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Sample records for plant salacia reticulata

  1. Antioxidant Activity of Salacia Plant (Salacia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Kyoji; Kanetaka, Takashi; Koga, Kunimasa

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts prepared from powdered leaves and stems of Salacia reticulata, a Salacia plant that grows in Sri Lanka, were investigated. Lipid peroxide levels and some hepatic injury markers in plasma, liver and/or kidney of mice treated with ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) were increased as compared to those of control mice. Oral preadministration of extracts of Salacia leaves and stems at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prevented the elevations of lipid peroxides and injury markers in a dose-dependent manner. Decrease of antioxidant activity in plasma of mice treated with Fe-NTA was also prevented by administration of these extracts. In in vitro study, well-known polyphenol components exhibited antioxidant activities, but other effective components were also present in these extracts. The results of this investigation indicate that the extracts of leaves and stems of S. reticulata could be beneficial as health foods for the prevention of oxidative stress-related disorders. PMID:26346858

  2. Effects of the Sri Lankan medicinal plant, Salacia reticulata, in rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Sekiguchi, Yuusuke; Mano, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Sachie; Shimizu, Jun; Wada, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Salacia reticulata is a native plant of Sri Lanka. In the traditional medicine of Sri Lanka and India, Salacia reticulata bark is considered orally effective in the treatment of rheumatism, gonorrhea, skin disease and diabetes. We have investigated, both in vivo and in vitro, whether the leaf of Salacia reticulata (SRL) can ameliorate collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) in mice as the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) model. The mice were fed a lard containing chow diet (AIN-93G) or the same d...

  3. Effects of the Sri Lankan medicinal plant, Salacia reticulata, in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yuusuke; Mano, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Sachie; Shimizu, Jun; Wada, Masahiro

    2010-03-01

    Salacia reticulata is a native plant of Sri Lanka. In the traditional medicine of Sri Lanka and India, Salacia reticulata bark is considered orally effective in the treatment of rheumatism, gonorrhea, skin disease and diabetes. We have investigated, both in vivo and in vitro, whether the leaf of Salacia reticulata (SRL) can ameliorate collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) in mice as the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) model. The mice were fed a lard containing chow diet (AIN-93G) or the same diet containing 1% (w/w) SRL powder. All mice were bred for 23 days. On day 7 or 14 after LPS injection, mice were killed, and tissue and blood samples were collected. Histological analysis was performed, and serum levels of inflammatory mediators and the mRNA levels of inflammation-related genes and osteoclast-related genes were measured. SRL treatment ameliorated the rapid initial paw swelling, inflammatory cells infiltration, skeletal tissues damage, osteoclast activation and the mRNA levels for osteoclast-related genes compared with the CAIA mice. However, the serum and mRNA levels of inflammatory mediators did not differ between the CAIA mice and the SRL-treated mice. SRL might reduce the inflammatory cells induction and skeletal tissue degradation by CAIA by the regulating osteoclastogenesis. PMID:19727885

  4. Role of medicinal plant Salacia Reticulata in the management of Type II Diabetic Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    R Radha; Amrithaveni, M.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading causes of death and ranks third among the chronic diseases. Recent studies have shown that up to 10 % of India's urban population and 2 % of the rural population above the age of 15 years have diabetes and WHO had declared India as the diabetic capital of the world. India has wealth of medicinalplants, and these plants have credited to the development of therapeutic agents for various ailments and diseases. Hark of Salacia Reticulata was screened for it...

  5. Role of medicinal plant Salacia Reticulata in the management of Type II Diabetic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, R; Amrithaveni, M

    2009-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading causes of death and ranks third among the chronic diseases. Recent studies have shown that up to 10 % of India's urban population and 2 % of the rural population above the age of 15 years have diabetes and WHO had declared India as the diabetic capital of the world. India has wealth of medicinalplants, and these plants have credited to the development of therapeutic agents for various ailments and diseases. Hark of Salacia Reticulata was screened for its hypoglycemic and hypo-lipidaemic effect. A- total of 60 type II diabetics were enrolled, consisting of experimental group 30 and control group 30. Experimental group received 2 grams of Kadalazhinjil powder daily for a period of 90 days and control group did not receive any supplements. Blood glucose levels before and after medications were estimated in both groups at baseline and at 90 days. There was insignificant reduction in fasting blood glucose, HbA(1) c and lipid levels at the end of 90 days in the supplemented group. The experimental group showed encouraging results which call for long term supplementation in Diabetes Mellitus. PMID:22557337

  6. Preventive Effects of Salacia reticulata on Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in TSOD Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoko Akase; Tsutomu Shimada; Yukiko Harasawa; Tomohide Akase; Yukinobu Ikeya; Eiichi Nagai; Seiichi Iizuka; Gojiro Nakagami; Shinji Iizaka; Hiromi Sanada; Masaki Aburada

    2011-01-01

    The extracts of Salacia reticulata (Salacia extract), a plant that has been used for the treatment of early diabetes, rheumatism and gonorrhea in Ayurveda, have been shown to have an anti-obesity effect and suppress hyperglycemia. In this study, the effects of Salacia extract on various symptoms of metabolic disorder were investigated and compared using these TSOD mice and non-obese TSNO mice. Body weight, food intake, plasma biochemistry, visceral and subcutaneous fat (X-ray and CT), glucose...

  7. Salacia reticulata has therapeutic effects on obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Nakayama, Yuichiro; Harasawa, Yukiko; Matsui, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Hiroko; Sai, Yoshimichi; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Tomatsu, Shunji; Aburada, Masaki

    2014-10-01

    Salacia reticulata Wight (S. reticulata) is a herbal medicine used for treatment of early diabetes in Ayurvedic medicine. In previous reports, the extract of S. reticulata showed preventive effects on obesity and various metabolic disorders and a suppressive effect on differentiation in premature adipocytes. The aim of this research was to elucidate the therapeutic efficacy of the extract of S. reticulata on obesity and various metabolic disorders in 12-week-old TSOD mice with obesity and metabolic disorders and in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In TSOD mice, S. reticulata therapy produced a reduction in body weight and mesenteric fat accumulation, an improvement in abnormal glucose metabolism, and an increase in adiponectin level in plasma. In addition, the mRNA expressions of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and adiponectin were increased in mesenteric fat. In in vitro experiments, S. reticulata therapy produced suppression of intracellular triacylglycerol accumulation and enhancement of glycerol release into the medium in mature 3T3-L1 cells. The mRNA expressions of lipogenesis factor (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, lipoprotein lipase, CD36, and fatty acid binding protein 4) were down-regulated, while the expressions of lipolysis factor (adipose tissue triacylglycerol lipase and HSL) and adiponectin were up-regulated. Moreover, the extract of S. reticulata enhanced the expression of total AMP-activated protein kinase ? (AMPK?) and phosphorylated AMPK? in mature adipocytes. These findings demonstrate that the extract of S. reticulata has therapeutic effects on obesity and metabolic disorders by enhancing lipogenesis genes and suppressing lipolysis genes through the activation of AMPK? in adipocytes. PMID:24838513

  8. Antimicrobial Activity of Root Bark of Salacia reticulata

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhary, G. P.; Vijay Kanth, M. S.

    2005-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of chloroform and methanolic extracts of Salacia reticulata were tested against gram positive, gram negative and fungus strains using zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentrations. It was observed that both extracts have inhibitory effect towards all microorganisms used in the test. Chloroform extract was more effective than methanolic extract.

  9. Preventive Effects of Salacia reticulata on Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in TSOD Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akase, Tomoko; Shimada, Tsutomu; Harasawa, Yukiko; Akase, Tomohide; Ikeya, Yukinobu; Nagai, Eiichi; Iizuka, Seiichi; Nakagami, Gojiro; Iizaka, Shinji; Sanada, Hiromi; Aburada, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    The extracts of Salacia reticulata (Salacia extract), a plant that has been used for the treatment of early diabetes, rheumatism and gonorrhea in Ayurveda, have been shown to have an anti-obesity effect and suppress hyperglycemia. In this study, the effects of Salacia extract on various symptoms of metabolic disorder were investigated and compared using these TSOD mice and non-obese TSNO mice. Body weight, food intake, plasma biochemistry, visceral and subcutaneous fat (X-ray and CT), glucose tolerance, blood pressure and pain tolerance were measured, and histopathological examination of the liver was carried out. A significant dose-dependent decline in the gain in body weight, accumulation of visceral and subcutaneous fat and an improvement of abnormal glucose tolerance, hypertension and peripheral neuropathy were noticed in TSOD mice. In addition, hepatocellular swelling, fatty degeneration of hepatocytes, inflammatory cell infiltration and single-cell necrosis were observed on histopathological examination of the liver in TSOD mice. Salacia extract markedly improved these symptoms upon treatment. Based on the above results, it is concluded that Salacia extract has remarkable potential to prevent obesity and associated metabolic disorders including the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:19505975

  10. Capillary zone electrophoresis method for the separation of glucosidase inhibitors in extracts of Salacia reticulata, a plant used in ayurvedic treatments of type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandberg, Wesley F; Mohan, Sankar; Kumarasamy, Jayakanthan; Pinto, B Mario

    2010-06-15

    A simple and reproducible capillary-zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the separation and quantitation of sulfonium-ion-containing compounds isolated from plants of the Salacia genus which are traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The method sufficiently resolved four different compounds with confirmed glucosidase inhibitory activity, namely, salacinol, ponkoranol, kotalanol and de-O-sulfonated kotalanol. Separation could be achieved in less than 9 min, and calibration curves showed good linearity. Detection limits were determined to be in the low mug/mL range. This method was used to demonstrate that de-O-sulfonated kotalanol isolated from natural sources has identical ionic mobility to a synthetic standard. Furthermore, new extraction conditions were developed by which the zwitterionic compounds (salacinol, ponkoranol, and kotalanol) could be separated from de-O-sulfonated kotalanol in a single solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. The extraction gave reproducibly high recoveries and was used to process four commercial Salacia extracts for CZE analysis to reduce the complexity of resulting electropherograms and to facilitate the detection of the four inhibitors in question. De-O-sulfonated kotalanol was detected in two of four Salacia samples while ponkoranol was present in all four. A comparison of all samples tested demonstrated that they had remarkably similar patterns of peaks, suggesting that this CZE method may be useful in the chemical fingerprinting of Salacia-containing products. PMID:20491445

  11. Adverse pregnancy outcome in rats following exposure to a Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) root extract

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnasooriya W.D.; Jayakody J.R.A.C.; Premakumara G.A.S.

    2003-01-01

    The root extract of Salacia reticulata Wight (family: Celastraceae) is used in Sri Lanka by traditional practitioners as a herbal therapy for glycemic control even during pregnancy. It is recognized that some clinically used antidiabetic drugs have harmful effects on pregnancy but the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on reproductive outcome is unknown and deserves examination. We determined the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on the reproductive outcome of Wistar rats (250-...

  12. Anti-diabetic and Anti-hyperlipidemic Effects and Safety of Salacia reticulata and Related Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J; Ray, Sidhartha

    2015-07-01

    Extracts of Salacia reticulata Wight (Hypocrataceae) roots, stems, and leaves have been used in Asia for hundreds of years for the folkloric treatment of diabetes and other health problems. Constituents that have been identified as exhibiting anti-diabetic effects include salacinol, kotalanol, ponkorinol, salaprinol, and their corresponding de-0-sulfonated compounds. Mangiferin, kotalagenin 16-acetate and various proanthocyanidin oligomers have also been isolated. Studies indicate that Salacia extracts modulate multiple targets that influence carbohydrate and lipid metabolism including ?-glucosidase, aldose reductase, pancreatic lipase, peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-?, glucose transporter-4 mediated glucose uptake, and angiotensin II type 1 receptor. Furthermore, Salacia extracts exhibit free radical scavenging, antioxidant and hepatoprotectant activities. In human studies, Salacia extracts have been shown to decrease plasma glucose and insulin levels, decrease HbA1c, and modulate serum lipid levels with no adverse effects being reported. Similar results have been demonstrated in rat and mouse models as well as in vitro systems. Safety of S.?reticulata and other Salacia species as S.?oblonga and S.?chinensis in rats and mice indicate that extracts are exceedingly safe. No clinical studies have examined the effects of Salacia extracts on human weight loss, although weight loss and decreases in weight gain have been demonstrated in animal models. Because of the large number of pharmacologically active compounds, it is difficult to establish standards for extracts. PMID:26031882

  13. Adverse pregnancy outcome in rats following exposure to a Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) root extract

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    W.D., Ratnasooriya; J.R.A.C., Jayakody; G.A.S., Premakumara.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The root extract of Salacia reticulata Wight (family: Celastraceae) is used in Sri Lanka by traditional practitioners as a herbal therapy for glycemic control even during pregnancy. It is recognized that some clinically used antidiabetic drugs have harmful effects on pregnancy but the effects of the [...] S. reticulata root extract on reproductive outcome is unknown and deserves examination. We determined the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on the reproductive outcome of Wistar rats (250-260 g) when administered orally (10 g/kg) during early (days 1-7) and mid- (days 7-14) pregnancy. The root extract significantly (P

  14. Metabolic disease prevention and suppression of fat accumulation by Salacia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Nagai, Eiichi; Harasawa, Yukiko; Akase, Tomoko; Aburada, Takashi; Iizuka, Seiichi; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Aburada, Masaki

    2010-07-01

    In Ayurvedic medicine, Salacia reticulata is known to be useful against various metabolic diseases, including diabetes and obesity. In this study, we attempted to clarify the antiobesity mechanism and the safety of S. reticulata in vivo and in vitro. We gave ordinary MF feed, alone or mixed with S. reticulata (0.3 or 1.0%), to Tsumura Suzuki obesity diabetes (TSOD) mice (spontaneous obese type II diabetes model mice) and Tsumura Suzuki non-obese (TSNO) mice (the corresponding reference animals), ad libitum for 2 months. As compared with the TSNO control mice, the TSOD control mice became obese due to fat accumulation and developed various signs of metabolic diseases. The TSOD mouse group receiving S. reticulata showed the following effects: suppression of body weight increase and fat accumulation, alleviation of abnormal lipid metabolism and abnormal glucose tolerance, and suppression of intrahepatic fat accumulation. Also, S. reticulata prevented the mesenteric adipocyte hypertrophy recognized in TSOD mice. In the TSNO controls, the feed containing 1.0% S. reticulata exerted a suppressing effect on body weight increase and fat accumulation, but the feed containing 0.3% S. reticulata did not show any effect at all. In an in vitro experiment using mouse-derived adipocyte precursor 3T3-L1 cells, S. reticulata significantly suppressed fat accumulation in the differentiation induction phase and maturation phase. This suggested that the metabolic disease-preventing effects of S. reticulata, including the antiobesity effect, may involve suppression of differentiation and accumulation in the adipocytes. PMID:20225078

  15. Total synthesis of neokotalanol, a potent ?-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from Salacia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Jia; Tanabe, Genzoh; Tsutsui, Nozomi; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Muraoka, Osamu

    2013-11-01

    Neokotalanol, a potent ?-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from Salacia reticulata, was synthesized through a key coupling reaction between a perbenzylated thiosugar and an appropriately protected perseitol triflate derived from D-mannose. This key step was found to be quite temperature dependent, and a simultaneous cyclization of the triflate leading to a characteristic 2,4,7-trioxabicyclo[4.2.1]nonane system was detected. PMID:24345510

  16. Anti-proliferative effects of Salacia reticulata leaves hot-water extract on interleukin-1?-activated cells derived from the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis model mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sekiguchi Yuusuke; Mano Hiroshi; Nakatani Sachie; Shimizu Jun; Kobata Kenji; Wada Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Salacia reticulata (SR) is a plant native to Sri Lanka. In ayurvedic medicine, SR bark preparations, taken orally, are considered effective in the treatment of rheumatism and diabetes. We investigated the ability of SR leaves (SRL) to inhibit in vitro the interleukin-1? (IL-1?)-activated proliferation of synoviocyte-like cells derived from rheumatoid arthritis model mice. Findings Inflammatory synovial tissues were harvested from type II collagen antibody-induced arthritic...

  17. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor from Kothala-himbutu (Salacia reticulata WIGHT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Sei; Oe, Hiromi; Kitamura, Shinichi

    2008-06-01

    A polyhydroxylated cyclic 13-membered sulfoxide (1) was isolated from an aqueous extract of Kothala-himbutu ( Salacia reticulata WIGHT). The structure of compound 1 was elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR and APCI-MS methods. The alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of compound 1 (IC 50: maltase, 0.227 microM; sucrase, 0.186 microM; isomaltase, 0.099 microM) was much greater than the inhibitory activity of salacinol and kotalanol, which were previously isolated from Kothala-himbutu. PMID:18547114

  18. Hypoglycemic effect of 13-membered ring thiocyclitol, a novel alpha-glucosidase inhibitor from Kothala-himbutu (Salacia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oe, Hiromi; Ozaki, Sei

    2008-07-01

    A novel 13-membered ring thiocyclitol, isolated from an aqueous extract of Kothala-himbutu (Salacia reticulata), inhibited alpha-glucosidase in vitro. The inhibitory activity was investigated by maltose- and sucrose-loading on Wistar rats. This study found significant lowering of postprandial glucose levels, and the potency of 13-membered ring thiocyclitol was confirmed in vivo. PMID:18603797

  19. Purified Methanolic Extract of Salacia reticulata Wight. Ameliorates Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Alterations in Rats Fed High Fructose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Mitra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried-out to investigate the insulin sensitizing activity of purified methanolic extract of salacia reticulata roots in fructose-fed rats, a well-known model of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Feeding fructose enriched diet caused a hyperinsulinemic state and increased insulin resistance index with statistically significant increase in fasting triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. Fructose fed rats also exhibited glucose intolerance when tested by oral glucose tolerance test as indicated by increase in total area under curve of blood glucose. Dietary supplementation of purified methanolic extract of Salacia reticulata (0.4 g/100 g of feed significantly reversed the fructose diet-induced metabolic alterations in rats and also improved glucose intolerance. The effect of purified methanolic extract of Salacia reticulata was comparable to that of rosiglitazone, a known insulin sensitizer. Acarbose, a marketed ?-glucosidase inhibitor failed to reverse the metabolic alterations caused by fructose enriched diet in rats. The finding proves probable mechanism of action of Salacia reticulata and further validates scientific basis of its usage in the management of various metabolic disorders including diabetes.

  20. Anti-diabetic activity of a leaf extract prepared from Salacia reticulata in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Kyoji; Miyauchi, Yuko; Kanetaka, Takashi; Takagi, Yasutaka; Koga, Kunimasa

    2009-05-01

    The effects of a water extract prepared from the leaves of Salacia reticulata on the absorption of sugars in normal and type 1 diabetic mice were investigated. The simultaneous oral administration of the extract at a dose of 1.0 mg/mouse with maltose or sucrose inhibited the postprandial elevation of the plasma glucose and insulin levels and intestinal alpha-glucosidase activities in mice. In addition, the supply of a 0.01% solution of the extract as drinking water prevented the elevation of the plasma glucose level and intestinal alpha-glucosidase activities in type 1 diabetic mice. This treatment also prevented the elevation of the plasma, pancreatic, and kidney lipid peroxide levels, lowering of the plasma insulin level, and elevation of the kidney aldose reductase activities in diabetic mice. These results suggest that the water extract of the leaves of S. reticulata could be a beneficial food material for the prevention of diabetes and obesity because of its multiple effects. PMID:19420711

  1. Adverse pregnancy outcome in rats following exposure to a Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae root extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D. Ratnasooriya

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The root extract of Salacia reticulata Wight (family: Celastraceae is used in Sri Lanka by traditional practitioners as a herbal therapy for glycemic control even during pregnancy. It is recognized that some clinically used antidiabetic drugs have harmful effects on pregnancy but the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on reproductive outcome is unknown and deserves examination. We determined the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on the reproductive outcome of Wistar rats (250-260 g when administered orally (10 g/kg during early (days 1-7 and mid- (days 7-14 pregnancy. The root extract significantly (P<0.05 enhanced post-implantation losses (control vs treatment: early pregnancy, 4.7 ± 2.4 vs 49.3 ± 13%; mid-pregnancy, 4.7 ± 2.4 vs 41.7 ± 16.1%. Gestational length was unaltered but the pups born had a low birth weight (P<0.05 (early pregnancy, 6.8 ± 0.1 vs 5.3 ± 0.1 g; mid-pregnancy, 6.8 ± 0.1 vs 5.0 ± 0.1 g and low birth index (P<0.05 (early pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 50.7 ± 12.9%; mid-pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 58.3 ± 16.1%, fetal survival ratio (P<0.05 (early pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 50.7 ± 12.9; mid-pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 58.3 ± 16.1, and viability index (P<0.05 (early pregnancy, 94.9 ± 2.6 vs 49.5 ± 12.5%; mid-pregnancy, 94.9 ± 2.6 vs 57.1 ± 16.1%. However, the root extract was non-teratogenic. We conclude that the S. reticulata root extract can be hazardous to successful pregnancy in women and should not be used in pregnancy complicated by diabetes.

  2. The effects of Salacia reticulata on anti-cellular oxidants and melanogenesis inhibition in alpha-MSH-stimulated and UV irradiated B16 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannalert, Prasit; Kariya, Ryusho; Suzu, Ikuko; Okada, Seiji

    2014-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the inhibitory effects of Salacia reticulata Tul. root extract on cellular oxidants and melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells. Cells treated with non-toxic doses of S. reticulata root extract were investigated for their effects on melanogenesis, cellular tyrosinase activity and cellular oxidant scavenging activity. The results indicated that S. reticulata extract inhibited melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in alpha-MSH-induced or UV-irradiated B16 melanoma cells in a dose dependent manner. Additionally, the extract also exhibited anti-cellular oxidants in UV-induced radical melanoma cells. Altogether, these results suggested that S. reticulata root extract has roles in suppression of melanogenesis and oxidant inhibition. S. reticulata root extract may be a potential source for the development of pharmaceutical products for treatment of skin hyperpigmentation disorders. PMID:24868882

  3. Purified Methanolic Extract of Salacia reticulata Wight. Ameliorates Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Alterations in Rats Fed High Fructose Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, S K; Mohamed Rafiq

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried-out to investigate the insulin sensitizing activity of purified methanolic extract of salacia reticulata roots in fructose-fed rats, a well-known model of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Feeding fructose enriched diet caused a hyperinsulinemic state and increased insulin resistance index with statistically significant increase in fasting triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. Fructose fed rats also exhibited glucose intolerance...

  4. New glucosidase inhibitors from an ayurvedic herbal treatment for type 2 diabetes: structures and inhibition of human intestinal maltase-glucoamylase with compounds from Salacia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Lyann; Jayakanthan, Kumarasamy; Mohan, Sankar; Nasi, Ravindranath; Johnston, Blair D; Pinto, B Mario; Rose, David R

    2010-01-26

    An approach to controlling blood glucose levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes is to target alpha-amylases and intestinal glucosidases using alpha-glucosidase inhibitors acarbose and miglitol. One of the intestinal glucosidases targeted is the N-terminal catalytic domain of maltase-glucoamylase (ntMGAM), one of the four intestinal glycoside hydrolase 31 enzyme activities responsible for the hydrolysis of terminal starch products into glucose. Here we present the X-ray crystallographic studies of ntMGAM in complex with a new class of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors derived from natural extracts of Salacia reticulata, a plant used traditionally in Ayuverdic medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Included in these extracts are the active compounds salacinol, kotalanol, and de-O-sulfonated kotalanol. This study reveals that de-O-sulfonated kotalanol is the most potent ntMGAM inhibitor reported to date (K(i) = 0.03 microM), some 2000-fold better than the compounds currently used in the clinic, and highlights the potential of the salacinol class of inhibitors as future drug candidates. PMID:20039683

  5. Salacia reticulata improves serum lipid profiles and glycemic control in patients with prediabetes and mild to moderate hyperlipidemia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaprasad, H N; Bhanumathy, M; Sushma, G; Midhun, T; Raveendra, K R; Sushma, K R; Venkateshwarlu, K

    2013-06-01

    The present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy and safety of Salacia reticulata leaves and root bark extracts in 29 patients with prediabetes and mild to moderate hyperlipidemia. Patients received either Salacia extracts (500?mg/day) or placebo along with therapeutic lifestyle changes for a period of 6 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of change in lipid profile and glycemic levels. The safety and tolerability was evaluated by a physical examination and clinical laboratory evaluations. Improvements in lipid profiles and glycemic levels were observed in Salacia extract-treated groups when compared to placebo at week 6. A statistical significant reduction was observed in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels at week 3 and 6 when treated with root bark extract. The leaves extract-treated group showed statistically significant reduction in FBS levels at week 6 only. No adverse events occurred and all safety parameters were within normal ranges during the study. This study revealed that treatment with S. reticulata was safe and well-tolerated and may be beneficial in the management of prediabetes and mild to moderate hyperlipidemia. PMID:23767865

  6. Biochemical investigation and gene expression analysis of the immunostimulatory functions of an edible Salacia extract in rat small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Yuriko; Ueda, Fumitaka; Kamei, Asuka; Kakinuma, Chihaya; Abe, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Roots and bark from plants belonging to genus Salacia of the family Hippocrateaceae (Salacia reticulata, Salacia oblonga, etc.) have been used for traditional Ayurvedic medicine, particularly for the treatment of diabetes. In our study, we evaluated the gene expression profiles in the small intestinal epithelium of rats that were given a Salacia plant extract to gain insight into its effects on the small intestine. In detail, DNA microarray analysis was performed to evaluate the gene expression profiles in the rat ileal epithelium. The intestinal bacterial flora was also studied using T-RFLP (Nagashima method) in these rats. Expressions of many immune-related genes, especially Th1-related genes associated with cell-mediated immunity, were found to increase in the small intestinal epithelium and the intestinal bacterial flora became similar to those in the case with Salacia plant extract administration. Our study thus revealed that Salacia plant extract exerts bioregulatory functions by boosting intestinal immunity. PMID:21328625

  7. Anti-proliferative effects of Salacia reticulata leaves hot-water extract on interleukin-1?-activated cells derived from the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis model mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekiguchi Yuusuke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salacia reticulata (SR is a plant native to Sri Lanka. In ayurvedic medicine, SR bark preparations, taken orally, are considered effective in the treatment of rheumatism and diabetes. We investigated the ability of SR leaves (SRL to inhibit in vitro the interleukin-1? (IL-1?-activated proliferation of synoviocyte-like cells derived from rheumatoid arthritis model mice. Findings Inflammatory synovial tissues were harvested from type II collagen antibody-induced arthritic mice. From these tissues, a synoviocyte-like cell line was established and named MTS-C H7. To determine whether SRL can suppress cell proliferation and gene expression in MTS-C H7 cells, fractionation of the SRL hot-water extract was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, liquid-liquid extraction, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, and protease digestion. The 50% inhibitory concentration of the SRL hot-water extract against MTS-C H7 cells proliferation was ~850??g/mL. Treatment with a low dose (25??g dry matter per millilitre of the extract inhibited IL-1?-induced cell proliferation and suppressed the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP genes in MTS-C H7 cells. Various polyphenolic fractions obtained from HPLC and the fractions from liquid-liquid extraction did not affect cell proliferation. Only the residual water sample from liquid-liquid extraction significantly affected cell proliferation and the expression of MMP genes. The results of SDS-PAGE and protease digestion experiment showed that low molecular weight proteins present in SRL inhibited the IL-1?-activated cell proliferation. Conclusions We surmised that the residual water fraction of the SRL extract was involved in the inhibition of IL-1?-activated cell proliferation and regulation of mRNA expression in MTS-C H7 cells. In addition, we believe that the active ingredients in the extract are low molecular weight proteins.

  8. CONJOINTED TWIN AND TRIPLET SEEDLINGS IN SALACIA CHINENSIS LINN: AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Rane A D; Gogate P P; Boat R I

    2012-01-01

    Seed germination and seedling grading are important stages in nursery management. Abnormal seedlings are generally discarded from planting programme. Reporting of such abnormalities are important in further breeding programme. Such abnormalities in Salacia chinensis are reported in this article.

  9. CONJOINTED TWIN AND TRIPLET SEEDLINGS IN SALACIA CHINENSIS LINN: AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rane A D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination and seedling grading are important stages in nursery management. Abnormal seedlings are generally discarded from planting programme. Reporting of such abnormalities are important in further breeding programme. Such abnormalities in Salacia chinensis are reported in this article.

  10. A mixture of Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) aqueous extract and cyclodextrin reduces body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, and total cholesterol and insulin increases in male Wistar fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishino, Eriko; Ito, Tetsuya; Fujita, Koki; Kiuchi, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a mixture of an aqueous extract of Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) and cyclodextrin (SRCD) on various metabolic parameters and cecal fermentation in obese fa/fa male Wistar fatty rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Wistar fatty rats were fed 0% (control group) or 0.2% SRCD-supplemented diets and weighed weekly. The plasma glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, insulin, and adiponectin concentrations were measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 5. SRCD supplementation suppressed the time-dependent increase in the plasma total cholesterol and insulin concentrations. After 6 weeks of a 0.2% SRCD-supplemented diet, the body weight gain, food intake, visceral fat mass, liver mass, and liver triacylglycerol content of the rats were significantly lower, whereas the plasma adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher than those of the control group. SRCD supplementation had no significant effect on plasma glucose and triacylglycerol concentrations. SRCD supplementation significantly increased cecum mass, whereas it significantly decreased the cecal butyrate and short-chain fatty acid (sum of the acetate, butyrate, and propionate) concentrations. All of the rats were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test at the beginning of week 6. The area under the curve for insulin was significantly smaller with SRCD supplementation and showed no change in glucose tolerance compared to that of the control group. These results suggest that bioactive compounds in SRCD may suppress the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus by influencing glucose and lipid metabolism in male Wistar fatty rats and that SRCD may influence cecal fermentation. PMID:19185778

  11. A mixture of the Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) aqueous extract and cyclodextrin reduces the accumulation of visceral fat mass in mice and rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishino, Eriko; Ito, Tetsuya; Fujita, Koki; Kiuchi, Yoshihiro

    2006-02-01

    The effects of a mixture of the Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) aqueous extract and cyclodextrin (SRCD) on the development of obesity were examined. We studied the effects of SRCD on the elevation of plasma triacylglycerol levels induced by oral administration of a high-fat (HF) liquid diet to male Sprague-Dawley rats. The plasma triacylglycerol concentration was significantly lower in the SRCD-treated rats than in the control rats 4 h after HF diet administration (P<0.05). In a study of female C57BL/6 mice that consumed a solid HF diet containing 0, 0.2 or 0.5% SRCD ad libitum for 8 wk, the increases in body weight and visceral fat mass were less in those fed the diet supplemented with 0.5% SRCD than in those fed the HF diet (P<0.05). In male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a solid HF diet with or without 0.2% SRCD and restricted in energy intake to that of rats fed a normal diet for 35 d, the increases in body weight and visceral fat mass were smaller in the SRCD-supplemented rats (P<0.05). In addition, the energy efficiency and the plasma leptin and adiponectin concentrations were lower in the mice and rats that were administered SRCD than in those fed the HF diet alone (P<0.05). The inhibitory effects of SRCD on HF diet-induced obesity may be attributable to the inhibition of carbohydrate and lipid absorption from the small intestine. Therefore, SRCD may suppress the accumulation of visceral fat and the glucose intolerance that accompany this type of obesity. PMID:16424124

  12. Mutagenicity induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the medicinal plant Plathymenia reticulata Benth

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    A Della Torre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plathymenia reticulata Benth has an anti-inflammatory effect and is capable of neutralizing the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu or Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, probably by precipitating venom proteins (an effect caused by plant tannins. The present study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic activity of P. reticulata by using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test and the micronucleus test in CHO-K1 cells. P. reticulata extract concentrations of 2.84, 5.68, 11.37, and 19.90 mg/plate were assayed by the Ames test using TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 bacterial strains, with (+S9 and without (-S9 metabolic activation. Concentrations of 5, 1.6 and 0.5 ?g/mL of P. reticulata extract were used for the micronucleus test. P. reticulata extract was mutagenic to TA98 (-S9 and showed signs of mutagenic activity in TA97a and TA102 (both -S9 strains. Micronucleus test CBPI values showed that the endogenous metabolic system increased the number of viable cells when compared to the non-activated samples and the micronucleus frequency increased when the cells were treated in the absence of S9. We concluded that P. reticulata extract may present direct mutagenic properties.

  13. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart): Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamkhande, Prasad G; Wattamwar, Amruta S

    2015-07-01

    From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. ( niú x?n gu?; Bullock's heart) is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound healing and cytotoxic effects. It is widely distributed with phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Present article is an attempt to highlight over taxonomy, morphology, geographical distribution, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of A. reticulata reported so far. PMID:26151026

  14. Safety evaluation of the aqueous extract Kothala himbutu (Salacia reticulata) stem in the hepatic gene expression profile of normal mice using DNA microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ryanghyok; Mano, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Sachie; Shimizu, Jun; Wada, Masahiro

    2008-12-01

    Kothala himbutu is a traditional Ayurvedic medicinal plant used to treat diabetes. We aimed to evaluate the safety of an aqueous extract of Kothala himbutu stem (KTE) in normal mice. The mice were divided into two groups: one was administered KTE and the other distilled water for 3 weeks. During the test period, the groups showed no significant differences in body weight gain or plasma parameters, such as fasting blood glucose level, oral glucose tolerance test, or aspartate transaminase (AST) or alanine transaminase (ALT) activity. DNA microarray analysis revealed that expression of genes of known function, such as those for the stress response, ribosomal proteins, transcription, cell function, the inflammatory/immune response, and metabolism (xenobiotic, glutathione, etc.) remained largely unaffected by KTE. However some genes such as catechol-o-methyltransferase and succinyl-CoA synthetase were regulated by KTE, indicating that KTE is not toxic to normal mice and might be effective as a functional food. PMID:19060410

  15. In silico design, synthesis and evaluation of 3'-O-benzylated analogs of salacinol, a potent ?-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from an Ayurvedic traditional medicine "Salacia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Genzoh; Nakamura, Shinya; Tsutsui, Nozomi; Balakishan, Gorre; Xie, Weijia; Tsuchiya, Satoshi; Akaki, Junji; Morikawa, Toshio; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Nakanishi, Isao; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu

    2012-09-01

    With the aid of an in silico method, ?-glucosidase inhibitors with far more potent activities than salacinol (1), a potent natural ?-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from an Ayurvedic traditional medicine Salacia reticulata, have been developed. PMID:22820468

  16. PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND HPTLC PROFILING OF EXTRACTS OF SALACIA OBLONGA

    OpenAIRE

    Sujata Basu, Mamta Pant and Rachana*

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Plants of medicinal importance though are quite well known among the Ayurvedic practitioners since years, yet many of them have not been standardized, validated and documented completely. Among such medicinally valuable plants, Salacia holds a place as an effective antidiabetic herb and many species of this plant are in use as anti-diabetics. The present study reports the phytochemical analysis of one of its species Salacia oblonga (SO) (roots and stems), belonging to the family Cel...

  17. A REVIEW UPDATED ON ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF KIRGANELIA RETICULATA POIR (BAILL. : AN IMPORTANT HERBAL PLANT

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    Rajesh Kumar Soni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kirganelia reticulata (Poir. Baill. is known for its importance in various traditional medicines around the world. In present review covers a literature survey across from 1971 to 2014 until now. The some information collected from published literature on species of Kirganelia reticulata (Poir. Baill. (=Syn. Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir..The extract and the compounds isolated from Kirganelia reticulata show a wide spectrum of biological activities including antidiabetic, antibacterial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antiplasmodial, anticiceptive, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.

  18. REVIEW ON KIRGANELIA RETICULATA

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    Amol Kharat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and information on Kirganelia reticulata (Poir Family Euphorbiaceae, a medicinal herb used in the indigenous system of medicine. K. reticulata has been adored in almost all ancient ayurvedic texts for its extraordinary medicinal properties. K. reticulata is annual herbaceous climbing plant with long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties and has utilized for treatment of various ailments including, diuretic, diarrhoea, small pox and astringent. Wild range of chemical compound including, flavanoids, triterpenoids, alkaloids and glycosides have been isolated from the species. Their extracts have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. A compressive review of its ethanomedical uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant is prepared. Particular attention is given to its antibacterial, antiviral, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant effects so that its potential uses can be better evaluated. This review will definitely help for the researchers as well as clinicians dealing with K. reticulata to know its proper usage as this herb is seemed to be highly valuable, possessing many pharmacological / medicinal properties. Keywords: Euphorbiaceae, Kirganelia reticulate, phytochemistry, Pharmacological properties

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Antihyperglycaemic Effect of Various Parts of Salacia chinensis L.

    OpenAIRE

    A. Martha Leema Rose; Anitha, S.

    2013-01-01

    Salacia chinensis L. (Saptrangi) belongs to the family Hippocrateaceae. The plant extracts have been evaluated for number of activities like anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, sedative and neuromuscular. In traditional medicine, this plant has been used in the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, methanolic extracts of leaf, stem and root of Salacia chinensis were tested for antihyperglycaemic activities in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Glibenclamide (500 ?g k...

  20. SALACIA IMPERATORIA URBS

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    José d’Encarnação

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Síntese acerca do que se tem investigado sobre Alcácer do Sal na época romana. Explicita-se a razão do nome; refere-se o interesse que, em todos os tempos, despertou nos historiadores; releva-se o papel fundamental que deteve do ponto de vista estratégico e económico (os Cornelli Bocchi, a emissão de moeda…. Analisa-se, nesse contexto, o pedestal dedicado por uma flamínia a I. O. M. (IRCP 183; a consagração de Vicanus, Bouti filius, ao imperador Augusto (IRCP 184, a presença da onomástica grega e a importância invulgar da tabella defixionis, em que se invocam Hércules e Átis. ENGLISH: Synthesis of the investigation about Salacia: the cause of its Roman designation, the interest of the researchers throughout time, the important strategic and economic position of the town (the family of the Cornelli Bocchi, emission of money…. Additionally, this synthesis includes the reanalysis of uncommon epigraphic texts: the dedication of a flaminica to I. O. M. (IRCP 183, the consecration of Vicanus Bouti filius to the Emperor August (IRCP 184, the significant presence of the Greek names and of a tabella defixionis where the power of Hercules and Atis are invoked.

  1. [A new trincallane derivative from Salacia hainanensis Chun et How].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zheng-Hong; Xi, Rong-Gang; Wang, Xiao-Bo; Wu, Li-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan

    2009-10-01

    Chemical constituents of the roots and stem of Salacia hainanensis Chun et How were isolated and purified with column chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated based on physicochemical and spectral spectroscopic analysis. Depending on the activities of anti-alpha-glucosidase and inhibiting AGEs (advanced glycation end products, AGEs) formation in vitro, nine compounds were identified as 26, 27-dihydroxy-7, 24-tirucalladien-3-one (1), abruslactone A (2), lupeol (3), 21alpha, 30-dihydroxy-D: A-friedooleanan-3-one (4), 15alpha-hydroxyfriedelan-3-one (5), friedelin (6), mangiferin (7), epicatechin (8) and beta-sitosterol (9), separately. Among them, compound 1 is a new compound, and compound 2 was isolated from the Salacia genus for the first time, while, compounds 3, 4, 5, 8 were obtained from this plant for the first time. PMID:20055135

  2. Conservation and Multiplication of Endangered Plants :1. Leptophonia Reticulata (Retz.) Wight. & Arn

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Jitendra K.; Kasera, Pawan K.; Chawan, D.D.

    2001-01-01

    The present communication deals with the vegetative propagation through air layering technique in L. reticluata, know as Jivanti in Ayurvedic medicinal plant, The results reveal tat ceradik treated twigs produced profuse and earl rooting with higher survival percentage

  3. Nephroprotective and antioxidant activities of Salacia oblonga on acetaminophen-induced toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palani, S; Raja, S; Kumar, S Nirmal; Kumar, B Senthil

    2011-11-01

    Salacia oblonga, a woody climbing plant belonging to the family Celastaceae, is widely distributed in India and other southeast Asian countries. The genus Salacia have been used particularly for the treatment of diabetes, obesity, gonorrhoea, rheumatism, pruritus and asthma. Acetaminophen (APAP), used as an analgesic drug, produces liver and kidney necrosis in mammals at high doses. The aim of this study was to investigate the nephroprotective and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of Salacia oblonga (EESO) at the two dose levels of 250 and 500 mg/kg?bw on APAP-induced toxicity in rats. The results showed that APAP significantly increases the levels of serum urea, creatinine, and reduces levels of uric acid concentration. The EESO reduces these by increasing anti-oxidative responses as assessed by biochemical and histopathological parameters. In conclusion, our results suggest that the EESO possesses nephroprotective and antioxidant effects against APAP-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. PMID:21848492

  4. Salacia root, a unique Ayurvedic medicine, meets multiple targets in diabetes and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhao; Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Yamahara, Johji

    2008-05-23

    In many traditional schools of medicine it is claimed that a balanced modulation of several targets can provide a superior therapeutic effect and decrease in side effect profile compared to a single action from a single selective ligand, especially in the treatment of certain chronic and complex diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. Diabetes and obesity have a multi-factorial basis involving both genetic and environmental risk factors. A wide array of medicinal plants and their active constituents play a role in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Salacia roots have been used in Ayurvedic medicine for diabetes and obesity since antiquity, and have been extensively consumed in Japan, the United States and other countries as a food supplement for the prevention of obesity and diabetes. Recent pharmacological studies have demonstrated that Salacia roots modulate multiple targets: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha-mediated lipogenic gene transcription, angiotensin II/angiotensin II type 1 receptor, alpha-glucosidase, aldose reductase and pancreatic lipase. These multi-target actions may mainly contribute to Salacia root-induced improvement of type 2 diabetes and obesity-associated hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and related cardiovascular complications seen in humans and rodents. The results of bioassay-guided identification indicate that mangiferin, salacinol, kotalanol and kotalagenin 16-acetate are at least in part responsible for these multi-target regulatory activities of Salacia roots. The evidence suggests that this unique traditional medicine fulfills a multiple-target strategy in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and obesity. Although toxicological studies have suggested minimal adverse effects of the herbal medicine in rodents, a clinical trial is crucial to further confirm the safety of Salacia roots. In addition, further mechanistic studies are necessary in order to allow a better understanding of how use of Salacia root may interact with other therapeutic interventions. PMID:18433791

  5. Studies on ?Kinnow? (Citrus reticulata Blanco. Decline in Relation to Soil-Plant Nutritional Status

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    Parveen KUMAR

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available ?Kinnow? decline was studied in relation to soil plant nutritional status under semi arid condition of Hisar (India. There were no differences between the soil pH, electrical conductivity and calcium carbonate of healthy and declining trees. The soil under the healthy trees had significantly higher organic carbon (0.46% than that under declining trees (0.35%. The nutrients viz., N, P, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe in the soil under healthy and declining trees did not differ significantly except K. Leaf N, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe were significantly more in the healthy trees. The deficiency of N, P, Zn and Mn in the leaves of both categories of trees could be attributed to low contents of these nutrients in the soil under healthy and declining trees. Growth, yield and fruit quality were better in healthy trees as compared to declining trees. The yield on kg per tree basis in declining trees reduced (8.43 kg/tree as compared to that in healthy trees (20.74 kg/tree. Low organic carbon, soil N, Zn and Mn content could be associated with the declining problem of ?Kinnow?.

  6. Analgesic, Anti- inflammatory, Anti- lipoxygenase Activity and Characterization of Three Bioactive Compounds in the Most Active Fraction of Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.)Wight & Arn. - A Valuable Medicinal Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sudipta Kumar; Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Middha, Sushil Kumar; Prakash, Lokesh; Subbanarashiman, Balasubramanya; Maniyam, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Leptadenia reticulata was reported to be used for several medicinal purposes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate anti-inflammatory, analgesic and lipid peroxidation inhibition activities of L. reticulata. The anti-inflammatory assay was performed by ?-carrageenan and formalin induced paw edema test. Pro inflammatory mediators (IL2, IL6, TNF-?) in serum of treated and control organism were analyzed by quantitative ELISA. Lipid peroxidation inhibition was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Analysis of the most active fraction revealed the presence of one phenolic compound (p-coumaric acid), two flavonoids (rutin and quercetin) which also determined quantitatively. The ethyl acetate fraction at 600 mg/Kg significantly inhibited ?-carrageenan and formalin induced paw edema by 60.59% and 59.24% respectively. Notable reduction in percentage of writhing (76.25%), induced by acetic acid signifies the potent analgesic activity. Lower level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, TNF-?) in serum at the 4(th) hour of ?-Carrageenan injection indicated the inhibition of cyclooxigenase-2 (Cox-2), Nitric oxide (NO) and release of prostaglandin to prevent inflammation. The study also demonstrated the decrease in malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration which revealed the lipid peroxidation inhibition potential of the plant. Our finding provides evidence for potent biological activities in tested model which is supported by its characterized bioactive compounds and ethnomedicinal relevance. PMID:26330883

  7. Biochemical characterization of selected plant species from Brazilian Savannas

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    Samantha Salomão Caramori

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the presence of antinutritional compounds such as lectins and trypsin-like inhibitors, polyphenols and tannins, and enzymatic activity of peroxidases and proteases in the seeds of Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá, Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca, Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada, Salacia crassiflora Mart G. Don. (bacupari, and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro. The results suggested that these plants could be used as new source of food.O Cerrado é constituído por inúmeras espécies vegetais com potencial econômico, as quais são utilizadas para os mais variados fins, como medicinal e nutricional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar e quantificar a presença de atividade enzimática de peroxidases e proteases e fatores antinutricionais, como lectinas e inibidores de proteases, além de polifenóis e taninos em algumas espécies nativas do Cerrado. O material vegetal utilizado foram sementes de Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá, Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca, Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada, Salacia crassiflora (Mart. G. Don. (bacupari e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro, coletadas na cidade de Goiânia e municípios de Jataí e Caldas Novas, estado de Goiás. O uso potencial destas plantas e suas enzimas na indústria de alimentos, poderia resultar em aplicações ao aparecimento de novos produtos a partir das matérias-primas tradicionais, além do uso de novas fontes de alimentos.

  8. Biochemical characterization of selected plant species from Brazilian Savannas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Samantha Salomão, Caramori; Claudinei Sousa, Lima; Kátia Flávia, Fernandes.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O Cerrado é constituído por inúmeras espécies vegetais com potencial econômico, as quais são utilizadas para os mais variados fins, como medicinal e nutricional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar e quantificar a presença de atividade enzimática de peroxidases e proteases e fatores antinutricion [...] ais, como lectinas e inibidores de proteases, além de polifenóis e taninos em algumas espécies nativas do Cerrado. O material vegetal utilizado foram sementes de Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá), Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca), Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada), Salacia crassiflora (Mart.) G. Don. (bacupari) e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro), coletadas na cidade de Goiânia e municípios de Jataí e Caldas Novas, estado de Goiás. O uso potencial destas plantas e suas enzimas na indústria de alimentos, poderia resultar em aplicações ao aparecimento de novos produtos a partir das matérias-primas tradicionais, além do uso de novas fontes de alimentos. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the presence of antinutritional compounds such as lectins and trypsin-like inhibitors, polyphenols and tannins, and enzymatic activity of peroxidases and proteases in the seeds of Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbar [...] il (jatobá), Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca), Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada), Salacia crassiflora Mart G. Don. (bacupari), and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro). The results suggested that these plants could be used as new source of food.

  9. PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND HPTLC PROFILING OF EXTRACTS OF SALACIA OBLONGA

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    Sujata Basu, Mamta Pant and Rachana*

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Plants of medicinal importance though are quite well known among the Ayurvedic practitioners since years, yet many of them have not been standardized, validated and documented completely. Among such medicinally valuable plants, Salacia holds a place as an effective antidiabetic herb and many species of this plant are in use as anti-diabetics. The present study reports the phytochemical analysis of one of its species Salacia oblonga (SO (roots and stems, belonging to the family Celastraceae (bittersweet, through various biochemical and chromatographic methods. TLC and HPTLC analysis of six different extracts of SO revealed numerous bands, indicating the presence of diverse groups of phytocompounds, many of them are assumed to contribute significantly to its antioxidant activity as well as, other biological activities. This type of analysis can help in fingerprint profiling of the plant and its various species. The identification and characterization of the phytocompounds can further help in finding out molecular targets/mechanism of action of the constituents of this herb that are responsible for its biological activities.

  10. Quantitative determination of potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, salacinol and kotalanol, in Salacia species using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Osamu; Morikawa, Toshio; Miyake, Sohachiro; Akaki, Junji; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2010-09-01

    A practical HPLC-MS method for the quantitative determination of salacinol (1) and kotalanol (2), potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from Salacia species (Hippocrateaceae) as a specific remedy for diabetes in Ayurvedic system, was developed. The optimum conditions of separation and detection of these two constituents were achieved on a Asahipak NH2P-50 column (5 mcirom particle size, 2.0 mm i.d. x 150 mm) with a CH(3)CN-H(2)O mobile phase, associated with MS using electrospray ionization source. The overall recoveries of 1 (85.8-112.6%) and 2 (99.7-106.1%), and relative standard deviation values of intra- and inter-day precision were lower than 6.8 and 8.5%, respectively. The detection (S/N=3) and quantitation limits (S/N=10) were established to be 0.015 and 0.050 ng for 1, and 0.030 and 0.10 ng for 2, respectively. The correlation coefficients of all the calibration curves showed good linearity within test ranges. The extraction process was also optimized as 2 h immersion in water under reflux. The method was applied to evaluate extracts of three kinds of Salacia species, i.e. S. reticulata, S. oblonga, and S. chinensis, and those of four different parts, i.e. roots, stems, leaves and fruits of the same material, revealing that the extract from the roots of S. reticulata had the highest contents of these compounds. The results indicated that the assay was reproducible and precise and could be readily utilized for the evaluation of Salacia species. PMID:20303690

  11. Salacia campestris root bark extract: peroxidase inhibition, antioxidant and antiradical profile

    OpenAIRE

    José Carlos Rebuglio Vellosa; Najeh Maissar Khalil; Vânia Ortega Gutierres; Vânia Aparecida de Freitas Formenton Macedo dos Santos; Maysa Furlan; Iguatemy Lourenço Brunetti; Olga Maria Mascarenhas Faria de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radical species have been implicated in initiating or accompanying many diseases in living organisms; there is thus, a continual need for antioxidants molecules to inactivate ROS/free radicals. Many studies of plants crude extracts have demonstrated free-radical scavenging and antioxidant action. Salacia species have long been used, in several countries, as traditional medicines against certain diseases and for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this...

  12. PHARMACEUTICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON SALACIA MACROSPERMA-1

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateswarlu, V.; Kokate, C. K.; Peddanna, G.; Veeresham, C; Rambhau, D.

    1990-01-01

    The chloroform, ethanol (95%) and aqueous extracts of roots of Salacia macrosperma (Hippocrataceae) were prepared by double maceration followed by vacuum evaporation. All the extracts were subjects to qualitative chemical tests to find out phytoconstituents present in them. The ethanolic extract showed significant hypoglycemic activity in fasted rabbits. The activity of ethanolic extract was also evaluated in alloxan induced hyperglycemic albino rats. It showed a mean blood sugar level reduct...

  13. Chemical constituents of Salacia elliptica (Celastraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lucienir Pains Duarte; Rute Cunha Figueiredo; Grasiely Faria de Sousa; Débora Barbosa da Silva Soares; Salomão Bento Vasconcelos Rodrigues; Fernando César Silva; Grácia Divina de Fátima Silva; Sidney Augusto Vieira Filho

    2010-01-01

    The chemical investigation of Salacia elliptica allowed to the isolation of 20 constituents: two polyols, one xanthone, a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons, one carboxylic acid, one polymer, two steroidal compounds, one aromatic ester and eleven pentacyclic triterpenes. These triterpenes include 3?-stearyloxy-oleanane, 3?-stearyloxy-ursane, one seco-friedelane, and eight compounds of the friedelane serie. The chemical structure and the relative configuration of a new triterpene 1,3...

  14. Chemical constituents of Salacia elliptica (Celastraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucienir Pains Duarte

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical investigation of Salacia elliptica allowed to the isolation of 20 constituents: two polyols, one xanthone, a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons, one carboxylic acid, one polymer, two steroidal compounds, one aromatic ester and eleven pentacyclic triterpenes. These triterpenes include 3?-stearyloxy-oleanane, 3?-stearyloxy-ursane, one seco-friedelane, and eight compounds of the friedelane serie. The chemical structure and the relative configuration of a new triterpene 1,3-dioxo-16?-hydroxyfriedelane (15 were established through ¹H and 13C NMR including 2D experiments (HMBC, HMQC, COSY and NOESY and herein reported for the first time.

  15. Chemical constituents of Salacia elliptica (Celastraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Figueiredo, Rute Cunha; Sousa, Grasiely Faria de; Soares, Debora Barbosa da Silva; Rodrigues, Salomao Bento Vasconcelos; Silva, Fernando Cesar; Silva, Gracia Divina de Fatima, E-mail: lucienir@ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Vieira Filho, Sidney Augusto [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Escola de Farmacia. Dept. de Farmacia

    2010-07-01

    The chemical investigation of Salacia elliptica allowed to the isolation of 20 constituents: two polyols, one xanthone, a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons, one carboxylic acid, one polymer, two steroidal compounds, one aromatic ester and eleven pentacyclic triterpenes. These triterpenes include 3{beta}-stearyloxy-oleanane, 3{beta}-stearyloxy-ursane, one seco-friedelane, and eight compounds of the friedelane series. The chemical structure and the relative configuration of a new triterpene 1,3-dioxo-16alpha-hydroxyfriedelane (15) were established through {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR including 2D experiments (HMBC, HMQC, COSY and NOESY) and herein reported for the first time (author)

  16. Chemical constituents of Salacia elliptica (Celastraceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucienir Pains, Duarte; Rute Cunha, Figueiredo; Grasiely Faria de, Sousa; Débora Barbosa da Silva, Soares; Salomão Bento Vasconcelos, Rodrigues; Fernando César, Silva; Grácia Divina de Fátima, Silva; Sidney Augusto, Vieira Filho.

    Full Text Available The chemical investigation of Salacia elliptica allowed to the isolation of 20 constituents: two polyols, one xanthone, a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons, one carboxylic acid, one polymer, two steroidal compounds, one aromatic ester and eleven pentacyclic triterpenes. These triterpenes include 3? [...] -stearyloxy-oleanane, 3?-stearyloxy-ursane, one seco-friedelane, and eight compounds of the friedelane serie. The chemical structure and the relative configuration of a new triterpene 1,3-dioxo-16?-hydroxyfriedelane (15) were established through ¹H and 13C NMR including 2D experiments (HMBC, HMQC, COSY and NOESY) and herein reported for the first time.

  17. Chemical constituents of Salacia elliptica (Celastraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical investigation of Salacia elliptica allowed to the isolation of 20 constituents: two polyols, one xanthone, a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons, one carboxylic acid, one polymer, two steroidal compounds, one aromatic ester and eleven pentacyclic triterpenes. These triterpenes include 3?-stearyloxy-oleanane, 3?-stearyloxy-ursane, one seco-friedelane, and eight compounds of the friedelane series. The chemical structure and the relative configuration of a new triterpene 1,3-dioxo-16?-hydroxyfriedelane (15) were established through 1H and 13C NMR including 2D experiments (HMBC, HMQC, COSY and NOESY) and herein reported for the first time (author)

  18. Palinotaxonomia de espécies brasileiras de Salacia L. (Hippocrateaceae) / Palynotaxonomy of the Brazilian species of Salacia L. (Hippocrateaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    VANIA, GONÇALVES-ESTEVES; THEREZINHA SANT’ANNA, MELHEM.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo palinotaxonômico de Salacia L. teve como objetivo contribuir para a melhor caracterização, circunscrição e delimitação deste gênero. Os grãos de pólen de 21 espécies de Salacia foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados sob microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de varredura ( [...] MEV). A análise sob MEV foi utilizada visando a elucidação de dúvidas sobre a ornamentação da exina. Constatou-se que os grãos de pólen são predominantemente de tamanho médio, reticulados a microrreticulados, 3-colporados, geralmente com uma característica área apertural proeminente. Salacia é um gênero estenopolínico. Entretanto, o pólen permitiu a confecção da chave polínica e a separação de diferentes espécies ou grupo de espécies de Salacia com base nos resultados obtidos sob microscopia de luz. O presente trabalho confirmou, por meio dos grãos de pólen, a circunscrição e a delimitação genérica da Hippocrateaceae da América do Sul. Abstract in english The palynotaxonomic study of Salacia L. aimed to contribute to a better characterization as well as the circumscription and delimitation of this genus. The pollen grains of 21 species of the Salacia were studied. The pollen material was acetolyzed, measured, described and illustrated with photo or e [...] letronmicrography (SEM). The analysis in SEM was used in order to elucidate the exine sculpture. The data obtained were statiscally analysed according to sample sizes. The pollen grains of Salacia are generally of medium size, oblate-spheroidal, reticulate to microreticulate, 3-colporate predominantly with a characteristic prominent apertural area. Salacia is a stenopalynous genus. However it was possible to make pollinic key with the results here obtained in light microscopy, and to segregate Salacia species or group of species using pollen characters. The present work has corroborated, by means of the pollen grains, the circumscription and generic delimitation concerning the Hippocrateaceae of South America.

  19. Screening of ethnic medicinal plants of South India against influenza (H1N1) and their antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria John, K M; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Jin, Kijoun; Yeon, Jin Bong; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-03-01

    Antiviral activity against H1N1 influenza was studied using ethnic medicinal plants of South India. Results revealed that Wrightia tinctoria (2.25 ?g/ml) was one of the best antidotes against H1N1 virus in terms of inhibitory concentration of 50% (IC50) whereas the control drug Oseltamivir showed 6.44 ?g/ml. Strychnos minor, Diotacanthus albiflorus and Cayratia pedata showed low cytotoxicity (>100) to the MDCK (Malin darby canine kidney) cells by cytotoxicity concentration of 50% (CC50) and possessed antiviral activity suggesting that these plants can be used as herbal capsules for H1N1 virus. W. tinctoria and S. minor showed high therapeutic indexes (TI) such as 12.67 and 21.97 suggesting that those plants can be used for anti-viral drug development. The CC50 values of Eugenia singampattiana (0.3 ?g/ml), Vitex altissima (42 ?g/ml), Salacia oblonga (7.32 ?g/ml) and Salacia reticulata (7.36 ?g/ml) resulted in cytotoxicity of the MDCK cells, due to their high phenolic content. Findings from this study state that the plant W. tinctoria can be a potent source for third generation anti-viral drug development against H1N1. PMID:25737652

  20. The Ayurvedic Medicine Salacia oblonga Attenuates Diabetic Renal Fibrosis in Rats: Suppression of Angiotensin II/AT1 Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Lan He; Yanfei Qi; Xianglu Rong; Jianmin Jiang; Qinglin Yang; Johji Yamahara; Michael Murray; Yuhao Li

    2011-01-01

    In human diabetic nephropathy, the extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease; fibrosis is closely correlated with renal dysfunction. Although a wide array of medicinal plants play a role in the prevention and treatment of diabetes, there are few reports of the application of herbal medicines in amelioration of renal fibrosis, or the underlying mechanisms by which such benefits are mediated. The efficacy of the Ayurvedic antidiabetic medicine Salacia...

  1. Genotoxicity testing of a Salacia oblonga extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammang, A M; Erexson, G L; Mecchi, M S; Murli, H

    2006-11-01

    Salacia oblonga has been used for thousands of years in Ayurvedic medicine for the oral treatment of diabetes. The root extract has been shown to inhibit the activity of intestinal alpha-glucosidases, therefore S. oblonga holds potential as a natural method to mitigate the blood glucose response for people with diabetes. As part of a safety evaluation of novel ingredients for use in blood glucose control, the potential genotoxicity of a S. oblonga root extract (SOE) was evaluated using the standard battery of tests (reverse mutation assay; chromosomal aberrations assay; mouse micronucleus assay) recommended by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for food ingredients. SOE was determined not to be genotoxic under the conditions of the reverse mutation assay and mouse micronucleus assay, and weakly positive for the chromosomal aberrations assay. A reproducible, although weak, positive chromosomal aberrations response in human lymphocytes is of concern and further toxicity research is recommended. Use of SOE is presently expected to be safe, as anticipated intake is small compared to the doses administered in the genotoxicity assays and may, after further toxicity research, may prove be a useful ingredient in foodstuffs. PMID:16901601

  2. Determination of Bioactive components from the Ethanolic Peel extract of Citrus reticulata by Gas chromatography ? Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rane Zab Anish Kumar P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out for identification of the bioactive components present in the Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange is one of the medicinally important plants belonging to the Rutaceae family. In the present study the ethanolic peel extract of Citrus reticulata has been subjected to GC-MS analysis. This analysis revealed that Ethanolic peel extract of Citrus reticulata contains Maltol , 3,5-Dihydroxy-6- methyl-2,3-dihydro-4H-pyran-4-one, Glycerol , 5 Hydrxoy methylfur fural, Nitroisobutylglycerol, heptamethoxyflavone etc., justifying the use of this plant to treat many aliments in folk and herbal medicine.

  3. Phenolic characterisation of selected Salacia species using LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, C T; Thushar, K V; Satheesh, George; Balachandran, Indira

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic characterisation was carried out on the leaf of three Salacia species such as Salacia chinensis, Salacia fruticosa and Salacia oblonga using liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry equipped with electrospray ionisation interface. The estimation of total phenolics was carried out spectrophotometrically using Folin-Ciocalteu method. HPLC diode-array detection has been used for the preliminary identification of phenolic compounds, and liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses were employed for their characterisation. The fragmentation patterns of the compounds during collision-induced dissociation led to the structural elucidation of the separated compounds. PMID:24730982

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CHEMOCONSTITUENTS OF ROOTS OF SALACIA MACROSPERMA

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesarulu, V.; Kokate, C. K.; Rambhau, D.; Veeresham, C

    1992-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of roots of Salacia macrosperma (Hippocrataceae) exhibited significant in vitro antimicrobial activity. The ethanolic extract was fractionated with different solvents and all the fractions were screened for their antimicrobial spectrum against eight gram-positive, five gram-negative and ten fungal strains. Chloroform fraction followed by benzene fraction of enthanolic extract showed significant antimicrobial effect against all the microorganisms tested. The dose-dependen...

  5. Triterpenoids and ?-glucosidase inhibitory constituents from Salacia hainanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mei-Hua; Shi, Zheng-Feng; Yu, Bang-Wei; Pi, En-Hao; Wang, He-Yao; Hou, Ai-Jun; Lei, Chun

    2014-10-01

    Thirteen triterpenoids (1-13), including two new lupane triterpenoids, salacinins A and B (1 and 2), as well as one new friedelane triterpenoid, salacinin C (3), were isolated from the roots and stems of Salacia hainanensis. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR, and MS experiments. Compound 1 possesses rare 2,3-seco-lupane skeleton. Compounds 4, 6 and 7 showed inhibitory effects on ?-glucosidase in vitro. PMID:25073097

  6. New triterpenes from Salacia hainanensis Chun et How with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui-Yuan; Guo, Zheng-Hong; Cheng, Peng; Xu, Xiao-Min; Wu, Li-Jun

    2010-10-01

    Fractionation of the methanol extract from the roots of Salacia hainanensis Chun et How showing the potent inhibitory activity on ?-glucosidase afforded two new lupane derivatives, 3?,28-dihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-2-one (1) and 3?-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-2-one (2), a new friedelane derivative, D:A-friedo-oleanane-7?,30-dihydroxy-3-one (3), and a novel natural product, 2,3-seco-lup-20(29)-en-2,3-dioic acid (4), along with four known compounds (5-8). Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analysis, especially on the data afforded by 2D NMR and high-resolution mass spectra experiments. All of them showed a much stronger inhibiting activity on ?-glucosidase than the positive control (acarbose, IC?? = 5.83 ?M). Constituents with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity from this plant are reported for the first time. PMID:20924896

  7. Biochemical characterization of selected plant species from Brazilian Savannas

    OpenAIRE

    Caramori Samantha Salomão; Lima Claudinei Sousa; Fernandes Kátia Flávia

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the presence of antinutritional compounds such as lectins and trypsin-like inhibitors, polyphenols and tannins, and enzymatic activity of peroxidases and proteases in the seeds of Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá), Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca), Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada), Salacia crassiflora Mart G. Don. (bacupari), and Sclero...

  8. Antidiabetic medicinal plants as a source of alpha glucosidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benalla, Wafaa; Bellahcen, Saïd; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study is to collate all available data on antidiabetic plants that inhibit alpha glucosidase, reported mainly by Medline (PubMed) these last years. In the present study, interest is focused on experimental researches conducted on hypoglycemic plants particularly those which show alpha glucosidase inhibitor activity alongside bioactive components. This study describes 47 species that belong to 29 families. The plant families, which enclose the species, studied most as inhibitors of alphaglucosidase, are Fabaceae (6 species.), Crassulaceae (3 species), Hippocrateacaea (3 species), Lamiaceae (3 species), and Myrtaceae (3 species), with most studied species being Salacia reticulata (Hippocrateaceae) and Morus alba (Moraceae). The study also covers natural products (active natural components and crude extracts) isolated from the medicinal plants which inhibit alpha glucosidase as reported this last decade. Many kinds of these isolated natural products show strong activity such as, Alkaloids, stilbenoids (polyphenol), triterpene, acids (chlorogenic acid, betulinic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, bartogenic acid, oleanolic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, corosolic acid, ellagic acid, ursolic acid, gallic acid), phytosterol, myoinositol, flavonoids, Flavonolignans, anthraquinones, anthrones, and xanthones, Feruloylglucosides, flavanone glucosides, acetophenone glucosides, glucopyranoside derivatives, genine derivatives, flavonol, anthocyanin and others. PMID:20522017

  9. Salacia campestris root bark extract: peroxidase inhibition, antioxidant and antiradical profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Rebuglio Vellosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS and free radical species have been implicated in initiating or accompanying many diseases in living organisms; there is thus, a continual need for antioxidants molecules to inactivate ROS/free radicals. Many studies of plants crude extracts have demonstrated free-radical scavenging and antioxidant action. Salacia species have long been used, in several countries, as traditional medicines against certain diseases and for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae root bark ethanol extract (ScEtOH was assessed for its ability to scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen species; the results were expressed as percentage inhibition of the active species. ScEtOH was efficient against studied species: DPPH radical (obtained inhibition = 30%, ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1.8±0.8 ?g/mL, HOCl (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.1 ?g/mL, O2•- (obtained inhibition = 32%, and NO• (obtained inhibition = 18 %. Peroxidase activity inhibition was evaluated through the guaiacol oxidation reaction catalyzed by hemin, HRP and myeloperoxidase (MPO; data showed that ScEtOH at 10 ?g/mL led to 54 and 51% of inhibition, respectively, for the hemin and HRP systems. In the MPO system, ScEtOH promoted a 50% inhibition at 8.9 ?g/mL, whereas quercetin, a powerful MPO inhibitor, inhibited this system at 1.35 ?g/mL.Espécies reativas do oxigênio (ERO e radicais livres estão relacionados ao início ou à exacerbação de muitas doenças em organismos vivos; existindo portanto uma necessidade contínua por moléculas antioxidantes que inativem as ERO e radicais livres. Muitos estudos com extratos brutos de plantas têm demonstrado propriedades antioxidantes e seqüestradoras de radicais livres. Espécies de Salacia são utilizadas, em muitos países, como remédio tradicional contra certas doenças e por suas propriedades antiinflamatórias. Neste estudo, o extrato bruto etanólico da casca da raiz da Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae foi avaliado quanto à sua habilidade em seqüestrar radicais livres e espécies reativas do oxigênio; os resultados são expressos como porcentagem de inibição das espécies ativas. ScEtOH mostrou-se eficiente frente as espécies estudadas: radical DPPH (inibição obtida = 30%, ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1,8±0,8 ?g/mL, HOCl (IC50 = 1,7 ± 0,1 ?g/mL, O2•- (inibição obtida = 32%, and NO• (inibição obtida = 18%. A inibição da atividade peroxidásica foi avaliada através da oxidação do guaiacol catalisada pela hemina, HRP e mieloperoxidase (MPO; os dados mostram que 10 ?g/mL de ScEtOH promovem 54 e 51% de inibição, respectivamente para os sistemas da hemina e da HRP. No sistema da MPO, ScEtOH promoveu 50% de inibição na dose de 8,9 ?g/mL, enquanto a quercetina, um potente inibidor da MPO promoveu tal inibição com 1,35 ?g/mL.

  10. Salacia campestris root bark extract: peroxidase inhibition, antioxidant and antiradical profile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Carlos Rebuglio, Vellosa; Najeh Maissar, Khalil; Vânia Ortega, Gutierres; Vânia Aparecida de Freitas Formenton Macedo dos, Santos; Maysa, Furlan; Iguatemy Lourenço, Brunetti; Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria, Oliveira.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Espécies reativas do oxigênio (ERO) e radicais livres estão relacionados ao início ou à exacerbação de muitas doenças em organismos vivos; existindo portanto uma necessidade contínua por moléculas antioxidantes que inativem as ERO e radicais livres. Muitos estudos com extratos brutos de plantas têm [...] demonstrado propriedades antioxidantes e seqüestradoras de radicais livres. Espécies de Salacia são utilizadas, em muitos países, como remédio tradicional contra certas doenças e por suas propriedades antiinflamatórias. Neste estudo, o extrato bruto etanólico da casca da raiz da Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae) foi avaliado quanto à sua habilidade em seqüestrar radicais livres e espécies reativas do oxigênio; os resultados são expressos como porcentagem de inibição das espécies ativas. ScEtOH mostrou-se eficiente frente as espécies estudadas: radical DPPH (inibição obtida = 30%), ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1,8±0,8 ?g/mL), HOCl (IC50 = 1,7 ± 0,1 ?g/mL), O2•- (inibição obtida = 32%), and NO• (inibição obtida = 18%). A inibição da atividade peroxidásica foi avaliada através da oxidação do guaiacol catalisada pela hemina, HRP e mieloperoxidase (MPO); os dados mostram que 10 ?g/mL de ScEtOH promovem 54 e 51% de inibição, respectivamente para os sistemas da hemina e da HRP. No sistema da MPO, ScEtOH promoveu 50% de inibição na dose de 8,9 ?g/mL, enquanto a quercetina, um potente inibidor da MPO promoveu tal inibição com 1,35 ?g/mL. Abstract in english Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radical species have been implicated in initiating or accompanying many diseases in living organisms; there is thus, a continual need for antioxidants molecules to inactivate ROS/free radicals. Many studies of plants crude extracts have demonstrated free-radica [...] l scavenging and antioxidant action. Salacia species have long been used, in several countries, as traditional medicines against certain diseases and for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae) root bark ethanol extract (ScEtOH) was assessed for its ability to scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen species; the results were expressed as percentage inhibition of the active species. ScEtOH was efficient against studied species: DPPH radical (obtained inhibition = 30%), ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1.8±0.8 ?g/mL), HOCl (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.1 ?g/mL), O2•- (obtained inhibition = 32%), and NO• (obtained inhibition = 18 %). Peroxidase activity inhibition was evaluated through the guaiacol oxidation reaction catalyzed by hemin, HRP and myeloperoxidase (MPO); data showed that ScEtOH at 10 ?g/mL led to 54 and 51% of inhibition, respectively, for the hemin and HRP systems. In the MPO system, ScEtOH promoted a 50% inhibition at 8.9 ?g/mL, whereas quercetin, a powerful MPO inhibitor, inhibited this system at 1.35 ?g/mL.

  11. Biochemical studies in Ulva reticulata Forsskal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    Major metabolites like proteins, carbohydrates and lipids in the alga Ulva reticulata were estimated. Carbohydrate was found to decrease after December which may perhaps be due to the spore formation and extensive growth of the thallus. Protein...

  12. Effects of Salacia oblonga on cardiovascular risk factors in chronic kidney disease patients: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rana Gopal; Rathore, Surendra Singh; Wani, Imtiyaz Ahmad; Agrawal, Aruna; Dubey, Govind Prasad

    2015-01-01

    The present study is aimed to evaluate the effect of the herbal drug Salacia oblonga on reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Sixty patients were randomized in four groups; group A1 = non-diabetic CKD given trial drug Salacia oblonga for six months, group A 2 = non-diabetic CKD intended to receive placebo, group B1 = diabetic CKD treated with Salacia oblonga for six months and group B 2 = diabetic CKD patients intended to receive placebo. Estimation of renal function tests including blood urea, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance was performed at baseline and after that at monthly intervals. Lipid profile, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at baseline and were repeated at three months and six months. After six months of treatment, Salacia oblonga could reduce the triglyceride levels by 23.66% (P = 0.008) in non-diabetic and by 17.45% (P = 0.01) in diabetic CKD patients. In comparison with placebo, both non-diabetic and diabetic CKD patients treated with Salacia oblonga showed significant reduction in CRP levels (P = 0.002 and 0.03, respectively), while significant reduction in IL-6 (P-value = 0.0003) and serum cholesterol levels (P-value = 0.0001) was seen only in diabetic CKD patients treated with Salacia oblonga. Stabilization of creatinine clearance with Salacia oblonga was observed in both non-diabetic (P = 0.05) and diabetic CKD (P = 0.04) patients in comparison with placebo. Salacia oblonga has significant beneficial effects on lipid profile and markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in CKD patients. Salacia oblonga also seems to have a reno-protective effect, as reflected by stabilization of creatinine clearance at six months in this study. PMID:25579717

  13. KIRGANELIA RETICULATA (POIR BAILL.-A REVIEW ON ITS BOTANY, ETHNOBOTANY, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Soni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological relevance: Kirganelia reticulata (Poir. Baill. is known for its importance in various traditional medicine around the world and are proved pharmacologically as an antiviral against Hepatitis B, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic and antioxidant. In Ayurvedic system of Indian medicine recognized its activity against jaundice, diuretic, fever, liver disorder, in bleeding gums, small pox, syphilis, etc. Aim of the review: The review summarizes the up-to-date and comprehensive information concerning the botany, traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology of important drug. Kirganelia reticulata and discusses the possible future scope for future research. Material and methods: In present review covers a literature survey across from 1932 to 2012. The some information collected from published literature on species of Kirganelia reticulata (Poir. Baill. (=Syn. Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir. and traditional ayurvedic texts. Results: Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of many valuable compounds such as lignans, flavonoids, steroids, coumerins, triterpenes, phenols, flavonones, alkaloids are common compounds in test species. The extract and the compounds isolated from Kirganelia reticulata show a wide spectrum of Biological activities including antidiabetic, antibacterial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antiplasmodial, anticiceptive, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Conclusion: The present review summarizes information concerning the morphology, ecology, ethanopharmacologically, phytochemistry, and traditional diseases and applications of K. reticulata. This review target at gathering the research work undertaken till date on this plant in order to provide sufficient baseline information for future works and commercial exploitation.

  14. A new 1,3-diketofriedelane triterpene from Salacia verrucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somwong, Pathom; Suttisri, Rutt; Buakeaw, Anumart

    2011-10-01

    A new 1,3-diketofriedelane triterpene, 21?-hydroxyfriedelane-1,3-dione (1) together with six known friedelane triterpenes, 30-hydroxyfriedelane-1,3-dione (2), friedelane-1,3-dione (3), 26-hydroxyfriedelane-1,3-dione (4), friedelin (5), 21?-hydroxy-D:A-friedo-olean-3-one (6) and kokoonol (7), were isolated from the stems of Salacia verrucosa (Celastraceae). The structures of these triterpenes were characterized by spectroscopic methods (IR, MS and NMR). Compound 3 was strongly cytotoxic against SW620 cell line, whereas compounds 4 and 6 were moderately active against SW620, HepG2 and KATO-III cancer cell lines. PMID:21745551

  15. New inhibitors of ?-glucosidase in Salacia hainanensis Chun et How.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zheng-hong; Huang, Jian; Wan, Guo-sheng; Huo, Xiao-ling; Gao, Hui-yuan

    2013-10-01

    The methanol extract from roots of Salacia hainanensis Chun et How afforded three new compounds, 24,26-dihydroxy-25-methoxy-tirucall-9-en-3-one (1), 2?,3?,22?-trihydroxy-lup-20(29)-ene (2) and 3?-hydroxy-2-carbonyl-lupan-29-oic acid (3), along with six known triterpenoids (4-9). Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analysis, in particular according to the data obtained by two-dimensional-NMR and high-resolution mass spectra experiments. Some of them showed much stronger inhibitory activity towards ?-glucosidase than the positive control (acarbose, IC?? 10.2 ?M). PMID:23361306

  16. Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae); Constituintes quimicos do caule de Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rogerio Nunes dos; Silva, Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: mgvsilva@ufc.br; Braz Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais

    2008-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae) yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes {alpha} and {beta}-amirin, the steroids {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants. (author)

  17. Larvicidal activity of oil-resin fractions from the Brazilian medicinal plant Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae Atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina da planta medicinal brasileira Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae sobre o Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa Helena Garcia da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil-resin fractions from Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae were evaluated for larvicidal activity on third larval instars of Aedes aegypti, in searching for alternative control methods for this mosquito. The bioactive fractions were chemically monitored by thin-layer chromatography, ¹H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Bioassays were performed using five repetitions, at a temperature of 28 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 80 ± 5% and light and dark cycles of 12h. Mortality was indicated by darkening of the cephalic capsule after 24h of exposure of the larvae to the solutions. The most active fractions were CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenes and CRM5-7 (labdane diterpenes, which showed LC50 values of 0.2 and 0.8ppm, respectively.A atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae foi avaliada em larvas de 3º estádio de Aedes aegypti, na busca de alternativas para o controle desse mosquito. As frações bioativas foram monitoradas quimicamente através de cromatografia de camada delgada, analisada por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio (¹H e 13C e espectrometria de massas. Os bioensaios foram realizados à temperatura de 28±1°C, 80±5% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 12h, com cinco repetições. A mortalidade foi determinada através do escurecimento da cápsula cefálica, após 24h de exposição das larvas às soluções. As frações mais ativas foram CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenos e CRM5-7 (diterpeno labdano, que mostraram os valores de CL50 de 0,2 e 0,8ppm, respectivamente.

  18. Larvicidal activity of oil-resin fractions from the Brazilian medicinal plant Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae) / Atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina da planta medicinal brasileira Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) sobre o Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Heloísa Helena Garcia da, Silva; Regina, Geris; Edson, Rodrigues Filho; Cleonice, Rocha; Ionizete Garcia da, Silva.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) foi avaliada em larvas de 3º estádio de Aedes aegypti, na busca de alternativas para o controle desse mosquito. As frações bioativas foram monitoradas quimicamente através de cromatografia de [...] camada delgada, analisada por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio (¹H e 13C) e espectrometria de massas. Os bioensaios foram realizados à temperatura de 28±1°C, 80±5% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 12h, com cinco repetições. A mortalidade foi determinada através do escurecimento da cápsula cefálica, após 24h de exposição das larvas às soluções. As frações mais ativas foram CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenos) e CRM5-7 (diterpeno labdano), que mostraram os valores de CL50 de 0,2 e 0,8ppm, respectivamente. Abstract in english Oil-resin fractions from Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) were evaluated for larvicidal activity on third larval instars of Aedes aegypti, in searching for alternative control methods for this mosquito. The bioactive fractions were chemically monitored by thin-layer chromatog [...] raphy, ¹H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Bioassays were performed using five repetitions, at a temperature of 28 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 80 ± 5% and light and dark cycles of 12h. Mortality was indicated by darkening of the cephalic capsule after 24h of exposure of the larvae to the solutions. The most active fractions were CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenes) and CRM5-7 (labdane diterpenes), which showed LC50 values of 0.2 and 0.8ppm, respectively.

  19. Antiplasmodial sesquiterpenes from the seeds of Salacia longipes var. camerunensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mba'ning, Brice M; Lenta, Bruno N; Noungoué, Diderot T; Antheaume, Cyril; Fongang, Yanick F; Ngouela, Silvère A; Boyom, Fabrice F; Rosenthal, Philip J; Tsamo, Etienne; Sewald, Norbert; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2013-12-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Salacia longipes var. camerunensis led to the isolation of four sesquiterpenoid derivatives, salaterpene A (1) (1?,2?,8?-triacetoxy-6?,9?-dibenzoyloxy-4?-hydroxy-dihydro-?-agarofuran), salaterpene B (2) (1?,2?,8?-triacetoxy-9?-benzoyloxy-6?-cinnamoyloxy-4?-hydroxy-dihydro-?-agarofuran), salaterpene C (3) (1?,2?-diacetoxy-6?,9?-dibenzoyloxy-4?-hydroxy-dihydro-?-agarofuran) and salaterpene D (4) (2?-acetoxy-1?,6?-dibenzoyloxy-4?-hydroxy-9?-nicotinoyloxy-dihydro-?-agarofuran) together with two known compounds (5 and 6). The structures of the compounds were established by means of NMR spectroscopy. Compounds 1-4 and 6 were tested in vitro for their antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant strain W2. All the tested compounds exhibited a moderate potency with IC50 below 2.7 ?M. PMID:23863332

  20. Two new phenolic glycosides from Syringa reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Koichi; Ohkawa, Naomi; Ohsawa, Asami; Kikuchi, Masao

    2009-04-01

    Two new phenolic glycosides-3'-O-beta-D: -glucopyranosysalidroside (1) and cis-echinacoside (2)-together with four known ones-forsythoside B (3), decaffeoylacteoside (4), osmanthuside F (5) and (-)-olivil-4'-O-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (6)-were isolated from the leaves of Syringa reticulata. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral and chemical data. PMID:18985282

  1. Simultaneous Determination of Flavonoids in Different Parts of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ Fruit by High Performance Liquid Chromatography—Photodiode Array Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Yujie Zhang; Zhengbo Liu; Shubo Gu; Jianhua Wang; Yinshi Sun; Xiaoxia Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Flavonoids are important polyphenolic secondary metabolites in plant. Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit are rich in flavonoids and are being used as functional antioxidant ingredients for the treatment of atherosclerosis and cancer, etc. A high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection system was used to analyze five flavonoids, namely, naringin, hesperidin, didymin, tangeretin and nobiletin, in different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit. The chromatographic analysis wa...

  2. Nephroprotective role of salacia chinensis in diabetic CKD patients: A pilot study

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    Rana G Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Present study aimed to study effect of Salacia Chinensis, a herbal drug, on stabilization of renal functions, and markers of endothelial dysfunction in diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. Materials and Methods: 30 stable diabetic CKD patients were randomized into 2 groups; group A and B of 15 patients each. Group A was given trial drug Salacia chinensis 1000 mg twice-daily while group B received placebo. Measures of renal function: Serum creatinine and creatinine clearance; markers of endothelial dysfunction: Interleukin-6 and serum Homocysteine, and lipid profile were measured at baseline and during follow-up period of 6 months. Results : There was stabilization of renal function as measured by serum creatinine and creatinine clearance in patients who received Salacia Chinensis compared to placebo (P value < 0.05, suggesting that Salacia chinensis may retard the progression of chronic kidney disease. Similarly, there was significant decline in both serum homocysteine and IL-6 levels. [P value < 0.05 for both]. Conclusion: This pilot study showed a promising role for Salacia chinensis as a renoprotective drug, but further prospective studies involving large number of patients are needed to confirm this and also to delineate possible mechanisms.

  3. Social networks in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    OpenAIRE

    Croft, Darren P; Krause, Jens; James, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Social network theory is used to elicit details of the social structure of a population of free-ranging guppies, Poecilia reticulata. They were found to have a complex and highly structured social network, which exhibited characteristics consistent with the 'small world' phenomenon. Stable partner associations between individuals were observed, a finding that fulfils the basic prerequisite for the evolution of reciprocal altruism. The findings are discussed in relation to the ecology and evol...

  4. Chemical variability of Copaifera reticulata Ducke oleoresin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Casado, Miguel A; das Graças Bichara Zoghbi, Maria; Célia Martins-da-Silva, Regina

    2011-04-01

    The copaiba tree (Copaifera spp.) produces an oleoresin which is highly valued due to its medicinal properties. The chemical composition of C. reticulata oleoresin was characterized, and its variability related to seasonal variation (dry and rainy seasons), to successive extractions, and to several factors associated with tree morphometry, disease, and surrounding vegetation structure was investigated. Oleoresin was collected from 24 C. reticulata individuals between October 2006 and March 2008. For seven individuals, oleoresin was extracted for a second time between three and nine months after the first extraction. For each tree, several morphometric variables, viz., the presence of termites, vines, and holes as well as the soil type and surrounding vegetation structure, were recorded. The chemical composition and concentration of the main volatile compounds were identified by GC/MS. Almost 100% of the constituents were sesquiterpenes, the three main ones being ?-caryophyllene, trans-?-bergamotene, and ?-bisabolene. A classification analysis separated the C. reticulata individuals in two main groups and further divided one of the main groups in two subgroups, which were defined by different concentrations of the three main compounds. The results showed high intra-population variability in the composition and concentration of sesquiterpenes, this being comparable to the interspecific variability. It was not possible to determine a clear influence of environmental, morphometrical, and structural factors on the oleoresin composition, although some compounds varied according to the soil type, the volume of oleoresin extracted, and the crown surface. PMID:21480513

  5. Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae): CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa G., Rodrigues; Lucienir P., Duarte; Roqueline R., Silva; Grácia D. F., Silva; Maria O., Mercadante-Simões; Jacqueline A., Takahashi; Bibiane L. G., Matildes; Thaisa H. S., Fonseca; Maria A., Gomes; Sidney A., Vieira Filho.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical study of hexane extract from leaves of Salacia crassifolia resulted in the isolation of 3?-palmitoxy-urs-12-ene, 3-oxofriedelane, 3?-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-28-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane, 28,29-dihydroxyfriedelan-3-one, 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid, 3?-hydroxy- [...] olean-9(11):12-diene and the mixture of ?-amirin and ?-amirin. ?-sitosterol, the polymer gutta-percha, squalene and eicosanoic acid were also isolated. The chemical structures of these constituents were established by IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data. Crude extracts and the triterpenes were tested against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis and no activity was observed under the in vitro assay conditions. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol crude extracts, and the constituent 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid and 28,29-dihydroxyfriedelan-3-one showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus sanguinis and Candida albicans.

  6. Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae: CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa G. Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical study of hexane extract from leaves of Salacia crassifolia resulted in the isolation of 3?-palmitoxy-urs-12-ene, 3-oxofriedelane, 3?-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-28-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane, 28,29-dihydroxyfriedelan-3-one, 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid, 3?-hydroxy-olean-9(11:12-diene and the mixture of ?-amirin and ?-amirin. ?-sitosterol, the polymer gutta-percha, squalene and eicosanoic acid were also isolated. The chemical structures of these constituents were established by IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data. Crude extracts and the triterpenes were tested against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis and no activity was observed under the in vitro assay conditions. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol crude extracts, and the constituent 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid and 28,29-dihydroxyfriedelan-3-one showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus sanguinis and Candida albicans.

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight. & Arn. (Asclepidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kalidass, C.; Glory, M.; Borgio, Francis; Manickam, V S

    2009-01-01

    Leptadenia reticulata of Asclepidaceae family is a shrub, originally property of Petroleum ether, Alcohol & Chloroform extract of L. reticulata. The antimicrobial testing was carried out by “Disc diffusion method”. Amongst the tested three extracts, chloroform extract showed high antimicrobial activity against E. coli, alcoholic extract showed high antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while Petroleum ether extract showed antibacterial activity against Klebsilla pneumonae

  8. Molecular features of fossil organic matter in remains of the Lower Cretaceous fern Weichselia reticulata from Przenosza basement (Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    G. Almendros; Zancada, M.C.; González-Vila, Francisco Javier; Lesiak, M. A.; Álvarez Ramis, Concepción

    2005-01-01

    Przenosza (Western Carpathians, Poland) is an important palaeobotanical Cretaceous basement site with morphologically well-preserved plant remains. Both the morphology of the macro remains and microscopic examination of isolated plant cuticles reveal species typical of coastal swampy palaeoenvironments, mainly the fern Weichselia reticulata. After isolation of the plant remains, preliminary characterisation of the fossil organic matter was carried out using cross-polarization, mag...

  9. EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF IPOMEA CARNEA LEAVES ON GUPPY, POECILIA RETICULATA (PETERS

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    D. D. Wanule and J. V. Balkhande

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ipomea carnea is a toxic plant causes severe damage to intestine, liver and kidney. In the present investigation ethanolic extract of I. carnea leaves was tested for its toxicity against fresh water fish guppy Poecilia reticulata using 0.025, 0.050, 0.075 and 0.1 mg/ml concentrations. The experiment was run in triplicate along with suitable control. Ethanolic extract of Ipomea carnea leaves showed toxic effect, causes mortality in guppy fishes. All concentrations of ethanolic extracts of I. carnea leaves were found toxic. Mortality of fishes increases with increase of time and concentrations. The 0.1mg/ml concentration of ethanolic extract of I. carnea leaves showed three times higher mortality than control in guppy fishes, Poecilia reticulata Peters. Further study is needed to isolate toxic principles present in I. carnea leaves and to be studied separately against guppy fishes to determine their toxicity.

  10. Comparative Antioxidant Activity on The Ficus benjamina and Annona reticulata Leaves

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    Nyi Mekar Saptarini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants can prevent free radical formation. Natural antioxidants found in many plants, such as Ficus benjamina and Annona reticulata. The study aimed to compare the antioxidant activity of extracts and fractions of Ficus benjamina and Annona reticulata leaves against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrilhydrazyl. The steps of this study consist of extraction, fractionation with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and water, phytochemical screening, antioxidant activity determination, and comparing the IC50 values. Percentage scavenging activity of the extracts and fractions against DPPH was calculated to determine the antioxidant activity. The IC50 value of Ficus benjamina was 127.86 ppm for ethanolic extract, 94.01 ppm for water fraction, 115.48 ppm for ethyl acetate fraction, and 335.50 ppm for n-hexane fraction. The IC50 value of Annona reticulata was 274.31 ppm for ethanolic extract, 211.42 ppm for water fraction, 367.91 ppm for ethyl acetate fraction, and 741.08 ppm for n-hexane fraction. The results showed that the Ficus benjamina water fraction was the best antioxidant compared to other extract and fraction.

  11. Yield and fruit quality of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) as influenced by evaporation based drip irrigation schedules

    OpenAIRE

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2013-01-01

    To identify the critical stages of irrigation water requirement of bearing Nagpur mandarin through drip irrigation system a field experiment was conducted on 7-9 years old bearing Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) based on evaporation replenishment (ER) irrigation scheduling during 2009-12. The plant growing period was divided into 6 stages, 2 months each, starting from January to December and the effect on water use, tree growth, fruit yield and quality was studied. The irrigation w...

  12. Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) / Regeneração dos braços em duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo Q., Yokoyama; Antonia Cecília Z., Amaral.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo comparou as frequências de regeneração dos braços de duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825), de São Sebastião, sudeste do Brasil. Além disso, foram observadas diferenças nas frequências de regeneração entre classes etárias (juvenis e adultos) e entre machos e fêmeas. Dos 1 [...] .170 indivíduos coletados, 1.089 (92,2%) mostraram sinais de regeneração nos braços. A frequência relativa de braços em regeneração entre as duas áreas não diferiu significativamente (Istmo do Baleeiro: 91,3% e Praia Grande: 99,5%). Ambas as áreas apresentaram valores semelhantes no número de braços regenerando/indivíduo e na frequência de indivíduos em regeneração. A maior parte das marcas de regeneração concentraram-se na porção distal dos braços, o que indica a influência de predação subletal como a causa principal da regeneração em O. reticulata. Além disso, não houve diferença significativa nos índices de regeneração entre fêmeas (3,57 ± 1,36 braços regenerando/indivíduo) e machos (3,47 ± 1,42). Abstract in english This study compared the arm regeneration frequencies in two different populations of Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825) in São Sebastião, Southeast Brazil and observed arm regeneration between age classes (juvenile and adults) and sexes (male and female). From the 1,170 individuals sampled, 1,089 (9 [...] 2.2%) showed signs of arm regeneration. The relative frequencies of regenerating arms in the two areas were not different (Baleeiro Isthmus: 91.3% and Grande Beach: 99.5%). Both areas also presented similar values for the number of arms regenerating/individual and in the frequency of regenerating individuals. The major part of the regenerating scars was concentrated in the distal portion of the arm. Sub-lethal predation is most likely the cause to the high rates of arm regeneration in O. reticulata. There was no significant differences in the regeneration rates between females (3.57 ± 1.36 arms regenerating/individual) and males (3.47 ± 1.42).

  13. Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea Regeneração dos braços em duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Q. Yokoyama

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the arm regeneration frequencies in two different populations of Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825 in São Sebastião, Southeast Brazil and observed arm regeneration between age classes (juvenile and adults and sexes (male and female. From the 1,170 individuals sampled, 1,089 (92.2% showed signs of arm regeneration. The relative frequencies of regenerating arms in the two areas were not different (Baleeiro Isthmus: 91.3% and Grande Beach: 99.5%. Both areas also presented similar values for the number of arms regenerating/individual and in the frequency of regenerating individuals. The major part of the regenerating scars was concentrated in the distal portion of the arm. Sub-lethal predation is most likely the cause to the high rates of arm regeneration in O. reticulata. There was no significant differences in the regeneration rates between females (3.57 ± 1.36 arms regenerating/individual and males (3.47 ± 1.42.Este estudo comparou as frequências de regeneração dos braços de duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825, de São Sebastião, sudeste do Brasil. Além disso, foram observadas diferenças nas frequências de regeneração entre classes etárias (juvenis e adultos e entre machos e fêmeas. Dos 1.170 indivíduos coletados, 1.089 (92,2% mostraram sinais de regeneração nos braços. A frequência relativa de braços em regeneração entre as duas áreas não diferiu significativamente (Istmo do Baleeiro: 91,3% e Praia Grande: 99,5%. Ambas as áreas apresentaram valores semelhantes no número de braços regenerando/indivíduo e na frequência de indivíduos em regeneração. A maior parte das marcas de regeneração concentraram-se na porção distal dos braços, o que indica a influência de predação subletal como a causa principal da regeneração em O. reticulata. Além disso, não houve diferença significativa nos índices de regeneração entre fêmeas (3,57 ± 1,36 braços regenerando/indivíduo e machos (3,47 ± 1,42.

  14. Assessment of genotoxic, cytotoxic, and protective effects of Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don. stem bark fractions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, C C; Silva, C R; Menezes, A C S; Pérez, C N; Chen-Chen, L

    2013-01-01

    Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don., popularly known in Brazil as "bacupari", "cascudo", and "saputá", is a shrub of the Celastraceae family that is unique to the Brazilian Cerrado region. In folk medicine, this plant has been mainly used to treat skin cancer and gastric ulcers. In the present study, the genotoxic, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic effects of S. crassifolia stem bark fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, and hydroalcoholic extracts) were evaluated using the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. Our results showed that none of the S. crassifolia fractions led to a significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) (P > 0.05), suggesting the absence of genotoxicity. In the antigenotoxicity assessment, a significant decrease in the MNPCE frequency was observed in all fractions of this plant (P < 0.05), demonstrating its protective action against genotoxicity induced by mitomycin C (MMC), which was used as the positive control. Only the hexane fraction of S. crassifolia significantly decreased the poly- and normochromatic erythrocyte ratio (PCE/NCE) in all doses tested (P < 0.05), demonstrating its cytotoxic activity. In association with MMC, both ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic fractions significantly increased the PCE/NCE ratio in almost all doses tested (P < 0.05), demonstrating the protective action of S. crassifolia against the cytotoxic effect of the positive control. In contrast, the hexane fraction presented a significant decrease in the PCE/NCE ratio in all treatments (P < 0.05), demonstrating an increase in this plant's cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells. PMID:23884760

  15. In vitro efficacy of Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides and Copaifera reticulata against Leishmania chagasi Eficácia in vitro de Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides e Copaifera reticulata sobre Leishmania chagasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cristina Macedo Rondon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the murine monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To determine the IC50 a MTT test (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide was performed on promastigotes, and an in situ ELISA assay was conducted on amastigotes. Here, we demonstrate that oleoresin from C. reticulata was effective against both promastigotes (IC50 of 7.88 µg.mL-1 and amastigotes (IC50 of 0.52 µg.mL-1, and neither of the two treatments differed significantly (p > 0.05 from pentamidine (IC50 of 2.149 µg.mL-1 and amphotericin B (IC50 of 9.754 µg.mL-1. Of the three plant oils tested, only oleoresin showed no toxicity toward monocyte, with 78.45% viability after treatment. Inhibition of promastigote and amastigote growth and the lack of cytotoxicity by C. reticulata demonstrate that oleoresin may be a viable option for analyzing the in vivo therapeutic effects of leishmanicidal plantsO aumento na incidência da Leishmaníase Visceral (LV no Brasil deve-se à ineficácia das medidas de controle da doença. Além disso, não há tratamento efetivo para LV canina com drogas sintéticas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos óleos essenciais de Coriandrum sativum e de Lippia sidoides e do óleo-resina de Copaiferareticulata sobre promastigotas e amastigotas de Leishmania chagasi e analisar o grau de toxicidade sobre células monocíticas murinas RAW 264.7. Para determinar a CI50 sobre promastigotas foi usado teste MTT (brometo de 3-[4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il]-2,5-difeniltetrazólio e sobre amastigotas foi realizado imunoensaio in situ pela técnica de ELISA. Os resultados obtidos comprovaram que o óleo-resina de C. reticulata foi o mais eficaz contra as formas promastigotas (CI50 de 7,88 µg.mL-1 e amastigotas (CI50 de 0,52 µg.mL-1 e em nenhum dos dois testes diferiu do controle pentamidina que obteve CI50 de 2,149 µg.mL-1, no teste sobre promastigotas, e anfotericina B que obteve CI50 de 9,754 µg.mL-1, nos testes com amastigotas (p > 0.05. Quanto à citotoxicidade apenas o óleo-resina não apresentou toxicidade com 78,45% de monócitos viáveis. Os resultados obtidos sobre promastigotas e amastigotas e a ausência de citotoxicidade do óleo-resina de C. reticulata evidenciam que este óleo-resina pode ser viável para a análise de seus efeitos terapêuticos em testes in vivo.

  16. In vitro efficacy of Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides and Copaifera reticulata against Leishmania chagasi / Eficácia in vitro de Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides e Copaifera reticulata sobre Leishmania chagasi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda Cristina Macedo, Rondon; Claudia Maria Leal, Bevilaqua; Marina Parissi, Accioly; Selene Maia de, Morais; Heitor Franco de, Andrade-Júnior; Camila Aparecida de, Carvalho; Josemar Coelho, Lima; Hilton César Rodrigues, Magalhães.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O aumento na incidência da Leishmaníase Visceral (LV) no Brasil deve-se à ineficácia das medidas de controle da doença. Além disso, não há tratamento efetivo para LV canina com drogas sintéticas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos óleos essenciais de Coriandrum sativum e de Li [...] ppia sidoides e do óleo-resina de Copaiferareticulata sobre promastigotas e amastigotas de Leishmania chagasi e analisar o grau de toxicidade sobre células monocíticas murinas RAW 264.7. Para determinar a CI50 sobre promastigotas foi usado teste MTT (brometo de 3-[4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il]-2,5-difeniltetrazólio) e sobre amastigotas foi realizado imunoensaio in situ pela técnica de ELISA. Os resultados obtidos comprovaram que o óleo-resina de C. reticulata foi o mais eficaz contra as formas promastigotas (CI50 de 7,88 µg.mL-1) e amastigotas (CI50 de 0,52 µg.mL-1) e em nenhum dos dois testes diferiu do controle pentamidina que obteve CI50 de 2,149 µg.mL-1, no teste sobre promastigotas, e anfotericina B que obteve CI50 de 9,754 µg.mL-1, nos testes com amastigotas (p > 0.05). Quanto à citotoxicidade apenas o óleo-resina não apresentou toxicidade com 78,45% de monócitos viáveis. Os resultados obtidos sobre promastigotas e amastigotas e a ausência de citotoxicidade do óleo-resina de C. reticulata evidenciam que este óleo-resina pode ser viável para a análise de seus efeitos terapêuticos em testes in vivo. Abstract in english The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils [...] of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the murine monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To determine the IC50 a MTT test (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was performed on promastigotes, and an in situ ELISA assay was conducted on amastigotes. Here, we demonstrate that oleoresin from C. reticulata was effective against both promastigotes (IC50 of 7.88 µg.mL-1) and amastigotes (IC50 of 0.52 µg.mL-1), and neither of the two treatments differed significantly (p > 0.05) from pentamidine (IC50 of 2.149 µg.mL-1) and amphotericin B (IC50 of 9.754 µg.mL-1). Of the three plant oils tested, only oleoresin showed no toxicity toward monocyte, with 78.45% viability after treatment. Inhibition of promastigote and amastigote growth and the lack of cytotoxicity by C. reticulata demonstrate that oleoresin may be a viable option for analyzing the in vivo therapeutic effects of leishmanicidal plants

  17. ENTOMOFAUNA ASSOCIADA AOS FRUTOS DO BACUPARI, Salacia folia (MART. PEYR, NOS CERRADOS DO BRASIL CENTRAL INSECTS ASSOCIED WITH BACUPARI FRUIT, Salacia crassifolia (Mart. PEYR, IN THE SAVANNAHS OF CENTRAL BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juracy Rocha Braga Filho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O bacupari, Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Peyr, (Hippocrateaceae é uma frutífera nativa da região dos cerrados, utilizada pela fauna e também pela população da região, embora seus frutos sejam muito atacados pelas moscas-das-frutas, e por isso seu consumo fica limitado. De polpa branca à alaranjada, de sabor levemente ácido e muito agradável os frutos dessa espécie podem ser consumidos ao natural ou na forma de sucos. Neste trabalho apresenta-se um levantamento da entomofauna associada aos frutos do bacupari, coletados em 11 municípios da região dos cerrados no Estado de Goiás, no período de setembro de 1995 a dezembro de 1999. No Laboratório de Entomologia da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, esses frutos foram, inicialmente, contados e pesados e, posteriormente, acondicionados em caixas de polipropileno com areia úmida para obtenção de pupários e insetos adultos. Tephritidae foi a família mais freqüente nos frutos do bacupari, com 54,22% dos insetos coletados. Nessa família foram registradas as espécies Anastrepha sp. (espécie nova em fase de descrição, A. zenildae, A. obliqua, A. fraterculus, A. sororcula e A. serpentina. Na família Lonchaeidae foi coletada Neosilba sp., em Muscidae, Atherigona orientalis e espécimes da família Oititidae. Dessas moscas foram obtidos os parasitóides Doryctobracon sp. (espécie nova, D. areolatus, Dicerataspis flavipes, Lopheucoila anastrephae, Aganaspis nordlanderi e A. pelleranoi. Foram coletados isoladamente no mesmo fruto exemplares de Anastrepha sp. e Lonchaeidae e Anastrepha sp. e A. zenildae comprovando a sobreposição dessas espécies por fruto.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Insecta; frutífera nativa; levantamento populacional.

    The bacupari (Salacia crassifolia is a native fruit plant of the Brazilian cerrado areas. Although a high fruit fly infestation limits its utilization, it is eaten by animals and humans. Fruits present orange colored pulp, with slightly acid flavour and can be apreciated in natura or juices. The objective of this study was to assay bacupari plant features in Goiás State cerrado and to verify insects associated to bacupari, to determine infestation index and to verify this plant as a natural reservoir of fruit flies for adjacent orchards. Samples were collected during the frutification stage from September to December from 1995 to 1999 on 11 counties in Goiás State. The insects found more often were from Tephritidae (54.22% as Anastrepha sp. (new species, A. zenildae, A. obliqua, A. fraterculus, A. sororcula, A. serpentina. Insects from other families were also identified: Lonchaeidae (Neosilba sp., Muscidae (Atherigona orientalis, Oititidae and their p

  18. Ecophysiological aspects of sun and shade leaves of Ponkan tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) / Aspectos ecofisiológicos de hojas de sol y sombra de Ponkan mandarina (Citrus reticulata Blanco)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Domingos, Grecco; Luiz Flávio, Vianna Silveira; Victor Luiz, de Souza Lima; José Eduardo, .

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ponkan mandarina (Citrus reticulata) tiene una amplia aceptación por los consumidores debido a varios aspectos: es una fruta colorida, cáscara dulce y fácil de pelar. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la respuesta a la sombra de las plantas de Ponkan mandarina (Citrus reticulata) respecto de [...] sus aspectos ecofisiológicos, de acuerdo con la intensidad relativa de la luz, a fin de evaluar la capacidad de adaptación de esta especie para dar sombra. Las hojas se obtienen de la cubierta superior (sol) y la cubierta inferior (sombra) para la determinación de los aspectos ecofisiológicos. Cortes en las manos se hicieron para la evaluación del espesor de parénquima de empalizada, número de estomas (mm²) y el espesor total de la hoja. Las secciones transversales de la parte media de la licencia se obtuvieron, para la evaluación de la parénquima, utilizando un cuerpo de evidencia, y para el estomática se hicieron cortes en la superficie abaxial. La clorofila se extrajo de las hojas de mandarina Ponkan y posteriormente se mide en espectrofotometría a longitudes de onda de 645nm y 663nm. La relación entre la clorofila a y b tendía a aumentar con una mayor intensidad de luz. El sombreado no afectó a las características anatómicas de las plantas de mandarina Ponkan. Sin embargo, los niveles de clorofila fueron diferentes en "sol" y se va "sombra". Abstract in english The Ponkan tangerine (Citrus reticulata) has wide acceptance by consumers due to several properties; it is a colorful, sweet, and easy to peel fruit. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ecophysiological aspects of the response of plants of Ponkan tangerine to shading, according to relative int [...] ensity of light, in order to assess the adaptability of this species to shade. Leaves were collected from the upper canopy (sun) and lower canopy (shade) to determine the ecophysiological aspects. Cuts were by hand made to assess the thickness of palisade parenchyma, number of stomata (mm²) and total thickness of the leaf. Cross-sections of the middle part of leaves were obtained to assess the parenchyma, using a body-of-evidence, and for the stomata cuts were made on the abaxial surfaces. Chlorophyll was extracted from the leaves of Ponkan Tangerine and subsequently measured in a spectrophotometer at wave lengths 645nm and 663nm The ratio between chlorophyll a and b tended to increase with increased intensity of light. Shading did not affect the anatomical characteristics of Ponkan tangerine plants. However, chlorophyll levels were different in sun and shade leaves.

  19. The Ayurvedic Medicine Salacia oblonga Attenuates Diabetic Renal Fibrosis in Rats: Suppression of Angiotensin II/AT1 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lan; Qi, Yanfei; Rong, Xianglu; Jiang, Jianmin; Yang, Qinglin; Yamahara, Johji; Murray, Michael; Li, Yuhao

    2011-01-01

    In human diabetic nephropathy, the extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease; fibrosis is closely correlated with renal dysfunction. Although a wide array of medicinal plants play a role in the prevention and treatment of diabetes, there are few reports of the application of herbal medicines in amelioration of renal fibrosis, or the underlying mechanisms by which such benefits are mediated. The efficacy of the Ayurvedic antidiabetic medicine Salacia oblonga (SO) root on rat renal fibrosis was investigated. An aqueous extract from SO (100 mg/kg, p.o., 6 weeks) diminished renal glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, as revealed by van Giesen-staining. SO also reduced renal salt-soluble, acid-soluble and salt-insoluble collagen contents. These changes were accompanied by normalization of hypoalbuminemia and BUN. Gene profiling revealed that the increase in transcripts encoding the glomerulosclerotic mediators collagen I, collagen IV, fibronectin, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1), transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 observed in ZDF rat kidney was suppressed by SO. In rat-derived mesangial cells, similar to the effect of the AT1 antagonist telmisartan, SO and its major component mangiferin suppressed the stimulatory effect of angiotensin II on proliferation and increased mRNA expression and/or activities of collagen I, collagen IV, fibronectin, AT1, TGF-?1 and PAI-1. Considered together the present findings demonstrate that SO attenuates diabetic renal fibrosis, at least in part by suppressing anigiotensin II/AT1 signaling. Further, it now emerges that mangiferin is an effective antifibrogenic agent. PMID:19706694

  20. The diet of Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) in southeastern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo Q., Yokoyama; Antonia C. Z., Amaral.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O ofiuróide Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825) ocorre na interface sedimento rocha de costões rochosos, sob pequenas pedras. Alguns aspectos de sua dieta alimentar foram analisados nesta nota. A amostragem foi realizada na Praia Grande, localizada no litoral norte do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os [...] indivíduos, coletados em julho de 2002 e janeiro de 2003, foram fixados em álcool 70% e dissecados para obtenção de seus conteúdos estomacais. Do total (35), 77,1% (27) tinham ingerido algum tipo de alimento, e destes, 81,4% (22) possuíam mais de um item. O número médio de itens alimentares por estômago foi 1,9. Ophionereis reticulata é uma espécie onívora, consumindo sedimento, algas verdes e vermelhas, e poliquetas. Abstract in english The ophiuroid Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825) occurs in the sediment-rocky shore interface, under small stones. Its diet is analyzed in this short communication. Specimens were collected at the Praia Grande beach, located on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in July, 2002 and [...] January, 2003. The animals were fixed in 70% ethanol and dissected to obtain their stomach contents. Of the total (35), 77.1% (27) had ingested some kind of food and, among those, 81.4% (22) had more than one item. The mean number of food items per stomach was 1.9. Ophionereis reticulata is an omnivorous species, consuming sediment, green and red algae, and polychaetes.

  1. Antihyperlipidemic activity of Salacia chinensis root extracts in triton-induced and atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh S Sikarwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study has been to investigate the possible antihyperlipidemic effect of Salacia chinensis root extract in triton (400mg/kg b.w.-induced and atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: Petroleum ether (60-80°C, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Salacia chinensis roots were evaluated for antihyperlipidemic activity in triton- and atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. A comparison was also made between the action of Salacia chinensis root extract and a known antihyperlipidemic drug simvastatin (10 mg/kg body wt.. The results of the study were expressed as mean? S.E. and data was analyzed by using one way analysis of variance test (ANOVA followed by Dunnett?s t-test for multiple comparisons. Values with P < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: Oral administration of 500 mg/kg body wt. of the chloroform extract and alcoholic extract of Salacia chinensis root exhibited a significant reduction (P<0.01 in serum lipid parameters like total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL, very low density lipopreotein (VLDL and increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL in hyperlipidemic rats of both models as compared to hyperlipidemic control statistically. These extracts were found to possess better antihyperlipidemic potential as compared to pet ether and aqueous extract. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that chloroform and alcoholic extract of Salacia chinensis roots possessed significant antihyperlipidemic activity and hence it could be a potential herbal medicine as adjuvant with existing therapy for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.

  2. Physical properties of trans-neptunian binaries (120347) Salacia-Actaea and (42355) Typhon-Echidna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansberry, J. A.; Grundy, W. M.; Mueller, M.; Benecchi, S. D.; Rieke, G. H.; Noll, K. S.; Buie, M. W.; Levison, H. F.; Porter, S. B.; Roe, H. G.

    2012-06-01

    We report new Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer Space Telescope results concerning the physical properties of the trans-neptunian object (TNO) binaries (120347) Salacia-Actaea (formerly 2004 SB60), and (42355) Typhon-Echidna (formerly 2002 CR46). The mass of the (120347) Salacia-Actaea system is 4.66 ± 0.22 × 1020 kg. The semi-major axis, period, and eccentricity of the binary orbit are a = 5619 ± 87 km, P = 5.49380 ± 0.00016 days, and e = 0.0084 ± 0.0076, respectively. In terms of the ratio of the semimajor axis to the radius of the Hill sphere, a/rH, (120347) Salacia-Actaea is the tightest TNO binary system with a known orbit. Based on hybrid Standard Thermal Model (hybrid-STM) fits to the data, the effective diameter and V-band geometric albedo of the system are D = 954 ± 109 km (making it one of the largest known TNOs), and pV=3.57-0.72+1.03%. Thermophysical models for (120347) Salacia suggest that it probably has a thermal inertia ?5 J m-2 s-1/2 K-1, although we cannot rule out values as high as 30 J m-2 s-1/2 K-1. Based on the magnitude difference between Salacia and Actaea, ? = 2.37 ± 0.06, we estimate their individual diameters to be d1 = 905 ± 103 km and d2 = 303 ± 35 km. The mass density of the components is ?=1.16-0.36+0.59 g/cm3. Hybrid-STM fits to new Spitzer data for Typhon-Echidna give an effective diameter and V-band geometric albedo for the system of D = 157 ± 34 km, and pV=6.00-2.08+4.10%. Thermophysical models for (42355) Typhon suggest somewhat lower albedos (probably no higher than about 8.2%, as compared to the hybrid-STM upper limit of 10.1%). Taken together with the previously reported mass, this diameter indicates a density of ?=0.60-0.29+0.72g/cm3, consistent with the very low densities of most other TNOs smaller than 500 km diameter. Both objects must have significant amounts of void space in their interiors, particularly if they contain silicates as well as water-ice (as is expected). The ensemble of binary-TNO densities suggests a trend of increasing density with size, with objects smaller than 400 km diameter all having densities less than 1 g/cm3, and those with diameters greater than 800 km all having densities greater than 1 g/cm3. If the eccentricity of the binary orbit of (42355) Typhon-Echidna is not due to recent perturbations, considerations of tidal evolution suggest that (42355) Typhon-Echidna must have a rigidity close to that of solid water ice, otherwise the orbital eccentricity of the system would have been damped by now.

  3. Studies of In Vitro Embryo Culture of Guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, LiLi; LEE, KI-YOUNG

    2014-01-01

    Different with other fishes, the guppies (Poecilia reticulata) is ovoviviparity, which retain their fertilized eggs within the follicle throughout gestation. The synchronously growing diplotene oocytes store nutrients in droplets and yolk, before their maturation and fertilization. The lecithotrophic strategy of development entails the provisioning of embryos with resources from the maternal yolk deposit rather than from a placenta, it allows the extracorporeal culture of guppy embryo. Studie...

  4. Chemical structures and hepatoprotective effects of constituents from the leaves of Salacia chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Seikou; Zhang, Yi; Matsuda, Hisashi; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Muraoka, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    The methanolic extract from the leaves of Salacia chinensis collected in Thailand was found to show a protective effect on D-galactosamine-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes. From the methanolic extract, eight new glycosides, named foliachinenosides E, F, G, H, and I, and foliasalaciosides J, K and L, were isolated together with 26 known constituents. The structures of new glycosides were determined on the basis of physicochemical and chemical evidence. In addition, the hepatoprotective effects of the isolated compounds on D-galactosamine-induced cytotoxicity were examined. Among them, lignans, eleutheroside E? and 7R,8S-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 4-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, were found to show the protective effects [inhibition (%) 41.4 ± 3.6 (p < 0.01), 45.5 ± 2.7 (p < 0.01) at 100 µM, respectively]. PMID:21804248

  5. New triterpene constituents, foliasalacins A(1)-A(4), B(1)-B(3), and C, from the leaves of Salacia chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2008-07-01

    Four dammarane-type, three lupane-type, and an oleanane-type triterpenes named foliasalacins A(1) (1), A(2) (2), A(3) (3), A(4) (4), B(1) (5), B(2) (6), B(3) (7), and C (8) were isolated from the leaves of Salacia chinensis LINN. collected in Thailand. The structures of new triterpene constituents (1-8) were characterized on the basis of chemical and physiochemical evidence. PMID:18591801

  6. Evaluation of antioxidant effect of Salacia oblonga against aluminum chloride induced visceral toxicity in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    S. Nathiya; A. Nandhini

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aluminum is present in several manufactured foods and medicines and is also used in water purification. It is known that aluminum induces an oxidative stress characterized by an increase in lipid peroxidation and depletion of antioxidants. Therefore, the present experiment was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of hydroalcoholic extract of root bark of Salacia oblonga (SOHE) in modulating the aluminum chloride (AlCl3) induced oxidative stress in rats. Methods: Animals we...

  7. In vitro, In vivo and In silico Antiarthritic studies of Polyprenol from Kirganelia reticulata Baill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi SD

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-IN X-NONE X-NONE Kirganelia reticulata is a medicinal shrub which has been valued for centuries in ayurvedic medicine. In vitro, in vivo and in silico antiarthritic activity of a phytoconstituent, polyprenol isolated from the leaves of Kirganelia reticulata was screened. Various in vitro models such as inhibition of protein denaturation, effect of membrane stabilization and proteinase inhibitory actions were studied. Polyprenol with two different concentrations (100µg/ml and 250µg/ml was used and results were compared with acetyl salicylic acid. The in vivo antiarthritic activity of polyprenol was evaluated against formaldehyde induced arthritis in albino rats. The course of treatment was followed for over and 4 weeks post inoculation period using health, clinical and behavioural methods of study. Estimation of change in body weight was considered as health parameters and clinical observations included paw edema volume, change in the movements was studied in behavioral observations. The effect of polyprenol was compared with standard drug aspirin.  HIF-2? promotes degradative pathways that foster osteoarthritis. The articular cartilage resides in hypoxic, avascular conditions within the synovial joint. Chondrocytes, cells of the articular cartilage are affected by various forms of stress. The biological role of this mediator is clearly understood thus offering new target for inhibiting incurable osteoarthritis. The inhibitory effect of polyprenol was studied using Autodock and efficiency was compared with standard drug in terms of interation and binding. The isolated compound polyprenol showed dose dependent activity which was found to be significant to that of the standard drugs and supports the traditional use of plant for rheumatism.

  8. Avaliação citotóxica em três linhagens de células tumorais das frações obtidas da casca do caule de Salacia crassifolia (MART. ex. Schult.) G. Dom. (Celastraceae) / Assessment of cytotoxicity in three tumor cell lines of the fractions attained from the stem bark of Salacia crassifolia (Mart. ex. Schult.) G. Dom (Celastraceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clayton, Rodrigues de Oliveira; Antânio Calos, Severo Menezes; Manoel O., de Moraes; Letícia, de Melo Vieira; Adriana, Gomes Pereira; Rosa, Silva Lima; Mirley Luciene, dos Santos.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de plantas pela humanidade com fins medicinais é uma das formas mais antigas para tratamento, cura e prevenção de doenças, dentre elas o câncer, cujas espécies vegetais são encontradas em elevada diversidade no ecossistema. Com essa perspectiva, se optou por um arbusto típico do Cerrado [...] , Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae), para um screening inicial na determinação do potencial citotóxico desta espécie in vitro. Na medicina popular, S. crassifolia é utilizada no tratamento de problemas renais, tosse crônica, dores de cabeça, cicatrizantes, ulcerogênicas e na terapia da malaria. As frações: hidroalcoólica (SCCcM-W), diclorometânica(SCCcM-D), hexânica (SCCcM-H) e acetato de etila (SCCcM-A) da casca do caule foram submetidas a testes de citotoxicidade in vitro frente às linhagens MDA-MB-435(melanoma), HCT-8 (cólon-humano) e SF-295 (sistema nervoso central) utilizando o método colorimétrico MTT. As frações hexânica (SCCcM-H) e de acetato de etila(SCCcM-A) foram aquelas que proporcionaram citotoxicidade significativas frente às células tumorais analisadas. Abstract in english For millennia humans have been using plants for medicinal purposes to treat, cure, or prevent diseases, including cancer. Brazilian ecosystem has a high diversity of plant species. From this perspective, a species found in the Cerrado, Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae), was selected, for an initial [...] screening to determine the cytotoxic potential of this species "in vitro". S. crassifolia has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat kidney diseases, chronic cough, headaches, healing, ulcerogenic, and for treatment of malaria. The fractions: hydroalcoholic (SCCcM-W), dichloromethane(SCCcM-D), hexane (SCCcM-H) and ethyl acetate (SCCcM-A) from the stem bark were tested for cytotoxicity "in vitro" to within MDA -MB-435(melanoma), HCT-8 (human-colon), and SF-295 (CNS) using the MTT colorimetric method. The hexane (SCCcM-H) and ethyl acetate (SCCcM-A) fractions were those that provided significant cytotoxicity against analyzed tumor cells.

  9. Development of seedless fruits mutants in citrus including tangerine (C. reticulata) and pummelo (C. grandis) through induced mutations and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of seedless fruit mutants in citrus, including Tangerine (C. reticulata) and Pummelo (C. grandis), through induced mutation and biotechnology was studied at the Gamma Irradiation Service and Nuclear Technology Center, Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center for 4 years (August 2000 to September 2004). The results showed successful induction of mutants with gamma irradiation using both chronic and acute procedures for pot plants, scions and in vitro plantlets of tangerine (Citrus reticulata var. Shogun and Sai Nam Puaeng) and pummelo (Citrus grandis viz. Kao Thong Dee). MS medium with 2 mgL-1 of BA was found to be the most suitable medium for shoot proliferation. The seedlings were sub-cultured at least 4 times, and then they were treated with acute and chronic irradiation. Shoot induction from M1V0 to M1V4 generation was performed in basic MS medium with 2 mgL-1 added BA. Rooting was induced in the M1V4 in halfstrength MS enriched with BA 2 mgL-1. Later, the shoots were excised and grafted on mature plants or the plantlets directly transferred in the field and later the fruits from mature trees were evaluated for seedlessness in M1V4 at Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center. (author)

  10. The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked Orange and shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim, M.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked Orange and shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2006, 28(3 : 515-530 The influence of some citrus rootstock species on yield, fruit quality and compatible characteristics of Necked orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Necked orange and Shogun (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun was investigated at the Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University during January, 2003 to October, 2004. Eighty-eight of three-year-old Necked orange and Shogun grafted onto 11 species of citrus rootstocks were raised in 35 litre pot. Complete randomized factorial design was used for evaluating the two factors, scions and rootstocks. The vegetative growth: upper and lower of trunk diameter, tree height, canopy volume and leaf area; the foliar nutrient: nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC and C/N ratio; flowering; fruit-set and fruit qualities were determined and analysed. Furthermore, the graft compatibility between stock and scion was also evaluated by the esterase isozymes technique. It was found that Necked orange grafted onto most of the rootstocks showed higher range of upper and lower trunk diameter and leaf area than that of Shogun. Both of the scions on rough lemon and volkamer lemon gave higher vegetative growth characteristics than on the other roostock species. Necked orange grafted onto Cleopatra mandarin, Swingle citrumelo, Volkamer lemon and Mawo rootstock had 5 times the flowering and fruit-set while Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange had 7 times the flowering and fruit-set. There was no significant difference on the foliar nutrient between scions and rootstocks except the foliar TNC of necked orange and Shogun on Manaao-khwaai (34.86%. Necked orange and Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange gave the highest number of fruits/tree (20.6 and 31.6 fruits/ tree and fruit weight/tree (3,906 g/tree and 5,114 g/tree respectively. Necked orange grafted onto Rough lemon showed the highest rind thickness (0.559 cm while Shogun grafted onto Cleopatra mandarin showed 0.275 cm rind thickness. Necked orange grafted on Troyer citrange and Mawo and Shogun grafted on Troyer citrange and Volkamer lemon gave the highest TSS: TA ratio. The esterase enzyme pattern of necked orange grafted on Manaao-khwaai was changed and most of the rootstock species affected the esterase enzyme activities of Shogun.

  11. Influence of GAMMA radiation on morphological changes of Poecilia reticulata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our experiment were followed histological changes after gamma-irradiation with dose of 30 Gy in Poecilia reticulata. After radiation shyness and lethargy were observed. The most prominent clinical symptoms observed were emaciation, hampered breathing, ex ophthalmia and hemorrhages. The histological picture found were adequate to these symptoms. The enteritic villi compared with controls were relatively low. Enterocytes taking part on resorption processes were damaged and desquamated on some sites, and the number of microvilli was reduced on their surface. As our earlier findings on rats revealed, the decrease in number of microvilli designates malfunctioning intestinal resorption, which can lead to emaciation. (authors)

  12. TRIAGEM METABÓLICA POR PKS E NRPS EM ACTINOBACTÉRIAS ENDOFÍTICAS DE Citrus reticulata / METABOLIC SCREENING FOR PKS AND NRPS IN ENDOPHYTIC ACTINOBACTERIA FROM Citrus reticulata

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro L. R. da, Cruz; Leila R., Giarola; Suellen da Silva, Moraes; Déborah Ellen S. G. da, Silva; Joelma, Marcon; João L., Azevedo; Welington L., Araújo; Luciana G. de, Oliveira,.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides are natural products widely found in bacteria, fungi and plants. The biological activities associated with these metabolites have attracted special attention in biopharmaceutical studies. Polyketide synthases act similarly to fatty acids synthetases and the who [...] le multi-enzymatic set coordinating precursor and extending unit selection and reduction levels during chain growth. Acting in a similarly orchestrated model, non-ribosomal peptide synthetases biosynthesize NRPs. PKSs-I and NRPSs enzymatic modules and domains are collinearly organized with the parent gene sequence. This arrangement allows the use of degenerated PCR primers to amplify targeted regions in the genes corresponding to specific enzymatic domains such as ketosynthases and acyltransferases in PKSs and adenilation domains in NRPSs. Careful analysis of these short regions allows the classifying of a set of organisms according to their potential to biosynthesize PKs and NRPs. In this work, the biosynthetic potential of a set of 13 endophytic actinobacteria from Citrus reticulata for producing PKs and NRP metabolites was evaluated. The biosynthetic profile was compared to antimicrobial activity. Based on the inhibition promoted, 4 strains were considered for cluster analysis. A PKS/NRPS phylogeny was generated in order to classify some of the representative sequences throughout comparison with homologous genes. Using this approach, a molecular fingerprint was generated to help guide future studies on the most promising strains.

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Flavonoids in Different Parts of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ Fruit by High Performance Liquid Chromatography—Photodiode Array Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are important polyphenolic secondary metabolites in plant. Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit are rich in flavonoids and are being used as functional antioxidant ingredients for the treatment of atherosclerosis and cancer, etc. A high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection system was used to analyze five flavonoids, namely, naringin, hesperidin, didymin, tangeretin and nobiletin, in different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a C18 column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a photodiode array detector at 280 nm. The calibration curves for the determination of all analytes showed good linearity over the investigated ranges (R2 > 0.9995. Precision and reproducibility were evaluated by six replicated analyses, and the R.S.D. values were less than 0.9% and 2.7%. The recoveries were between 98.37 and 103.89%. This method is promising to improve the quality control of different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit.

  14. Alelopatia de Salacia campestris Walp. sobre a germinação e crescimento inicial de alface e tomate

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    F. S. Santana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Muitos metabólitos sintetizados pelas plantas e liberados no ambiente, afetam o desenvolvimento de outras espécies vegetais, afetando principalmente a germinação e o crescimento inicial das plântulas, fenômeno este chamado de alelopatia. Em vista disso o trabalho teve como objetivo investigar os efeitos alelopáticos do extrato etanólico do caule de Salacia campestris Walp. na germinação e crescimento inicial de alface e tomate. O extrato foi ensaiado nas concentrações 0, 250, 500 e 1000 mg/L. Foram avaliados a porcentagem de germinação (%G, índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG, comprimento da radícula (CR e hipocótilo (CH. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância, sendo as médias comparadas pelo teste Scott Knott ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. O extrato promoveu estímulo médio no índice de velocidade de germinação de 60 e 12%, para alface e tomate, respectivamente. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada no crescimento radicular e do hipocótilo de plântulas de alface. Em plântulas de tomate observou-se decréscimo médio de 20,5% no comprimento do hipocótilo. Assim, a espécie em estudo apresenta potencial alelopatico evidenciado pelo aumento do IVG no alface, e redução das plántulas de tomate, porém novos estudos são necessários.

  15. Toxicological and cytogenetic assessment of a Salacia oblonga extract in a rat subchronic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammang, A M; Erexson, G L; Mirwald, J M; Henwood, S M

    2007-10-01

    Salacia oblonga holds potential as a natural method to mitigate the blood glucose response for people with diabetes by inhibiting the activity of intestinal alpha-glucosidases. As part of a safety evaluation of novel ingredients for use in blood glucose control, the toxicity of a S. oblonga root extract (SOE) was evaluated in a subchronic 90-day feeding study in rats. An in vivo-in vitro rat peripheral blood lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations assay was added at termination of the subchronic rat study to examine cultured lymphocytes for possible chromosomal aberration induction. This was conducted due to a previous weak; although reproducible, positive chromosomal aberrations response in cultured peripheral blood human lymphocytes after acute in vitro treatment with SOE. The present study results indicate that SOE was negative for the induction of chromosomal aberrations in cultured rat peripheral blood lymphocytes after 90 consecutive days of treatment with SOE. The no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) was determined to be 2,500 mg/kg/day following daily subchronic oral gavage administrations to rats. PMID:17566623

  16. Salacinol and Related Analogs: New Leads for Type 2 Diabetes Therapeutic Candidates from the Thai Traditional Natural Medicine Salacia chinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Morikawa, Toshio; Akaki, Junji; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Kinouchi, Eri; Tanabe, Genzoh; Pongpiriyadacha, Yutana; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic effect of a hot water extract of stems of Salacia chinensis (SCE) was evaluated in vivo in KK-Ay mice, a typical type 2 diabetes mellitus mice model. Administration of CE-2 dietary feed containing 0.25 and/or 0.50% of SCE for three weeks to KK-Ay mice significantly suppressed the elevation of both blood glucose and HbA1c levels without significant changes in body weight or food intake. Glucose tolerance was improved by administration to KK-Ay mice for 27 days of AIN93M purifi...

  17. Hepatoprotective activity of Leptadenia reticulata stems against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Nema

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of stems of L. reticulata showed significant hepatoprotective activity. The ethanolic extract is more potent in hepatoprotection in CCl 4 -indiced liver injury model as compared with aqueous extract.

  18. Quantitative analysis of neosalacinol and neokotalanol, another two potent ?-glucosidase inhibitors from Salacia species, by LC-MS with ion pair chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Osamu; Morikawa, Toshio; Miyake, Sohachiro; Akaki, Junji; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Pongpiriyadacha, Yutana; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative analytical method for the highly polar sulfonium pseudo-sugar constituents neosalacinol (3) and neokotalanol (4), another two potent ?-glucosidase inhibitors isolated from Ayurvedic traditional medicine Salacia species, was developed by employing an ion pair reagent upon chromatographic separation. The optimum conditions for separation and detection of these two constituents were achieved on an ODS column (3-µm particle size, 2.1-mm i.d. × 100 mm) with 5 mM undecafluorohexanoic acid-MeOH (99:1, v/v) as the mobile phase and using MS equipped with an electrospray ionization source. More than ten samples of Salacia from different origins were analyzed, and the results indicated that the assay was reproducible and precise and could be readily utilized for evaluation of ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Salacia species. By combining this assay with the quantitative analytical method previously developed for salacinol (1) and kotalanol (2), a more precise and strict evaluation of ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of extracts from Salacia species (R = 0.959 for maltase and 0.795 for sucrase) was achieved. PMID:20981499

  19. Tracking the startle response of guppies Poecilia reticulata in three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanesyan, A; Rodd, F H; Ryu, W S

    2015-10-01

    A three-dimensional analysis of startle behaviours of guppies Poecilia reticulata, in dyads or alone, from two populations that show distinct differences in shoaling behaviour was performed. During the first few seconds after a startling stimulus, changes in behaviour, which could be critical if an individual is to survive a predatory attack, and the interactions between pairs of P. reticulata were examined. The enhanced social interactions immediately after the stimulus, as a proxy for shoaling behaviour, and their dissipation were quantified. Social (individuals tested in dyads) v. asocial (tested alone) responses to the startling stimulus were also compared. The three-dimensional reconstruction, from a two-camera, high-frame-rate tracking system allowed for the tracking of the individuals' speed and speed recovery and, for P. reticulata in dyads, interindividual distance and orientation. For the dyads from the high-predation population, the closer the individuals were to each other, the more likely they were to be parallel, but no correlation was found for the low-predation P. reticulata. The startle response of P. reticulata comprised the following sequence: freezing, darting and skittering and recovery to pre-stimulus swimming behaviour. Upon repeated encounters with the stimulus, a reduced shoaling and startle response was observed, although the rate of reduction was faster in P. reticulata from the high-predation population than those from the low-predation population. The results are discussed in light of what is known about the anti-predator behaviour of this species. PMID:26376772

  20. Sesquiterpenes and Other Natural Products from Roldana reticulata

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amira, Arciniegas; Jhon, Ironzi Maldonado; Karina, González; Ana L., Pérez-Castorena; José Luis, Villaseñor; Alfonso, Romo de Vivar.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available De Roldana reticulata se aislaron dos 9-oxo-furanoeremofilanos (1, 2), además de senecrassidiol, tirosol, icarisida D2 y rutina; no se detectaron alcaloides pirrolizidínicos, coincidiendo con el patrón químico del género reportado hasta ahora. La actividad anti-inflamatoria de los extractos y produc [...] tos aislados fue evaluada en el modelo de edema de inflamación aguda inducido con TPA. Abstract in english The chemical study of Roldana reticulate led to the isolation of two 9-oxo-furanoeremophilanes (1, 2), together with senecrassidiol, tyrosol, icariside D2, and rutin; no pyrrolizidine alkaloids were detected, in agreement with the chemistry of the genus reported so far. The anti-inflammatory activit [...] y of extracts and isolated products was tested using the TPA model of induced acute inflammation.

  1. Beneficial effects of mangiferin isolated from Salacia chinensis on biochemical and hematological parameters in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellamuthu, Periyar Selvam; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Kandasamy, Murugesan

    2014-01-01

    Salacia chinensis L. is a traditional Southeast Asian herbal medicine and used in the treatment of diabetes. To investigate the antidiabetic properties of mangiferin from Salacia chinensis and its beneficial effect on toxicological and hematological parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Mangiferin was orally treated with the dose of 40 mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days to diabetic rats. Biochemical (blood glucose, uric acid, urea and creatinine), toxicological (AST, ALT and ALP) and hematological parameters (red and white blood cells) and their functional indices were evaluated in diabetic treated groups with mangiferin and glibenclamide. Mangiferin treated diabetic rats significantly (p<0.05) lowered the level of blood glucose, in addition, altered the levels of biochemical parameters including urea, uric acid, and creatinine. Toxicological parameters including AST, ALT and ALP were also significantly reduced after treatment with mangiferin in diabetic rats. Similarly, the levels of red blood, white blood cells and their functional indices were significantly improved through the administration of mangiferin. Thus, our results indicate that mangiferin present in S. chinensis possesses antidiabetic properties and nontoxic nature against chemically induced diabetic rats. Further experimental investigations are warrant to make use of its relevant therapeutic effect to substantiate its ethno-medicinal usage. PMID:24374436

  2. Induction of seedlessness in kinow (citrus reticulata blanco) with gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormant budwood of KINNOW mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) were subjected to acute exposures of gamma radiations. Doses of 0, 40, 60, 80 and 120 Gy were applied at ambient temperature (25 -+ 2 deg. C) with air as the medium of irradiation. The irradiated and un-irradiated scions were grafted onto 2 years old Citrus jambhiri rootstock already established in the field using the side-graft technique. Based on the bud survival percentage, Ld-50 was found to be 18.5 Gy under field conditions. A sparsely seeded (2 - 8 seeds/fruit) mutant was detected in the mV/sub 1/ progeny of shoots from 20 Gy exposed buds. The induced sparse seedy character was retained by the mV/sub 2/ and mV/sub 3/ propagations. Parent Kinnow contained 18-28 seeds per fruit. The peel of mutant Kinnows was thicker which may protect the fruit during transit and may compensate for the slightly lower juice yield as compared to parent Kinnow. Sparsely seeded mutant Kinnow fruit and plant resembled with the parent kinnow in most of the morphological, physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics. (author)

  3. Efficacy of commercially available products against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infections on guppies Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkle, Bettina; Snellgrove, Donna; Jones, Lewis L; Cable, Jo

    2015-07-23

    The demand for ornamental fish has led to a steep rise in aquaculture for the hobbyist trade, promoting the emergence, persistence and spread of various infectious diseases. Complete control of disease outbreaks with antibiotics and chemical-based medicines is rare, but plant compounds may herald potential alternatives effective against a range of pathogens. Melafix® and Pimafix® are formulated with the essential oils cajuput (Melaleuca cajuputi) and West Indian bay (Pimenta racemosa) and are marketed against bacterial and fungal infections, respectively. Previous experiments showed high efficacy of emulsified cajuput oil against gyrodactylids; the current study tested Melafix® and Pimafix® and their individual compounds against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting the guppies Poecilia reticulata. In particular, a combination treatment of Melafix® and Pimafix® was highly effective at reducing in vitro survival of parasites from 15 to 2 h and eradicating 95% of gyrodactylids in vivo. The unexpected high efficacy of this combination treatment is likely explained by the high content of terpenes and phenol propanoids in the cajuput and West Indian bay oils, as well as the anti-helminthic properties of the emulsifier Crovol PK 70. Hence, Melafix® and Pimafix® effectively reduce gyrodactylid burdens on fish, increasing the chances of efficient disease control in ornamental fish. PMID:26203884

  4. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Some Nigerian Medicinal Plant Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Sofidiya, M. O.; O.A. Odukoya; O.B. Familoni; S.I. Inya-Agha

    2006-01-01

    The present research evaluates the DPPH radical scavenging, total antioxidant activities, reducing power and total contents of phenolic compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of five Nigerian medicinal plants (Dalbergia saxatilis Hook.f. (Papilionacae), Ekebergia senegalensis A.Juss.(Meliaceae), Hymenocardia acida Tul. (Hymenocardiaceae), Icacina tricantha Oliv. (Icacinaceae) and Salacia pallescens Oliv.(Celastraceae). Total phenols were analysed according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Each s...

  5. ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF LEAF EXTRACTS FROM KIRGANELIA RETICULATA BAILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi SD

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antibacterial activity of crude methanolic, chloroform and hexane extracts of the leaves of Kirganelia reticulata (Euphorbiaceae were investigated. Susceptibility of some Gram-negative organisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Gram-positive organism (Staphylococcus aureus were tested. Agar well diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to determine the minimum antibacterial activity against all the tested microorganisms. The extracts exhibited antibacterial activities with zones of inhibition ranging from 9.07 - 30.10 mm, 8.17 - 24.57 mm and 5.60 - 14.67 mm for methanol, chloroform and hexane extracts respectively. Screening of crude extracts showed notable minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC at concentrations of 100 to 6.25 mgml-1. The organisms were more sensitive to the methanolic extract of the leaves, where as extracts from other solvents like chloroform and hexane showed moderate to weak activity respectively. Similar results have been showed in MIC and MBC.

  6. The Effects of Gokshura, Tribulus terrestris on Sex Reversal of Guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oehriban cek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT on sex reversal in guppy, Poecilia reticulata. The objective of this study was to introduce a new environmentally friendly method for masculinization in P. reticulata. Since male guppy has higher commercial value than female. TT is a natural, non-toxic herb which helps enhance testosterone levels in human and animals. It was prepared in a laboratory in France. Different concentration (0.0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 g L-1 of TT was investigated for sex reversal in the Poecilia reticulata. TT extract was administered by immersion of newly born offspring once weekly for two months. Among the dosages used in the present study 0.15 g L-1 TT was the most effective dosage that ensured maximum male ratio (80%, p<0.01. Although, sex ratios of 0.05 and 0.1 g L-1 TT were not significantly different from the expected 1:1 ratio, in these two groups treatment with TT also result in higher number of males (58.25 and 59.77%, respectively, than control (p>0.05. Total survival rates in all treatments and control were uniformly high ranging from 83 to 87% (p>0.05. It is concluded that TT has no negative effect on survival rate of P. reticulata. All groups of TT-treated fish exhibited successful growth acceleration comparing to the control group, but only TT treatment at the concentration of 0.15 and 0.1 g L-1 TT significantly improved growth rate of P. reticulata (p<0.01. Histological examinations revealed that testes of fish treated with TT-extract contained all stages of spermatogenesis. Sex reversal in P. reticulata demonstrated that TT treated new-born progenies showed successful sex reversal, spermatogenesis and better growth rate than untreated progenies.

  7. Vulnerability of the mosquito larvae to the guppies (Poecilia reticulata in the presence of alternative preys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnali Manna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The predatory potential of the larvivorous fishes can be affected by the presence of alternative preys. In the present study the predation pattern of the sewage dwelling Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1872 on the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae was evaluated in the presence of alternative preys. Methods: The predation of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by different size groups of P. reticulata fishes was evaluated. In addition to this, the niche breadth (N and diet breadth (B were measured following Manly’s selectivity index (Si as an indicator of variation of such predation pattern in the presence of alternative prey types, like chironomid larvae and tubificid worms.Results: The consumption of IV instar Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by individual P. reticulata ranged between 65 and 84 in a 3 h feeding period and varied with the size of fish (F2, 33 = 34.91; p<0.001. The selectivity coefficient revealed a significantly low preference for the Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae (0.16, CL: 0.05 – 0.27; p< 0.05 compared to the chironomid larvae and tubificid worms, when all the three prey types were present. The niche breadth (N and diet breadth (B ranged from 0.77 to 0.92 and 0.69 to 0.93, respectively. The total consumption of all the prey types varied with the predator density, but the selectivity index for the mosquito larvae was significantly low in all the instances.Interpretation & conclusion: P. reticulata can consume a good number of mosquito larvae, with the consumption rate varying with the body size. P. reticulata fishes exhibit low preference for mosquito larvae as prey in the presence of alternative controphic preys like chironomid larvae and tubificid worms. Though establishment and sustenance of P. reticulata in new habitats will be favoured by the presence of alternative preys, but vulnerability of mosquito larvae may be reduced with availability of multiple preys in natural conditions.

  8. Absolute structures of new megastigmane glycosides, foliasalaciosides E(1), E(2), E(3), F, G, H, and I from the leaves of Salacia chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Nakamura, Seikou; Pongpiriyadacha, Yutana; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2008-04-01

    Following the investigation of foliasalaciosides A(1), A(2), B(1), B(2), C, and D, seven new megastigmane glycosides named foliasalaciosides E(1)-I (1-7), together with four known constituents, were isolated from the leaves of Salacia chinensis LINN. collected in Thailand. The absolute stereostructures of the new compounds were characterized on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence, including the application of the modified Mosher's method. PMID:18379106

  9. Studies of In Vitro Embryo Culture of Guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, LiLi; Lee, Ki-Young

    2014-09-01

    Different with other fishes, the guppies (Poecilia reticulata) is ovoviviparity, which retain their fertilized eggs within the follicle throughout gestation. The synchronously growing diplotene oocytes store nutrients in droplets and yolk, before their maturation and fertilization. The lecithotrophic strategy of development entails the provisioning of embryos with resources from the maternal yolk deposit rather than from a placenta, it allows the extracorporeal culture of guppy embryo. Studies on their early development of live bearers like the guppy including lineage tracing and genetic manipulations, have been limited. Therefore, to optimize conditions of embryo in vitro culture, explanted embryos from pregnant females were incubated in embryo medium (L-15 medium, supplemented with 5, 10, 15, 20% fetal bovine serum, respectively). We investigated whether the contents of FBS in vitro culture medium impact the development of embryos, and whether they would hatch in vitro. Our study found that in 5% of FBS of the medium, although embryos developed significantly slower in vitro than in the ovary, it was impossible to exactly quantify the developmental delay in culture, due to the obvious spread in developmental stage within each batch of eggs, and embryos can only be maintained until the early-eyed. And although in culture with 20% FBS the embryos can sustain rapid development of early stage, but cannot be cultured for the entire period of their embryonic development and ultimately died. In the medium with 10% and 15% FBS, the embryos seems well developed, even some can continue to grow after follicle ruptures until it can be fed. We also observed that embryonic in these two culture conditions were significantly different in development speed, in 15% it is faster than 10%. But 10% FBS appears to be more optimizing condition than 15% one on development process of embryos and survival rate to larvae stage. PMID:25949182

  10. Protective immunization against Tetrahymena sp. infection in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettri, J Kumar; Leibowitz, M Pimenta; Ofir, R; Zilberg, D

    2009-08-01

    Systemic tetrahymenosis constitutes a serious problem in guppy (Poecilia reticulata) production worldwide and no therapeutic solution is available for this disease. Three immunization trials were conducted, testing the effectiveness of different Tetrahymena preparations applied by intraperitoneal injection (IP) with or without Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) and with or without booster dose. In trial 1, immunization with the pathogenic Tet-NI 6 lysate and live attenuated Tet-NI 1 did not provide significant protection from infection, although infection rates were significantly lower in the Tet-NI 6-immunized group than in controls. In trial 2, mortality in Tet-NI 6 + FCA-immunized fish was 10%, significantly lower than in all other treatment groups, including Tet-NI 6 lysate, live attenuated Tet-NI 1 and controls (77, 67 and 73%, respectively). In trial 3, the lowest mortality rates were obtained in the Tet-NI 6 + FCA + booster-immunized group (15%). These levels were lower but not significantly different from the non-boostered Tet-NI 6-immunized group (28%) and the groups immunized with Tet-NI 1, with and without booster (32 and 34%, respectively). Mortality in these four groups was significantly lower than in controls, including adjuvant- and PBS-injected groups (72 and 81%, respectively). Body homogenates of immunized fish immobilized Tetrahymena in-vitro, as compared to no or very little immobilization in controls. Lysozyme levels in the Tet-NI 6 + FCA + booster group were significantly higher than in all other treatments in trial 2 and controls in trial 3. There was no significant difference in anti-protease activity among the differently immunized fish. We conclude that immunization with Tetrahymena lysates in FCA confers a high degree of protection from infection, suggesting this preparation as a basis for vaccine development. PMID:19490943

  11. Regression comparisons of Tetrahymena pyriformis and Poecilia reticulata toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Julie R; Hamblen, Elizabeth L; Schultz, T Wayne

    2002-04-01

    The toxicity data of chemicals common to both the Poecilia reticulata mortality assay and the Tetrahymena pyriformis growth impairment assay were evaluated. Two chemicals were not toxic at saturation in the T. pyriformis assay. In addition, due to abiotic transformation, a third chemical was removed from further consideration. Each chemical was a priori assigned a mode of toxic action: neutral non-covalent, polar non-covalent, or electrophilic covalent toxicity. To further investigate comparisons between endpoints, polar and electrophilic chemicals were separated into class-based groups. The polar non-covalent chemicals were separated into phenols and anilines, while the electrophilic chemicals were separated into those reacting via Schiff-base formation (i.e., aldehydes) and those reacting via bimolecular substitution to a nucleophile (i.e., selected nitroaromatics). A comparison of toxic potency as a collective set was statistically described by the relationship; log(LC50(-1)) = 1.05(log(IGC50(-1))) + 0.56, n = 124; r2 = 0.85; s = 0.42; F = 682; Pr > F = 0.0001. The relationship between endpoints was inversely proportional to reactivity associated with the mode of action. While the comparative toxicity for neutral narcotics exhibited an excellent fit (r2 = 0.94), the fits for polar narcotics and electrophiles were poorer, r2 = 0.69 and 0.62, respectively. Investigations into class-based groupings indicated fit of toxic potency data for aldehydes (r2 = 0.85) and phenols (r2 = 0.81) were quite good. However, fits for anilines (r2 = 0.43) and nitroaromatics (r2 = 0.68) revealed that toxicity was not as well related between endpoints for these chemicals. PMID:11996142

  12. Determination of the Presence of Huanglongbing in Seeds and Movement of the Pathogen in Citrus reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajivand Shokrollah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Huanglongbing (HLB also known as citrus greening disease is a fastidious phloem-inhabiting bacterium in the genus Candidatus Liberibacter. Using universal primers, the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence of three strains of the bacterium were obtained by PCR. However there is very little information on seed transmission and HLB pathogen movement to find a way for control or reduce the severity of HLB on the field. The study was conducted to detect HLB pathogen in seeds of Citrus, to determine pathogen movement in citrus seedling after infection and to detect the HLB pathogen in citrus roots. Approach: Seeds of Citrus reticulata cv. Limau Madu were collected from infected orchard and were germinated in screenhouse condition. The seeds of Citrus reticlata cv. L. Madu were planted in screenhouse too for HLB pathogen movement and HLB detection in roots. The seedlings were inoculated using infected grafting methods. Results: HLB was not amplified in new seedlings after germination. HLB moved slowly reaching up to 1.5 cm after 2 weeks, 1.5-4.5 cm after eight weeks and detected on 4.5-9 cm after 14 weeks below the grafting area. HLB was also detected up to 9-15 cm after 16 weeks, 15-24 cm after twenty weeks, 24-28.5 cm after 22 weeks and 28.5-30 cm after 24 weeks below the grafting area. Conclusion: Base on conventional PCR test, HLB disease in citrus is not seed borne and it can reach to the roots 26 weeks after inoculation.

  13. Yield and fruit quality of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco as influenced by evaporation based drip irrigation schedules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To identify the critical stages of irrigation water requirement of bearing Nagpur mandarin through drip irrigation system a field experiment was conducted on 7-9 years old bearing Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco based on evaporation replenishment (ER irrigation scheduling during 2009-12. The plant growing period was divided into 6 stages, 2 months each, starting from January to December and the effect on water use, tree growth, fruit yield and quality was studied. The irrigation water quantity given per day per plant under different treatments in various months varied from 21.3-158.5 liters per plant, 17.5-153.4 liters per plant and 20.9-164.5 liters per plant in different months during 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12. The highest quantity of water was applied under the irrigation scheduled at 80 % evaporation replenishment (ER treatment and it varied from 46.8-164.5 liters per plant in 2009-12. The average mandarin plant height was 4.57-4.83 m, stock girth was 51.5-56.3 cm and canopy volume 62.4-71.2 m3. The only canopy volume was found significant among the various scheduling treatments. The fruit yield and quality was significantly affected under various evaporation replenishment (ER based drip irrigation scheduling treatments. The highest fruit yield (17.25 and 21.48 tones per ha higher TSS, juice percentage and lower acidity was observed under irrigation at 80 % ER in stages I-V and 30 % ER in stage VI during the study period. The highest TSS to acidity ratio (12.7 and 12.4 was found in the irrigation schedule with 80 % ER in stages I-V and 30 % ER in stage VI during 2010-12.

  14. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces wadayamensis Strain A23, an Endophytic Actinobacterium from Citrus reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana G; Tormet Gonzalez, Gabriela D; Samborsky, Markyian; Marcon, Joelma; Araujo, Welington L; de Azevedo, João Lucio

    2014-01-01

    The actinobacterium Streptomyces wadayamensis A23 is an endophyte of Citrus reticulata that produces the antimycin and mannopeptimycin antibiotics, among others. The strain has the capability to inhibit Xylella fastidiosa growth. The draft genome of S. wadayamensis A23 has ~7.0 Mb and 6,006 protein-coding sequences, with a 73.5% G+C content. PMID:24994795

  15. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces wadayamensis Strain A23, an Endophytic Actinobacterium from Citrus reticulata

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana G. de Oliveira; Tormet Gonzalez, Gabriela D.; Samborsky, Markyian; Marcon, Joelma; Araujo, Welington L.; de Azevedo, João Lucio

    2014-01-01

    The actinobacterium Streptomyces wadayamensis A23 is an endophyte of Citrus reticulata that produces the antimycin and mannopeptimycin antibiotics, among others. The strain has the capability to inhibit Xylella fastidiosa growth. The draft genome of S. wadayamensis A23 has ~7.0 Mb and 6,006 protein-coding sequences, with a 73.5% G+C content.

  16. Biodiesel from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seed oil, a potential non-food feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil extracted from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seeds was investigated as a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was prepared by sodium methoxide-catalyzed transesterification of the oil with methanol. Fuel properties that were determined include cetane numb...

  17. Changes of ionizing radiation on palace reticulata exposed to various doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of the effect of radiation on animal organisms help us to develop methods of protection against its unfavourable influences. The present study focused on changes, clinical symptoms and survival of Poecilia reticulata exposed to various doses of ionizing radiation. The fish were exposed to a single dose whole-body gamma radiation of 10, 20, 30, 35 and 40 Gy. (authors)

  18. Mutational changes in the courtship activity of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The courtship activity of male F2 descendants of irradiated and control guppies, Poecilia reticulata, of the inbred strain Istanbul was compared. The results of Spieser and Schroeder (1978), who found a decrease in courtship activity of descendants of irradiated guppies, were confirmed under more natural conditions

  19. Morfo-anatomia comparada das folhas do par vicariante Plathymenia foliolosa Benth. e Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Irene da Costa A., Mendes; Therezinha Isaia, Paviani.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available (Morfo-anatomia comparada das folhas do par vicariante Plathymenia foliolosa Benth. e Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae)). Folhas bipinadas adultas de P. foliolosa e P. reticulata da mata (Minas Gerais) e do cerrado (Distrito Federal) respectivamente, foram estudadas, sob o pont [...] o de vista comparativo, quanto à morfologia externa e à anatomia. Todas as partes foliares foram examinadas sob microscopia óptica, em luz normal e em luz polarizada. Os folíolos de P. reticulata são maiores que os de P. foliolosa. A organização do sistema vascular é semelhante nas duas espécies. Em P. reticulata, os estômatos estão no mesmo nível ou levemente depressionados em relação às demais células epidérmicas e, em P. foliolosa, estas estruturas mostram posição ligeiramente elevada. A lâmina foliolar é mais espessa e o mesofilo é mais compacto em P. reticulata. As lâminas foliolares são hipoestomáticas e dorsiventrais com dois estratos de parênquima paliçádico em P. reticulata e um estrato em P. foliolosa. A cutinização é mais intensa nas paredes das células epidérmicas de P. reticulata. Cristais de oxalato de cálcio são mais abundantes em P. foliolosa embora a redissolução dos mesmos tenha sido observada, para ambas as espécies, sobretudo no pulvino primário. O escleromorfismo, encarado sob o ponto de vista anatômico, é mais acentuado em P. reticulata e, nesta espécie, a quantidade de taninos e de fibras gelatinosas também é maior. A semelhança constatada na organização estrutural como um todo é condizente com a proximidade taxonômica das duas espécies e os aspectos anatômicos diferenciais sugerem estar relacionados com o habitat de P. foliolosa e P. reticulata. Abstract in english (Comparative morpho-anatomy of leaves from the vicariant pair Plathymenia foliolosa Benth. and Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae)). The bipinnate adult leaves of P. foliolosa from the forest (Minas Gerais) and P. reticulata from the cerrado vegetation of Brasília (DF), Brazil, w [...] ere studied. All parts of the leaves were examined under the light microscope with normal and polarized light. P. reticulata leaflets are larger than those of P. foliolosa. The anatomical structure in all parts shows subtle differences which may be of ecological importance. The stomata occur either at the same level as the adjacent epidermal cells or they may be slightly sunken in P. reticulata or slightly raised in P.foliolosa. The leaflet blade is wider in P. reticulata and the mesophyll cells are more tightly arranged. The leaflet blade is hypostomatic, dorsiventral with two layers of palisade parenchyma in P. reticulata and one layer in P. foliolosa. The cutinization process is more intense in the epidermal cell walls of P. reticulata. Calcium oxalate crystals are more abundant in P. foliolosa although crystal redissolution was seen in both species. Stronger scleromorphism (from the anatomical point of view), greater amount of phenolic deposits and gelatinous fibers are features more conspicuous in P. reticulata. The similar structural organization recorded for the two vicariant species agrees with their close taxonomic relationship and the differential anatomical features may be related to the environmental factors of the species' habitat.

  20. Potent glucosidase inhibitors: de-O-sulfonated ponkoranol and its stereoisomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Razieh; Kuntz, Douglas A; Rose, David R; Pinto, B Mario

    2010-04-01

    Ponkoranol, a glucosidase inhibitor isolated from the plant Salacia reticulata, comprises a sulfonium ion with an internal sulfate counterion. An efficient synthetic route to de-O-sulfonated ponkoranol and its 5'-stereoisomer is reported, and it is shown that these compounds are potent glucosidase inhibitors that inhibit a key intestinal human glucosidase, the N-terminal catalytic domain of maltase glucoamylase, with K(i) values of 43 +/- 3 and 15 +/- 1 nM, respectively. PMID:20218632

  1. Sequencing and characterization of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodd F Helen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next-generation sequencing is providing researchers with a relatively fast and affordable option for developing genomic resources for organisms that are not among the traditional genetic models. Here we present a de novo assembly of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata transcriptome using 454 sequence reads, and we evaluate potential uses of this transcriptome, including detection of sex-specific transcripts and deployment as a reference for gene expression analysis in guppies and a related species. Guppies have been model organisms in ecology, evolutionary biology, and animal behaviour for over 100 years. An annotated transcriptome and other genomic tools will facilitate understanding the genetic and molecular bases of adaptation and variation in a vertebrate species with a uniquely well known natural history. Results We generated approximately 336 Mbp of mRNA sequence data from male brain, male body, female brain, and female body. The resulting 1,162,670 reads assembled into 54,921 contigs, creating a reference transcriptome for the guppy with an average read depth of 28×. We annotated nearly 40% of this reference transcriptome by searching protein and gene ontology databases. Using this annotated transcriptome database, we identified candidate genes of interest to the guppy research community, putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and male-specific expressed genes. We also showed that our reference transcriptome can be used for RNA-sequencing-based analysis of differential gene expression. We identified transcripts that, in juveniles, are regulated differently in the presence and absence of an important predator, Rivulus hartii, including two genes implicated in stress response. For each sample in the RNA-seq study, >50% of high-quality reads mapped to unique sequences in the reference database with high confidence. In addition, we evaluated the use of the guppy reference transcriptome for gene expression analyses in a congeneric species, the sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna. Over 40% of reads from the sailfin molly sample aligned to the guppy transcriptome. Conclusions We show that next-generation sequencing provided a reliable and broad reference transcriptome. This resource allowed us to identify candidate gene variants, SNPs in coding regions, and sex-specific gene expression, and permitted quantitative analysis of differential gene expression.

  2. Modeling Kuiper belt objects Charon, Orcus and Salacia by means of a new equation of state for porous icy bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, Uri; Prialnik, Dina

    2015-01-01

    We use a one-dimensional adaptive-grid thermal evolution code to model Kuiper belt objects Charon, Orcus and Salacia and compare their measured bulk densities with those resulting from evolutionary calculations at the end of 4.6 Gyr. Our model assumes an initial homogeneous composition of mixed ice and rock, and follows the multiphase flow of water through the porous rocky medium, consequent differentiation and aqueous chemical alterations in the rock. Heating sources include long-lived radionuclides, serpentinization reactions, release of gravitational potential energy due to compaction, and crystallization of amorphous ice. The density profile is calculated by assuming hydrostatic equilibrium to be maintained through changes in composition, pressure and temperature. To this purpose, we construct an equation of state suitable for porous icy bodies with radii of a few hundred km, based on the best available empirical studies of ice and rock compaction, and on comparisons with rock porosities in Earth analog and Solar System silicates. We show that the observed bulk densities can be reproduced by assuming the same set of initial and physical parameters, including the same rock/ice mass ratio for all three bodies. We conclude that the mass of the object uniquely determines the evolution of porosity, and thus explains the observed differences in bulk density. The final structure of all three objects is differentiated, with an inner rocky core, and outer ice-enriched mantle. The degree of differentiation, too, is determined by the object's mass.

  3. A mixture of Salacia oblonga extract and IP-PA1 reduces fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels

    OpenAIRE

    Nakata, Kazue; Taniguchi, Yoshie; Yoshioka, Noriko; Yoshida, Aya; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Takeru; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Miyake, Shin-ichiro; Kohchi, Chie; Kuroki, Masahide; Soma, Gen-ichiro

    2011-01-01

    At present, lifestyle-related diseases are one of the most critical health issues worldwide. It has been reported that lipopolysaccharide derived from a Gram-negative bacteria (IP-PA1) symbiotic with wheat exhibited several advantageous biological effects, such as the reduction of plasma glucose levels in NOD mice and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in WHHL rabbits. In this study, the beneficial effects on plasma glucose and lipids of a tea (SI tea) consisting of IP-PA1 and Salacia (whic...

  4. Acute toxicity of lanthanum to fish Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Mácová

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lanthanides are widely used in industry as well as medicine, where serve as contrast agents in imaging methods and techniques. Due to these facts, lanthanides can become significant pollutants of living environment. In our work, we were focused in investigation of toxicity of lanthanum on juvenile stages of two fish species- Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata and embryonic stages of D. rerio. The 96hLC50 values were 156.33 ± 5.59 mg.l–1 for juvenile D. rerio and 128.38 ± 5.29 mg.l–1 for juvenile P. reticulata. The 144hLC50 for embryonic stages of D. rerio was 152.98 ± 8.06 mg.l–1. Results of toxicity tests indicate possible toxicity of lanthanum in the case of presence in aquatic environment.

  5. Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine)

    OpenAIRE

    Amine Elleuch; Fattouma Djilani Khouaja; Imen Hamdi; Nabiha Bsais; Jean-Pierre Perreault; Mohamed Marrakchi; Hatem Fakhfakh

    2006-01-01

    We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III) isolated from a single natural infected Citrus reticulata var. Clementine tree growing in a tree nursery in Manouba (near Tunis Capital). We describe the sequence variability of these viroids from their natural host without using an alternative passage by an indicator host or an artificial inoculation. This work...

  6. KIRGANELIA RETICULATA (POIR) BAILL.-A REVIEW ON ITS BOTANY, ETHNOBOTANY, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Kumar Soni; Vihangesh Dixit; Akanksha Chandra; Raghuveer Irchhaiya; Nandlal Singh, Harsh Singh

    2013-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Kirganelia reticulata (Poir.) Baill. is known for its importance in various traditional medicine around the world and are proved pharmacologically as an antiviral against Hepatitis B, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic and antioxidant. In Ayurvedic system of Indian medicine recognized its activity against jaundice, diuretic, fever, liver disorder, in bleeding gums, small pox, syphilis, etc. Aim of the review: The review summarizes the up-to-date and comprehensi...

  7. Impact of expected value on neural activity in rat substantia nigra pars reticulata

    OpenAIRE

    Bryden, Daniel W.; Johnson, Emily E; Diao, Xiayang; Roesch, Matthew R

    2011-01-01

    The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is thought to serve as the output of the basal ganglia, whereby associative information from striatum influences behavior via disinhibition of downstream motor areas to motivate behavior. Unfortunately, few studies have examined activity in SNr in rats making decisions based on the value of predicted reward similar to those conducted in primates. To fill this void, we recorded from single neurons in SNr while rats performed a choice task in which dif...

  8. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Essential Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Bei Gao; Yulong Chen; Mingwei Zhang; Yujuan Xu; Siyi Pan

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (PCR) essential oil obtained using an improved Clevenger type apparatus were studied. Among the five different PCRs examined the highest yield of essential oil was found in Chachi 2004 (harvested and stored in 2004) and the lowest in Chachi 2008 (harvested and stored in 2008). Fifty three different volatile compounds were determined, including terpenic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones a...

  9. Female mate preference explains countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    OpenAIRE

    Deere, Kerry A.; Grether, Gregory F.; Sun, Aida; SINSHEIMER, JANET S.

    2011-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that mate choice is responsible for countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The nature of the countergradient pattern is that geographical variation in the carotenoid content of the orange spots of males is counterbalanced by genetic variation in drosopterin production, resulting in a relatively uniform pigment ratio. A female hue preference could produce this pattern, because hue is the axis of colour variation...

  10. Investigation of LC50, NOEC and LOEC of Glyphosate, Deltamethrin and Pretilachlor in Guppies (Poecilia Reticulata)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sadeghi; Aliakbar Hedayati

    2014-01-01

    Background: The presence of pesticides is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran. These toxic substances may accumulate in the food chain and cause serious ecological and health problems. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor as potential dangerous organic pesticides to assess lethal effects of these chemicals agents to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Methods: Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of glypho...

  11. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of citrus jambhiri lush and citrus reticulata blanco essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time interval in which we can get maximum concentration of essential oil from the peels of Citrus jambhiri Lush and Citrus reticulata Blanco, to determine the composition of peel oils and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracted oils. It was observed that in case of Citrus jambhiri Lush maximum oil yield (I %) was obtained when fruits were immature (during October). As the fruit samples got matured, the oil yield decreased. In December the oil yield decreased to 0.2 %. In case of Citrus reticulata Blanco maximum oil yield (0.189 %) was obtained during the last week of January. Chemical analysis of essential oils showed that limonene was the most abundant compound (86 %-93 %) followed by alpha terpinene (2 %-4.5 %), beta-pinene(1 0/0-2 %) and nerol (0.5 %-1.5 %). The radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of essential oils were determined by DPPH and linoleic acid test. The essential oil of Citrus jambhiri Lush inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid by 54.98 % and that of Citrus reticulata Blanco inhibited by 49.98 %. Moreover, the essential oils also showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms. (author)

  12. Protective Effect against Hydroxyl-induced DNA Damage and Antioxidant Activity of Citri reticulatae Pericarpium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng Chen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As a typical Chinese herbal medicine, Citri reticulatae pericarpium (CRP possesses various pharmacological effects involved in antioxidant ability. However, its antioxidant effects have not been reported yet. The objective of this work was to investigate its antioxidant ability, then further discuss the antioxidant mechanism. Methods: CRP was extracted by ethanol to obtain ethanol extract of Citri reticulatae pericarpium (ECRP. ECRP was then measured by various antioxidant methods, including DNA damage assay, DPPH assay, ABTS assay, Fe3+-reducing assay and Cu2+-reducing assay. Finally, the content of total flavonoids was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. Results: Our results revealed that ECRP could effectively protect against hydroxyl-induced DNA damage (IC50 944.47±147.74 ?g/mL. In addition, it could also scavenge DPPH· radical (IC50349.67±1.91 ?g/mL and ABTS+• radical (IC5011.33±0.10 ?g/mL, reduce Fe3+ (IC50 140.95±2.15 ?g/mL and Cu2+ (IC50 70.46±1.77 ?g/mL. Chemical analysis demonstrated that the content of total flavonoids in ECRP was 198.29±12.24 mg quercetin/g. Conclusion: Citri reticulatae pericarpium can effectively protect against hydroxyl-induced DNA damage. One mechanism of protective effect may be radical-scavenging which is via donating hydrogen atom (H·, donating electron (e. Its antioxidant ability can be mainly attributed to the flavonoids, especially hesperidin and narirutin.

  13. Effect of Citrus reticulata on Serum Protein Fractions of Mice After Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy-Saba El-Rigal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata roots or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid were studied as new antischistosomal drugs. The total protein and the different serum proteins namely albumin, prealbumin, ?-lipoproteins, macroglobulins, ?-1-acid glycoprotein, ?-1-antitrypsin, cholinesterase, ceruloplasmin, haemopexin, haptoglobin, transferrin and lipoprotein were measured in both infected and treated mice. Also, liver function parameters; AST, ALT, ALP and total bilirubin were studied in the different mice groups. Besides, the parasitological parameters, egg count and worm burden were estimated. The results showed a significant reduction in all protein fraction concentrations in S. mansoni infected mice and elevation in the liver function parameters AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin. Citrus reticulata extract and mirazid showed an improvement in all the previous parameters which confirmed the medical importance and curative effects of C. reticulata and mirazid against S. mansoni infection. Also, the results showed a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden.

  14. Efecto anabólico y androgénico del esteroide acetato de trembolona en el guppy (Poecilia reticulata) / Anabolic and androgenic effect of steroid trenbolone acetate on guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Héctor, Salgado Zamora; Aída, Azpeitia Hernández; Samuel, Marañón Herrera; Eduardo, Maya Peña.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto del esteroide semisintético acetato de trembolona (ATB) en el pez de ornato Poecilia reticulata (guppy). Especímenes juveniles de 30 días de edad fueron tratados con el esteroide a dosis de 300 mg/kg de alimento durante 60 días. Al término del tratamiento, 40 días después, se [...] estimó el efecto residual del esteroide. Se analizó la sobrevivencia, la proporción de peces masculinizados, así como el efecto anabólico. Los resultados indicaron que el ATB es eficaz para inducir la masculinización, a diferencia del grupo testigo, donde se registraron 32% de machos. Asimismo, el ATB tuvo un efecto anabólico, ya que los peces tratados mostraron mayor peso y talla e incremento de la aleta caudal. El esteroide no causó daño en la población tratada, al sobrevivir 93.3% de los peces, comparado con 83% del grupo testigo. Abstract in english The effect of semi-synthetic steroid trenbolone acetate (TBA) on the ornamental fish Poecilia reticulata (guppy) was studied. The steroid at a dose of 300 mg/kg feed was administered to 30 days old juvenile specimens during 60 days. Forty days after treatment was ended, an evaluation aimed to determ [...] ine the steroid residual effect was undertaken. Survival, masculinization ratio and the drug anabolic effect were analyzed. Results showed TBA to be effective to induce masculinization, differing (P

  15. Salacia oblonga root improves postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: Activation of PPAR-?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salacia oblonga (SO) root is an Ayurvedic medicine with anti-diabetic and anti-obese properties. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-?, a nuclear receptor, plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of lipid metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that chronic oral administration of the water extract from the root of SO to Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, a genetic model of type 2 diabetes and obesity, lowered plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol (TC) levels, increased plasma high-density lipoprotein levels and reduced the liver contents of triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and the ratio of fatty droplets to total tissue. By contrast, the extract had no effect on plasma triglyceride and TC levels in fasted ZDF rats. After olive oil administration to ZDF the extract also inhibited the increase in plasma triglyceride levels. These results suggest that SO extract improves postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in ZDF rats. Additionally, SO treatment enhanced hepatic expression of PPAR-? mRNA and protein, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and acyl-CoA oxidase mRNAs in ZDF rats. In vitro, SO extract and its main component mangiferin activated PPAR-? luciferase activity in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and lipoprotein lipase mRNA expression and enzyme activity in THP-1 differentiated macrophages; these effects were completely suppressed by a selective PPAR-? antagonist MK-886. The findings from both in vivo and in vitro suggest that SO extract functions as a PPAR-? activator, providing a potential mechanism for improvement of postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in diabetes and obesity

  16. Salacinol and Related Analogs: New Leads for Type 2 Diabetes Therapeutic Candidates from the Thai Traditional Natural Medicine Salacia chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Morikawa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic effect of a hot water extract of stems of Salacia chinensis (SCE was evaluated in vivo in KK-Ay mice, a typical type 2 diabetes mellitus mice model. Administration of CE-2 dietary feed containing 0.25 and/or 0.50% of SCE for three weeks to KK-Ay mice significantly suppressed the elevation of both blood glucose and HbA1c levels without significant changes in body weight or food intake. Glucose tolerance was improved by administration to KK-Ay mice for 27 days of AIN93M purified dietary feed containing 0.12% of SCE. No suppressive effect with respect to HbA1c level was observed when AIN93M/Glc dietary feed in which all digestible glucides were replaced with glucose was administered with SCE. Thus, ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity approved as the mechanism of action of the antidiabetic effect of SCE by in vitro investigation was reconfirmed also in in vivo studies. Evaluation of the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the active constituents, salacinol (1, kotalanol (3, and neokotalanol (4, by employing human ?-glucosidases revealed that these compounds inhibited them as potently (IC50 = 3.9–4.9 ?M for maltase as they inhibited rat small intestinal ?-glucosidase. The principal sulfonium constituents (1–4 were highly stable in an artificial gastric juice. In addition, 1–4 were hardly absorbed from the intestine in an experiment using the in situ rat ligated intestinal loop model. The results indicate that these sulfoniums are promising leads for a new type of anti-diabetic agents.

  17. Salacinol and related analogs: new leads for type 2 diabetes therapeutic candidates from the Thai traditional natural medicine Salacia chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Toshio; Akaki, Junji; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Kinouchi, Eri; Tanabe, Genzoh; Pongpiriyadacha, Yutana; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu

    2015-03-01

    The antidiabetic effect of a hot water extract of stems of Salacia chinensis (SCE) was evaluated in vivo in KK-Ay mice, a typical type 2 diabetes mellitus mice model. Administration of CE-2 dietary feed containing 0.25 and/or 0.50% of SCE for three weeks to KK-Ay mice significantly suppressed the elevation of both blood glucose and HbA1c levels without significant changes in body weight or food intake. Glucose tolerance was improved by administration to KK-Ay mice for 27 days of AIN93M purified dietary feed containing 0.12% of SCE. No suppressive effect with respect to HbA1c level was observed when AIN93M/Glc dietary feed in which all digestible glucides were replaced with glucose was administered with SCE. Thus, ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity approved as the mechanism of action of the antidiabetic effect of SCE by in vitro investigation was reconfirmed also in in vivo studies. Evaluation of the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the active constituents, salacinol (1), kotalanol (3), and neokotalanol (4), by employing human ?-glucosidases revealed that these compounds inhibited them as potently (IC50 = 3.9-4.9 ?M for maltase) as they inhibited rat small intestinal ?-glucosidase. The principal sulfonium constituents (1-4) were highly stable in an artificial gastric juice. In addition, 1-4 were hardly absorbed from the intestine in an experiment using the in situ rat ligated intestinal loop model. The results indicate that these sulfoniums are promising leads for a new type of anti-diabetic agents. PMID:25734563

  18. Utilization of chemically modified citrus reticulata peels for biosorptive removal of acid yellow-73 dye from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Textile effluents contain several varieties of natural and synthetic dyes, which are non-biodegradable. Acid Yellow-73 is one of them. In this research work, adsorptive removal of this dye was investigated using chemically modified Citrus reticulata peels, in batch mode. It was noted that adsorption of dye on Citrus reticulata peels increased by increasing contact time and decreased in basic pH conditions. Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal models were followed by equilibrium data, but the first isotherm fitted the data better, showing that chemisorption occurred more as compared to physiosorption, showing maximum adsorption capacity 96.46 mg.g-1.L-1. The thermodynamic study showed that adsorption of Acid Yellow-73 on chemically modified Citrus reticulata peels was favorable in nature, following pseudo-second order kinetics. (author)

  19. Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amine, Elleuch; Fattouma Djilani, Khouaja; Imen, Hamdi; Nabiha, Bsais; Jean-Pierre, Perreault; Mohamed, Marrakchi; Hatem, Fakhfakh.

    Full Text Available We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III) isolated from a single natural infected Citrus reticulata var. Clementine tree growing in a tree nursery in Manouba [...] (near Tunis Capital). We describe the sequence variability of these viroids from their natural host without using an alternative passage by an indicator host or an artificial inoculation. This work confirms that naturally occurring viroid infections contain a mixture of sequence variants. These are the first sequences of citrus viroids from Africa.

  20. Acute Toxicity of Premium Motor Spirit to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J .K. Saliu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Static bioassays were made to determine acute toxicity of premium motor spirit on poecilia reticulata. Lethal doses of the oil were determined using LC50 software programmes based on Finneys probit statistical method. The 96 LC50 value of the oil for guppy was estimated as 1.69 (1.13-2.43 mg L-1. The fish exhibited behavioural changes in the form of aggression, rapid gulping of water, increased opercular movement and abnormal swimming movements. The significance of this sublethal effect particularly as a stress indicator of petrol oil contamination was discussed.

  1. Two new phenylglycol derivatives isolated from Syringa reticulata var. mandshurica and their antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiong Ming; Liu, Yan Li; Li, Xiao Ran; Feng, Yu Lin; Yang, Shi Lin

    2009-08-01

    Two new phenylglycol derivatives, (S)-(+)-2-(3,4-dihydroxy phenyl)-2-ethoxyl- ethanol and (S)-(+)-2-(3,4-dihydroxy phenyl)-2-acetoxy-ethanol, were isolated from the leaves of Syringa reticulata var. mandshurica, along with two known phenethylols, p-hydroxyl phenethanol and 3,4-dihydroxy phenethanol. The planar structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of their spectral data, and their absolute stereochemistry was established by modified Mosher's method. The two known compounds were identified by comparison of spectral data with published references. The two new compounds showed conspicuous antifungal activities by agar medium assay. PMID:19652414

  2. CrWSKP1, an SKP1-like Gene, Is Involved in the Self-Incompatibility Reaction of "Wuzishatangju" (Citrus reticulata Blanco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Miao, Hongxia; Ma, Yuewen; Wang, Lu; Hu, Guibing; Ye, Zixing; Zhao, Jietang; Qin, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Plant S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1) genes play crucial roles in plant development and differentiation. However, the role of SKP1 in citrus is unclear. Herein, we described a novel SKP1-like gene, designated as CrWSKP1, from "Wuzishatangju" (Citrus reticulata Blanco). The cDNA sequence of CrWSKP1 is 779 base pairs (bp) and contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 477 bp. The genomic sequence of the CrWSKP1 gene is 1296 bp with two exons and one intron. CrWSKP1 has high identity with SKP1-like genes from other plant species within two conserved regions. Approximately 85% of pollen tubes of self-pollinated CrWSKP1 transgenic tobaccos became twisted at four days after self-pollination. Pollen tube numbers of self-pollinated CrWSKP1 transformants entering into ovules were significantly fewer than that of the control. Seed number of self-pollinated CrWSKP1 transformants was significantly reduced. These results suggested that the CrWSKP1 is involved in the self-incompatibility (SI) reaction of "Wuzishatangju". PMID:26370985

  3. A mixture of Salacia oblonga extract and IP-PA1 reduces fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Kazue; Taniguchi, Yoshie; Yoshioka, Noriko; Yoshida, Aya; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Takeru; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Miyake, Shin-Ichiro; Kohchi, Chie; Kuroki, Masahide; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2011-10-01

    At present, lifestyle-related diseases are one of the most critical health issues worldwide. It has been reported that lipopolysaccharide derived from a Gram-negative bacteria (IP-PA1) symbiotic with wheat exhibited several advantageous biological effects, such as the reduction of plasma glucose levels in NOD mice and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in WHHL rabbits. In this study, the beneficial effects on plasma glucose and lipids of a tea (SI tea) consisting of IP-PA1 and Salacia (which contains an inhibitor of ?-glucosidase) were investigated in the KK-Ay/TaJcl type 2 diabetic model mice and in human subjects with premetabolic syndrome in a double-blind, randomized study. SI tea significantly decreased plasma glucose levels in KK-Ay/TaJcl mice. A clinical trial of SI tea was performed with 41 subjects between the ages of 40 and 69, who belonged either to a high plasma glucose group (HG: FPG 100-125 mg/dl) or to a hyperlipidemia group (HL: TG ? 150 mg/dl, or LDL ? 120 mg/dl, or HDL Salacia without IP-PA1 (the control) or SI tea. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, and 60 days after initiating SI tea treatment, and were measured for FPG, HbA1c, TG, LDL, and HDL. These results showed that SI tea reduced FPG and HbA1c more rapidly than the control in the HL group, and also significantly improved LDL and HDL levels in the HG group. Thus, SI tea may be helpful in preventing lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:22125681

  4. Efficacy of Citrus reticulata and Mirazid in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal A Hamed

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid, as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for different cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase; acid phosphatase (AP and 5'- nucleotidase. Liver function enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST; alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were also estimated. Parasitological studies through ova count and worm burden will also be taken into consideration. The results showed a marked reduction in SDH, LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities and a significant increase in G-6-Pase, AP, 5'- nucleotidase, and ALP after S. mansoni infection. A noticeable alteration in LDH subunits were also noticed. Treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all the previous enzyme activities with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden.

  5. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Some Nigerian Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Sofidiya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research evaluates the DPPH radical scavenging, total antioxidant activities, reducing power and total contents of phenolic compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of five Nigerian medicinal plants (Dalbergia saxatilis Hook.f. (Papilionacae, Ekebergia senegalensis A.Juss.(Meliaceae, Hymenocardia acida Tul. (Hymenocardiaceae, Icacina tricantha Oliv. (Icacinaceae and Salacia pallescens Oliv.(Celastraceae. Total phenols were analysed according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Each sample under assay condition, showed a dose-dependent effect both on free radical scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH and also on Fe3+ reducing power. The antioxidant activity of the plant extracts with the DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power method, were in the order Hymenocardia> Ekebergia> Salacia> Icacina> Dalbergia. H. acida and E. senegalensis possess very high radical scavenging activity in both assays. Potency of H. acida extract was of the same magnitude as that of reference ?-tocopherol. Total phenols in all the samples expressed as GAE (Gallic Acid Equivalent varied from 1.83 to 15.47mg g-1 of dry plant material. Total antioxidant activities correlated with total phenols (R2 = 0.6640 an indication that 66% of the antioxidant capacity of these extracts results from contribution of phenolic compounds. A linear positive relationship existed between the reducing power and total phenolics of the tested plant extracts (R2 = 0.9564.

  6. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLLASE ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO L. USING SEAWEED EXTRACT OF ULVA RETICULATA FORSSKAL.

    OpenAIRE

    Ganapathy Selvam G.; Balamurugan M; Thinakaran T.; Sivakumar K

    2013-01-01

    The effect of seaweed extract prepared from Ulva reticulata on seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyllase activity of Vigna mungo L. was studied. 100% germination was recorded in the seeds treated with lower concentration of seaweed extract. The V. mungo seeds soaked with lower concentrations of the seaweed extracts showed higher rates of germination, while the higher concentrations of the extracts inhibited the germination.

  7. Phenological Variation Within and Among Populations of Plathymenia reticulata in Brazilian Cerrado, the Atlantic Forest and Transitional Sites

    OpenAIRE

    GOULART, MAÍRA FIGUEIREDO; de Lemos Filho, José Pires; LOVATO, MARIA BERNADETE

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plathymenia reticulata (Leguminosae) is a Brazilian tree that occurs in two biomes: Cerrado, a woody savanna vegetation, and the Atlantic Forest, a tropical forest. In this study, phenological patterns and their variability within and among populations located in these biomes and in transitional zones between them were assessed.

  8. Cultivo de Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poecilidae) en cuerpos de agua tropicales,Veracruz,México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia, Devezé Murillo; Juan Lorenzo, Reta Mendiola; Basilio, Sánchez Luna.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Los peces ornamentales cultivados se han popularizado como mascotas,generando una demanda local que no se ha podido cubrir con la producción de México y por lo tanto deben importarse.Poecilia reticulata "guppy ",es un pez muy popular en el ámbito acuarístico,hoy en día se ha logrado desarrollar una [...] gran cantidad de variedades según su coloración,tipo y forma de cola.Son peces vivíparos que toleran un ámbito extremo de temperatura,siendo la más adecuada entre 25ºC y 28ºC.El tiempo que tardan las hembras en expulsar a las crías una vez que quedan preñadas,oscila entre los 25 y 30 días dependiendo de la temperatura.En esta investigación,el ciclo reproductivo completo se desarrolló en jaulas flotantes,en una laguna tropical situada en la Llanura Costera del Golfo Sur, Veracruz, México.Se diseñó la infraestructura necesaria para producir guppys (P.reticulata )incluyendo el manejo de reproductores,crianza,engorda,alimentación y comercialización,evaluando su factibilidad técnica y financiera.Se realizó un estudio de mercado,a través de una encuesta aplicada a los propietarios de los 22 acuarios existentes en la Ciudad de Veracruz,México.Se analizaron las frecuencias de oferta y demanda de cada especie con respecto a la temporada del año,lugar de origen y resistencia al manejo.Las características hidrobiológicas presentaron valores medios de temperatura (31.4ºC),oxígeno disuelto (4.5 mgl-1)y pH (6.8).Con los datos obtenidos en campo se realizó un modelo para producción de P.reticulata ,obteniendo una relación beneficio/costo=1.16,correspondiente al ingreso mínimo potencial con una ganancia bruta de US$257.67, proporcionando empleo a dos personas El aprovechamiento de cuerpos de agua en regiones tropicales a través de la producción de peces de ornato representa una alternativa para disminuir la presión sobre las poblaciones silvestres y las tierras de cultivo,proporcionar fuentes de empleo e incrementar los ingresos para el productor en comparación con sistemas tradicionales de producción. Abstract in english Culture of Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poecilidae)in tropical water bodies, Veracruz, México. Poecilia reticulata,also known as guppy,is the most popular fish in the aquarium environment. Guppys are viviparous fish with high tolerance to extreme temperatures.The development of the offspring takes be [...] tween 25 and 30 days.We developed a technology for raising guppys,which outlines infrastructure and devices for reproduction,nursery,feeding,and commercialization,evaluating the financial and technical feasibility of this technology in a case study.The complete reproductive cycle occured in floating cages with 1 mm mesh and the method was tested in a tropical lagoon in Mexico.Water quality was monitored throughout the study period (temperature,dissolved oxygen and pH levels).A marketing survey was carried out at all existing aquarium shops in Veracruz City.Data collected depict quantities demanded and offered for each species by season,place of origin,and resistance to handling.The hydrobiological characteristics were:average temperature 31.4 ºC, dissolved oxygen 4.5 mgl-1,and pH level 6.8.With these values we built a production function,and used it to evaluate profitability.We estimate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.16,with a net annual income of US$257.67.The system may provide two permanent jobs.Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4):951-958.Epub 2005 Jun 24.

  9. Upstream guppies (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859) go against the flow / Gupies (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859) de áreas de cabeceira se posicionam contra a corrente

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ryan Simon, Mohammed; Cock, van Oosterhout; Bettina, Schelkle; Joanne, Cable; Mark, McMullan.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Populações de guppies (Poecilia reticulata Peters) que vivem em lagos e em cativeiro podem demonstrar menos reotaxia em comparação com populações que habitam rios e que estão frequentemente expostas a enchentes e que provocam a migração involuntária para jusante. Neste trabalho, vamos testar esta hi [...] pótese num rio artificial utilizando guppies de duas populações selvagens que habitam em rios, uma população que habita em lagos, e uma linhagem ornamental. Os resultados demonstram que os guppies de rios que provêm de localidades a montante demonstram maior reotaxia, diminuindo assim probabilidade de serem arrastados para jusante em períodos de enchentes. No entanto, não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre guppies de localidades a jusante, do lago Pitch ou ornamentais. Este resultado pode dever-se ao facto de existirem grandes diferenças ecológicas entre os habitats localizados a jusante e a montante dos rios. Devido ao facto de estas localidades estarem separadas por cachoeiras, impossibilitando a migração rio-acima, a seleção natural poderá estar a actuar contra guppies que sejam arrastados rio abaixo durantes os períodos de cheias Abstract in english Guppies (Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859) in lakes and from captive-bred populations are predicted to show little rheotaxis compared to conspecifics in a stream environment that are regularly exposed to flash floods associated with involuntary downstream migration. Here we test this hypothesis using [...] an artificial stream, examining guppies of two wild riverine populations, one lake population, and one ornamental strain. Guppies from the most upstream riverine habitat show the most pronounced rheotaxis and are less likely to be swept downstream during flooding events. However, there is no significant difference between guppies from the lowland riverine habitat, the Pitch Lake and ornamental strain. We propose that station-keeping behaviours are most strongly selected in the upstream population because large spatial differences exist in ecology and environment between up- and downstream habitats. Given that these sites are separated by barrier waterfalls that prevent compensatory upstream migration, natural selection operates particularly strong against upstream guppies that have been displaced downstream during flooding events.

  10. Pseudobrânquia do guaru Poecilia reticulata (Peter, 1859): análise estrutural, morfométrica e histoquímica para detecção de glicoconjugados / Pseudo-gill of guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Peter, 1859): structural, morphometric, and histochemical analyses for the detection of glycoconjugates

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thiago L., Rocha; Ana P.R., Santos; Simone M.T., Sabóia-Morais.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A morfologia, os parâmetros citomorfométricos e os glicoconjugados presentes na pseudobrânquia de guaru, Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae), foram investigados por microscopia de luz acoplada ao sistema de captura e análise de imagens, juntamente por histoquímica com l [...] ectinas. A anatomia microscópica indicou que P. reticulata possui pseudobrânquia glandular formada por dois lóbulos, a qual se localiza abaixo do epitélio faringiano. O órgão é constituído por parênquima vascularizado e rico em células pseudobranquiais. Esse tipo celular exibe estado citofisiológico ativo, com abundante sistema de biomembranas e ausência de óstio na superfície apical,que por sua vez é encontrado nas células ricas em mitocôndrias das holobrânquias. Assim, indica-se que as células da pseudobrânquia se distinguem das células das holobrânquias em relação à morfologia, histoquímica e fisiologia. Em decorrência dessas características intrínsecas, a pseudobrânquia de alevinos do guaru pode desempenhar funções não respiratórias nas fases iniciais do desenvolvimento. Além disso, a caracterização da pseudobrânquia do guaru possibilitará estudos futuros sobre o efeito de poluentes aquáticos em espécies biomonitoras, como P. reticulata. Abstract in english The morphology, cytomorphometric parameters, and glycoconjugates present in the pseudo-gill of guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae), were investigated by light microscopy coupled to image capture and analysis system, and also by lectin histochemistry. The microsco [...] pic anatomy indicates that P. reticulata has a glandular pseudo-gill formed by two lobes, located underneath the pharynx epithelium. The organ is formed by vascularized parenchyma rich in pseudo-gill cells. This cell type exhibits active cytophysiological state with an abundant system of biomembranes and lacking of ostium in apical surface, which in turn is found in the mitochondria-rich cells of the holobranch. This indicates that the pseudo-gill cells distinguishe from the holobranch cells in their morphology, histochemistry and physiology. Due to these intrinsic characteristics, the pseudo-gill of guppy fingerlings may have non-respiratory function in the initial phase of their development. The characterization of guppy's pseudo-gill could facilitate further studies about the effect of water pollutants on biomonitor species, such as P. reticulata.

  11. EFECTOS ECOTOXICOLOGICOS DEL CARTAP SOBRE POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE Y PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE ECOTOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CARTAP ON POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE AND PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Iannacone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el impacto ecotoxicológico del insecticida carbámico cartap (1,3 di (carbamoytio-2-dimetiloaminopropano usado para el control de plagas agrícolas y como molusquicida de vectores de importancia en Salud Pública, sobre dos especies de peces del ecosistema acuático continental: Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859 "guppy" (Poecilidae y Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936 ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae. Ellos fueron utilizados como organismos no destinatarios en ensayos de corta duración, para determinar el impacto toxicológico del cartap. Para ambas especies de peces se evaluó el porcentaje de mortalidad, y dos respuestas subletales: el incremento del movimiento opercular y el nado extraño. A 3 h de exposición para P. reticulata, se encontró un valor de CL50 (Concentración letal media de 6,75 mg•L-1 y valores de CE50 (Concentración efectiva media de The ecotoxicological impact of the carbamate insecticide cartap (1,3 di (carbamoythio-2-dimethyloaminopropan used for agriculture pests and as mollusquicide of vectors of Public Health importance was evaluated, on two fish species of the continental aquatic ecosystem. Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859 ``guppy" (Poecilidae and Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936 ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae were employed as non-target organisms in assays of short duration to determine the toxicological impact of cartap. For both fish, percentage of mortality and two sublethal responses: increase of opercula movement and strange swim, were evaluated. In P. reticulata after 3 h exposure it was found a LC50 (mean Lethal Concentration of 6.75 mg'•L-1 and values of EC50 (mean Effective Concentration of <7.55 and <8.16 mg•L-1 as speed up of opercula movement and strange swim, respectively. For P. innesi, it was found an LC50 value of <0.02 mg•L-1 and values of EC50 of <0.01 and <0.03 mg•L-1, as speed up of opercula movement and strange swim, respectively. P. innesi was more sensitive to cartap than P. reticulata. Risk Quotients (RQ to evaluate environmental risk (ERA of this insecticide on aquatic ecosystem were calculated, indicating that P. innesi was more accurate than P. reticulata as ecotoxicological tool to evaluate cartap.

  12. Cloning and expression analysis of a prion protein encoding gene in guppy ( Poecilia reticulata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Suihan; Wei, Qiwei; Yang, Guanpin; Wang, Dengqiang; Zou, Guiwei; Chen, Daqing

    2008-11-01

    The full length cDNA of a prion protein (PrP) encoding gene of guppy ( Poecilia reticulata) and the corresponding genomic DNA were cloned. The cDNA was 2245 bp in length and contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1545 bp encoding a protein of 515 amino acids, which held all typical structural characteristics of the functional PrP. The cloned genomic DNA fragment corresponding to the cDNA was 3720 bp in length, consisting of 2 introns and 2 exons. The 5' untranslated region of cDNA originated from the 2 exons, while the ORF originated from the second exon. Although the gene was transcribed in diverse tissues including brain, eye, liver, intestine, muscle and tail, its transcript was most abundant in the brain. In addition, the transcription of the gene was enhanced by 5 salinity, implying that it was associated with the response of guppy to saline stress.

  13. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Gao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (PCR essential oil obtained using an improved Clevenger type apparatus were studied. Among the five different PCRs examined the highest yield of essential oil was found in Chachi 2004 (harvested and stored in 2004 and the lowest in Chachi 2008 (harvested and stored in 2008. Fifty three different volatile compounds were determined, including terpenic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters. D-limonene, one of terpenes, was the major constituent in PCR. The antioxidant capacity of PCR essential oil varied considerably with the duration of storage time, and the oil from Chachi 1994 has the strongest ferric-reducing antioxidant power. In addition, the essential oil possessed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, except Streptococcus faecalis, while had no effect on Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae.

  14. DETAILED COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA LINN. AND ANNONA RETICULATA LINN. LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Switu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Annona squamosa Linn. and Annona reticulata Linn. are locally known as Sitaphala and Ramphala respectively both belongs to family Annonaceae. Leaves of both are used in various diseases like suppurant, toothache, anthelmintic commonly. Individually A. squamosa is used in anti diabetic, antispasmodic, dandruff and A. reticulate is used in flatulence and toothache. Till date there is no scientific comparative study has been reported. Pharmacognostical study of A. squamosa shows lysogenous cavity and sparse trichome where as, A. reticulate shows multicellular trichomes filled with tannin and stone cells. The powder characters of A. squamosa are stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate whereas A. reticulate shows pitted stones cells and micro rosettes crystals of calcium oxalate. Annular vessels, lysogenous cavity and paracytic stomata are common characters observed in both the leaves.

  15. Environmental and physiological conditions affecting Tetrahymena sp. infection in guppies, Poecilia reticulata Peters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta Leibowitz, M; Ariav, R; Zilberg, D

    2005-09-01

    Parasitic infections caused by Tetrahymena sp. constitute a serious problem in guppies, Poecilia reticulata. Tetrahymena was isolated from skin lesions of naturally infected guppies in a commercial aquaculture farm, cultured in vitro and used in subsequent experimental infections. In addition to guppies, angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare, platyfish, Xiphophorus maculates, and neontetra, Paracheirodon innesi, were susceptible, whereas tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus xO. aureus) was resistant. The ciliate had a high affinity for dead fish. Skin abrasion did not affect the infection, but fish with gas bubble disease exhibited a significantly higher infection than non-affected fish. Infection was significantly higher when fish were exposed to high levels of ammonia, high organic load and low water temperatures. Under shipment conditions, infection was significantly elevated. Full recovery was achieved at a low fish density. Results suggest that poor environmental and physiological conditions enhance infection with Tetrahymena sp. PMID:16266327

  16. EFECTOS ECOTOXICOLOGICOS DEL CARTAP SOBRE POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE) Y PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE) ECOTOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CARTAP ON POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE) AND PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Iannacone; Roxana Onofre; Olga Huanqui

    2007-01-01

    Se evaluó el impacto ecotoxicológico del insecticida carbámico cartap (1,3 di (carbamoytio)-2-dimetiloaminopropano) usado para el control de plagas agrícolas y como molusquicida de vectores de importancia en Salud Pública, sobre dos especies de peces del ecosistema acuático continental: Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859) "guppy" (Poecilidae) y Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936) ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae). Ellos fueron utilizados como organismos no destinatarios en ensayos de corta duración, par...

  17. Populational approach in ecophysiological studies: the case of Plathymenia reticulata, a tree from Cerrado and Atlantic Forest Abordagem populacional em estudos ecofisiológicos: o caso de /Plathymenia reticulata/, uma árvore do Cerrado e da Mata Atlântica

    OpenAIRE

    José Pires Lemos Filho; Maíra Figueiredo Goulart; Maria Bernadete Lovato

    2008-01-01

    The variability of ecophysiological traits among populations can be a result of selection in response to environmental pressure and/or due to random factors, like the genetic drift. The analysis of both genetic and phenotypic variation within populations can lead to better understanding of adaptation in order to colonize different habitats. In the last years we have developed several studies with an widely ecogeographic distributed legume tree species, Plathymenia reticulata, which were focus...

  18. Investigation of acute toxicity of pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic, 25%EC) on guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, M O; Samuel, O B

    2010-04-15

    Pirimiphos-methyl is a broad spectrum organophosphate insecticide and potential toxic pollutant in aquatic ecosystems. The acute toxicity of Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic) was investigated using Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) in a 96 h static renewal laboratory bioassay. Based on probit analysis the LC50 was 0.026, 0.024, 0.022 and 0.019 ml L(-1) at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that there was significant difference (p < 0.05) in the quantal response (mortality) of P. reticulata to different concentrations of Actellic at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure. Actellic insecticide is toxic to fish; therefore its indiscriminate use in aquatic environment should be discouraged. PMID:20836303

  19. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of Pirimiphos-Methyl (Actellic®, 25%EC on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Lawal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pirimiphos-methyl is a broad spectrum organophosphate insecticide and potential toxic pollutant in aquatic ecosystems. The acute toxicity of Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic® was investigated using Guppy (Poecilia reticulata in a 96 h static renewal laboratory bioassay. Based on probit analysis, the LC50 was 0.026, 0.024, 0.022 and 0.019 ml L-1 at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA showed that there was significant difference (p<0.05 in the quantal response (mortality of P. reticulata to different concentrations of Actellic at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure. Actellic insecticide is toxic to fish; therefore its indiscriminate use in aquatic environment should be discouraged.

  20. Towards the elusive structure of kotalanol, a naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Sankar; Pinto, B Mario

    2010-04-01

    This Highlight describes the detailed approach used to determine the absolute stereochemistry of the stereogenic centers in the acyclic side chain of kotalanol, a naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor isolated from the plant Salacia reticulata. The plant extract itself is used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. We highlight the syntheses of proposed candidates based on structure-activity relationships, the total synthesis of kotalanol, and crystallographic studies of kotalanol and its de-O-sulfonated derivative complexed with recombinant human maltase glucoamylase (MGA), a critical intestinal glucosidase involved in the breakdown of glucose oligomers into glucose. PMID:20336233

  1. Multielemental analysis of mineral nutrients in Nagpur Santra (Citrus reticulata Blanco) leaves by thermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mn, Zn, Cu, Na, K, Fe and P have been determined in the Nagpur Santra (Citrus reticulata Blanco) leaves by thermal neutron activation analysis. The irradiated sample was dissolved in aqua regia in the presence of carriers. The ? and/or ? activities of the purified elements were measured after radiochemical separations involving solvent extraction and precipitation. The values obtained for the elements are comparable to those reported in literature for Indian citrus leaves. (author)

  2. Chemical and pharmacognostical characterization of two Malaysian plants both known as Ajisamat

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tengku Azlan S. Tengku, Mohamad; Humera, Naz; Ratni S., Jalal; Khatijah, Hussin; Mohd R. Abd, Rahman; Aishah, Adam; Jean-Frederic F., Weber.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ajisamat, an herb commonly used as an aphrodisiac in the Malaysian traditional medicine, corresponds to two different species from different families - Salacia macrophylla Blume, Celastraceae, and Prismatomeris glabra (Korth.) Valeton, Rubiaceae. Macromorphological inspection of the vegetative parts [...] both plants reveals only a slight difference in the arrangement of the petioles. Microscopic investigation of the plants roots used as crude drugs revealed however distinctive anatomical features. Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and banded paratracheal parenchyma are characteristics of S. macrophylla while P. glabra displays an abundance as crystals. Other features such as vessels diameters and arrangements are also of diagnostic importance. Some of these characters were also identified in the powder of thes e plant materials and proposed for diagnostic purpose. The values for extraction of ethanol and water as well as total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash and sulfated ash were determined for both plants. Phytochemical studies were carried out on hexane and chloroform extracts of S. macrophylla and methanolic extract of P. glabra. S. macrophylla was shown to contain highly oxidized pentacyclic triterpenes while P. glabra contains anthraquinones. The pharmacognostical and hytochemical information can be utilised as the identification tools for Salacia macrophylla and Prismatomeris glabra

  3. Chemical and pharmacognostical characterization of two Malaysian plants both known as Ajisamat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Azlan S. Tengku Mohamad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ajisamat, an herb commonly used as an aphrodisiac in the Malaysian traditional medicine, corresponds to two different species from different families - Salacia macrophylla Blume, Celastraceae, and Prismatomeris glabra (Korth. Valeton, Rubiaceae. Macromorphological inspection of the vegetative parts both plants reveals only a slight difference in the arrangement of the petioles. Microscopic investigation of the plants roots used as crude drugs revealed however distinctive anatomical features. Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and banded paratracheal parenchyma are characteristics of S. macrophylla while P. glabradisplays an abundance as crystals. Other features such as vessels diameters and arrangements are also of diagnostic importance. Some of these characters were also identified in the powder of thes e plant materials and proposed for diagnostic purpose. The values for extraction of ethanol and water as well as total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash and sulfated ash were determined for both plants. Phytochemical studies were carried out on hexane and chloroform extracts of S. macrophylla and methanolic extract of P. glabra. S. macrophylla was shown to contain highly oxidized pentacyclic triterpenes while P. glabra contains anthraquinones. The pharmacognostical and hytochemical information can be utilised as the identification tools for Salacia macrophylla and Prismatomeris glabra

  4. Developmental toxicity of copaiba tree (Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae) oleoresin in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachetti, Camile G; de Carvalho, Rosângela R; Paumgartten, Francisco J R; Lameira, Osmar A; Caldas, Eloisa D

    2011-05-01

    The oleoresin of the copaiba tree (Copaifera sp., Fabaceae) is traditionally used in Brazilian herbal medicine to treat a variety of illnesses and symptoms. This study, conducted according to the OECD Guideline 414, provides data on the developmental toxicity of oleoresin from C. reticulata (COPA-R) in rats. Pregnant Wistar rats (25 per dose group) were treated by gavage with COPA-R (0, 500, 1000 and 1250 mg/kg bw/day) on gestation days (GD) 6-19 and Caesarean sections performed on GD20. Implantations, living and dead fetuses and resorptions were recorded. Half of the fetuses from each litter were examined for visceral abnormalities and the remaining were cleared and stained for skeleton evaluation. COPA-R was maternally toxic (reduced food intake and weight gain) and embryotoxic (lower fetal body weight and increased occurrence of fetal skeleton variations) at the two highest doses, but did not cause embryo deaths or fetal malformations at any dose level. The study derived an oral no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for maternal and developmental toxicity induced by COPA-R of 500 mg/kg bw/day. The results suggest that copaiba oleoresin does not pose a health risk to pregnant women when used according to the recommended doses (up to five drops, three times a day). PMID:21266184

  5. Genetically and environmentally mediated divergence in lateral line morphology in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Eva K; Soares, Daphne; Archer, Kathryn R; Ghalambor, Cameron K; Hoke, Kim L

    2013-08-15

    Fish and other aquatic vertebrates use their mechanosensory lateral line to detect objects and motion in their immediate environment. Differences in lateral line morphology have been extensively characterized among species; however, intraspecific variation remains largely unexplored. In addition, little is known about how environmental factors modify development of lateral line morphology. Predation is one environmental factor that can act both as a selective pressure causing genetic differences between populations, and as a cue during development to induce plastic changes. Here, we test whether variation in the risk of predation within and among populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) influences lateral line morphology. We compared neuromast arrangement in wild-caught guppies from distinct high- and low-predation population pairs to examine patterns associated with differences in predation pressure. To distinguish genetic and environmental influences, we compared neuromast arrangement in guppies from different source populations reared with and without exposure to predator chemical cues. We found that the distribution of neuromasts across the body varies between populations based on both genetic and environmental factors. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate variation in lateral line morphology based on environmental exposure to an ecologically relevant stimulus. PMID:23619409

  6. Flavonoid Fraction of Citrus reticulata Juice Reduces Proliferation and Migration of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, Marilena; Maggisano, Valentina; De Rose, Roberta Francesca; Bulotta, Stefania; Maiuolo, Jessica; Navarra, Michele; Russo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Effects of flavonoids extracted from Citrus reticulata (mandarin) juice on proliferation and migration of 3 human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) cell lines were evaluated. Flavonoid components of Mandarin juice extract (MJe) were analyzed by uHPLC. Proliferation of CAL-62, C-643, and 8505C cells, measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, was significantly reduced by MJe in a concentration- and time-dependent way, with maximal effect elicited at 0.5 mg/ml concentration after 48 h. Cytofluorimetric analysis showed a block in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, accompanied by low cell mortality owed to autophagic death. The extract caused also a reduction of cell migration, associated with decreased activity of the metalloproteinase MMP-2. These findings demonstrate that the flavonoid fraction of mandarin juice exerts in vitro antiproliferative effects on ATC cells, associated with a reduction of migration, suggesting for such a functional food a potential use as adjuvant in the treatment of thyroid cancer. PMID:26365817

  7. The MC1R gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata: Genotypic and phenotypic polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Jun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The guppy (Poecilia reticulata is an important model organism for studying sexual selection; male guppies have complex and conspicuous pigmentation, and female guppies exhibit preferences for males with specific color spots. Understanding the genetic basis underlying pigmentation variation in the guppy is important for exploring the factors causing the maintenance of color polymorphism in wild populations. Findings We focused on the melanic black pigmentation of guppies, and examined genetic variations in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene because variation in this gene is known to contribute to polymorphism of melanin pigmentation in several animal species. The complete coding sequence of the guppy MC1R gene was determined, and two different MC1R alleles (963 and 969 bp were found in wild populations. Ornamental strain guppies with a 963-bp MC1R tended to show less black pigmentation than those with a 969-bp MC1R, although the association between MC1R genotype and black pigmentation disappeared in the F2 offspring. Conclusions The guppy MC1R gene showed variation in the five wild Trinidadian populations we examined, and these populations also differed in terms of allele frequencies. We identified a significant association between black pigmentation and MC1R genotype in fish obtained from aquarium shops. However, the results from F2 families suggest that there are other genes that modify the effects of the MC1R gene.

  8. The effects of different predator species on antipredator behavior in the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botham, M. S.; Kerfoot, C. J.; Louca, V.; Krause, J.

    2006-09-01

    Different types of predators often elicit different antipredator responses in a common type of prey. Alternatively, some prey species may adopt a general response, which provides limited protection from many different types of predator. The Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, is faced with a wide range of different predators throughout its range and is known to display varying levels of antipredator behavior depending on the predator assemblage. Pike cichlids, Crenicichla frenata, are regarded as the primary aquatic guppy predator in streams in the northern mountain range in Trinidad. As such, they are seen to be responsible for many of the differences in morphology, life history traits, and behavior between guppy populations from areas with few predators and those from areas with many pike cichlids. In this study we investigated how guppies responded when faced with different predator species using three common aquatic predators. We exposed shoals of ten guppies to one out of four treatments: no predator (control), pike cichlid, acara cichlid ( Aequidens pulcher), and wolf fish ( Hoplias malabaricus); and we made behavioral observations on both focal individuals and the shoal as a whole. Guppies showed significantly greater levels of predator inspection and shoaling behavior, foraged less, spent more time in the surface water, and stayed in significantly larger shoals when faced with pike cichlids than in other treatments. We discuss these results in the context of multiple predator effects.

  9. Proteomic and histopathological response in the gills of Poecilia reticulata exposed to glyphosate-based herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Santos, Ana Paula Rezende Dos; Yamada, Áureo Tatsumi; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira

    2015-07-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) are one of the most used herbicide nowadays, whilst there is growing concern over their impact on aquatic environment. Since data about the early proteomic response and toxic mechanisms of GBH in fish is very limited, the aim of this study was to investigate the early toxicity of GBH in the gills of guppies Poecilia reticulata using a proteomic approach associated with histopathological index. Median lethal concentration (LC50,96 h) was determined and LC50,96h values of guppies exposed to GBH were 3.6 ± 0.4 mg GLIL(-1). Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis associated with mass spectrometry, 14 proteins regulated by GBH were identified, which are involved in different cell processes, as energy metabolism, regulation and maintenance of cytoskeleton, nucleic acid metabolism and stress response. Guppies exposed to GBH at 1.82 mg GLIL(-1) showed time-dependent histopathological response in different epithelial and muscle cell types. The histopathological indexes indicate that GBH cause regressive, vascular and progressive disorders in the gills of guppies. This study helped to unravel the molecular and tissue mechanisms associated with GBH toxicity, which are potential biomarkers for biomonitoring water pollution by herbicides. PMID:26141659

  10. Controlled infection of Poecilia reticulata Peters (guppy) with Tetrahymena by immersion and intraperitoneal injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, G; Pimenta-Leibowitz, M; Vilchis, M C L; Isakov, N; Zilberg, D

    2015-01-01

    Tetrahymena is a protozoan parasite, which infects guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters, and causes substantial economical losses in commercial farms worldwide. Studies of guppy infected by Tetrahymena require standardized infection protocols. The LD50 for Tetrahymena infection of guppies by intraperitoneal (IP) injection was calibrated, and the level obtained was 946 parasites per fish. Guppy infection with Tetrahymena by immersion, imitating the natural route of infection via the integument, was studied under normal or stress conditions. Exposure to cold and netting (CNI) and to cold only (CI) followed by immersion exposure to 10 000 Tetrahymena per mL resulted in 22.5% and 19.2% mortality, respectively, as compared to 14.2% and 10% in groups that were netted only (NI) or non-stressed (I). Histopathology revealed that immersion infection resulted in a systemic infection. Lysozyme levels, measured 3 weeks after infection, were significantly higher in the CNI group (288 ?g per mg protein) compared with CI-, NI- and I-treated groups (94.5, 64 and 62.3 ?g mg(-1), respectively). There was no evident parasite immobilization activity in body homogenates, suggesting no development of acquired immunity. Re-infection by IP injection revealed no increase in protection in any of the treatment groups, mortality range of 56.3-75%, higher than in the non-exposed control (40.6% mortality). PMID:24423242

  11. Investigation of LC50, NOEC and LOEC of Glyphosate, Deltamethrin and Pretilachlor in Guppies (Poecilia Reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadeghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of pesticides is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran. These toxic substances may accumulate in the food chain and cause serious ecological and health problems. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor as potential dangerous organic pesticides to assess lethal effects of these chemicals agents to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata. Methods: Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate (41% (0, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 25 ppm, deltamethrin (2.5% (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.10 and 0.30 ppm and pretilachlor (50% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm for 96 h and cumulative mortality of the guppies was calculated with 24 h intervals. Results: LC50-96h was 12.01±1.00, 0.08±0.47 and 8.24±0.42 for glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor respectively. The very low LC50 obtained for glyphosate (12.01±1.00 ppm, deltamethrin (0.08±0.47 ppm and pretilachlor (8.24±0.42 ppm indicate that glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor are highly toxic to guppies. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that deltamethrin and glyphosate had the lowest and highest rate of mortality on the guppy respectively.

  12. IDENTIFICATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF POTENTIAL PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM POECILIA RETICULATA (GUPPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Balakrishna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Antagonistic activities against candidate indicator strains, adhesion to mucus and biofilm formation of potential probiotic strains isolated from Poecilia reticulata were evaluated. Four isolated strains (MBTU_PB1, MBTU_PB2, MBTU_PB3 and MBTU_PB4 showed moderate to strong antagonistic activities against the tested five indicator strains (Aeromonas hydrophila1739, Vibrio cholera 3906, Flavobacterium 2495, Acinetobacter 1271 and Alcaligenes 1424 and these isolates were further identified using biochemical tests and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Except the whole cell product, the other three cellular components, namely, heat-killed whole cell product, intracellular product and extracellular product of all the four selected isolates were equally effective, as revealed by the zone of inhibitions to the tested indicator strains. The in vitro adhesion property or the ability of colonization is often considered as a selection criteria for probiotics. All the selected four strains had higher adhesion abilities than the indicator strains. Further, these four strains had the ability to form biofilms on polystyrene surfaces. The in vitro characterization of these four strains suggests possibility of using the isolates, as individual strain or in combination, for probiotic therapy in aquaculture.

  13. EFECTOS ECOTOXICOLOGICOS DEL CARTAP SOBRE POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE) Y PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE) / ECOTOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CARTAP ON POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE) AND PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jose, Iannacone; Roxana, Onofre; Olga, Huanqui.

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el impacto ecotoxicológico del insecticida carbámico cartap (1,3 di (carbamoytio)-2-dimetiloaminopropano) usado para el control de plagas agrícolas y como molusquicida de vectores de importancia en Salud Pública, sobre dos especies de peces del ecosistema acuático continental: Poecilia ret [...] iculata (Peters 1859) "guppy" (Poecilidae) y Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936) ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae). Ellos fueron utilizados como organismos no destinatarios en ensayos de corta duración, para determinar el impacto toxicológico del cartap. Para ambas especies de peces se evaluó el porcentaje de mortalidad, y dos respuestas subletales: el incremento del movimiento opercular y el nado extraño. A 3 h de exposición para P. reticulata, se encontró un valor de CL50 (Concentración letal media) de 6,75 mg•L-1 y valores de CE50 (Concentración efectiva media) de Abstract in english The ecotoxicological impact of the carbamate insecticide cartap (1,3 di (carbamoythio)-2-dimethyloaminopropan) used for agriculture pests and as mollusquicide of vectors of Public Health importance was evaluated, on two fish species of the continental aquatic ecosystem. Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1 [...] 859) ``guppy" (Poecilidae) and Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936) ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae) were employed as non-target organisms in assays of short duration to determine the toxicological impact of cartap. For both fish, percentage of mortality and two sublethal responses: increase of opercula movement and strange swim, were evaluated. In P. reticulata after 3 h exposure it was found a LC50 (mean Lethal Concentration) of 6.75 mg'•L-1 and values of EC50 (mean Effective Concentration) of

  14. Salacia oblonga root improves cardiac lipid metabolism in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: Modulation of cardiac PPAR-?-mediated transcription of fatty acid metabolic genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excess cardiac triglyceride accumulation in diabetes and obesity induces lipotoxicity, which predisposes the myocytes to death. On the other hand, increased cardiac fatty acid (FA) oxidation plays a role in the development of myocardial dysfunction in diabetes. PPAR-? plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis of lipid metabolism. We have previously demonstrated that the extract from Salacia oblonga root (SOE), an Ayurvedic anti-diabetic and anti-obesity medicine, improves hyperlipidemia in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats (a genetic model of type 2 diabetes and obesity) and possesses PPAR-? activating properties. Here we demonstrate that chronic oral administration of SOE reduces cardiac triglyceride and FA contents and decreases the Oil red O-stained area in the myocardium of ZDF rats, which parallels the effects on plasma triglyceride and FA levels. Furthermore, the treatment suppressed cardiac overexpression of both FA transporter protein-1 mRNA and protein in ZDF rats, suggesting inhibition of increased cardiac FA uptake as the basis for decreased cardiac FA levels. Additionally, the treatment also inhibited overexpression in ZDF rat heart of PPAR-? mRNA and protein and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, acyl-CoA oxidase and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase mRNAs and restored the downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA. These results suggest that SOE inhibits cardiac FA oxidation in ZDF rats. Thus, our findings suggest that improvement by SOE of excess cardiac lipid accumulation and increased cardiac FA oxidation in diabetes and obesity occurs by reduction of cardiac FA uptake, thereby modulating cardiac PPAR-?-mediated FA metabolic gene transcription

  15. The Effects of Gokshura, Tribulus terrestris on Sex Reversal of Guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    OpenAIRE

    Oehriban cek; Funda Turan; Esin Atik

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on sex reversal in guppy, Poecilia reticulata. The objective of this study was to introduce a new environmentally friendly method for masculinization in P. reticulata. Since male guppy has higher commercial value than female. TT is a natural, non-toxic herb which helps enhance testosterone levels in human and animals. It was prepared in a laboratory in France. Different concentration (0.0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 g L-1) of TT was ...

  16. The Feeding of Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera) with Different Microalgae Species, Isochrysis galbana Parke, Tetraselmis chuii (Bucker), Rhinomonas reticulata (Lucas) Novamizo, Pavlova lutheri (Droop) Green and Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck

    OpenAIRE

    SAYIN, Selin

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the feeding of Brachionus plicatilis with different single cell microalgae species, Tetraselmis chuii, Isochrysis galbana, Pavlova lutheri, Chlorella vulgaris and Rhinomonas reticulata which are used widely for rotifer culture was investigated. At the first stage of the study, B. plicatilis was fed a mixture of T. chuii, C. vulgaris, I. galbana and R. reticulata the densities of which were 130x104, 650x104, 260x104 and 130x104 cell/ml respectively. The highest ingestion rate, n...

  17. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  18. Acute Toxicity of Premium Motor Spirit to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859)

    OpenAIRE

    J .K. Saliu

    2007-01-01

    Static bioassays were made to determine acute toxicity of premium motor spirit on poecilia reticulata. Lethal doses of the oil were determined using LC50 software programmes based on Finneys probit statistical method. The 96 LC50 value of the oil for guppy was estimated as 1.69 (1.13-2.43) mg L-1. The fish exhibited behavioural changes in the form of aggression, rapid gulping of water, increased opercular movement and abnormal swimming movements. The significance of this sublethal effect part...

  19. Studies on the constituents of Syringa species. X. Five new iridoid glycosides from the leaves of Syringa reticulata (Blume) Hara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Koichi; Kaneko, Atsuko; Hosogai, Tomokazu; Kakuda, Rie; Yaoita, Yasunori; Kikuchi, Masao

    2002-04-01

    Five new iridoid glycosides, (8Z)-ligstroside (1), (8Z)-nüzhenide (3), 6'-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosylsyringopicroside (4), 3'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylsyringopicroside (5) and 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylsyringopicroside (6) were isolated, together with a known one, (8E)-nüzhenide (2), from the leaves of Syringa reticulata. Their structures were established on the basis of chemical and spectral data. Compounds 1 and 3 are the first findings of a (8Z)-oleoside-type secoiridoid. Compound 4 is the first naturally occurring iridoid di-glycoside having an isomaltose. PMID:11963996

  20. Studies on the constituents of Syringa species. XII. New glycosides from the leaves of Syringa reticulata (BLUME) HARA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Koichi; Unagami, Eriko; Ojima, Hiromi; Kikuchi, Masao

    2003-07-01

    Three new glycosides, 6'-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosylsyringopicroside (1), secologanoside 7-methyl ester (2) and (+)-lariciresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), were isolated from the leaves of Syringa reticulata. Their structures were established on the basis of chemical and spectral data. Compound 1 is the first naturally occurring iridoid di-glycoside having melibiose. Comparison of the spectral data of 2 and that previously recognized as secologanoside 7-methyl ester led to the conclusion that the recognized structure should be revised to the sodium salt of secoxyloganin (2'). PMID:12843604

  1. / Diterpenos de Copaifera reticulata Ducke com atividade larvicida contra Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera, Culicidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Regina, Geris; Ionizete Garcia da, Silva; Heloísa Helena Garcia da, Silva; Andersson, Barison; Edson, Rodrigues-Filho; Antônio Gilberto, Ferreira.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade larvicida de diterpenos isolados do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata sobre Aedes aegypti, principal vetor de dengue e febre amarela urbana. Quatro diterpenóides foram obtidos a partir da extração do óleo-resina com solventes orgânicos e, subseqüen [...] tes procedimentos cromatográficos e espectroscópicos permitiram o isolamento e a identificação desses compostos como ácido 3-b-acetoxylabdan-8(17)-13-dien-15-óico (1), ácido alepterólico (2), ácido 3-b-hidroxylabdan-8(17)-en-15-óico (3) e ácido ent-agático (4). Cada um desses compostos foi previamente solubilizado em dimetilsulfóxido, acrescentando-se água, até se obterem as concentrações desejadas. Em cada bioensaio foram utilizadas 20 larvas de 3° estádio de Ae. aegypti colocadas em 25 mL da solução-teste. Foram feitas cinco repetições, e a mortalidade avaliada 48 h após a exposição, indicada pela ausência de movimentos e escurecimento da cápsula cefálica. Os dados obtidos da mortalidade x concentração (ppm) foram analisados, em gráfico de Probit para avaliar as concentrações letais (CL50 e CL90). Este estudo revelou que os diterpenóides 1 e 2 mostraram atividade larvicida com CL50 de 0,8 e 87,3 ppm, respectivamente, sendo o diterpeno 1 o composto mais promissor a ser usado como larvicida para o controle de Ae. aegypti. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of diterpenoids obtained from the oil-resin of Copaifera reticulata against Aedes aegypti larvae, the principal vector of dengue and urban yellow fever. Four diterpenes were obtained from oil-resin extraction with organic solvents a [...] nd subsequent chromatographic and spectroscopic procedures allowed to isolation and identification of these compounds as 3-b-acetoxylabdan-8(17)-13-dien-15-oic acid (1), alepterolic acid (2), 3-b-hidroxylabdan-8(17)-en-15-oic acid (3), and ent-agatic acid (4). Each compound was previously dissolved in dimethylsulphoxide, and distilled water was added to obtain the desired concentrations. Twenty larvae of third instars were placed into plastic beckers, containing the solution test (25 mL), in a five repetitions scheme, and their mortality, indicated by torpor and darkening of the cephalic capsule, was recorded after 48h. Probit analyses were used to determine lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) and their respective 95% confidence intervals. This study showed that only diterpenoids 1 and 2 exhibited larvicidal properties with LC50 of 0.8 ppm and 87.3 ppm, respectively, revealing the former as the most toxic compound against third instars of Ae. aegypti. Therefore, this compound seems to be an interesting source for new metabolite to be exploited.

  2. Diterpenos de Copaifera reticulata Ducke com atividade larvicida contra Aedes aegypti (L. (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Geris

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of diterpenoids obtained from the oil-resin of Copaifera reticulata against Aedes aegypti larvae, the principal vector of dengue and urban yellow fever. Four diterpenes were obtained from oil-resin extraction with organic solvents and subsequent chromatographic and spectroscopic procedures allowed to isolation and identification of these compounds as 3-b-acetoxylabdan-8(17-13-dien-15-oic acid (1, alepterolic acid (2, 3-b-hidroxylabdan-8(17-en-15-oic acid (3, and ent-agatic acid (4. Each compound was previously dissolved in dimethylsulphoxide, and distilled water was added to obtain the desired concentrations. Twenty larvae of third instars were placed into plastic beckers, containing the solution test (25 mL, in a five repetitions scheme, and their mortality, indicated by torpor and darkening of the cephalic capsule, was recorded after 48h. Probit analyses were used to determine lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90 and their respective 95% confidence intervals. This study showed that only diterpenoids 1 and 2 exhibited larvicidal properties with LC50 of 0.8 ppm and 87.3 ppm, respectively, revealing the former as the most toxic compound against third instars of Ae. aegypti. Therefore, this compound seems to be an interesting source for new metabolite to be exploited.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade larvicida de diterpenos isolados do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata sobre Aedes aegypti, principal vetor de dengue e febre amarela urbana. Quatro diterpenóides foram obtidos a partir da extração do óleo-resina com solventes orgânicos e, subseqüentes procedimentos cromatográficos e espectroscópicos permitiram o isolamento e a identificação desses compostos como ácido 3-b-acetoxylabdan-8(17-13-dien-15-óico (1, ácido alepterólico (2, ácido 3-b-hidroxylabdan-8(17-en-15-óico (3 e ácido ent-agático (4. Cada um desses compostos foi previamente solubilizado em dimetilsulfóxido, acrescentando-se água, até se obterem as concentrações desejadas. Em cada bioensaio foram utilizadas 20 larvas de 3° estádio de Ae. aegypti colocadas em 25 mL da solução-teste. Foram feitas cinco repetições, e a mortalidade avaliada 48 h após a exposição, indicada pela ausência de movimentos e escurecimento da cápsula cefálica. Os dados obtidos da mortalidade x concentração (ppm foram analisados, em gráfico de Probit para avaliar as concentrações letais (CL50 e CL90. Este estudo revelou que os diterpenóides 1 e 2 mostraram atividade larvicida com CL50 de 0,8 e 87,3 ppm, respectivamente, sendo o diterpeno 1 o composto mais promissor a ser usado como larvicida para o controle de Ae. aegypti.

  3. Cysteine proteases and acid phosphatases contribute to Tetrahymena spp. pathogenicity in guppies, Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, M Pimenta; Ofir, R; Golan-Goldhirsh, A; Zilberg, D

    2009-12-01

    Systemic tetrahymenosis caused by the protozoan parasite Tetrahymena spp. is a serious problem in guppy (Poecilia reticulata) farms worldwide. There is no therapeutic solution for the systemic form of this disease. Guppies severely infected with Tetrahymena spp. were imported by a commercial ornamental fish farm and brought to our laboratory. Tetrahymena sp. (Tet-NI) was isolated and in vitro cultured. Isolates maintained in culture for different time periods (as reflected by different numbers of passages in culture) were analyzed-Tet-NI 1, 4, 5 and 6, with Tet-NI 1 being cultured for the longest period (about 15 months, 54 passages) and Tet-NI 6 for the shortest (2.5 months, 10 passages). Controlled internal infection was successfully achieved by IP injection with most isolates, except for Tet-NI 1 which produced no infection. The isolate Tet-NI 6 induced the highest infection rates in internal organs (80% vs. 50% and 64% for Tet-NI 4 and 5, respectively) and mortality rates (67% vs. 20% and 27% for Tet-NI 4 and 5, respectively, and 6.7% for Tet-NI 1). The correlation between pathogenicity and Tetrahymena enzymatic activity was studied. Electrophoretic analyses revealed at least two bands of gelanolytic activity in Tet-NI 4 and 5, three bands in Tet-NI 6, and no activity in Tet-NI 1. Total inhibition of gelanolytic activity was observed after pretreatment of Tet-NI 6 with E-64, a highly selective cysteine protease inhibitor. Using hemoglobin as a substrate, Tet-NI 6 had two bands of proteolytic activity and no bands were observed in Tet-NI 1. A correlation was observed between pathogenicity and acid phosphatase activities (analyzed by commercial fluorescence kit) for Tet-NI 1 and Tet-NI 6. PMID:19720465

  4. Spatial discounting of food and social rewards in guppies (Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JeffreyRStevens

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In temporal discounting, animals trade off the time to obtain a reward against the quality of a reward, choosing between a smaller reward available sooner versus a larger reward available later. Similar discounting can apply over space, when animals choose between smaller and closer versus larger and more distant rewards. Most studies of temporal and spatial discounting in nonhuman animals use food as the reward, and it is not established whether animals trade off other preferred stimuli in similar ways. Here, we offered female guppies (Poecilia reticulata a spatial discounting task in which we measured preferences for a larger reward as the distance to it increased relative to a closer but smaller reward. We tested whether the fish discounted reward types differently by offering subjects either food items or same-sex conspecifics as rewards. Before beginning the discounting tasks, we conducted validation tests to ensure that subjects equally valued the food and social stimuli in the quantities provided. In the discounting task, subjects switched their preferences from the larger to the smaller reward as the distance to the larger reward increased (spatial discounting, but the pattern and magnitude of discounting did not differ across the two reward types. These findings indicate that guppies show similar patterns of discounting food and social rewards in a spatial task. In an analysis of travel times, however, the fish swam faster to food rewards than to shoaling partners. This difference in travel times implies that fish temporally discounted social rewards less steeply than food rewards. Thus, reward type influences temporal discounting, suggesting a dissociation between temporal and spatial discounting. Our results illustrate how animals adjust choices and travel times depending on both the type of cost (time, distance and benefits (food, social partners.

  5. Reasons for the Invasive Success of a Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) Population in Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Caya; Willing, Eva-Maria; Hoffmann, Margarete; Dreyer, Christine; Ramnarine, Indar; Magurran, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of non-native species into new habitats poses a major threat to native populations. Of particular interest, though often overlooked, are introductions of populations that are not fully reproductively isolated from native individuals and can hybridize with them. To address this important topic we used different approaches in a multi-pronged study, combining the effects of mate choice, shoaling behaviour and genetics. Here we present evidence that behavioural traits such as shoaling and mate choice can promote population mixing if individuals do not distinguish between native and foreign conspecifics. We examined this in the context of two guppy (Poecilia reticulata) populations that have been subject to an introduction and subsequent population mixing event in Trinidad. The introduction of Guanapo River guppies into the Turure River more than 50 years ago led to a marked reduction of the original genotype. In our experiments, female guppies did not distinguish between shoaling partners when given the choice between native and foreign individuals. Introduced fish are therefore likely to benefit from the protection of a shoal and will improve their survival chances as a result. The additional finding that male guppies do not discriminate between females on the basis of origin will further increase the process of population mixing, especially if males encounter mixed shoals. In a mesocosm experiment, in which the native and foreign populations were allowed to mate freely, we found, as expected on the basis of these behavioural interactions, that the distribution of offspring genotypes could be predicted from the proportions of the two types of founding fish. This result suggests that stochastic and environmental processes have reinforced the biological ones to bring about the genetic dominance of the invading population in the Turure River. Re-sampling the Turure for genetic analysis using SNP markers confirmed the population mixing process and showed that it is an on-going process in this river and has led to the nearly complete disappearance of the original genotype. PMID:22693621

  6. Nutritional Evaluation of Raw Materials Entering the Structure to Mixed Fodder for the Specie Poecilia reticulata (Guppy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gruber

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the ornamental pisciculture is a especial emphasis on the exterior shape and color to the fishes, issues that are dependent directly to the structure of compound feeds in relation to the nutritional characteristics of the raw materials.Own research or focused on analyzing the crude chemical composition with Weende scheme (water content and dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, SEN of raw materials can be used in the structure of a compound feeds for the Poecilia reticulata (guppy species, for most of these materials there are no current data in the literature.These materials were analyzed: gelatin, wheat flour, sunflower meal, soybean meal, meal Spirulina platensis, carrot (Daucus carota, Pangasius fillet, Daphnia pulex, grount dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, grount nettle (Urtica dioica and yeast.

  7. Citrus Essential Oil of Nigeria Part IV: Volatile Constituents of Leaf Oils of Mandarins (Citrus Reticulata Blanco From Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke A. Kasali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of hydrodistilled oils obtained from the leaves of six Citrus reticulata Blanco (mandarin cultivars grown in Nigeria were examined by GC and GC/MS, the result of their chemical composition were further submitted to cluster analysis. Fifty seven constituents were characterized accounting for 88.2 - 96.7% of the total oils. Sabinene, g -terpinene, P-cymene, d -3-carene and (E- b -ocimene were observed in great variability in all the oils. Other constituents include linalool, myrcene, terpinen-4-ol and cis-sabinenehydrate. In addition, limonene, terpinolene, b -pinene, and a -pinene were also detected in appreciable concentrations. b -sinensal and a -sinensal were isolated by preparative GC and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques.

  8. The green synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the biological activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Leptadenia reticulata leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara Swamy, M.; Sudipta, K. M.; Jayanta, K.; Balasubramanya, S.

    2015-01-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag Nps) was carried out using methanol leaves extract of L. reticulata. Ag Nps were characterized based on the observations of UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. These Ag Nps were tested for antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method against different pathogenic microorganisms and antioxidant activity was performed using DPPH assay. Further, the in vitro cytotoxic effects of Ag Nps were screened against HCT15 cancer cell line and viability of tumor cells was confirmed using MTT ((3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole)) assay. The nuclear condensation was studied using the propidium iodide-staining method. The color change from green to dark brown and the absorbance peak at about 420 nm indicated the formation of nanoparticles. XRD pattern showed characteristic peaks indexed to the crystalline planes (111), (200) and (220) of face-centered cubic silver. The nanoparticles were of spherical shape with varying sizes ranging from 50 to 70 nm. Biosynthesized Ag Nps showed potent antibacterial activity and effective radical scavenging activity. MTT assay revealed a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability. Microscopic observations showed distinct cellular morphological changes indicating unhealthy cells, whereas the control appeared normal. Increase in the number of propidium iodide positive cells were observed in maximum concentration. Methanolic leaf extract of L. reticulata acts as an excellent capping agent for the formation of silver nanoparticles and demonstrates immense biological activities. Hence, these Ag NPs can be used as antibacterial, antioxidant as well as cytotoxic agent in treating many medical complications.

  9. PEMBUATAN KARBON AKTIF DARI KULIT JERUK KEPROK (Citrus reticulata UNTUK ADSORBSI PEWARNA REMAZOL BRILLIANT BLUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asriningtyas Ajeng Erprihana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Limbah kulit jeruk keprok (Citrus reticulata sering dijumpai di industri pembuatan berbagai macam minuman seperti jus, sirup, dan sari buah. Limbah kulit jeruk ini hanya akan dibuang begitu saja dengan jumlah banyak, dan pada akhirnya limbah ini akan mencemari lingkungan. Salah satu upaya peningkatan nilai ekonomis limbah kulit jeruk dapat dilakukan dengan mengolahnya menjadi karbon aktif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan karbon aktif dari kulit jeruk keprok dengan aktivasi kimia, luas permukaan, serta mengetahui kemampuannya dalam mengadsorpsi zat warna Remazol Brilliant Blue. Kulit jeruk yang telah dibersihkan dari kotoran, dikeringkan menggunakan oven pada suhu 120oC selama 3 jam. Aktivator yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah H3PO4 dengan rasio massa aktivator : massa karbon 1:1. Aktivasi dilakukan pada temperatur 600oC selama 1 jam, kulit jeruk kemudian dicuci dengan aquades dan dikeringkan menggunakan oven pada suhu 150oC selama 6 jam. Setelah itu, dilakukan uji bilangan iodin terhadap sampel hasil penelitian. Adsorpsi zat warna Remazol Brilliant Blue oleh karbon aktif kulit jeruk dilakukan dengan variasi waktu kontak dan massa karbon aktif untuk mencari kondisi adsorpsi optimum. Kondisi optimum adsorpsi zat warna Remazol Brilliant Blue oleh karbon aktif pada kulit jeruk keprok pada waktu kontak 30 menit dengan massa karbon aktif 1 gram. Karbon aktif dari kulit jeruk keprok memiliki luas permukaan karbon aktif sebesar 529,17 mg/g berdasarkan daya serapnya terhadap larutan iodin. Orange peel (Citrus reticulate waste is often found in industrial manufacturing various kinds of beverages such as juice, syrup, fruit juice. Orange peel waste is just be thrown away with the lot number, and in the end of this waste will pollute the environment. One of the efforts to increase the economic value of orange peel waste by using the process which convert waste into activated carbon. This research aims are to produce activated carbon from orange peel with chemical activation, to determine the surface area, and its ability to adsorb Remazol Brilliant Blue dyes. Orangel peel that have washed, dried in oven at 120oC for 3 hours. H3PO4 is activating agent that used in this research with mass ratio activating agent : mass carbon 1:1. Activation is conduct at 600oC for 1 hour, orange peel then washed with bidistiled water, and dried in oven at 150oC for 6 hours. Iodine number was used to analysis the results. Adsorption of Remazol Brilliant Blue dyes by orange peel activated carbon conduct at variation contact time and mass activated carbon to find optimum condition. Optimum condition adsorption of Remazol Brilliant Blue dyes by orange peel actvated carbon isreached at 30 minutes contact time with mass activated carbon 1 gram. Activated carbon from orange peel has surface area 529,17 m g/gr based aqueous iodine adsorption.

  10. Pathogen infection drives patterns of nutrient resorption in citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jirong; Cheng, Chunzhen; Yang, Junjie; Wang, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient resorption processes in the plants infected by pathogen remain poorly understood. Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease of citrus. HLB-pathogen 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' grows specifically in the phloem of hosts and may cause problems in the plant vascular system after infection. Therefore, it brings a great concern about the phloem nutrient transport and nutrient intra-cycling in HLB-affected plants. We investigated the effects of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and resorption in different citrus species (i.e. Citrus reticulata, Citrus limon and Citrus maxima). HLB-pathogen infection had distinctive impacts on nutrient resorption in different species. P resorption efficiency substantially decreased in infected C. reticulata plants relative to the healthy plants in summer, which may account for the marked decrease in the average fruit yield. P resorption was more efficient in infected C. limon plants than in the healthy plants. However, for C. maxima plants, HLB had no significant effects on N:P ratio in live leaves and resorption efficiency as well as on fruit yield. Keeping efficient internal nutrient cycling can be a strategy of citrus species being tolerant to HLB. PMID:26419510

  11. Comportamiento de la producción de lima Tahití (Citrus latifolia Tanaka), injertada sobre el patrón de Mandarina Cleopatra (Citrus reticulata Blanco) y la influencia del virus de la tristeza (CTV) en condiciones del piedemonte del Meta, 1997-2008 / Performance of the production of Tahiti lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) grafted on the pattern of Cleopatra Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and the influence of tristeza virus (CTV) under the piedemont of Meta, 1997-2008

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio, Quiroga - Cardona; Francy L, Hernández- Parrado; María del Rosario, Silva- Herrera; Javier O., Orduz-Rodríguez.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La lima ácida Tahití (Citrus latifolia T) ocupa el tercer lugar dentro de las especies cítricas cultivadas en Colombia. Sus frutos se consumen en el mercado interno y presenta un creciente mercado de exportación. Entre las enfermedades virales que afectan a los cultivos de cítricos el Virus de la Tr [...] isteza de los Cítricos (CTV) es uno de los más limitantes para la producción y longevidad de las plantas en particular en las de lima Tahití. Este estudio se llevó a cabo bajo las condiciones agroecológicas del Centro de Investigación Corpoica La Libertad, en el piedemonte del departamento del Meta. Las plantas utilizadas se injertaron en vivero en 1996 con yemas provenientes de cultivos comerciales utilizándose como patrón la mandarina Cleopatra (Citrus reticulata Blanco). El cultivo se estableció en campo en 1997, ocupando una extensión de una hectárea, con una densidad de 490 plantas ha-1. Para determinar la producción del cultivo se llevaron registros anuales; y para la incidencia y severidad de la (CTV) se realizaron dos lecturas en las plantas, durante el séptimo y onceavo año después del transplante (addt). En el año 2008 (11 addt) se realizó la descripción de la sintomatología del daño ocasionado por la tristeza de los cítricos en la planta y se realizó el registro fotográfico. La producción de la lima Tahití se inicio en el 3 año después del transplante con 4 t/ha y se incremento anualmente hasta presentar el pico de producción en el 8 año con 62 t/ha, posteriormente decrece hasta obtener 2 t/ha en el año 11. La incidencia de CTV en el año 2003 (6 addt) fue de 16.5 % para un total de 80 plantas afectadas y en el 2008 (11 addt) el 100 % de las plantas estaban afectadas (490 plantas) La severidad del CTV, en el año 2003 fue de 29.4 %, mientras que en el 2008 fue del 84 %. Abstract in english Tahiti limes (Citrus latifolia T) is in third place among the citrus species cultivated in Colombia. Its fruits are consumed in the domestic market and has a growing export market. Among the viral diseases affecting citrus crops Virus Citrus Tristeza (CTV) is one of the most limiting for production [...] and longevity of plants especially in Tahiti lime. This study was carried out under the ecological conditions of the Research Center Corpoica La Libertad, in the foothills of the department of Meta. The plants used in the nursery in 1996 grafted with buds from crops used as standard Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco). The crop field was established in 1997, occupying an area of one hectare, with a density of 490 plants ha-1. To determine crop production took annual records, and the incidence and severity of the (CTV) were two readings in plants, during the seventh and eleventh year after transplantation (addt). In 2008 (11 addt) A description of the symptoms of the damage caused by citrus tristeza in the plant and the photographic record was made. The Tahiti lime production started three years after transplantation with 4 t / ha and increased annually to present the peak of production in the eighth year with 62 t/ha, then decreased until 2 t/ha in year 11. The incidence of CTV in 2003 (6 addt) was 16.5 % for a total of 80 affected plants and in 2008 (11 addt) 100 % of plants were affected (490 plants). The severity of CTV, in the 2003 was 29.4 %, while the reading of 2008 was 84 %.

  12. Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Banet, Amanda I.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Steffensen, John F.; Aarestrup, Kim

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable intraspecific variation in metabolic rates and locomotor performance in aquatic ectothermic vertebrates; however, the mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. Using pregnant Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing teleost, we examined the effects of reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burse-assisted swimming on swimming metabolic rate, standard metabolic rate (MO2std) and prolonged swimming performance (Ucrit). Reproductive traits included reprodu...

  13. Effect of juice extraction methods and processing temperature-time on juice quality of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Pareek, Sunil; Paliwal, Ravinder; Mukherjee, Subrata

    2010-01-01

    Influence of juice extraction methods and pasteurization temperature and time on quality of mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) juice was studied. The experiment consisted of 65 °C pasteurization temperature with 15, 25 and 35 min holding time; 75 °C with 10, 20 and 30 min and 85 °C with 5, 10 and 15 min holding times and two types of juice extraction methods. The experiment was laid out in factorial completely randomized Design with three replications. Juice extracted with screw type juice e...

  14. Sexual characteristics are altered by 4-tert-octylphenol and 17beta-estradiol in the adult male guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, G; Baatrup, E

    2001-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are believed to interfere with animal reproduction, but only few biomarkers above the cellular level have been developed to assess the adverse effects of these chemicals. Using the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) as a model organism, studies have been undertaken with the object of comparing biomarker responses to EDCs at increasing levels of biological complexity. Short-term exposure to the xenoestrogen 4-tert-octylphenol and the natural estrogen 17beta-estradio...

  15. The MC1R gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata): Genotypic and phenotypic polymorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama Jun; Yamamoto Hiroaki; Tezuka Ayumi; van Oosterhout Cock; Kawata Masakado

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The guppy (Poecilia reticulata) is an important model organism for studying sexual selection; male guppies have complex and conspicuous pigmentation, and female guppies exhibit preferences for males with specific color spots. Understanding the genetic basis underlying pigmentation variation in the guppy is important for exploring the factors causing the maintenance of color polymorphism in wild populations. Findings We focused on the melanic black pigmentation of guppies, ...

  16. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove) and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit)

    OpenAIRE

    OO Johnson; GA Ayoola; T Adenipekun

    2013-01-01

    The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum) and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata) were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity....

  17. Atividade antimicrobiana do oleorresina de copaíba (Copaifera reticulata) frente a Staphylococcus coagulase positiva isolados de casos de otite em cães / Antimicrobial activity of copaiba oil (Copaifera reticulata) against coagulase positive Staphylococcus of canine otitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosangela E., Ziech; Luana D., Farias; Cláudia, Balzan; Magnos F., Ziech; Berta M., Heinzmann; Osmar A., Lameira; Agueda C. de, Vargas.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar o potencial antimicrobiano do oleorresina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke em isolados de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (SCP) provenientes de casos de otite externa em cães. O método de microdiluição em caldo foi utilizado para determinação da concentr [...] ação inibitória mínima (CIM) e concentração bactericida mínima (CBM) de oleorresina de copaíba. Em adição, foi determinado o perfil de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos dos isolados de SCP pelo método de difusão em ágar. Oito classes de antimicrobianos foram usadas para o cálculo de multirresistência antimicrobiana. A determinação da composição química do oleorresina de copaíba foi realizada por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (GC/MS), sendo que ?-cariofileno, ?-bisaboleno e (E)-?-bergamoteno foram os compostos majoritários. O oleorresina de copaíba demonstrou CIM90 de 0,164mg/mL e CBM90 de 1,31mg/mL. A multirresistência foi verificada em 27% das cepas testadas. Os resultados sugerem que o oleorresina de copaíba exerceu atividade bacteriostática e bactericida mesmo em cepas multirresistentes de Staphylococcus coagulase-positiva. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the oleoresin Copaifera reticulata Ducke against Staphylococcus coagulase positive (SCP) isolated from otitis externa in dogs. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the oleores [...] in were determined by broth microdilution method. In addition, we verified the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates of SCP by agar diffusion method. Eight classes of antimicrobial were used to calculate the multidrug resistance. The chemical composition of the oleoresin was performed by gas chromatography coupled to the mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and ?-caryophyllene, ?-bisabolene, and (E)-?-bergamotene were the main compounds found. The copaiba oleoresin showed a MIC90 of 0.164mg/mL and a CBM90 of 1.3mg/mL. The multidrug resistance was found in 27% of the strains tested. The results suggest that copaiba oleoresin has bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity even in multidrug-resistant coagulase-positive strains.

  18. Determination of nickel in alcoholic beverages by FAAS after online preconcentration using mandarin peel (Citrus reticulata) as biosorbent

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriela C., Ribeiro; Luciana M., Coelho; Nívia M. Melo, Coelho.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Um método de extração por fase sólida foi desenvolvido para determinação direta de níquel em bebidas alcóolicas. Este método baseia-se na adsorção de níquel em cascas de Citrus reticulata, conhecida como mexerica. O pH de solução, quantidade de adsorvente, vazão da amostra e do eluente, concentração [...] do eluente e efeito de matriz foram investigados usando estratégias de otimização multivariada. Estudos de dessorção foram feitos com HCl 1 mol L-1. As condições ideais de extração foram obtidas usando amostra em pH 6,0, vazão da amostra de 4,3 mL min-1, massa de adsorvente de 50 mg e HCl 1,0 mol L-1 na vazão de 2,0 mL min-1 usado como eluente. Fator de pré-concentração, precisão, limite de detecção (LOD), limite de quantificação (LOQ), índice de consumo e frequência analítica foram estimados como 12, 0,9% (30,0 µg L-1, n = 7), 3,1 µg L-1, 10,3 µg L-1, 0,85 mL e 15 amostras por h, respectivamente. O método foi aplicado em amostras de cachaça e uísque e os resultados para os testes de recuperação foram maiores que 99%. Abstract in english A solid phase extraction method was developed for the direct determination of nickel in alcoholic beverages. This method is based on the adsorption of nickel onto the peel of Citrus reticulata (mandarin orange). The solution pH, amount of adsorbent, sample and eluent flow rates, eluent concentration [...] and matrix effects were investigated using multivariate optimization strategies. Desorption studies were carried out with 1 mol L-1 HCl. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained using a sample pH of 6.0, sample flow rate of 4.3 mL min-1, 50 mg of sorbent mass and 1.0 mol L-1 HCl at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min-1 used as eluent. The preconcentration factor, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), consumption index and sample throughput were estimated as 12, 0.9% (30.0 µg L-1, n = 7), 3.1 µg L-1, 10.3 µg L-1, 0.85 mL and 15 samples per h, respectively. The method was applied to sugar cane spirit and whisky samples and the results for recovery tests were higher than 99%.

  19. Storage Stability of Kinnow Fruit (Citrus reticulata as Affected by CMC and Guar Gum-Based Silver Nanoparticle Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Wasim Ahmad Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC and guargum-based coatings containing silver nanoparticles was studied on the postharvest storage stability of the kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata cv. Blanco for a period of 120 days (85%–90% relative humidity at 4 °C and 10 °C. Physicochemical and microbiological qualities were monitored after every 15 days of storage. Overall results revealed an increase in total soluble solid (TSS, total sugars, reducing sugars and weight loss but this increase was comparatively less significant in coated fruits stored at 4 °C. Ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity was significantly enhanced in coated fruits stored at 4 °C. Titratable acidity significantly decreased during storage except for coated kinnow stored at 4 °C. In control samples stored at 10 °C, high intensity of fruit rotting and no chilling injury was observed. Total aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria and yeast and molds were noticed in all treatments during storage but the growth was not significant in coated fruits at 4 °C. Kinnow fruit can be kept in good quality after coating for four months at 4 °C and for 2 months at 10 °C.

  20. Slight Fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium Improves the Taste (Sugar:Acid Ratio) of Citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. chachiensis) Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Fu, Manqin; Wen, Jing

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium, which can metabolize citric acid, could be applied in improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice. During fermentation, the strain of L. fermentium can preferentially utilize citric acid of citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis) juice to support the growth without the consumption of sugar. After 6 h of fermentation with L. fermentium at 30 °C, the sugar:acid ratio of citrus juice increased to 22:1 from 12:1, which resulted in that the hedonic scores of sweetness, acidity and overall acceptability of fermented-pasteurized citrus juice were higher than the unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice, the ORAC value and total amino acid showed a reduction, and no significant change (P > 0.05) in the L*, a*, b*, total soluble phenolics and ascorbic acid (Vc) content in the fermented-pasteurized citrus juice was observed as compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Hence, slight fermentation with L. fermentium can be used for improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice with the well retaining of quality. PMID:26447635

  1. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of garlic compounds against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkle, Bettina; Snellgrove, Donna; Cable, Joanne

    2013-11-15

    Traditional compounds used to treat fish diseases in aquaculture and the ornamental fish industry (such as formalin and malachite green) can be more toxic to the hosts than their parasites. With the reviviscence in the use of herbal products, various botanicals have been heralded as cures for particular pathogens, but the efficacy of these compounds for parasitic worms is questionable. Here, we tested a range of garlic (Allium sativum) products against a major aquarium pathogen, Gyrodactylus turnbulli, infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). All garlic products significantly reduced parasite mean survival time in vitro, from 13 h to <1 h. In fully randomised trials, the number of parasites was also significantly reduced on infected fish exposed to garlic from different sources. Two garlic treatments (minced and granule forms) reduced worm burdens by 66% and 75% after three doses, whereas Chinese freeze-dried garlic and allyl disulphide were 95% effective after a single application. In fact, Chinese freeze dried garlic was equally effective as Levamisole, a licensed livestock dewormer that is highly effective against G. turnbulli but not routinely prescribed for use in fish; hence, garlic may be a potential alternative treatment for gyrodactylosis. PMID:24074607

  2. Beauty in the eyes of the beholders: colour vision is tuned to mate preference in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandkam, Benjamin; Young, C Megan; Breden, Felix

    2015-02-01

    A broad range of animals use visual signals to assess potential mates, and the theory of sensory exploitation suggests variation in visual systems drives mate preference variation due to sensory bias. Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a classic system for studies of the evolution of female mate choice, provide a unique opportunity to test this theory by looking for covariation in visual tuning, light environment and mate preferences. Female preference co-evolves with male coloration, such that guppy females from 'low-predation' environments have stronger preferences for males with more orange/red coloration than do females from 'high-predation' environments. Here, we show that colour vision also varies across populations, with 'low'-predation guppies investing more of their colour vision to detect red/orange coloration. In independently colonized watersheds, guppies expressed higher levels of both LWS-1 and LWS-3 (the most abundant LWS opsins) in 'low-predation' populations than 'high-predation' populations at a time that corresponds to differences in cone cell abundance. We also observed that the frequency of a coding polymorphism differed between high- and low-predation populations. Together, this shows that the variation underlying preference could be explained by simple changes in expression and coding of opsins, providing important candidate genes to investigate the genetic basis of female preference variation in this model system. PMID:25556876

  3. Atividade antimicrobiana do oleorresina de copaíba (Copaifera reticulata frente a Staphylococcus coagulase positiva isolados de casos de otite em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela E. Ziech

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar o potencial antimicrobiano do oleorresina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke em isolados de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (SCP provenientes de casos de otite externa em cães. O método de microdiluição em caldo foi utilizado para determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e concentração bactericida mínima (CBM de oleorresina de copaíba. Em adição, foi determinado o perfil de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos dos isolados de SCP pelo método de difusão em ágar. Oito classes de antimicrobianos foram usadas para o cálculo de multirresistência antimicrobiana. A determinação da composição química do oleorresina de copaíba foi realizada por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (GC/MS, sendo que ?-cariofileno, ?-bisaboleno e (E-?-bergamoteno foram os compostos majoritários. O oleorresina de copaíba demonstrou CIM90 de 0,164mg/mL e CBM90 de 1,31mg/mL. A multirresistência foi verificada em 27% das cepas testadas. Os resultados sugerem que o oleorresina de copaíba exerceu atividade bacteriostática e bactericida mesmo em cepas multirresistentes de Staphylococcus coagulase-positiva.

  4. Hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeretin are collectively responsible for the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of tangerine peel (Citri reticulatae pericarpium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Su-Chen; Kuo, Chun-Ting

    2014-09-01

    Inhibiting microglial activation-mediated neuroinflammation has become a convincing target for the development of functional foods to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Tangerine peel (Citri reticulatae pericarpium) has potent anti-inflammatory capacity; however, its anti-neuroinflammatory capacity and the corresponding active compounds remain unclear. To this end, the composition of a tangerine peel ethanolic extract was analysed by LC-MS, and the anti-neuroinflammatory ability was evaluated using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV2 microglia culture system. Hesperidin is the most predominant flavonoid in tangerine peel, followed by tangeretin and nobiletin. Among the eight tested flavanone glycosides and polymethoxy flavones, only nobiletin displayed a capacity of>50% to inhibit LPS-induced proinflammatory NO, TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 secretion at a concentration of 100 ?M. At 2 mg/ml, tangerine peel extract attenuated LPS-induced NO, TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 secretion by 90.6%, 80.2%, 66.7%, and 86.8%, respectively. Hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeretin individually (at concentrations of 135, 40, and 60 ?M, respectively) in 2 mg/ml tangerine peel extract were only mildly inhibitory, whereas in combination, they significantly inhibited LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine expression at levels equal to that of 2 mg/ml tangerine peel extract. Overall, tangerine peel possesses potent anti-neuroinflammatory capacity, which is attributed to the collective effect of hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeretin. PMID:24955543

  5. Change of mitotic behavior and ultra structure of 'Fuju' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) stem-apex clones after space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using conventional squash stain technique and ultrathin sectioning technique, the effects of space flight on mitotic behavior and ultrastructure were studied in the shoot apical meristem of 'Fuju' (Citrus reticulata Blanco), which had been carried by China's seed-breeding satellite, Shijian-8. The results showed that space flight had effect on the mutagenesis of stem-apical meristem. Abnormal mitosis with various degrees had been detected in 13 mutant clones, of which mitotic aberrations in clone '08004' were significantly higher than the others. The aberration rate of numerical abnormalities of chromosomes at metaphase, lagging chromosome, micronucleus, C-spindle, S-spindle and polyarch spindle in the clone '08004' was 0.34%, 0.669%, 0.86%, 0.17%, 1.20% and 1.03%, respectively. The ultrastructure of mesophyll cell in most clones was unchanged, but nucleus chromatin agglutination, chloroplast thylakoid disintegrated, autophagosome appeared, cell vacuolated, plasmolysis and the formation of apoptotic body were found in the clone '08004', suggesting that programmed cell death (PCD) Nevertheless, no change in the mitochondrial structure was observed until terminal phase of PCD. (authors)

  6. An aqueous extract of Salacia oblonga root, a herb-derived peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activator, by oral gavage over 28 days induces gender-dependent hepatic hypertrophy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xianglu; Kim, Moon Sun; Su, Ning; Wen, Suping; Matsuo, Yukimi; Yamahara, Johji; Murray, Michael; Li, Yuhao

    2008-06-01

    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha by natural and synthetic chemicals induces hepatic hypertrophy. An aqueous extract of Salacia oblonga root (SOW) is an Ayurvedic medicine with anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties. In the present study, it was found that SOW (100, 300 and 900mg/kg, once daily by oral gavage over a 28 day period) elicited dose-related increases in liver weight (LW) by 1.6%, 13.4% and 42.5%, respectively, and in the ratio of LW to body weight by 8.8%, 16.7% and 40.2%, respectively, in male rats. These effects were less pronounced in females. SOW selectively increased liver mass in male rats but Sudan red staining was not different, which indicates that hepatic lipid accumulation was similar in both genders. However, SOW even at the highest dosage did not influence serum ALT and AST activities in male or female rats. Moreover, SOW was found to activate PPAR-alpha in human hepatoma-derived HepG2 cells, as evidenced by the upregulation of PPAR-alpha and acyl-CoA oxidase mRNA expression. Thus, SOW-dependent PPAR-alpha activation may precede the development of the gender difference in hepatic hypertrophy; this process may be influenced by sex hormone status. PMID:18397819

  7. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity of copaiba oils from Copaifera cearensis Huber ex Ducke, Copaifera reticulata Ducke and Copaifera multijuga Hayne--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga Junior, V F; Rosas, E C; Carvalho, M V; Henriques, M G M O; Pinto, Angelo C

    2007-06-13

    Copaiba oil is an oleoresin obtained from the Copaifera L. genus (Leguminoseae) commonly featured in anti-inflammatory recipe prescribed by Amazonian traditional medical practitioners and featured in Europe and North America pharmacopeias of the past. Chemical and anti-inflammatory activity investigations from the copaiba oils obtained from Copaifera multijuga Hayne, Copaifera cearensis Huber ex Ducke and Copaifera reticulata Ducke species have proved that, although similar, these oleoresins possess varied composition and anti-inflammatory activity. Chromatographic studies showed that the main compound among sesquiterpenes was beta-caryophyllene (57.5, 19.7 and 40.9%, respectively), followed by alpha-humulene, alpha-copaene, alpha-bergamotene, delta-cadinene, with different amounts in each oleoresin. Among the diterpenes, copalic acid was the main component from Copaifera multijuga Hayne (6.2%) and was found in all the oleoresins studied. In Copaifera cearensis Huber ex Ducke, clorechinic (11.3%) and hardwickiic acids (6.2%) were the major diterpenes while kaurenoic (3.9%) and kolavenic acids (3.4%) predominated in Copaifera reticulata Ducke. The pharmacologic effects of the three oleoresins were evaluated in vitro by measuring the NO production by murine macrophages and in vivo using the zymosan induced pleurisy model in mice. The Copaiba Oil from Copaifera multijuga Hayne (100 mg/kg) was the most potent, inhibiting both NO production and the pleurisy induced by zymosan. The oleoresins from Copaifera cearensis Huber ex Ducke and Copaifera reticulata Ducke were also able to inhibit NO production and the pleurisy but with less intensity. PMID:17446019

  8. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of Pirimiphos-Methyl (Actellic®, 25%EC) on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859)

    OpenAIRE

    M.O. Lawal; O.B. Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Pirimiphos-methyl is a broad spectrum organophosphate insecticide and potential toxic pollutant in aquatic ecosystems. The acute toxicity of Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic®) was investigated using Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) in a 96 h static renewal laboratory bioassay. Based on probit analysis, the LC50 was 0.026, 0.024, 0.022 and 0.019 ml L-1 at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that there was significant difference (p<0.05) in the quantal response (mort...

  9. Regulation of substantia nigra pars reticulata GABAergic neuron activity by hydrogen peroxide via flufenamic acid-sensitive channels and KATP channels

    OpenAIRE

    MargaretERice; PaulWitkovsky

    2011-01-01

    Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) GABAergic neurons are key output neurons of the basal ganglia. Given the role of these neurons in motor control, it is important to understand factors that regulate their firing rate and pattern. One potential regulator is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen species that is increasingly recognized as a neuromodulator. We used whole-cell current clamp recordings of SNr GABAergic neurons in guinea-pig midbrain slices to determine how H2O2 affects t...

  10. Seasonal simulation of water, salinity and nitrate dynamics under drip irrigated mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and assessing management options for drainage and nitrate leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phogat, V.; Skewes, M. A.; Cox, J. W.; Sanderson, G.; Alam, J.; Šim?nek, J.

    2014-05-01

    Estimation of all water fluxes temporally and spatially within and out of the crop root zone, and evaluation of issues like salinity and nutrient leaching, are necessary to fully appraise the efficiency of irrigation systems. Simulation models can be used to investigate these issues over several seasons when the cost of long term monitoring is prohibitive. Model results can be used to advise growers if improvements are required to various aspects of irrigation system operations. In this study, HYDRUS-2D was used to evaluate data measured during one season in a young mandarin (Citrus reticulata) orchard, irrigated with an intensive surface drip fertigation system. Water contents, salinities, and nitrate concentrations measured weekly in the field were compared with model predictions. The temporal mean absolute error (MAE) values between weekly measured and simulated water contents ranged from 0.01 to 0.04 cm3 cm-3. However, modelling error (MAE) was slightly larger at 10 cm depth (0.04 cm3 cm-3), as compared to greater depths (0.02-0.03 cm3 cm-3). Similarly, the errors were larger in the surface soil layer (25 cm depth) for nitrate-nitrogen, NO3--N (1.52 mmol(c) L-1), as compared to greater depths. The spatial and temporal soil solution salinity (ECsw) and NO3--N data showed accumulation of salts and nitrate within the soil up until day 150 of the simulation (December, 2006), followed by leaching due to high precipitation and over irrigation at later times. Only 49% of applied water was used by the mandarin trees, while 33.5% was leached. On the other hand, the simulation revealed that a significant amount of applied nitrogen (85%) was taken up by the mandarin trees, and the remaining 15% was leached. The results indicate that the irrigation and fertigation schedule needs modifying as there was overwatering from December onwards. Different permutations and combinations of irrigation and fertigation scheduling were evaluated to optimise the water and nitrogen uptake and to reduce their leaching out of the crop root zone. Slightly higher nitrogen uptake (1.73 kg ha-1) was recorded when fertigation was applied second to last hour in an irrigation event, as compared to applying it earlier during an irrigation event. Similarly, a 20% reduction in irrigation and N application produced a pronounced reduction in drainage (28%) and N leaching (46.4%), but it also decreased plant N uptake by 15.8% and water uptake by 4.8%, and increased salinity by 25.8%, as compared to the normal practice. This management would adversely impact the sustainability of this expensive irrigation system. However, reducing only irrigation by 30% during the 2nd half of the crop season (January to August) reduced drainage and N leaching by 37.2% and 50.5%, respectively, and increased N uptake by 6.9%. Such management of irrigation would be quite promising for the sustainability of the entire system. It is concluded that judicious manipulations of irrigation and fertilizer applications can be helpful in designing drip irrigation schedules for perennial horticultural crops to achieve improved efficiency of irrigation and fertigation applications and reduced contamination of receiving water bodies.

  11. Ecotoxicological monitoring for the evaluation of environmental recovery of aquatic ecosystems using Poecilia reticulata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DaSilva, E.M.; Navarro, M.F.T.; Mota, M.F.; Chastinet, C.B.A.

    1995-12-31

    Groundwater contamination has led to a considerable environmental impact on the humic acid-rich lake systems of Jaua and Interiagos (Camagari-BA). This was caused by the seepage of rainwater through a dune, which was used for some time as a dumping ground of a titanium dioxide plant. The pH fall in the water has conducted to a precipitation of the humic acids and the disappearance of the local fish fauna. The plant (TIBRAS S/A) initiated a recovery program in 1992 to seal up the contaminated dune, thus avoiding further contamination of the groundwater. During the last two years, ecotoxicity tests have been carried out with lake water, employing young individual of the guppy (Poecilia reticulate), an endemic species, as a test organism. Results for 1993 indicated and confined the contamination of five water stations from a total of eight sampled nearby. The LT{sub 50} were in some cases lower than 60 min. In the end of 1993, a severe drought caused the total disappearance of the surface water in the whole aquatic ecosystem. In May 1994, the testing series restarted and some considerable changes have been detected: the return of the water color for the whole system, an increase in pH and a considerable decrease of toxicity in two other stations. LT{sub 50} values for five stations were above 96 hours. These results are not yet an indicative that the dune sealing has been carried out properly, but are able to show and follow improvements in the biological quality of water bodies.

  12. Acaricidal activity of an oleoresinous extract from Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) against larvae of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Fernandes, Fernando; de Paula Souza Freitas, Edméia

    2007-06-20

    The acaricidal activity of oleoresinous extract (oleoresin) from the copaiba tree, Copaifera reticulata was investigated. Oleoresin was dissolved with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and mixed with distilled water at a rate of 0.4 ml of DMSO to 24.6 ml water. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae were exposed to filter paper envelopes impregnated with different oleoresin concentrations. Four envelopes were impregnated with each tested solution. Thirty larvae between 14 and 21 days old were fasted and placed in each envelope. Bioassays were performed at 27 degrees+/-1 degrees C, RH>or=80% and a photoperiod of 12:12 h. Larval mortality was observed 24 h after treatment. Four replicates for each concentration were evaluated to determine lethal concentrations (LC). Oleoresin LC50 and LC99 values were 1579 and 3491 ppm, respectively. The potential use of oleoresin for control of R. (B.) microplus is discussed. The results of this study reinforce the importance of the preservation of C. reticulata in its natural Biome, as a potentially auto-sustainable medicinal resource among the flora of Amazonian forest. PMID:17478043

  13. Simultaneous determination of six bioactive flavonoids in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium by rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, E-Hu; Zhao, Pan; Duan, Li; Zheng, Guo-Dong; Guo, Long; Yang, Hua; Li, Ping

    2013-12-15

    A rapid resolution liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-ESI-MS(n)) method has been firstly developed and validated for simultaneous determination of six bioactive flavonoids in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (CRP). The antiproliferative activities of the six flavonoids in CRP, namely naringin, hesperidin, nobiletin, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone, tangeretin and 5-hydroxy-6,7,8,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone, were evaluated and compared by Cell Counting Kit-8 Assay. Quantification was carried out on an Agilent triple quadrupole LC-MS system using multiple reaction monitoring mode. The established method was successfully applied for determination of the six flavonoids in samples collected from different regions in China. Compared with the reported analytical methods, the RRLC-ESI-MS(n) method is powerful in quantitative analysis of multi-component in terms of time savings and sensitivity. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was also performed to differentiate and classify the samples based on the contents of the six characteristic flavonoids. The HCA results indicated that Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' samples could be easily distinguished from other CRP samples. The developed RRLC-ESI-MS(n) method combined with HCA might be utilised as a quality control method for CRP. PMID:23993574

  14. Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Banet, Amanda I.

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable intraspecific variation in metabolic rates and locomotor performance in aquatic ectothermic vertebrates; however, the mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. Using pregnant Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing teleost, we examined the effects of reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burse-assisted swimming on swimming metabolic rate, standard metabolic rate (MO2std) and prolonged swimming performance (Ucrit). Reproductive traits included reproductive allocation and pregnancy stage, the former defined as the mass of the reproductive tissues divided by the total body mass. Results showed that the metabolic rate increased curvilinearly with swimming speed. The slope of the relationship was used as an index of swimming cost. There was no evidence that reproductive traits correlated with swimming cost, MO2std or Ucrit. In contrast, data revealed strong effects of pectoral fin use on swimming cost and Ucrit. Poecilia reticulata employed body-caudal fin (BCF) swimming at all tested swimming speeds; however, fish with a high simultaneous use of the pectoral fins exhibited increased swimming cost and decreased Ucrit. These data indicated that combining BCF swimming and pectoral fin movement over a wide speed range, presumably to support swimming stability and control, is an inefficient swimming behaviour. Finally, transition to burst-assisted swimming was associated with an increase in aerobic metabolic rate. Our study highlights factors other than swimming speed that affect swimming cost and suggests that intraspecific diversity in biomechanical performance, such as pectoral fin use, is an important source of variation in both locomotor cost and maximal performance.

  15. Evaluation of guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters) immunization against Tetrahymena sp. by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Galit; Nath, Pulak R; Isakov, Noah; Zilberg, Dina

    2014-09-15

    Analysis of the effectiveness of guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters) immunization based on measurements of antibody (Ab) titers suffers from a shortage of reagents that can detect guppy antibodies (Abs). To overcome this problem, we immunized mice with different preparations of guppy immunoglobulins (Igs) and used the mouse antisera to develop a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The most efficient immunogen for mouse immunization was guppy Igs adsorbed on protein A/G beads. Antisera from mice boosted with this immunoglobulin (Ig) preparation were highly specific and contained high Ab titers. They immunoreacted in a Western blot with Ig heavy and light chains from guppy serum, and Ig heavy chain from guppy whole-body homogenate. The mouse anti-guppy Ig was applied in an ELISA aimed at comparing the efficiency of different routes of guppy immunization against Tetrahymena: (i) anal intubation with sonicated Tetrahymena (40,000 Tetrahymena/fish in a total volume of 10 ?L) mixed with domperidon, deoxycholic acid and free amino acids (valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and tryptophan), or (ii) intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of sonicated Tetrahymena in complete Freund's adjuvant (15,000 Tetrahymena/fish in total a volume of 20 ?L). Negative control fish were anally intubated with the intubation mixture without Tetrahymena, or untreated. ELISA measurement of anti-Tetrahymena Ab titer revealed a significantly higher level of Abs in i.p.-immunized guppies, compared to the anally intubated and control fish. In addition, the efficiency of immunization was tested by monitoring guppy mortality following (i) i.p. challenge with Tetrahymena (900 Tetrahymena/fish) or (ii) cold stress followed by immersion in water containing 10,000 Tetrahymena/mL. Fish mortality on day 14 post-Tetrahymena infection by i.p. injection exceeded 50% in the control and anally intubated fish, compared to 31% in i.p.-immunized fish. Immunization did not protect from pathogen challenge by immersion. The results suggest a direct correlation between the anti-Tetrahymena Ab response and fish resistance to i.p.-injected Tetrahymena, but not to infection by immersion preceded by cold stress. PMID:25085773

  16. Alterações químicas, físicas e físico-químicas da tangerina 'ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) durante o armazenamento refrigerado / Chemical, physical and physical-chemical changes on tangerina 'ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) under refrigerated storage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana Aparecida Souza, Vale; Custódio Donizete dos, Santos; Celeste Maria Patto de, Abreu; Angelita Duarte, Corrêa; Juliana Araújo, Santos.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo proposto neste trabalho foi o de avaliar as alterações químicas, físicas e físico-químicas da tangerina 'Ponkan' (citrus reticulata Blanco) durante o armazenamento refrigerado a 5 ± 2° C e umidade relativa de 85 ± 3% por um período de 28 dias, em dois estádios de maturação (frutos coletad [...] os no início da safra; com a casca mais verde e frutos coletados no final da safra com a casca amarela). Os frutos foram coletados com pedúnculo, ao acaso de um pomar comercial com sete anos de idade, localizado no município de Perdões, região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram realizadas duas colheitas, uma no mês de Abril quando os frutos estavam com a casca verde, mas já estavam aptos para o consumo; e outra mais no final da safra no mês de Julho quando os frutos já estavam com a casca bem amarela. Os frutos coletados foram levados ao Laboratório de Bioquímica da Universidade Federal de Lavras, onde foram selecionados 100 (cem) frutos de tamanho uniforme e com ausência de injúrias a cada colheita, estes foram lavados com uma solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 1%, protocolados, pesados, medidos e realizadas as leituras de cor. Os frutos foram então armazenados em refrigerador a 5 ± 2° C e umidade relativa de 85 ± 3% por um período de 28 dias, e as análises foram realizadas nos frutos e no suco dos frutos aos 0, 7 14, 21 e 28 dias de armazenamento. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com 5 repetições de 4 frutos . Os resultados mostraram que quase todas as análises realizadas apresentaram variações significativas. A perda de massa, os diâmetros transversais e longitudinais apresentaram diminuições significativas com os dias de armazenamento refrigerado. Os açúcares também tiveram variações significativas com tendência de aumento com os dias de armazenamento.O pH não apresentou variações significativas. Os teores de Vitamina C não apresentaram variações significativas com os dias de armazenamento refrigerado. A coloração da casca dos frutos foi medida com um colorímetro e foram medidos três variáveis de cor: luminosidade, teor de amarelo e teor de vermelho. Pode-se observar visualmente que os frutos coletados no início da safra apresentaram um ressecamento das vesículas de suco, ou seja, frutos com granulação, principalmente a partir da segunda semana de armazenamento, enquanto os frutos coletados mais maduros com maiores teores de açúcares solúveis foram mais resistentes ao ressecamento interno das vesículas.(análise visual e tátil). Abstract in english This work was aimed to evaluating chemical, physical and physical-chemical changes on tangerine 'Ponkan' (citrus reticulata Blanco) during the storage at 5 ± 2° C under relative humidity of 85 ± 3%, for a period of 28 days, in two maturation stadiums (fruits collected at the beginning of the crop; w [...] ith the greenest peel and yellow peel fruits,, collected by the end of the crop). Fruits with stalf were alleatory collected in a seven-years old commercial orchard, located at Perdões, South area of the State of Minas Gerais. Fruits were collectd twice: on April, when they got a green peel, but they were already edible; and on July, by the end of the crop, when fruits got a very yellow peel. Then fruits were taken to the Laboratory of Biochemistry of the Federal University of Lavras, where a hundred aff them with uniform size and injury were washed with a 1% sodium hypochoride solution, marked, weigthted measured and submitted to color readings. After 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days in a refrigerator at fruits of uniform size and with absence of offenses to each crop, these were washed with a hipoclorito of sodium solution to 1%, recorded, heavy, measured and accomplished the color readings. Then the fruits were stored then in refrigerator at 5 ± 2° C, under relative humidity of 85 ± 3%, fruits as well as thein juice were analysed. The experimental outline used was entirely randomized, with five replicates containig four fruits in each one. Almos

  17. Length-weight relationship and reproduction of the guppy Poecilia reticulata (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) in urban drainage channels in the Brazilian city of Belém / Relação peso-comprimento e reprodução do guppy Poecilia reticulata (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) em canais de coleta residual na região metropolitana de Belém, Pará, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciano Fogaça de Assis, Montag; Tiago Magalhães da Silva, Freitas; Roberta Dannyele de Oliveira, Raiol; Marlene Vasconcelos da, Silva.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo descrever aspectos populacionais relacionados ao estabelecimento da relação peso/comprimento, estimativa de tamanho de primeira maturação (L) e período reprodutivo de Poecilia reticulata encontrados em sistemas de coleta residual no campus da Universidade Federal [...] do Pará, região metropolitana de Belém - PA (Brasil). Foram realizadas coletas mensais no período de junho de 2006 a março de 2007, utilizando um puçá, que resultou na captura de 1.936 exemplares, sendo 942 machos e 994 fêmeas. As fêmeas apresentaram-se maiores e mais pesadas que os machos. A relação peso/comprimento para machos foi estabelecida pela equação Pt = 5 × 10-5 × Ct2,397 e para fêmeas esta foi dada pela fórmula Pt = 3 × 10-6 × Ct3,419. Os valores estimados para L foi 17,5 mm para machos 20,4 mm para fêmeas, sugerindo que os machos iniciam atividades reprodutivas em tamanhos menores que as fêmeas. A frequência mensal de fêmeas maduras não variou significativamente. Além disso, também não foram encontradas diferenças na proporção sexual durante os períodos investigados, sendo no geral, a proporção de fêmeas iguais as de machos. Desta forma, verificamos que, apesar das condições presentes nos sistemas de coleta residual da UFPA, a espécie P. reticulata parece ter adaptado seus processos biológicos. Abstract in english This paper describes the length-weight relationship, size at first maturation (L), and breeding season of Poecilia reticulata found in drainage channels on the campus of the Federal University of Pará (UFPA) in the Brazilian city of Belém. A total of 1.936 specimens (942 males and 994 females) were [...] collected in monthly samples of the study area between June, 2006, and March, 2007. Females were significantly longer and heavier than males. The length-weight relationship for males was established by the equation Pt = 5 × 10-5 × Ct2.397 and for females by Pt = 3 × 10-6 × Ct3.419. The estimated value of L was 17.5 mm for males and 20.4 mm for females, suggesting that males initiate reproductive activity at a smaller size than females. The abundance of mature females did not vary significantly among months, and there was little variation in the sex ratio, which was close to parity overall. Despite the adverse conditions encountered in the UFPA drainage system, P. reticulata appeared to have adapted its biological processes adequately.

  18. Polymethoxylated, C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids in tangelo (Citrus reticulata×Citrus paradisi) juice and their influence on antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreca, Davide; Bisignano, Carlo; Ginestra, Giovanna; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Bellocco, Ersilia; Leuzzi, Ugo; Gattuso, Giuseppe

    2013-11-15

    A separation/identification protocol based on RP-LC-DAD-ESI-MS-MS has been employed for the characterisation of the flavonoid fraction of the juice from tangelos (Citrus reticulata×Citrus paradisi) grown in Southern Italy. Eleven compounds were identified in a single chromatographic course. Of these, two C-glycosyl flavones (lucenin-2 and vicenin-2) and an O-triglycosyl flavanone (narirutin 4'-O-glucoside) were identified for the first time. Fruit juice antioxidant activity was evaluated on the basis of its ability to scavenge DPPH, O2(-), OH and ABTS(+) radicals, and to reduce iron (FRAP). Moreover, the influence of the identified polymethoxylated, C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids on the total antioxidant activity has been elucidated. We also checked the antimicrobial activity of a broad fraction, containing all the detected flavonoids obtained by preparative HPLC, in terms of MICs for Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:23790942

  19. Distinct Carotenoid and Flavonoid Accumulation in a Spontaneous Mutant of Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco) Results in Yellowish Fruit and Enhanced Postharvest Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tao; Xu, Kunyang; Luo, Yi; Chen, Jiajing; Sheng, Ling; Wang, Jinqiu; Han, Jingwen; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Chen, Jianmin; Wu, Qun; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-09-30

    As the most important fresh fruit worldwide, citrus is often subjected to huge postharvest losses caused by abiotic and biotic stresses. As a promising strategy to reduce postharvest losses, enhancing natural defense by potential metabolism reprogramming in citrus mutants has rarely been reported. The yellowish spontaneous mutant of Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco) (YP) was used to investigate the influence of metabolism reprogramming on postharvest performance. Our results show that reduced xanthophyll accumulation is the cause of yellowish coloring of YP and might be attributed to the reduced carotenoid sequestration capacity and upregulated expression of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes. Constantly higher levels of polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) during the infection and the storage stage might make significant contribution to the more strongly induced resistance against Penicillium digitatum and lower rotting rate. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of applying bud mutants to improve the postharvest performance of citrus fruits. PMID:26329679

  20. Effect of juice extraction methods and processing temperature-time on juice quality of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareek, Sunil; Paliwal, Ravinder; Mukherjee, Subrata

    2011-04-01

    Influence of juice extraction methods and pasteurization temperature and time on quality of mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) juice was studied. The experiment consisted of 65 °C pasteurization temperature with 15, 25 and 35 min holding time; 75 °C with 10, 20 and 30 min and 85 °C with 5, 10 and 15 min holding times and two types of juice extraction methods. The experiment was laid out in factorial completely randomized Design with three replications. Juice extracted with screw type juice extractor and processed at 65 °C for 15 min maintained better qualitative characteristics like total soluble solids, acidity, ascorbic acid, sugars and non-enzymatic browning during 6 months storage. Naringin and limonin contents were minimum with the screw extractor and 65 °C processing temperature for 15 min. PMID:23572734

  1. Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Jon C; Banet, Amanda I; Christensen, Rune H B; Steffensen, John F; Aarestrup, Kim

    2013-09-15

    There is considerable intraspecific variation in metabolic rates and locomotor performance in aquatic ectothermic vertebrates; however, the mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. Using pregnant Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a live-bearing teleost, we examined the effects of reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst-assisted swimming on swimming metabolic rate, standard metabolic rate (O2std) and prolonged swimming performance (Ucrit). Reproductive traits included reproductive allocation and pregnancy stage, the former defined as the mass of the reproductive tissues divided by the total body mass. Results showed that the metabolic rate increased curvilinearly with swimming speed. The slope of the relationship was used as an index of swimming cost. There was no evidence that reproductive traits correlated with swimming cost, O2std or Ucrit. In contrast, data revealed strong effects of pectoral fin use on swimming cost and Ucrit. Poecilia reticulata employed body-caudal fin (BCF) swimming at all tested swimming speeds; however, fish with a high simultaneous use of the pectoral fins exhibited increased swimming cost and decreased Ucrit. These data indicated that combining BCF swimming and pectoral fin movement over a wide speed range, presumably to support swimming stability and control, is an inefficient swimming behaviour. Finally, transition to burst-assisted swimming was associated with an increase in aerobic metabolic rate. Our study highlights factors other than swimming speed that affect swimming cost and suggests that intraspecific diversity in biomechanical performance, such as pectoral fin use, is an important source of variation in both locomotor cost and maximal performance. PMID:23737561

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of heteroanalogues of kotalanol and de-O-sulfonated kotalanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Sankar; Jayakanthan, Kumarasamy; Nasi, Ravindranath; Kuntz, Douglas A; Rose, David R; Pinto, B Mario

    2010-03-01

    The synthesis of nitrogen and selenium analogues of kotalanol and de-O-sulfonated kotalanol, naturally occurring sulfonium-ion glucosidase inhibitors isolated from Salacia reticulata, and their evaluation as glucosidase inhibitors against the N-terminal catalytic domain of human maltase glucoamylase (ntMGAM) are described. PMID:20143790

  3. The effect of heteroatom substitution of sulfur for selenium in glucosidase inhibitors on intestinal ?-glucosidase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Razieh; Jones, Kyra; Rose, David R; Pinto, B Mario

    2011-08-28

    The synthesis of selenium analogues of de-O-sulfonated ponkoranol, a naturally occurring sulfonium-ion glucosidase inhibitor isolated from Salacia reticulata, and their evaluation as glucosidase inhibitors against two recombinant intestinal enzymes maltase glucoamylase (MGAM) and sucrase isomaltase (SI) are described. PMID:21750824

  4. RT-qPCR reveals opsin gene upregulation associated with age and sex in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) - a species with color-based sexual selection and 11 visual-opsin genes

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor John S; Laver Christopher RJ

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background PCR-based surveys have shown that guppies (Poecilia reticulata) have an unusually large visual-opsin gene repertoire. This has led to speculation that opsin duplication and divergence has enhanced the evolution of elaborate male coloration because it improves spectral sensitivity and/or discrimination in females. However, this conjecture on evolutionary connections between opsin repertoire, vision, mate choice, and male coloration was generated with little data on gene exp...

  5. Evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant properties of some traditional medicinal plants from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreerangegowda Thippeswamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants have been used to prevent and treat various health problems. Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of aqueous and solvent extracts of some selected medicinal plants. Materials and Methods: The disc diffusion method was employed for the determination of antimicrobial activity, and antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide reducing and ?- carotene/linoleic acid bleaching inhibition assays. Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method was employed for the determination of total phenolic contents. Results: Aqueous and solvent extracts of Acacia catechu, A. ferruginea, Adenanthera pavonina, Albizia odoratissima, Anogeissus latifolia, Breynia vitis-idaea, Salacia oblonga, Senna spectabilis and Solanum indicum showed significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis, and promising antioxidant properties. The antioxidant activities were positively correlated with total phenolic contents. Discussion and Conclusion: The promising antibacterial and antioxidant activities of these plants validated their traditional use in various herbal preparations to treat various ailments associated with pathogenic microbes and oxidative stress. Further investigations such as isolation of active principles and toxicological studies to ascertain the safety, and in vivo experimentations on suitable models are required to explore the therapeutic usage of these plants on humans.

  6. Avaliação da toxicidade aguda e potencial neurotóxico do óleo-resina de copaíba (Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae Assessment of the neurotoxic potential and acute toxicity of copaiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camile Giaretta Sachetti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O óleo-resina de copaíba obtido do gênero Copaifera L., Fabaceae, é largamente utilizado na medicina popular como antiinflamatório, antimicrobiano e antitumoral. Porém, informações sobre seu potencial tóxico são escassos na literatura. O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer a toxicidade oral aguda e os possíveis efeitos neurotóxicos relacionados à ingestão do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, em ratas Wistar. O estudo foi conduzido com quinze ratas nulíparas distribuídas nos grupos de doses 300 e 2000 mg/kg pc de óleo-resina administrado por gavagem. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que nestas doses não houve sinais clínicos de toxicidade ou neurotoxicidade, alteração no consumo de ração ou alteração no peso corpóreo. A dose letal aguda foi estimada como maior que 2000 mg/kg pc e classificada como categoria 5, segundo o Guia OECD 423. Estes resultados indicam que existe uma relativa margem de segurança para o uso do óleo-resina de copaíba como agente terapêutico, embora estudos toxicológicos adicionais sejam ainda necessários, principalmente com a administração repetida de baixas doses.Copaiba oil-resin obtained from Copaifera L. genus, Fabaceae, is largely used in popular medicine as antinflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumoral. Information concerning the potential toxicity of this oil is limited in the literature. The goal of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity and the possible neurotoxic effects related to the ingestion of Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, oil-resin using female Wistar rats. Fifteen nulliparous rats were used and distributed in the experimental groups orally exposed to doses of 300 e 2000 mg/kg bw of oil-resin (gavage. No overt clinical signs of toxicity or neurotoxicity, alteration of food consumption or body weight were observed in the animals at the tested doses. The lethal oral toxicity was estimated to be higher than 2000 mg/kg bw, classified as category 5 according to OECD Guide 423. These results indicate that there is a certain safety margin associated with the use of copaiba as therapeutic agent, although additional toxicological studies are still necessary, mainly using repeated low doses.

  7. Avaliação da toxicidade aguda e potencial neurotóxico do óleo-resina de copaíba (Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae) / Assessment of the neurotoxic potential and acute toxicity of copaiba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camile Giaretta, Sachetti; Maria Luiza, Fascineli; Juliana Alves, Sampaio; Osmar Alves, Lameira; Eloisa Dutra, Caldas.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O óleo-resina de copaíba obtido do gênero Copaifera L., Fabaceae, é largamente utilizado na medicina popular como antiinflamatório, antimicrobiano e antitumoral. Porém, informações sobre seu potencial tóxico são escassos na literatura. O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer a toxicidade oral aguda [...] e os possíveis efeitos neurotóxicos relacionados à ingestão do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, em ratas Wistar. O estudo foi conduzido com quinze ratas nulíparas distribuídas nos grupos de doses 300 e 2000 mg/kg pc de óleo-resina administrado por gavagem. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que nestas doses não houve sinais clínicos de toxicidade ou neurotoxicidade, alteração no consumo de ração ou alteração no peso corpóreo. A dose letal aguda foi estimada como maior que 2000 mg/kg pc e classificada como categoria 5, segundo o Guia OECD 423. Estes resultados indicam que existe uma relativa margem de segurança para o uso do óleo-resina de copaíba como agente terapêutico, embora estudos toxicológicos adicionais sejam ainda necessários, principalmente com a administração repetida de baixas doses. Abstract in english Copaiba oil-resin obtained from Copaifera L. genus, Fabaceae, is largely used in popular medicine as antinflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumoral. Information concerning the potential toxicity of this oil is limited in the literature. The goal of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity an [...] d the possible neurotoxic effects related to the ingestion of Copaifera reticulata Ducke, Fabaceae, oil-resin using female Wistar rats. Fifteen nulliparous rats were used and distributed in the experimental groups orally exposed to doses of 300 e 2000 mg/kg bw of oil-resin (gavage). No overt clinical signs of toxicity or neurotoxicity, alteration of food consumption or body weight were observed in the animals at the tested doses. The lethal oral toxicity was estimated to be higher than 2000 mg/kg bw, classified as category 5 according to OECD Guide 423. These results indicate that there is a certain safety margin associated with the use of copaiba as therapeutic agent, although additional toxicological studies are still necessary, mainly using repeated low doses.

  8. Parámetros de calidad en la etapa de desarrollo y maduración en frutos de dos variedades y un cultivar de mandarina (Citrus reticulata Blanco) / Parameters regarding quality during development and maturation stages in fruit from two varieties of a mandarin orange cultivar (Citrus reticulata Blanco) / Os parâmetros de qualidade na fase de desenvolvimento ematuração dos frutos em duas variedades e cultivares de tangerina (Citrus reticulata branco)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo, Villalba-Campos; Aníbal O, Herrera-Arévalo; Javier Orlando, Orduz-Rodríguez.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se determino o comportamento das variáveis de qualidade de frutos de três variedades de tangerina (C. reticulata Blanco): Dancy, Arrayan a e experimental cultivar chamado LL053, enxertadosempadrão Cleopatra (C. reticulata Blanco). As variáveis avaliadas foram peso, firmeza, diâmetro (polar e equator [...] ial), volume, Sólidos Solúveis Totais (SST), Acidez Total Titulável (ATT), Relacao de Maturidade (RM) e índice da cor (IC). Com quatro tratamentos correspondentes a os materiais, um delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC) com quatro árvores por parcela e quatro repetições. Quatro coletas for am feitas de forma aleatória na fase II de crescimento do fruto cada três semanas a partir dos 148 dias de pois deanteses ea última no dia 208 dda. No amadurecimento de consumo realizou-se uma amostragemà 222 daàtangerina Dancy ea os 260 dda para Arrayana e LL053. O índice de relacao de maturidade (RM) mostra um comportamento cedo para os frutos de tangerina Dancy, a relaçãoatingi-o 10 (SST/ATT), aproximadamente à206 dda; enquanto que Arrayana y LL053 chegouà244 e 252dda, respectivamente. Arrayana apresentou os maiores valores de peso do fruto, diâmetro equatorial, pH e volume. O cultivar "LL053" e variedade "Dancy" exibiram os mai orespercentuais de teor de suco (10% a mais do que Arrayana) e maiores valores de firmeza. O maior valor de SST é apresentado no cultivar LL053, em quanto a variedade Dancy apresentou os menores valores. O índice dacorfoimaiorna arrayana y LL053 à260dda, em quanto avariedade Dancy presento u os frutos mais verdes à 220dda, atingindo umacorlaranja intenso comuma maiorvelocidade no tempo com o aumento da RM. O comportamento no início do am adurecimento de consumo da tangerina Dancy é importante para o desenvolvimento da produção de tangerina nos trópicos baixos da Colômbia; ja que permite ampliar o período de colheita e competir com a qualidade interna e externa com o fruto importado. Abstract in spanish Se determinó el comportamiento de las variables de calidad del fruto de tres variedades de mandarina (C. reticulata Blanco): Dancy, Arrayana y un cultivar experimental denominado LL053; injertadas sobre el patrón Cleopatra (C. reticulata Blanco). Las variables evaluadas fueron peso, firmeza, diámetr [...] o (polar y ecuatorial), volumen, sólidos solubles totales (SST), acidez total titulable (ATT), relación de madurez (RM) e índice de color (IC). Con cuatro tratamientos correspondientes a los materiales, se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar (DCA), con cuatro árboles por unidad experimental y cuatro repeticiones. Se realizaron cuatro muestreos de forma aleatoria en la fase II de crecimiento del fruto cada cerca de tres semanas a partir de los 148 días después de antesis y el último en el día 208 dda. En la madurez de consumo se les hizo un muestreo a los 222 dda a la mandarina Dancy y 260 dda para Arrayana y LL053. El índice de relación de madurez (RM) muestra un comportamiento temprano para los frutos de mandarina Dancy, alcanzando la relación 10 (SST/ATT), aproximadamente a los 206 dda; mientras que Arrayana y LL053 lo alcanzaron a los 244 y 252 dda respectivamente. Arrayana presentó los mayores valores de peso de frutos, diámetro ecuatorial, pH y volumen. El cultivar "LL053" y la variedad "Dancy" exhibieron los mayores porcentajes de contenido de jugo (10% más que Arrayana) y mayores valores de firmeza. El mayor valor de SST se presentó en el cultivar LL053, mientras que la variedad Dancy presentó los valores menores. El índice de color fue mayor en Arrayana y LL053 a los 260 dda, mientras que la variedad Dancy presentó los frutos más verdes a los 220 dda, alcanzando un color naranja intenso con una mayor velocidad en el tiempo, con el aumento de la RM. El comportamiento temprano de la madurez de consumo de la mandarina Dancy es importante para el desarrollo de la producción de mandarinas en el trópico bajo de Colombia, ya que permite ampliar la época de cosecha y competir con la calidad interna y externa con la fru

  9. Sexual characteristics are altered by 4-tert-octylphenol and 17beta-estradiol in the adult male guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, G; Baatrup, E

    2001-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are believed to interfere with animal reproduction, but only few biomarkers above the cellular level have been developed to assess the adverse effects of these chemicals. Using the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) as a model organism, studies have been undertaken with the object of comparing biomarker responses to EDCs at increasing levels of biological complexity. Short-term exposure to the xenoestrogen 4-tert-octylphenol and the natural estrogen 17beta-estradiol (E2) changed important sexual characteristics in the adult male guppy. Both compounds increased the number of sperm cells in the ejaculates, reduced the area and color intensity of the sexually attractive orange spots, and inhibited testis growth. In the case of E2, the effects on sperm count and coloration were still evident after 3 months of recovery in clean water. Preliminary results on male reproductive capability demonstrated that treated males produced fewer offspring than untreated fish, indicating an impairment of reproduction itself. Udgivelsesdato: 2001-Jan

  10. Alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de Aedes aegypti submetidas ao diterpeno labdano, isolado de Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae, e à uma fração rica em taninos de Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleyde Ferreira Barreto Valotto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública, em vários países, e tem como principal vetor o Aedes aegypti, mosquito mais adaptado às áreas urbanizadas. Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, as alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de 3º estádio, desse mosquito, causadas pelos larvicidas naturais, um diterpeno labdano, extraído de Copaifera reticulata, e uma fração rica em taninos catéquicos, extraída de Magonia pubescens, evidenciando o mecanismo de ação dessas substâncias. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados com larvas de 3º estádio em solução de 0,9ppm, do diterpeno (3-?-acetoxylabdan-8(17-13-dien-15-óico e de 3,7ppm, da fração majoritária de tanino catéquico de massa molecular 864Da. Obtiveram-se as substâncias através de fracionamentos cromatográficos sucessivos, identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. As larvas que atingiram estado letárgico foram coletadas e dissecadas e seus tubos digestórios fixados, desidratados, emblocados e polimerizados. Cortes ultrafinos foram feitos e contrastados com acetato de uranila 3% e citrato de chumbo, posteriormente, levados ao microscópio eletrônico. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações ultraestruturais provocadas pelos diterpeno e tanino sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti foram vacuolização citoplasmática, desorganização e degeneração celular, mudança estrutural dos microvilos e deslocamento das células da lâmina basal. CONCLUSÕES: O diterpeno e a fração rica em taninos catéquicos provocaram a morte das larvas de Aedes aegypti através da destruição celular no intestino médio.

  11. Inhibitory effects of four plants flavonoids extracts on fatty acid synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Zhuang, Donghong; Cai, Weijia; Xu, Liyan; Li, Enmin; Wu, Yunying; Sugiyama, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) had been found overexpress and hyperactive in most cancers. Pharmacological inhibitors of FAS activity preferentially repress cancer cell proliferation and induce cancer cell apoptosis without affecting nonmalignant fibroblasts. These made FAS an excellent drug target for cancer therapy. The activity of FAS in 11 different kinds of cancer cells, including esophageal carcinoma (EC109, EC8712, H5E973), gastric carcinoma (N87, BGC823), lung carcinoma (A549, 95-D), hepatoma (HepG2), uterine cervix cancer (HeLa) and leukaemia (K562, U937) were compared using spectrophotometric method. We selected the cell line with the highest FAS activity as cell model to study the inhibitory effect of the flavonoids extracts on FAS. Four plants including Canavium album Raeuseh leaves, Bombax ceiba Linn, Brassica albograbra Bailey, and Citrus reticulata Blanco were selected for extracting flavonoids. The results showed significantly different FAS activity among different cancer cells. The FAS activity is the lowest in gastric cancer cell N87 (15.91 ± 3.61 U/mg protein) and the highest in lung cancer cell A549 (127.36 ± 10.14 U/mg protein). The cancer cell A549 was used as cell model to test the inhibitory effort of flavonoids extracts on FAS. Results showed that the flavonoids extracts of Citrus reticulata Blanco and Canavium album Raeuseh leaves have higher inhibitory effect on FAS activity compared with the universally used FAS inhibitor C75 and both extracts inhibit cancer cell proliferation when added to cultured cancer cells. These studies provided a good cell model for testing the inhibitory effect on FAS activity and suggested that Citrus reticulata Blanco rind and Canavium album Raeuseh leaves are good biomaterials for separating and purifying natural flavonoids FAS inhibitors and exploring their inhibitory mechanisms. PMID:25084411

  12. Regeneração de plantas após fusão de protoplastos de tangelo 'Page' e toranja 'Lau Tau' Plant regeneration after protoplast fusion of 'Page' tangelo and 'Lau Tau' pummelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Cristina de Carvalho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se a hibridação somática entre tangelo 'Page' e toranja 'Lau Tau' visando à produção de porta-enxerto semelhante à laranja-azeda, por esta espécie ser considerada um provável híbrido entre C. reticulata e C. grandis. Após isolamento, fusão e cultivo de protoplastos, obtiveram-se brotações que foram enxertadas in vitro, em laranja 'Hamlin'. Dezessete plantas foram aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação. A análise de citometria de fluxo confirmou a constituição diplóide dessas plantas. Marcadores moleculares RAPD das plantas regeneradas apresentaram padrão de bandas similar ao de tangelo 'Page'. Entretanto, todas as plantas apresentaram conformação fenotípica diferente dos genitores.This work aimed to produce somatic hybrid between 'Page' tangelo and 'Lau Tau' pummelo in an attempt to regenerate a similar rootstock to sour orange, because this species is considered a probable hybrid between C. reticulata and C. grandis. After protoplast isolation, fusion and culture regenerated shoots were in vitro grafted on 'Hamlin' sweet orange. Seventeen plants were acclimatized in a greenhouse. Citometric flow analyses revealed that all plants are diploid. RAPD molecular markers of regenerated plants had the same pattern as compared to 'Page' tangelo. However, all plants had phenotypic traits different from both genitors.

  13. Regeneração de plantas após fusão de protoplastos de tangelo 'Page' e toranja 'Lau Tau' / Plant regeneration after protoplast fusion of 'Page' tangelo and 'Lau Tau' pummelo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dayse Cristina de, Carvalho; Francisco de Assis Alves, Mourão Filho; Beatriz Madalena Januzzi, Mendes; Carlos Roberto de, Carvalho.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se a hibridação somática entre tangelo 'Page' e toranja 'Lau Tau' visando à produção de porta-enxerto semelhante à laranja-azeda, por esta espécie ser considerada um provável híbrido entre C. reticulata e C. grandis. Após isolamento, fusão e cultivo de protoplastos, obtiveram-se brotações que [...] foram enxertadas in vitro, em laranja 'Hamlin'. Dezessete plantas foram aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação. A análise de citometria de fluxo confirmou a constituição diplóide dessas plantas. Marcadores moleculares RAPD das plantas regeneradas apresentaram padrão de bandas similar ao de tangelo 'Page'. Entretanto, todas as plantas apresentaram conformação fenotípica diferente dos genitores. Abstract in english This work aimed to produce somatic hybrid between 'Page' tangelo and 'Lau Tau' pummelo in an attempt to regenerate a similar rootstock to sour orange, because this species is considered a probable hybrid between C. reticulata and C. grandis. After protoplast isolation, fusion and culture regenerated [...] shoots were in vitro grafted on 'Hamlin' sweet orange. Seventeen plants were acclimatized in a greenhouse. Citometric flow analyses revealed that all plants are diploid. RAPD molecular markers of regenerated plants had the same pattern as compared to 'Page' tangelo. However, all plants had phenotypic traits different from both genitors.

  14. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo, E-mail: rusg@ouc.edu.cn

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine?disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi?static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long?term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17??estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine?disrupting action. -- Highlights: ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17??estradiol levels of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male guppies.

  15. Dopamine D4 receptor stimulation in GABAergic projections of the globus pallidus to the reticular thalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra reticulata of the rat decreases locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlij, David; Acosta-García, Jacqueline; Rojas-Márquez, Martín; González-Hernández, Brenda; Escartín-Perez, Erick; Aceves, Jorge; Florán, Benjamín

    2012-02-01

    Dopamine D4 receptors are localized in the GABAergic projections that globus pallidus (GP) neurons send to the reticular nucleus of the thalamus (RTN), the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Deficient D4 function in this network could lead to hyperactivity and thus be important in generating some of the symptoms of ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), a condition associated with polymorphisms of dopamine D4 receptors. It is then, unexpected that systemic injections of D4 ligands have no significant effects on the motor activity of normal rats. We further examined this issue by microinjecting D4 ligands and psychostimulant drugs in relevant structures. Interstitial dopamine overflow in the RTN was increased by reverse microdialysis of both methylphenidate and methamphetamine. Intranuclear injections in the RTN of methylphenidate, methamphetamine and the selective D4 agonist PD 168,077 reduced motor activity. Intraperitoneal injection of the D4 antagonist L 745,870 blocked the effects of these intranuclear injections. Similarly, intranuclear injections of PD 168,077 in the SNr inhibited motor activity, an effect that was also blocked by intraperitoneal L 745,870. In rats with 6-OHDA induced hemiparkinsonism, intraperitoneal PD 168,077 produced ipsilateral turning behavior that was blocked by L 745,870. Our results suggest that diminished D4 signaling in GP projections could lead to increased traffic through the relay nuclei of the thalamus and hyperactivity. Hence this basal-ganglia-thalamus network may be one of the targets of the beneficial effects that psychostimulant drugs have in disorders associated with D4 receptor abnormalities. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. PMID:22108379

  16. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OO Johnson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity. The microorganisms used include, Staphylococcus aureus isolate, Escherichia coli isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans isolate, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 90028. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs ranged from 9.31×10-13 – 7.88 mg/ml for garlic oil, 0.16 – 2.66 mg/ml for tangerine oil and 5.95×10-31 – 1.24 mg/ml for the essential oil blend. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration indicated that the Garlic oil and Tangerine oil blend was better at inhibiting the tested microorganisms than the individual oils except for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (30.32% as the major component in the garlic oil extract and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha 4-trimethyl (33.38% in the tangerine oil. While the equal volume of the oil blend also revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (15.92% and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha.4-trimethyl (12.02% as the major constituents though in lower concentrations. Hence, the more potent antimicrobial properties demonstrated by the oil blend can be exploited further with a view to generate new effective antimicrobial compounds.

  17. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine?disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi?static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long?term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17??estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine?disrupting action. -- Highlights: ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17??estradiol levels of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male guppies.

  18. Effect of Time of Fertilizer Application on the Productivity of Kinnow (Citrus reticulata Blanko)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Raza Salik; Faqir Muhammad; M. Amin Shakir

    2000-01-01

    Present studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of fertilizer application at different times of the year on the productivity of kinnow. 40 kg rottened farm yard manure, 1 kg urea, 4 kg single supper phosphate and 1 kg sulphate of potash per plant was applied at three different times i.e., in January, April and July. Application in January improved the number of fruits, fruit size, weight of fruit and juice contents during 1997-98. TSS and juice percentage was not affected by any treatme...

  19. Effect of micronutrients (zn, cu and b) on photosynthetic and fruit yield attributes of citrus reticulata blanco var. kinnow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this investigation, influence of foliar application of micronutrients (Zn, Cu and B) was studied on the improvement in photosynthetic and fruit yield attributes of citrus (Kinnow) plants. Experiments were conducted in two districts of Punjab (Sargodha and Toba Tek Singh), Pakistan varying in soil properties and agro-climatic conditions. Plants at both sites were subjected to foliar spray of three different levels (i.e. 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%) of each Zn, Cu and B at three different fruit developmental stages while macronutrients (NPK) were applied at recommended rates as soil amendment. Micronutrients (Zn, Cu and B) application caused a significant improvement in net photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs), Chlorophyll a, b, total, and caroteniods in both the citrus orchards. However, effect of micronutrients i.e. Zn, Cu and B was more pronounced at the levels of 0.3, 0.1 and 0.2%, respectively. These levels of nutrients were also effective in improving fruit yield with better fruit quality. (author)

  20. Control de larvas de Aedes aegypti (L) con Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1895: una experiencia comunitaria en el municipio Taguasco, Sancti Spíritus, Cuba / Control of Aedes aegypti larvae (L) with Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1895: a community experience in Taguasco municipality, Sancti Spíritus, Cuba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eugenia, Hernández Hernández; María, Marques Pina.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la eficacia del control de larvas de Aedes aegypti (L) con Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1895, en depósitos para almacenar agua destinada al consumo doméstico, en el municipio Taguasco, al centro de la Provincia de Sancti Spíritus, Cuba. Con anterioridad a las epidemias de Santiago de Cuba [...] y Provincia Habana, este municipio no había sido positivo a Aedes aegypti (L). Ante el temor a una epidemia de dengue, las crecientes infestaciones del vector comenzaron a preocupar a la población. Antes de iniciar las siembras de peces, se realizó un levantamiento, durante el cual se encuestaron 1 298 viviendas y locales con extensos patios y un deficiente suministro de agua; eso hace que sus habitantes utilicen todo tipo de depósitos, entre estos 458 tanques bajos donde se observaron 40 focos de mosquitos. Los peces se distribuyeron a razón de no menos de 3 por recipiente, controlándose los focos en 2 meses, excepto en un tanque donde los huevos llegaron a eclosionar. Los resultados además, facilitan la labor del personal sanitario al prescindir de una constante revisión de los depósitos. Por lo que se propone extender la experiencia de Taguasco a otras provincias del país con situación similar. Abstract in english The efficacy of the control of Aedes aegypti (L) with Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1895, was determined in containers used for domestic consumption water in Taguasco municipality in the center of Sancti Spiritus province, Cuba. Before the epidemic of Santiago de Cuba and Havana Province, this municipa [...] lity had not been positive to Aedes aegypti (L). The increasing infections caused by the vector started to worry the population that feared an outbreak of dengue epidemic. Previous to the fish growth, a survey was done in 1 298 houses and places with large backyards and a deficient water supply that made its dwellers use all kinds of containers. Among them 458 low tanks where 40 mosquito foci were detected. Fishes were distributed at a rate of no less than 3 per container. The foci were controlled in 2 months, excepting a tank where eclosion occurred. The results also make easy the work of the health personnel on avoiding the constant checking of the containers. That’s why, it is recommended to extend the experience of Taguasco to other provinces of the country under similar situations.

  1. Rapid screening and identification of compounds with DNA-binding activity from Folium Citri Reticulatae using on-line HPLC-DAD-MS(n) coupled with a post column fluorescence detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qingrong; Zhang, Cangman; Lin, Zongtao; Sun, Hongyang; Liang, Yi; Jiang, Haixiu; Song, Zhiling; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shizhong

    2016-02-01

    To study the interactions between natural compounds and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), a method has been established combining a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-multi-stage mass spectrometer with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)-FLD). The FLD was used to monitor fluorescence intensity of the ethidium bromide-DNA (EB-DNA) complex when a compound separated by HPLC was introduced. This novel method was used to simultaneously obtain the HPLC fingerprint, UV spectra, MS(n) fragments and DNA-binding activity profile of various components in Folium Citri Reticulatae. As a result, 35 compounds were identified, of which 25 were found in the extract of Folium Citri Reticulatae for the first time, and 33 compounds showed DNA-binding activities, with the most active being feruloylhexaric and p-coumaroylhexaric acids. In addition, the precision, stability and reproducibility of this method were validated by two positive controls, quercetin and hesperidin. This new on-line method is accurate, precise and reliable for further high-throughput screening of DNA-binding compounds from food samples and other complex matrices. PMID:26304344

  2. Moscas frugívoras (Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae: ocorrência em pomares comerciais de tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco do município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba = Frugivorous flies (Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae: occurrence in commercials tangerine orchards (Citrus reticulata Blanco in Matinhas, state of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Batista Lopes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba com aproximadamente 1,3 milhões de plantas de tangerina, é responsável por 90% da produção do Estado. A pesquisa foi conduzida em cinco regiões geográficas do município de Matinhas, onde foram coletados 20 frutos na copa e 20 sob a copa da planta, objetivando pesquisar a ocorrência de moscasfrugívoras e seus níveis de infestação em tangerina. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a tangerina é infestada por Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann,1824, Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal e Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann,1830. O índice médio de infestação de C. capitata nas cinco regiões não ultrapassou 0,5 pupa fruto-1. A percentagem de emergência (P.E. de C. capitata em frutos coletados na planta e solo variou entre 14,0 a 54,0% de adultos fruto-1. Osíndices de infestação de N. zadolicha, em frutos coletados na planta e solo, variaram entre 0,4 a 4,3 pupários fruto-1. Os dados da percentagem de emergência (P.E. de N. zadolicha variaram entre 49,9 a 65,9% de adultos fruto-1, sendo considerada a espécie mais abundante, dominante e com uma alta taxa de sobrevivência. N. zadolicha foi considerada praga primária da tangerina nas condições de Matinhas. Este é, também, o primeiro relato das espécies N. zadolicha e N. glaberrima infestando tangerina na Paraíba.The municipality of Matinhas, with approximately 1.3 million tangerinetrees, is responsible for 90% of the tangerine production in the state of Paraíba. This research was carried out in five geographic regions of Matinhas, where 20 fruits on plant and 20 fruits in soil were collected, with the aim of searching for the frugivorous flies and their levels of infestation in tangerine. The results showed that tangerine is infested by frugivorous flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann, 1824, Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal and Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann, 1830. The mean infestation index of C. capitata in five regions did not exceed 0.5 pupae fruit-1. The emergence percentage (EP of C. capitata adults in fruits collected on plant and in soil varied between 14.0% and 54.0% of adults fruit-1. The infestation index for N. zadolicha had variations between 0.4 and 4.3 pupae fruit-1. The data on the emergence percentage (EP of N. zadolicha varied between 49.9% and 65.9% of adults fruit-1, which made it the most abundant and dominant species, with a high survival rate. N. zadolicha was considered the pest with the highest economic impact to tangerines in Matinhas. The present work is also the first report of the N. zadolicha and N. glaberiimaspecies causing infestation in tangerine fruits in the state of Paraíba.

  3. Moscas frugívoras (Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae): ocorrência em pomares comerciais de tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco) do município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba / Frugivorous flies (Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae): occurrence in commercials tangerine orchards (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in Matinhas, state of Paraíba, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edson Batista, Lopes; Jacinto de Luna, Batista; Ivanildo Cavalcanti de, Albuquerque; Carlos Henrique de, Brito.

    Full Text Available O município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba com aproximadamente 1,3 milhões de plantas de tangerina, é responsável por 90% da produção do Estado. A pesquisa foi conduzida em cinco regiões geográficas do município de Matinhas, onde foram coletados 20 frutos na copa e 20 sob a copa da planta, objetivan [...] do pesquisar a ocorrência de moscas frugívoras e seus níveis de infestação em tangerina. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a tangerina é infestada por Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann,1824), Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal) e Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann,1830). O índice médio de infestação de C. capitata nas cinco regiões não ultrapassou 0,5 pupa fruto-1. A percentagem de emergência (P.E.) de C. capitata em frutos coletados na planta e solo variou entre 14,0 a 54,0% de adultos fruto-1. Os índices de infestação de N. zadolicha, em frutos coletados na planta e solo, variaram entre 0,4 a 4,3 pupários fruto-1. Os dados da percentagem de emergência (P.E.) de N . zadolicha variaram entre 49,9 a 65,9% de adultos fruto-1, sendo considerada a espécie mais abundante, dominante e com uma alta taxa de sobrevivência. N. zadolicha foi considerada praga primária da tangerina nas condições de Matinhas. Este é, também, o primeiro relato das espécies N. zadolicha e N. glaberrima infestando tangerina na Paraíba. Abstract in english The municipality of Matinhas, with approximately 1.3 million tangerine trees, is responsible for 90% of the tangerine production in the state of Paraíba. This research was carried out in five geographic regions of Matinhas, where 20 fruits on plant and 20 fruits in soil were collected, with the aim [...] of searching for the frugivorous flies and their levels of infestation in tangerine. The results showed that tangerine is infested by frugivorous flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann, 1824), Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal) and Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann, 1830). The mean infestation index of C. capitata in five regions did not exceed 0.5 pupae fruit-1. The emergence percentage (EP) of C . capitata adults in fruits collected on plant and in soil varied between 14.0% and 54.0% of adults fruit-1. The infestation index for N . zadolicha had variations between 0.4 and 4.3 pupae fruit-1. The data on the emergence percentage (EP) of N . zadolicha varied between 49.9% and 65.9% of adults fruit-1, which made it the most abundant and dominant species, with a high survival rate. N. zadolicha was considered the pest with the highest economic impact to tangerines in Matinhas. The present work is also the first report of the N. zadolicha and N. glaberiima species causing infestation in tangerine fruits in the state of Paraíba.

  4. CARACTERÍSTICAS DO FRUTO DA VARIEDADE SPAN AMERICANA (Citrus reticulata Blanco): UMA TANGERINA DO TIPO 'PONCÃ' DE MATURAÇÃO PRECOCE / FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SPAN AMERICANA (Citrus reticulata Blanco): AN EARLY RIPENING 'PONKAN' LIKE MANDARIN

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ROSE MARY, PIO; KEIGO, MINAMI; JOSÉ ORLANDO DE, FIGUEIREDO.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A tangerina-'Poncã' é bastante apreciada pelo consumidor brasileiro. No Estado de São Paulo, a maturação de seus frutos ocorre nos meses de abril a agosto. Com o mercado ávido por frutas de mesa e agravado pelo problema da ocorrência da clorose variegada dos citros (CVC), que afeta principalmente as [...] variedades de laranjas-doces, tem havido um aumento considerável no plantio dessa variedade. Dessa forma, um excesso de produção, num mesmo período, faz com que os preços caiam, desestimulando assim os produtores. O Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira (CCSM) vem buscando outras alternativas no sentido de obter, durante o ano todo, esse tipo de tangerina. Assim sendo, foram realizados estudos de caracterização de frutos, em diversas épocas do ano, com o acompanhamento dos níveis de maturação, envolvendo acessos do Banco de Germoplasma do CCSM. Dentre as variedades estudadas, quanto à precocidade e qualidade dos frutos, destacou-se a Span Americana. A tangerina-'Poncã' tem seu período de maturação para as condições edafoclimáticas do CCSM, nos meses de maio e junho. Já a variedade Span Americana, que apresenta frutos similares à 'Poncã' tradicional, tem maturação bastante precoce, podendo ser iniciada a sua colheita no mês de março. Abstract in english The 'Ponkan' mandarin is highly appreciated by the Brazilian consumer. In the State of São Paulo, Brazil, its fruits mature from April through August. With the market very much in demand for table fruits and due to the problem of occurrence of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) that affects mainly th [...] e sweet orange varieties there has been a considerable increase in planting of this variety. By this way, an over of production in a same period makes the prices drop, desistimulating the growers. The Centro de Citricultura Sylvio Moreira (CCSM) is searching other alternatives in order to obtain mandarin fruits all the year. Therefore, fruit characteristics studies in different seasons of the year with accompanying of the ripening levels, involving accesses of the germplasm bank of the CCSM, were carried out. Among the studied varieties in regard to earliness and fruit quality, the Span Americana was outstanding. The 'Ponkan' mandarin has its maturing period for the edafoclimatic conditions of the CCSM, in May and June. The Span Americana variety, that produces fruits similar to the traditional Ponkan, matures very early, and might be harvested in the beginning of March, which could be an alternative to enlarge the disponibility of mandarin fruit during the year.

  5. Alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de Aedes aegypti submetidas ao diterpeno labdano, isolado de Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae), e à uma fração rica em taninos de Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae) / Ultrastructural alterations in larvae of Aedes aegypti subject to labdane diterpene isolated from Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae) and a fraction enriched with tannins of Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cleyde Ferreira Barreto, Valotto; Heloisa Helena Garcia da, Silva; Gláucia, Cavasin; Regina, Geris; Edson, Rodrigues Filho; Ionizete Garcia da, Silva.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública, em vários países, e tem como principal vetor o Aedes aegypti, mosquito mais adaptado às áreas urbanizadas. Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, as alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de 3º estádio, desse mosquito, causadas pelos larvicidas [...] naturais, um diterpeno labdano, extraído de Copaifera reticulata, e uma fração rica em taninos catéquicos, extraída de Magonia pubescens, evidenciando o mecanismo de ação dessas substâncias. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados com larvas de 3º estádio em solução de 0,9ppm, do diterpeno (3-?-acetoxylabdan-8(17)-13-dien-15-óico) e de 3,7ppm, da fração majoritária de tanino catéquico de massa molecular 864Da. Obtiveram-se as substâncias através de fracionamentos cromatográficos sucessivos, identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. As larvas que atingiram estado letárgico foram coletadas e dissecadas e seus tubos digestórios fixados, desidratados, emblocados e polimerizados. Cortes ultrafinos foram feitos e contrastados com acetato de uranila 3% e citrato de chumbo, posteriormente, levados ao microscópio eletrônico. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações ultraestruturais provocadas pelos diterpeno e tanino sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti foram vacuolização citoplasmática, desorganização e degeneração celular, mudança estrutural dos microvilos e deslocamento das células da lâmina basal. CONCLUSÕES: O diterpeno e a fração rica em taninos catéquicos provocaram a morte das larvas de Aedes aegypti através da destruição celular no intestino médio. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Dengue is an important public health problem in many countries and its main vector Aedes aegypti, is the mosquito most adapted to urban areas. For the first time, the mechanism of action of labdane diterpenoid extracted from Copaifera reticulata and the fraction enriched of catechin ta [...] nnins extracted from Magonia pubescens is demonstrated through ultrastructural alterations of Aedes aegypti larvae. METHODS: Experiments were performed using a 0.9ppm solution of diterpenoid and 3.7ppm of the fraction as the main catechin tannin of molecular mass 846Da. The compounds were obtained by thin layer chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen and mass spectrometry. Larvae that achieved lethargic state were collected and dissected. Next, they were contrasted with 1% uranyl acetate, dehydrated, embedded and polymerized. Ultrathin sections were made, mixed with 3% uranyl acetate and lead citrate and placed in an electron microscope. RESULTS: The main ultrastructural alterations caused by the diterpenoid and by tanins in larvae of Aedes aegypti were: cytoplasmic vacuolation, alteration of microvilli, cellular aging, cell disruption and degeneration, formation of secretion vesicles and structural changes in microvilli, irregular nuclei and displacement of cells in the basal lamina. CONCLUSIONS: The fraction containing tannins and the diterpenoid caused the death of Aedes aegypti larvae by cell destruction in the midgut.

  6. Potent activity of nobiletin-rich Citrus reticulata peel extract to facilitate cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB signaling associated with learning and memory in cultured hippocampal neurons: identification of the substances responsible for the pharmacological action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahata, Ichiro; Yoshida, Masaaki; Sun, Wen; Nakajima, Akira; Lai, Yanxin; Osaka, Naoya; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Yokosuka, Akihito; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Naganuma, Akira; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Yamakuni, Tohru

    2013-10-01

    cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB signaling linked to CRE-mediated transcription is crucial for learning and memory. We originally found nobiletin as a natural compound that stimulates this intracellular signaling and exhibits anti-dementia action in animals. Citrus reticulata or C. unshiu peels are employed as "chinpi" and include a small amount of nobiletin. We here provide the first evidence for beneficial pharmacological actions on the cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB cascade of extracts from nobiletin-rich C.reticulata peels designated as Nchinpi, the nobiletin content of which was 0.83 ± 0.13% of the dry weight or 16-fold higher than that of standard chinpi extracts. Nchinpi extracts potently facilitated CRE-mediated transcription in cultured hippocampal neurons, whereas the standard chinpi extracts showed no such activity. Also, the Nchinpi extract, but not the standard chinpi extract, stimulated PKA/ERK/CREB signaling. Interestingly, treatment with the Nchinpi extract at the concentration corresponding to approximately 5 ?M nobiletin more potently facilitated CRE-mediated transcriptional activity than did 30 ?M nobiletin alone. Consistently, sinensetin, tangeretin, 6-demethoxynobiletin, and 6-demethoxytangeretin were also identified as bioactive substances in Nchinpi that facilitated the CRE-mediated transcription. Purified sinensetin enhanced the transcription to a greater degree than nobiletin. Furthermore, samples reconstituted with the four purified compounds and nobiletin in the ratio of each constituent's content in the extract showed activity almost equal to that of the Nchinpi extract to stimulate CRE-mediated transcription. These findings suggest that above four compounds and nobiletin in the Nchinpi extract mainly cooperated to facilitate potently CRE-mediated transcription linked to the upstream cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB pathway in hippocampal neurons. PMID:23588349

  7. A novel class of glycosidase inhibitors related to salacinol

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wang

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the design and synthesis of analogues of salacinol, together with the investigation of their enzyme inhibitory activities. Salacinol is a naturally occurring sulfonium ion with an internal sulfate counterion, and is one of the active principles in the aqueous extracts of Salacia reticulata that are traditionally used in Sri Lanka and India for the treatment of diabetes. The syntheses of two novel amino acids, nitrogen analogues of salacinol, containing a carboxylate inn...

  8. Determination of the contents and distribution characteristics of REE in natural plants by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of 8 REEs (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in 17 species of plants and their host soil, which were collected from a rare earth ore area located in the south of China, have been determined by INAA. The chondritic normalized REE patterns for different parts of plants (e.g., leaf, stem and root) and their host soils were studied. The results showed that the concentration levels of REE for most plants in the sampling area were elevated. Particularly, the leaves of the fern (Dicranopteris dichotoma) contain extremely high concentration of the total REE (675-3358 ?g/g). Generally, these REE distribution patterns in every part of plants were very similar and reflected the characteristics of their host soils. However, the chondritic normalized REE patterns in some plants relative to the host soil revealed obvious fractionation, such as the depletion of the heavy REE (for fern, Citrus reticulata and Brassia campestris), the heavy REE enrichment (for Camellia sinensis, Camellia oleifera and Ziziphus) and the Ce positive anomaly (for Gardenia jasminoides). (author)

  9. The molecular basis of color vision in colorful fish: Four Long Wave-Sensitive (LWS opsins in guppies (Poecilia reticulata are defined by amino acid substitutions at key functional sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Pam R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparisons of functionally important changes at the molecular level in model systems have identified key adaptations driving isolation and speciation. In cichlids, for example, long wavelength-sensitive (LWS opsins appear to play a role in mate choice and male color variation within and among species. To test the hypothesis that the evolution of elaborate coloration in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata is also associated with opsin gene diversity, we sequenced long wavelength-sensitive (LWS opsin genes in six species of the family Poeciliidae. Results Sequences of four LWS opsin genes were amplified from the guppy genome and from mRNA isolated from adult guppy eyes. Variation in expression was quantified using qPCR. Three of the four genes encode opsins predicted to be most sensitive to different wavelengths of light because they vary at key amino acid positions. This family of LWS opsin genes was produced by a diversity of duplication events. One, an intronless gene, was produced prior to the divergence of families Fundulidae and Poeciliidae. Between-gene PCR and DNA sequencing show that two of the guppy LWS opsins are linked in an inverted orientation. This inverted tandem duplication event occurred near the base of the poeciliid tree in the common ancestor of Poecilia and Xiphophorus. The fourth sequence has been uncovered only in the genus Poecilia. In the guppies surveyed here, this sequence is a hybrid, with the 5' end most similar to one of the tandem duplicates and the 3' end identical to the other. Conclusion Enhanced wavelength discrimination, a possible consequence of opsin gene duplication and divergence, might have been an evolutionary prerequisite for color-based sexual selection and have led to the extraordinary coloration now observed in male guppies and in many other poeciliids.

  10. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Jon C.; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; Ucrit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (Usus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in Usus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (Uopt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg?1. Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between Ucrit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced Ucrit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between Usus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between Usus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high Usus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between Usus and Uopt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming economy and optimum speed. PMID:25741285

  11. Pharmacognostical Characterization of an Anti-Diabe tic Polyherbal Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P P JOHN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Standardization of drugs and formulation is one theessential parameter in today’s drug discovery. Current study includes pharmacognostic study of a polyherbal formulation which comprise of six crude powdered drugs i.e.Acacia catechu, Phyllanthus embellica, Pterocarpus marsupium, Salacia reticulata, Tinospora cordifoliaand Vetiveria zizanioides, which is used locally for diabetes. Morphological, microscopical and physico-chemical studies were done to standardize the plant ingredients and also for the formulation. Current study includes lycopodium spore method, which is one of the most important methods for standardization of individual powder drug and powdered formulations. When combined with various parameters like linearity, specificity, precision, repeatability and accuracy, the method become a powerful tool to uncover and check even a very small amount of adulteration in a large extent. Mean value for the identifying characters in the mixture was near to one-sixth as compared to the drug when they were individually studied, vindicating our assumption that after mixing the ratio remained intact in the formulation. Thus, this method can be used for finding the exact ratio of drugs in any formulation in near future. All the result of the study could be useful in setting some diagnostic indices for the identification and preparation of a monograph of the drugs. The developed technique will be useful for standardization of different formulations also.

  12. Probing the active-site requirements of human intestinal N-terminal maltase glucoamylase: the effect of replacing the sulfate moiety by a methyl ether in ponkoranol, a naturally occurring ?-glucosidase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Razieh; Jones, Kyra; Rose, David R; Pinto, B Mario

    2010-10-01

    Ponkoranol is a naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor isolated from the plant Salacia reticulata. The compound comprises a sulfonium ion with an internal sulfate counter ion. We report here an efficient synthetic route to 3'-O-methyl ponkoranol to test the hypothesis that occupation of a hydrophobic pocket by a methyl group instead of the polar sulfate ion within the active site of human N-terminal maltase glucoamylase would be beneficial. The synthetic strategy relies on the nucleophilic attack of 2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl-1,4-anhydro-4-thio-D-arabinitol at the C-6 position of benzyl 6-O-p-toluenesulfonyl ?-D-glucopyranoside, followed by deprotection using boron trichloride and reduction with sodium borohydride. The target compound inhibited the N-terminal catalytic domain of intestinal human maltase glucoamylase (ntMGAM) with a K(i) value of 0.50 ± 0.04 ?M, higher than those of de-O-sulfonated ponkoranol (K(i)=43 ± 3 nM), or its 5'-stereoisomer (K(i)=15 ± 1 nM). We conclude that the interaction of the methyl group with hydrophobic residues in the active site is not as beneficial to inhibition of ntMGAM as the other interactions of the polyhydroxylated chain with active-site residues. PMID:20801033

  13. Plant physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Duca, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of plant physiology: plant cell physiology, water regime of plants, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition, plant respiration, plant growth and development, movements in plants, signal perception and transduction etc. It focuses on the fundamental principles of plant physiology and biochemistry from the molecular level to whole plants, on the mechanisms of plant-environment interactions. The book is intended for students (biologists, physiologists, biochemists, biophysicists, ecologists, geneticists), teachers and researchers. Particular emphasis is given to recent research advances made on national and international levels, as well as to personal experimental results of the author that are relevant for a deeper understanding of processes and for practical implementation of gained knowledge. An essential amount of illustrative material (graphics, images, schemes, illustrations) completes the text and supplies additional information in an accessible manner. At the end of each chapter...

  14. Effects of Salacia chinensis extract on reproductive outcome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihong, Yang; Shaozhong, Luo; Jingfeng, Song; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Akaki, Junji; Yamashita, Kousaku; Tamesada, Makoto; Umemura, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    Salaciachinensis is a traditional South and Southeast Asian herb medicine and has been reported to have an antidiabetic function via ?-glucosidases inhibitory activity. In this study, the effects of S. chinensis extract (SCE) on reproductive functions of F0 males and females and the effects on survival and growth of F1 offspring were examined using Sprague-Dawley rats. SCE was administered at dose levels of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day orally to groups consisting of 25 males and 25 females. Males were dosed once a day in the morning from 8 weeks before mating, throughout the mating period and until the day before necropsy and females were dosed once a day in the morning for 2 weeks before mating and through the mating, gestation and lactation periods (until day 20 of lactation). In all SCE treatment groups, no toxic signs were noted on reproductive outcome such as estrous cycle of F0 females or any parameters for reproductive function or survival, growth, sensory reflex or function development of F1 pups. Therefore, we concluded that SCE has no effects on the reproductive outcome even at a remarkably high dosage level, 2000 mg/kg/day, in Sprague-Dawley rats. PMID:20920544

  15. Fruit splitting occurrence of Shogun mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Shogun in southern Thailand and alleviation by calcium and boron sprays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiarawipa, R.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Fruit splitting is a serious problem of Shogun mandarin in southern Thailand. To alleviate this impact, the applications of calcium and boron by spraying were investigated. An experiment was established in a farmer orchard (at Amphur Sadao, Songkhla province where four-year plants were grown at 6 m x 6 m spacing. The experiment was arranged as a completely randomized design, and 16 trees were used. There were 4 treatments (1. control or water spray, 2. 1% CaCl2 spray or C treatment, 3. 0.8% boric acid spray or B treatment and 4. 1% CaCl2+ 0.8% boric acid spray or C+B treatment with 4 replicates. The application was started at 4 months after fruit-setting, the sprays were done at 1 month intervals. It was found that the occurrence of fruit-splitting started at 3 months after fruit-setting, and there were 4 causes of fruit-splitting: 1. scab (28.33%, 2. sun scald (11.11%, 3. sun burn (7.78% and 4. no primary peel damage (52.78%. Various patterns of fruit splitting were found: vertical, horizontal, oblique and informal shape. The treatments of calcium and boron sprays did not affect on fruit growth or fruit size compared with the control, but they significantly enhanced fruit firmness, total soluble solid (TSS and total acidity (TA. The treatments of C, B, and C + B can reduce the percentages of fruit splitting to 5.56, 8.89 and 6.67%, respectively, and they were significantly different from that of the control (52.22%. It is suggested that calcium and boron sprays can alleviate fruit splitting in Shogun mandarin, and fruit quality is also enhanced.

  16. RT-qPCR reveals opsin gene upregulation associated with age and sex in guppies (Poecilia reticulata - a species with color-based sexual selection and 11 visual-opsin genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor John S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCR-based surveys have shown that guppies (Poecilia reticulata have an unusually large visual-opsin gene repertoire. This has led to speculation that opsin duplication and divergence has enhanced the evolution of elaborate male coloration because it improves spectral sensitivity and/or discrimination in females. However, this conjecture on evolutionary connections between opsin repertoire, vision, mate choice, and male coloration was generated with little data on gene expression. Here, we used RT-qPCR to survey visual-opsin gene expression in the eyes of males, females, and juveniles in order to further understand color-based sexual selection from the perspective of the visual system. Results Juvenile and adult (male and female guppies express 10 visual opsins at varying levels in the eye. Two opsin genes in juveniles, SWS2B and RH2-2, accounted for >85% of all visual-opsin transcripts in the eye, excluding RH1. This relative abundance (RA value dropped to about 65% in adults, as LWS-A180 expression increased from approximately 3% to 20% RA. The juvenile-to-female transition also showed LWS-S180 upregulation from about 1.5% to 7% RA. Finally, we found that expression in guppies' SWS2-LWS gene cluster is negatively correlated with distance from a candidate locus control region (LCR. Conclusions Selective pressures influencing visual-opsin gene expression appear to differ among age and sex. LWS upregulation in females is implicated in augmenting spectral discrimination of male coloration and courtship displays. In males, enhanced discrimination of carotenoid-rich food and possibly rival males are strong candidate selective pressures driving LWS upregulation. These developmental changes in expression suggest that adults possess better wavelength discrimination than juveniles. Opsin expression within the SWS2-LWS gene cluster appears to be regulated, in part, by a common LCR. Finally, by comparing our RT-qPCR data to MSP data, we were able to propose the first opsin-to-?max assignments for all photoreceptor types in the cone mosaic.

  17. Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... this section courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture Plant Identification The old saying " Leaves of three, Let ...

  18. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water.

  19. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  20. Poisonous plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T.S., Kellerman.

    Full Text Available South Africa is blessed with one of the richest floras in the world, which-not surprisingly-includes many poisonous plants. Theiler in the founding years believed that plants could be involved in the aetiologies of many of the then unexplained conditions of stock, such as gousiekte and geeldikkop. H [...] is subsequent investigations of plant poisonings largely laid the foundation for the future Sections of Toxicology at the Institute and the Faculty of Veterinary Science (UP). The history of research into plant poisonings over the last 100 years is briefly outlined. Some examples of sustained research on important plant poisonings, such as cardiac glycoside poisoning and gousiekte, are given to illustrate our approach to the subject and the progress that has been made. The collation and transfer of information and the impact of plant poisonings on the livestock industry is discussed and possible avenues of future research are investigated.

  1. Carnivorous Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canipe, Stephen

    This biology lesson on carnivorous (insectivorous) plants is designed to supplement the textbook in the areas of plant diversity, ecology, and distribution. An introduction provides general background information for use as lecture material by the teacher or as reading and/or study material for students. The introduction also includes…

  2. Plant ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported in the following areas of research: effects of chromium toxicity on bush bean plants; role of synthetic chelating agents in mineral cycling; use of waste pyrites from mine operations on highly calcareous soil; roots of higher plants as a barrier to translocation of metals; nitrogen cycle in the northern Mohave desert; plant productivity and nutrient interrelationships of perennials; effects of copper, cobalt, cadmium, zinc, nickel, and chromium on growth and mineral concentration in chrysanthemum; plant uptake of 239Pu, 240Pu, and 241Am through roots from soils containing aged fallout materials; estimated inventory of plutonium and uranium radionuclides for vegetation in aged fallout areas; and temperature and water relations and photosynthesis in desert plants

  3. Antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus reticulata peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumbas Vesna T.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandarin peel, a waste product coming from juice production, was extracted by conventional extraction with 70% acetone. Content of flavonoids in mandarin peel extract (MPE was determined by HPLC. Hesperidin was the most dominant flavonoid. Free radical scavenging activity of MPE on stable DPPH radicals and reactive hydroxyl radicals was also evaluated. EC50 value determined in spectrophotometrical DPPH radical assay was 0.179 mg/ml, while this value in ESR spin trapping hydroxyl radical assay was 0.415 mg/ml. Also, MPE showed protective effects in stabilising sunflower oil during accelerated storage. The results indicated that mandarin peel can be a valuable source of natural antioxidants.

  4. Antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus reticulata) peel

    OpenAIRE

    Tumbas Vesna T.; ?etkovi? Gordana S.; ?ilas Sonja M.; ?anadanovi?-Brunet Jasna M.; Vuli? Jelena J.; Knez Željko; Škerget Mojca

    2010-01-01

    Mandarin peel, a waste product coming from juice production, was extracted by conventional extraction with 70% acetone. Content of flavonoids in mandarin peel extract (MPE) was determined by HPLC. Hesperidin was the most dominant flavonoid. Free radical scavenging activity of MPE on stable DPPH radicals and reactive hydroxyl radicals was also evaluated. EC50 value determined in spectrophotometrical DPPH radical assay was 0.179 mg/ml, while this value in ESR spin trapping hydroxyl radica...

  5. Plant Macrofossils

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past vegetation and environmental change derived from plant remains large enough to be seen without a microscope (macrofossils), such as leaves, needles,...

  6. Plant grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Charles W; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2015-03-01

    Since ancient times, people have cut and joined together plants of different varieties or species so they would grow as a single plant - a process known as grafting (Figures 1 and 2). References to grafting appear in the Bible, ancient Greek and ancient Chinese texts, indicating that grafting was practised in Europe, the Middle East and Asia by at least the 5(th) century BCE. It is unknown where or how grafting was first discovered, but it is likely that natural grafting, the process by which two plants touch and fuse limbs or roots in the absence of human interference (Figure 3), influenced people's thinking. Such natural grafts are generally uncommon, but are seen in certain species, including English ivy. Parasitic plants, such as mistletoe, that grow and feed on often unrelated species may have also contributed to the development of grafting as a technique, as people would have observed mistletoe growing on trees such as apples or poplars. PMID:25734263

  7. Coupling a branch enclosure with differential mobility spectrometry to isolate and measure plant volatiles in contained greenhouse settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Mitchell M; Spitulski, Sierra L; Pasamontes, Alberto; Peirano, Daniel J; Schirle, Michael J; Cumeras, Raquel; Simmons, Jason D; Ware, Jeffrey L; Brown, Joshua F; Poh, Alexandria J Y; Dike, Seth C; Foster, Elizabeth K; Godfrey, Kristine E; Davis, Cristina E

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are off-gassed from all living organisms and represent end products of metabolic pathways within the system. In agricultural systems, these VOCs can provide important information on plant health and can ordinarily be measured non-invasively without harvesting tissue from the plants. Previously we reported a portable gas chromatography/differential mobility spectrometry (GC/DMS) system that could distinguish VOC profiles of pathogen-infected citrus from healthy trees before visual symptoms of disease were present. These measurements were taken directly from canopies in the field, but the sampling and analysis protocol did not readily transfer to a controlled greenhouse study where the ambient background air was saturated with volatiles contained in the facility. In this study, we describe for the first time a branch enclosure uniquely coupled with GC/DMS to isolate and measure plant volatiles. To test our system, we sought to replicate our field experiment within a contained greenhouse and distinguish the VOC profiles of healthy versus citrus infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. We indeed confirm the ability to track infection-related trace biogenic VOCs using our sampling system and method and we now show this difference in Lisbon lemons (Citrus×limon L. Burm. f.), a varietal not previously reported. Furthermore, the system differentiates the volatile profiles of Lisbon lemons from Washington navels [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and also from Tango mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Based on this evidence, we believe this enclosure-GC/DMS system is adaptable to other volatile-based investigations of plant diseases in greenhouses or other contained settings, and this system may be helpful for basic science research studies of infection mechanisms. PMID:26695246

  8. Plant biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Fernández, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The first decade of the 21st century has seen an intense debate of the potential contribution of Plant Biotechnology to meeting present and future world demands of food and biomass. The discussion started in 1997 when the first genetically modified (GM) crops were approved by the EPA for commercial production. The debate has been later stimulated by the increasing awareness of the potential effects of global climate change on agricultural production, as the current crops may be poorly adapted...

  9. Plant Host Finding by Parasitic Plants: A New Perspective on Plant to Plant Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Mescher, Mark C.; Runyon, Justin B.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.

    2006-01-01

    Plants release airborne chemicals that can convey ecologically relevant information to other organisms. These plant volatiles are known to mediate a large array of, often complex, interactions between plants and insects. It has been suggested that plant volatiles may have similar importance in mediating interactions among plant species, but there are few well-documented examples of plant-to-plant communication via volatiles, and the ecological significance of such interactions has been much d...

  10. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.)

  11. Nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear power plant operating with both a thermal and a fast reactor housed in the same containment building is discussed in this invention. The fuel elements are transferred between the two reactors using a charge/discharge machine. As the enrichment of the fuel elements in the thermal reactor falls (and hence also the reactor reactivity), the fuel elements are transferred to the fast reactor to permit re-enrichment of the isotopes which are fissionable by thermal neutrons. The fuel elements are then replaced in the thermal reactor. The advantage of obtaining a higher breeding ratio in the fast reactor by using a gaseous rather than a liquid metal coolant is also discussed. (U.K.)

  12. LNG plant combined with power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs

  13. Caladium plant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... describes poisoning caused by eating parts of the Caladium plant and other plants belonging to the Araceae ... Caladium and related plants may be purchased as houseplants or used in landscapes. Types include Caladium esculentum ...

  14. Beginning Plant Biotechnology Laboratories Using Fast Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mike

    This set of 16 laboratory activities is designed to illustrate the life cycle of Brassicae plants from seeds in pots to pods in 40 days. At certain points along the production cycle of the central core of labs, there are related lateral labs to provide additional learning opportunities employing this family of plants, referred to as "fast plants,"…

  15. Ethylene insensitive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Joseph R. (Carlsbad, CA); Nehring, Ramlah (La Jolla, CA); McGrath, Robert B. (Philadelphia, PA)

    2007-05-22

    Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences are described which relate to an EIN6 gene, a gene involved in the plant ethylene response. Plant transformation vectors and transgenic plants are described which display an altered ethylene-dependent phenotype due to altered expression of EIN6 in transformed plants.

  16. Plant Biology Science Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    This book contains science projects about seed plants that deal with plant physiology, plant ecology, and plant agriculture. Each of the projects includes a step-by-step experiment followed by suggestions for further investigations. Chapters include: (1) "Bean Seed Imbibition"; (2) "Germination Percentages of Different Types of Seeds"; (3)…

  17. GCFR plant control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plant control system is being designed for a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) demonstration plant. Control analysis is being performed as an integral part of the plant design process to ensure that control requirements are satisfied as the plant design evolves. The load control portion of the plant control system provides stable automatic (closed-loop) control of the plant over the 25% to 100% load range. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate load control system performance. The results show that the plant is controllable at full load with the control system structure selected, but gain scheduling is required to achieve desired performance over the load range

  18. Plant Research '75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Research is reported on stomatal regulation of the gas exchanges between plant and environment; inhibitory effects in flower formation; plant growth and development through hormones; hormone action; development and nitrogen fixation in algae; primary cell wall glycoprotein ectensin; enzymic mechanisms and control of polysaccharide and glycoprotein synthesis; molecular studies of membrane studies; sensory transduction in plants; regulation of formation of protein complexes and enzymes in higher plant cell and mechanism of sulfur dioxide toxicity in plants. (PCS)

  19. Nitrogen volatilization form plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kastori Rudolf R.

    2004-01-01

    In plant nitrogen metabolism, a significant role is played not only by the uptake of nitrogen compounds but also by their release into the environment. One of the ways in which plant nitrogen is released is the volatilization of reduced and oxidized nitrogen forms through the above-ground plant organs. During the growing season, depending on plant species, genotype and environmental conditions, plants may release by volatilization a significant portion of their nitrogen uptake and up to 80 kg...

  20. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non-parametric estimates show that domestic MNE plants are more likely to exit the market than other plants, also when controlling for plant-specific differences. Finally, foreign presence in the market seems to have had a negative impact on the survival rate of plants in non-exporting non- MNEs, but not to have affected plants in exporting non-MNEs or plants in domestic MNEs.

  1. A REVISION OF THE ANASTREPHA HASTATA SPECIES GROUP (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Anastrepha hastata species group is recognized with three included species: A. apicata, spec. nov. (Costa Rica, Panama), A. cocorae spec. nov. (Costa Rica), and A. hastata Stone (Brazil). Salacia petenensis is recorded as a host plant of A. apicata, and Cheiloclinium cognatum as a host of A. coc...

  2. Catalogue of the Lower Cretaceous fossil plant collection from the Autonomous Region of La Rioja (Spain) held at the Geominero Museum (Spanish Geological Survey); Catalogo de la coleccion de plantas fosiles del Cretacico Inferior de la Comunidad Autonoma de La Rioja (Espana) depositada en el Museo Geominero (Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente, M de la; Gomez, B.

    2008-07-01

    The Collection of Fossil Invertebrate and Flora from Spain constitutes a 76% of the total collections in the Geominero Museum. The fossil plant mega remains form the Lower Cretaceous of La Rioja, included in such collection, have been revised from the bibliographical, museological, systematic and taxonomic points of view, and have shown significant historical and palaeobotanical interests. The 22 specimens come from the localities of Ortigosa de Cameros and Prejano. The samples from Prejano, collected during the production of the Spanish Geological Map of Calahorra in 1947, have an outstanding interest. They allowed giving an accurate age to the lignite in which the fossil plants were found (Lower Cretaceous), after several wrong determinations. The museological study has allowed reorganizing the collections through inventorying, correction of errors and inclusion of new data. In relation to the taxonomic and systematic revision, it has provided a catalogue in which diverse genera and species of ferns (Sphenopteris [Brongniart] Sternberg, 1825; Weichselia reticulata [Stokes and Webb] Fontaine emend. Alvin, 1971) and conifers (Brachyphyllum Brongniart, 1828, Pagiophyllum Heer, 1881, Sphenolepis cf. debile Heer, 1881) have been identified. Moreover, the analysis of the collection from those points of view enabled the detection of specimens that do not belong to it (Pagiophyllum pedreranum Barale, 1989; Montsechia vidalii [Zeiller] Teixeira, 1954). Lower Cretaceous flora collections known from Cameros Basin are rare and fragmentary; as a result, the collection held at the Geominero Museum has additional interest. (Author) 40 refs.

  3. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  4. Plant tissue culture techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  5. Kansas Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power...

  6. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  7. Nitrogen volatilization form plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastori Rudolf R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In plant nitrogen metabolism, a significant role is played not only by the uptake of nitrogen compounds but also by their release into the environment. One of the ways in which plant nitrogen is released is the volatilization of reduced and oxidized nitrogen forms through the above-ground plant organs. During the growing season, depending on plant species, genotype and environmental conditions, plants may release by volatilization a significant portion of their nitrogen uptake and up to 80 kg of ammonia per hectare. Besides releasing ammonia into the atmosphere, plants also take it up from the atmosphere and thus partially compensate for their ammonia losses by volatilization. These losses can be reduced by plant breeding by developing genotypes with reduced ammonia releases and a more effective reassimilation of the ammonia quantities released. Attempts have been made to reduce the volatilization of nitrogen compounds from the above-ground plant parts by applying physiologically active substances.

  8. Evolution of plant breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Hallauer, Arnel R.

    2011-01-01

    Plant breeding is considered one of the longest ongoing activities undertaken by humans, who select plantsmore productive and useful to themselves and the animals for at least 10,000 years ago. The evolution of civilizationsparalleled the success of plant breeding, although this has not been recognized by the public. The reason may be lack ofunderstanding of what plant breeding encompasses. The concept of plant breeding evolved, depending on the time it wasformulated, but without losing the e...

  9. Plant abiotic stress signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Akpinar, B. Ani; Avsar, Bihter; Stuart J. Lucas; Budak, Hikmet

    2012-01-01

    Stress signaling is central to plants which—as immobile organisms—have to endure environmental fluctuations that constantly interfere with vigorous growth. As a result, plant-specific, elaborate mechanisms have evolved to perceive and respond to stress conditions. Currently, these stress responses are plausibly being revealed to involve crosstalks with energy signaling pathways as any growth-limiting factor alters plant’s energy status. Among these, autophagy, conventionally regarded as the m...

  10. Plant cytokine or phytocytokine

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Li

    2012-01-01

    Peptide hormones play an important role in plant growth and development. Some of them are secreted by stem cells and also regulate plant immunity through cell-cell communication and reprogramming the expression of immune related genes, such as CLAVATA3p (CLV3p) and phytosulfokine (PSK). These peptides play similar roles as cytokines in plant innate immunity. As explosive progress of plant omics, more and more such functional peptides will be discovered. I recommend that they should be named a...

  11. Plant antimicrobial peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Nawrot, Robert; Barylski, Jakub; Nowicki, Grzegorz; Broniarczyk, Justyna; Buchwald, Waldemar; Go?dzicka-Józefiak, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a component of barrier defense system of plants. They have been isolated from roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves of a wide variety of species and have activities towards phytopathogens, as well as against bacteria pathogenic to humans. Thus, plant AMPs are considered as promising antibiotic compounds with important biotechnological applications. Plant AMPs are grouped into several families and share general features such as positive charge, the pr...

  12. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  13. Plant Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynildson, Inga

    Appropriate for secondary school botany instruction, this study guide focuses on the important roles of plants in human lives. Following a rationale for learning the basic skills of a botanist, separate sections discuss the process sunlight undergoes during photosynthesis, the flow of energy in the food chain, alternative plant lifestyles, plant

  14. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  15. Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this brochure the Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina, (VED), subsidiary of the utility Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, plc. Bratislava) are presented. VED is mainly aimed at generating peak-load electrical energy and maintenance of operational equipment. Reaching its goals, company is first of all focused on reliability of production, economy and effectiveness, keeping principles of work safety and industry safety standards and also ecology. VED operates eight hydroelectric power plants, from which PVE Ruzin I and PVE Dobsina I are pump storage ones and they are controlled directly by the Slovak Energy Dispatch Centre located in Zilina thought the system LS 3200. Those power plants participate in secondary regulation of electrical network of Slovakia. They are used to compensate balance in reference to foreign electrical networks and they are put into operation independently from VED. Activity of the branch is focused mainly on support of fulfilment of such an important aim as electric network regulation. Beginnings of the subsidiary Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina are related to the year of 1948. After commissioning of the pump storage Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina in 1953, the plant started to carry out its mission. Since that time the subsidiary has been enlarged by other seven power plants, through which it is fulfilling its missions nowadays. The characteristics of these hydroelectric power plants (The pump-storage power plant Dobsina, Small hydroelectric power plant Dobsina II, Small hydroelectric power plant Rakovec, Small hydroelectric power plant Svedlar, Hydroelectric power plant Domasa, The pump-storage power plant Ruzin, and Small hydroelectric power plant Krompachy) are described in detail. Employees welfare and public relations are presented

  16. Merchant Plant activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes facing the electric power industry in the 1990s have created opportunities to build new power plants. These plants are called Merchant Plants because they will not benefit from long-term power purchase agreements as in the past. Currently in Canada and the United States, about 45 per cent of the generating capacity is provided by plants that are more than 25 years old. These plants have high heat rates (i.e. the cost of generating one kWh of electricity is high) and are a major source of pollution. Nuclear power, which held much promise 30 years ago, has been rejected on both sides of the border, and coal-fired power plants are facing their own set of challenges. Modern natural gas-fired combined-cycle power plants appear to be a feasible, less polluting way to generate electricity. The per kilowatt cost of building a modern combined-cycle power plant averages about $500/kw which is far below the cost of coal or nuclear plants. Costing and siting new merchant plants, configuring a plant in such a way as to achieve the lowest-cost power generation were some of the topics that were highlighted

  17. Irradiation Plant Economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world's first gamma irradiation plant designed specifically for the sterilization of catgut became operational early in 1963, after loading with 40 000 curies of Co60. The plant is operated by Ethicon Ltd. in Edinburgh and was designed and built by Nuclear Chemical Plant Ltd., a licensee of the UKAEA. The plant capacity has been determined using 'Perspex' dosimeters with target material of constant density. The information so obtained has been used to determine cost data for the irradiation treatment of materials over a wide range of densities for plant of similar design. Cost data have been evaluated for plant where the number of passes ate increased from four to eight or twelve. Such units are particularly suited to low target density materials where the throughput is high. Details of plant designs and costs are given so that operating cost data can be evaluated for other conditions than those in this paper. (author)

  18. Toxic proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Liuyi; Van Damme, Els J M

    2015-09-01

    Plants have evolved to synthesize a variety of noxious compounds to cope with unfavorable circumstances, among which a large group of toxic proteins that play a critical role in plant defense against predators and microbes. Up to now, a wide range of harmful proteins have been discovered in different plants, including lectins, ribosome-inactivating proteins, protease inhibitors, ureases, arcelins, antimicrobial peptides and pore-forming toxins. To fulfill their role in plant defense, these proteins exhibit various degrees of toxicity towards animals, insects, bacteria or fungi. Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate the toxic effects and mode of action of these plant proteins in order to explore their possible applications. Indeed, because of their biological activities, toxic plant proteins are also considered as potentially useful tools in crop protection and in biomedical applications, such as cancer treatment. Genes encoding toxic plant proteins have been introduced into crop genomes using genetic engineering technology in order to increase the plant's resistance against pathogens and diseases. Despite the availability of ample information on toxic plant proteins, very few publications have attempted to summarize the research progress made during the last decades. This review focuses on the diversity of toxic plant proteins in view of their toxicity as well as their mode of action. Furthermore, an outlook towards the biological role(s) of these proteins and their potential applications is discussed. PMID:26057229

  19. Plant phosphoproteomics: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Birgit; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Durek, Pawel; Neigenfind, Jost; Schulze, Waltraud; Walther, Dirk; Rakwal, Randeep

    2009-02-01

    Phosphoproteomics involves identification of phosphoproteins, precise mapping, and quantification of phosphorylation sites, and eventually, revealing their biological function. In plants, several systematic phosphoproteomic analyses have recently been performed to optimize in vitro and in vivo technologies to reveal components of the phosphoproteome. The discovery of novel substrates for specific protein kinases is also an important issue. Development of a new tool has enabled rapid identification of potential kinase substrates such as kinase assays using plant protein microarrays. Progress has also been made in quantitative and dynamic analysis of mapped phosphorylation sites. Increased quantity of experimentally verified phosphorylation sites in plants has prompted the creation of dedicated web-resources for plant-specific phosphoproteomics data. This resulted in development of computational prediction methods yielding significantly improved sensitivity and specificity for the detection of phosphorylation sites in plants when compared to methods trained on less plant-specific data. In this review, we present an update on phosphoproteomic studies in plants and summarize the recent progress in the computational prediction of plant phosphorylation sites. The application of the experimental and computed results in understanding the phosphoproteomic networks of cellular and metabolic processes in plants is discussed. This is a continuation of our comprehensive review series on plant phosphoproteomics. PMID:19212952

  20. Safe genetically engineered plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work

  1. Safe genetically engineered plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.

    2007-10-01

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  2. [Intoxications with plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Jacqueline; Reichert, Cornelia

    2009-05-01

    Ingestions of plants rarely lead to life-threatening intoxications. Highly toxic plants, which can cause death, are monkshood (Aconitum sp.), yew (Taxus sp.) and autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale). Lethal ingestions of monkshood and yew are usually suicides, intoxications with autumn crocus are mostly accidental ingestions of the leaves mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Severe intoxications can occur with plants of the nightshade family like deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), angel's trumpet (Datura suaveolens) or jimsonweed (Datura stramonium). These plants are ingested for their psychoactive effects. Ingestion of plant material by children most often only causes minor symptoms or no symptoms at all, as children usually do not eat great quantities of the plants. They are especially attracted by the colorful berries. There are plants with mostly cardiovascular effects like monkshood, yew and Digitalis sp. Some of the most dangerous plants belong to this group. Plants of the nightshade family cause an anticholinergic syndrome. With golden chain (Laburnum anagyroides), castor bean (Ricinus communis) and raw beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) we see severe gastrointestinal effects. Autumn crocus contains a cell toxin, colchicine, which leads to multiorgan failure. Different plants are irritative or even caustic to the skin. Treatment is usually symptomatic. Activated charcoal is administered within one hour after ingestion (1 g/kg). Endoscopic removal of plant material can be considered with ingestions of great quantities of highly toxic plants. Administration of repeated doses of charcoal (1-2 g/h every 2-4 hours) may be effective in case of oleander poisoning. There exist only two antidotes: Anti-digoxin Fab fragments can be used with cardenolide glycoside-containing plants (Digitalis sp., Oleander). Physostigmine is the antidote for severe anticholinergic symptoms of the CNS. Antibodies against colchicine, having been developed in France, are not available at the moment. PMID:19401984

  3. Plant neurobiology and green plant intelligence : science, metaphors and nonsense

    OpenAIRE

    Struik, P.C.; Yin, X; H. Meinke

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the recent debates on the emerging science of plant neurobiology, which claims that the individual green plant should be considered as an intelligent organism. Plant neurobiology tries to use elements from animal physiology as elegant metaphors to trigger the imagination in solving complex plant physiological elements of signalling, internal and external plant communication and whole-plant organisation. Plant neurobiology proposes useful concepts that stimulate discussions...

  4. Conditional sterility in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B. (Athens, GA); McKinney, Elizabeth (Athens, GA); Kim, Tehryung (Taejeon, KR)

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  5. Desert Plant: Mimosa hamata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakuleshwar Dut Jasuja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant derived medicinal products have been used for centuries in every culture throughout the world. Mimosa hamata possesses a vast ethnomedicinal history of heuristic medical value. Ethnomedicinal use of Mimosa hamata has been known since time immemorial and this plant were used to cure diseases and to maintain good health. M. hamata whole plant are used in traditional systems of medicine for treating various diseases. M. hamata exhibited higher antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities. Some bioactive constituents of this plant were thoroughly reviewed and discussed based on literatures. M. hamata has been claimed as folk medicinal plant but little is known about the phytochemicals and pharmacognostical information. There is a need to review this plant in order to provide scientific information for its application in traditonal and biological medicinal system.

  6. Plant Transporter Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a critical role for numerous biological processes, by controlling the movements of ions and molecules in and out of cells. In plants, transporters thus function as gatekeepers between the plant and its surrounding environment and between organs, tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast ma...

  7. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.; Ambus, Per

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature, ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species. Further, we analyze rates of measured emission of aerobically produced CH4 in pectin and in plant tissues from different studies and argue that pectin is ve...

  8. Chubu pilot plant test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron beam plant for the gas purification has been in operation since November 1992. Currently testing on various flue gas conditions are being conducted. The 94% SO2 and 80% NOx removal efficiency has already been achieved. The plant is operating smoothly. Optimization of the by-product collector, assuring long life of the electron beam window foil, facility control and various tests for practicability of the plant will be conduced. 5 figs, 2 tabs

  9. ANTIMICROBIAL CONSTITUENTS FROM PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    G.Murgananthan; Sathya Chethan Pabbithi

    2012-01-01

    Research on medicinal plants showed promising constituents for effective treatment and management of various illnesses. Microbes are commonly found everywhere which causes many diseases to the man kind. Antibiotics available in the markets are often reported of microbial resistance. Scientist realized that the effective life span of any Antibiotic is limited hence new sources from plants need be investigated. A multitude of plant compounds as always promised as a Antimicrobial agents. In this...

  10. Plant intelligence and attention

    OpenAIRE

    Marder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article applies the phenomenological model of attention to plant monitoring of environmental stimuli and signal perception. Three complementary definitions of attention as selectivity, modulation and perdurance are explained with reference to plant signaling and behaviors, including foraging, ramet placement and abiotic stress communication. Elements of animal and human attentive attitudes are compared with plant attention at the levels of cognitive focus, context and margin. It is argue...

  11. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on othe...

  12. Recombinant Cytokines from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Redkiewicz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based platforms have been successfully applied for the last two decades for the efficient production of pharmaceutical proteins. The number of commercialized products biomanufactured in plants is, however, rather discouraging. Cytokines are small glycosylated polypeptides used in the treatment of cancer, immune disorders and various other related diseases. Because the clinical use of cytokines is limited by high production costs they are good candidates for plant-made pharmaceuticals. Several research groups explored the possibilities of cost-effective production of animal cytokines in plant systems. This review summarizes recent advances in this field.

  13. MBS Native Plant Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  14. The Kuroshio power plant

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Falin

    2013-01-01

    By outlining a new design or the Kuroshio power plant, new approaches to turbine design, anchorage system planning, deep sea marine engineering and power plant operations and maintenance are explored and suggested. The impact on the local environment, particularly in the face of natural disasters, is also considered to provide a well rounded introduction to plan and build a 30MW pilot power plant. Following a literature review, the six chapters of this book propose a conceptual design by focusing on the plant's core technologies and establish the separate analysis logics for turbine design and

  15. Towards plant wires

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems.

  16. Plant integrity: an important factor in plant-pathogen interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlowska, Elzbieta Zofia; Llorente, Briardo

    2013-01-01

    The effect of plant integrity and of aboveground-belowground defense signaling on plant resistance against pathogens and herbivores is emerging as a subject of scientific research. There is increasing evidence that plant defense responses to pathogen infection differ between whole intact plants and detached leaves. Studies have revealed the importance of aboveground-belowground defense signaling for plant defenses against herbivores, while our studies have uncovered that the roots as well as the plant integrity are important for the resistance of the potato cultivar Sarpo Mira against the hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Furthermore, in the Sarpo Mira–P. infestans interactions, the plant’s meristems, the stalks or both, seem to be associated with the development of the hypersensitive response and both the plant’s roots and shoots contain antimicrobial compounds when the aerial parts of the plants are infected. Here, we present a short overview of the evidence indicating the importance of plant integrity on plant defense responses

  17. Evaluation of antioxidant effect of Salacia oblonga against aluminum chloride induced visceral toxicity in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nathiya

    2014-04-01

    Result: The results showed that S. oblonga produced significant (pS. oblonga protects against aluminuminduced oxidative stress, which is an important finding that further reinforces the antioxidant properties of this natural product. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 315-319

  18. Salacia hallei, a name for a rare Celastraceae species from western central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jongkind, C.C.H.

    2006-01-01

    A new species, Salaria hallei (Celastraceae), from Gabon and Angola is described and illustrated. The species is unique by the combination of glabrous leaves with a transverse tertiary venation, a conspicuous pedunculate inflorescence and glabrous flowers with 3-4 mm wide, almost round, petals and 4 to 6 ovules in each carpel

  19. Offshore atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various merits of offshore atomic power plants are illustrated, and their systems are assessed. The planning of the offshore atomic power plants in USA is reviewed, and the construction costs of the offshore plant in Japan were estimated. Air pollution problem may be solved by the offshore atomic power plants remarkably. Deep water at low temperature may be advantageously used as cooling water for condensers. Marine resources may be bred by building artificial habitats and by providing spring-up equipments. In the case of floating plants, the plant design can be standardized so that the construction costs may be reduced. The offshore plants can be classified into three systems, namely artificial island system, floating system and sea bottom-based system. The island system may be realized with the present level of civil engineering, but requires the development of technology for the resistance of base against earthquake and its calculation means. The floating system may be constructed with conventional power plant engineering and shipbuilding engineering, but the aseismatic stability of breakwater may be a problem to be solved. Deep water floating system and deep water submerging system are conceivable, but its realization may be difficult. The sea bottom-based system with large caissons can be realized by the present civil engineering, but the construction of the caissons, stability against earthquake and resistance to waves may be problems to be solved. The technical prediction and assessment of new plant sites for nuclear power plants have been reported by Science and Technology Agency in 1974. The construction costs of an offshore plant has been estimated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry to be yen71,026/kW as of 1985. (Iwakiri, K.)

  20. Next Generation Population Genomics in the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    OpenAIRE

    Willing, Eva-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Population genetic studies estimate allele frequency distributions and the change of these frequencies over time in order to infer the demographic history of natural populations. Such studies aim to explain how adaptation and speciation have occurred. Until recently, inferences in non-reference taxa have been based on very few loci due to the high cost of developing a large set of markers de-novo. Only in established model organisms with a known reference genome was it possible to study genom...

  1. Cryptosporidium muris in a Reticulated Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodádková, A.; Kvá?, M.; Ditrich, Oleg; Sak, Bohumil; Xiao, L.

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 96, ?. 1 (2010), s. 211-212. ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA524/05/0992; GA ?R GP523/07/P117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cryptosporidium muris * Reticulated giraffe * natural infection Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2010

  2. Fruit growth of Minneola tangelo (Citrus paradisi x C. reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Esterhuizen

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of gibberellic acid (GA? on the fruit growth pattern of the Minneola tungelo was investigated. The growth pattern follows a S-curve, similar to other citrus cultivars but the growth rate differs. GA?, applied at low concentrations caused a slightly slower fruit growth rate compared to controls, resulting in smaller fruit. In the case of GA? , applied at 15ppm, fruit numbers exceeded those of the control. GA? treatment of fruit resulted in a slight decrease in average seed con­tent. GA?, had no significant effect on juice quality.

  3. Power plant chemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

  4. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Weston, David

    2015-08-11

    The present invention is directed to the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain GM30 deposited under ATCC Accession No. PTA-13340, compositions containing the GM30 strain, and methods of using the GM30 strain to enhance plant growth and/or enhance plant resistance to pathogens.

  5. Plant pathogen resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jean T.; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2015-10-20

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  6. Better Plants Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program is a voluntary partnership initiative to drive significant energy efficiency improvement across energy intensive companies and organizations. 157 leading manufacturers and public water and wastewater treatment utilities are partnering with DOE through Better Plants to improve energy efficiency, slash carbon emissions, and cut energy costs.

  7. Solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  8. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  9. Potassium (K+) in plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Dreyer, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Potassium (K+) is the most abundant inorganic cation in plant cells. This is an editorial for a compendium prepared by 34 authors that provides a stock-check of the current knowledge in the field and provides a first step toward a holistic view on ?Potassium (K+) in Plants?.

  10. Plant Light Measurement & Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    1991-01-01

    The differences between measuring light intensity for the human eye and for plant photosynthesis are discussed. Conversion factors needed to convert various units of light are provided. Photosynthetic efficiency and the electricity costs for plants to undergo photosynthesis using interior lighting are described. (KR)

  11. Plant pathogen resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Jean T.; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2015-10-20

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  12. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, James P; Wang, Shujing; Wong, Ka H; Tan, Wei Liang

    2015-01-01

    Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic), lipid transfer proteins, ?-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms. PMID:26580629

  13. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Tam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic, lipid transfer proteins, ?-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms.

  14. Plant pathogen resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Jean T; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2012-11-27

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  15. Rocky Flats plant overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, D.E. [EG and G Rocky Flats, Golden, CO (United States)

    1990-11-01

    This paper reports on the robotics applications at the Rocky Flats Plant. The topics discussed include current plant activities in resumption of plutonium operations, pondcrete, and federal facilities compliance agreement, automated storage and retrieval system, pneumatic sample transfer system, bag-out robot, participation in the national robotics technology development program. This report consists of overheads only.

  16. Modulating lignin in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  17. Plants Bioassays: Comet Assay on Higher Plants.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mukherjee, A.; Gichner, Tomáš

    Houston : Studium Press, 2009 - (Sampietro, D.; Narwal, S.), s. 97-108 ISBN 1-933699-42-6 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA521/05/0500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Comet assay * DNA damage * Plants Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  18. Role of the side chain stereochemistry in the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of kotalanol, a potent natural ?-glucosidase inhibitor. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Genzoh; Matsuoka, Kanjyun; Yoshinaga, Masahiro; Xie, Weijia; Tsutsui, Nozomi; A Amer, Mumen F; Nakamura, Shinya; Nakanishi, Isao; Wu, Xiaoming; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu

    2012-11-01

    To examine the role of the side chain of kotalanol (2), a potent natural ?-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from Salacia reticulata, on inhibitory activity, four diastereomers (11a-11d) with reversed configuration (S) at the C-4' position in the side chain were synthesized and evaluated. Two of the four (11b and 11d) significantly lost their inhibitory activity against both maltase and sucrase, while the other two (11a and 11c) sustained the inhibitory activity to a considerable extent, showing distinct activity in response to the change of stereochemistry of the hydroxyls at the 5'and 6' positions. Different activities were rationalized with reference to in silico docking studies on these inhibitors with hNtMGAM. Against isomaltase, all four analogs showed potent inhibitory activity as well as 2, and 11b and 11d exhibited enzyme selectivity. PMID:23031648

  19. Docking and SAR studies of salacinol derivatives as alpha-glucosidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shinya; Takahira, Kazunori; Tanabe, Genzoh; Morikawa, Toshio; Sakano, Mika; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu; Nakanishi, Isao

    2010-08-01

    Salacinol is a potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from Salacia reticulata, and a good lead compound for an antidiabetic drug. It is essential to clarify the binding state of salacinol to alpha-glucosidase for efficient optimization study using structure-based drug design. Redocking simulations of two inhibitors, acarbose and casuarine whose complex structures are known, were performed to assure the appropriate docking pose prediction. The simulation reproduced both experimental binding states with accuracy. Then, using the same simulation protocol, the binding mode of salacinol and its derivatives has been predicted. Salacinol bound to the protein with a similar binding mode as casuarine, and the predicted structures could explain most of the structure-activity relationships of salacinol derivatives. PMID:20598536

  20. Plant tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant tissue culture refers to growing and multiplication of cells, tissues and organs of plants on defined solid or liquid media under aseptic and controlled environment. The commercial technology is primarily based on micropropagation, in which rapid proliferation is achieved from tiny stem cuttings, axillary buds, and to a limited extent from somatic embryos, cell clumps in suspension cultures and bioreactors. The cultured cells and tissue can take several pathways. The pathways that lead to the production of true-to-type plants in large numbers are the preferred ones for commercial multiplication. The process of micropropagation is usually divided into several stages i.e., pre-propagation, initiation of explants, subculture of explants for proliferation, shooting and rooting, and hardening. These stages are universally applicable in large-scale multiplication of plants. The delivery of hardened small micropropagated plants to growers and market also requires extra care. (author)

  1. Kruemmel nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This short description of the site and the nuclear power plant with information on the presumable effects on the environment and the general public is to provide some data material to the population in a popular form so that the citizens may in form themselves about the plant. In this description which shall be presented to the safety report, the site, the technical design and the operation mode of the nuclear power plant are described. Some problems of the emission and the effects of radioactive materials as well as other issues related to the plant which are of interest to the public are dealt with. The supposed accidents and their handling are discussed. The description shows that the selected site is suitable for both setting-up and operation of the plant without affecting the safety of the people living there and that in admissible burdens of the environment shall not have to be expected. (orig./HP)

  2. K Water Plant improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, R.E.; Heacock, H.W.; Reinig, L.P.; Jones, S.S.; Mollerus, F.J.

    1959-03-19

    A Task Force was established in the Irradiation Processing Department to examine the K-Reactor Water Plant to (1) review the operating and maintenance experience with the water plant as improved since startup, (2) identify major plant additions which could further improve reliability, and (3) estimate the costs of any such additions. The K-Water Plant basically consists of the electrically driven primary cooling system with power supplied by the BPA system, electrically driven secondary or backup cooling system powered by a steam driven emergency generator pair, and a ``last ditch`` system consisting of hydraulic cross-ties between the two K-Water Plants. This report summarizes information developed in the course of the Task Force deliberations.

  3. Automatic micropropagation of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Clemens; Schwanke, Joerg; Jensch, Peter F.

    1996-12-01

    Micropropagation is a sophisticated technique for the rapid multiplication of plants. It has a great commercial potential due to the speed of propagation, the high plant quality, and the ability to produce disease-free plants. However, micropropagation is usually done by hand which makes the process cost-intensive and tedious for the workers especially because it requires a sterile work-place. Therefore, we have developed a prototype automation system for the micropropagation of a grass species (miscanthus sinensis gigantheus). The objective of this paper is to describe the robotic system in an overview and to discuss the vision system more closely including the implemented morphological operations recognizing the cutting and gripping points of miscanthus plants. Fuzzy controllers are used to adapt the parameters of image operations on-line to each individual plant. Finally, we discuss our experiences with the developed prototype an give a preview of a possible real production line system.

  4. The Development of Plant Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, John G.

    1985-01-01

    Examines major lines of thought leading to what is meant by plant biotechnology, namely, the application of existing techniques of plant organ, tissue, and cell culture, plant molecular biology, and genetic engineering to the improvement of plants and of plant productivity for the benefit of man. (JN)

  5. Mycoplasma infections of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, J M

    1981-07-01

    Plants can be infected by two types of wall-less procaryotes, spiroplasmas and mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO), both located intracellularly in the phloem tissues of affected plants. Spiroplasmas have been cultured, characterized and shown to be true members of the class Mollicutes. MLO have not yet been cultured or characterized; they are thought to be mycoplasma-like on the basis of their ultrastructure as seen in situ, their sensitivity to tetracycline and resistance to penicillin. Mycoplasmas can also be found on the surface of plants. These extracellularly located organisms are members of the following genera: Spiroplasma. Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma. The presence of such surface mycoplasmas must not be overlooked when attempts to culture MLO from affected plants are undertaken. Sensitive serological techniques such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can successfully be used to compare the MLO located in the phloem of affected plants with those eventually cultured from the same plants. In California and Morocco periwinkles naturally infected with both Spiroplasma citri and MLO have been reported. With such doubly infected plants, the symptom expression has been that characteristic of the MLO disease (phyllody or stolbur), not that given by S. citri. Only S. citri can be cultured from such plants, but this does not indicate that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease expressed by the plant. In California many nonrutaceous plants have been found to be infected with S. citri. Stubborn affected citrus trees represent an important reservoir of S. citri, and Circulifer tenellus is an active leafhopper vector of S. citri. Hence, it is not surprising that in California MLO-infected fruit trees could also become infected with S. citri but it would not mean that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease. Criteria are discussed that are helpful in distinguishing between MLO infections and S. citri infections. PMID:7287398

  6. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate report

  7. Aquaporins in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurel, Christophe; Boursiac, Yann; Luu, Doan-Trung; Santoni, Véronique; Shahzad, Zaigham; Verdoucq, Lionel

    2015-10-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels that facilitate the transport of water and small neutral molecules across biological membranes of most living organisms. In plants, aquaporins occur as multiple isoforms reflecting a high diversity of cellular localizations, transport selectivity, and regulation properties. Plant aquaporins are localized in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles, plastids and, in some species, in membrane compartments interacting with symbiotic organisms. Plant aquaporins can transport various physiological substrates in addition to water. Of particular relevance for plants is the transport of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and ammonia or metalloids such as boron and silicon. Structure-function studies are developed to address the molecular and cellular mechanisms of plant aquaporin gating and subcellular trafficking. Phosphorylation plays a central role in these two processes. These mechanisms allow aquaporin regulation in response to signaling intermediates such as cytosolic pH and calcium, and reactive oxygen species. Combined genetic and physiological approaches are now integrating this knowledge, showing that aquaporins play key roles in hydraulic regulation in roots and leaves, during drought but also in response to stimuli as diverse as flooding, nutrient availability, temperature, or light. A general hydraulic control of plant tissue expansion by aquaporins is emerging, and their role in key developmental processes (seed germination, emergence of lateral roots) has been established. Plants with genetically altered aquaporin functions are now tested for their ability to improve plant tolerance to stresses. In conclusion, research on aquaporins delineates ever expanding fields in plant integrative biology thereby establishing their crucial role in plants. PMID:26336033

  8. PlantDB – a versatile database for managing plant research

    OpenAIRE

    Gruissem Wilhelm; Hirsch-Hoffmann Matthias; Exner Vivien; Hennig Lars

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Research in plant science laboratories often involves usage of many different species, cultivars, ecotypes, mutants, alleles or transgenic lines. This creates a great challenge to keep track of the identity of experimental plants and stored samples or seeds. Results Here, we describe PlantDB – a Microsoft® Office Access database – with a user-friendly front-end for managing information relevant for experimental plants. PlantDB can hold information about plants of different...

  9. Plant state display device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device of the present invention conducts information processing suitable for a man to solve a problem in a plant such as a nuclear power plant incorporating a great amount of information, where safety is required and provides information to an operator. Namely, theories and rules with respect to the flow and balanced state of materials and energy upon plant start-up, and a vapor cycle of operation fluids are symbolized and displayed on the display screen of the device. Then, the display of the plant information suitable to the information processing for a man to dissolve problems is provided. Accordingly, a mechanism for analyzing a purpose of the plant is made more definite, thereby enabling to prevent an erroneous judgement of an operator and occurrence of plant troubles. In addition, a simular effect can also be expected when the theories and rules with respect to the flow and the balanced state of materials and energy and thermohydrodynamic behavior of the operation fluids in a state of after-heat removing operation during shutdown of the plant are symbolized and displayed. (I.S.)

  10. Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

    1994-01-01

    Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned. PMID:12287843

  11. THE PLANT TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EH. Shokraii

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is a survey type of work on the plant tumors and their characteristics in genera1; special attention is given to those tumors which are caused by grobacterium tumefactions and also by plant hormones. The type of work and the methods are very much similar to the work of other investigators, but attempt was made to compare the results which are obtained upon the local varieties of a large group of plant species grown in Iran with those which were obtained in other parts of the world, The results obtained clearly demonstrates that the tumorogenic effect of Agrobacterium Mefaciences is not universal among all plant species, as there are some plants which are quite resistant and will not produce any tumor upon the inocu1ation of the acteria. For example tradescantia spp. did not produce any tumors neither they showed any sign of infection. On the other hand the degree of the responses toward the umorogenic effects of the bacteria was shown to be quite different among the plants which were susceptible. Sunflower (H elianthues annus tomato (Lycopersicum esculantum and Tobacco (Nicotiana tubacum were most sensitive toward the bacteria and produced the largest size of the tumors, whereas plants such as the common peas (pisum sativrum and the common beans (phasealus vulgaris the tumors produced were very small and did not have much inhibitory effect on the growth of the infected plants as compared with, the controls. Unsuccessful attempt was made to induce tumors upon the leaf of different plants, this observation infect contradicts the results obtained by other workers and the viability of the bacteria in the tumors was also being investigated. Some results with the Hormones and also discussed in this paper, and finally histological, studies on the tumors tissue are also reported here.

  12. Interelement correlations in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of 25 elements in 4 plant species (Citrus aurantia, Brassica oleracea, Lycopersicon esculentum and Pinus strobus) were linearly correlated. For some element pairs (Ce-Fe, Ce-Ni, Ce-Sb, Ce-Sc, Ce-Zn, Fe-Sb, Fe-Sc, Fe-U, Fe-Zn, K-Cd, La-U, Ni-Sb, Sc-U and Sc-Zn) a high positive correlation coefficient (r = +1) was found. The element pairs Ca-Mg, Hg-U, Ni-Sr and Sr-Zn show a significant negative correlation (r = -1). Plants seem to process some constant interelement relations, independent of plant species. (orig.)

  13. Radiation hormesis in plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Byung Hun; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with different dose of {gamma}-ray. (author)

  14. Radiation hormesis in plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Cun, Ki Jung; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1999-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as acid rain or soil types could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant enzyme (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with difference dosage of {gamma}-ray.

  15. Radiation hormesis in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose ?-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with different dose of ?-ray. (author)

  16. Radiation hormesis in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose ?-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as acid rain or soil types could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant enzyme (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with difference dosage of ?-ray

  17. Fuel rod reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plant for the reprocessing of fuel rods for a nuclear reactor comprises a plurality of rectangular compartments desirably arranged on a rectangular grid. Signal lines, power lines, pipes, conduits for instrumentation, and other communication lines leave a compartment just below its top edges. A vehicle access zone permits overhead and/or mobile cranes to remove covers from compartments. The number of compartments is at least 25% greater than the number of compartments used in the initial design and operation of the plant. Vacant compartments are available in which replacement apparatus can be constructed. At the time of the replacement of a unit, the piping and conduits are altered to utilize the substitute equipment in the formerly vacant compartment, and it is put on stream prior to dismantling old equipment from the previous compartment. Thus the downtime for the reprocessing plant for such a changeover is less than in a traditional reprocessing plant

  18. Small nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economies of scale are highly significant for conventional light water nuclear power plants, but large units have become very difficult to finance for US utilities. If a small reactor with not quite such an unfavourable scaling factor could be designed, would it find a market. A modelling exercise, in which a hypothetical utility meets its capacity needs by building either 400 MW or 1200 MW nuclear plants, suggests that it might, under the right conditions. The model showed that the economies of scale of large plants tend to be overcome by financing difficulties which are avoided if small units are built. A small reactor would not be in the market alone, however. Competing with it would be other fuels and technologies, as well as the options of joint ownership of large plants, and purchased power. (author)

  19. Protoplasts and plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of protoplasts in the study of plant viruses has attracted considerable attention since its inception in the late 1960s. This article is an attempt to assess the current status of protoplasts (primarily) and all cell cultures (in some instances) in studies of virus infection, virus replication, cytopathology, cross-protection, virus resistance, and the use of in vitro methods and genetic engineering to recover virus-resistant plants. These areas of study proved difficult to do entirely with whole plants or plant parts. However, because protoplasts could be synchronously infected with virus, they provided a valuable alternative means of following biochemical and cytological events in relation to the virus growth cycle in a more precise manner than previously possible

  20. Nuclear Power Plants (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell III, Walter [Southern Nuclear Engineering, Inc.

    1973-01-01

    Projected energy requirements for the future suggest that we must employ atomic energy to generate electric power or face depletion of our fossil-fuel resources—coal, oil, and gas. In short, both conservation and economic considerations will require us to use nuclear energy to generate the electricity that supports our civilization. Until we reach the time when nuclear power plants are as common as fossil-fueled or hydroelectric plants, many people will wonder how the nuclear plants work, how much they cost, where they are located, and what kinds of reactors they use. The purpose of this booklet is to answer these questions. In doing so, it will consider only central station plants, which are those that provide electric power for established utility systems.

  1. Higher plant cellulose synthases

    OpenAIRE

    Richmond, Todd

    2000-01-01

    The sole function of cellulose synthases, which are found in plants bacteria, fungi, and animals, is to produce the biopolymer cellulose. Although no crystal structure has yet been solved, a considerable amount is known about their structure, function and evolution.

  2. Memristors in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Tucket, Clayton; Reedus, Jada; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    We investigated electrical circuitry of the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera. The goal was to discover if these plants might have a new electrical component--a resistor with memory. This element was postulated recently and the researchers were looking for its presence in different systems. The analysis was based on cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation of plants by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in plant tissue. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. This study can be a starting point for understanding mechanisms of memory, learning, circadian rhythms, and biological clocks. PMID:24556876

  3. Plant for Demercurization

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Development, Testing and Transfer to the «PKhZ» OJSC of a New Continuous Operating Full-Scale Industrial Vibro-Vacuum Plant for the Anthropogenic Waste Demercurization, and Organization of the Maintenance Personnel Training

  4. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis. PMID:22404469

  5. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  6. Power plant profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The facilities described here represent the rich variety of technologies being applied at new and existing powerplants in the US. While new capacity additions are at an all-time low in this country, the plants and projects that are completed generally represent new highs in regulatory compliance, technical savvy, and management ingenuity. They range from a 4-MW landfill-gas-fired turbine to a 2,500-MW nuclear plant. Several gas-turbine projects are included, confirming the current dominance of this technology. The projects are: Fort St. Vrain, Pinon Pine, Cleburne cogeneration plant, Gilbert station, Hanes Mill Rd, El Dorado, Wolf Creek, South Texas Project, Stanton Energy Center Unit 2, Milliken station and Northampton plant

  7. The plant information center

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Evelyn; White, Peter; Greenberg, Jane; Massey, James

    2000-01-01

    The Plant Information Center is a partnership of the North Carolina Botanical Garden, Unviersity of North Carolina (UNC) Herbarium, UNC School of Information and Library Science, McDougle Middle School, and Orange County Public Library. The intent of the Project is to connect the research community and the general public (including school children) to make greater use of primary research material and to nurture the public interest and enthusiasm in the study of trees, plants, and natural hist...

  8. Plant proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaxiola, Roberto A.; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Schumacher, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Chemiosmotic circuits of plant cells are driven by proton (H+) gradients that mediate secondary active transport of compounds across plasma and endosomal membranes. Furthermore, regulation of endosomal acidification is critical for endocytic and secretory pathways. For plants to react to their constantly changing environments and at the same time maintain optimal metabolic conditions, the expression, activity and interplay of the pumps generating these H+ gradients have to be tightly regulated. ...

  9. Plant redox proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrot, Nicolas; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Hägglund, Per

    2011-01-01

    In common with other aerobic organisms, plants are exposed to reactive oxygen species resulting in formation of post-translational modifications related to protein oxidoreduction (redox PTMs) that may inflict oxidative protein damage. Accumulating evidence also underscores the importance of redox PTMs in regulating enzymatic activities and controlling biological processes in plants. Notably, proteins controlling the cellular redox state, e.g. thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, appear to play dual rol...

  10. Quantitative plant ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from Wolfram.com) The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement and statistical modelling of plant species abundance and the relevant ecological processes that control species abundance. The focus on statistical modelling and likelihood function based methods also means ...

  11. Why do plants 'talk'?

    OpenAIRE

    Dicke, M

    1995-01-01

    Plant defence can be induced by herbivory. This is true for both direct and indirect plant defence. Induced direct defence has been the most studied of the two. However, in most cases induced direct defence does not appear to be a water-tight defence option. In contrast, induced indirect defence through the production of herbivore-induced carnivore attractants can be a decisive factor in the extermination of herbivore populations. In this paper the main characteristics of induced attraction o...

  12. Chromatin dynamics in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Fransz, P.F.; de Jong, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies in yeast, animals and plants have provided major breakthroughs in unraveling the molecular mechanism of higher-order gene regulation. In conjunction with the DNA code, proteins that are involved in chromatin remodeling, histone modification and epigenetic imprinting form a large network of interactions that control the nuclear programming of cell identity. New insight into how chromatin conformations are regulated in plants sheds light on the relationships between chromosome fu...

  13. Antifungal compounds from plants

    OpenAIRE

    Vila, Roser; Freixa de Reynoso, Blanca; Cañigueral i Folcarà, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Due to the increase of the incidence of fungal infections in humans and the limitations of the available antimycotic drugs, among which the emergence of resistant strains, there is a need for the discovery of new antifungal agents. Plants, especially those used in Traditional Medicine, linked to an unmatched chemical diversity, either as pure compounds or as plant extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for the development of new antifungals. In recent years, compounds from different phy...

  14. Thermonuclear power plant model

    OpenAIRE

    Esteves, João Sena; Sepúlveda, João

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a model of a thermonuclear power plant with a very detailed electrical substation. The model includes facilities such as an operational railroad, a train shed, a container crane and two diesel oil filling stations. The result is very eye-catching and most suitable for the classroom or science-fair events. A brief technical explanation on the components of real-world nuclear power plants and electrical substations is also given.

  15. Nucleoelectric plants technical memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work explains the basic norms that establish the guidelines to the Technical Memory elaboration of this electrical energy sector - the nucleoelectric plants. It guides the technicians who execute the Technical Memory of the plants, exposing the items that may compose the work: contents: introduction, planning, proposition, equipment and materials supply, construction, commissioning, commercial actions, budget, financing and costs; generalities: drawings and photographies, monetary references, terminology, system units, management, graphic guide project, responsible staff, a summarized technical card and illustrations

  16. Powder detergents production plant

    OpenAIRE

    Stankovi? Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.

    2003-01-01

    The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for powder detergent production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories, in 1998. - 2000. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant with a capacity of 25,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Delta In", Zrenjanin, in 2000.This technology was an innovation, because new approach in mixing a powder materials was used, as well as introducing ...

  17. Dry alcohol production plant

    OpenAIRE

    Stankovi? Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.

    2003-01-01

    The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There...

  18. Wet hydrate dissolution plant

    OpenAIRE

    Stankovi? Mirjana S.; Kova?evi? Branimir T.; Pezo Lato L.

    2003-01-01

    The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for a wet hydrate dissolution plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant with capacity of 50,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Zeolite Mira", Mira (VE), Italy, in 1997, for increasing detergent zeolite production from 50,000 to 100,000 t/y. Several goals were realized by designing a wet hydrate ...

  19. Detergent zeolite filtration plant

    OpenAIRE

    Stankovi? Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.

    2003-01-01

    The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for detergent zeolite filtration plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant with a capacity of 75,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Zeolite Mira", Mira (VE), Italy, in 1997, for increasing detergent zeolite production, from 50,000 to 100,000 t/y. The main goal was to increase the detergent zeoli...

  20. Memristors in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Volkov, Alexander G.; Tucket, Clayton; Reedus, Jada; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    We investigated electrical circuitry of the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera. The goal was to discover if these plants might have a new electrical component—a resistor with memory. This element has attracted great interest recently and the researchers were looking for its presence in different systems. The analysis was based on cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation of plants by bipolar sinuso...

  1. NMR, water and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the application of a non-destructive pulsed proton NMR method mainly to measure water transport in the xylem vessels of plant stems and in some model systems. The results are equally well applicable to liquid flow in other biological objects than plants, e.g. flow of blood and other body fluids in human and animals. The method is based on a pulse sequence of equidistant ? pulses in combination with a linear magnetic field gradient. (Auth.)

  2. Plant ABC Transporters

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, J; Park, J.; Choi, H.; Burla, B; Kretschmar, T; Lee, Y; Martinoia, E

    2011-01-01

    ABC transporters constitute one of the largest protein families found in all living organisms. ABC transporters are driven by ATP hydrolysis and can act as exporters as well as importers. The plant genome encodes for more than 100 ABC transporters, largely exceeding that of other organisms. In Arabidopsis, only 22 out of 130 have been functionally analyzed. They are localized in most membranes of a plant cell such as the plasma membrane, the tonoplast, chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisom...

  3. Plant genomics: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    HUGO CAMPOS-DE QUIROZ

    2002-01-01

    Recent technological advancements have substantially expanded our ability to analyze and understand plant genomes and to reduce the gap existing between genotype and phenotype. The fast evolving field of genomics allows scientists to analyze thousand of genes in parallel, to understand the genetic architecture of plant genomes and also to isolate the genes responsible for mutations. Furthermore, whole genomes can now be sequenced. This review addresses these issues and also discusses ways to ...

  4. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  5. Power plants 2010. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings include the following lectures: Facing the challenges - new structures for electricity production. Renewable energies in Europe - chances and challenges. Nuclear outlook in the UK. Sustainable energy for Europe. Requirements of the market and the grid operator at the electricity production companies. Perspectives for the future energy production. Pumped storage plants - status and perspectives. Nuclear power/renewable energies -partners or opponents? New fossil fired power stations in Europe - status and perspectives. Nuclear energy: outlook for new build and lifetime extension in Europe. Biomass in the future European energy market - experiences for dong energy. Meeting the EU 20:20 renewable energy targets: the offshore challenges. DESERTEC: sustainable electricity for Europe, Middle East and North Africa. New power plants in Europe - a challenge for project and quality management. Consideration of safely in new build activities of power plants. Challenges to an integrated development in Maasvlakte, Netherlands. Power enhancement in EnBW power plants. Operational experiences of CCS pilot plants worldwide. Two years of operational experiences with Vattenfall's oxyfuel pilot plant. Pre-conditions for CCS. Storage technologies for a volatile generation. Overview: new generation of gas turbines.

  6. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author)

  7. Uranium speciation in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed knowledge of the nature of uranium complexes formed after the uptake by plants is an essential prerequisite to describe the migration behavior of uranium in the environment. This study focuses on the determination of uranium speciation after uptake of uranium by lupine plants. For the first time, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy were used to determine the chemical speciation of uranium in plants. Differences were detected between the uranium speciation in the initial solution (hydroponic solution and pore water of soil) and inside the lupine plants. The oxidation state of uranium did not change and remained hexavalent after it was taken up by the lupine plants. The chemical speciation of uranium was identical in the roots, shoot axis, and leaves and was independent of the uranium speciation in the uptake solution. The results indicate that the uranium is predominantly bound as uranyl(VI) phosphate to the phosphoryl groups. Dandelions and lamb's lettuce showed uranium speciation identical to lupine plants. (orig.)

  8. Plant cytokinin signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshishian, Erika A; Rashotte, Aaron M

    2015-09-15

    Cytokinin is an essential plant hormone that is involved in a wide range of plant growth and developmental processes which are controlled through its signalling pathway. Cytokinins are a class of molecules that are N(6)-substituted adenine derivatives, such as isopentenyl adenine, and trans- and cis-zeatin, which are common in most plants. The ability to perceive and respond to cytokinin occurs through a modified bacterial two-component pathway that functions via a multi-step phosphorelay. This cytokinin signalling process is a crucial part of almost all stages of plant life, from embryo patterning to apical meristem regulation, organ development and eventually senescence. The cytokinin signalling pathway involves the co-ordination of three types of proteins: histidine kinase receptors to perceive the signal, histidine phosphotransfer proteins to relay the signal, and response regulators to provide signal output. This pathway contains both positive and negative elements that function in a complex co-ordinated manner to control cytokinin-regulated plant responses. Although much is known about how this cytokinin signal is perceived and initially regulated, there are still many avenues that need to be explored before the role of cytokinin in the control of plant processes is fully understood. PMID:26374884

  9. A modular reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a new concept in liquid metal reactors that is being developed by General Electric under contract to the Department of Energy. This concept is called the Modular Reactor Plant. While this effort is not expected to have a near-term impact, it is directed toward three principal issues currently affecting nuclear power in the United States. First, plant costs have escalated to the point where the startup of new plants require large electric rate increases. Second, the cost of new plants coming on-line today vary by as much as a factor of three. And, third, nuclear construction times often exceed the utilities prudent planning cycle. This paper describes how General Electric's Modular Reactor Plant addreses these issues through shop fabrication and assembly, rail shipment to the site for rapid installation of nuclear components and inherent reactor protection. In addition, it is expected the modular reactor plant will reduce the current cost of development and demonstration of liquid metal reactors to an affordable level

  10. Haploidization of vegetable plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haploid plants have been widely introduced into vegetable crops breeding programmes, also in Poland. They can be produced by means of androgenesis in brassicas and pepper, gynogenesis in onion and beetroot, or induced parthenogenesis in vegetables belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. Androgenesis in brassicas can be induced using both anther and microspore cultures. Efficiency of this process, provided the optimal medium composition, depends on conditions for culture initiation (thermal shock is necessary). Around 40% of developing androgenic plants of white cabbage and Brussels sprouts are diploids and after their self-pollination doubled-haploid lines can instantly be produced. Gynogenic development of haploid cells constituting the embryo sac in onion can be induced by a flower bud culture method. Firstly an induction medium is used, followed by a regeneration medium. Almost 90% of obtained plants are haploids and therefore the use of antimitotic agents is necessary in order to double their chromosome number. Induced parthogenesis is being applied in cucumber. Pollen previously exposed to ionising radiation is used for pollination, which causes the development of embryos being subsequently plated on a medium in order to develop haploid plants. Efficiency of the processes leading to the production of haploid plants in every species depends to a high degree on the genotype and growth conditions of donor plants. (author)

  11. Designing the Perfect Plant: Activities to Investigate Plant Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnhoff, Erik; Woolbaugh, Walt; Rew, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Plant ecology is an important subject that often receives little attention in middle school, as more time during science classes is devoted to plant biology. Therefore, the authors have developed a series of activities, including a card game--Designing the Perfect Plant--to introduce student's to plant ecology and the ecological trade offs…

  12. Biofuelled heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to serve as a basis to enable establishment and operation of small and medium-sized bio-fuel plants, district heating plants and local district heating plants. Furthermore, the purpose of this report is to serve as a guideline and basis when realizing projects, from the first concept to established plant. Taking into account all the phases, from selection of heating system, fuel type, selection of technical solutions, authorization request or application to operate a plant, planning, construction and buying, inspection, performance test, take-over and control system of the plant. Another purpose of the report is to make sure that best available technology is used and to contribute to continuous development of the technology. The report deals mainly with bio-fuelled plants in the effect range 0.3 to10 MW. The term 'plant' refers to combined power and heating plants as well as 'simpler' district heating plants. The last-mentioned is also often referred to as 'local heating plant'. In this context, the term bio fuel refers to a wide range of fuel types. The term bio fuel includes processed fractions like powders, pellets, and briquettes along with unprocessed fractions, such as by-products from the forest industry; chips and bark. Bio fuels also include straw, energy crops and cereal waste products, but these have not been expressly studied in this report. The report is structured with appendixes regarding the various phases of the projects, with the purpose of serving as a helping handbook, or manual for new establishment, helping out with technical and administrative advice and environmental requirements. Plants of this size are already expanding considerably, and the need for guiding principles for design/technology and environmental requirements is great. These guiding principles should comply with the environmental legislation requirements, and must contain advice and recommendations for bio fuel plants in this effect range, also in reference to the environmental legislation. This means, among other things, that the suggested environmental requirements should be realistic so that they can be fulfilled, but there will also be a strong motive to raise the requirements, but not so high that the new establishment of bio fuelled plants is held back in favour of old-fashioned routine technology or fossil fuels. Concurrent with the expansion of bio fuel plants in Sweden, there is an increasing need for clear and simple practical handling of this type of project in its different phases: The selection of heating system/fuel; The selection of technical solutions; Application or authorization according to environmental legislation; Design and purchasing; Inspection and performance test; Operation and control system. The selection of burning and flue gas cleaning techniques is dependent on the kind of fuel used, and the fuel's moisture content. Pellet burning furnace is the easiest and most developed solution for plants in the smaller range, and grate firing is the best solution for the bigger plants. Pulverized bio fuel burning is not used to a great extent in this particular effect range. Depending on the size and effect of the plant, the plant establishment requires authorization request according to the environmental legislation. The authorization request is different depending on the effect of the plant and the distinction between the two possible kinds is at 10 MW. The term plant size refer to the fuel supplied for all the plant's existing furnaces, which means that several plants need authorization although the effects of the individual bio fuel furnace is lower than 10 MW. An example of an EIA, which is a part of an application or authorization request, is included as an appendix. Flue gas dust cleaning is always required in this effect range. The most frequent cleaning equipment is dynamic separators, (such as multi cyclone batteries), fabric filters, (such as bag filters), and electrical partition filters. Fabric filters or electrical partition filters is needed to meet the environment requi

  13. Morphological and physiological features of the species Asimina triloba (L. dunal, introduced as an ornamental plant in Baia Mare (Maramure? county, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice SZILAGYI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tree species Asimina triloba (L. Dunal, is native to North America. In the area of origin is cultivated, both as food species because the edible fruit, and as ornamental species. Ornamental value derives both from decorative flowers, that open in early spring, and because habitus species. The species is demanding from slightly acidic soils (pH 5.5 to 7.0 and well drained. Seedlings are susceptible to heatstroke and need areas of the sun, but since the second year, vegetate well in bright light conditions [27]. Optimum climate is temperate to subtropical one. The species exhibits unique quality traits for a temperate fruit that are similar to other fruit in the Annonaceae family, including cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill., sugar apple or sweetsop, (A. squamosa L., soursop (A. muricata L., custard apple (A. reticulata L., and atemoya (A. squamosa X A. cherimola, all of which are tropical [2].This study follows the behavior of the species, in particular conditions of the Baia Mare and its surroundings. In this area a fewindividuals were introduced, in order to diversigy the range of species of ornamental plants. In Baia Mare, topoclimate is specifically depression, sheltered by mountains, more atenuated as temperature and winds, than in surrounding areas. As a result ofclimatic conditions, chestnut Castanea sativa, grows in good conditions in Baia Mare. Instead, the area is heavily polluted,especially at ground level. Pollution by heavy metals is a historical being generated by the mining industry.The introduction and use of a new plant species into a new area involves: 1. easy to obtain seed; 2.- maintaining the crown shape habitus and and leaf shape and size, respectively; 3 – determination of optimal physiological parameters. Therefore have been performed, the following experimental determinations: 1. - germination of seed obtained in the particular conditions of the Baia Mare; 2. - some morphomtric characteristics of leaves, in the juveniles of the 1-2 years; 3. – the dynamic of photosynthesis intensity in these plants, during the day, during summer/autumn months.The study results are promising for acclimatization of the species Asimina triloba (L. Dunal in particular conditions of Baia Mare. Morphological and physiological parametres tested are maintaned at similar to those of native habitat, described in the literature.

  14. Plant integrity: an important factor in plant-pathogen interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlowska, Elzbieta Zofia; Llorente, Briardo; Cvitanich, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The effect of plant integrity and of aboveground-belowground defense signaling on plant resistance against pathogens and herbivores is emerging as a subject of scientific research. There is increasing evidence that plant defense responses to pathogen infection differ between whole intact plants and detached leaves. Studies have revealed the importance of aboveground-belowground defense signaling for plant defenses against herbivores, while our studies have uncovered that the roots as well as the...

  15. The iPlant Collaborative: Cyberinfrastructure for Plant Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Goff, Stephen A; Vaughn, Matthew; McKay, Sheldon; Lyons, Eric; Stapleton, Ann E.; Gessler, Damian; Matasci, Naim; Wang, Liya; Hanlon, Matthew; Lenards, Andrew; Muir, Andy; Merchant, Nirav; Lowry, Sonya; Mock, Stephen; Helmke, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The iPlant Collaborative (iPlant) is a United States National Science Foundation (NSF) funded project that aims to create an innovative, comprehensive, and foundational cyberinfrastructure in support of plant biology research (PSCIC, 2006). iPlant is developing cyberinfrastructure that uniquely enables scientists throughout the diverse fields that comprise plant biology to address Grand Challenges in new ways, to stimulate and facilitate cross-disciplinary research, to promote biology and com...

  16. Plant the Seeds of Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Both indoor and outdoor garden plants can cause problems. For example, the foliage of the bird-of-paradise and philodendron plants is toxic. A poinsettia leaf can kill a young child. Outdoor plants such as castor beans are highly dangerous. All parts of the potato and tomato plant are poisonous, except the potato and tomato themselves. Large…

  17. Plants in alpine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germino, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Alpine and subalpine plant species are of special interest in ecology and ecophysiology because they represent life at the climate limit and changes in their relative abundances can be a bellwether for climate-change impacts. Perennial life forms dominate alpine plant communities, and their form and function reflect various avoidance, tolerance, or resistance strategies to interactions of cold temperature, radiation, wind, and desiccation stresses that prevail in the short growing seasons common (but not ubiquitous) in alpine areas. Plant microclimate is typically uncoupled from the harsh climate of the alpine, often leading to substantially warmer plant temperatures than air temperatures recorded by weather stations. Low atmospheric pressure is the most pervasive, fundamental, and unifying factor for alpine environments, but the resulting decrease in partial pressure of CO2 does not significantly limit carbon gain by alpine plants. Factors such as tree islands and topographic features create strong heterogeneous mosaics of microclimate and snow cover that are reflected in plant community composition. Factors affecting tree establishment and growth and formation of treeline are key to understanding alpine ecology. Carbohydrate and other carbon storage, rapid development in a short growing season, and physiological function at low temperature are prevailing attributes of alpine plants. A major contemporary research theme asks whether chilling at alpine-treeline affects the ability of trees to assimilate the growth resources and particularly carbon needed for growth or whether the growth itself is limited by the alpine environment. Alpine areas tend to be among the best conserved, globally, yet they are increasingly showing response to a range of anthropogenic impacts, such as atmospheric deposition.

  18. Sellafield MOX plant. Plant safety design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to have a general understanding of the UK Regulatory System to understand how a commercial scale MOX facility has been developed and licensed by BNFL in the UK. This note is in two parts: it first describes the major legislation relevant to the licensing and operation of a MOX facility at Sellafield and provides an insight into how it has been interfaced with the UK regulators; in the second part it describes how the BNFL Project arrangements and safety management systems have been developed to address the Companies legal obligations with specific reference to the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP) project

  19. Plants cultivation in controlled containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plants cultivation in controlled containments permits to the - Departement d'Ecophysiologie Vegetale et de Microbiologie (DVEM) - of the CEA to lead several topics of research. The works of DVEM which are based on the molecular labelling, technique adapted to plants, contribute to understand the plant - soil relationships and the plant growth process. In addition, the staff of DVEM study the impact of pollutant heavy metals, existing in the soil, on plants and the plant stress induced by oxygen, light, ionizing radiations,... and defence mechanisms of plants (F. M.)

  20. Owners of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies. The report includes all plants operating, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review, but does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally cancelled. Part 1 of the report lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants or licensees and percentage ownership. Part 2 lists applicants or licensees alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part 1 also indicates which plants have received operating licenses (OLS)

  1. Mammalian sex hormones in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Skoczowski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of mammalian sex hormones and their physiological role in plants is reviewed. These hormones, such as 17?-estradiol, androsterone, testosterone or progesterone, were present in 60-80% of the plant species investigated. Enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis and conversion were also found in plants. Treatment of the plants with sex hormones or their precursors influenced plant development: cell divisions, root and shoot growth, embryo growth, flowering, pollen tube growth and callus proliferation. The regulatory abilities of mammalian sex hormones in plants makes possible their use in practice, especially in plant in vitro culture

  2. Antidiabetic Plants of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafeddin Goushegir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To identify the antidiabetic plants of Iran, a systematic review of the published literature on the efficacy of Iranian medicinal plant for glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was conducted. We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus, Proquest, Ebsco, Googlescholar, SID, Cochrane Library Database, from 1966 up to June 2010. The search terms were complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, diabetes mellitus, plant (herb, Iran, patient, glycemic control, clinical trial, RCT, natural or herbal medicine, hypoglycemic plants, and individual herb names from popular sources, or combination of these key words. Available Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT published in English or Persian language examined effects of an herb (limited to Iran on glycemic indexes in type 2 diabetic patients were included. Among all of the articles identified in the initial database search, 23 trials were RCT, examining herbs as potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The key outcome for antidiabetic effect was changes in blood glucose or HbA1 c, as well as improves in insulin sensitivity or resistance. Available data suggest that several antidiabetic plants of Iran need further study. Among the RCT studies, the best evidence in glycemic control was found in Citrullus colocynthus, Ipomoea betatas, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum graecum.

  3. Pinellas Plant facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant

  4. AECL's plant Information Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The competitiveness of the world-wide energy market is a continual driving force for improvements to CANDU performance and lower operating, maintenance, and administration costs. As in other industries, advanced Information Technologies (IT) are changing the way we work and conduct business. The nuclear industry is no different and there exists strong incentives to improve work processes and provide faster and more flexible access to the information needed to effectively manage and maintain nuclear plant assets. AECL has responded to these forces through the development of a vision of integrated IT systems addressing all phases of nuclear plant development and operations. This includes the initial engineering, design, and construction processes as well as support to the long-term operations and maintenance. Integral to the AECL vision is the need for cost-effective engineering and operational configuration management systems, proactive maintenance processes and systems, and advanced plant surveillance and diagnostics. This paper presents the vision and describes the integrated information systems needed to manage both the design basis and operating plant data systems to ensure the cost-effective, long-term viability of CANDU plants. (author)

  5. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis NØrgaard; Bruhn, Dan

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature, ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species. Further, we analyze rates of measured emission of aerobically produced CH4 in pectin and in plant tissues from different studies and argue that pectin is very far from the sole contributing precursor. Hence, scaling up of aerobic CH4 emission needs to take into consideration other potential sources than pectin. Due to the large uncertainties related to effects of stimulating factors, genotypic responses and type of precursors, we conclude that current attempts for upscaling aerobic CH4 into a global budget is insufficient. Thus it is too early to draw the line under the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution ofseveral proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material.

  6. Obrigheim nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1973 the 345 MW pressurized water nuclear power plant at Obrigheim operated on base load, generating approximately 2.63 TWh, approximately 2.5 TWh of which was supplied to the KWO members. The plant availability for the year was 89.9%. Of the 10.1% non-availability, 6.4% (23 d) was caused by refuelling, including inspection, overhaul and repair operations and routine tests carried out in September 1973. 3.3% was due to stoppages for repairs to a steam generator and the two main cooling pumps, while 0.4% resulted from failures in the electrical section of the plant. The plant was shut down seven times in all, including three scrams. The average core burnup at the end of the fourth cycle (1 September 1973) was 18900 MWd/tU, representing an average burnup of approximately 37500 MWd/tU for a fuel element used in all four cycles. The operating performance of the steam generators and the result of the steam generator inspection carried out during refuelling in 1973 suggest no progressive damage. The quantities of radioactive materials released to the environment in 1973 were well below the officially permitted levels. The availability of the plant from the beginning of pilot operation in 1969 to the end of 1973 was 83.7 %

  7. Plant based butters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrepati, Kalyani; Balasubramanian, S; Chandra, Pitam

    2015-07-01

    During the last few years the popularity for the plant based butters (nut and seed butters) has increased considerably. Earlier peanut butter was the only alternative to the dairy butter, but over the years development in the technologies and also the consumer awareness about the plant based butters, has led the development of myriad varieties of butters with different nuts and seeds, which are very good source of protein, fiber, essential fatty acids and other nutrients. These days' different varieties of plant based butters are available in the market viz., peanut butter, soy butter, almond butter, pistachio butter, cashew butter and sesame butter etc. The form of butter is one of the healthy way of integrating nuts and seeds in to our regular diet. Nut and seed butters are generally prepared by roasting, grinding and refrigerated to consume it when it is still fresh. During this process it is imperative to retain the nutritional properties of these nuts and seeds in order to reap the benefits of the fresh nuts and seeds in the form of butter as well. Proper care is needed to minimize the conversion of healthful components in to unhealthy components during processing and further storage. Roasting temperature, temperatures during grinding and storage are the vital factors to be considered in order to have healthy and nutritious plant based butters. In this article, different plant based butters and their processing methods have been described. PMID:26139864

  8. GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  9. Plant Respiration and Lipid Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive, and widely used upper-division plant biology textbook. In the Sixth Edition, the Growth and Development section (Unit III) has been reorganized and expanded to present the complete life cycle of seed plants fro...

  10. Fertigation management of potted plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The horticultural crops considered in this chapter are characterised by the fact that the plants are grown in a restricted volume, like pots, containers, plastic trays or compressed peat blocks. In the market these crops are recognized as potted plants, bedding plants and container grown nursery stock, mostly for ornamental purposes. Another group is the raising of young vegetable and cut flower plants, due to production holdings. Although extremely diverse, all these plants are grown as sing...

  11. Owners of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The list indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies as of September 1, 1982. The list includes all plants licensed to operate, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review. Part I lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants and percentage ownership. Part II lists applicants alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part I also indicates which plants have received operating licenses

  12. Carbohydrate microarrays in plant science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, Henriette Lodberg; Vidal Melgosa, Silvia; Ahl, Louise Isager; Asunción Salmeán, Armando; Madsen, Jack Egelund; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Clausen, Mads Hartvig; Willats, William George Tycho

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occ...

  13. Carbohydrate Microarrays in Plant Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, H.L.; Vidal-Melgosa, S.; Ahl, Louise Isager; Salmean, A.A.; Egelund, Jack; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Clausen, M.H.; Willats, William George Tycho

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occ...

  14. PlantDB – a versatile database for managing plant research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruissem Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research in plant science laboratories often involves usage of many different species, cultivars, ecotypes, mutants, alleles or transgenic lines. This creates a great challenge to keep track of the identity of experimental plants and stored samples or seeds. Results Here, we describe PlantDB – a Microsoft® Office Access database – with a user-friendly front-end for managing information relevant for experimental plants. PlantDB can hold information about plants of different species, cultivars or genetic composition. Introduction of a concise identifier system allows easy generation of pedigree trees. In addition, all information about any experimental plant – from growth conditions and dates over extracted samples such as RNA to files containing images of the plants – can be linked unequivocally. Conclusion We have been using PlantDB for several years in our laboratory and found that it greatly facilitates access to relevant information.

  15. Plant-plant interactions vary with different mycorrhizal fungus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, Jason D

    2005-12-22

    Because different species of mycorrhizal fungi have different effects on the growth of particular plant species, variation in mycorrhizal fungus species composition could cause changes in the strength of plant-plant interactions. Results are presented from a growth chamber experiment that compared the strength of interactions among seedlings of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) when the pines were colonized by two different groups of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the genus Rhizopogon. Plant density effects differed between the two groups of mycorrhizal fungi: plant growth was low regardless of density when plants were colonized with pine-specific Rhizopogon species, while plant growth declined with plant density when plants were colonized by Rhizopogon species having a broader host range. This result parallels results from previous studies showing that plant interactions are more antagonistic with mycorrhizal fungi than without, implying that plant responsiveness to beneficial mycorrhizal fungi declines with increasing plant density. If such effects are prevalent in plant communities, then variation in mycorrhizal fungus community composition is predicted to have a density-dependent effect on plants. PMID:17148227

  16. Plant–plant interactions vary with different mycorrhizal fungus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, Jason D

    2005-01-01

    Because different species of mycorrhizal fungi have different effects on the growth of particular plant species, variation in mycorrhizal fungus species composition could cause changes in the strength of plant–plant interactions. Results are presented from a growth chamber experiment that compared the strength of interactions among seedlings of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) when the pines were colonized by two different groups of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the genus Rhizopogon. Plant density effects differed between the two groups of mycorrhizal fungi: plant growth was low regardless of density when plants were colonized with pine-specific Rhizopogon species, while plant growth declined with plant density when plants were colonized by Rhizopogon species having a broader host range. This result parallels results from previous studies showing that plant interactions are more antagonistic with mycorrhizal fungi than without, implying that plant responsiveness to beneficial mycorrhizal fungi declines with increasing plant density. If such effects are prevalent in plant communities, then variation in mycorrhizal fungus community composition is predicted to have a density-dependent effect on plants. PMID:17148227

  17. Collective biogas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papers contributed to the European seminar on collective biogas plants held at Herning, Denmark on October 22-23 under the auspices of the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy (DG XVII) are presented. Within the framework of the THERMIE programme, a network of OPETs (Organizations for the Promotion of Energy Technologies) was set up in order to disseminate information on new energy technologies throughout the European communities. The potential for further implementation of centralized capacity for the conversion of animal manures and other organic wastes to bio-fuels, not only in central and eastern Europe but also in the developing countries, is discussed in addition to the relevant technologies. Actual biomass conversion plants are described and details are given on operational experience and plant management. Agricultural, economic and policy aspects are also dealt with. (AB)

  18. Uranium uptake by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper highlights the transport of uranium present in the soil to plants. An increase in the uranium content in soil enhances its transport in various parts of plants. The transport of uranium from the soil to the grain follows the order: black gram>maize>lentil>chick-pea>rice>wheat. In certain vegetables and fruits, this order is: spinach>carrot>radish> brinjal>banana>tomato>beet. In vegetables and fruits, the stem reflects minimum percentage of uranium present in the soil. The uranium transport is appreciably high in arecanut plant. The chances of uranium transport to the human organs, are expected to be more through consumption of crops grown in uranium-rich soil. (author)

  19. Molybdenum metabolism in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Jiménez, Manuel; Chamizo-Ampudia, Alejandro; Galván, Aurora; Fernández, Emilio; Llamas, Ángel

    2013-09-01

    The viability of plants relies on molybdenum, which after binding to the organic moiety of molybdopterin forms the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) and acquires remarkable redox properties. Moco is in the active site of critical molybdoenzymes, which use to work as small electron transport chains and participate in N and S metabolism, hormone biosynthesis, toxic compound transformations and other important processes not only in plants but also in all the other kingdoms of life. Molybdate metabolism in plants is reviewed here, with special attention to two main aspects, the different molybdate transporters that with a very high affinity participate in molybdenum acquisition and the recently discovered Moco enzyme amidoxime-reducing component. Their functionality is starting to be understood. PMID:23800757

  20. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  1. Multiplex tokamak power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of multiplexing for a fusion power core as an option for producing power is explored. Superconducting, as well as normal magnet, coils in either first or second stability regimes are considered. The results show that multiplex plants with superconducting magnets operating in the second stability regime could be competitive with the single-unit plants in some unit sizes. The key issues that impact the expected benefits of multiplexing must be investigated further. These are factory fabrication, economy of scale, the extent of equipment sharing, inherent safety, maintainability, and utility load management

  2. Power plant process computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants incorporates the use of process computers for tasks which are on-line in respect to real-time requirements but not closed-loop in respect to closed-loop control. The general scope of tasks is: - alarm annunciation on CRT's - data logging - data recording for post trip reviews and plant behaviour analysis - nuclear data computation - graphic displays. Process computers are used additionally for dedicated tasks such as the aeroball measuring system, the turbine stress evaluator. Further applications are personal dose supervision and access monitoring. (orig.)

  3. Conceptualizing Pharmaceutical Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Gjøl, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    In the conceptual design phase of pharmaceutical plants as much as 80%-90% of the total cost of a project is committed. It is therefore essential that the chosen concept is viable. In this design process configuration and 3D models can help validate the decisions made. Designing 3D models is a complex task and requires skilled users. We demonstrate that a simple 2D/3D configuration tool can support conceptualizing of pharmaceutical plants. Present paper reports on preliminary results from a full...

  4. MRI of intact plants

    OpenAIRE

    Van As, H.; Scheenen, T.; Vergeldt, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive and non-invasive technique that can be used to acquire two- or even three-dimensional images of intact plants. The information within the images can be manipulated and used to study the dynamics of plant water relations and water transport in the stem, e.g., as a function of environmental (stress) conditions. Non-spatially resolved portable NMR is becoming available to study leaf water content and distribution of water in different...

  5. Carotenoid metabolism in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Nazia; Li, Li; Lu, Shan; Khin, Nay Chi; Pogson, Barry J

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are mostly C40 terpenoids, a class of hydrocarbons that participate in various biological processes in plants, such as photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis, photoprotection, and development. Carotenoids also serve as precursors for two plant hormones and a diverse set of apocarotenoids. They are colorants and critical components of the human diet as antioxidants and provitamin A. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the genes and enzymes involved in carotenoid metabolism and describe recent progress in understanding the regulatory mechanisms underlying carotenoid accumulation. The importance of the specific location of carotenoid enzyme metabolons and plastid types as well as of carotenoid-derived signals is discussed. PMID:25578273

  6. Conceptualizing Pharmaceutical Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby

    2006-01-01

    In the conceptual design phase of pharmaceutical plants as much as 80%-90% of the total cost of a project is committed. It is therefore essential that the chosen concept is viable. In this design process configuration and 3D models can help validate the decisions made. Designing 3D models is a complex task and requires skilled users. We demonstrate that a simple 2D/3D configuration tool can support conceptualizing of pharmaceutical plants. Present paper reports on preliminary results from a full scale implementation project at a Danish engineering company.

  7. Conceptualizing Pharmaceutical Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard

    2007-01-01

    In the conceptual design phase of pharmaceutical plants as much as 80%-90% of the total cost of a project is committed. It is therefore essential that the chosen concept is viable. In this design process configuration and 3D models can help validate the decisions made. Designing 3D models is a complex task and requires skilled users. We demonstrate that a simple 2D/3D configuration tool can support conceptualizing of pharmaceutical plants. Present paper reports on preliminary results fr...

  8. Thermodynamic solar plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermodynamic solar plants include all techniques aiming at converting the solar radiation into high temperature heat, and then at converting this heat into mechanical or electrical energy through a thermodynamic cycle connected to a power generator. The first step, capture of the solar radiation, requires the use of optical systems and, in most cases, the use of solar concentrators which allow to reach temperatures above 250 deg. C. The hybridization with another heat generation source (fossil or biomass) allows to increase the availability of the solar facilities. The heat is then converted into electricity using classical thermodynamic cycles with efficiencies ranging from 23% to 50%, and above in the case of combined cycles. The immediate efficiency of solar-electricity conversion is comprised between 20% and 30% depending on the technology implemented, and the investment costs are evaluated between 2800 euro/kWe (20-80 MWe plant with cylindro-parabolic collectors and Rankine cycle) and 4000 euro/KWe (40-200 MWe tower plant with combined cycles) but can reach 14000 euro/kWe in the case of a 10-25 kWe parabola-Stirling decentralized plant. The electricity cost ranges from 0.16 to 0.24 euro/kWhe for a big facility and is of about 0.30 euro/kWhe in the case of a parabola-Stirling plant (to be compared with 0.04 euro/kWe in the case of a nuclear power plant). The environmental impact of solar thermal electricity is lower than 20 kg CO2/MWhe and comparable to the impact of hydro or nuclear power (4 and 6 kg CO2/MWhe, respectively), but much lower than the impact of photovoltaic energy (100 kg CO2/MWhe) or coal combustion (900 kg CO2/MWhe). The time of return on energy (duration of plant operation to produce the energy needed for its fabrication) is of only 5 months and the lifetime of solar concentration facilities is estimated to 25-30 years. This article presents the state-of-the-art of solar plant technologies and their economic aspects (market penetration strategy and R and D efforts). (J.S.)

  9. Multiplex Tokamak power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of multiplexing for a fusion power core as an option for producing power is explored. Superconducting, as well as normal magnet, coils in either first or second stability regimes are considered. The results show that multiplex plants with superconducting magnets operating in the second stability regime could be competitive with the single-unit plants in some unit sizes. The key issues that impact the expected benefits of multiplexing must be investigated further. These are factory fabrication, economy of scale, the extent of equipment sharing, inherent safety, maintainability, and utility load management

  10. Carnivorous Plants - Nepenthes

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Chen, Meng Qi; Wang Lu, Wenwan Dong; Shenyuan Wang, Zhonghua Zheng

    2005-01-01

    Nepenthes as a kind of Carnivorous plants which are known to secrete enzymes to digest their prey for nitrogen uptake has been investigate by many scholars from various points of view. After more than three months experience with the object Nepenthes, we find its leaves and culms as well as soils are more acid compared with another two non-carnivorous plants with basic measurement in the laboratory. By the way, we find its root degradation. Although the pH value of fluid from the pitcher is u...

  11. ITER plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a series of documents published by the IAEA that summarize the results of the Conceptual Design Activities for the ITER project, this publication describes the conceptual design of the ITER plant systems, in particular (i) the heat transport system, (ii) the electrical distribution system, (iii) the requirements for radioactive equipment handling, the hot cell, and waste management, (iv) the supply system for fluids and operational chemicals, (v) the qualitative analyses of failure scenarios and methods of burn stability control and emergency shutdown control, (vi) analyses of tokamak building functions and design requirements, (vii) a plant layout, and (viii) site requirements. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Power plants 2009. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the Annual Conference 2009 of the VGB PowerTech e.V. (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) from 23rd to 25th May, 2009, in Lyon (France) the following lectures were held: (1) Electricity demand, consequences of the financial and economic crisis - Current overview 2020 for the EU-27 (Hans ten Berge); (2) Status and perspectives of the electricity generation mix in France (Bernard Dupraz); (3) European electricity grid - status and perspective (Dominique Maillard); (4) Technologies and acceptance in the European energy market (Gordon MacKerran); (5) EPR construction in Finland, China, France, (Claude Jaouen); (6) EPR Flamanville 3: A project on the path towards nuclear revival (Jacques Alary); (7) Worldwide nuclear Revival and acceptance (Luc Geraets); (8) An overview on the status of final disposal of radioactive wastes worldwide (Piet Zuidema); (9) Who needs pumped storage plants? PSP are partner to grid stability and renewable energies (Hans-Christoph Funke); (10) Sustainable use of water resources to generate electricity safely and efficiently (Patrick Tourasse); (11) The growth strategy of RWE Innogy - Role of RES in RWE strategy (Fritz Vahrenholt); (12) Solar technologies towards grid parity - key factors and timeframe (G. Gigliucci); (13) Overview on CCS technologies and results of Vattenfalls oxyfuel pilot plant (Philippe Paelinck); (14) Development perspectives of lignite-based IGCC-plants with CCS (Dietmar Keller); (15) Post combustion capture plants - concept and plant integration (Wolfgang Schreier); (16) CCS fossil power generation in a carbon constraint world (Daniel Hofmann); (17) CEZ group strategy in Central and South Eastern Europe (Jan Zizka); (18) Strategy and projects of DONG Energy (Jens Erik Pedersen); (19) E.ON coal-based power generation of the future - The highly efficient power plant and downstream separation of carbon dioxide (Gerhard Seibel); (20) Final sage of first supercritical 460 MWel. CFB Boiler construction - firs experience (Damian Goral); (21) Technological development and actual quality in new power plants - rights and reality (M. Kehr); (22) Actual challenges in new materials and quality assurance for high efficiency power plants (M. Giehl).

  13. Savannah River Plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 20, 1972, the Atomic Energy Commission designated 192,323 acres of land near Aiken, SC, as the nation's first National Environmental Research Park. The designated land surrounds the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant production complex. The site, which borders the Savannah River for 17 miles, includes swampland, pine forests, abandoned town sites, a large man-made lake for cooling water impoundment, fields, streams, and watersheds. This report is a description of the geological, hydrological, meteorological, and biological characteristics of the Savannah River Plant site and is intended as a source of information for those interested in environmental research at the site. 165 references, 68 figures, 52 tables

  14. Orgenic plants: gene-manipulated plants compatible with organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryffel, Gerhart U

    2012-11-01

    Based on recent advances in plant gene technology, I propose to develop a new category of GM plants, orgenic plants, that are compatible with organic farming. These orgenic plants do not contain herbicide resistance genes to avoid herbicide application in agriculture. Furthermore, they either contain genes that are naturally exchanged between species, or are sterile to avoid outcrossing if they received a transgene from a different species. These GM plants are likely to be acceptable to most skeptics of GM plants and facilitate the use of innovative new crops. PMID:22893621

  15. Diagnosing Physical Plant Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, B. P.; Smith, H. W.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a survey designed to help administrators evaluate functional aspects, adequacy of employee work areas, quality of housekeeping methods, maintenance response, interior and exterior appearances, alteration and renovation satisfaction, employee feelings about parking adequacy, plant security, and attraction and function of roads and…

  16. Plants flex their skeletons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foster, Randy; Mattsson, Ole; Mundy, John

    2003-01-01

    Recent work on the fragile fiber mutants of Arabidopsis has identified microtubule-associated proteins that affect the orientation of cellulose microfibrils in cell walls, a major determinant of plant elongation growth. These same proteins are implicated in responses to gibberellin, provoking fresh speculation about how this hormone affects cell elongation and growth.

  17. Plants on the Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Mary

    2009-01-01

    When it comes to directly interacting with and doing experiments with organisms, plants have some distinct advantages over animals. Their diversity and accessibility allows students to use them in experiments, thus practicing important science inquiry skills. This article describes an investigation that was designed to help students appreciate the…

  18. Tritium and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although tritium is produced naturally in very small quantities and emits only a low energy radiation, its distribution and its behaviour in the environment are studied. This work concerns the organic tritium of plants, its use in environment monitoring and its impact on the doses received by man

  19. Plant Tissue Culture Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert Alan

    Plant tissue culture has developed into a valid botanical discipline and is considered a key area of biotechnology, but it has not been a key component of the science curriculum because of the expensive and technical nature of research in this area. This manual presents a number of activities that are relatively easy to prepare and perform. The…

  20. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  1. Garigliano nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period under review, the Garigliano power station produced 1,028,77 million kWh with a utilization factor of 73,41% and an availability factor of 85,64%. The disparity between the utilization and availability factors was mainly due to a shutdown of about one and half months owing to lack of staff at the plant. The reasons for nonavailability (14.36%) break down as follows: nuclear reasons 11,49%; conventional reasons 2,81%; other reasons 0,06%. During the period under review, no fuel replacements took place. The plant functioned throughout with a single reactor reticulation pump and resulting maximum available capacity of 150 MWe gross. After the month of August, the plant was operated at levels slightly below the maximum available capacity in order to lengthen the fuel cycle. The total number of outages during the period under review was 11. Since the plant was brought into commercial operation, it has produced 9.226 million kWh

  2. Drug from plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors make certain general observations and comments concerning the role of photosynthesis in the labeling of natural compounds, as well as some recommendations based on recent results regarding the labeling of a new anti-malaria drug extracted from a plant and originally known to traditional Chinese medicine. (author). 6 refs

  3. Mechanisms in Plant Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hake, Sarah [USDA ARS Plant Gene Expression Center

    2013-08-21

    This meeting has been held every other year for the past twenty-two years and is the only regularly held meeting focused specifically on plant development. Topics covered included: patterning in developing tissues; short and long distance signaling; differentiation of cell types; the role of epigenetics in development; evolution; growth.

  4. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

  5. Radiosensitivity in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents a compilation of available data on the sensitivity of plants to ionizing radiation, and provides basic information on methods of determining such sensitivities, or of estimating radiosensitivities by calcuation of the nuclear factors upon which they depend. The scope of the data presented here is necessarily limited to the most generally useful radiobiological end points and to the most commonly-used types of radiation. Many of the factors which influence radiosensitivity, particularly nuclear factors, will be discussed. Emphasis will be upon whole-plant studies done at Brookhaven National Laboratory by A.H. Sparrow and his associates, since these studies are the source of most of the available radiosensitivity data and of all the sensitivity predictions listed here. Data presented here include summaries of experimentally-determined radiosensitivities at various end points for both herbaceous and woody higher plants, and for a few species of ferns and lower plants. The algae and fungi have not been considered here due to space limitations

  6. Plant peptide hormone signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomitsu, Ayane; Sawa, Shinichiro; Ishida, Takashi

    2015-09-15

    The ligand-receptor-based cell-to-cell communication system is one of the most important molecular bases for the establishment of complex multicellular organisms. Plants have evolved highly complex intercellular communication systems. Historical studies have identified several molecules, designated phytohormones, that function in these processes. Recent advances in molecular biological analyses have identified phytohormone receptors and signalling mediators, and have led to the discovery of numerous peptide-based signalling molecules. Subsequent analyses have revealed the involvement in and contribution of these peptides to multiple aspects of the plant life cycle, including development and environmental responses, similar to the functions of canonical phytohormones. On the basis of this knowledge, the view that these peptide hormones are pivotal regulators in plants is becoming increasingly accepted. Peptide hormones are transcribed from the genome and translated into peptides. However, these peptides generally undergo further post-translational modifications to enable them to exert their function. Peptide hormones are expressed in and secreted from specific cells or tissues. Apoplastic peptides are perceived by specialized receptors that are located at the surface of target cells. Peptide hormone-receptor complexes activate intracellular signalling through downstream molecules, including kinases and transcription factors, which then trigger cellular events. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive summary of the biological functions of peptide hormones, focusing on how they mature and the ways in which they modulate plant functions. PMID:26374891

  7. Recombinant Cytokines from Plants.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sirko, A.; Van?k, Tomáš; Gora-Sochacka, A.; Redkiewicz, P.

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 12, ?. 6 (2011), s. 3536-3552. ISSN 1661-6596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : cytokines * pharmaceutical proteins * plant-based production systems Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.598, year: 2011

  8. Plant monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel in the control room. A separate data processing system, which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board. The discrete indicator and alarm system and the data processing system receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the main machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof. (author)

  9. Native plant identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of 44 grazing farms in the northeastern United States found 9 to 73 plant species per pasture. Forage species were the most abundant. Other species varied with the seasons, or were more common in wetter areas. Some species increase with disturbance, or respond to grazing management. Learnin...

  10. Pinellas Plant facts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-11-01

    The Pinellas Plant, near St. Petersburg, Florida, is wholly owned by the United States Government. It is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by GE Aerospace, Neutron Devices (GEND). This plant was built in 1956 to manufacture neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators built at Neutron Devices consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. Production of these devices has necessitated the development of several uniquely specialized areas of competence and supporting facilities. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology; hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials; plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at Neutron Devices has led directly to the assignment of other weapon application products: the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Other product assignments such as active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator evolved from the plant`s materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life.

  11. Plant research '76

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Overall objective remains unchanged: to contribute to the knowledge, with strong emphasis on fundamental problems, of how plants function, the roles they play in the environment and energy relations of the world, and how these roles may be optimized for the benefit of mankind. (PCS)

  12. Plant Biotech Lab Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tant, Carl

    This book provides laboratory experiments to enhance any food science/botany curriculum. Chapter 1, "Introduction," presents a survey of the techniques used in plant biotechnology laboratory procedures. Chapter 2, "Micronutrition," discusses media and nutritional requirements for tissue culture studies. Chapter 3, "Sterile Seeds," focuses on the…

  13. Gas-technology plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gas-technological plant (GTP) for storage of liquid and gaseous SF6, used in accelerating engineering as a high-voltage insulator, is described. The GTP ensures also maintenance of the high insulation properties of SF6 gas. Main performances of GTP are presented. The operation experience during some years has shown high reliability and efficiency of GTP

  14. PRINS on Plant Chromosomes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macas, Ji?í; Navrátilová, Alice; Kubaláková, Marie; Doležel, Jaroslav

    Vol. 334. Totowa, NJ : Humana Press, 2006 - (Pellestor, F.), s. 133-139 ISBN 978-1-58829-549-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Plant chromosomes * repetitive sequences * satellite DNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  15. Sex chromosomes in plants.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hobza, Roman; Vyskot, Boris

    London : Global Science Books , Ltd, 2006 - (da Silva, J.), s. 224-235 - (1. vydání) R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA521/06/0056; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : dioecious plants * sex determination * Silene latifolia Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  16. Phenolics and Plant Allelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-An Jiang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds arise from the shikimic and acetic acid (polyketide metabolic pathways in plants. They are but one category of the many secondary metabolites implicated in plant allelopathy. Phenolic allelochemicals have been observed in both natural and managed ecosystems, where they cause a number of ecological and economic problems, such as declines in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure of natural forests, and replanting problems in orchards. Phenolic allelochemical structures and modes of action are diverse and may offer potential lead compounds for the development of future herbicides or pesticides. This article reviews allelopathic effects, analysis methods, and allelopathic mechanisms underlying the activity of plant phenolic compounds. Additionally, the currently debated topic in plant allelopathy of whether catechin and 8-hydroxyquinoline play an important role in Centaurea maculata and Centaurea diffusa invasion success is discussed. Overall, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the allelopacthic potential of phenolic compounds to provide us with methods to solve various ecology problems, especially in regard to the sustainable development of agriculture, forestry, nature resources and environment conservation.

  17. T Plant hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the T Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  18. Site treatment plant delayed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A $21-million nuclear waste vitrification plant at the U.S. Dept. of Energy's former uranium enrichment site in Fernald, Ohio, is facing design and procurement problems that have delayed its startup 17 months. But DOE says it will not delay the 10-year cleanup of the entire site. The pressure of Superfund-imposed deadlines forced the plant's fast-track design and construction. Portions of the project were designed in parallel rather than in sequence, say officials of DOE and Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Co. (FERMCO), the site's Fluor Corp.-led cleanup contractor. DOE opted to vitrify 9,700 tons of radioactive waste stored in four cement silos as part of a December 1994 agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The pact gave FERMCO 15 months to start remediation. The first glitch occurred when DOE could not get bids for a melter in the pilot vitrification plant that could effectively operate at up to 1,450 degrees C. That forced DOE to revise the request for proposals for the melter to specify a one-ton-per-day furnace instead of a 5- tpd unit, says Nina Akgunduz, DOE project manager. The melter supplier is GTS Duratek Inc., Columbia, Md. The original operating schedule anticipated 100% in the pilot plant, when completed test burns in three months. But the schedule was revised after European vitrification specialists specified 30% efficiency as a more realistic estimate. The pilot is now set to begin operating in February. Data collected from the pilot plant will be used to design the Site's $200-million, full-scale vitrification plant, which will handle up to 30 tons of material a day. Reising says one lesson learned so far is to include operations and construction staff early on in the process. Design problems would have been caught earlier, he says. Meanwhile, design and construction of the larger plant is also on a fast track, with the first construction package to be awarded in March

  19. Photooxidative stress in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The light-dependent generation of active oxygen species is termed photooxidative stress. This can occur in two ways: (1) the donation of energy or electrons directly to oxygen as a result of photosynthetic activity; (2) exposure of tissues to ultraviolet irradiation. The light-dependent destruction of catalase compounds the problem. Although generally detrimental to metabolism, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide may serve useful functions if rigorously controlled and compartmentalised. During photosynthesis the formation of active oxygen species is minimised by a number of complex and refined regulatory mechanisms. When produced, active oxygen species are eliminated rapidly by efficient antioxidative systems. The chloroplast is able to use the production and destruction of hydrogen peroxide to regulate the thermal dissipation of excess excitation energy. This is an intrinsic feature of the regulation of photosynthetic electron transport. Photoinhibition and photooxidation only usually occur when plants are exposed to stress. Active oxygen species are part of the alarm-signalling processes in plants. These serve to modify metabolism and gene expression so that the plant can respond to adverse environmental conditions, invading organisms and ultraviolet irradiation. The capacity of the antioxidative defense system is often increased at such times but if the response is not sufficient, radical production will exceed scavenging and ultimately lead to the disruption of metabolism. Oxidative damage arises in high light principally when the latter is in synergy with additional stress factors such as chilling temperatures or pollution. Environmental stress can modify the photooxidative processes in various ways ranging from direct involvement in light-induced free radical formation to the inhibition of metabolism that renders previously optimal light levels excessive. It is in just such situations that the capacity for the production of active oxygen species can exceed that for scavenging by the antioxidative defense systems. The advent of plant transformation, however, may have placed within our grasp the possibility of engineering greater stress tolerance in plants by enhancement of the antioxidative defence system

  20. Heating plant privatization stagnates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state has been talking about privatization of 6 municipal heating plants since 2001. The tenders were to start last year. But nothing has happened and the future is uncertain. The city councils would prefer to receive, if not 100%, then at least a majority stake in the heating plants free of charge. But the Cabinet has decided to sell 51% to investors. The privatization agency - the National Property Fund (FNM) is preparing a proposal to increase the stake offered for sale to 67%. According to information provided by the FNM the sale will begin after Cabinet approval. The Fund intends to apply the same model to the sale of all the heating plants. Last year, a major German company Verbundnetz Gas declared its interest in purchasing large municipal heating plants in Slovakia. But it has been waiting for a response ever since. The French company - Dalkia, which has 10-years' experience of doing business in Slovakia, is interested in all the heating plants to be offered for sale. The Austrian company - Stefe is not new to the business either, it is interested mainly in the regions where it has already established itself - Central and Eastern Slovakia. Strategic investors expect financial groups to show interest too. The Penta Group has not hid its ambitions - it has already privatised a company which represents the key to the future development of heat management in Bratislava - Paroplynovy cyklus. Whereas Penta is not new to the heat production business another financial group - Slavia Capital is still surveying the sector. Should it not succeed, it plans several projects that would allow it to take a stake in the sector

  1. Nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Action at the international level will assume greater importance as the number of nuclear power plants increases, especially in the more densely populated parts of the world. Predictions of growth made prior to October 1973 [9] indicated that, by 1980, 14% of the electricity would be supplied by nuclear plants and by the year 2000 this figure would be about 50%. This will make the topic of international co-operation and standards of even greater importance. The IAEA has long been active in providing assistance to Member States in the siting design and operation of nuclear reactors. These activities have been pursued through advisory missions, the publication of codes of practice, guide books, technical reports and in arranging meetings to promote information exchange. During the early development of nuclear power, there was no well-established body of experience which would allow formulation of internationally acceptable safety criteria, except in a few special cases. Hence, nuclear power plant safety and reliability matters often received an ad hoc approach which necessarily entailed a lack of consistency in the criteria used and in the levels of safety required. It is clear that the continuation of an ad hoc approach to safety will prove inadequate in the context of a world-wide nuclear power industry, and the international trade which this implies. As in several other fields, the establishment of internationally acceptable safety standards and appropriate guides for use by regulatory bodies, utilities, designers and constructors, is becoming a necessity. The IAEA is presently planning the development of a comprehensive set of basic requirements for nuclear power plant safety, and the associated reliability requirements, which would be internationally acceptable, and could serve as a standard frame of reference for nuclear plant safety and reliability analyses

  2. Plant–plant interactions vary with different mycorrhizal fungus species

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeksema, Jason D

    2005-01-01

    Because different species of mycorrhizal fungi have different effects on the growth of particular plant species, variation in mycorrhizal fungus species composition could cause changes in the strength of plant–plant interactions. Results are presented from a growth chamber experiment that compared the strength of interactions among seedlings of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) when the pines were colonized by two different groups of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the genus Rhizopogon. Plant density...

  3. Convergence of plant-rich and plant-only diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, J

    1999-09-01

    Discussants at the Third International Congress on Vegetarian Nutrition considered the nutritional adequacy, benefits, and health outcomes of plant-only (e.g., vegan and fruitarian), plant-based (e.g., macrobiotic, lactovegetarian, semivegetarian, and meatless), and omnivorous dietary patterns. The increased availability of a variety of plant foods, the advent of nutrient-fortified plant foods, the use of vitamin and mineral supplements, and the widespread dissemination of sound information on dietary patterns mean that convergence between the essential nutrient profiles of plant-only and plant-rich, plant-based diets is possible. Special attention should be paid to nutrition among vulnerable groups by age or physiologic status if they consume diets based solely on plants. Research has shown that both plant-only and plant-based eating patterns have health benefits, most notably in reducing the risk of chronic, degenerative diseases. The panel concluded that evidence for a convergence of scientific opinion on the safety and healthfulness of plant-only diets that are appropriately planned to meet all nutrient requirements compared with plant-based diets is considerable. PMID:10479241

  4. Plant Genetic Resources: Not Just for Plant Breeding Anymore

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System maintains over 480,000 accessions of plant genetic resources from 2,000 genera and 12,400 species. These genetic resources consist of agronomic crops, horticultural crops, fruit and nut crops, medicinal plants, ornamental crops, and other species. Each year...

  5. Design of plant safety model in plant enterprise engineering environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant enterprise engineering environment (PEEE) is an approach aiming to manage the plant through its lifecycle. In such environment, safety is considered as the common objective for all activities throughout the plant lifecycle. One approach to achieve plant safety is to embed safety aspects within each function and activity within such environment. One ideal way to enable safety aspects within each automated function is through modeling. This paper proposes a theoretical approach to design plant safety model as integrated with the plant lifecycle model within such environment. Object-oriented modeling approach is used to construct the plant safety model using OO CASE tool on the basis of unified modeling language (UML). Multiple views are defined for plant objects to express static, dynamic, and functional semantics of these objects. Process safety aspects are mapped to each model element and inherited from design to operation stage, as it is naturally embedded within plant's objects. By developing and realizing the plant safety model, safer plant operation can be achieved and plant safety can be assured

  6. Plant air systems safety study: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Air System facilities and operations are reviewed for potential safety problems not covered by standard industrial safety procedures. Information is presented under the following section headings: facility and process description (general); air plant equipment; air distribution system; safety systems; accident analysis; plant air system safety overview; and conclusion

  7. Design of plant safety model in plant enterprise engineering environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbar, Hossam A.; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Yukiyasu

    2001-07-01

    Plant enterprise engineering environment (PEEE) is an approach aiming to manage the plant through its lifecycle. In such environment, safety is considered as the common objective for all activities throughout the plant lifecycle. One approach to achieve plant safety is to embed safety aspects within each function and activity within such environment. One ideal way to enable safety aspects within each automated function is through modeling. This paper proposes a theoretical approach to design plant safety model as integrated with the plant lifecycle model within such environment. Object-oriented modeling approach is used to construct the plant safety model using OO CASE tool on the basis of unified modeling language (UML). Multiple views are defined for plant objects to express static, dynamic, and functional semantics of these objects. Process safety aspects are mapped to each model element and inherited from design to operation stage, as it is naturally embedded within plant's objects. By developing and realizing the plant safety model, safer plant operation can be achieved and plant safety can be assured.

  8. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Hatian Creole) ... outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison ...

  9. Initiative against nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication of the Initiative of Austrian Nuclear Power Plant Opponents contains articles on radiactive waste dispoasal in Austria and and discusses safety issues of the nuclear power plant 'Zwentendorf'. (kancsar)

  10. Return factors of power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extension of the return factor to the aggregate return factor is the quotient of the net energy output of a plant over its planned serviceable life, and the cumulated total energy consumption for the fabrication of the plant, the operating equipment and material, and the power plant internal energy consumption for operation. The latter is defined to be the fossil or nuclear fuel consumption of a power plant, evaluated with the primary energy requirement. A table is given showing the return factor, the amortization period in terms of energy, and the aggregate return factor, for a coal-fired power plant, a nuclear power plant, six variants of photovoltaic power plants, and a wind power plant. (orig./DG)

  11. Plant status monitor system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In today's regulatory and financial environment, improving plant efficiency and safety are necessary elements of plant operations. Public utility commissions are making rate rulings based, in part, on plant availability performance; and the NRC is putting more emphasis on plant operational aspects. This comes at a time when operating, maintaining, and managing a plant are becoming increasingly complex; moreover, the desired number of experienced plant personnel are becoming more difficult to find. This situation can be partially resolved by using computer software tools to assist operations, maintenance, engineering, and management personnel. These software tools provide information and interpretations based on plant and equipment status. They support improved plant availability, technical specification compliance, and administrative functions. A key element or computerization is the ability to operate on integrated information

  12. Gene encoding plant asparagine synthetase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruzzi, Gloria M. (New York, NY); Tsai, Fong-Ying (New York, NY)

    1993-10-26

    The identification and cloning of the gene(s) for plant asparagine synthetase (AS), an important enzyme involved in the formation of asparagine, a major nitrogen transport compound of higher plants is described. Expression vectors constructed with the AS coding sequence may be utilized to produce plant AS; to engineer herbicide resistant plants, salt/drought tolerant plants or pathogen resistant plants; as a dominant selectable marker; or to select for novel herbicides or compounds useful as agents that synchronize plant cells in culture. The promoter for plant AS, which directs high levels of gene expression and is induced in an organ specific manner and by darkness, is also described. The AS promoter may be used to direct the expression of heterologous coding sequences in appropriate hosts.

  13. Aseptic Plant Culture System (APCS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aseptic plant culture plays a significant role in biotechnology and plant physiology research and in vegetative propagation of many plant species. The development...

  14. Aseptic Plant Culture System (APCS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aseptic plant culture plays a significant role in biotechnology and plant physiology research, and in vegetative propagation of many plant species. The development...

  15. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Marjorie G.; Anurag A. Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Plants that provide food and housing to animals in return for defense against enemies are classic examples of mutualistic partnerships in nature. Here, we show that the evolution of such plant–animal mutualisms also can lead to a trajectory of accelerated accumulation of plant species in the lineages that participate in these cooperative interactions. We found that the evolution of plant organs (extrafloral nectaries) that facilitate mutualisms with animal defenders was repeatedly followed by...

  16. ERDS implementation at Plant Hatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer based colorgraphic information display systems provide convenience and clarity of information for the nuclear power plant operator during emergency and normal operation. Installation in an operating plant presents design challenges due to the integration with existing systems and procedures, a critical shortage of available space, and limited access to plant operating systems. The challenge was met at Plant Hatch through use of a network of rugged and compact military specification computers and modular implementation during available outage time

  17. Civil engineering for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power plant structures are conspicuously visible and have an impact on our landscape. In the opinion of a critical public, a successful external design can greatly enhance acceptance of an undertaking and its plants. This paper considers the subjects - utilization of by-products, aggregation of series experience in the construction of nuclear power plants, architecture in power plant construction, water works for adequate cooling water supply and also quality assurance in civil engineering and optimum application of electronic data processing. (orig.)

  18. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguri, Daiichiro [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Someday in the future, all of operating nuclear power plants will be ceased the operating and the plants will be decommissioned. Overseas, several plants in the United States and Europe have already decommissioned. In Japan, the decommissioning of the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) was completed in 1996. Japan's first commercial nuclear power plant, Tokai Power Station (Gas-Cooled Reactor (GCR)), ceased the operation in 1998, and transferred to the decommissioning stage. (author)

  19. Spatiotemporal signalling in plant development

    OpenAIRE

    Sparks, Erin; Wachsman, Guy; Benfey, Philip N

    2013-01-01

    Plants, being sessile organisms, need to respond to changing environments, and as a result they have evolved unique signalling mechanisms that allow rapid communication between different parts of the plant. The signalling mechanisms that direct plant development include long-range effectors, such as phytohormones, and molecules with a local intra-organ range, such as peptides, transcription factors and some small RNAs. In this Review, we highlight recent advances in understanding plant signal...

  20. Energy balances for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important aspect of a power plant is its energy balance, i.e. the electrical energy produced by the plant over its overall operation period, compared to the amount of non-renewable energy used to create and build the plant. Tense discussions took place in the past between criticizers and promotors of a given technology, some technologies even being accused of having a negative energy balance. Mostly based on built examples the present study aims at giving objective data for the represented technologies, as follows: a 64 MW hydro power plant in the Alps, with seasonal water storage in a lake; a 60 MW run-of-river high-head hydro power plant in the Alps; two run-of-river low-head hydro power plants in the Swiss Midlands (14 MW and 25 MW respectively); a small 30 kW wind power generator located near the Simplon Pass at 2000 m over sea level, in the Alps; a 3 kW photovoltaic generator in the roof of a single-family house; a 500 kW photovoltaic power plant in the Jura, at 1000 m over sea level; a 0.9 MWel/8.8 MWtherm fossil-fuel co-generation plant near Zuerich; a 200 MW natural-gas-fired gas/vapour turbine power plant; a 300 MW heavy-fuel-fired power plant; a 500 MW coal-fired power plant; and the Leibstadt 990 MW nuclear power plant. The best energy balances are obtained for the hydro power plants, the worst for the Leibstadt nuclear power plant. In between the photovoltaic plants and the fossil-fuel-fired plants are found. The figures differ by more than two orders of magnitude