH, LDH, MDH, PGI, PGM and SDH were tested. Only LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) was found to be a good biomarker for the contamination of Cu and Fe in P. reticulata. The zymogram of the unpolluted wild population showed the same monomorphic allele as the unpolluted domesticated guppies from a pet shop, thus, further confirming LDH in P. reticulata as a good biomarker of contamination by Cu.

Yap, C. K.; Chong, C. M.; Tan, S.G.

2011-01-01

258

Biosorption of copper, cobalt and nickel by marine green alga Ulva reticulata in a packed column.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biosorption of copper, cobalt and nickel by marine green alga Ulva reticulata were investigated in a packed bed up-flow column. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of important design parameters such as bed height and flow rate. At a bed height of 25 cm, the metal-uptake capacity of U. reticulata for copper, cobalt and nickel was found to be 56.3+/-0.24, 46.1+/-0.07 and 46.5+/-0.08 mgg(-1), respectively. The Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model was used to analyze the experimental data. The computed sorption capacity per unit bed volume (N0) was 2580, 2245 and 1911 mgl(-1) for copper, cobalt and nickel, respectively. The rate constant (K(a)) was recorded as 0.063, 0.081 and 0.275 lmg(-1)h(-1) for copper, cobalt and nickel, respectively. In flow rate experiments, the results confirmed that the metal uptake capacity and the metal removal efficiency of U. reticulata decreased with increasing flow rate. The Thomas model was used to fit the column biosorption data at different flow rates and model constants were evaluated. The column regeneration studies were carried out for three sorption-desorption cycles. The elutant used for the regeneration of the biosorbent was 0.1 M CaCl2 at pH 3 adjusted using HCl. For all the metal ions, a decreased breakthrough time and an increased exhaustion time were observed as the regeneration cycles progressed, which also resulted in a broadened mass transfer zone. The pH variations during both sorption and desorption process have been reported.

Vijayaraghavan K; Jegan J; Palanivelu K; Velan M

2005-07-01

259

Acute Toxicity of Premium Motor Spirit to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859)  

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Full Text Available Static bioassays were made to determine acute toxicity of premium motor spirit on poecilia reticulata. Lethal doses of the oil were determined using LC50 software programmes based on Finneys probit statistical method. The 96 LC50 value of the oil for guppy was estimated as 1.69 (1.13-2.43) mg L-1. The fish exhibited behavioural changes in the form of aggression, rapid gulping of water, increased opercular movement and abnormal swimming movements. The significance of this sublethal effect particularly as a stress indicator of petrol oil contamination was discussed.

J .K. Saliu

2007-01-01

260

Analgesic and antiinflammatory activity of kaur-16-en-19-oic acid from Annona reticulata L. bark.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Kaur-16-en-19-oic acid was isolated from the bark of Annona reticulata and studied for its analgesic and antiinflammatory activity. Analgesic activity was assessed using the hot plate test and acetic acid-induced writhing, and the antiinflammatory activity using the carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, at doses of 10 and 20?mg/kg, exhibited significant (p?

Chavan MJ; Kolhe DR; Wakte PS; Shinde DB

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
261

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the sesquiterpene fraction from Annona reticulata L. bark.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sesquiterpene fraction of Annona reticulata bark was studied by GC/MS. Three major components were identified: copaene (35.40%), patchoulane (13.49%) and 1H-cycloprop(e)azulene (22.77%). The fraction was also screened for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The sesquiterpene fraction at doses 12.5 and 25?mg?kg?¹ and the unsaponified petroleum ether extract at a dose of 50?mg?kg?¹ exhibited significant central as well as peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. These activities were comparable with the standard drugs used in the respective experiments. PMID:22007723

Chavan, Machindra J; Wakte, Pravin S; Shinde, Devanand B

2011-10-19

262

Analgesic and antiinflammatory activity of kaur-16-en-19-oic acid from Annona reticulata L. bark.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kaur-16-en-19-oic acid was isolated from the bark of Annona reticulata and studied for its analgesic and antiinflammatory activity. Analgesic activity was assessed using the hot plate test and acetic acid-induced writhing, and the antiinflammatory activity using the carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, at doses of 10 and 20?mg/kg, exhibited significant (p?

Chavan, Machindra J; Kolhe, Dinesh R; Wakte, Pravin S; Shinde, Devanand B

2011-06-14

263

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the sesquiterpene fraction from Annona reticulata L. bark.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The sesquiterpene fraction of Annona reticulata bark was studied by GC/MS. Three major components were identified: copaene (35.40%), patchoulane (13.49%) and 1H-cycloprop(e)azulene (22.77%). The fraction was also screened for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The sesquiterpene fraction at doses 12.5 and 25?mg?kg?¹ and the unsaponified petroleum ether extract at a dose of 50?mg?kg?¹ exhibited significant central as well as peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. These activities were comparable with the standard drugs used in the respective experiments.

Chavan MJ; Wakte PS; Shinde DB

2012-01-01

264

Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III) isolated from a single natural infected Citrus reticulata var. Clementine tree growing in a tree nursery in Manouba (near Tunis Capital). We describe the sequence variability of these viroids from their natural host without using an alternative passage by an indicator host or an artificial inoculation. This work confirms that naturally occurring viroid infections contain a mixture of sequence variants. These are the first sequences of citrus viroids from Africa.

Amine Elleuch; Fattouma Djilani Khouaja; Imen Hamdi; Nabiha Bsais; Jean-Pierre Perreault; Mohamed Marrakchi; Hatem Fakhfakh

2006-01-01

265

Examining the link between personality and laterality in a feral guppy Poecilia reticulata population.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined whether variation in the strength and direction of lateralization in a detour task was linked with variation in three common personality measurements: boldness, activity and sociability, in a population of wild guppies Poecilia reticulata. Additionally, the aim was to determine whether any consistent correlations between these behavioural traits, known as behavioural syndromes, were present in the study population. The results revealed that all three personality traits were highly repeatable over time in both sexes. Evidence of a complex syndrome in the form of a correlation between boldness, sociability and activity was found; however, this relationship was only present in males. Males that were more active in a familiar environment emerged more quickly from shelter into a novel environment and were more social. In general, male P. reticulata were bold, active and antisocial compared to females, with these differences probably a reflection of opposing life-history strategies. Only a weak link between the strength of cerebral lateralisation and personality was discovered and this was mediated by sex. PMID:23902308

Irving, E; Brown, C

2013-07-09

266

Toxicity response of Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) to some agricultural pesticides  

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Full Text Available Hedayati A, Tarkhani R, Shadi A. 2012. Mortality response of Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) to some agricultural pesticides. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 6-10. This research was performed to determine and compare acute toxicity of diazinon and deltamethrin as potential dangerous organic pesticides to assess mortality effects of these chemicals to the freshwater guppy Poecilia reticulata. LC50 of 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h was attained by probit analysis by Finney’s and using the maximum-likelihood procedure (SPSS). The 24-96 h LC50 for the diazinon were 40.9±0.98, 33.2±0.84, 23.2±0.74 and 16.8±0.57 ppm respectively. The 24-96 h LC50 for the deltamethrin were 0.297±0.13, 0.236±0.16, 0.204±0.47 and 0.195±0.06 ppm respectively. In the present study, LC50 values indicated that deltamethrin was more toxic than diazinon to this species. LC50 values obtained in the present study were different from the corresponding values that have been published in the literature for other species of fish.

ALIAKBAR HEDAYATI; REZA TARKHANI; AHMAD SHADI

2012-01-01

267

Examining the link between personality and laterality in a feral guppy Poecilia reticulata population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined whether variation in the strength and direction of lateralization in a detour task was linked with variation in three common personality measurements: boldness, activity and sociability, in a population of wild guppies Poecilia reticulata. Additionally, the aim was to determine whether any consistent correlations between these behavioural traits, known as behavioural syndromes, were present in the study population. The results revealed that all three personality traits were highly repeatable over time in both sexes. Evidence of a complex syndrome in the form of a correlation between boldness, sociability and activity was found; however, this relationship was only present in males. Males that were more active in a familiar environment emerged more quickly from shelter into a novel environment and were more social. In general, male P. reticulata were bold, active and antisocial compared to females, with these differences probably a reflection of opposing life-history strategies. Only a weak link between the strength of cerebral lateralisation and personality was discovered and this was mediated by sex.

Irving E; Brown C

2013-08-01

268

Efficacy of Citrus reticulata and Mirazid in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni  

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Full Text Available This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid), as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for different cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH); lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase); acid phosphatase (AP) and 5'- nucleotidase. Liver function enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST); alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also estimated. Parasitological studies through ova count and worm burden will also be taken into consideration. The results showed a marked reduction in SDH, LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities and a significant increase in G-6-Pase, AP, 5'- nucleotidase, and ALP after S. mansoni infection. A noticeable alteration in LDH subunits were also noticed. Treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all the previous enzyme activities with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden.

Manal A Hamed; Mona H Hetta

2005-01-01

269

Inheritance of foliage characteristics in (Annona cherimola Mill. × A. squamosa L.) × A. reticulata L. hybrids  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. × A. squamosa L) and A. reticulata L. possess several contrasting foliage characteristics. Two hundred and fifty trispecies hybrids of atemoya and A. reticulata were therefore studied to investigate the inheritance of four foliage characteristics. Segregation for leaf colour (green or dark green), leaf angle (erect or drooping), leaf apex shape (rounded or pointed) and time of leaf fall (early or late or intermediate) into discreet phenotypic classes revealed that their inheritance followed simple Mendelian genetics. Based on phenotypes of parents and the segregating population, and the genetic ratios obtained, allelic symbols were assigned to four leaf characteristics. Duplicate dominant gene interaction governed the leaf colour and leaf position. Thus individuals with single or both the dominant genes (A-B-, A-bb, aaB-) produce green colour leaves and those with recessive genes (aabb) dark colour leaves. Likewise erect leaf individuals are C-D-, C-dd, ccD- and those with drooping leaves are ccdd. Further a single gene determined shape of leaf apex that was either rounded (Rr) or pointed (rr). Segregation of progenies for leaf fall into early (J E J E ), intermediate (J E J L ) and late (J L J L ) suggested that codominant alleles were responsible for time of leaf fall. The inheritance studies reported in this paper should guide in Annonaceous fruit breeding for foliage characteristics or could be used as selection criteria for those important traits with which they are associated.

Jalikop SH

2010-01-01

270

Crossing-over between Y chromosomes: another possible source of phenotypic variability in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Genetic linkage acting through crossing-over between X and X chromosomes, X and Y chromosomes, and autosomal gene recombination are the most important sources of color pattern polymorphisms in animals. Variability in male color patterns and fin morphologies in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, ...

I. Valentin Petrescu-Mag; Godfrey R. Bourne

271

Investigation of Acute Toxicity of Pirimiphos-Methyl (Actellic®, 25%EC) on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859)  

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Pirimiphos-methyl is a broad spectrum organophosphate insecticide and potential toxic pollutant in aquatic ecosystems. The acute toxicity of Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic®) was investigated using Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) in a 96 h static renewal laboratory bioassay. Based on probi...

M.O. Lawal; O.B. Samuel

272

ESTs and EST-linked polymorphisms for genetic mapping and phylogenetic reconstruction in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The guppy, Poecilia reticulata, is a well-known model organism for studying inheritance and variation of male ornamental traits as well as adaptation to different river habitats. However, genomic resources for studying this important model were not previ...

Dreyer Christine; Hoffmann Margarete; Lanz Christa; Willing Eva-Maria; Riester Markus; Warthmann Norman; Sprecher Andrea

273

Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Some Nigerian Medicinal Plant Extracts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research evaluates the DPPH radical scavenging, total antioxidant activities, reducing power and total contents of phenolic compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of five Nigerian medicinal plants (Dalbergia saxatilis Hook.f. (Papilionacae), Ekebergia senegalensis A.Juss.(Meliaceae), Hymenocardia acida Tul. (Hymenocardiaceae), Icacina tricantha Oliv. (Icacinaceae) and Salacia pallescens Oliv.(Celastraceae). Total phenols were analysed according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Each sample under assay condition, showed a dose-dependent effect both on free radical scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and also on Fe3+ reducing power. The antioxidant activity of the plant extracts with the DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power method, were in the order Hymenocardia> Ekebergia> Salacia> Icacina> Dalbergia. H. acida and E. senegalensis possess very high radical scavenging activity in both assays. Potency of H. acida extract was of the same magnitude as that of reference ?-tocopherol. Total phenols in all the samples expressed as GAE (Gallic Acid Equivalent) varied from 1.83 to 15.47mg g-1 of dry plant material. Total antioxidant activities correlated with total phenols (R2 = 0.6640) an indication that 66% of the antioxidant capacity of these extracts results from contribution of phenolic compounds. A linear positive relationship existed between the reducing power and total phenolics of the tested plant extracts (R2 = 0.9564).

M.O. Sofidiya; O.A. Odukoya; O.B. Familoni; S.I. Inya-Agha

2006-01-01

274

Cultivo de Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poecilidae) en cuerpos de agua tropicales,Veracruz,México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los peces ornamentales cultivados se han popularizado como mascotas,generando una demanda local que no se ha podido cubrir con la producción de México y por lo tanto deben importarse.Poecilia reticulata "guppy ",es un pez muy popular en el ámbito acuarístico,hoy en día se ha logrado desarrollar una gran cantidad de variedades según su coloración,tipo y forma de cola.Son peces vivíparos que toleran un ámbito extremo de temperatura,siendo la más adecuada entre 25? (more) ?C y 28ºC.El tiempo que tardan las hembras en expulsar a las crías una vez que quedan preñadas,oscila entre los 25 y 30 días dependiendo de la temperatura.En esta investigación,el ciclo reproductivo completo se desarrolló en jaulas flotantes,en una laguna tropical situada en la Llanura Costera del Golfo Sur, Veracruz, México.Se diseñó la infraestructura necesaria para producir guppys (P.reticulata )incluyendo el manejo de reproductores,crianza,engorda,alimentación y comercialización,evaluando su factibilidad técnica y financiera.Se realizó un estudio de mercado,a través de una encuesta aplicada a los propietarios de los 22 acuarios existentes en la Ciudad de Veracruz,México.Se analizaron las frecuencias de oferta y demanda de cada especie con respecto a la temporada del año,lugar de origen y resistencia al manejo.Las características hidrobiológicas presentaron valores medios de temperatura (31.4ºC),oxígeno disuelto (4.5 mgl-1)y pH (6.8).Con los datos obtenidos en campo se realizó un modelo para producción de P.reticulata ,obteniendo una relación beneficio/costo=1.16,correspondiente al ingreso mínimo potencial con una ganancia bruta de US$257.67, proporcionando empleo a dos personas El aprovechamiento de cuerpos de agua en regiones tropicales a través de la producción de peces de ornato representa una alternativa para disminuir la presión sobre las poblaciones silvestres y las tierras de cultivo,proporcionar fuentes de empleo e incrementar los ingresos para el productor en comparación con sistemas tradicionales de producción. Abstract in english Culture of Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poecilidae)in tropical water bodies, Veracruz, México. Poecilia reticulata,also known as guppy,is the most popular fish in the aquarium environment. Guppys are viviparous fish with high tolerance to extreme temperatures.The development of the offspring takes between 25 and 30 days.We developed a technology for raising guppys,which outlines infrastructure and devices for reproduction,nursery,feeding,and commercialization,evaluating t (more) he financial and technical feasibility of this technology in a case study.The complete reproductive cycle occured in floating cages with 1 mm mesh and the method was tested in a tropical lagoon in Mexico.Water quality was monitored throughout the study period (temperature,dissolved oxygen and pH levels).A marketing survey was carried out at all existing aquarium shops in Veracruz City.Data collected depict quantities demanded and offered for each species by season,place of origin,and resistance to handling.The hydrobiological characteristics were:average temperature 31.4 ºC, dissolved oxygen 4.5 mgl-1,and pH level 6.8.With these values we built a production function,and used it to evaluate profitability.We estimate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.16,with a net annual income of US$257.67.The system may provide two permanent jobs.Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4):951-958.Epub 2005 Jun 24.

Devezé Murillo, Patricia; Reta Mendiola, Juan Lorenzo; Sánchez Luna, Basilio

2004-12-01

275

Cultivo de Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poecilidae) en cuerpos de agua tropicales,Veracruz,México  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los peces ornamentales cultivados se han popularizado como mascotas,generando una demanda local que no se ha podido cubrir con la producción de México y por lo tanto deben importarse.Poecilia reticulata "guppy ",es un pez muy popular en el ámbito acuarístico,hoy en día se ha logrado desarrollar una gran cantidad de variedades según su coloración,tipo y forma de cola.Son peces vivíparos que toleran un ámbito extremo de temperatura,siendo la más adecuada entre 25ºC y 28ºC.El tiempo que tardan las hembras en expulsar a las crías una vez que quedan preñadas,oscila entre los 25 y 30 días dependiendo de la temperatura.En esta investigación,el ciclo reproductivo completo se desarrolló en jaulas flotantes,en una laguna tropical situada en la Llanura Costera del Golfo Sur, Veracruz, México.Se diseñó la infraestructura necesaria para producir guppys (P.reticulata )incluyendo el manejo de reproductores,crianza,engorda,alimentación y comercialización,evaluando su factibilidad técnica y financiera.Se realizó un estudio de mercado,a través de una encuesta aplicada a los propietarios de los 22 acuarios existentes en la Ciudad de Veracruz,México.Se analizaron las frecuencias de oferta y demanda de cada especie con respecto a la temporada del año,lugar de origen y resistencia al manejo.Las características hidrobiológicas presentaron valores medios de temperatura (31.4ºC),oxígeno disuelto (4.5 mgl-1)y pH (6.8).Con los datos obtenidos en campo se realizó un modelo para producción de P.reticulata ,obteniendo una relación beneficio/costo=1.16,correspondiente al ingreso mínimo potencial con una ganancia bruta de US$257.67, proporcionando empleo a dos personas El aprovechamiento de cuerpos de agua en regiones tropicales a través de la producción de peces de ornato representa una alternativa para disminuir la presión sobre las poblaciones silvestres y las tierras de cultivo,proporcionar fuentes de empleo e incrementar los ingresos para el productor en comparación con sistemas tradicionales de producción.Culture of Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poecilidae)in tropical water bodies, Veracruz, México. Poecilia reticulata,also known as guppy,is the most popular fish in the aquarium environment. Guppys are viviparous fish with high tolerance to extreme temperatures.The development of the offspring takes between 25 and 30 days.We developed a technology for raising guppys,which outlines infrastructure and devices for reproduction,nursery,feeding,and commercialization,evaluating the financial and technical feasibility of this technology in a case study.The complete reproductive cycle occured in floating cages with 1 mm mesh and the method was tested in a tropical lagoon in Mexico.Water quality was monitored throughout the study period (temperature,dissolved oxygen and pH levels).A marketing survey was carried out at all existing aquarium shops in Veracruz City.Data collected depict quantities demanded and offered for each species by season,place of origin,and resistance to handling.The hydrobiological characteristics were:average temperature 31.4 ºC, dissolved oxygen 4.5 mgl-1,and pH level 6.8.With these values we built a production function,and used it to evaluate profitability.We estimate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.16,with a net annual income of US$257.67.The system may provide two permanent jobs.Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4):951-958.Epub 2005 Jun 24.

Patricia Devezé Murillo; Juan Lorenzo Reta Mendiola; Basilio Sánchez Luna

2004-01-01

276

A mixture of Salacia oblonga extract and IP-PA1 reduces fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

At present, lifestyle-related diseases are one of the most critical health issues worldwide. It has been reported that lipopolysaccharide derived from a Gram-negative bacteria (IP-PA1) symbiotic with wheat exhibited several advantageous biological effects, such as the reduction of plasma glucose levels in NOD mice and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in WHHL rabbits. In this study, the beneficial effects on plasma glucose and lipids of a tea (SI tea) consisting of IP-PA1 and Salacia (which contains an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase) were investigated in the KK-Ay/TaJcl type 2 diabetic model mice and in human subjects with premetabolic syndrome in a double-blind, randomized study. SI tea significantly decreased plasma glucose levels in KK-Ay/TaJcl mice. A clinical trial of SI tea was performed with 41 subjects between the ages of 40 and 69, who belonged either to a high plasma glucose group (HG: FPG 100-125 mg/dl) or to a hyperlipidemia group (HL: TG ? 150 mg/dl, or LDL ? 120 mg/dl, or HDL < 40 mg/dl). These subjects ingested either Salacia without IP-PA1 (the control) or SI tea. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, and 60 days after initiating SI tea treatment, and were measured for FPG, HbA1c, TG, LDL, and HDL. These results showed that SI tea reduced FPG and HbA1c more rapidly than the control in the HL group, and also significantly improved LDL and HDL levels in the HG group. Thus, SI tea may be helpful in preventing lifestyle-related diseases.

Nakata K; Taniguchi Y; Yoshioka N; Yoshida A; Inagawa H; Nakamoto T; Yoshimura H; Miyake S; Kohchi C; Kuroki M; Soma G

2011-10-01

277

Effects of a nutritional supplement containing Salacia oblonga extract and insulinogenic amino acids on postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and breath hydrogen responses in healthy adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the postprandial glycemic, insulinemic, and breath hydrogen responses to a liquid nutritional product containing Salacia oblonga extract, an herbal alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, and two insulinogenic amino acids. METHODS: In a randomized, double-masked, crossover design, 43 healthy subjects were fed the following meals on separate days after overnight fasting: control (C; 480 mL of a study beverage containing 82 g of carbohydrate, 20 g of protein, and 14 g of fat), control plus 3.5 g each of phenylalanine and leucine (AA), control plus 1000 mg of S. oblonga extract (S), and control plus S and AA (SAA). Postprandially, fingerstick capillary plasma glucose and venous serum insulin levels were measured for 180 min, and breath hydrogen excretion was measured for 480 min. RESULTS: The baseline-adjusted peak glucose response was not different across meals. However, changes in plasma glucose areas under the curve (0 to 120 min and 0 to 180 min, respectively) compared with C were -9% and -11% for AA (P>0.05 each), -27% and -24% for S (P=0.035 and 0.137), and -27% and -29% for SAA (P<0.05 each). Changes in insulin areas under the curve were +5% and +5% for AA (P>0.05 each), -35% and -36% for S (P<0.001 each), and -6% and -7% for SAA (P>0.05 each). Breath hydrogen excretion was 60% greater (P<0.001) in the S-containing meals than in the C- and AA-containing meals and was associated with mild flatulence. CONCLUSIONS: Salacia oblonga extract is a promising nutraceutical ingredient that decreased glycemia in this study. Supplementation with amino acids had no significant additional effect on glycemia.

Collene AL; Hertzler SR; Williams JA; Wolf BW

2005-07-01

278

A mixture of Salacia oblonga extract and IP-PA1 reduces fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

At present, lifestyle-related diseases are one of the most critical health issues worldwide. It has been reported that lipopolysaccharide derived from a Gram-negative bacteria (IP-PA1) symbiotic with wheat exhibited several advantageous biological effects, such as the reduction of plasma glucose levels in NOD mice and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in WHHL rabbits. In this study, the beneficial effects on plasma glucose and lipids of a tea (SI tea) consisting of IP-PA1 and Salacia (which contains an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase) were investigated in the KK-Ay/TaJcl type 2 diabetic model mice and in human subjects with premetabolic syndrome in a double-blind, randomized study. SI tea significantly decreased plasma glucose levels in KK-Ay/TaJcl mice. A clinical trial of SI tea was performed with 41 subjects between the ages of 40 and 69, who belonged either to a high plasma glucose group (HG: FPG 100-125 mg/dl) or to a hyperlipidemia group (HL: TG ? 150 mg/dl, or LDL ? 120 mg/dl, or HDL < 40 mg/dl). These subjects ingested either Salacia without IP-PA1 (the control) or SI tea. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, and 60 days after initiating SI tea treatment, and were measured for FPG, HbA1c, TG, LDL, and HDL. These results showed that SI tea reduced FPG and HbA1c more rapidly than the control in the HL group, and also significantly improved LDL and HDL levels in the HG group. Thus, SI tea may be helpful in preventing lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:22125681

Nakata, Kazue; Taniguchi, Yoshie; Yoshioka, Noriko; Yoshida, Aya; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Takeru; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Miyake, Shin-Ichiro; Kohchi, Chie; Kuroki, Masahide; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

2011-10-28

279

Upstream guppies (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859) go against the flow/ Gupies (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859) de áreas de cabeceira se posicionam contra a corrente  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Populações de guppies (Poecilia reticulata Peters) que vivem em lagos e em cativeiro podem demonstrar menos reotaxia em comparação com populações que habitam rios e que estão frequentemente expostas a enchentes e que provocam a migração involuntária para jusante. Neste trabalho, vamos testar esta hipótese num rio artificial utilizando guppies de duas populações selvagens que habitam em rios, uma população que habita em lagos, e uma linhagem ornamental. Os r (more) esultados demonstram que os guppies de rios que provêm de localidades a montante demonstram maior reotaxia, diminuindo assim probabilidade de serem arrastados para jusante em períodos de enchentes. No entanto, não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre guppies de localidades a jusante, do lago Pitch ou ornamentais. Este resultado pode dever-se ao facto de existirem grandes diferenças ecológicas entre os habitats localizados a jusante e a montante dos rios. Devido ao facto de estas localidades estarem separadas por cachoeiras, impossibilitando a migração rio-acima, a seleção natural poderá estar a actuar contra guppies que sejam arrastados rio abaixo durantes os períodos de cheias Abstract in english Guppies (Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859) in lakes and from captive-bred populations are predicted to show little rheotaxis compared to conspecifics in a stream environment that are regularly exposed to flash floods associated with involuntary downstream migration. Here we test this hypothesis using an artificial stream, examining guppies of two wild riverine populations, one lake population, and one ornamental strain. Guppies from the most upstream riverine habitat show (more) the most pronounced rheotaxis and are less likely to be swept downstream during flooding events. However, there is no significant difference between guppies from the lowland riverine habitat, the Pitch Lake and ornamental strain. We propose that station-keeping behaviours are most strongly selected in the upstream population because large spatial differences exist in ecology and environment between up- and downstream habitats. Given that these sites are separated by barrier waterfalls that prevent compensatory upstream migration, natural selection operates particularly strong against upstream guppies that have been displaced downstream during flooding events.

Mohammed, Ryan Simon; van Oosterhout, Cock; Schelkle, Bettina; Cable, Joanne; McMullan, Mark

2012-09-01

280

Structures of new friedelane- and norfriedelane-type triterpenes and polyacylated eudesmane-type sesquiterpene from Salacia chinensis LINN. (S. prinoides DC., Hippocrateaceae) and radical scavenging activities of principal constituents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two new friedelane-type triterpenes, salasones D and E, a new norfriedelane-type triterpene, salaquinone B, and a new polyacylated eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, salasol B, were isolated from the stems of Salacia chinensis LINN. (S. prinoides DC., Hippocrateaceae) collected in Thailand. Their stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. Some norfriedelane-type triterpene, lignan, and catechin constituents were found to show radical scavenging activity.

Kishi A; Morikawa T; Matsuda H; Yoshikawa M

2003-09-01

 
 
 
 
281

Structures of new friedelane- and norfriedelane-type triterpenes and polyacylated eudesmane-type sesquiterpene from Salacia chinensis LINN. (S. prinoides DC., Hippocrateaceae) and radical scavenging activities of principal constituents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new friedelane-type triterpenes, salasones D and E, a new norfriedelane-type triterpene, salaquinone B, and a new polyacylated eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, salasol B, were isolated from the stems of Salacia chinensis LINN. (S. prinoides DC., Hippocrateaceae) collected in Thailand. Their stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. Some norfriedelane-type triterpene, lignan, and catechin constituents were found to show radical scavenging activity. PMID:12951446

Kishi, Akinobu; Morikawa, Toshio; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

2003-09-01

282

EFECTOS ECOTOXICOLOGICOS DEL CARTAP SOBRE POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE) Y PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE) ECOTOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CARTAP ON POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE) AND PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se evaluó el impacto ecotoxicológico del insecticida carbámico cartap (1,3 di (carbamoytio)-2-dimetiloaminopropano) usado para el control de plagas agrícolas y como molusquicida de vectores de importancia en Salud Pública, sobre dos especies de peces del ecosistema acuático continental: Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859) "guppy" (Poecilidae) y Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936) ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae). Ellos fueron utilizados como organismos no destinatarios en ensayos de corta duración, para determinar el impacto toxicológico del cartap. Para ambas especies de peces se evaluó el porcentaje de mortalidad, y dos respuestas subletales: el incremento del movimiento opercular y el nado extraño. A 3 h de exposición para P. reticulata, se encontró un valor de CL50 (Concentración letal media) de 6,75 mg•L-1 y valores de CE50 (Concentración efectiva media) de The ecotoxicological impact of the carbamate insecticide cartap (1,3 di (carbamoythio)-2-dimethyloaminopropan) used for agriculture pests and as mollusquicide of vectors of Public Health importance was evaluated, on two fish species of the continental aquatic ecosystem. Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859) ``guppy" (Poecilidae) and Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936) ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae) were employed as non-target organisms in assays of short duration to determine the toxicological impact of cartap. For both fish, percentage of mortality and two sublethal responses: increase of opercula movement and strange swim, were evaluated. In P. reticulata after 3 h exposure it was found a LC50 (mean Lethal Concentration) of 6.75 mg'•L-1 and values of EC50 (mean Effective Concentration) of <7.55 and <8.16 mg•L-1 as speed up of opercula movement and strange swim, respectively. For P. innesi, it was found an LC50 value of <0.02 mg•L-1 and values of EC50 of <0.01 and <0.03 mg•L-1, as speed up of opercula movement and strange swim, respectively. P. innesi was more sensitive to cartap than P. reticulata. Risk Quotients (RQ) to evaluate environmental risk (ERA) of this insecticide on aquatic ecosystem were calculated, indicating that P. innesi was more accurate than P. reticulata as ecotoxicological tool to evaluate cartap.

Jose Iannacone; Roxana Onofre; Olga Huanqui

2007-01-01

283

Pseudobrânquia do guaru Poecilia reticulata (Peter, 1859): análise estrutural, morfométrica e histoquímica para detecção de glicoconjugados/ Pseudo-gill of guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Peter, 1859): structural, morphometric, and histochemical analyses for the detection of glycoconjugates  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A morfologia, os parâmetros citomorfométricos e os glicoconjugados presentes na pseudobrânquia de guaru, Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae), foram investigados por microscopia de luz acoplada ao sistema de captura e análise de imagens, juntamente por histoquímica com lectinas. A anatomia microscópica indicou que P. reticulata possui pseudobrânquia glandular formada por dois lóbulos, a qual se localiza abaixo do epitélio faringiano. (more) O órgão é constituído por parênquima vascularizado e rico em células pseudobranquiais. Esse tipo celular exibe estado citofisiológico ativo, com abundante sistema de biomembranas e ausência de óstio na superfície apical,que por sua vez é encontrado nas células ricas em mitocôndrias das holobrânquias. Assim, indica-se que as células da pseudobrânquia se distinguem das células das holobrânquias em relação à morfologia, histoquímica e fisiologia. Em decorrência dessas características intrínsecas, a pseudobrânquia de alevinos do guaru pode desempenhar funções não respiratórias nas fases iniciais do desenvolvimento. Além disso, a caracterização da pseudobrânquia do guaru possibilitará estudos futuros sobre o efeito de poluentes aquáticos em espécies biomonitoras, como P. reticulata. Abstract in english The morphology, cytomorphometric parameters, and glycoconjugates present in the pseudo-gill of guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae), were investigated by light microscopy coupled to image capture and analysis system, and also by lectin histochemistry. The microscopic anatomy indicates that P. reticulata has a glandular pseudo-gill formed by two lobes, located underneath the pharynx epithelium. The organ is formed by vascularized parench (more) yma rich in pseudo-gill cells. This cell type exhibits active cytophysiological state with an abundant system of biomembranes and lacking of ostium in apical surface, which in turn is found in the mitochondria-rich cells of the holobranch. This indicates that the pseudo-gill cells distinguishe from the holobranch cells in their morphology, histochemistry and physiology. Due to these intrinsic characteristics, the pseudo-gill of guppy fingerlings may have non-respiratory function in the initial phase of their development. The characterization of guppy's pseudo-gill could facilitate further studies about the effect of water pollutants on biomonitor species, such as P. reticulata.

Rocha, Thiago L.; Santos, Ana P.R.; Sabóia-Morais, Simone M.T.

2013-05-01

284

Tree and fruit traits of progenies from the cross between (Annona cherimola Mill. × A. squamosa L.) × A. reticulata L. and approaches for the introgression of valuable genes from A. reticulata L  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Annona reticulata L. possesses many traits desirable in other edible annonas, and hybridization is the simplest means to combine desirable features of related species. In this study, A. reticulata was hybridized with atemoya (A. cherimola Mill. × A. squamosa L.), and 250 trispecies hybrids were studied for 28 traits (12 tree traits and 16 fruit traits) with the objective of salvaging useful genes from the three edible annonas and determining the extent of variation in the progeny. The heterozygous nature of Annona spp. and simultaneous segregation of three distant genomes resulted in a tremendous heterogeneity in the progenies. The fitness of the progenies ranged from very vigorous to very weak, with a wide range of values for tree height (1.75-5.9 m), canopy spread (1.15-5.07 m) and trunk circumference (11-38.5 cm). The occurrence of diverse and novel segregants for tree shape and branching pattern suggested the possibility of identifying efficient ideotypes. Variation in fruit shape, skin colour and skin surface in addition to wide range of values for total soluble solids (17-32°B), acidity (0.16-2.2%) and number of seeds per/100 g fruit (3-49) showed that exciting opportunities existed in terms of selecting for desirable traits. Among the segregating population were slow-fruit-ripening genotypes that required up to 12 days from harvesting to ripening. Interestingly, some recombinants produced fruits resembling A. glabra and A. muricata fruits, suggesting that one or the other parental species of the trihybrid could be progenitor of these two non-parental species. These results demonstrate that A. reticulata is potentially a valuable source of a variety of novel traits. However, the F? trihybrids exhibited reduced fertility with pronounced undesirable traits of A. reticulata, and the survival of F? trees was poor, with those that did survive being extremely weak and failing to flower or set fruit. Consequently, backcrossing may be more suitable approach than advancing trihybrid generation for transferring desirable genes from A. reticulata. Backcrossing F? progeny of [(A. cherimola × A. squamosa) × A. reticulata] to A. squamosa, a highly fertile species, is expected to yield productive introgressants in which the contribution of the A. squamosa genome will be extended from 25 to 62.5% in the F?BC? generation. The genetics is described herein based on the expressions of certain tree and fruit traits in the progeny.

Jalikop SH

2010-05-01

285

Triacylglyceride, antioxidant and antimicrobial features of virgin Camellia oleifera, C. reticulata and C. sasanqua Oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Virgin oils obtained from seeds of Camellia oleifera (CO), Camellia reticulata (CR) and Camellia sasanqua (CS) were studied for their triacylglyceride composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Levels of fatty acids determined by ¹H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis were similar to those reported for olive oils (82.30%-84.47%; 5.69%-7.78%; 0.26%-0.41% and 8.04%-11.2%, for oleic, linoleic, linolenic and saturated acids, respectively). The CR oil showed the best antioxidant potential in the three in vitro models tested. With regard to EC?? values (µg/mL), the order in DPPH radical-scavenging was CR (33.48) camellia oil's effect. The standard gentamicin presented higher MIC for E. coli (4.2) than the CR (MIC= 2.6) and CO (MIC = 3.9) oils. PMID:23599015

Feás, Xesús; Estevinho, Leticia M; Salinero, Carmen; Vela, Pilar; Sainz, María J; Vázquez-Tato, María Pilar; Seijas, Julio A

2013-04-18

286

Successful management of acute-onset torticollis in a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2-yr-old male reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) presented with severe midcervical segmental torticollis upon arrival as an incoming shipment. Despite initial medical management, the giraffe developed marked neck sensitivity, focal muscle spasms, and decreased cervical range of motion. Using operant conditioning to assist patient positioning and tolerance to cervical manipulation, a series of manually applied chiropractic treatments were applied to the affected cervical vertebrae in an effort to restore normal cervical mobility. Laser therapy and cervical range of motion exercises were also used to reduce cervical muscle hypertonicity. The combined application of these nontraditional therapies produced marked clinical improvement. This case highlights the potential benefits of combining traditional medical management with chiropractic treatment and physical therapy techniques for management of severe acute-onset torticollis in a giraffe. PMID:23505724

Dadone, Liza I; Haussler, Kevin K; Brown, Greg; Marsden, Melanie; Gaynor, James; Johnston, Matthew S; Garelle, Della

2013-03-01

287

Cloning and expression analysis of a prion protein encoding gene in guppy ( Poecilia reticulata)  

Science.gov (United States)

The full length cDNA of a prion protein (PrP) encoding gene of guppy ( Poecilia reticulata) and the corresponding genomic DNA were cloned. The cDNA was 2245 bp in length and contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1545 bp encoding a protein of 515 amino acids, which held all typical structural characteristics of the functional PrP. The cloned genomic DNA fragment corresponding to the cDNA was 3720 bp in length, consisting of 2 introns and 2 exons. The 5' untranslated region of cDNA originated from the 2 exons, while the ORF originated from the second exon. Although the gene was transcribed in diverse tissues including brain, eye, liver, intestine, muscle and tail, its transcript was most abundant in the brain. In addition, the transcription of the gene was enhanced by 5 salinity, implying that it was associated with the response of guppy to saline stress.

Wu, Suihan; Wei, Qiwei; Yang, Guanpin; Wang, Dengqiang; Zou, Guiwei; Chen, Daqing

2008-11-01

288

Sexual conflict and the function of genitalic claws in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Poeciliid fish, freshwater fish with internal fertilization, are known for the diversity of structures on the male intromittent organ, the gonopodium. Prominent among these, in some species, is a pair of claws at its tip. We conducted a manipulative study of these claws in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, to determine if these aid in transferring sperm to resistant females. We compared the sperm transfer rates of clawed versus surgically declawed males attempting to mate with either receptive or unreceptive (i.e. resistant) females. Our analyses demonstrate that the gonopodial claws function to increase sperm transfer to unreceptive females during uncooperative matings but not during receptive matings. Up to threefold more sperm were transferred to unreceptive females by clawed than declawed males. These data suggest that the claw is a sexually antagonistic trait, functioning to aid in transferring sperm to resistant females, and implicate sexual conflict as a selective force in the diversification of the gonopodium in the Poeciliidae. PMID:23883572

Kwan, Lucia; Cheng, Yun Yun; Rodd, F Helen; Rowe, Locke

2013-07-24

289

Acute toxicity and toxic interaction of chromium and nickel to common guppy Poecilia reticulata (Peters)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The acute toxicity of heavy metals in combination to the common guppy has been reported. Information on the combined effects of chromium and nickel to fish is rather scarce. Toxicity of nickel and chromium to fish is generally low. These two elements are usually less toxic than silver, cadmium, copper and thallium; depending on test conditions, these may also be less hazardous than zinc, lead and arsenic. The present study was undertaken to investigate the acute toxicity of Ni and Cr singly and the toxic interaction of these two metal ions on survival of the common guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Peters). This species was selected for static bioassays because it can be easily cultured and raised under laboratory conditions through a complete life cycle, and it is one of the most common fish used for laboratory toxicity studies.

Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

1990-06-01

290

Euclinostomum heterostomum infection in guppies Poecilia reticulata cultured in Southern Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

During April to June 2009 and February 2010 to February 2011, numerous digenetic trematode metacercariae were observed embedded in the muscles of guppies Poecilia reticulata cultured at Kidchakan Supamattaya Aquatic Animal Health Research Center, Songkhla, southern Thailand. A total of 424 guppies were examined to identify the parasite and to study its pathogenicity. Based on conventional parasitological techniques, the parasitic digenean found in the guppies was identified as Euclinostomum heterostomum Rudolphi, 1809. Histological analysis revealed numerous metacercariae embedded in the fish muscle. A life cycle study indicated that the snail Indoplanorbis exustus was the first intermediate host, with the guppies serving as the second intermediate host. No E. heterostomum metacercariae were found in cohabited fish species, giant sailfin molly Poecilia velifera or platy Xiphophorus maculatus, which indicated that the guppy was the only suitable fish host present. PMID:23709465

Suanyuk, Naraid; Mankhakhet, Suchanya; Soliman, Hatem; Saleh, Mona; El-Matbouli, Mansour

2013-05-27

291

Euclinostomum heterostomum infection in guppies Poecilia reticulata cultured in Southern Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During April to June 2009 and February 2010 to February 2011, numerous digenetic trematode metacercariae were observed embedded in the muscles of guppies Poecilia reticulata cultured at Kidchakan Supamattaya Aquatic Animal Health Research Center, Songkhla, southern Thailand. A total of 424 guppies were examined to identify the parasite and to study its pathogenicity. Based on conventional parasitological techniques, the parasitic digenean found in the guppies was identified as Euclinostomum heterostomum Rudolphi, 1809. Histological analysis revealed numerous metacercariae embedded in the fish muscle. A life cycle study indicated that the snail Indoplanorbis exustus was the first intermediate host, with the guppies serving as the second intermediate host. No E. heterostomum metacercariae were found in cohabited fish species, giant sailfin molly Poecilia velifera or platy Xiphophorus maculatus, which indicated that the guppy was the only suitable fish host present.

Suanyuk N; Mankhakhet S; Soliman H; Saleh M; El-Matbouli M

2013-05-01

292

Efecto anabólico y androgénico del esteroide acetato de trembolona en el guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto del esteroide semisintético acetato de trembolona (ATB) en el pez de ornato Poecilia reticulata (guppy). Especímenes juveniles de 30 días de edad fueron tratados con el esteroide a dosis de 300 mg/kg de alimento durante 60 días. Al término del tratamiento, 40 días después, se estimó el efecto residual del esteroide. Se analizó la sobrevivencia, la proporción de peces masculinizados, así como el efecto anabólico. Los resultados indicaron que el ATB es efi caz para inducir la masculinización, a diferencia del grupo testigo, donde se registraron 32% de machos. Asimismo, el ATB tuvo un efecto anabólico, ya que los peces tratados mostraron mayor peso y talla e incremento de la aleta caudal. El esteroide no causó daño en la población tratada, al sobrevivir 93.3% de los peces, comparado con 83% del grupo testigo

Héctor Salgado Zamora; Aída Azpeitia Hernández; Samuel Marañón Herrera; Eduardo Maya Peña

2008-01-01

293

Influence of the protein quantity from combined fodder on the corporal development of guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the effects of various concentrations of protein premixtures onthe growth in length and weight of adult specimens of ornamental fish Poecilia reticulata, bred incaptivity. Of this consideration, the experiment was set up with six groups: R1, R2, R3, TG, TP and TD,which were fed differently as follows: R1 with mixed fodder containing 30% CP (crude protein), ownrecipe; R2 with mixed fodder containing 30% GP, own recipe; R3 with mixed fodder containing 30%CP, own recipe; TG with Troco Grower fodder containing 43% CP; TP with Troco Prim fodder containing44% CP; TD with Tetra Discus fodder containing 48% CP. The research was conducted over a period ofthree months in which there have been followed the length and weight, to determine body indices(average increase of the weight gain, Fulton index and average weight ratio multiplier).

Adrian Gruber; Ioan M. Pop; Benone P?s?rin; Gabriel Hoha; Cristian Radu- Rusu; R?zvan Radu-Rusu

2013-01-01

294

Sexual conflict and the function of genitalic claws in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Poeciliid fish, freshwater fish with internal fertilization, are known for the diversity of structures on the male intromittent organ, the gonopodium. Prominent among these, in some species, is a pair of claws at its tip. We conducted a manipulative study of these claws in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, to determine if these aid in transferring sperm to resistant females. We compared the sperm transfer rates of clawed versus surgically declawed males attempting to mate with either receptive or unreceptive (i.e. resistant) females. Our analyses demonstrate that the gonopodial claws function to increase sperm transfer to unreceptive females during uncooperative matings but not during receptive matings. Up to threefold more sperm were transferred to unreceptive females by clawed than declawed males. These data suggest that the claw is a sexually antagonistic trait, functioning to aid in transferring sperm to resistant females, and implicate sexual conflict as a selective force in the diversification of the gonopodium in the Poeciliidae.

Kwan L; Cheng YY; Rodd FH; Rowe L

2013-10-01

295

Calamenenes--aromatic bicyclic sesquiterpenes--from the Indian gorgonian Subergorgia reticulata (Ellis and Solander, 1786).  

Science.gov (United States)

Three aromatic sesquiterpene derivatives, (+)-(7R, 10S)-2-methoxy calamenene (1), (+)-(7R, 10S)-2,5-dimethoxy calamenene (2) and (+)-(7R, 10S)-2-methoxy-5-acetoxy calamenene (3) were isolated from the methanol extract of the Indian gorgonian Subergorgia reticulata. Compound 2 has not been previously described in the literature. Compound 3 has not been isolated previously from a natural source. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 showed settlement inhibition activity against cyprids of Balanus amphitrite with EC(50) values of 4.4, 7.8 and 0.03 µg mL(-1), respectively. These compounds also exhibited considerable activity against Artemia nauplii at 50 µg mL(-1), indicative of their potential use as cytotoxic agents. PMID:21246444

Limna Mol, V P; Raveendran, T V; Naik, B G; Kunnath, R J; Parameswaran, P S

2011-01-01

296

Calamenenes--aromatic bicyclic sesquiterpenes--from the Indian gorgonian Subergorgia reticulata (Ellis and Solander, 1786).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three aromatic sesquiterpene derivatives, (+)-(7R, 10S)-2-methoxy calamenene (1), (+)-(7R, 10S)-2,5-dimethoxy calamenene (2) and (+)-(7R, 10S)-2-methoxy-5-acetoxy calamenene (3) were isolated from the methanol extract of the Indian gorgonian Subergorgia reticulata. Compound 2 has not been previously described in the literature. Compound 3 has not been isolated previously from a natural source. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 showed settlement inhibition activity against cyprids of Balanus amphitrite with EC(50) values of 4.4, 7.8 and 0.03 µg mL(-1), respectively. These compounds also exhibited considerable activity against Artemia nauplii at 50 µg mL(-1), indicative of their potential use as cytotoxic agents.

Limna Mol VP; Raveendran TV; Naik BG; Kunnath RJ; Parameswaran PS

2011-01-01

297

Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Essential Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (PCR) essential oil obtained using an improved Clevenger type apparatus were studied. Among the five different PCRs examined the highest yield of essential oil was found in Chachi 2004 (harvested and stored in 2004) and the lowest in Chachi 2008 (harvested and stored in 2008). Fifty three different volatile compounds were determined, including terpenic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters. D-limonene, one of terpenes, was the major constituent in PCR. The antioxidant capacity of PCR essential oil varied considerably with the duration of storage time, and the oil from Chachi 1994 has the strongest ferric-reducing antioxidant power. In addition, the essential oil possessed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus), except Streptococcus faecalis, while had no effect on Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae).

Bei Gao; Yulong Chen; Mingwei Zhang; Yujuan Xu; Siyi Pan

2011-01-01

298

DETAILED COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA LINN. AND ANNONA RETICULATA LINN. LEAVES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Annona squamosa Linn. and Annona reticulata Linn. are locally known as Sitaphala and Ramphala respectively both belongs to family Annonaceae. Leaves of both are used in various diseases like suppurant, toothache, anthelmintic commonly. Individually A. squamosa is used in anti diabetic, antispasmodic, dandruff and A. reticulate is used in flatulence and toothache. Till date there is no scientific comparative study has been reported. Pharmacognostical study of A. squamosa shows lysogenous cavity and sparse trichome where as, A. reticulate shows multicellular trichomes filled with tannin and stone cells. The powder characters of A. squamosa are stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate whereas A. reticulate shows pitted stones cells and micro rosettes crystals of calcium oxalate. Annular vessels, lysogenous cavity and paracytic stomata are common characters observed in both the leaves.

Jani Switu; Harisha C.R.; Mohaddesi Behzad

2012-01-01

299

EFECTOS ECOTOXICOLOGICOS DEL CARTAP SOBRE POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE) Y PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE)/ ECOTOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CARTAP ON POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE) AND PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el impacto ecotoxicológico del insecticida carbámico cartap (1,3 di (carbamoytio)-2-dimetiloaminopropano) usado para el control de plagas agrícolas y como molusquicida de vectores de importancia en Salud Pública, sobre dos especies de peces del ecosistema acuático continental: Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859) "guppy" (Poecilidae) y Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936) ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae). Ellos fueron utilizados como organismos no destinatarios en ens (more) ayos de corta duración, para determinar el impacto toxicológico del cartap. Para ambas especies de peces se evaluó el porcentaje de mortalidad, y dos respuestas subletales: el incremento del movimiento opercular y el nado extraño. A 3 h de exposición para P. reticulata, se encontró un valor de CL50 (Concentración letal media) de 6,75 mg?L-1 y valores de CE50 (Concentración efectiva media) de Abstract in english The ecotoxicological impact of the carbamate insecticide cartap (1,3 di (carbamoythio)-2-dimethyloaminopropan) used for agriculture pests and as mollusquicide of vectors of Public Health importance was evaluated, on two fish species of the continental aquatic ecosystem. Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859) ``guppy" (Poecilidae) and Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936) ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae) were employed as non-target organisms in assays of short duration to determine the t (more) oxicological impact of cartap. For both fish, percentage of mortality and two sublethal responses: increase of opercula movement and strange swim, were evaluated. In P. reticulata after 3 h exposure it was found a LC50 (mean Lethal Concentration) of 6.75 mg'?L-1 and values of EC50 (mean Effective Concentration) of

Iannacone, Jose; Onofre, Roxana; Huanqui, Olga

2007-01-01

300

Whole toxicity removal for industrial and domestic effluents treated with electron beam radiation, evaluated with Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Poecilia reticulata  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several studies have been performed in order to apply ionizing radiation to treat real complexes effluents from different sources, at IPEN. This paper shows the results of such kind of application devoted to influents and effluents from Suzano Wastewater Treatment Plant, Sao Paulo, Suzano WTP, from SABESP. The purpose of the work was to evaluate the radiation technology according to ecotoxicological aspects. The evaluation was carried out on the toxicity bases which included three sampling sites as follows: complex industrial effluents; domestic sewage mixed to the industrial discharge (GM) and final secondary effluent. The tested-organisms for toxicity evaluation were: the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri, the microcrustacean Daphnia similis and the guppy Poecilia reticulata. The fish tests were applied only for secondary final effluents. The results demonstrated the original acute toxicity levels as well as the efficiency of electron beam for its reduction. An important acute toxicity removal was achieved: from 75% up to 95% with 50 kGy (UNA), 20 kGy (GM) and 5.0 kGy for the final effluent. The toxicity removal was a consequence of several organic solvents decomposed by radiation and acute toxicity reduction was about 95%. When the toxicity was evaluated for fish the radiation efficiency reached from 40% to 60%. The hypothesis tests showed a statistical significant removal in the developed studies condition. No residual hydrogen peroxide was found after 5.0 kGy was applied to final effluent. (author)

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Study on the volatile oil contents of Annona glabra L., Annona squamosa L., Annona muricata L. and Annona reticulata L., from Vietnam.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The volatile compounds identified from four species of Annona from Vietnam are being reported. The oils were obtained from aliquots of plant samples by steam distillation and subjected to GC and GC-MS analysis. The main compounds of Annona glabra L., were ?-caryophyllene (21.5%) germacrene D (17.7%), ?-cadinol (5.4%) and ?-elemene (5.2%). Annona squamosa L., comprised mainly of ?-pinene (1.0-11.9%), limonene (0.8-11.7%), ?-cubebene (0.5-13.0%), ?-caryophyllene (11.6-24.5%), spathulenol (0.8-9.0%), caryophyllene oxide (1.0-10.6%) and ?-cadinol (3.3-7.8%). The significant constituents of Annona muricata L., were ?-pinene (9.4%), ?-pinene (20.6%), ?-mentha-2,4(8)-diene (9.8%), ?-elemene (9.1%) and germacrene D (18.1%). However, camphene (0.2-6.6%), ?-copaene (2.0-7.3%), ?-elemene (5.9-16.6%), ?-caryophyllene (8.3-14.9%), ?-bisabolene (0.4-10.2%), ?-cadinene (1.7-4.8%) and germacrene D (9.3-22.8%) were the main compounds common to samples of Annona reticulata L. There were significant amounts of sabinene (11.2% and 2.7%; leaf and stem bark) and bicycloelemene (9.6% and 6.1%; stem and bark).

Thang TD; Dai DN; Hoi TM; Ogunwande IA

2013-07-01

302

Investigation of Acute Toxicity of Pirimiphos-Methyl (Actellic®, 25%EC) on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pirimiphos-methyl is a broad spectrum organophosphate insecticide and potential toxic pollutant in aquatic ecosystems. The acute toxicity of Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic®) was investigated using Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) in a 96 h static renewal laboratory bioassay. Based on probit analysis, the LC50 was 0.026, 0.024, 0.022 and 0.019 ml L-1 at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that there was significant difference (pP. reticulata to different concentrations of Actellic at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure. Actellic insecticide is toxic to fish; therefore its indiscriminate use in aquatic environment should be discouraged.

M.O. Lawal; O.B. Samuel

2010-01-01

303

Senna reticulata (Willd.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae) as "pasture killer" ("matapasto") pioneer tree in Amazonian floodplains.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Senna reticulata (Willd.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae) es un árbol pionero que coloniza áreas abiertas en las planicies inundables de la amazonía. Es muy abundante a lo largo de los ríos de aguas claras y nutritivas y puede considerarse uno de los más eficientes colonizadores de áreas abiertas. Las raíces y tallos poseen una alta tolerancia a la inundación y presenta una alta asimilación fotosintética y rápido crecimiento a pesar de la inundación prolongada; además la eficiente dispersión de la semilla y la habilidad para rebrotar después de un periodo de condiciones desfavorables, la hacen muy efectiva. Estas características llevan a la población local a considerar a Senna reticulata como una nociva maleza leñosa, llamada ?matapasto? (?pasture killer?) aunque en la secuencia sucesional represente una etapa leñosa de corta duración, la cual permite el establecimiento de bosques altamente diversos.

Pia Parolin

2005-01-01

304

DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLLASE ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO L. USING SEAWEED EXTRACT OF ULVA RETICULATA FORSSKAL.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of seaweed extract prepared from Ulva reticulata on seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyllase activity of Vigna mungo L. was studied. 100% germination was recorded in the seeds treated with lower concentration of seaweed extract. The V. mungo seeds soaked with lower concentrations of the seaweed extracts showed higher rates of germination, while the higher concentrations of the extracts inhibited the germination.

Ganapathy Selvam G.; Balamurugan M.; Thinakaran T.; Sivakumar K

2013-01-01

305

Towards the elusive structure of kotalanol, a naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

This Highlight describes the detailed approach used to determine the absolute stereochemistry of the stereogenic centers in the acyclic side chain of kotalanol, a naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor isolated from the plant Salacia reticulata. The plant extract itself is used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. We highlight the syntheses of proposed candidates based on structure-activity relationships, the total synthesis of kotalanol, and crystallographic studies of kotalanol and its de-O-sulfonated derivative complexed with recombinant human maltase glucoamylase (MGA), a critical intestinal glucosidase involved in the breakdown of glucose oligomers into glucose. PMID:20336233

Mohan, Sankar; Pinto, B Mario

2010-02-18

306

Towards the elusive structure of kotalanol, a naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This Highlight describes the detailed approach used to determine the absolute stereochemistry of the stereogenic centers in the acyclic side chain of kotalanol, a naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor isolated from the plant Salacia reticulata. The plant extract itself is used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. We highlight the syntheses of proposed candidates based on structure-activity relationships, the total synthesis of kotalanol, and crystallographic studies of kotalanol and its de-O-sulfonated derivative complexed with recombinant human maltase glucoamylase (MGA), a critical intestinal glucosidase involved in the breakdown of glucose oligomers into glucose.

Mohan S; Pinto BM

2010-04-01

307

Discriminating the pH toxicity to Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 in the Dunas Lake (Camacari, BA, Brazil).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Toxic potential of the pH reduction to fingerlings of Poecilia reticulata, through acute toxicity bioassays, as well as the influence of increased pH on the toxicity were assessed. Acid lake samples (Dunas Lake) were collected during 19 months, and assessed with following treatments: water at local pH (+/-3.0) and samples with modified pH to 3.5, 3.8, 4.0, 4.3, 4.6, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, and 6.5. Culture water samples with pH reduced to 3.0 were also assessed. Newborn P. reticulata were exposed during 96h, and dead/immobile organisms were counted at various time intervals during exposure (short intervals in the beginning and long towards the end). Mean results of LT50 and confidence intervals from the Dunas Lake and control water with reduced pH were 1.36 (+/-0.48)h, and 1.03 (+/-0.50)h, respectively, with no statistical difference. Samples with increased pH showed a significant reduction in toxicity, with no toxicity detected at pH 6.0 and higher. Relationship between pH and lethal toxicity for fingerlings of P. reticulata demonstrated that pH exerted a strong effect on the survival of this species at the Dunas Lake, explaining about 80% of the toxicity observed.

Araújo CV; Cohin-de-Pinho SJ; Chastinet CB; Santos JS; da Silva EM

2008-09-01

308

Antiplasmodial, cytotoxic activities and characterization of a new naturally occurring quinone methide pentacyclic triterpenoid derivative isolated from Salacia leptoclada Tul. (Celastraceae) originated from Madagascar.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To validate scientifically the traditional use of Salacia leptoclada Tul. (Celastraceae) (S. leptoclada) and to isolate and elucidate the structure of the biologically active compound. METHODS: Bioassay-guided fractionation of the acetonic extract of the stem barks of S. leptoclada was carried out by a combination of chromatography technique and biological experiments in viro using Plasmodium falciparum and P388 leukemia cell lines as models. The structure of the biologically active pure compound was elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Biological screening of S. leptoclada extracts resulted in the isolation of a pentacyclic triterpenic quinone methide. The pure compound exhibited both in vitro a cytotoxic effect on murine P388 leukemia cells with IC50 value of (0.041±0.020) ?g/mL and an antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-resistant strain FC29 of Plasmodium falciparum with an IC50 value of (0.052±0.030) ?g/mL. Despite this interesting anti-malarial property of the lead compound, the therapeutic index was weak (0.788). In the best of our knowledge, the quinone methide pentacyclic triterpenoid derivative compound is reported for the first time in S. leptoclada. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that furthers studies involving antineoplastic activity is needed for the development of this lead compound as anticancer drug.

Ruphin FP; Baholy R; Emmanue A; Amelie R; Martin MT; Koto-Te-Nyiwa N

2013-10-01

309

Isolation, characterization and antifungal activity of major constituents of the Himalayan lichen Parmelia reticulata Tayl.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antifungal activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Parmelia reticulata was evaluated against soilborne pathogenic fungi, namely, Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, R. bataticola, Fusarium udum, Pythium aphanidermatum and P. debaryanum by poisoned food technique. Maximum antifungal activity was exhibited by hexane and ethyl acetate extracts against most of the test pathogens. Secondary metabolites, namely, (±)-isousnic acid, (±)-protolichesterinic acid, atranorin, evernyl, ethyl hematommate, ethyl orsellinate, methyl hematommate (3-formyl-2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoic acid methyl ester), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3,6-dimethylbenzoic acid, 1-hydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy-8-methyl-xanthen-9-one, baeomycesic acid and salazinic acid, were isolated from the above extracts and identified by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopic methods. When these metabolites were tested for antifungal activity against test pathogens, maximum antifungal activity was exhibited by (±)-protolichesterinic acid against R. solani (ED50=23.09 ?g mL(-1)) and P. debaryanum (ED50=16.07 ?g mL(-1)) and by atranorin against S. rolfsii (ED50=39.70 ?g mL(-1)). The antifungal activity of protolichesterinic acid was found to be comparable to that of hexaconazole, a commercial fungicide.

Goel M; Dureja P; Rani A; Uniyal PL; Laatsch H

2011-03-01

310

Isolation, characterization and antifungal activity of major constituents of the Himalayan lichen Parmelia reticulata Tayl.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antifungal activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Parmelia reticulata was evaluated against soilborne pathogenic fungi, namely, Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, R. bataticola, Fusarium udum, Pythium aphanidermatum and P. debaryanum by poisoned food technique. Maximum antifungal activity was exhibited by hexane and ethyl acetate extracts against most of the test pathogens. Secondary metabolites, namely, (±)-isousnic acid, (±)-protolichesterinic acid, atranorin, evernyl, ethyl hematommate, ethyl orsellinate, methyl hematommate (3-formyl-2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoic acid methyl ester), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3,6-dimethylbenzoic acid, 1-hydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy-8-methyl-xanthen-9-one, baeomycesic acid and salazinic acid, were isolated from the above extracts and identified by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopic methods. When these metabolites were tested for antifungal activity against test pathogens, maximum antifungal activity was exhibited by (±)-protolichesterinic acid against R. solani (ED50=23.09 ?g mL(-1)) and P. debaryanum (ED50=16.07 ?g mL(-1)) and by atranorin against S. rolfsii (ED50=39.70 ?g mL(-1)). The antifungal activity of protolichesterinic acid was found to be comparable to that of hexaconazole, a commercial fungicide. PMID:21351753

Goel, Mayurika; Dureja, Prem; Rani, Archna; Uniyal, Prem L; Laatsch, Hartmut

2011-02-25

311

Volatile constituents of mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) peel oil from Burundi.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The essential oil constituents of mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) grown in Burundi were extracted by cold-pressing method and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Fifty-eight constituents, amounting to 97.2% of the total volatiles were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons accounted for the most abundant chemical group (94.7%). Limonene was the most prominent constituent (84.8%), followed by gamma-terpinene (5.4%), myrcene (2.2%) and alpha-pinene (1.1%). Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons accounted for a minor quantity (0.2%), where germacrene D and valencene were the main constituents. Oxygenated compounds of various chemical groups constituted 2.3%. Aliphatic aldehydes (0.7%) and terpene alcohols (0.7%) were the major chemical groups. The main constituents were linalool (0.7%), octanal (0.5%) and decanal (0.2%). Octyl acetate, alpha-sinensal, decanol and perillaldehyde occurred at 0.1% levels. Thymol, alpha-sinensal, methyl thymol, and the acetate esters, bornyl, alpha-terpinyl, geranyl, citronellyl and decyl acetates were detected, each at < 0.05%.

Njoroge SM; Mungai HN; Koaze H; Phi NTL; Sawamura M

2006-11-01

312

[Culture of Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poecilidae) in tropical water bodies, Veracruz, Mexico].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Poecilia reticulata, also known as guppy, is the most popular fish in the aquarium environment. Guppys are viviparous fish with high tolerance to extreme temperatures. The development of the offspring takes between 25 and 30 days. We developed a technology for raising guppys, which outlines infrastructure and devices for reproduction, nursery, feeding, and commercialization, evaluating the financial and technical feasibility of this technology in a case study. The complete reproductive cycle occured in floating cages with 1 mm mesh and the method was tested in a tropical lagoon in Mexico. Water quality was monitored throughout the study period (temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH levels). A marketing survey was carried out at all existing aquarium shops in Veracruz City. Data collected depict quantities demanded and offered for each species by season, place of origin, and resistance to handling. The hydrobiological characteristics were: average temperature 31.4 degrees C, dissolved oxygen 4.5 mgl(-1), and pH level 6.8. With these values we built a production function, and used it to evaluate profitability. We estimate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.16, with a net annual income of US$257.67. The system may provide two permanent jobs.

Murillo PD; Mendiola JL; Sánchez Luna B

2004-12-01

313

Waterborne zinc alters temporal dynamics of guppy Poecilia reticulata epidermal response to Gyrodactylus turnbulli (Monogenea).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study assessed the histological changes in the epidermis of Poecilia reticulata induced by the combined effects of an ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli and differing concentrations of waterborne zinc (Zn). Infected guppies were exposed to 0, 15, 30, 60, or 120 µg Zn l-1 and monitored over 3 wk during the exponential increase in parasite numbers on the fish. The fish epidermis responded within 3 d to G. turnbulli infection with a rapid increase in epidermal thickness and a modest increase in number, but not size or composition, of mucous cells. In contrast, in the presence of combined waterborne Zn and infection, mucous cell numbers declined rapidly. As the parasite numbers increased, the epidermis remained thicker than normal, and the number and size of mucous cells decreased. The addition of Zn led to a dramatic thickening of the epidermis during the exponential growth of the parasite population. Mucous cell numbers remained depressed. Temporal changes in mucous cell size were Zn concentration dependent. At 60 µg Zn l-1, cells returned to normal size as infection progressed, whereas they remained extremely small at 120 µg Zn l-1. Changes in mucin composition previously reported in response to Zn alone were subdued in the presence of the parasite except at 60 µg Zn l-1, where all cells contained only acidic mucins. Together these results demonstrate that, on exposure to both Zn and G. turnbulli infection, the epidermal response is initially a protective response to both stressors, and then mainly driven by the increased parasite burden.

Gheorghiu C; Marcogliese DJ; Scott ME

2012-03-01

314

Direct and indirect ecosystem effects of evolutionary adaptation in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological and evolutionary processes may interact on the same timescale, but we are just beginning to understand how. Several studies have examined the net effects of adaptive evolution on ecosystem properties. However, we do not know whether these effects are confined to direct interactions or whether they propagate further through indirect ecological pathways. Even less well understood is how the combination of direct and indirect ecological effects of the phenotype promotes or inhibits evolutionary change. We coupled mesocosm experiments and ecosystem modeling to evaluate the ecological effects of local adaptation in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The experiments show that guppies adapted to life with and without predators alter the ecosystem directly through differences in diet. The ecosystem model reveals that the small total indirect effect of the phenotype observed in the experiments is likely a combination of several large indirect effects that act in opposing directions. The model further suggests that these indirect effects can reverse the direction of selection that direct effects alone exert back on phenotypic variation. We conclude that phenotypic divergence can have major effects deep in the web of indirect ecological interactions and that even small total indirect effects can radically change the dynamics of adaptation. PMID:22766929

Bassar, Ronald D; Ferriere, Regis; López-Sepulcre, Andrés; Marshall, Michael C; Travis, Joseph; Pringle, Catherine M; Reznick, David N

2012-08-01

315

Intra-retinal variation of opsin gene expression in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although behavioural experiments demonstrate that colouration influences mate choice in many species, a complete understanding of this form of signalling requires information about colour vision in the species under investigation. The guppy (Poecilia reticulata) has become a model species for the study of colour-based sexual selection. To investigate the role of opsin gene duplication and divergence in the evolution of colour-based mate choice, we used in situ hybridization to determine where the guppy's nine cone opsins are expressed in the retina. Long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsins were more abundant in the dorsal retina than in the ventral retina. One of the middle wavelength-sensitive opsins (RH2-1) exhibited the opposite pattern, while the other middle wavelength-sensitive opsin (RH2-2) and the short wavelength-sensitive opsins (SWS1, SWS2A and SWS2B) were expressed throughout the retina. We also found variation in LWS opsin expression among individuals. These observations suggest that regions of the guppy retina are specialized with respect to wavelength discrimination and/or sensitivity. Intra-retinal variability in opsin expression, which has been observed in several fish species, might be an adaptation to variation in the strength and spectral composition of light entering the eye from above and below. The discovery that opsin expression varies in the guppy retina may motivate new behavioural experiments designed to study its role in mate choice.

Rennison DJ; Owens GL; Allison WT; Taylor JS

2011-10-01

316

Gene duplication and divergence of long wavelength-sensitive opsin genes in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Female preference for male orange coloration in the genus Poecilia suggests a role for duplicated long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin genes in facilitating behaviors related to mate choice in these species. Previous work has shown that LWS gene duplication in this genus has resulted in expansion of long wavelength visual capacity as determined by microspectrophotometry (MSP). However, the relationship between LWS genomic repertoires and expression of LWS retinal cone classes within a given species is unclear. Our previous study in the related species, Xiphophorus helleri, was the first characterization of the complete LWS opsin genomic repertoire in conjunction with MSP expression data in the family Poeciliidae, and revealed the presence of four LWS loci and two distinct LWS cone classes. In this study we characterized the genomic organization of LWS opsin genes by BAC clone sequencing, and described the full range of cone cell types in the retina of the colorful Cumaná guppy, Poecilia reticulata. In contrast to X. helleri, MSP data from the Cumaná guppy revealed three LWS cone classes. Comparisons of LWS genomic organization described here for Cumaná to that of X. helleri indicate that gene divergence and not duplication was responsible for the evolution of a novel LWS haplotype in the Cumaná guppy. This lineage-specific divergence is likely responsible for a third additional retinal cone class not present in X. helleri, and may have facilitated the strong sexual selection driven by female preference for orange color patterns associated with the genus Poecilia.

Watson CT; Gray SM; Hoffmann M; Lubieniecki KP; Joy JB; Sandkam BA; Weigel D; Loew E; Dreyer C; Davidson WS; Breden F

2011-02-01

317

The effects of different predator species on antipredator behavior in the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata  

Science.gov (United States)

Different types of predators often elicit different antipredator responses in a common type of prey. Alternatively, some prey species may adopt a general response, which provides limited protection from many different types of predator. The Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, is faced with a wide range of different predators throughout its range and is known to display varying levels of antipredator behavior depending on the predator assemblage. Pike cichlids, Crenicichla frenata, are regarded as the primary aquatic guppy predator in streams in the northern mountain range in Trinidad. As such, they are seen to be responsible for many of the differences in morphology, life history traits, and behavior between guppy populations from areas with few predators and those from areas with many pike cichlids. In this study we investigated how guppies responded when faced with different predator species using three common aquatic predators. We exposed shoals of ten guppies to one out of four treatments: no predator (control), pike cichlid, acara cichlid ( Aequidens pulcher), and wolf fish ( Hoplias malabaricus); and we made behavioral observations on both focal individuals and the shoal as a whole. Guppies showed significantly greater levels of predator inspection and shoaling behavior, foraged less, spent more time in the surface water, and stayed in significantly larger shoals when faced with pike cichlids than in other treatments. We discuss these results in the context of multiple predator effects.

Botham, M. S.; Kerfoot, C. J.; Louca, V.; Krause, J.

2006-09-01

318

The MC1R gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata): Genotypic and phenotypic polymorphisms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The guppy (Poecilia reticulata) is an important model organism for studying sexual selection; male guppies have complex and conspicuous pigmentation, and female guppies exhibit preferences for males with specific color spots. Understanding the genetic basis underlying pigmentation variation in the guppy is important for exploring the factors causing the maintenance of color polymorphism in wild populations. FINDINGS: We focused on the melanic black pigmentation of guppies, and examined genetic variations in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene because variation in this gene is known to contribute to polymorphism of melanin pigmentation in several animal species. The complete coding sequence of the guppy MC1R gene was determined, and two different MC1R alleles (963 and 969 bp) were found in wild populations. Ornamental strain guppies with a 963-bp MC1R tended to show less black pigmentation than those with a 969-bp MC1R, although the association between MC1R genotype and black pigmentation disappeared in the F2 offspring. CONCLUSIONS: The guppy MC1R gene showed variation in the five wild Trinidadian populations we examined, and these populations also differed in terms of allele frequencies. We identified a significant association between black pigmentation and MC1R genotype in fish obtained from aquarium shops. However, the results from F2 families suggest that there are other genes that modify the effects of the MC1R gene.

Tezuka A; Yamamoto H; Yokoyama J; van Oosterhout C; Kawata M

2011-01-01

319

Genetically and environmentally mediated divergence in lateral line morphology in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fish and other aquatic vertebrates use their mechanosensory lateral line to detect objects and motion in their immediate environment. Differences in lateral line morphology have been extensively characterized among species; however, intraspecific variation remains largely unexplored. In addition, little is known about how environmental factors modify development of lateral line morphology. Predation is one environmental factor that can act both as a selective pressure causing genetic differences between populations, and as a cue during development to induce plastic changes. Here, we test whether variation in the risk of predation within and among populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) influences lateral line morphology. We compared neuromast arrangement in wild-caught guppies from distinct high- and low-predation population pairs to examine patterns associated with differences in predation pressure. To distinguish genetic and environmental influences, we compared neuromast arrangement in guppies from different source populations reared with and without exposure to predator chemical cues. We found that the distribution of neuromasts across the body varies between populations based on both genetic and environmental factors. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate variation in lateral line morphology based on environmental exposure to an ecologically relevant stimulus.

Fischer EK; Soares D; Archer KR; Ghalambor CK; Hoke KL

2013-08-01

320

Genetically and environmentally mediated divergence in lateral line morphology in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Fish and other aquatic vertebrates use their mechanosensory lateral line to detect objects and motion in their immediate environment. Differences in lateral line morphology have been extensively characterized among species; however, intraspecific variation remains largely unexplored. In addition, little is known about how environmental factors modify development of lateral line morphology. Predation is one environmental factor that can act both as a selective pressure causing genetic differences between populations, and as a cue during development to induce plastic changes. Here, we test whether variation in the risk of predation within and among populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) influences lateral line morphology. We compared neuromast arrangement in wild-caught guppies from distinct high- and low-predation population pairs to examine patterns associated with differences in predation pressure. To distinguish genetic and environmental influences, we compared neuromast arrangement in guppies from different source populations reared with and without exposure to predator chemical cues. We found that the distribution of neuromasts across the body varies between populations based on both genetic and environmental factors. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate variation in lateral line morphology based on environmental exposure to an ecologically relevant stimulus. PMID:23619409

Fischer, Eva K; Soares, Daphne; Archer, Kathryn R; Ghalambor, Cameron K; Hoke, Kim L

2013-04-25

 
 
 
 
321

Direct and indirect ecosystem effects of evolutionary adaptation in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ecological and evolutionary processes may interact on the same timescale, but we are just beginning to understand how. Several studies have examined the net effects of adaptive evolution on ecosystem properties. However, we do not know whether these effects are confined to direct interactions or whether they propagate further through indirect ecological pathways. Even less well understood is how the combination of direct and indirect ecological effects of the phenotype promotes or inhibits evolutionary change. We coupled mesocosm experiments and ecosystem modeling to evaluate the ecological effects of local adaptation in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The experiments show that guppies adapted to life with and without predators alter the ecosystem directly through differences in diet. The ecosystem model reveals that the small total indirect effect of the phenotype observed in the experiments is likely a combination of several large indirect effects that act in opposing directions. The model further suggests that these indirect effects can reverse the direction of selection that direct effects alone exert back on phenotypic variation. We conclude that phenotypic divergence can have major effects deep in the web of indirect ecological interactions and that even small total indirect effects can radically change the dynamics of adaptation.

Bassar RD; Ferriere R; López-Sepulcre A; Marshall MC; Travis J; Pringle CM; Reznick DN

2012-08-01

322

The MC1R gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata): Genotypic and phenotypic polymorphisms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The guppy (Poecilia reticulata) is an important model organism for studying sexual selection; male guppies have complex and conspicuous pigmentation, and female guppies exhibit preferences for males with specific color spots. Understanding the genetic basis underlying pigmentation variation in the guppy is important for exploring the factors causing the maintenance of color polymorphism in wild populations. Findings We focused on the melanic black pigmentation of guppies, and examined genetic variations in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene because variation in this gene is known to contribute to polymorphism of melanin pigmentation in several animal species. The complete coding sequence of the guppy MC1R gene was determined, and two different MC1R alleles (963 and 969 bp) were found in wild populations. Ornamental strain guppies with a 963-bp MC1R tended to show less black pigmentation than those with a 969-bp MC1R, although the association between MC1R genotype and black pigmentation disappeared in the F2 offspring. Conclusions The guppy MC1R gene showed variation in the five wild Trinidadian populations we examined, and these populations also differed in terms of allele frequencies. We identified a significant association between black pigmentation and MC1R genotype in fish obtained from aquarium shops. However, the results from F2 families suggest that there are other genes that modify the effects of the MC1R gene.

Tezuka Ayumi; Yamamoto Hiroaki; Yokoyama Jun; van Oosterhout Cock; Kawata Masakado

2011-01-01

323

Intra-retinal variation of opsin gene expression in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Although behavioural experiments demonstrate that colouration influences mate choice in many species, a complete understanding of this form of signalling requires information about colour vision in the species under investigation. The guppy (Poecilia reticulata) has become a model species for the study of colour-based sexual selection. To investigate the role of opsin gene duplication and divergence in the evolution of colour-based mate choice, we used in situ hybridization to determine where the guppy's nine cone opsins are expressed in the retina. Long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsins were more abundant in the dorsal retina than in the ventral retina. One of the middle wavelength-sensitive opsins (RH2-1) exhibited the opposite pattern, while the other middle wavelength-sensitive opsin (RH2-2) and the short wavelength-sensitive opsins (SWS1, SWS2A and SWS2B) were expressed throughout the retina. We also found variation in LWS opsin expression among individuals. These observations suggest that regions of the guppy retina are specialized with respect to wavelength discrimination and/or sensitivity. Intra-retinal variability in opsin expression, which has been observed in several fish species, might be an adaptation to variation in the strength and spectral composition of light entering the eye from above and below. The discovery that opsin expression varies in the guppy retina may motivate new behavioural experiments designed to study its role in mate choice. PMID:21900472

Rennison, Diana J; Owens, Gregory L; Allison, W Ted; Taylor, John S

2011-10-01

324

Crescimento de frutos da tangerineira 'Poncã' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) Fruit gowth of 'Ponkan' mandarin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de frutos da tangerineira Poncã, desde o pegamento até a colheita dos frutos, em Viçosa - Minas Gerais. O desenvolvimento do fruto seguiu uma curva do tipo sigmóide simples, sendo a fase I compreendida da antese até o 85º dia após o pleno florescimento, com um período de transição na fase II, que foi até o 101º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase II teve início logo após a fase de transição, prolongando-se até o 251º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase III, de amadurecimento do fruto, iniciou-se no 251º dia após o pleno florescimento e prolongou-se até a colheita dos frutos, a qual foi realizada no 276º dia após o pleno florescimento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit development of Ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Fruit development followed a simple sigmoid curve, with phase I extending from anthesis to the 85th day after full flowering, with a transition period to phase II that lasted up to the 101st day after full flowering. Phase II began soon after the transition phase, extending up to the 251st day after full flowering. Phase III, fruit ripening, began at the 251st day after full flowering and it was prolonged until harvest, which was carried out at the 276th day after full flowering.

Marlon Dutra Degli Esposti; Dalmo Lopes de Siqueira; Paulo Roberto Cecon

2008-01-01

325

VARIATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF FRUIT PEELS OF CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO BY PHYSICAL EFFECTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chemical composition of volatile oil of the fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) of Delhi Region has been studied under different physical factors. The oil was composed mainly monoterpenes (99.1 %) constituting l-limonene (92.4 %), ?-terpene (2.6 %) and ?-phellandrene (1.8 %). The volatile oil after heating at 110?C for 24 hours, exposing to sunlight for 48 hours and UV light for 24 hours and after treatment with silica gel and alumina neutral for 24 hours contained the above three major components in varied amounts. ?-Pinene, ?-phellandrene, l-limonene, ?- terpinene and l-linalool were detected in all oil samples. ?-Thujene and trans-?-caryophyllene were produced when the oil was treated with silica gel for 24 hours. Trans-Verbenol was determined when the oil was heated at 110?C for 24 hours and exposed to sunlight for 48 hours. Terpen-4-ol disappeared in all the samples except exposition to the sunlight. Cis-?-farnesene, present in the fruit peels in trace amount, was not detected in other oil samples after impact of physical factors.

Husain Shahnaz Sultana; Ali Mohammed; Ansari Shahid Husain

2011-01-01

326

Seasonal occurrence and chemical management of postharvest fungal rot pathogens of mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ten fungal pathogens isolated from diseased mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata) fruits during the entire marketing period were Penicillium digitatum, P. italicum, P. chrysogenum, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Alternaria alternata, Absidia corymbifera, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Lasiodiplodia theobromae. The seasonal disease profile of mandarin orange fruit clearly marked two distinct peak periods of fungal rot spoilage. In the first peak, the major monthly fruit rottage loss was inflicted by green and blue mold rots caused by Penicillium digitatum (1.78-2.44%) and P. italicum (0.73-1.30%). The second peak period of fruit spoilage inflicted by Aspergillus niger was observed during the summer months of May (5.27%) and June (6.05%). The cumulative rottage losses during the entire marketing season were 34.30%. Post-inoculation chemical treatments were ineffective against the major fruit rot pathogens. Pre-inoculation treatments of thiabendazole (0.05%), benomyl (0.05%) and carbendazim (0.05%) were highly effective against green and blue mold rots caused by P. digitatum and P. italicum, respectively followed by salicylic acid (0.05%), sodium metabisulphite (0.5%) and borax (6%) while thiophanate methyl (0.25%) and borax (6%) were most effective against black mold rot caused by Aspergillus niger.

VIDYA SAGAR VERMA*

2011-01-01

327

Whole toxicity removal for industrial and domestic effluents treated with electron beam radiation, evaluated with Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Poecilia reticulata; Reducao da toxicidade aguda de efluentes industriais e domesticos tratados por irradiacao com feixe de eletrons, avaliada com as especies Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Poecilia reticulata  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several studies have been performed in order to apply ionizing radiation to treat real complexes effluents from different sources, at IPEN. This paper shows the results of such kind of application devoted to influents and effluents from Suzano Wastewater Treatment Plant, Sao Paulo, Suzano WTP, from SABESP. The purpose of the work was to evaluate the radiation technology according to ecotoxicological aspects. The evaluation was carried out on the toxicity bases which included three sampling sites as follows: complex industrial effluents; domestic sewage mixed to the industrial discharge (GM) and final secondary effluent. The tested-organisms for toxicity evaluation were: the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri, the microcrustacean Daphnia similis and the guppy Poecilia reticulata. The fish tests were applied only for secondary final effluents. The results demonstrated the original acute toxicity levels as well as the efficiency of electron beam for its reduction. An important acute toxicity removal was achieved: from 75% up to 95% with 50 kGy (UNA), 20 kGy (GM) and 5.0 kGy for the final effluent. The toxicity removal was a consequence of several organic solvents decomposed by radiation and acute toxicity reduction was about 95%. When the toxicity was evaluated for fish the radiation efficiency reached from 40% to 60%. The hypothesis tests showed a statistical significant removal in the developed studies condition. No residual hydrogen peroxide was found after 5.0 kGy was applied to final effluent. (author)

Borrely, Sueli Ivone

2001-07-01

328

[Activity of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons after lesion of the ipsilateral neostriatum by kainic acid in rats  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Huntington's chorea is a degenerative disorder of the human brain characterized by a marked loss of intrinsic neostriatal neurons. This situation can be reproduced by kainic acid injection in the caudate nucleus. Activity of pars reticulata neurons ipsilateral to the injected neostriatum was studied in normal, control (saline-injected) and lesioned rats. They were identified by electrophysiological and histological criteria (Fig. 1). Results obtained in normal and control rats were very similar (Table I). As previously described, the mean frequency of these neurons was high. An important percentage (respectively 72.5 and 73%) and these neurons presented the characteristics of a regular firing pattern (so called "organized neurons"). Results obtained in kainic acid lesioned rats were significantly different (Table I). The mean frequency was lower and only 11% of reticulata cells remained organized after neostriatal lesion. This important dysfunction may be explained in various ways: The neostriato-nigral pathway's destruction involves both the inhibitory GABAergic tract and the excitatory substance P tract (GALE et al., 1978). Other inputs arising from many structures in the brain continue to exert their own action on SN neurons, resulting in an unbalance in the SN inputs. It is well known that the nigral dopamine influences the neuronal activity of pars reticulata neurons (Ruffieux et Schultz, 1980; Waszczak et Walters, 1983). Doudet et al. (1984 b) previously reported a dysfunction of neuronal activity of dopaminergic cells after striatal lesion. A disturbance in the electrical activity may induce a similar disturbance in the intranigral dendritic release of DA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Pouchot C; Doudet D; Gross C; Bioulac B

1985-01-01

329

Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl(4) by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (111, 200, 220 and 222 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

Sujitha MV; Kannan S

2013-02-01

330

Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of a preliminary antimicrobial screening of the methanol extracts of Zingiber officinale, Asteracantha longifolia, Citrus acida, Salacia microsperma and Tinospora cordifolia are reported. PMID:16229969

Samy, R Perumal

2005-10-17

331

Diterpenos de Copaifera reticulata Ducke com atividade larvicida contra Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera, Culicidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade larvicida de diterpenos isolados do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata sobre Aedes aegypti, principal vetor de dengue e febre amarela urbana. Quatro diterpenóides foram obtidos a partir da extração do óleo-resina com solventes orgânicos e, subseqüentes procedimentos cromatográficos e espectroscópicos permitiram o isolamento e a identificação desses compostos como ácido 3-b-acetoxylabdan-8(17)-13-dien-15-óico (more) (1), ácido alepterólico (2), ácido 3-b-hidroxylabdan-8(17)-en-15-óico (3) e ácido ent-agático (4). Cada um desses compostos foi previamente solubilizado em dimetilsulfóxido, acrescentando-se água, até se obterem as concentrações desejadas. Em cada bioensaio foram utilizadas 20 larvas de 3° estádio de Ae. aegypti colocadas em 25 mL da solução-teste. Foram feitas cinco repetições, e a mortalidade avaliada 48 h após a exposição, indicada pela ausência de movimentos e escurecimento da cápsula cefálica. Os dados obtidos da mortalidade x concentração (ppm) foram analisados, em gráfico de Probit para avaliar as concentrações letais (CL50 e CL90). Este estudo revelou que os diterpenóides 1 e 2 mostraram atividade larvicida com CL50 de 0,8 e 87,3 ppm, respectivamente, sendo o diterpeno 1 o composto mais promissor a ser usado como larvicida para o controle de Ae. aegypti. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of diterpenoids obtained from the oil-resin of Copaifera reticulata against Aedes aegypti larvae, the principal vector of dengue and urban yellow fever. Four diterpenes were obtained from oil-resin extraction with organic solvents and subsequent chromatographic and spectroscopic procedures allowed to isolation and identification of these compounds as 3-b-acetoxylabdan-8(17)-13-dien-15-oic acid (1), alepte (more) rolic acid (2), 3-b-hidroxylabdan-8(17)-en-15-oic acid (3), and ent-agatic acid (4). Each compound was previously dissolved in dimethylsulphoxide, and distilled water was added to obtain the desired concentrations. Twenty larvae of third instars were placed into plastic beckers, containing the solution test (25 mL), in a five repetitions scheme, and their mortality, indicated by torpor and darkening of the cephalic capsule, was recorded after 48h. Probit analyses were used to determine lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) and their respective 95% confidence intervals. This study showed that only diterpenoids 1 and 2 exhibited larvicidal properties with LC50 of 0.8 ppm and 87.3 ppm, respectively, revealing the former as the most toxic compound against third instars of Ae. aegypti. Therefore, this compound seems to be an interesting source for new metabolite to be exploited.

Geris, Regina; Silva, Ionizete Garcia da; Silva, Heloísa Helena Garcia da; Barison, Andersson; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antônio Gilberto

2008-02-01

332

Diterpenos de Copaifera reticulata Ducke com atividade larvicida contra Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera, Culicidae)  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of diterpenoids obtained from the oil-resin of Copaifera reticulata against Aedes aegypti larvae, the principal vector of dengue and urban yellow fever. Four diterpenes were obtained from oil-resin extraction with organic solvents and subsequent chromatographic and spectroscopic procedures allowed to isolation and identification of these compounds as 3-b-acetoxylabdan-8(17)-13-dien-15-oic acid (1), alepterolic acid (2), 3-b-hidroxylabdan-8(17)-en-15-oic acid (3), and ent-agatic acid (4). Each compound was previously dissolved in dimethylsulphoxide, and distilled water was added to obtain the desired concentrations. Twenty larvae of third instars were placed into plastic beckers, containing the solution test (25 mL), in a five repetitions scheme, and their mortality, indicated by torpor and darkening of the cephalic capsule, was recorded after 48h. Probit analyses were used to determine lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) and their respective 95% confidence intervals. This study showed that only diterpenoids 1 and 2 exhibited larvicidal properties with LC50 of 0.8 ppm and 87.3 ppm, respectively, revealing the former as the most toxic compound against third instars of Ae. aegypti. Therefore, this compound seems to be an interesting source for new metabolite to be exploited.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade larvicida de diterpenos isolados do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata sobre Aedes aegypti, principal vetor de dengue e febre amarela urbana. Quatro diterpenóides foram obtidos a partir da extração do óleo-resina com solventes orgânicos e, subseqüentes procedimentos cromatográficos e espectroscópicos permitiram o isolamento e a identificação desses compostos como ácido 3-b-acetoxylabdan-8(17)-13-dien-15-óico (1), ácido alepterólico (2), ácido 3-b-hidroxylabdan-8(17)-en-15-óico (3) e ácido ent-agático (4). Cada um desses compostos foi previamente solubilizado em dimetilsulfóxido, acrescentando-se água, até se obterem as concentrações desejadas. Em cada bioensaio foram utilizadas 20 larvas de 3° estádio de Ae. aegypti colocadas em 25 mL da solução-teste. Foram feitas cinco repetições, e a mortalidade avaliada 48 h após a exposição, indicada pela ausência de movimentos e escurecimento da cápsula cefálica. Os dados obtidos da mortalidade x concentração (ppm) foram analisados, em gráfico de Probit para avaliar as concentrações letais (CL50 e CL90). Este estudo revelou que os diterpenóides 1 e 2 mostraram atividade larvicida com CL50 de 0,8 e 87,3 ppm, respectivamente, sendo o diterpeno 1 o composto mais promissor a ser usado como larvicida para o controle de Ae. aegypti.

Regina Geris; Ionizete Garcia da Silva; Heloísa Helena Garcia da Silva; Andersson Barison; Edson Rodrigues-Filho; Antônio Gilberto Ferreira

2008-01-01

333

RNA-Seq analysis of Citrus reticulata in the early stages of Xylella fastidiosa infection reveals auxin-related genes as a defense response.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), caused by Xylella fastidiosa, is one the most important citrus diseases, and affects all varieties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb). On the other hand, among the Citrus genus there are different sources of resistance against X. fastidiosa. For these species identifying these defense genes could be an important step towards obtaining sweet orange resistant varieties through breeding or genetic engineering. To assess these genes we made use of mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco) that is known to be resistant to CVC and shares agronomical characteristics with sweet orange. Thus, we investigated the gene expression in Ponkan mandarin at one day after infection with X. fastidiosa, using RNA-seq. A set of genes considered key elements in the resistance was used to confirm its regulation in mandarin compared with the susceptible sweet orange. RESULTS: Gene expression analysis of mock inoculated and infected tissues of Ponkan mandarin identified 667 transcripts repressed and 724 significantly induced in the later. Among the induced transcripts, we identified genes encoding proteins similar to Pattern Recognition Receptors. Furthermore, many genes involved in secondary metabolism, biosynthesis and cell wall modification were upregulated as well as in synthesis of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and auxin. CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrated that the defense response to the perception of bacteria involves cell wall modification and activation of hormone pathways, which probably lead to the induction of other defense-related genes. We also hypothesized the induction of auxin-related genes indicates that resistant plants initially recognize X. fastidiosa as a necrotrophic pathogen.

Rodrigues CM; de Souza AA; Takita MA; Kishi LT; Machado MA

2013-10-01

334

Functional Redundancy and Divergence within the Arabidopsis RETICULATA-RELATED Gene Family.  

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A number of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants exhibit leaf reticulation, having green veins that stand out against paler interveinal tissues, fewer cells in the interveinal mesophyll, and normal perivascular bundle sheath cells. Here, to examine the basis of leaf reticulation, we analyzed the Arabidopsis RETICULATA-RELATED (RER) gene family, several members of which cause leaf reticulation when mutated. Although transcripts of RE, RER1, and RER3 were mainly detected in the bundle sheath cells of expanded leaves, functional RER3:GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN was visualized in the chloroplast membranes of all photosynthetic cells. Leaf reticulation in the re and rer3 loss-of-function mutants occurred, along with accumulation of reactive oxygen species, in a photoperiod-dependent manner. A comparison of re and rer3 leaf messenger RNA expression profiles showed more than 200 genes were similarly misexpressed in both mutants. In addition, metabolic profiles of mature leaves revealed that several biosynthetic pathways downstream of pyruvate are altered in re and rer3. Double mutant analysis showed that only re rer1 and rer5 rer6 exhibited synergistic phenotypes, indicating functional redundancy. The redundancy between RE and its closest paralog, RER1, was confirmed by overexpressing RER1 in re mutants, which partially suppressed leaf reticulation. Our results show that RER family members can be divided into four functional modules with divergent functions. Moreover, these results provide insights into the origin of the reticulated phenotype, suggesting that the RER proteins functionally interconnect photoperiodic growth, amino acid homeostasis, and reactive oxygen species metabolism during Arabidopsis leaf growth.

Pérez-Pérez JM; Esteve-Bruna D; González-Bayón R; Kangasjärvi S; Caldana C; Hannah MA; Willmitzer L; Ponce MR; Micol JL

2013-06-01

335

The salt myth revealed: Treatment of gyrodactylid infections on ornamental guppies, Poecilia reticulata  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salt is commonly recommended as an inexpensive treatment against many fish parasites in freshwater fish culture; however, few studies have scientifically evaluated its efficacy. Amongst the monogeneans, salt has only been previously tested against Gyrodactylus salaris infecting Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and G. derjavini infecting rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Here we tested the efficacy of salt treatments against G. bullatarudis and G. turnbulli on guppies (Poecilia reticulata), both commercially important pathogens in the ornamental fish industry. In vitro survival of both parasites was negatively correlated with increasing salinities of 3, 5, 7 and 33gL?¹. Parasite establishment on guppies maintained at 0, 3 and 7gL?¹ salinity decreased drastically for G. turnbulli from 94% in the control to 78 and 0% on fish in 3 and 7gL?¹ salinity, respectively. G. bullatarudis establishment was still 100% at 3gL?¹ salinity but was reduced to 73% in 7gL?¹. Throughout an infection, parasite populations of both species increased faster on guppies in 3gL?¹ salinity compared to dechlorinated water, whereas population growth was severely affected at 7gL?¹ salinity. Overall a short duration, high concentration salt bath was most effective at treating gyrodactylid infections: 15min exposure to 25gL?¹ salinity for adults or 5min for juvenile fish removed 100% of G. turnbulli or 72% of G. bullatarudis. The results reflect the generalist characteristics of the more tolerant G. bullatarudis compared to G. turnbulli, but have wider implications for treatment application: clearly one treatment regime does not suit all even within a genus.

Schelkle Bettina; Doetjes Rienk; Cable Joanne

2011-02-01

336

Triacylglyceride, antioxidant and antimicrobial features of virgin Camellia oleifera, C. reticulata and C. sasanqua Oils.  

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Virgin oils obtained from seeds of Camellia oleifera (CO), Camellia reticulata (CR) and Camellia sasanqua (CS) were studied for their triacylglyceride composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Levels of fatty acids determined by ¹H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis were similar to those reported for olive oils (82.30%-84.47%; 5.69%-7.78%; 0.26%-0.41% and 8.04%-11.2%, for oleic, linoleic, linolenic and saturated acids, respectively). The CR oil showed the best antioxidant potential in the three in vitro models tested. With regard to EC?? values (µg/mL), the order in DPPH radical-scavenging was CR (33.48) < CO (35.20) < CS (54.87). Effectiveness in reducing power was CR (2.81) < CO (3.09) < CS (5.32). IC?? for LPO inhibition were 0.37, 0.52 and 0.75 µg/mL for CR, CO and CS, respectively. All the oils showed antimicrobial activity, and exhibited different selectivity and MICs for each microorganism tested (E. coli, B. cereus and C. albicans). B. cereus was the less sensitive species (MIC: 52.083 ± 18.042 for CO; 41.667 ± 18.042 for CR; 104.167 ± 36.084 for CS mg/mL) and the E. coli was the most sensitive to camellia oil's effect. The standard gentamicin presented higher MIC for E. coli (4.2) than the CR (MIC= 2.6) and CO (MIC = 3.9) oils.

Feás X; Estevinho LM; Salinero C; Vela P; Sainz MJ; Vázquez-Tato MP; Seijas JA

2013-01-01

337

Triacylglyceride, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Features of Virgin Camellia oleifera, C. reticulata and C. sasanqua Oils  

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Full Text Available Virgin oils obtained from seeds of Camellia oleifera (CO), Camellia reticulata (CR) and Camellia sasanqua (CS) were studied for their triacylglyceride composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Levels of fatty acids determined by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis were similar to those reported for olive oils (82.30%–84.47%; 5.69%–7.78%; 0.26%–0.41% and 8.04%–11.2%, for oleic, linoleic, linolenic and saturated acids, respectively). The CR oil showed the best antioxidant potential in the three in vitro models tested. With regard to EC50 values (µg/mL), the order in DPPH radical-scavenging was CR (33.48) < CO (35.20) < CS (54.87). Effectiveness in reducing power was CR (2.81) < CO (3.09) < CS (5.32). IC50 for LPO inhibition were 0.37, 0.52 and 0.75 µg/mL for CR, CO and CS, respectively. All the oils showed antimicrobial activity, and exhibited different selectivity and MICs for each microorganism tested (E. coli, B. cereus and C. albicans). B. cereus was the less sensitive species (MIC: 52.083 ± 18.042 for CO; 41.667 ± 18.042 for CR; 104.167 ± 36.084 for CS mg/mL) and the E. coli was the most sensitive to camellia oil’s effect. The standard gentamicin presented higher MIC for E. coli (4.2) than the CR (MIC= 2.6) and CO (MIC = 3.9) oils.

Xesús Feás; Leticia M. Estevinho; Carmen Salinero; Pilar Vela; María J. Sainz; María Pilar Vázquez-Tato; Julio A. Seijas

2013-01-01

338

The interrelationship between superior colliculus and substantia nigra pars reticulata in programming movements of cats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent electrophysiological and behavioural studies have suggested that the deeper layers of the superior colliculus (dl-SC) are involved in the execution of targeting movements which are elicited but not continuously guided by external stimuli. In the first part of the present study the role of the GABAergic transmission in the dl-SC in the execution of these targeting movements was investigated. Therefore cats, trained to walk from one side of a narrow bar towards the target at the other side of the bar under stroboscopic illumination (2 flashes/s), were injected bilaterally in the dl-SC with picrotoxin (100 ng/0.5 microliter) or muscimol (75 ng/1 microliter). In the second part of this study the role of the GABAergic activity in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR), projecting to the dl-SC through the GABAergic nigrotectal pathway, in the execution of the above-mentioned targeting movements was investigated. Therefore cats, trained to walk from one side of a narrow bar towards the target at the other side of the bar, either under full light or under stroboscopic illumination (2 flashes/s), were bilaterally injected in the SNR with picrotoxin (500 ng/0.5 microliter) or muscimol (200 ng/1 microliter). Under stroboscopic illumination (2 flashes/s) solvent-treated cats either continuously grasped the bar and/or continuously touched the bar with their whiskers, i.e. they executed movements which were continuously guided by external stimuli, while walking towards the target at the other side of the bar.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Gelissen M; Cools A

1986-08-01

339

Waterborne zinc alters temporal dynamics of guppy Poecilia reticulata epidermal response to Gyrodactylus turnbulli (Monogenea).  

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The present study assessed the histological changes in the epidermis of Poecilia reticulata induced by the combined effects of an ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli and differing concentrations of waterborne zinc (Zn). Infected guppies were exposed to 0, 15, 30, 60, or 120 µg Zn l-1 and monitored over 3 wk during the exponential increase in parasite numbers on the fish. The fish epidermis responded within 3 d to G. turnbulli infection with a rapid increase in epidermal thickness and a modest increase in number, but not size or composition, of mucous cells. In contrast, in the presence of combined waterborne Zn and infection, mucous cell numbers declined rapidly. As the parasite numbers increased, the epidermis remained thicker than normal, and the number and size of mucous cells decreased. The addition of Zn led to a dramatic thickening of the epidermis during the exponential growth of the parasite population. Mucous cell numbers remained depressed. Temporal changes in mucous cell size were Zn concentration dependent. At 60 µg Zn l-1, cells returned to normal size as infection progressed, whereas they remained extremely small at 120 µg Zn l-1. Changes in mucin composition previously reported in response to Zn alone were subdued in the presence of the parasite except at 60 µg Zn l-1, where all cells contained only acidic mucins. Together these results demonstrate that, on exposure to both Zn and G. turnbulli infection, the epidermal response is initially a protective response to both stressors, and then mainly driven by the increased parasite burden. PMID:22436462

Gheorghiu, Cristina; Marcogliese, David J; Scott, Marilyn E

2012-03-20

340

Reasons for the invasive success of a guppy (Poecilia reticulata) population in Trinidad.  

Science.gov (United States)

The introduction of non-native species into new habitats poses a major threat to native populations. Of particular interest, though often overlooked, are introductions of populations that are not fully reproductively isolated from native individuals and can hybridize with them. To address this important topic we used different approaches in a multi-pronged study, combining the effects of mate choice, shoaling behaviour and genetics. Here we present evidence that behavioural traits such as shoaling and mate choice can promote population mixing if individuals do not distinguish between native and foreign conspecifics. We examined this in the context of two guppy (Poecilia reticulata) populations that have been subject to an introduction and subsequent population mixing event in Trinidad. The introduction of Guanapo River guppies into the Turure River more than 50 years ago led to a marked reduction of the original genotype. In our experiments, female guppies did not distinguish between shoaling partners when given the choice between native and foreign individuals. Introduced fish are therefore likely to benefit from the protection of a shoal and will improve their survival chances as a result. The additional finding that male guppies do not discriminate between females on the basis of origin will further increase the process of population mixing, especially if males encounter mixed shoals. In a mesocosm experiment, in which the native and foreign populations were allowed to mate freely, we found, as expected on the basis of these behavioural interactions, that the distribution of offspring genotypes could be predicted from the proportions of the two types of founding fish. This result suggests that stochastic and environmental processes have reinforced the biological ones to bring about the genetic dominance of the invading population in the Turure River. Re-sampling the Turure for genetic analysis using SNP markers confirmed the population mixing process and showed that it is an on-going process in this river and has led to the nearly complete disappearance of the original genotype. PMID:22693621

Sievers, Caya; Willing, Eva-Maria; Hoffmann, Margarete; Dreyer, Christine; Ramnarine, Indar; Magurran, Anne

2012-05-31

 
 
 
 
341

Reasons for the invasive success of a guppy (Poecilia reticulata) population in Trinidad.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The introduction of non-native species into new habitats poses a major threat to native populations. Of particular interest, though often overlooked, are introductions of populations that are not fully reproductively isolated from native individuals and can hybridize with them. To address this important topic we used different approaches in a multi-pronged study, combining the effects of mate choice, shoaling behaviour and genetics. Here we present evidence that behavioural traits such as shoaling and mate choice can promote population mixing if individuals do not distinguish between native and foreign conspecifics. We examined this in the context of two guppy (Poecilia reticulata) populations that have been subject to an introduction and subsequent population mixing event in Trinidad. The introduction of Guanapo River guppies into the Turure River more than 50 years ago led to a marked reduction of the original genotype. In our experiments, female guppies did not distinguish between shoaling partners when given the choice between native and foreign individuals. Introduced fish are therefore likely to benefit from the protection of a shoal and will improve their survival chances as a result. The additional finding that male guppies do not discriminate between females on the basis of origin will further increase the process of population mixing, especially if males encounter mixed shoals. In a mesocosm experiment, in which the native and foreign populations were allowed to mate freely, we found, as expected on the basis of these behavioural interactions, that the distribution of offspring genotypes could be predicted from the proportions of the two types of founding fish. This result suggests that stochastic and environmental processes have reinforced the biological ones to bring about the genetic dominance of the invading population in the Turure River. Re-sampling the Turure for genetic analysis using SNP markers confirmed the population mixing process and showed that it is an on-going process in this river and has led to the nearly complete disappearance of the original genotype.

Sievers C; Willing EM; Hoffmann M; Dreyer C; Ramnarine I; Magurran A

2012-01-01

342

Deep brain stimulation of the substantia nigra pars reticulata improves forelimb akinesia in the hemiparkinsonian rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) employing high-frequency stimulation (HFS) is commonly used in the globus pallidus interna (GPi) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for treating motor symptoms of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Although DBS improves motor function in most PD patients, disease progression and stimulation-induced nonmotor complications limit DBS in these areas. In this study, we assessed whether stimulation of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) improved motor function. Hemiparkinsonian rats predominantly touched with their unimpaired forepaw >90% of the time in the stepping and limb-use asymmetry tests. After SNr-HFS (150 Hz), rats touched equally with both forepaws, similar to naive and sham-lesioned rats. In vivo, SNr-HFS decreased beta oscillations (12-30 Hz) in the SNr of freely moving hemiparkinsonian rats and decreased SNr neuronal spiking activity from 28 ± 1.9 Hz before stimulation to 0.8 ± 1.9 Hz during DBS in anesthetized animals; also, neuronal spiking activity increased from 7 ± 1.6 to 18 ± 1.6 Hz in the ventromedial portion of the thalamus (VM), the primary SNr efferent. In addition, HFS of the SNr in brain slices from normal and reserpine-treated rat pups resulted in a depolarization block of SNr neuronal activity. We demonstrate improvement of forelimb akinesia with SNr-HFS and suggest that this motor effect may have resulted from the attenuation of SNr neuronal activity, decreased SNr beta oscillations, and increased activity of VM thalamic neurons, suggesting that the SNr may be a plausible DBS target for treating motor symptoms of DBS.

Sutton AC; Yu W; Calos ME; Smith AB; Ramirez-Zamora A; Molho ES; Pilitsis JG; Brotchie JM; Shin DS

2013-01-01

343

Citrus reticulata peel improves patient tolerance of low-volume polyethylene glycol for colonoscopy preparation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Adequate adjuncts help to reduce the volume of polyethylene glycol-electrolyte lavage solution (PEG-ELS) needed, to ameliorate patient discomfort, and to improve colonic visibility during colonoscopy. This study aimed to assess the effect of Citrus reticulata peel (CRP) as an adjunct to low-volume PEG for colonic preparation. METHODS: A total of 1092 health examination examinees received colonoscopy during the study period. After excluding those who refused to participate and those who did not meet our criteria, 212 examinees were enrolled into this study. They were divided into the PEG group and the PEG + CRP group according to their date of examination. All examinees received 2 L of PEG-ELS one day before colonoscopy. The PEG + CRP group also received additional CRP in the form of a "buccal tablet" between drinks. Tolerance and adverse events were assessed by questionnaire, while the quality of bowel preparation for colonoscopy was scored by an endoscopist. RESULTS: There were 107 examinees in the PEG group and 105 examinees in the PEG + CRP group. The demographic characteristics of the examinees were comparable between these two groups. Examinees in the PEG + CRP group had a trend of better colonic visibility than those in the PEG group (p = 0.056). Moreover, examinees in the PEG + CRP group had higher rate of acceptable taste (p = 0.015) and lower rate of difficulty swallowing (p = 0.001). The incidences of adverse events including vomiting (p = 0.045), bloating (p = 0.035), and difficulty sleeping (p < 0.001) were also significantly lower in the PEG + CRP group. CONCLUSION: Compared with conventional colonic preparation, the application of CRP as an adjunct could improve examinees' tolerance, decrease the incidence of adverse events, and maintain the quality of colonic cleansing.

Lan HC; Liang Y; Hsu HC; Shu JH; Su CW; Hung HH; Hou MC; Lin HC; Lee SD; Wang YJ

2012-09-01

344

Salacia oblonga root decreases cardiac hypertrophy in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: inhibition of cardiac expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: We investigated the effect of the water extract of Salacia oblonga (SOE), an ayurvedic antidiabetic and antiobesity medicine, on obesity and diabetes-associated cardiac hypertrophy and discuss the role of modulation of cardiac angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)) expression in the effect. METHODS: SOE (100 mg/kg) was given orally to male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats for 7 weeks. At the end-point of the treatment, the hearts and left ventricles were weighed, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional areas were measured, and cardiac gene profiles were analysed. On the other hand, angiotensin II-stimulated embryonic rat heart-derived H9c2 cells and neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts were pretreated with SOE and one of its prominent components mangiferin (MA), respectively. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) mRNA expression and protein synthesis and [(3)H]thymidine incorporation were determined. RESULTS: SOE-treated ZDF rats showed less cardiac hypertrophy (decrease in weights of the hearts and left ventricles and reduced cardiomyocyte cross-sectional areas). SOE treatment suppressed cardiac overexpression of ANP, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and AT(1) mRNAs and AT(1) protein in ZDF rats. SOE (50-100 microg/ml) and MA (25 micromol) suppressed angiotensin II-induced ANP mRNA overexpression and protein synthesis in H9c2 cells. They also inhibited angiotensin II-stimulated [(3)H]thymidine incorporation by cardiac fibroblasts. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that SOE decreases cardiac hypertrophy in ZDF rats, at least in part by inhibiting cardiac AT(1) overexpression. These studies provide insights into a potential cardioprotective role of a traditional herb, which supports further clinical evaluation in obesity and diabetes-associated cardiac hypertrophy.

Huang TH; He L; Qin Q; Yang Q; Peng G; Harada M; Qi Y; Yamahara J; Roufogalis BD; Li Y

2008-07-01

345

Salacia oblonga root improves cardiac lipid metabolism in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: modulation of cardiac PPAR-alpha-mediated transcription of fatty acid metabolic genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Excess cardiac triglyceride accumulation in diabetes and obesity induces lipotoxicity, which predisposes the myocytes to death. On the other hand, increased cardiac fatty acid (FA) oxidation plays a role in the development of myocardial dysfunction in diabetes. PPAR-alpha plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis of lipid metabolism. We have previously demonstrated that the extract from Salacia oblonga root (SOE), an Ayurvedic anti-diabetic and anti-obesity medicine, improves hyperlipidemia in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats (a genetic model of type 2 diabetes and obesity) and possesses PPAR-alpha activating properties. Here we demonstrate that chronic oral administration of SOE reduces cardiac triglyceride and FA contents and decreases the Oil red O-stained area in the myocardium of ZDF rats, which parallels the effects on plasma triglyceride and FA levels. Furthermore, the treatment suppressed cardiac overexpression of both FA transporter protein-1 mRNA and protein in ZDF rats, suggesting inhibition of increased cardiac FA uptake as the basis for decreased cardiac FA levels. Additionally, the treatment also inhibited overexpression in ZDF rat heart of PPAR-alpha mRNA and protein and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, acyl-CoA oxidase and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase mRNAs and restored the downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA. These results suggest that SOE inhibits cardiac FA oxidation in ZDF rats. Thus, our findings suggest that improvement by SOE of excess cardiac lipid accumulation and increased cardiac FA oxidation in diabetes and obesity occurs by reduction of cardiac FA uptake, thereby modulating cardiac PPAR-alpha-mediated FA metabolic gene transcription. PMID:16129467

Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Yang, Qinglin; Harada, Masaki; Uberai, Jasna; Radford, Jane; Li, George Q; Yamahara, Johji; Roufogalis, Basil D; Li, Yuhao

2005-08-29

346

Use of artificial sediment to assess toxicity of chromium on Chironomus xanthus, Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata/ Utilização de sedimento artificial na avaliação da toxicidade do cromo sobre Chironomus xanthus, Danio rerio e Poecilia reticulata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Sedimentos artificiais com formulações simples foram utilizados para avaliar a toxicidade do Cr em C. xanthus, D. rerio e P. reticulata. MÉTODOS: Os organismos foram expostos a duas formulações: sem matéria orgânica (S0) e com 1% de matéria orgânica (SIII), contaminadas com Cr nas concentrações de 90; 180; 360; 720 e 1440 mg/kg para os ensaios com C. xanthus e 375; 750; 1500 e 3000 mg/kg para os ensaios com peixes. RESULTADOS: Os resultados dos ensaio (more) s agudos demonstraram uma redução de até quatro vezes na toxicidade frente à presença de matéria orgânica detrital biodegradável (MO). C. xanthus apresentou maior sensibilidade ao metal em relação aos peixes. A redução na toxicidade do Cr frente à presença de MO foi verificada nos valores de CL50, que estiveram mais elevados nos em SIII (C. xanthus = 1234,43 mg/kg ; D. rerio = 2263,54 m/kg e P. reticulata = 2244,48 mg/kg) em relação à S0 (C. xanthus = 340,56 mg/kg; D. rerio = 1731,04 mg/kg e P. reticulata = 1733,55 mg/kg). CONCLUSÕES: Os sedimentos artificiais com formulações simples foram satisfatórios na avaliação da toxicidade e asseguram resultados confiáveis em estudos ecotoxicológicos Abstract in english AIM: Artificial sediments with simple formulations were used to assess the toxicity of Cr to C. xanthus, D. rerio and P. reticulata. METHODS: The organisms were exposed to two sediment formulations: one without organic matter (S0) and one with 1% organic matter (SIII), both contaminated with Cr at concentrations of 90, 180, 360, 720 and 1440 mg/kg for the assays with C. xanthus, and 375, 750, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg for those with the two fish species. Chromium was obtained f (more) rom the potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). RESULTS: The results of the acute toxicity tests demonstrated a reduction of up to four times in toxicity with the presence of OM, consisting of biodegradable detritus, even at the low concentration used (1%), and that C. xanthus was most sensitive to the metal. The reduction in the chromium toxicity was indicated by the LC50 values, which were higher in SIII (1234.43 mg/kg; 2263.54 m/kg; 2244.48 mg/kg) than in S0 (340.56 mg/kg; 1731.04 mg/kg; 1733.55 mg/kg) for C. xanthus, D. rerio and P. reticulata, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Because of the repeatability of the results obtained, the artificial sediments with simple formulations were satisfactory to assess toxicity and can thus provide reliable results in ecotoxicological studies

Campagna, Aline Fernanda; Rodrigues, Beatriz Kawamura; Nogueirol, Roberta Corrêa; Verani, Nelsy Fenerich; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta; Alleoni, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú

2013-03-01

347

Comportamiento de la producción de lima Tahití (Citrus latifolia Tanaka), injertada sobre el patrón de Mandarina Cleopatra (Citrus reticulata Blanco) y la influencia del virus de la tristeza (CTV) en condiciones del piedemonte del Meta, 1997-2008  

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Full Text Available Tahiti limes (Citrus latifolia T) is in third place among the citrus species cultivated in Colombia. Its fruits are consumed in the domestic market and has a growing export market. Among the viral diseases affecting citrus crops Virus Citrus Tristeza (CTV) is one of the most limiting for production and longevity of plantsespecially in Tahiti lime. This study was carried out under the ecological conditions of the Research Center Corpoica La Libertad, in the foothills of the department of Meta. The plants used in the nursery in 1996 grafted with buds from crops used as standard Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco). The crop fieldwas established in 1997, occupying an area of one hectare, with a density of 490 plants ha-1. To determine crop production took annual records, and the incidence and severity of the (CTV) were two readings in plants, during the seventh and eleventh year after transplantation (addt). In 2008 (11 addt) A description of thesymptoms of the damage caused by citrus tristeza in the plant and the photographic record was made. The Tahiti lime production started three years after transplantation with 4 t/ ha and increased annually to present the peak of production in the eighth year with 62 t/ ha, then decreased until 2 t/ ha in year 11.The incidence of CTV in 2003 (6 addt) was 16.5 % for a total of 80 affected plants and in 2008 (11 addt) 100 % of plants were affected (490 plants). The severity of CTV, in the 2003 was 29.4 %, while the reading of 2008 was 84 %.

Julio Quiroga - Cardona; Francy L. Hernández- Parrado; María del Rosario Silva- Herrera; Javier O. Orduz-Rodríguez

2010-01-01

348

The Ayurvedic Medicine Salacia oblonga Attenuates Diabetic Renal Fibrosis in Rats: Suppression of Angiotensin II/AT1 Signaling  

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In human diabetic nephropathy, the extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease; fibrosis is closely correlated with renal dysfunction. Although a wide array of medicinal plants play a role in the prevention and treatment of diabetes, there are few reports of...

He, Lan; Qi, Yanfei; Rong, Xianglu; Jiang, Jianmin; Yang, Qinglin; Yamahara, Johji; Murray, Michael; Li, Yuhao

349

Surgical resolution of an avulsion fracture of the peroneus tertius origin in a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

A 4-mo-old, 185-kg male giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) was presented due to stifle effusion and lameness of 3-wk duration. Radiographs revealed a fracture of the extensor fossa of the lateral trochlear ridge of the femur at the origin of the peroneus tertius. Under anesthesia, dysfunction of the reciprocal apparatus was documented by flexing the stifle while the tarsus remained extended. An avulsion fracture of the origin of the peroneus tertius and extensor digitorum longus muscle was diagnosed. An exploratory arthroscopy of the femorotibial joint was followed by arthrotomy to excise the large bone fragment from its soft tissue attachments. Because of the fractious temperament of the animal, postoperative care was restricted to stall rest for 3 mo, and no postoperative complications arose. Only a mild residual lameness remained by 6 mo after surgery. PMID:22946420

Quesada, Rolando; Citino, Scott B; Easley, Jeremiah T; Hall, Natalie; Brokken, Mathew T; Brown, Murray P

2011-06-01

350

Surgical resolution of an avulsion fracture of the peroneus tertius origin in a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 4-mo-old, 185-kg male giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) was presented due to stifle effusion and lameness of 3-wk duration. Radiographs revealed a fracture of the extensor fossa of the lateral trochlear ridge of the femur at the origin of the peroneus tertius. Under anesthesia, dysfunction of the reciprocal apparatus was documented by flexing the stifle while the tarsus remained extended. An avulsion fracture of the origin of the peroneus tertius and extensor digitorum longus muscle was diagnosed. An exploratory arthroscopy of the femorotibial joint was followed by arthrotomy to excise the large bone fragment from its soft tissue attachments. Because of the fractious temperament of the animal, postoperative care was restricted to stall rest for 3 mo, and no postoperative complications arose. Only a mild residual lameness remained by 6 mo after surgery.

Quesada R; Citino SB; Easley JT; Hall N; Brokken MT; Brown MP

2011-06-01

351

Citrus Essential Oil of Nigeria Part IV: Volatile Constituents of Leaf Oils of Mandarins (Citrus Reticulata Blanco) From Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The chemical composition of hydrodistilled oils obtained from the leaves of six Citrus reticulata Blanco (mandarin) cultivars grown in Nigeria were examined by GC and GC/MS, the result of their chemical composition were further submitted to cluster analysis. Fifty seven constituents were characterized accounting for 88.2 - 96.7% of the total oils. Sabinene, g -terpinene, P-cymene, d -3-carene and (E)- b -ocimene were observed in great variability in all the oils. Other constituents include linalool, myrcene, terpinen-4-ol and cis-sabinenehydrate. In addition, limonene, terpinolene, b -pinene, and a -pinene were also detected in appreciable concentrations. b -sinensal and a -sinensal were isolated by preparative GC and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques.

Adeleke A. Kasali; Oladipupo A. Lawal; Olatunji T. F. Abanikannda; Abayomi A. Olaniyan; William N. Setzer

2010-01-01

352

Capacidad Larvívora del Gold Fish (Carassius auratus auratus) y del Guppy Salvaje (Poecilia reticulata) Sobre Larvas de Aedes aegypti en Condiciones de Laboratorio/ Larvivorous Capacity of the Gold Fish (Carassius auratus auratus) and the Wild Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) on Larvaes of Aedes aegypti in Laboratory Conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El control biológico de vectores de importancia médica se presenta como una alternativa al uso de plaguicidas. La utilización de peces larvívoros se promueve como una nueva estrategia para el control de vectores. El propósito de este estudio es evaluar el potencial de dos especies ícticas para el control biológico de mosquitos Aedes aegypti (principal vector del dengue) en condiciones de laboratorio. Un creciente número de larvas de A. aegypti en estadíos I, II y (more) III (n: 25, 50 y 100) fueron colocados en acuarios con goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) y guppys salvajes (Poecilia reticulata). Se cuantificó la relación peso corporal/larvas ingeridas/hora en diez ensayos. La especie Poecilia reticulata reflejó una mayor (P Abstract in english The biological control of vectors of medical importance is presented as an alternative to the use of plaguicides. The utilization of larvivorous fishes is promoted as a new strategy for the control of vectors. The proposal of this study is to evaluate the potential of two species of fishes for the biological control of mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (main vector of Dengue) under laboratory conditions. A growing number of larvaes in stages I, II and III of A. aegypti (n: 25, 50 (more) and 100) was placed in aquariums with goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and wild guppys (Poecilia reticulata). The ratio body weight/eliminated larvaes/hour was quantified in ten assays. The species Poecilia reticulata had a higher (P

Valero, Nereida; Meleán, Eddy; Maldonado, Mery; Montiel, Milagros; Larreal, Yraima; Espina, Luz Marina

2006-07-01

353

Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

In this logic activity, students must determine how to represent three quantities using a fixed amount of space (Venn diagram) and objects. The goal is to represent the siblingsâ ages, 5,6, and 7, using only ten plants. This resource includes teacher notes with extension suggestions and possible support options.

Team, Nrich

2012-01-01

354

Comportamiento de la producción de lima Tahití (Citrus latifolia Tanaka), injertada sobre el patrón de Mandarina Cleopatra (Citrus reticulata Blanco) y la influencia del virus de la tristeza (CTV) en condiciones del piedemonte del Meta, 1997-2008/ Performance of the production of Tahiti lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) grafted on the pattern of Cleopatra Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and the influence of tristeza virus (CTV) under the piedemont of Meta, 1997-2008  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La lima ácida Tahití (Citrus latifolia T) ocupa el tercer lugar dentro de las especies cítricas cultivadas en Colombia. Sus frutos se consumen en el mercado interno y presenta un creciente mercado de exportación. Entre las enfermedades virales que afectan a los cultivos de cítricos el Virus de la Tristeza de los Cítricos (CTV) es uno de los más limitantes para la producción y longevidad de las plantas en particular en las de lima Tahití. Este estudio se llevó a (more) cabo bajo las condiciones agroecológicas del Centro de Investigación Corpoica La Libertad, en el piedemonte del departamento del Meta. Las plantas utilizadas se injertaron en vivero en 1996 con yemas provenientes de cultivos comerciales utilizándose como patrón la mandarina Cleopatra (Citrus reticulata Blanco). El cultivo se estableció en campo en 1997, ocupando una extensión de una hectárea, con una densidad de 490 plantas ha-1. Para determinar la producción del cultivo se llevaron registros anuales; y para la incidencia y severidad de la (CTV) se realizaron dos lecturas en las plantas, durante el séptimo y onceavo año después del transplante (addt). En el año 2008 (11 addt) se realizó la descripción de la sintomatología del daño ocasionado por la tristeza de los cítricos en la planta y se realizó el registro fotográfico. La producción de la lima Tahití se inicio en el 3 año después del transplante con 4 t/ha y se incremento anualmente hasta presentar el pico de producción en el 8 año con 62 t/ha, posteriormente decrece hasta obtener 2 t/ha en el año 11. La incidencia de CTV en el año 2003 (6 addt) fue de 16.5 % para un total de 80 plantas afectadas y en el 2008 (11 addt) el 100 % de las plantas estaban afectadas (490 plantas) La severidad del CTV, en el año 2003 fue de 29.4 %, mientras que en el 2008 fue del 84 %. Abstract in english Tahiti limes (Citrus latifolia T) is in third place among the citrus species cultivated in Colombia. Its fruits are consumed in the domestic market and has a growing export market. Among the viral diseases affecting citrus crops Virus Citrus Tristeza (CTV) is one of the most limiting for production and longevity of plants especially in Tahiti lime. This study was carried out under the ecological conditions of the Research Center Corpoica La Libertad, in the foothills of t (more) he department of Meta. The plants used in the nursery in 1996 grafted with buds from crops used as standard Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco). The crop field was established in 1997, occupying an area of one hectare, with a density of 490 plants ha-1. To determine crop production took annual records, and the incidence and severity of the (CTV) were two readings in plants, during the seventh and eleventh year after transplantation (addt). In 2008 (11 addt) A description of the symptoms of the damage caused by citrus tristeza in the plant and the photographic record was made. The Tahiti lime production started three years after transplantation with 4 t / ha and increased annually to present the peak of production in the eighth year with 62 t/ha, then decreased until 2 t/ha in year 11. The incidence of CTV in 2003 (6 addt) was 16.5 % for a total of 80 affected plants and in 2008 (11 addt) 100 % of plants were affected (490 plants). The severity of CTV, in the 2003 was 29.4 %, while the reading of 2008 was 84 %. Incidence Production Severity Symptoms

Quiroga - Cardona, Julio; Hernández- Parrado, Francy L; Silva- Herrera, María del Rosario; Orduz-Rodríguez, Javier O.

2010-06-01

355

Pressurised liquid extraction combining LC–DAD–ESI/MS analysis as an alternative method to extract three major flavones in Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ (Guangchenpi)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) of three major flavones (hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeretin) from the peels of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ (Guangchenpi) was investigated. These flavones were quantified and analysed by liquid chromatography–diode array detector–electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (LC–DAD–ESI/MS). The PLE procedure was optimised, validated and compared with other conventional extraction techniques. PLE gained the best result due to the highest extraction efficiency within the shortest extraction time. The optimal conditions of PLE were employing 70% methanol as extraction solvent at a temperature of 160°C and extraction pressure of 1500psi, using one extraction cycle with a static extraction time of 20min. MS coupling with an ESI interface in the positive ion mode was used as the detection technique. This is the first report on combining PLE with LC–DAD–ESI/MS for the extraction and quantification of flavones in Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’.

Li W; Wang Z; Wang Yp; Jiang C; Liu Q; Sun Ys; Zheng Yn

2012-02-01

356

Different neuronal location of (3H)SCH 23390 binding sites in pars reticulata and pars compacta of the substantia nigra in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The precise neuronal localization of D1 receptors in the substantia nigra has been studied autoradiographically in the rat by measuring the alterations of (3H)SCH 23390 binding site densities in this brain area after 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced destruction of nigro-striatal afferents. 6-OHDA-induced nigral lesion provoked a total loss of (3H)SCH 23390 binding sites in the pars lateralis (but not in the pars reticulata) of the substantia nigra. In contrast, ibotenate-induced striatal lesion caused a large diminution of the (3H)ligand binding site density in the pars reticulata but not in the pars compacta and pars lateralis of the substantia nigra. These results suggest that D1 receptors in the pars compacta or pars lateralis of the substantia nigra are located on the dopaminergic perikarya whereas those D1 receptors present in the pars reticulata of the substantia nigra lie on the terminals of nigral afferents of striatal origin. (author)

1986-12-23

357

Atividade antimicrobiana do oleorresina de copaíba (Copaifera reticulata) frente a Staphylococcus coagulase positiva isolados de casos de otite em cães/ Antimicrobial activity of copaiba oil (Copaifera reticulata) against coagulase positive Staphylococcus of canine otitis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar o potencial antimicrobiano do oleorresina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke em isolados de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (SCP) provenientes de casos de otite externa em cães. O método de microdiluição em caldo foi utilizado para determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e concentração bactericida mínima (CBM) de oleorresina de copaíba. Em adição, foi determinado o perfil de suscetibilidade aos antim (more) icrobianos dos isolados de SCP pelo método de difusão em ágar. Oito classes de antimicrobianos foram usadas para o cálculo de multirresistência antimicrobiana. A determinação da composição química do oleorresina de copaíba foi realizada por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (GC/MS), sendo que ?-cariofileno, ?-bisaboleno e (E)-?-bergamoteno foram os compostos majoritários. O oleorresina de copaíba demonstrou CIM90 de 0,164mg/mL e CBM90 de 1,31mg/mL. A multirresistência foi verificada em 27% das cepas testadas. Os resultados sugerem que o oleorresina de copaíba exerceu atividade bacteriostática e bactericida mesmo em cepas multirresistentes de Staphylococcus coagulase-positiva. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the oleoresin Copaifera reticulata Ducke against Staphylococcus coagulase positive (SCP) isolated from otitis externa in dogs. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the oleoresin were determined by broth microdilution method. In addition, we verified the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates of SCP by agar diffusion method. Eight class (more) es of antimicrobial were used to calculate the multidrug resistance. The chemical composition of the oleoresin was performed by gas chromatography coupled to the mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and ?-caryophyllene, ?-bisabolene, and (E)-?-bergamotene were the main compounds found. The copaiba oleoresin showed a MIC90 of 0.164mg/mL and a CBM90 of 1.3mg/mL. The multidrug resistance was found in 27% of the strains tested. The results suggest that copaiba oleoresin has bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity even in multidrug-resistant coagulase-positive strains.

Ziech, Rosangela E.; Farias, Luana D.; Balzan, Cláudia; Ziech, Magnos F.; Heinzmann, Berta M.; Lameira, Osmar A.; Vargas, Agueda C. de

2013-07-01

358

Populational approach in ecophysiological studies: the case of Plathymenia reticulata, a tree from Cerrado and Atlantic Forest Abordagem populacional em estudos ecofisiológicos: o caso de /Plathymenia reticulata/, uma árvore do Cerrado e da Mata Atlântica  

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Full Text Available The variability of ecophysiological traits among populations can be a result of selection in response to environmental pressure and/or due to random factors, like the genetic drift. The analysis of both genetic and phenotypic variation within populations can lead to better understanding of adaptation in order to colonize different habitats. In the last years we have developed several studies with an widely ecogeographic distributed legume tree species, Plathymenia reticulata, which were focused on identifying specific morphological and physiological traits related to adaptation to the habitats of origin of each studied population. We studied populations from Atlantic Forest, Cerrado and ecotonal sites in relation to phenology, seed morphological traits and their relation with seed dispersion, seed dormancy and germination, and growth traits in a common garden experiment. In several analyzed traits we found high diversity in this species that can explain its occurrence in a broad geographical range. The existence of genetically based differences of traits in an adaptive way among savanna and forest populations suggests a degree of divergence that characterizes the existence of ecotypes from Cerrado and Atlantic Forest. We also pointed future perspectives in studies at population level in evolutionary ecophysiology and implications of these studies for flora conservation and habitat restoration.A variação em características ecofisiológicas entre populações pode ser devido ao resultado da seleção em resposta a pressão ambiental e/ou pode ser devido a fatores aleatórios como a deriva genética. A análise tanto da variação genética quanto da variação fenotípica das populações, pode levar ao melhor conhecimento sobre adaptações necessárias para a ocupação de diferentes ambientes. Nos últimos anos, nós temos desenvolvido diversos estudos com populações de Plathymenia reticulata, uma leguminosa arbórea de ocorrência em ampla extensão ecogeográfica, com o objetivo de identificar características morfológicas e fisiológicas envolvidas na adaptação das populações aos seus ambientes de origem. Populações provenientes da Mata Atlântica, do Cerrado e de áreas ecotonais entre estes biomas foram avaliadas em relação à fenologia, morfologia e germinação de sementes, bem como em relação à características de crescimento de plantas cultivadas em um mesmo ambiente experimental. Em muitas das características analisadas nessa espécie foi encontrada grande diversidade, o que poderia explicar a sua ocorrência em uma ampla extensão geográfica. A existência de diferenças genéticas em características na direção adaptativa entre as populações provenientes de ambientes de savana e florestais sugere a existência de ecótipos de Cerrado e de Mata Atlântica. Nós também apontamos perspectivas futuras para estudos de ecofisiologia evolutiva em nível populacional, bem como implicações desta abordagem para a conservação da flora e restauração de ambientes.

José Pires de Lemos Filho; Maíra Figueiredo Goulart; Maria Bernadete Lovato

2008-01-01

359

Fecundidad,fertilidad e índice gonadosomático de Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poeciliidae)en Heredia,Costa Rica  

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Full Text Available Entre setiembre y noviembre de 1998 se determinó la fecundidad,fertilidad e índice gonadosomático de Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859),a partir de especímenes recolectados en un estanque en Santo Domingo de Heredia,Costa Rica.Las hembras presentaron una longitud total promedio de 34.43 ± 7.26 mm con un ámbito entre 17.80 y 51.50 mm y un peso total promedio de 0.69 ± 0.48 g,con un ámbito entre 0.06 y 2.32 g.Se determinó que esta especie presenta superfetación,matrotrofía y se mantuvo sexualmente activa durante todo el período de estudio.La fertilidad se rigió por la ecuación F =0.527e0.1171Lt (r² =0.9404)y con una fertilidad promedio para la población de 56.1 ± 43.6,con un ámbito entre 7.98 y 197.58 (huevos +embriones).La fecundidad se rigió por la ecuación Fo = 0.695e0.1076 Lt (r² =0.9376)con una fecundidad promedio para la población de 48.95 ± 35.99, con un ámbito entre 6.98 y 178.99 (ovocitos +óvulos). El índice gonadosomático en hembras se rigió por la ecuación IGS =0.0014e 0.134 Lt (r 2 =0.8581)y se encontró un índice gonadosomático promedio de 0.25 ± 0.27%con un ámbito entre 0.02 y 1.31%.Fertility,fecundity and gonadosomatic index of Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poeciliidae)in Heredia,Costa Rica.Between September and November of 1998,1 432 females of Poecilia reticulata were collected in a pond in Santo Domingo,Heredia,Costa Rica.The average total length of females was 34.43 ± 7.26 mm (range 17.80 and 51.50 mm)and the average total weight of 0.69 ± 0.48 g (range 0.06 and 2.32 g). This species is a viviparous matrotrofic and the specimens were sexually mature.The total length-fertility relationship was F =0.527e 0.1171Lt (r² =0.9404).The average fertility was 56.1 ± 43.6 (eggs +embryos)(range 8.0 and 197.6).The total length-fecundity relationship was Fo =0.695e0.1076 Lt (r² =0.9376).The average fecundity was of 49.0 ± 36.0 (oocytes +ova)(range 7.0 and 179.0).The total length-gonadosomatic index relationship was IGS =0.0014 e0.134 Lt (r² =0.8581).The average gonadosomatic index was 0.25 ± 0.27%(range 0.02 and 1.31%).Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4):945-950.Epub 2005 Jun 24.

Mario Urriola Hernández; Jorge Cabrera Peña; Maurizio Protti Quesada

2004-01-01

360

Determination of nickel in alcoholic beverages by FAAS after online preconcentration using mandarin peel (Citrus reticulata) as biosorbent  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Um método de extração por fase sólida foi desenvolvido para determinação direta de níquel em bebidas alcóolicas. Este método baseia-se na adsorção de níquel em cascas de Citrus reticulata, conhecida como mexerica. O pH de solução, quantidade de adsorvente, vazão da amostra e do eluente, concentração do eluente e efeito de matriz foram investigados usando estratégias de otimização multivariada. Estudos de dessorção foram feitos com HCl 1 mol L-1. As c (more) ondições ideais de extração foram obtidas usando amostra em pH 6,0, vazão da amostra de 4,3 mL min-1, massa de adsorvente de 50 mg e HCl 1,0 mol L-1 na vazão de 2,0 mL min-1 usado como eluente. Fator de pré-concentração, precisão, limite de detecção (LOD), limite de quantificação (LOQ), índice de consumo e frequência analítica foram estimados como 12, 0,9% (30,0 µg L-1, n = 7), 3,1 µg L-1, 10,3 µg L-1, 0,85 mL e 15 amostras por h, respectivamente. O método foi aplicado em amostras de cachaça e uísque e os resultados para os testes de recuperação foram maiores que 99%. Abstract in english A solid phase extraction method was developed for the direct determination of nickel in alcoholic beverages. This method is based on the adsorption of nickel onto the peel of Citrus reticulata (mandarin orange). The solution pH, amount of adsorbent, sample and eluent flow rates, eluent concentration and matrix effects were investigated using multivariate optimization strategies. Desorption studies were carried out with 1 mol L-1 HCl. The optimum extraction conditions were (more) obtained using a sample pH of 6.0, sample flow rate of 4.3 mL min-1, 50 mg of sorbent mass and 1.0 mol L-1 HCl at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min-1 used as eluent. The preconcentration factor, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), consumption index and sample throughput were estimated as 12, 0.9% (30.0 µg L-1, n = 7), 3.1 µg L-1, 10.3 µg L-1, 0.85 mL and 15 samples per h, respectively. The method was applied to sugar cane spirit and whisky samples and the results for recovery tests were higher than 99%.

Ribeiro, Gabriela C.; Coelho, Luciana M.; Coelho, Nívia M. Melo

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
361

Pigment pattern formation in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, involves the Kita and Csf1ra receptor tyrosine kinases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Males of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) vary tremendously in their ornamental patterns, which are thought to have evolved in response to a complex interplay between natural and sexual selection. Although the selection pressures acting on the color patterns of the guppy have been extensively studied, little is known about the genes that control their ontogeny. Over 50 years ago, two autosomal color loci, blue and golden, were described, both of which play a decisive role in the formation of the guppy color pattern. Orange pigmentation is absent in the skin of guppies with a lesion in blue, suggesting a defect in xanthophore development. In golden mutants, the development of the melanophore pattern during embryogenesis and after birth is affected. Here, we show that blue and golden correspond to guppy orthologs of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor a (csf1ra; previously called fms) and kita. Most excitingly, we found that both genes are required for the development of the black ornaments of guppy males, which in the case of csf1ra might be mediated by xanthophore-melanophore interactions. Furthermore, we provide evidence that two temporally and genetically distinct melanophore populations contribute to the adult camouflage pattern expressed in both sexes: one early appearing and kita-dependent and the other late-developing and kita-independent. The identification of csf1ra and kita mutants provides the first molecular insights into pigment pattern formation in this important model species for ecological and evolutionary genetics.

Kottler VA; Fadeev A; Weigel D; Dreyer C

2013-07-01

362

Temporal change in inbreeding depression in life-history traits in captive populations of guppy (Poecilia reticulata): evidence for purging?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Inbreeding depression, which generally affects the fitness of small populations, may be diminished by purging recessive deleterious alleles when inbreeding persists over several generations. Evidence of purging remains rare, especially because of the difficulties of separating the effects of various factors affecting fitness in small populations. We compared the expression of life-history traits in inbred populations of guppy (Poecilia reticulata) with contemporary control populations over 10 generations in captivity. We estimated inbreeding depression as the difference between the two types of populations at each generation. After 10 generations, the inbreeding coefficient reached a maximum value of 0.56 and 0.16 in the inbred and control populations, respectively. Analysing changes in the life-history traits across generations showed that inbreeding depression in clutch size and offspring survival increased during the first four to six generations in the populations from the inbred treatment and subsequently decreased as expected if purging occurred. Inbreeding depression in two other traits was weaker but showed similar changes across generations. The loss of six populations in the inbred treatment indicates that removal of deleterious alleles also occurred by extinction of populations that presumably harboured high genetic load.

Larsen LK; Pélabon C; Bolstad GH; Viken A; Fleming IA; Rosenqvist G

2011-04-01

363

In vitro and in vivo efficacy of garlic compounds against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Traditional compounds used to treat fish diseases in aquaculture and the ornamental fish industry (such as formalin and malachite green) can be more toxic to the hosts than their parasites. With the reviviscence in the use of herbal products, various botanicals have been heralded as cures for particular pathogens, but the efficacy of these compounds for parasitic worms is questionable. Here, we tested a range of garlic (Allium sativum) products against a major aquarium pathogen, Gyrodactylus turnbulli, infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). All garlic products significantly reduced parasite mean survival time in vitro, from 13h to <1h. In fully randomised trials, the number of parasites was also significantly reduced on infected fish exposed to garlic from different sources. Two garlic treatments (minced and granule forms) reduced worm burdens by 66% and 75% after three doses, whereas Chinese freeze-dried garlic and allyl disulphide were 95% effective after a single application. In fact, Chinese freeze dried garlic was equally effective as Levamisole, a licensed livestock dewormer that is highly effective against G. turnbulli but not routinely prescribed for use in fish; hence, garlic may be a potential alternative treatment for gyrodactylosis.

Schelkle B; Snellgrove D; Cable J

2013-09-01

364

Temporal change in inbreeding depression in life-history traits in captive populations of guppy (Poecilia reticulata): evidence for purging?  

Science.gov (United States)

Inbreeding depression, which generally affects the fitness of small populations, may be diminished by purging recessive deleterious alleles when inbreeding persists over several generations. Evidence of purging remains rare, especially because of the difficulties of separating the effects of various factors affecting fitness in small populations. We compared the expression of life-history traits in inbred populations of guppy (Poecilia reticulata) with contemporary control populations over 10 generations in captivity. We estimated inbreeding depression as the difference between the two types of populations at each generation. After 10 generations, the inbreeding coefficient reached a maximum value of 0.56 and 0.16 in the inbred and control populations, respectively. Analysing changes in the life-history traits across generations showed that inbreeding depression in clutch size and offspring survival increased during the first four to six generations in the populations from the inbred treatment and subsequently decreased as expected if purging occurred. Inbreeding depression in two other traits was weaker but showed similar changes across generations. The loss of six populations in the inbred treatment indicates that removal of deleterious alleles also occurred by extinction of populations that presumably harboured high genetic load. PMID:21276111

Larsen, L-K; Pélabon, C; Bolstad, G H; Viken, A; Fleming, I A; Rosenqvist, G

2011-01-31

365

Pigment pattern formation in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, involves the Kita and Csf1ra receptor tyrosine kinases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Males of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) vary tremendously in their ornamental patterns, which are thought to have evolved in response to a complex interplay between natural and sexual selection. Although the selection pressures acting on the color patterns of the guppy have been extensively studied, little is known about the genes that control their ontogeny. Over 50 years ago, two autosomal color loci, blue and golden, were described, both of which play a decisive role in the formation of the guppy color pattern. Orange pigmentation is absent in the skin of guppies with a lesion in blue, suggesting a defect in xanthophore development. In golden mutants, the development of the melanophore pattern during embryogenesis and after birth is affected. Here, we show that blue and golden correspond to guppy orthologs of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor a (csf1ra; previously called fms) and kita. Most excitingly, we found that both genes are required for the development of the black ornaments of guppy males, which in the case of csf1ra might be mediated by xanthophore-melanophore interactions. Furthermore, we provide evidence that two temporally and genetically distinct melanophore populations contribute to the adult camouflage pattern expressed in both sexes: one early appearing and kita-dependent and the other late-developing and kita-independent. The identification of csf1ra and kita mutants provides the first molecular insights into pigment pattern formation in this important model species for ecological and evolutionary genetics. PMID:23666934

Kottler, Verena A; Fadeev, Andrey; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

2013-05-11

366

The effect of vitamin C on growth factors, survival, reproduction and sex ratio in guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid, AA) ongrowth factors, survival, reproductive performance and sex ratio in guppy (Poecilia reticulataPeters,1859). Guppies were divided into 5 treatments with triplicate groups and fed with one of 5 dietsfor 20 weeks. The experimental vitamin C diets were formulated to contain 400, 800, 1200 and 2000 mgAA kg-1 (treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively) with 1 control group. The data obtained from the trial weresubjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to test for effects of dietary treatments. In vitamin Ctreatments the body weight increase (BWI), percent body weight increase (PBWI), specific growth rate(SGR), daily growth rate (DGR) and reproductive performance of guppies were increased significantlywith increasing the levels of vitamin C (P<0.05) and highest BWI, PBWI, SGR and DGR were observed intreatment 4. There were no significant differences in sex ratio observed between the treatments. Insurvival rate there was significant difference between treatment 2 with treatments 1, 3 and control(P<0.05). This study indicates that BWI, PBWI, SGR and DGR and reproductive performance can beimproved by dietary vitamin C supplementation and also may be concluded that the vitamin Crequirement of guppies fish for optimum growth and reproductive performance is 2000 mg/kg of drydiet.

Bahareh Mehrad; Mohammad Sudagar

2010-01-01

367

ESTs and EST-linked polymorphisms for genetic mapping and phylogenetic reconstruction in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The guppy, Poecilia reticulata, is a well-known model organism for studying inheritance and variation of male ornamental traits as well as adaptation to different river habitats. However, genomic resources for studying this important model were not previously widely available. Results With the aim of generating molecular markers for genetic mapping of the guppy, cDNA libraries were constructed from embryos and different adult organs to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs). About 18,000 ESTs were annotated according to BLASTN and BLASTX results and the sequence information from the 3' UTRs was exploited to generate PCR primers for re-sequencing of genomic DNA from different wild type strains. By comparison of EST-linked genomic sequences from at least four different ecotypes, about 1,700 polymorphisms were identified, representing about 400 distinct genes. Two interconnected MySQL databases were built to organize the ESTs and markers, respectively. A robust phylogeny of the guppy was reconstructed, based on 10 different nuclear genes. Conclusion Our EST and marker databases provide useful tools for genetic mapping and phylogenetic studies of the guppy.

Dreyer Christine; Hoffmann Margarete; Lanz Christa; Willing Eva-Maria; Riester Markus; Warthmann Norman; Sprecher Andrea; Tripathi Namita; Henz Stefan R; Weigel Detlef

2007-01-01

368

Chronic effects of Cd on the reproduction of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) through Cd-accumulated midge larvae (Chironomus yoshimatsui)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chronic effects of Cd on the growth and reproduction of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) were studied using a food chain model, midge larvae as prey and guppy as predator. The transfer rate of Cd from the midge to the guppy was between 0.5 and 1% during the 30-day experiment. Growth rate of the guppy fed Cd-accumulated midge larvae (270 micrograms/g dry wt) for 30 days was not impaired. Cumulative numbers of fry produced by the guppy fed Cd-accumulated midge larvae (210 micrograms/g) for 2 months decreased to ca. 80% of the control. Guppies had been fed the Cd-accumulated midges from 30 days old for 7 months. Cumulative numbers of fry produced by the guppy fed midge larvae-accumulated 500, 800, and 1300 micrograms Cd/g for 6 months decreased to 79, 65, and 55% of the control, respectively. Similar effects of Cd on the reproduction of guppy were shown between the guppies fed the Cd-accumulated midge larvae (500 micrograms Cd/g) and exposed to 10 or 20 micrograms Cd/liter for the 6 months. The Cd concentrations of the digestive tract, liver, and kidney increased strongly, indicating that such Cd accumulation was brought on mainly through the Cd-accumulated midges. Mortality of the female guppies fed larvae-accumulated 1300 micrograms Cd/g increased abruptly from the 6 months of the experiment, whereas no male guppy died during the experiment.

Hatakeyama, S.; Yasuno, M.

1987-12-01

369

Crossing-over between Y chromosomes: another possible source of phenotypic variability in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Genetic linkage acting through crossing-over between X and X chromosomes, X and Y chromosomes, and autosomal gene recombination are the most important sources of color pattern polymorphisms in animals. Variability in male color patterns and fin morphologies in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing fish is an example of extreme pattern polymorphism. We explored the possibility that crossing-over between Y chromosomes can also contribute to the high degree of pattern polymorphism in guppies because YY individuals are easily induced in the boratory. However, note that YY individuals are also produced in natural populations. Our results indicated that YY crossing-over was another important source of phenotypic variability - probably because recombination may be possible ver the entire length of Y chromosomes, and at very high frequencies due to high degrees of homology. Thus, crossing-over between Y chromosomes is yet another mechanism that can contribute to extreme pattern polymorphism in the guppy, a popular aquarium and important research model species.

I. Valentin Petrescu-Mag; Godfrey R. Bourne

2008-01-01

370

Enhanced ethanol production from Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata) waste via a statistically optimized simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dried, ground, and hydrothermally pretreated Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata) waste was used to produce ethanol via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Central composite design was used to optimize cellulase and pectinase concentrations, temperature, and time for SSF. The D-limonene concentration determined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for fresh, dried, and pretreated biomass was 0.76%, 0.32%, and 0.09% (v/w), respectively. Design Expert software suggested that the first-order effect of all four factors and the second-order effect of cellulase and pectinase concentrations were significant for ethanol production. The validation experiment using 6 FPU gds(-1) cellulase and 60 IU gds(-1) pectinase at 37 °C for 12 h in a laboratory batch fermenter resulted in ethanol concentration and productivity of 42 g L(-1) and 3.50 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively. Experiments using optimized parameters resulted in an ethanol concentration similar to that predicted by the model equation and also helped reduce fermentation time.

Oberoi HS; Vadlani PV; Nanjundaswamy A; Bansal S; Singh S; Kaur S; Babbar N

2011-01-01

371

Enhanced ethanol production from Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata) waste via a statistically optimized simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dried, ground, and hydrothermally pretreated Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata) waste was used to produce ethanol via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Central composite design was used to optimize cellulase and pectinase concentrations, temperature, and time for SSF. The D-limonene concentration determined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for fresh, dried, and pretreated biomass was 0.76%, 0.32%, and 0.09% (v/w), respectively. Design Expert software suggested that the first-order effect of all four factors and the second-order effect of cellulase and pectinase concentrations were significant for ethanol production. The validation experiment using 6 FPU gds(-1) cellulase and 60 IU gds(-1) pectinase at 37 °C for 12 h in a laboratory batch fermenter resulted in ethanol concentration and productivity of 42 g L(-1) and 3.50 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively. Experiments using optimized parameters resulted in an ethanol concentration similar to that predicted by the model equation and also helped reduce fermentation time. PMID:20863699

Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Vadlani, Praveen V; Nanjundaswamy, Ananda; Bansal, Sunil; Singh, Sandeep; Kaur, Simranjeet; Babbar, Neha

2010-09-21

372

Flutuação populacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton em Citrus deliciosa e no híbrido Murcott Citrus sinensis x Citrus reticulata/ Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton population fluctuation in Citrus deliciosa and Murcott hybrid Citrus sinensis x Citrus reticulata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a dinâmica populacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), o minador-dos-citros, em pomares de tangerineira Citrus deliciosa Tenore variedade Montenegrina e de tangoreiro híbrido "Murcott" Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck X Citrus reticulata Blanco, com manejo orgânico, em Montenegro (29° 68'S e 51° 46'O), Rio Grande do Sul. Foram realizadas amostragens quinzenais de julho de 2001 a junho de 2003. O (more) s brotos coletados foram examinados em laboratório e submetidos à análise do número de folhas por broto, a da presença ou ausência de minas, do número de minas, dos ovos, das larvas e das pupas de P. citrella. Em ambos os pomares não houve registro de minas de P. citrella no primeiro fluxo de brotação, de agosto a outubro. No ano I, as maiores densidades de minas foram registradas em meados de novembro, início de janeiro e início de abril, em ambos os pomares. No ano II, constataram-se as maiores densidades de minas e larvas em janeiro e em abril, em C. deliciosa, e de dezembro a março em "Murcott". Embora o número médio de brotos registrado tenha sido sempre maior em C. deliciosa, a colonização e o estabelecimento do minador-dos-citros seguiram o mesmo padrão em ambos os pomares. A temperatura mínima e média e a umidade relativa do ar foram os fatores abióticos que apresentaram maior influência no número de minas e de larvas de P. citrella. Abstract in english To evaluate the population dynamics of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), the citrus leafminer, in tangerine Citrus deliciosa Tenore var. Montenegrina and tangor 'Murcott' Citrus sinensis L Osbeck X Citrus reticulata Blanco in organically managed orchards, in Montenegro (29° 68'S e 51° 46'W), RS, fortnightly samples were carried out from July 2001 to June 2003. Sampled shoots were examined in the lab and the number of leaves, presence (more) or absence of mines and the number of mines, eggs, larvae and pupae were recorded. In both orchards there were no records of P. citrella mines in the first leaf flush, from August to October. In the first year, the highest mine densities were recorded in the middle of November, beginning of January and in April for both orchards. In the following year, the highest mine and larval densities were in January and April for C. deliciosa var. Montenegrina and from December to March for 'Murcott'. Although the number of shoots has always been greater in C. deliciosa, the citrus leafminer colonization and establishment followed the same pattern for both orchards. Minimum and medium temperature and relative humidity were the abiotic factors showing the strongest influence in the numbers of P. citrella mines and larvae.

Jesus, Cristiane Ramos de; Redaelli, Luiza Rodrigues; Dal Soglio, Fábio Kessler

2008-06-01

373

Antidiabetic principles of natural medicines. IV. Aldose reductase and qlpha-glucosidase inhibitors from the roots of Salacia oblonga Wall. (Celastraceae): structure of a new friedelane-type triterpene, kotalagenin 16-acetate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aqueous methanolic extract of an Indian natural medicine, the roots of Salacia oblonga Wall. (Celastraceae), was found to show inhibitory activity on the increase in serum glucose level in sucrose- and maltose-loaded rats. The water-soluble and ethyl acetate-soluble portions from the aqueous methanolic extract showed inhibitory activities on alpha-glucosidase and aldose reductase, respectively. From the water-soluble portion, potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, salacinol and kotalanol, were isolated, together with nine sugar related components, while a new friedelane-type triterpene, kotalagenin 16-acetate, was isolated from the ethyl acetate-soluble portion along with known diterpenes and triterpenes. The structure of kotalagenin 16-acetate was elucidated on the basis of physicochemical evidence. Principal components from this natural medicine were examined in terms of inhibitory activity on aldose reductase, and the diterpene and triterpene constituents, including the new kotalagenin 16-acetate, were found to be responsible components for the inhibitory activity on aldose reductase.

Matsuda H; Murakami T; Yashiro K; Yamahara J; Yoshikawa M

1999-12-01

374

An aqueous extract of Salacia oblonga root, a herb-derived peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activator, by oral gavage over 28 days induces gender-dependent hepatic hypertrophy in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha by natural and synthetic chemicals induces hepatic hypertrophy. An aqueous extract of Salacia oblonga root (SOW) is an Ayurvedic medicine with anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties. In the present study, it was found that SOW (100, 300 and 900mg/kg, once daily by oral gavage over a 28 day period) elicited dose-related increases in liver weight (LW) by 1.6%, 13.4% and 42.5%, respectively, and in the ratio of LW to body weight by 8.8%, 16.7% and 40.2%, respectively, in male rats. These effects were less pronounced in females. SOW selectively increased liver mass in male rats but Sudan red staining was not different, which indicates that hepatic lipid accumulation was similar in both genders. However, SOW even at the highest dosage did not influence serum ALT and AST activities in male or female rats. Moreover, SOW was found to activate PPAR-alpha in human hepatoma-derived HepG2 cells, as evidenced by the upregulation of PPAR-alpha and acyl-CoA oxidase mRNA expression. Thus, SOW-dependent PPAR-alpha activation may precede the development of the gender difference in hepatic hypertrophy; this process may be influenced by sex hormone status.

Rong X; Kim MS; Su N; Wen S; Matsuo Y; Yamahara J; Murray M; Li Y

2008-06-01

375

An aqueous extract of Salacia oblonga root, a herb-derived peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activator, by oral gavage over 28 days induces gender-dependent hepatic hypertrophy in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha by natural and synthetic chemicals induces hepatic hypertrophy. An aqueous extract of Salacia oblonga root (SOW) is an Ayurvedic medicine with anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties. In the present study, it was found that SOW (100, 300 and 900mg/kg, once daily by oral gavage over a 28 day period) elicited dose-related increases in liver weight (LW) by 1.6%, 13.4% and 42.5%, respectively, and in the ratio of LW to body weight by 8.8%, 16.7% and 40.2%, respectively, in male rats. These effects were less pronounced in females. SOW selectively increased liver mass in male rats but Sudan red staining was not different, which indicates that hepatic lipid accumulation was similar in both genders. However, SOW even at the highest dosage did not influence serum ALT and AST activities in male or female rats. Moreover, SOW was found to activate PPAR-alpha in human hepatoma-derived HepG2 cells, as evidenced by the upregulation of PPAR-alpha and acyl-CoA oxidase mRNA expression. Thus, SOW-dependent PPAR-alpha activation may precede the development of the gender difference in hepatic hypertrophy; this process may be influenced by sex hormone status. PMID:18397819

Rong, Xianglu; Kim, Moon Sun; Su, Ning; Wen, Suping; Matsuo, Yukimi; Yamahara, Johji; Murray, Michael; Li, Yuhao

2008-03-04

376

Antidiabetic principles of natural medicines. IV. Aldose reductase and qlpha-glucosidase inhibitors from the roots of Salacia oblonga Wall. (Celastraceae): structure of a new friedelane-type triterpene, kotalagenin 16-acetate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aqueous methanolic extract of an Indian natural medicine, the roots of Salacia oblonga Wall. (Celastraceae), was found to show inhibitory activity on the increase in serum glucose level in sucrose- and maltose-loaded rats. The water-soluble and ethyl acetate-soluble portions from the aqueous methanolic extract showed inhibitory activities on alpha-glucosidase and aldose reductase, respectively. From the water-soluble portion, potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, salacinol and kotalanol, were isolated, together with nine sugar related components, while a new friedelane-type triterpene, kotalagenin 16-acetate, was isolated from the ethyl acetate-soluble portion along with known diterpenes and triterpenes. The structure of kotalagenin 16-acetate was elucidated on the basis of physicochemical evidence. Principal components from this natural medicine were examined in terms of inhibitory activity on aldose reductase, and the diterpene and triterpene constituents, including the new kotalagenin 16-acetate, were found to be responsible components for the inhibitory activity on aldose reductase. PMID:10748716

Matsuda, H; Murakami, T; Yashiro, K; Yamahara, J; Yoshikawa, M

1999-12-01

377

Abnormal chloride homeostasis in the substancia nigra pars reticulata contributes to locomotor deficiency in a model of acute liver injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Altered chloride homeostasis has been thought to be a risk factor for several brain disorders, while less attention has been paid to its role in liver disease. We aimed to analyze the involvement and possible mechanisms of altered chloride homeostasis of GABAergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in the motor deficit observed in a model of encephalopathy caused by acute liver failure, by using glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 - green fluorescent protein knock-in transgenic mice. METHODS: Alterations in intracellular chloride concentration in GABAergic neurons within the SNr and changes in the expression of two dominant chloride homeostasis-regulating genes, KCC2 and NKCC1, were evaluated in mice with hypolocomotion due to hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The effects of pharmacological blockade and/or activation of KCC2 and NKCC1 functions with their specific inhibitors and/or activators on the motor activity were assessed. RESULTS: In our mouse model of acute liver injury, chloride imaging indicated an increase in local intracellular chloride concentration in SNr GABAergic neurons. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of KCC2 were reduced, particularly on neuronal cell membranes; in contrast, NKCC1 expression remained unaffected. Furthermore, blockage of KCC2 reduced motor activity in the normal mice and led to a further deteriorated hypolocomotion in HE mice. Blockade of NKCC1 was not able to normalize motor activity in mice with liver failure. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that altered chloride homeostasis is likely involved in the pathophysiology of hypolocomotion following HE. Drugs aimed at restoring normal chloride homeostasis would be a potential treatment for hepatic failure.

Yang YL; Li JJ; Ji R; Wei YY; Chen J; Dou KF; Wang YY

2013-01-01

378

Effect of Time of Fertilizer Application on the Productivity of Kinnow (Citrus reticulata Blanko)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of fertilizer application at different times of the year on the productivity of kinnow. 40 kg rottened farm yard manure, 1 kg urea, 4 kg single supper phosphate and 1 kg sulphate of potash per plant was applied at three different times i.e., in January, April and July. Application in January improved the number of fruits, fruit size, weight of fruit and juice contents during 1997-98. TSS and juice percentage was not affected by any treatment. The same trend for effect of fertilizers was also observed during 1998-99 with a difference only that juice percentage was also affected with fertilizer treatment and increased when the fertilizer was applied in January. When the fertilizers were applied in April or July, no improvement was noted and the results were similar to or worse than control.

M. Raza Salik; Faqir Muhammad; M. Amin Shakir

2000-01-01

379

Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is considerable intraspecific variation in metabolic rates and locomotor performance in aquatic ectothermic vertebrates; however, the mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. Using pregnant Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing teleost, we examined the effects of reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burse-assisted swimming on swimming metabolic rate, standard metabolic rate (MO2std) and prolonged swimming performance (Ucrit). Reproductive traits included reproductive allocation and pregnancy stage, the former defined as the mass of the reproductive tissues divided by the total body mass. Results showed that the metabolic rate increased curvilinearly with swimming speed. The slope of the relationship was used as an index of swimming cost. There was no evidence that reproductive traits correla