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Effects of the Sri Lankan medicinal plant, Salacia reticulata, in rheumatoid arthritis  

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Salacia reticulata is a native plant of Sri Lanka. In the traditional medicine of Sri Lanka and India, Salacia reticulata bark is considered orally effective in the treatment of rheumatism, gonorrhea, skin disease and diabetes. We have investigated, both in vivo and in vitro, whether the leaf of Salacia reticulata (SRL) can ameliorate collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) in mice as the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) model. The mice were fed a lard containing chow diet (AIN-93G) or the same d...

Sekiguchi, Yuusuke; Mano, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Sachie; Shimizu, Jun; Wada, Masahiro

2010-01-01

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Effects of the Sri Lankan medicinal plant, Salacia reticulata, in rheumatoid arthritis.  

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Salacia reticulata is a native plant of Sri Lanka. In the traditional medicine of Sri Lanka and India, Salacia reticulata bark is considered orally effective in the treatment of rheumatism, gonorrhea, skin disease and diabetes. We have investigated, both in vivo and in vitro, whether the leaf of Salacia reticulata (SRL) can ameliorate collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) in mice as the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) model. The mice were fed a lard containing chow diet (AIN-93G) or the same diet containing 1% (w/w) SRL powder. All mice were bred for 23 days. On day 7 or 14 after LPS injection, mice were killed, and tissue and blood samples were collected. Histological analysis was performed, and serum levels of inflammatory mediators and the mRNA levels of inflammation-related genes and osteoclast-related genes were measured. SRL treatment ameliorated the rapid initial paw swelling, inflammatory cells infiltration, skeletal tissues damage, osteoclast activation and the mRNA levels for osteoclast-related genes compared with the CAIA mice. However, the serum and mRNA levels of inflammatory mediators did not differ between the CAIA mice and the SRL-treated mice. SRL might reduce the inflammatory cells induction and skeletal tissue degradation by CAIA by the regulating osteoclastogenesis. PMID:19727885

Sekiguchi, Yuusuke; Mano, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Sachie; Shimizu, Jun; Wada, Masahiro

2010-03-01

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Role of medicinal plant Salacia Reticulata in the management of Type II Diabetic Subjects  

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Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading causes of death and ranks third among the chronic diseases. Recent studies have shown that up to 10 % of India's urban population and 2 % of the rural population above the age of 15 years have diabetes and WHO had declared India as the diabetic capital of the world. India has wealth of medicinalplants, and these plants have credited to the development of therapeutic agents for various ailments and diseases. Hark of Salacia Reticulata was screened for it...

Radha, R.; Amrithaveni, M.

2009-01-01

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Role of medicinal plant Salacia Reticulata in the management of Type II Diabetic Subjects.  

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Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading causes of death and ranks third among the chronic diseases. Recent studies have shown that up to 10 % of India's urban population and 2 % of the rural population above the age of 15 years have diabetes and WHO had declared India as the diabetic capital of the world. India has wealth of medicinalplants, and these plants have credited to the development of therapeutic agents for various ailments and diseases. Hark of Salacia Reticulata was screened for its hypoglycemic and hypo-lipidaemic effect. A- total of 60 type II diabetics were enrolled, consisting of experimental group 30 and control group 30. Experimental group received 2 grams of Kadalazhinjil powder daily for a period of 90 days and control group did not receive any supplements. Blood glucose levels before and after medications were estimated in both groups at baseline and at 90 days. There was insignificant reduction in fasting blood glucose, HbA(1) c and lipid levels at the end of 90 days in the supplemented group. The experimental group showed encouraging results which call for long term supplementation in Diabetes Mellitus. PMID:22557337

Radha, R; Amrithaveni, M

2009-07-01

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Preventive Effects of Salacia reticulata on Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in TSOD Mice  

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The extracts of Salacia reticulata (Salacia extract), a plant that has been used for the treatment of early diabetes, rheumatism and gonorrhea in Ayurveda, have been shown to have an anti-obesity effect and suppress hyperglycemia. In this study, the effects of Salacia extract on various symptoms of metabolic disorder were investigated and compared using these TSOD mice and non-obese TSNO mice. Body weight, food intake, plasma biochemistry, visceral and subcutaneous fat (X-ray and CT), glucose...

Tomoko Akase; Tsutomu Shimada; Yukiko Harasawa; Tomohide Akase; Yukinobu Ikeya; Eiichi Nagai; Seiichi Iizuka; Gojiro Nakagami; Shinji Iizaka; Hiromi Sanada; Masaki Aburada

2011-01-01

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Preventive Effects of Salacia reticulata on Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in TSOD Mice.  

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The extracts of Salacia reticulata (Salacia extract), a plant that has been used for the treatment of early diabetes, rheumatism and gonorrhea in Ayurveda, have been shown to have an anti-obesity effect and suppress hyperglycemia. In this study, the effects of Salacia extract on various symptoms of metabolic disorder were investigated and compared using these TSOD mice and non-obese TSNO mice. Body weight, food intake, plasma biochemistry, visceral and subcutaneous fat (X-ray and CT), glucose tolerance, blood pressure and pain tolerance were measured, and histopathological examination of the liver was carried out. A significant dose-dependent decline in the gain in body weight, accumulation of visceral and subcutaneous fat and an improvement of abnormal glucose tolerance, hypertension and peripheral neuropathy were noticed in TSOD mice. In addition, hepatocellular swelling, fatty degeneration of hepatocytes, inflammatory cell infiltration and single-cell necrosis were observed on histopathological examination of the liver in TSOD mice. Salacia extract markedly improved these symptoms upon treatment. Based on the above results, it is concluded that Salacia extract has remarkable potential to prevent obesity and associated metabolic disorders including the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:19505975

Akase, Tomoko; Shimada, Tsutomu; Harasawa, Yukiko; Akase, Tomohide; Ikeya, Yukinobu; Nagai, Eiichi; Iizuka, Seiichi; Nakagami, Gojiro; Iizaka, Shinji; Sanada, Hiromi; Aburada, Masaki

2011-01-01

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Capillary zone electrophoresis method for the separation of glucosidase inhibitors in extracts of Salacia reticulata, a plant used in ayurvedic treatments of type-2 diabetes.  

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A simple and reproducible capillary-zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the separation and quantitation of sulfonium-ion-containing compounds isolated from plants of the Salacia genus which are traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The method sufficiently resolved four different compounds with confirmed glucosidase inhibitory activity, namely, salacinol, ponkoranol, kotalanol and de-O-sulfonated kotalanol. Separation could be achieved in less than 9 min, and calibration curves showed good linearity. Detection limits were determined to be in the low mug/mL range. This method was used to demonstrate that de-O-sulfonated kotalanol isolated from natural sources has identical ionic mobility to a synthetic standard. Furthermore, new extraction conditions were developed by which the zwitterionic compounds (salacinol, ponkoranol, and kotalanol) could be separated from de-O-sulfonated kotalanol in a single solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. The extraction gave reproducibly high recoveries and was used to process four commercial Salacia extracts for CZE analysis to reduce the complexity of resulting electropherograms and to facilitate the detection of the four inhibitors in question. De-O-sulfonated kotalanol was detected in two of four Salacia samples while ponkoranol was present in all four. A comparison of all samples tested demonstrated that they had remarkably similar patterns of peaks, suggesting that this CZE method may be useful in the chemical fingerprinting of Salacia-containing products. PMID:20491445

Zandberg, Wesley F; Mohan, Sankar; Kumarasamy, Jayakanthan; Pinto, B Mario

2010-06-15

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Adverse pregnancy outcome in rats following exposure to a Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) root extract  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The root extract of Salacia reticulata Wight (family: Celastraceae) is used in Sri Lanka by traditional practitioners as a herbal therapy for glycemic control even during pregnancy. It is recognized that some clinically used antidiabetic drugs have harmful effects on pregnancy but the effects of the [...] S. reticulata root extract on reproductive outcome is unknown and deserves examination. We determined the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on the reproductive outcome of Wistar rats (250-260 g) when administered orally (10 g/kg) during early (days 1-7) and mid- (days 7-14) pregnancy. The root extract significantly (P

W.D., Ratnasooriya; J.R.A.C., Jayakody; G.A.S., Premakumara.

2003-07-01

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Adverse pregnancy outcome in rats following exposure to a Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae root extract  

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Full Text Available The root extract of Salacia reticulata Wight (family: Celastraceae is used in Sri Lanka by traditional practitioners as a herbal therapy for glycemic control even during pregnancy. It is recognized that some clinically used antidiabetic drugs have harmful effects on pregnancy but the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on reproductive outcome is unknown and deserves examination. We determined the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on the reproductive outcome of Wistar rats (250-260 g when administered orally (10 g/kg during early (days 1-7 and mid- (days 7-14 pregnancy. The root extract significantly (P<0.05 enhanced post-implantation losses (control vs treatment: early pregnancy, 4.7 ± 2.4 vs 49.3 ± 13%; mid-pregnancy, 4.7 ± 2.4 vs 41.7 ± 16.1%. Gestational length was unaltered but the pups born had a low birth weight (P<0.05 (early pregnancy, 6.8 ± 0.1 vs 5.3 ± 0.1 g; mid-pregnancy, 6.8 ± 0.1 vs 5.0 ± 0.1 g and low birth index (P<0.05 (early pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 50.7 ± 12.9%; mid-pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 58.3 ± 16.1%, fetal survival ratio (P<0.05 (early pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 50.7 ± 12.9; mid-pregnancy, 95.2 ± 2.4 vs 58.3 ± 16.1, and viability index (P<0.05 (early pregnancy, 94.9 ± 2.6 vs 49.5 ± 12.5%; mid-pregnancy, 94.9 ± 2.6 vs 57.1 ± 16.1%. However, the root extract was non-teratogenic. We conclude that the S. reticulata root extract can be hazardous to successful pregnancy in women and should not be used in pregnancy complicated by diabetes.

Ratnasooriya W.D.

2003-01-01

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Salacia reticulata and its polyphenolic constituents with lipase inhibitory and lipolytic activities have mild antiobesity effects in rats.  

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Salacia (S.) reticulata, a Hippocrateaceae plant distributed in Sri Lankan and Indian forests, has been used as a supplementary food in Japan to prevent obesity and diabetes. We examined the antiobesity effects of the hot water-soluble extract (SRHW) from the roots of S. reticulata using obese rat models and an in vitro study. Body weight (P = 0.07) and periuterine fat storage (P = 0.10) in female Zucker fatty rats (8-9 wk old) tended to be suppressed by oral administration of SRHW (125 mg/kg) for 27 d. Male rats fed a high fat diet were not affected by SRHW. Furthermore, SRHW inhibited porcine pancreatic lipase (PL), rat adipose tissue-derived lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activities with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of 264 (95% confidence limits: 203-393) mg/L, 15 (12-18) mg/L and 54 (35-85) mg/L, respectively, but did not inhibit hormone-sensitive lipase activity in rat adipose tissue. Next, we examined the effects of polyphenols, di- and triterpenes and salacinol isolated from the roots of S. reticulata on lipid metabolizing enzymes and lipolysis. (-)-Epigallocatechin and (-)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-(-)-4'-O-methylepigallocatechin inhibited PL activity with IC(50) of 88 (not calculated) and 68 (26-122) mg/L, respectively. (-)-Epicatechin, 3beta, 22beta-dihydroxyolean-12-en-29-oic acid and the tannin fraction inhibited LPL activity with IC(50) of 81 (54-214), 89 (62-214) and 35 (24-62) mg/L. Only the tannin fraction inhibited GPDH activity with an IC(50) of 6.8 (3.4-10.9) mg/L. These constituents may be involved in the lipase and GPDH inhibitory activities of SRHW. On the other hand, SRHW at 100 mg/L tended to enhance lipolysis in rat adipocytes (P = 0.06). Significant lipolytic effects were exerted by mangiferin, (-)-4'-O-methylepigallocatechin and maytenfolic acid at 100 mg/L (P < 0.01). In conclusion, polyphenolic compounds may be involved in the antiobesity effects of SRHW in rats through inhibition of fat metabolizing enzymes (PL, LPL and GPDH) and enhanced lipolysis. PMID:12097653

Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Nishida, Norihisa; Takada, Miki; Matsuda, Hisashi

2002-07-01

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New glucosidase inhibitors from an ayurvedic herbal treatment for type 2 diabetes: structures and inhibition of human intestinal maltase-glucoamylase with compounds from Salacia reticulata.  

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An approach to controlling blood glucose levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes is to target alpha-amylases and intestinal glucosidases using alpha-glucosidase inhibitors acarbose and miglitol. One of the intestinal glucosidases targeted is the N-terminal catalytic domain of maltase-glucoamylase (ntMGAM), one of the four intestinal glycoside hydrolase 31 enzyme activities responsible for the hydrolysis of terminal starch products into glucose. Here we present the X-ray crystallographic studies of ntMGAM in complex with a new class of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors derived from natural extracts of Salacia reticulata, a plant used traditionally in Ayuverdic medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Included in these extracts are the active compounds salacinol, kotalanol, and de-O-sulfonated kotalanol. This study reveals that de-O-sulfonated kotalanol is the most potent ntMGAM inhibitor reported to date (K(i) = 0.03 microM), some 2000-fold better than the compounds currently used in the clinic, and highlights the potential of the salacinol class of inhibitors as future drug candidates. PMID:20039683

Sim, Lyann; Jayakanthan, Kumarasamy; Mohan, Sankar; Nasi, Ravindranath; Johnston, Blair D; Pinto, B Mario; Rose, David R

2010-01-26

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Biochemical investigation and gene expression analysis of the immunostimulatory functions of an edible Salacia extract in rat small intestine.  

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Roots and bark from plants belonging to genus Salacia of the family Hippocrateaceae (Salacia reticulata, Salacia oblonga, etc.) have been used for traditional Ayurvedic medicine, particularly for the treatment of diabetes. In our study, we evaluated the gene expression profiles in the small intestinal epithelium of rats that were given a Salacia plant extract to gain insight into its effects on the small intestine. In detail, DNA microarray analysis was performed to evaluate the gene expression profiles in the rat ileal epithelium. The intestinal bacterial flora was also studied using T-RFLP (Nagashima method) in these rats. Expressions of many immune-related genes, especially Th1-related genes associated with cell-mediated immunity, were found to increase in the small intestinal epithelium and the intestinal bacterial flora became similar to those in the case with Salacia plant extract administration. Our study thus revealed that Salacia plant extract exerts bioregulatory functions by boosting intestinal immunity. PMID:21328625

Oda, Yuriko; Ueda, Fumitaka; Kamei, Asuka; Kakinuma, Chihaya; Abe, Keiko

2011-01-01

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Anti-proliferative effects of Salacia reticulata leaves hot-water extract on interleukin-1?-activated cells derived from the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis model mice  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Salacia reticulata (SR is a plant native to Sri Lanka. In ayurvedic medicine, SR bark preparations, taken orally, are considered effective in the treatment of rheumatism and diabetes. We investigated the ability of SR leaves (SRL to inhibit in vitro the interleukin-1? (IL-1?-activated proliferation of synoviocyte-like cells derived from rheumatoid arthritis model mice. Findings Inflammatory synovial tissues were harvested from type II collagen antibody-induced arthritic mice. From these tissues, a synoviocyte-like cell line was established and named MTS-C H7. To determine whether SRL can suppress cell proliferation and gene expression in MTS-C H7 cells, fractionation of the SRL hot-water extract was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, liquid-liquid extraction, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, and protease digestion. The 50% inhibitory concentration of the SRL hot-water extract against MTS-C H7 cells proliferation was ~850??g/mL. Treatment with a low dose (25??g dry matter per millilitre of the extract inhibited IL-1?-induced cell proliferation and suppressed the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP genes in MTS-C H7 cells. Various polyphenolic fractions obtained from HPLC and the fractions from liquid-liquid extraction did not affect cell proliferation. Only the residual water sample from liquid-liquid extraction significantly affected cell proliferation and the expression of MMP genes. The results of SDS-PAGE and protease digestion experiment showed that low molecular weight proteins present in SRL inhibited the IL-1?-activated cell proliferation. Conclusions We surmised that the residual water fraction of the SRL extract was involved in the inhibition of IL-1?-activated cell proliferation and regulation of mRNA expression in MTS-C H7 cells. In addition, we believe that the active ingredients in the extract are low molecular weight proteins.

Sekiguchi Yuusuke

2012-04-01

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CONJOINTED TWIN AND TRIPLET SEEDLINGS IN SALACIA CHINENSIS LINN: AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT  

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Full Text Available Seed germination and seedling grading are important stages in nursery management. Abnormal seedlings are generally discarded from planting programme. Reporting of such abnormalities are important in further breeding programme. Such abnormalities in Salacia chinensis are reported in this article.

Rane A D

2012-01-01

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Mutagenicity induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the medicinal plant Plathymenia reticulata Benth  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Plathymenia reticulata Benth has an anti-inflammatory effect and is capable of neutralizing the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu or Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, probably by precipitating venom proteins (an effect caused by plant tannins). The present study aimed to eval [...] uate the mutagenic activity of P. reticulata by using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test) and the micronucleus test in CHO-K1 cells. P. reticulata extract concentrations of 2.84, 5.68, 11.37, and 19.90 mg/plate were assayed by the Ames test using TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 bacterial strains, with (+S9) and without (-S9) metabolic activation. Concentrations of 5, 1.6 and 0.5 ?g/mL of P. reticulata extract were used for the micronucleus test. P. reticulata extract was mutagenic to TA98 (-S9) and showed signs of mutagenic activity in TA97a and TA102 (both -S9) strains. Micronucleus test CBPI values showed that the endogenous metabolic system increased the number of viable cells when compared to the non-activated samples and the micronucleus frequency increased when the cells were treated in the absence of S9. We concluded that P. reticulata extract may present direct mutagenic properties.

A, Della Torre; LBL, Albuquerque; NM, Farrapo; Y, Oshima-Franco; MG, Santos; RVS, Tavares; ACD, Rodas; CA, Dal Belo; CRP, Cardoso; EA, Varanda; FC, Groppo; PS, Lopes.

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Safety evaluation of the aqueous extract Kothala himbutu (Salacia reticulata) stem in the hepatic gene expression profile of normal mice using DNA microarrays.  

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Kothala himbutu is a traditional Ayurvedic medicinal plant used to treat diabetes. We aimed to evaluate the safety of an aqueous extract of Kothala himbutu stem (KTE) in normal mice. The mice were divided into two groups: one was administered KTE and the other distilled water for 3 weeks. During the test period, the groups showed no significant differences in body weight gain or plasma parameters, such as fasting blood glucose level, oral glucose tolerance test, or aspartate transaminase (AST) or alanine transaminase (ALT) activity. DNA microarray analysis revealed that expression of genes of known function, such as those for the stress response, ribosomal proteins, transcription, cell function, the inflammatory/immune response, and metabolism (xenobiotic, glutathione, etc.) remained largely unaffected by KTE. However some genes such as catechol-o-methyltransferase and succinyl-CoA synthetase were regulated by KTE, indicating that KTE is not toxic to normal mice and might be effective as a functional food. PMID:19060410

Im, Ryanghyok; Mano, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Sachie; Shimizu, Jun; Wada, Masahiro

2008-12-01

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Oral hypoglycaemic activity of some medicinal plants of Sri Lanka.  

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Investigations were carried out to evaluate the oral hypoglycaemic activity of some Sri Lankan medicinal plants. Approximately 40 plants available locally are reputed to have oral hypoglycaemic activity. Of these, the mostly widely used are (a) Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) (b) Aegle marmelos (Rutaceae) and (c) Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae). Aqueous decoctions of these plants were investigated for their ability to lower the fasting blood glucose level and improve the glucose tolerance in laboratory animals. The results indicate that the aqueous decoctions of all three plants possess significant hypoglycaemic effect. The magnitude of this effect showed time related variation with the three plants. The highest oral hypoglycaemic activity and the maximum improvement of the oral glucose tolerance were associated with the extract of Momordica charantia while the least but significant effects were shown by Salacia reticulata. PMID:6492834

Karunanayake, E H; Welihinda, J; Sirimanne, S R; Sinnadorai, G

1984-07-01

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SALACIA IMPERATORIA URBS  

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Full Text Available Síntese acerca do que se tem investigado sobre Alcácer do Sal na época romana. Explicita-se a razão do nome; refere-se o interesse que, em todos os tempos, despertou nos historiadores; releva-se o papel fundamental que deteve do ponto de vista estratégico e económico (os Cornelli Bocchi, a emissão de moeda…. Analisa-se, nesse contexto, o pedestal dedicado por uma flamínia a I. O. M. (IRCP 183; a consagração de Vicanus, Bouti filius, ao imperador Augusto (IRCP 184, a presença da onomástica grega e a importância invulgar da tabella defixionis, em que se invocam Hércules e Átis. ENGLISH: Synthesis of the investigation about Salacia: the cause of its Roman designation, the interest of the researchers throughout time, the important strategic and economic position of the town (the family of the Cornelli Bocchi, emission of money…. Additionally, this synthesis includes the reanalysis of uncommon epigraphic texts: the dedication of a flaminica to I. O. M. (IRCP 183, the consecration of Vicanus Bouti filius to the Emperor August (IRCP 184, the significant presence of the Greek names and of a tabella defixionis where the power of Hercules and Atis are invoked.

José d’Encarnação

2013-06-01

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REVIEW ON KIRGANELIA RETICULATA  

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Full Text Available In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and information on Kirganelia reticulata (Poir Family Euphorbiaceae, a medicinal herb used in the indigenous system of medicine. K. reticulata has been adored in almost all ancient ayurvedic texts for its extraordinary medicinal properties. K. reticulata is annual herbaceous climbing plant with long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties and has utilized for treatment of various ailments including, diuretic, diarrhoea, small pox and astringent. Wild range of chemical compound including, flavanoids, triterpenoids, alkaloids and glycosides have been isolated from the species. Their extracts have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. A compressive review of its ethanomedical uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant is prepared. Particular attention is given to its antibacterial, antiviral, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant effects so that its potential uses can be better evaluated. This review will definitely help for the researchers as well as clinicians dealing with K. reticulata to know its proper usage as this herb is seemed to be highly valuable, possessing many pharmacological / medicinal properties. Keywords: Euphorbiaceae, Kirganelia reticulate, phytochemistry, Pharmacological properties

Amol Kharat

2013-07-01

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The Ayurvedic Medicine Salacia oblonga Attenuates Diabetic Renal Fibrosis in Rats: Suppression of Angiotensin II/AT1 Signaling  

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In human diabetic nephropathy, the extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease; fibrosis is closely correlated with renal dysfunction. Although a wide array of medicinal plants play a role in the prevention and treatment of diabetes, there are few reports of the application of herbal medicines in amelioration of renal fibrosis, or the underlying mechanisms by which such benefits are mediated. The efficacy of the Ayurvedic antidiabetic medicine Salacia...

Lan He; Yanfei Qi; Xianglu Rong; Jianmin Jiang; Qinglin Yang; Johji Yamahara; Michael Murray; Yuhao Li

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Biochemical characterization of selected plant species from Brazilian Savannas  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O Cerrado é constituído por inúmeras espécies vegetais com potencial econômico, as quais são utilizadas para os mais variados fins, como medicinal e nutricional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar e quantificar a presença de atividade enzimática de peroxidases e proteases e fatores antinutricion [...] ais, como lectinas e inibidores de proteases, além de polifenóis e taninos em algumas espécies nativas do Cerrado. O material vegetal utilizado foram sementes de Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá), Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca), Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada), Salacia crassiflora (Mart.) G. Don. (bacupari) e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro), coletadas na cidade de Goiânia e municípios de Jataí e Caldas Novas, estado de Goiás. O uso potencial destas plantas e suas enzimas na indústria de alimentos, poderia resultar em aplicações ao aparecimento de novos produtos a partir das matérias-primas tradicionais, além do uso de novas fontes de alimentos. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the presence of antinutritional compounds such as lectins and trypsin-like inhibitors, polyphenols and tannins, and enzymatic activity of peroxidases and proteases in the seeds of Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbar [...] il (jatobá), Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca), Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada), Salacia crassiflora Mart G. Don. (bacupari), and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro). The results suggested that these plants could be used as new source of food.

Samantha Salomão, Caramori; Claudinei Sousa, Lima; Kátia Flávia, Fernandes.

2004-06-01

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Salacia campestris root bark extract: peroxidase inhibition, antioxidant and antiradical profile  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Espécies reativas do oxigênio (ERO) e radicais livres estão relacionados ao início ou à exacerbação de muitas doenças em organismos vivos; existindo portanto uma necessidade contínua por moléculas antioxidantes que inativem as ERO e radicais livres. Muitos estudos com extratos brutos de plantas têm [...] demonstrado propriedades antioxidantes e seqüestradoras de radicais livres. Espécies de Salacia são utilizadas, em muitos países, como remédio tradicional contra certas doenças e por suas propriedades antiinflamatórias. Neste estudo, o extrato bruto etanólico da casca da raiz da Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae) foi avaliado quanto à sua habilidade em seqüestrar radicais livres e espécies reativas do oxigênio; os resultados são expressos como porcentagem de inibição das espécies ativas. ScEtOH mostrou-se eficiente frente as espécies estudadas: radical DPPH (inibição obtida = 30%), ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1,8±0,8 ?g/mL), HOCl (IC50 = 1,7 ± 0,1 ?g/mL), O2•- (inibição obtida = 32%), and NO• (inibição obtida = 18%). A inibição da atividade peroxidásica foi avaliada através da oxidação do guaiacol catalisada pela hemina, HRP e mieloperoxidase (MPO); os dados mostram que 10 ?g/mL de ScEtOH promovem 54 e 51% de inibição, respectivamente para os sistemas da hemina e da HRP. No sistema da MPO, ScEtOH promoveu 50% de inibição na dose de 8,9 ?g/mL, enquanto a quercetina, um potente inibidor da MPO promoveu tal inibição com 1,35 ?g/mL. Abstract in english Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radical species have been implicated in initiating or accompanying many diseases in living organisms; there is thus, a continual need for antioxidants molecules to inactivate ROS/free radicals. Many studies of plants crude extracts have demonstrated free-radica [...] l scavenging and antioxidant action. Salacia species have long been used, in several countries, as traditional medicines against certain diseases and for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae) root bark ethanol extract (ScEtOH) was assessed for its ability to scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen species; the results were expressed as percentage inhibition of the active species. ScEtOH was efficient against studied species: DPPH radical (obtained inhibition = 30%), ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1.8±0.8 ?g/mL), HOCl (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.1 ?g/mL), O2•- (obtained inhibition = 32%), and NO• (obtained inhibition = 18 %). Peroxidase activity inhibition was evaluated through the guaiacol oxidation reaction catalyzed by hemin, HRP and myeloperoxidase (MPO); data showed that ScEtOH at 10 ?g/mL led to 54 and 51% of inhibition, respectively, for the hemin and HRP systems. In the MPO system, ScEtOH promoted a 50% inhibition at 8.9 ?g/mL, whereas quercetin, a powerful MPO inhibitor, inhibited this system at 1.35 ?g/mL.

José Carlos Rebuglio, Vellosa; Najeh Maissar, Khalil; Vânia Ortega, Gutierres; Vânia Aparecida de Freitas Formenton Macedo dos, Santos; Maysa, Furlan; Iguatemy Lourenço, Brunetti; Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria, Oliveira.

2009-03-01

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Biochemical characterization of selected plant species from Brazilian Savannas  

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The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the presence of antinutritional compounds such as lectins and trypsin-like inhibitors, polyphenols and tannins, and enzymatic activity of peroxidases and proteases in the seeds of Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá), Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca), Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada), Salacia crassiflora Mart G. Don. (bacupari), and Scle...

Caramori Samantha Salomão; Lima Claudinei Sousa; Fernandes Kátia Flávia

2004-01-01

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Antidiabetic medicinal plants as a source of alpha glucosidase inhibitors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to collate all available data on antidiabetic plants that inhibit alpha glucosidase, reported mainly by Medline (PubMed) these last years. In the present study, interest is focused on experimental researches conducted on hypoglycemic plants particularly those which show alpha glucosidase inhibitor activity alongside bioactive components. This study describes 47 species that belong to 29 families. The plant families, which enclose the species, studied most as inhibitors of alphaglucosidase, are Fabaceae (6 species.), Crassulaceae (3 species), Hippocrateacaea (3 species), Lamiaceae (3 species), and Myrtaceae (3 species), with most studied species being Salacia reticulata (Hippocrateaceae) and Morus alba (Moraceae). The study also covers natural products (active natural components and crude extracts) isolated from the medicinal plants which inhibit alpha glucosidase as reported this last decade. Many kinds of these isolated natural products show strong activity such as, Alkaloids, stilbenoids (polyphenol), triterpene, acids (chlorogenic acid, betulinic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, bartogenic acid, oleanolic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, corosolic acid, ellagic acid, ursolic acid, gallic acid), phytosterol, myoinositol, flavonoids, Flavonolignans, anthraquinones, anthrones, and xanthones, Feruloylglucosides, flavanone glucosides, acetophenone glucosides, glucopyranoside derivatives, genine derivatives, flavonol, anthocyanin and others. PMID:20522017

Benalla, Wafaa; Bellahcen, Saïd; Bnouham, Mohamed

2010-07-01

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KIRGANELIA RETICULATA (POIR BAILL.-A REVIEW ON ITS BOTANY, ETHNOBOTANY, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY  

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Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological relevance: Kirganelia reticulata (Poir. Baill. is known for its importance in various traditional medicine around the world and are proved pharmacologically as an antiviral against Hepatitis B, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic and antioxidant. In Ayurvedic system of Indian medicine recognized its activity against jaundice, diuretic, fever, liver disorder, in bleeding gums, small pox, syphilis, etc. Aim of the review: The review summarizes the up-to-date and comprehensive information concerning the botany, traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology of important drug. Kirganelia reticulata and discusses the possible future scope for future research. Material and methods: In present review covers a literature survey across from 1932 to 2012. The some information collected from published literature on species of Kirganelia reticulata (Poir. Baill. (=Syn. Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir. and traditional ayurvedic texts. Results: Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of many valuable compounds such as lignans, flavonoids, steroids, coumerins, triterpenes, phenols, flavonones, alkaloids are common compounds in test species. The extract and the compounds isolated from Kirganelia reticulata show a wide spectrum of Biological activities including antidiabetic, antibacterial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antiplasmodial, anticiceptive, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Conclusion: The present review summarizes information concerning the morphology, ecology, ethanopharmacologically, phytochemistry, and traditional diseases and applications of K. reticulata. This review target at gathering the research work undertaken till date on this plant in order to provide sufficient baseline information for future works and commercial exploitation.

Rajesh Kumar Soni

2013-11-01

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Additional Coumarins from Kielmeyera reticulata  

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Full Text Available Three new 4-phenylcoumarins, 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(2'-hydroxy-3'-methyl-3'-butenyl-8-(4" -cinnamoyl-3"-methyl-1"-oxobutyl-4-phenylcoumarin, 7-hydroxy-8-(4"-cinnamoyl-3"-methyl-1" -oxobutyl-2'-(2-hydroxyisopropyl-dihydrofurano(5',4':5,6-4-phenylcoumarin, and 5,7-dihydroxy-8-(4"-cinnamoyl-3"-methyl-1"-oxobutyl-4-phenylcoumarin, along with the known 4-n-propylcoumarins, 7-hydroxy-8-(4"-cinnamoyl-3"-methyl-1"-oxobutyl-2',2'-dimethylpyrano (6',5':5,6-4-n-propylcoumarin, 5-hydroxy-6-(4"-cinnamoyl-3"-methyl-1"-oxobutyl-2',2' -dimethylpyrano(6',5':7,8-4-n-propylcoumarin, the xanthone, 2,3-methylenedioxyxanthone and delta-tocotrienol were isolated from the organic extracts of Kielmeyera reticulata stems .

Cruz Frederico G.

2002-01-01

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Constituintes químicos do caule de Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae): Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae) yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes a and b-amir [...] in, the steroids b-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants.

Rogério Nunes dos, Santos; Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos, Silva; Raimundo, Braz Filho.

1979-19-01

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Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae); Constituintes quimicos do caule de Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae) yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes {alpha} and {beta}-amirin, the steroids {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants. (author)

Santos, Rogerio Nunes dos; Silva, Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: mgvsilva@ufc.br; Braz Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais

2008-07-01

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Larvicidal activity of oil-resin fractions from the Brazilian medicinal plant Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae Atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina da planta medicinal brasileira Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae sobre o Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae  

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Full Text Available Oil-resin fractions from Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae were evaluated for larvicidal activity on third larval instars of Aedes aegypti, in searching for alternative control methods for this mosquito. The bioactive fractions were chemically monitored by thin-layer chromatography, ¹H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Bioassays were performed using five repetitions, at a temperature of 28 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 80 ± 5% and light and dark cycles of 12h. Mortality was indicated by darkening of the cephalic capsule after 24h of exposure of the larvae to the solutions. The most active fractions were CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenes and CRM5-7 (labdane diterpenes, which showed LC50 values of 0.2 and 0.8ppm, respectively.A atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae foi avaliada em larvas de 3º estádio de Aedes aegypti, na busca de alternativas para o controle desse mosquito. As frações bioativas foram monitoradas quimicamente através de cromatografia de camada delgada, analisada por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio (¹H e 13C e espectrometria de massas. Os bioensaios foram realizados à temperatura de 28±1°C, 80±5% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 12h, com cinco repetições. A mortalidade foi determinada através do escurecimento da cápsula cefálica, após 24h de exposição das larvas às soluções. As frações mais ativas foram CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenos e CRM5-7 (diterpeno labdano, que mostraram os valores de CL50 de 0,2 e 0,8ppm, respectivamente.

Heloísa Helena Garcia da Silva

2007-06-01

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Simultaneous Determination of Flavonoids in Different Parts of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ Fruit by High Performance Liquid Chromatography—Photodiode Array Detection  

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Flavonoids are important polyphenolic secondary metabolites in plant. Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit are rich in flavonoids and are being used as functional antioxidant ingredients for the treatment of atherosclerosis and cancer, etc. A high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection system was used to analyze five flavonoids, namely, naringin, hesperidin, didymin, tangeretin and nobiletin, in different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit. The chromatographic ana...

Yujie Zhang; Zhengbo Liu; Shubo Gu; Jianhua Wang; Yinshi Sun; Xiaoxia Zhang

2010-01-01

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INSECTS ASSOCIED WITH BACUPARI FRUIT, Salacia crassifolia (Mart. PEYR, IN THE SAVANNAHS OF CENTRAL BRAZIL ENTOMOFAUNA ASSOCIADA AOS FRUTOS DO BACUPARI, Salacia folia (MART. PEYR, NOS CERRADOS DO BRASIL CENTRAL  

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Full Text Available

The bacupari (Salacia crassifolia is a native fruit plant of the Brazilian cerrado areas. Although a high fruit fly infestation limits its utilization, it is eaten by animals and humans. Fruits present orange colored pulp, with slightly acid flavour and can be apreciated in natura or juices. The objective of this study was to assay bacupari plant features in Goiás State cerrado and to verify insects associated to bacupari, to determine infestation index and to verify this plant as a natural reservoir of fruit flies for adjacent orchards. Samples were collected during the frutification stage from September to December from 1995 to 1999 on 11 counties in Goiás State. The insects found more often were from Tephritidae (54.22% as Anastrepha sp. (new species, A. zenildae, A. obliqua, A. fraterculus, A. sororcula, A. serpentina. Insects from other families were also identified: Lonchaeidae (Neosilba sp., Muscidae (Atherigona orientalis, Oititidae and their parasitoids: Braconidae (Doryctobracon areolatus, Doryctobracon sp.-new species, Pteromalidae (Dicerataspis flavipes and Figitidae (Eucoilinae - Lopheucoila anastrephae, Aganaspis nordlanderi, A. pelleranoi. Anstrepha sp. and Lonchaeidae, Anastrepha sp. and A. zenildae were found in the same fruit, proving overposition of fruit fly species in the fruit.

KEY-WORDS: Insecta; native fruit plant; insects population.

O bacupari, Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Peyr, (Hippocrateaceae é uma frutífera nativa da região dos cerrados, utilizada pela fauna e também pela população da região, embora seus frutos sejam muito atacados pelas moscas-das-frutas, e por isso seu consumo fica limitado. De polpa branca à alaranjada, de sabor levemente ácido e muito agradável os frutos dessa espécie podem ser consumidos ao natural ou na forma de sucos. Neste trabalho apresenta-se um levantamento da entomofauna associada aos frutos do bacupari, coletados em 11 municípios da região dos cerrados no Estado de Goiás, no período de setembro de 1995 a dezembro de 1999. No Laboratório de Entomologia da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, esses frutos foram, inicialmente, contados e pesados e, posteriormente, acondicionados em caixas de polipropileno com areia úmida para obtenção de pupários e insetos adultos. Tephritidae foi a família mais freqüente nos frutos do bacupari, com 54,22% dos insetos coletados. Nessa família foram registradas as espécies Anastrepha sp. (espécie nova em fase de descrição, A. zenildae, A. obliqua, A. fraterculus, A. sororcula e A. serpentina. Na família Lonchaeidae foi coletada Neosilba sp., em Muscidae, Atherigona<

Ronaldo Veloso Naves

2007-09-01

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Female preference in guppies, Poecilia reticulata Peters  

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Observation was made to examine mode of female preference in guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters, to see whether females used relative or absolute preference modes. The materials included used six adult males and six adult females and independently manipulated the mean and the standard deviation (SD) of a preferred secondary sexual character of males (percentage of body area covered in orange). Female preference functions did not differ significantly with changes in the mean or the SD of orange...

Mullica Jaroensutasinee

2001-01-01

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Social networks in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

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Social network theory is used to elicit details of the social structure of a population of free-ranging guppies, Poecilia reticulata. They were found to have a complex and highly structured social network, which exhibited characteristics consistent with the 'small world' phenomenon. Stable partner associations between individuals were observed, a finding that fulfils the basic prerequisite for the evolution of reciprocal altruism. The findings are discussed in relation to the ecology and evol...

Croft, Darren P.; Krause, Jens; James, Richard

2004-01-01

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Gametic isolation in guppies (Poecilia reticulata)  

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Post-mating reproductive isolating mechanisms may be among the earliest reproductive barriers to emerge among incipient species. Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, populations in the Caroni and Oropouche drainages in Northern Trinidad exhibit marked genetic divergence and provide an ideal system in which to search for these barriers. We inseminated virgin females with equal amounts of sperm from two males, a ‘native’ male from the female's own population and a ‘foreign’ male from...

Ludlow, A. M.; Magurran, A. E.

2006-01-01

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Antibacterial Activity of Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight. & Arn. (Asclepidaceae)  

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Leptadenia reticulata of Asclepidaceae family is a shrub, originally property of Petroleum ether, Alcohol & Chloroform extract of L. reticulata. The antimicrobial testing was carried out by “Disc diffusion method”. Amongst the tested three extracts, chloroform extract showed high antimicrobial activity against E. coli, alcoholic extract showed high antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while Petroleum ether extract showed antibacterial activity against Klebsilla pneumonae

Kalidass, C.; Glory, M.; Borgio, Francis; Manickam, V. S.

2009-01-01

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EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF IPOMEA CARNEA LEAVES ON GUPPY, POECILIA RETICULATA (PETERS  

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Full Text Available Ipomea carnea is a toxic plant causes severe damage to intestine, liver and kidney. In the present investigation ethanolic extract of I. carnea leaves was tested for its toxicity against fresh water fish guppy Poecilia reticulata using 0.025, 0.050, 0.075 and 0.1 mg/ml concentrations. The experiment was run in triplicate along with suitable control. Ethanolic extract of Ipomea carnea leaves showed toxic effect, causes mortality in guppy fishes. All concentrations of ethanolic extracts of I. carnea leaves were found toxic. Mortality of fishes increases with increase of time and concentrations. The 0.1mg/ml concentration of ethanolic extract of I. carnea leaves showed three times higher mortality than control in guppy fishes, Poecilia reticulata Peters. Further study is needed to isolate toxic principles present in I. carnea leaves and to be studied separately against guppy fishes to determine their toxicity.

D. D. Wanule and J. V. Balkhande

2012-06-01

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Complete mitochondrial genome of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a member of the Poeciliidae family, is one of the most popular aquarium fish. Here, we reported the complete mitochondrial genome of P. reticulata. The genome is 16,570?bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The structure of non-coding control region was also analyzed. Comparing the mitochondrial genome of P. reticulata with its congener Xiphophorus maculatus revealed the high sequence similarity and the identical gene structure. The complete mitochondrial genome of the guppy would help study the evolution of Poeciliidae family. PMID:24495134

Kong, Xiang-Fei; Li, Jiong-Tang; Sun, Xiao-Wen

2014-02-01

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Somatic embryogenesis in Citrus sinensis, C. reticulata AND C. nobilis x C. deliciosa Embriogênese somática em Citrus sinensis, C. reticulata E C. nobilis x C. deliciosa  

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Full Text Available Most of the plant regeneration processes in citrus, through tissue culture, involve indirect somatic embryogenesis. The optimization of these processes is important for the development of in vitro plant improvement and micropropagation studies. Studies to evaluate the effect of different carbohydrates in somatic embryogenesis were conducted using calli from 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata, Blanco, 'Cravo' mandarin (C. reticulata, 'Itaboraí' sweet orange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck., 'Valencia' sweet orange (C. sinensis and 'Kinnow' mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro x C. deliciosa Tenore. The culture medium used was MT supplemented with sucrose, galactose, glucose, maltose or lactose with the following concentrations of 18, 37, 75, 110, and 150 mM. The culture medium used for the maturation of somatic embryos had 0, 15, 29, 44, 58 and 73 mM of sucrose, in presence or absence of 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal. Seventy-three mM of sucrose with 0.1 mg L-1 of GA3 in the presence or absence 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal was also tested. Overall, the carbohydrates galactose or lactose induced a higher number of somatic embryos. Sucrose concentrations of 58 and 73 mM generated a higher number of plantlets from mature embryos of 'Ponkan' mandarin and 'Valencia' sweet orange.A maioria dos processos de regeneração de plantas em citros por cultura de tecidos envolve embriogênese somática indireta. A otimização desse processo é importante para o desenvolvimento de trabalhos de melhoramento in vitro e micropropagação. Realizaram-se estudos em calos de tangerina 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco, tangerina 'Cravo' (C. reticulata, laranja 'Itaboraí' (C. sinensis L. Osbeck., laranja 'Valência' (C. sinensis e tangerina 'Kinnow' (C. nobilis Loureiro x C. deliciosa, Tenore visando avaliar o efeito de diferentes carboidratos na embriogênese somática. Utilizou-se o meio MT acrescido de sacarose, galactose, glicose, maltose e lactose nas concentrações de 18, 37, 75, 110 e 150 mM. O meio de cultura utilizado para a maturação dos embriões somáticos continha sacarose nas concentrações de 0, 15, 29, 44, 58 e 73 mM, na presença ou não de 0,5 g L-1 de carvão ativado; 73 mM de sacarose e GA3 na concentração de 0,1 mg L-1, na presença ou não de 0,5 g L-1 de carvão ativado. O estímulo à embriogênese somática foi mais eficiente em meio de cultura suplementado com lactose e galactose. Quanto à maturação de embriões, os meios de cultura contendo 58 e 73 mM de sacarose foram aqueles que geraram um maior número de plantas em tangerina 'Ponkan' e laranja 'Valência'.

Adriana Patrícia Ricci

2002-03-01

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de trembolona en el guppy (Poecilia reticulata  

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Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto del esteroide semisintético acetato de trembolona (ATB en el pez de ornato Poecilia reticulata (guppy. Especímenes juveniles de 30 días de edad fueron tratados con el esteroide a dosis de 300 mg/kg de alimento durante 60 días. Al término del tratamiento, 40 días después, se estimó el efecto residual del esteroide. Se analizó la sobrevivencia, la proporción de peces masculinizados, así como el efecto anabólico. Los resultados indicaron que el ATB es efi caz para inducir la masculinización, a diferencia del grupo testigo, donde se registraron 32% de machos. Asimismo, el ATB tuvo un efecto anabólico, ya que los peces tratados mostraron mayor peso y talla e incremento de la aleta caudal. El esteroide no causó daño en la población tratada, al sobrevivir 93.3% de los peces, comparado con 83% del grupo testigo

H\\u00E9ctor Salgado Zamora

2008-01-01

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Avaliação citotóxica em três linhagens de células tumorais das frações obtidas da casca do caule de Salacia crassifolia (MART. ex. Schult.) G. Dom. (Celastraceae) / Assessment of cytotoxicity in three tumor cell lines of the fractions attained from the stem bark of Salacia crassifolia (Mart. ex. Schult.) G. Dom (Celastraceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A utilização de plantas pela humanidade com fins medicinais é uma das formas mais antigas para tratamento, cura e prevenção de doenças, dentre elas o câncer, cujas espécies vegetais são encontradas em elevada diversidade no ecossistema. Com essa perspectiva, se optou por um arbusto típico do Cerrado [...] , Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae), para um screening inicial na determinação do potencial citotóxico desta espécie in vitro. Na medicina popular, S. crassifolia é utilizada no tratamento de problemas renais, tosse crônica, dores de cabeça, cicatrizantes, ulcerogênicas e na terapia da malaria. As frações: hidroalcoólica (SCCcM-W), diclorometânica(SCCcM-D), hexânica (SCCcM-H) e acetato de etila (SCCcM-A) da casca do caule foram submetidas a testes de citotoxicidade in vitro frente às linhagens MDA-MB-435(melanoma), HCT-8 (cólon-humano) e SF-295 (sistema nervoso central) utilizando o método colorimétrico MTT. As frações hexânica (SCCcM-H) e de acetato de etila(SCCcM-A) foram aquelas que proporcionaram citotoxicidade significativas frente às células tumorais analisadas. Abstract in english For millennia humans have been using plants for medicinal purposes to treat, cure, or prevent diseases, including cancer. Brazilian ecosystem has a high diversity of plant species. From this perspective, a species found in the Cerrado, Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae), was selected, for an initial [...] screening to determine the cytotoxic potential of this species "in vitro". S. crassifolia has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat kidney diseases, chronic cough, headaches, healing, ulcerogenic, and for treatment of malaria. The fractions: hydroalcoholic (SCCcM-W), dichloromethane(SCCcM-D), hexane (SCCcM-H) and ethyl acetate (SCCcM-A) from the stem bark were tested for cytotoxicity "in vitro" to within MDA -MB-435(melanoma), HCT-8 (human-colon), and SF-295 (CNS) using the MTT colorimetric method. The hexane (SCCcM-H) and ethyl acetate (SCCcM-A) fractions were those that provided significant cytotoxicity against analyzed tumor cells.

Clayton, Rodrigues de Oliveira; Antânio Calos, Severo Menezes; Manoel O., de Moraes; Letícia, de Melo Vieira; Adriana, Gomes Pereira; Rosa, Silva Lima; Mirley Luciene, dos Santos.

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
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Yield and fruit quality of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) as influenced by evaporation based drip irrigation schedules  

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To identify the critical stages of irrigation water requirement of bearing Nagpur mandarin through drip irrigation system a field experiment was conducted on 7-9 years old bearing Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) based on evaporation replenishment (ER) irrigation scheduling during 2009-12. The plant growing period was divided into 6 stages, 2 months each, starting from January to December and the effect on water use, tree growth, fruit yield and quality was studied. The ...

Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

2013-01-01

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EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF IPOMEA CARNEA LEAVES ON GUPPY, POECILIA RETICULATA (PETERS)  

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Ipomea carnea is a toxic plant causes severe damage to intestine, liver and kidney. In the present investigation ethanolic extract of I. carnea leaves was tested for its toxicity against fresh water fish guppy Poecilia reticulata using 0.025, 0.050, 0.075 and 0.1 mg/ml concentrations. The experiment was run in triplicate along with suitable control. Ethanolic extract of Ipomea carnea leaves showed toxic effect, causes mortality in guppy fishes. All concentrations of ethanolic extracts of I. c...

Balkhande, D. D. Wanule And J. V.

2012-01-01

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Chemical constituents isolated from the wood of Senna reticulata Willd. (Leguminoseae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phytochemical investigation of the wood extracts of Senna reticulata (Leguminoseae) yielded six anthraquinones: chrysophanol, physcion, aloe-emodin, 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, emodin and the chrysophanol-10,10' bianthrone. The triterpenes ? and ?-amirin, the steroids ?-sitosterol and stigmasterol as well as the flavonoid kaempferol were also identified. The structures were established by spectral analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. It is the first report of 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone and 3-methoxy-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone in higher plants. (author)

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ESTUDIO PRELIMINAR DE LOS EFECTOS HIPOGLICEMIANTES DE SENNA RETICULATA EN RATAS DIABÉTICAS / PRELIMINAR STUDY OF THE HIPOGLICEMIC EFFECTS OF SENNA RETICULATA IN DIABETIC RATS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La presente investigación evaluó el efecto sobre la glicemia de los extractos acuosos de las hojas de Senna reticulata (nombre común: martingalvis o dorancé), administrados a ratas con diabetes inducida por aloxano. Al grupo control y al que recibió el extracto, se les midió la glicemia en ayunas lo [...] s días 0, 7 y 15. El análisis de los resultados mostró que la administración del extracto disminuye la glicemia cuando se compara con los valores del día 0 y con los del grupo control, durante los días 7 y 15; si bien estos efectos no fueron significativos estadísticamente muestran indicios de que esta planta posee acciones hipoglicemiantes que deberán ser estudiados en futuras investigaciones. Abstract in english This research evaluated the effect on blood sugar levels in the aqueous extract of Senna reticulata (common name: pasture killer) leaves, administered to rats with Aloxan induced diabetes. Blood glucose was measured on an empty stomach on day 0, 7 and 15 in the control group and the treatment group. [...] The analysis of results showed that administering the extract reduces blood sugar levels when compared with the values of day 0, and with the control group on days 7 and 15. Even though these effects were not statistically significant, they show clear signs that this plant has hypoglycemic actions that must be studied in future studies.

Luz Stella, Cristancho; Gustavo, Isaza Mejía; Sandra Milena, Acosta Agudelo.

2009-12-01

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Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea Regeneração dos braços em duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea  

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Full Text Available This study compared the arm regeneration frequencies in two different populations of Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825 in São Sebastião, Southeast Brazil and observed arm regeneration between age classes (juvenile and adults and sexes (male and female. From the 1,170 individuals sampled, 1,089 (92.2% showed signs of arm regeneration. The relative frequencies of regenerating arms in the two areas were not different (Baleeiro Isthmus: 91.3% and Grande Beach: 99.5%. Both areas also presented similar values for the number of arms regenerating/individual and in the frequency of regenerating individuals. The major part of the regenerating scars was concentrated in the distal portion of the arm. Sub-lethal predation is most likely the cause to the high rates of arm regeneration in O. reticulata. There was no significant differences in the regeneration rates between females (3.57 ± 1.36 arms regenerating/individual and males (3.47 ± 1.42.Este estudo comparou as frequências de regeneração dos braços de duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825, de São Sebastião, sudeste do Brasil. Além disso, foram observadas diferenças nas frequências de regeneração entre classes etárias (juvenis e adultos e entre machos e fêmeas. Dos 1.170 indivíduos coletados, 1.089 (92,2% mostraram sinais de regeneração nos braços. A frequência relativa de braços em regeneração entre as duas áreas não diferiu significativamente (Istmo do Baleeiro: 91,3% e Praia Grande: 99,5%. Ambas as áreas apresentaram valores semelhantes no número de braços regenerando/indivíduo e na frequência de indivíduos em regeneração. A maior parte das marcas de regeneração concentraram-se na porção distal dos braços, o que indica a influência de predação subletal como a causa principal da regeneração em O. reticulata. Além disso, não houve diferença significativa nos índices de regeneração entre fêmeas (3,57 ± 1,36 braços regenerando/indivíduo e machos (3,47 ± 1,42.

Leonardo Q. Yokoyama

2010-06-01

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Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) / Regeneração dos braços em duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo comparou as frequências de regeneração dos braços de duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825), de São Sebastião, sudeste do Brasil. Além disso, foram observadas diferenças nas frequências de regeneração entre classes etárias (juvenis e adultos) e entre machos e fêmeas. Dos 1 [...] .170 indivíduos coletados, 1.089 (92,2%) mostraram sinais de regeneração nos braços. A frequência relativa de braços em regeneração entre as duas áreas não diferiu significativamente (Istmo do Baleeiro: 91,3% e Praia Grande: 99,5%). Ambas as áreas apresentaram valores semelhantes no número de braços regenerando/indivíduo e na frequência de indivíduos em regeneração. A maior parte das marcas de regeneração concentraram-se na porção distal dos braços, o que indica a influência de predação subletal como a causa principal da regeneração em O. reticulata. Além disso, não houve diferença significativa nos índices de regeneração entre fêmeas (3,57 ± 1,36 braços regenerando/indivíduo) e machos (3,47 ± 1,42). Abstract in english This study compared the arm regeneration frequencies in two different populations of Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825) in São Sebastião, Southeast Brazil and observed arm regeneration between age classes (juvenile and adults) and sexes (male and female). From the 1,170 individuals sampled, 1,089 (9 [...] 2.2%) showed signs of arm regeneration. The relative frequencies of regenerating arms in the two areas were not different (Baleeiro Isthmus: 91.3% and Grande Beach: 99.5%). Both areas also presented similar values for the number of arms regenerating/individual and in the frequency of regenerating individuals. The major part of the regenerating scars was concentrated in the distal portion of the arm. Sub-lethal predation is most likely the cause to the high rates of arm regeneration in O. reticulata. There was no significant differences in the regeneration rates between females (3.57 ± 1.36 arms regenerating/individual) and males (3.47 ± 1.42).

Leonardo Q., Yokoyama; Antonia Cecília Z., Amaral.

2010-06-01

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In vitro efficacy of Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides and Copaifera reticulata against Leishmania chagasi Eficácia in vitro de Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides e Copaifera reticulata sobre Leishmania chagasi  

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Full Text Available The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the murine monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To determine the IC50 a MTT test (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide was performed on promastigotes, and an in situ ELISA assay was conducted on amastigotes. Here, we demonstrate that oleoresin from C. reticulata was effective against both promastigotes (IC50 of 7.88 µg.mL-1 and amastigotes (IC50 of 0.52 µg.mL-1, and neither of the two treatments differed significantly (p > 0.05 from pentamidine (IC50 of 2.149 µg.mL-1 and amphotericin B (IC50 of 9.754 µg.mL-1. Of the three plant oils tested, only oleoresin showed no toxicity toward monocyte, with 78.45% viability after treatment. Inhibition of promastigote and amastigote growth and the lack of cytotoxicity by C. reticulata demonstrate that oleoresin may be a viable option for analyzing the in vivo therapeutic effects of leishmanicidal plantsO aumento na incidência da Leishmaníase Visceral (LV no Brasil deve-se à ineficácia das medidas de controle da doença. Além disso, não há tratamento efetivo para LV canina com drogas sintéticas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos óleos essenciais de Coriandrum sativum e de Lippia sidoides e do óleo-resina de Copaiferareticulata sobre promastigotas e amastigotas de Leishmania chagasi e analisar o grau de toxicidade sobre células monocíticas murinas RAW 264.7. Para determinar a CI50 sobre promastigotas foi usado teste MTT (brometo de 3-[4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il]-2,5-difeniltetrazólio e sobre amastigotas foi realizado imunoensaio in situ pela técnica de ELISA. Os resultados obtidos comprovaram que o óleo-resina de C. reticulata foi o mais eficaz contra as formas promastigotas (CI50 de 7,88 µg.mL-1 e amastigotas (CI50 de 0,52 µg.mL-1 e em nenhum dos dois testes diferiu do controle pentamidina que obteve CI50 de 2,149 µg.mL-1, no teste sobre promastigotas, e anfotericina B que obteve CI50 de 9,754 µg.mL-1, nos testes com amastigotas (p > 0.05. Quanto à citotoxicidade apenas o óleo-resina não apresentou toxicidade com 78,45% de monócitos viáveis. Os resultados obtidos sobre promastigotas e amastigotas e a ausência de citotoxicidade do óleo-resina de C. reticulata evidenciam que este óleo-resina pode ser viável para a análise de seus efeitos terapêuticos em testes in vivo.

Fernanda Cristina Macedo Rondon

2012-09-01

48

In vitro efficacy of Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides and Copaifera reticulata against Leishmania chagasi / Eficácia in vitro de Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides e Copaifera reticulata sobre Leishmania chagasi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O aumento na incidência da Leishmaníase Visceral (LV) no Brasil deve-se à ineficácia das medidas de controle da doença. Além disso, não há tratamento efetivo para LV canina com drogas sintéticas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos óleos essenciais de Coriandrum sativum e de Li [...] ppia sidoides e do óleo-resina de Copaiferareticulata sobre promastigotas e amastigotas de Leishmania chagasi e analisar o grau de toxicidade sobre células monocíticas murinas RAW 264.7. Para determinar a CI50 sobre promastigotas foi usado teste MTT (brometo de 3-[4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il]-2,5-difeniltetrazólio) e sobre amastigotas foi realizado imunoensaio in situ pela técnica de ELISA. Os resultados obtidos comprovaram que o óleo-resina de C. reticulata foi o mais eficaz contra as formas promastigotas (CI50 de 7,88 µg.mL-1) e amastigotas (CI50 de 0,52 µg.mL-1) e em nenhum dos dois testes diferiu do controle pentamidina que obteve CI50 de 2,149 µg.mL-1, no teste sobre promastigotas, e anfotericina B que obteve CI50 de 9,754 µg.mL-1, nos testes com amastigotas (p > 0.05). Quanto à citotoxicidade apenas o óleo-resina não apresentou toxicidade com 78,45% de monócitos viáveis. Os resultados obtidos sobre promastigotas e amastigotas e a ausência de citotoxicidade do óleo-resina de C. reticulata evidenciam que este óleo-resina pode ser viável para a análise de seus efeitos terapêuticos em testes in vivo. Abstract in english The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils [...] of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the murine monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To determine the IC50 a MTT test (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was performed on promastigotes, and an in situ ELISA assay was conducted on amastigotes. Here, we demonstrate that oleoresin from C. reticulata was effective against both promastigotes (IC50 of 7.88 µg.mL-1) and amastigotes (IC50 of 0.52 µg.mL-1), and neither of the two treatments differed significantly (p > 0.05) from pentamidine (IC50 of 2.149 µg.mL-1) and amphotericin B (IC50 of 9.754 µg.mL-1). Of the three plant oils tested, only oleoresin showed no toxicity toward monocyte, with 78.45% viability after treatment. Inhibition of promastigote and amastigote growth and the lack of cytotoxicity by C. reticulata demonstrate that oleoresin may be a viable option for analyzing the in vivo therapeutic effects of leishmanicidal plants

Fernanda Cristina Macedo, Rondon; Claudia Maria Leal, Bevilaqua; Marina Parissi, Accioly; Selene Maia de, Morais; Heitor Franco de, Andrade-Júnior; Camila Aparecida de, Carvalho; Josemar Coelho, Lima; Hilton César Rodrigues, Magalhães.

2012-09-01

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Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Studies on the Leaf and Stem Bark of Annona reticulata Linn.  

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Full Text Available The present work was undertaken to establish the pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards of Leaf and Stem bark of Annona reticulata L. It is a highly apparent plant in ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The plant is traditionally used for the treatment of epilepsy, dysentery, cardiac problems, worm infestation, constipation, haemorrhage, antibacterial infection, dysuria, fever, and ulcer . No reports are available on the pharmacognostic nature and phytochemical studies of the leaf and stem bark , hence, the present study was carried out to investigate the same. All the parameters were studied according to the WHO & Pharmacopoeial guidelines. This parameters will help for correct identification of this plant for the future references.

Kalyani Pathak

2013-01-01

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Ecophysiological aspects of sun and shade leaves of Ponkan tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) / Aspectos ecofisiológicos de hojas de sol y sombra de Ponkan mandarina (Citrus reticulata Blanco)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Ponkan mandarina (Citrus reticulata) tiene una amplia aceptación por los consumidores debido a varios aspectos: es una fruta colorida, cáscara dulce y fácil de pelar. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la respuesta a la sombra de las plantas de Ponkan mandarina (Citrus reticulata) respecto de [...] sus aspectos ecofisiológicos, de acuerdo con la intensidad relativa de la luz, a fin de evaluar la capacidad de adaptación de esta especie para dar sombra. Las hojas se obtienen de la cubierta superior (sol) y la cubierta inferior (sombra) para la determinación de los aspectos ecofisiológicos. Cortes en las manos se hicieron para la evaluación del espesor de parénquima de empalizada, número de estomas (mm²) y el espesor total de la hoja. Las secciones transversales de la parte media de la licencia se obtuvieron, para la evaluación de la parénquima, utilizando un cuerpo de evidencia, y para el estomática se hicieron cortes en la superficie abaxial. La clorofila se extrajo de las hojas de mandarina Ponkan y posteriormente se mide en espectrofotometría a longitudes de onda de 645nm y 663nm. La relación entre la clorofila a y b tendía a aumentar con una mayor intensidad de luz. El sombreado no afectó a las características anatómicas de las plantas de mandarina Ponkan. Sin embargo, los niveles de clorofila fueron diferentes en "sol" y se va "sombra". Abstract in english The Ponkan tangerine (Citrus reticulata) has wide acceptance by consumers due to several properties; it is a colorful, sweet, and easy to peel fruit. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ecophysiological aspects of the response of plants of Ponkan tangerine to shading, according to relative int [...] ensity of light, in order to assess the adaptability of this species to shade. Leaves were collected from the upper canopy (sun) and lower canopy (shade) to determine the ecophysiological aspects. Cuts were by hand made to assess the thickness of palisade parenchyma, number of stomata (mm²) and total thickness of the leaf. Cross-sections of the middle part of leaves were obtained to assess the parenchyma, using a body-of-evidence, and for the stomata cuts were made on the abaxial surfaces. Chlorophyll was extracted from the leaves of Ponkan Tangerine and subsequently measured in a spectrophotometer at wave lengths 645nm and 663nm The ratio between chlorophyll a and b tended to increase with increased intensity of light. Shading did not affect the anatomical characteristics of Ponkan tangerine plants. However, chlorophyll levels were different in sun and shade leaves.

Eduardo Domingos, Grecco; Luiz Flávio, Vianna Silveira; Victor Luiz, de Souza Lima; José Eduardo, .

2014-11-01

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EXOCRINE PANCREATIC CARCINOGENESIS IN THE GUPPY POECILIA RETICULATA  

Science.gov (United States)

Exocrine pancreatic neoplasms developed in the guppy Poecilia reticulata following exposure to the direct acting carcinogen, methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM-Ac). Fish 6- to 10-days old were exposed to nominal, nontoxic concentrations of 4 and 10 mg MAM-Ac 1-1 for 2 h and then tr...

52

EXOCRINE PANCREATIC CARCINOGENESIS IN THE GUPPY (POECILIA RETICULATA).  

Science.gov (United States)

Exocrine pancreatic neoplasms developed in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) following exposure to the direct acting carcinogen, methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM-Ac). Fish 6- to 10-days old were exposed to nominal, nontoxic concentrations of 4 and 10 mg MAM-Ac/L for 2 hr and then t...

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Somatic embryogenesis in Citrus sinensis, C. reticulata AND C. nobilis x C. deliciosa / Embriogênese somática em Citrus sinensis, C. reticulata E C. nobilis x C. deliciosa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A maioria dos processos de regeneração de plantas em citros por cultura de tecidos envolve embriogênese somática indireta. A otimização desse processo é importante para o desenvolvimento de trabalhos de melhoramento in vitro e micropropagação. Realizaram-se estudos em calos de tangerina 'Ponkan' (Ci [...] trus reticulata Blanco), tangerina 'Cravo' (C. reticulata), laranja 'Itaboraí' (C. sinensis L. Osbeck.), laranja 'Valência' (C. sinensis) e tangerina 'Kinnow' (C. nobilis Loureiro x C. deliciosa, Tenore) visando avaliar o efeito de diferentes carboidratos na embriogênese somática. Utilizou-se o meio MT acrescido de sacarose, galactose, glicose, maltose e lactose nas concentrações de 18, 37, 75, 110 e 150 mM. O meio de cultura utilizado para a maturação dos embriões somáticos continha sacarose nas concentrações de 0, 15, 29, 44, 58 e 73 mM, na presença ou não de 0,5 g L-1 de carvão ativado; 73 mM de sacarose e GA3 na concentração de 0,1 mg L-1, na presença ou não de 0,5 g L-1 de carvão ativado. O estímulo à embriogênese somática foi mais eficiente em meio de cultura suplementado com lactose e galactose. Quanto à maturação de embriões, os meios de cultura contendo 58 e 73 mM de sacarose foram aqueles que geraram um maior número de plantas em tangerina 'Ponkan' e laranja 'Valência'. Abstract in english Most of the plant regeneration processes in citrus, through tissue culture, involve indirect somatic embryogenesis. The optimization of these processes is important for the development of in vitro plant improvement and micropropagation studies. Studies to evaluate the effect of different carbohydrat [...] es in somatic embryogenesis were conducted using calli from 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata, Blanco), 'Cravo' mandarin (C. reticulata), 'Itaboraí' sweet orange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck.), 'Valencia' sweet orange (C. sinensis) and 'Kinnow' mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro x C. deliciosa Tenore). The culture medium used was MT supplemented with sucrose, galactose, glucose, maltose or lactose with the following concentrations of 18, 37, 75, 110, and 150 mM. The culture medium used for the maturation of somatic embryos had 0, 15, 29, 44, 58 and 73 mM of sucrose, in presence or absence of 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal. Seventy-three mM of sucrose with 0.1 mg L-1 of GA3 in the presence or absence 0.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal was also tested. Overall, the carbohydrates galactose or lactose induced a higher number of somatic embryos. Sucrose concentrations of 58 and 73 mM generated a higher number of plantlets from mature embryos of 'Ponkan' mandarin and 'Valencia' sweet orange.

Adriana Patrícia, Ricci; Francisco de Assis Alves, Mourão Filho; Beatriz Madalena Januzzi, Mendes; Sonia Maria de Stefano, Piedade.

2002-03-01

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Experience-Dependent Color Constancy in Guppies (Poecilia reticulata)  

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We investigated the ability to recognize the color of surfaces in fish (Poecilia reticulata), bred from birth in conditions of artificial light with constant spectral content. The capacity for color constancy significantly deteriorated when compared that to the control group. Further alteration of lighting conditions and transfer into natural daylight conditions restored the suppressed function to its normal level. We suggest that the color constancy function bel...

Intskirveli, I. E.; Roinishvili, M. O.; Kezeli, A. R.

2002-01-01

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Florescimento de tangerineiras 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) submetidas a diferentes períodos de temperatura invernal / Flowering of 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) submitted to differents periods of winter temperature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do acúmulo de temperaturas abaixo de 20° C, sobre a floração de tangerineiras 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Foi adotado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram formad [...] os por sete datas de transferência das mudas, mantidas a céu aberto, para a câmara de crescimento. Foram utilizadas plantas de tangerineira 'Ponkan' enxertadas sobre limoeiro 'Cravo', cultivadas em recipientes, que inicialmente foram mantidas a céu aberto. O experimento foi iniciado no dia 16-05-2007 (início do período de redução da temperatura na região) e conduzido até 17-08-2005. Quinzenalmente, quatro plantas que estavam a céu aberto foram transferidas para câmara de crescimento, com temperaturas de 27°C/20°C (dia/noite), umidade relativa de 75%, fotoperíodo de 12 horas e radiação fotossinteticamente ativa de 170 µmol m-2 s-1. Foram avaliados a data do florescimento e o número total de flores de todas as plantas. Quanto maior foi o tempo de permanência das plantas a céu aberto em temperaturas inferiores a 20° C, maiores foram a antecipação do florescimento e o número de flores produzidas. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate the effect of low temperature accumulation below 20° C, on the flowering of mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. 'Ponkan'). A completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications was used in this experiment. The treatments comprised seven different dat [...] es of transference of 'Ponkan' plants growing in open field into growth room. The 'Ponkan' trees used in this experiment were originated from grafting onto Rangpur lime, grown in containers. The experiment began on 05-16-2007, when the cold season initiated. In 15-days intervals, four plants were removed randomly from the open field and taken into the growth room, with controlled temperature and humidity. The date of the flowering and total number of flowers were evaluated. The longest time of maintenance of the plants in the open field in temperatures below 20° C advanced the flowering and increased the number of produced flowers.

Flávia Mara Vieira, Lelis; Dalmo Lopes de, Siqueira; Dierlei dos, Santos.

2008-09-01

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EFFECT OF LEPTADENIA RETICULATA LINN ON STRESS MODULATED SEXUAL BEHAVIOR OF MALE RATS  

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Full Text Available In the day today life the persons living and working in the area were the environmental factors such as chemical, physical, or emotional, stress may adversely affect the testicular functions that is enhancement of testicular germ cell apoptosis will takes place. All the organisms survive by maintaining a dynamic equilibrium with their environment. The organization of this homeostasis exists at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels. But some of the physical, mental, or emotional stress acts as a threat to this equilibrium, So this alteration in the homeostasis by stress will cause decreased libido, changes in the motor activity, increased arousal, vigilance and increased tolerance of pain.So the aim of the present study was to determine whether the Leptadenia reticulata plant methanolic and chloroform extracts in the low 50mg/kg, mid 100mg/kg, high 250mg/kg and a safety 200mg/kg oral dose will overcome the stress induced sexual dysfunction or not. So to evaluate whether the Leptadenia reticulata active constituents have got aphrodisiac as well as infertility treatment activity was assessed by studying the following sexual behavioral parameters, number of mounts, ejaculation latency, intromission interval, number of ejaculations and the histopathological study of testis, will give a clear idea of the study.In this study the obtained results will show that chloroform extract is having more potent aphrodisiac activity when compared to normal, because it has got increased number of mounts, intromission interval, Number of ejaculations and decreased latency of first mount as well as the increase in post ejaculation time shows its potent aphrodisiac in both normal and stressed rats. Significant (P<0.05 weight gain in testis, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, vasdeferens, epididymis, with declined weight gain in adrenal gland indicating HPA/HPG axis regulatory mechanism. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for significant aphrodisiac and male infertility treatment activity with improved testicular performance.

Santosh B. T

2011-10-01

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Occurrence of Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida in Immatures of Kempnyia reticulata (Enderlein (Insecta: Plecoptera: Perlidae Primeiro Registro de Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida em Imaturos de Kempnyia reticulata (Enderlein (Plecoptera: Perlidae  

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Full Text Available First register of Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida in immature of Kempnyia reticulata (Enderlein (Plecoptera: Perlidae. The insects were collected in rivers of Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia, Santa Teresa, Espirito Santo, Brazil.Primeiro registro de Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida em imaturos de Kempnyia reticulata (Enderlein (Plecoptera: Perlidae. Os insetos foram coletados em um riacho da Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia, Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brasil.

Fernanda Avelino-Capistrano

2013-04-01

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Development of seedless fruits mutants in citrus including tangerine (C. reticulata) and pummelo (C. grandis) through induced mutations and biotechnology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of seedless fruit mutants in citrus, including Tangerine (C. reticulata) and Pummelo (C. grandis), through induced mutation and biotechnology was studied at the Gamma Irradiation Service and Nuclear Technology Center, Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center for 4 years (August 2000 to September 2004). The results showed successful induction of mutants with gamma irradiation using both chronic and acute procedures for pot plants, scions and in vitro plantlets of tangerine (Citrus reticulata var. Shogun and Sai Nam Puaeng) and pummelo (Citrus grandis viz. Kao Thong Dee). MS medium with 2 mgL-1 of BA was found to be the most suitable medium for shoot proliferation. The seedlings were sub-cultured at least 4 times, and then they were treated with acute and chronic irradiation. Shoot induction from M1V0 to M1V4 generation was performed in basic MS medium with 2 mgL-1 added BA. Rooting was induced in the M1V4 in halfstrength MS enriched with BA 2 mgL-1. Later, the shoots were excised and grafted on mature plants or the plantlets directly transferred in the field and later the fruits from mature trees were evaluated for seedlessness in M1V4 at Pichit and Phare Horticultural Research Center. (author)

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Effect of Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils on Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production on Asparagus racemosus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Essential oils extracted from Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus were tested in vitro against the toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus, isolated from the tuberous roots of Asparagus racemosus, used in preparation of herbal drugs. The essential oils completely inhibited the growth of A. flavus at 750 ppm and also exhibited a broad fungitoxic spectrum against nine additional fungi isolated from the roots. Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils completely inhibited aflatoxin B(1) production at 750 and 500 ppm, respectively. During in vivo investigation, the incidence of fungi and aflatoxin B(1) production decreased considerably in essential oil-treated root samples. The findings thus indicate possible exploitation of the essential oils as effective inhibitor of aflatoxin B(1) production and as post-harvest fungitoxicant of traditionally used plant origin for the control of storage fungi. These essential oils may be recommended as plant-based antifungals as well as aflatoxin B(1) suppressors in post-harvest processing of herbal samples. PMID:20401550

Singh, Priyanka; Shukla, Ravindra; Kumar, Ashok; Prakash, Bhanu; Singh, Shubhra; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

2010-09-01

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Metacestodes of Glossocercus auritus (Cyclophyllidea, Gryporhynchidae) in Poecilia reticulata (Pisces, Poeciliidae) from Brazil / Metacestoides de Glossocercus auritus (Cyclophyllidea, Gryporhynchidae) em Poecilia reticulata (Pisces, Poeciliidae) no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Em estudo da helmintofauna de peixes oriundos da represa da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, exemplares de Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 foram encontrados naturalmente infectados por larvas de cestóides. De 250 espécimes de P. reticulata coletados e analisados entre fevereiro e ago [...] sto de 2010, 23 (prevalência de infecção 9,2%) apresentavam-se infectados por um metacestóides cada (intensidade média 1, abundância média 0,09). A análise dos parasitos, em especial a morfologia dos acúleos rostelares, permitiram a identificação de Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1818). Este é o primeiro registro de metacestóide de G. auritus para a América do Sul, sendo P. reticulata um novo hospedeiro conhecido para o parasito. Abstract in english Studies on fish parasites in Pampulha dam, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, found specimens of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 harboring natural infection by larval stages of tapeworms. A total of 250 specimens of P. reticulata were collected and analyzed between February and August 2010, of w [...] hich 23 were found infected (prevalence 9.2%) with one metacestode each (mean intensity 1, mean abundance 0.09). The analyses of the parasites, particularly the morphology of rostellar hooks, made it possible to identify Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1818). This is the first report of G. auritus metacestode in South America and P. reticulata is a newly known host for this parasite.

Hudson Alves, Pinto; Alan Lane de, Melo.

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
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Metacestodes of Glossocercus auritus (Cyclophyllidea, Gryporhynchidae in Poecilia reticulata (Pisces, Poeciliidae from Brazil Metacestoides de Glossocercus auritus (Cyclophyllidea, Gryporhynchidae em Poecilia reticulata (Pisces, Poeciliidae no Brasil  

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Full Text Available Studies on fish parasites in Pampulha dam, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, found specimens of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 harboring natural infection by larval stages of tapeworms. A total of 250 specimens of P. reticulata were collected and analyzed between February and August 2010, of which 23 were found infected (prevalence 9.2% with one metacestode each (mean intensity 1, mean abundance 0.09. The analyses of the parasites, particularly the morphology of rostellar hooks, made it possible to identify Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1818. This is the first report of G. auritus metacestode in South America and P. reticulata is a newly known host for this parasite.Em estudo da helmintofauna de peixes oriundos da represa da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, exemplares de Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 foram encontrados naturalmente infectados por larvas de cestóides. De 250 espécimes de P. reticulata coletados e analisados entre fevereiro e agosto de 2010, 23 (prevalência de infecção 9,2% apresentavam-se infectados por um metacestóides cada (intensidade média 1, abundância média 0,09. A análise dos parasitos, em especial a morfologia dos acúleos rostelares, permitiram a identificação de Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1818. Este é o primeiro registro de metacestóide de G. auritus para a América do Sul, sendo P. reticulata um novo hospedeiro conhecido para o parasito.

Hudson Alves Pinto

2011-06-01

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[Exploration on the benefit and function of Pericarpium Citri reticulatae].  

Science.gov (United States)

To explore the benefit and function of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (PCR). The chemical, pharmacological and clinical data was studied by literature summarization and compaed. PCR contains plenty of human indispensable nutrients, such as protein, vitamin C, carotenoid and life supporting trace elements. It answer for 15 of the 24 criteria of benefiting herbs that was seldom seen in other herbs for regulating Qi. PCR is a kind of herbs for regulating Qi with the action of benefiting, it could not only effect on superficial but also on essence. PMID:16152842

Zhang, Li-Ping

2005-08-01

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Influence of GAMMA radiation on morphological changes of Poecilia reticulata  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In our experiment were followed histological changes after gamma-irradiation with dose of 30 Gy in Poecilia reticulata. After radiation shyness and lethargy were observed. The most prominent clinical symptoms observed were emaciation, hampered breathing, ex ophthalmia and hemorrhages. The histological picture found were adequate to these symptoms. The enteritic villi compared with controls were relatively low. Enterocytes taking part on resorption processes were damaged and desquamated on some sites, and the number of microvilli was reduced on their surface. As our earlier findings on rats revealed, the decrease in number of microvilli designates malfunctioning intestinal resorption, which can lead to emaciation. (authors)

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Aerial Jumping in the Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

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Many fishes are able to jump out of the water and launch themselves into the air. Such behavior has been connected with prey capture, migration and predator avoidance. We found that jumping behavior of the guppy Poecilia reticulata is not associated with any of the above. The fish jump spontaneously, without being triggered by overt sensory cues, is not migratory and does not attempt to capture aerial food items. Here, we use high speed video imaging to analyze the kinematics of the jumping b...

Soares, Daphne; Bierman, Hilary S.

2013-01-01

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Simultaneous Determination of Flavonoids in Different Parts of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ Fruit by High Performance Liquid Chromatography—Photodiode Array Detection  

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Full Text Available Flavonoids are important polyphenolic secondary metabolites in plant. Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit are rich in flavonoids and are being used as functional antioxidant ingredients for the treatment of atherosclerosis and cancer, etc. A high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection system was used to analyze five flavonoids, namely, naringin, hesperidin, didymin, tangeretin and nobiletin, in different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a C18 column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a photodiode array detector at 280 nm. The calibration curves for the determination of all analytes showed good linearity over the investigated ranges (R2 > 0.9995. Precision and reproducibility were evaluated by six replicated analyses, and the R.S.D. values were less than 0.9% and 2.7%. The recoveries were between 98.37 and 103.89%. This method is promising to improve the quality control of different parts of C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ fruit.

Yujie Zhang

2010-08-01

66

Modeling Kuiper belt objects Charon, Orcus and Salacia by means of a new equation of state for porous icy bodies  

Science.gov (United States)

We use a one-dimensional adaptive-grid thermal evolution code to model Kuiper belt objects Charon, Orcus and Salacia and compare their measured bulk densities with those resulting from evolutionary calculations at the end of 4.6 Gyr. Our model assumes an initial homogeneous composition of mixed ice and rock, and follows the multiphase flow of water through the porous rocky medium, consequent differentiation and aqueous chemical alterations in the rock. Heating sources include long-lived radionuclides, serpentinization reactions, release of gravitational potential energy due to compaction, and crystallization of amorphous ice. The density profile is calculated by assuming hydrostatic equilibrium to be maintained through changes in composition, pressure and temperature. To this purpose, we construct an equation of state suitable for porous icy bodies with radii of a few hundred km, based on the best available empirical studies of ice and rock compaction, and on comparisons with rock porosities in Earth analog and Solar System silicates. We show that the observed bulk densities can be reproduced by assuming the same set of initial and physical parameters, including the same rock/ice mass ratio for all three bodies. We conclude that the mass of the object uniquely determines the evolution of porosity, and thus explains the observed differences in bulk density. The final structure of all three objects is differentiated, with an inner rocky core, and outer ice-enriched mantle. The degree of differentiation, too, is determined by the object's mass.

Malamud, Uri; Prialnik, Dina

2015-01-01

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Blond: a regulatory gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859  

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Full Text Available The present letter is a response to the paper ?Interallelic interaction between the autosomal Blond and the sex-linked Nigrocaudatus gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata? (Petrescu-Mag et al 2007.

Philip Shaddock

2008-12-01

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Blond: a regulatory gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present letter is a response to the paper ?Interallelic interaction between the autosomal Blond and the sex-linked Nigrocaudatus gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)? (Petrescu-Mag et al 2007).

Philip Shaddock

2008-01-01

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Vulnerability of the mosquito larvae to the guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in the presence of alternative preys  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background & objectives: The predatory potential of the larvivorous fishes can be affected by the presence of alternative preys. In the present study the predation pattern of the sewage dwelling Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1872) on the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae) was evaluated in the presence of alternative preys. Methods: The predation of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by different size groups of P. reticulata fishes was evaluated. In addition to this, th...

Barnali Manna; Gautam Aditya; Samir Banerjee

2008-01-01

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Quality control of Citri reticulatae pericarpium: exploratory analysis and discrimination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts of Citri reticulatae pericarpium (PCR) are commonly used in the Traditional Chinese Medicine. The quality control of PCR is currently performed by single marker analysis, which can hardly describe the complexity of such natural samples. In this study, a fingerprint methodology for PCR based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed and validated. A total of 69 fingerprints of authenticated PCR samples, commercial PCR samples, mixed peel samples, and other Citrus peels were recorded. Exploratory data analysis allowed optimizing the extraction procedure and detecting mixed peel samples. Once the optimizations were performed and the method validated, discrimination between the authentic PCR samples and all other samples was performed by p-Discriminant Partial Least Squares. The established model was able to differentiate between classes with a high reliability for each sample. Furthermore, evaluation of the score and loading plots of the model indicated nobiletin, tangeretin, naringin and hesperidin as important markers for the quality control of PCR. PMID:21962354

Tistaert, Christophe; Thierry, Line; Szandrach, Andrzej; Dejaegher, B; Fan, Guorong; Frédérich, Michel; Vander Heyden, Yvan

2011-10-31

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Sesquiterpenes and Other Natural Products from Roldana reticulata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish De Roldana reticulata se aislaron dos 9-oxo-furanoeremofilanos (1, 2), además de senecrassidiol, tirosol, icarisida D2 y rutina; no se detectaron alcaloides pirrolizidínicos, coincidiendo con el patrón químico del género reportado hasta ahora. La actividad anti-inflamatoria de los extractos y produc [...] tos aislados fue evaluada en el modelo de edema de inflamación aguda inducido con TPA. Abstract in english The chemical study of Roldana reticulate led to the isolation of two 9-oxo-furanoeremophilanes (1, 2), together with senecrassidiol, tyrosol, icariside D2, and rutin; no pyrrolizidine alkaloids were detected, in agreement with the chemistry of the genus reported so far. The anti-inflammatory activit [...] y of extracts and isolated products was tested using the TPA model of induced acute inflammation.

Amira, Arciniegas; Jhon, Ironzi Maldonado; Karina, González; Ana L., Pérez-Castorena; José Luis, Villaseñor; Alfonso, Romo de Vivar.

2013-03-01

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Determinação do potencial larvófago de Poecilia reticulata em condições domésticas de controle biológico / Larvovirous potencial of Poecilia reticulata at domestic biological control conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Configurada como um dos mais importantes problemas de saúde pública do mundo, a dengue atinge especialmente países com clima tropical, como o Brasil. O controle biológico por meio da utilização de peixes larvófagos aparece como alternativa para reduzir os índices de infestação do vetor da dengue. O [...] presente trabalho objetiva avaliar e descrever condições em que peixes da espécie Poecilia reticulata possam ser utilizados como controladores biológicos de larvas de Aedes aegypti em ambiente doméstico. Para tanto, o potencial larvófago diário (observação direta) de diferentes grupos de P. reticulata foi calculado considerando-se a influência do sexo e do tamanho dos espécimes empregados. Os resultados dos ensaios revelaram que o potencial larvófago de P. reticulata varia com o sexo. Observou-se também que a capacidade controladora do grupo composto apenas por fêmeas foi cerca de duas vezes maior quando comparada à dos machos da espécie. Abstract in english Configured as an important public health problem in the world, the dengue fever affects tropical countries, like Brazil. Biological control through the use of larvivorous fish appears as an alternative to reduce the infestation rates of the dengue vector. This work aims to evaluate and describe cond [...] itions under which Poecilia reticulata fishes can be used as biological controllers of Aedes aegypti in a domestic environment. Thus, the daily larvivorous potential (direct observation) of different groups of P. reticulata was calculated, considering the influence of sex and size of the used specimens. The test results revealed that P. reticulata larvivorous potential ranges with sex, and found that the ability of the group composed only of females was about twice as high compared to that of males of the species.

Boscolli Barbosa, Pereira; Eidis Antônio de, Oliveira.

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New host plant and distribution records for Peruvian Tephritinae (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Science.gov (United States)

Distribution and host plant records (all Asteraceae) are reported for 17 species of Tephritinae: Acinia reticulata (stem galls on Tessaria integrifolia); Dracontomyia footei (Baccharis salicifolia); Ensina hyalipennis (Argentina; flowerheads of Sonchus asper); E. longiceps (flowerheads of Hypochaeri...

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Potent glucosidase inhibitors: de-O-sulfonated ponkoranol and its stereoisomer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ponkoranol, a glucosidase inhibitor isolated from the plant Salacia reticulata, comprises a sulfonium ion with an internal sulfate counterion. An efficient synthetic route to de-O-sulfonated ponkoranol and its 5'-stereoisomer is reported, and it is shown that these compounds are potent glucosidase inhibitors that inhibit a key intestinal human glucosidase, the N-terminal catalytic domain of maltase glucoamylase, with K(i) values of 43 +/- 3 and 15 +/- 1 nM, respectively. PMID:20218632

Eskandari, Razieh; Kuntz, Douglas A; Rose, David R; Pinto, B Mario

2010-04-01

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Aplicação de ácido giberélico (GA3 em précolheita de tangerina ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata blanco = Application of Gibberelic acid (GA3 on preharvest of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco fruit  

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Full Text Available O experimento foi instalado em pomar comercial de tangerineira ‘Poncã’ (Citrus reticulata Blanco, enxertadas sobre tangerineira ‘Cleópatra’ (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., em Pratânia, Estado de S??o Paulo, Brasil. Adotouse o delineamento experimental em blocoscasualizados com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos empregados foram: 0 (controle, 5, 10, 15 e 20 mg L1 de ácido giberélico (GA3. A aplicação dos tratamentos foi realizada com atomizador tratorizado. Na mudança de coloração dos frutos, utilizaramse 5,9 litros de solução por planta, com adição de 0,03% de surfatante não iônico com 25% de Alquil fenol poliglicoléter. As análises da qualidade dos frutos foram realizadas aos 13, 45, 75 e 111 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT. Não se verificou influência da aplicação de GA3 na massa fresca dos frutos, no conteúdo de sólidos solúveis totais, na acidez total titulável e “ratio”. No entanto foi observado atraso na colheita de frutos, induzido pelo efeito fisiológico do ácido giberélico. The experiment was carried out in a commercial orchard of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco, grafted on ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan., in Pratânia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The utilized experimental design was composed of randomized blocks of four replications. The treatments consisted of: 0 (control,5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L1 of Gibberellic acid (GA3. Atomizer equipment was utilized for the application of the treatments. Each plant received 5.9 liters of solution, in which 0.03% of nonionic surfactant with 25% of alkylphenol ethoxylate was added, in order to change fruit coloration. The analyses of fruit quality were developed on the 13th, 45th, 75th and 111th days after the application of the treatments (DAT. Results showed that the application of GA3 did not affect fruit fresh mass, total soluble solids content, total titulable acidity and ratio. However, a delay in fruit harvesting was verified, which was induced by the physiological effect of Gibberellic acid.

Júnior Cesar Modesto

2006-01-01

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Parathelphusa reticulata spec. nov., a new species of freshwater crab from blackwater swamps in Singapore (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Gecarcinucoidea)  

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A new species of gecarcinucoid crab, Parathelphusa reticulata spec. nov. is described from blackwater swamps in Singapore. Parathelphusa reticulata is characterized by its relatively small adult size, diagnostic colour pattern, swollen carapace physiognomy, anterolateral armature, male abdominal structure and sharply tapering male first pleopod. This species appears to be closely allied to the poorly known P. maindroni from Sumatra.

Ng, P. K. L.

1990-01-01

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[Analysis on medication rules of state medical master Yan Zhenghua from prescriptions with citri reticulatae pericarpium based on data mining].  

Science.gov (United States)

The prescriptions containing pericarpium citri reticulatae that built by Professor. Yan were collected to build a database based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance assist system. After analyzed by data mining, such as apriori algorithm, the frequency of single medicine, the frequency of drug combination, the association rules between drugs and core drug combinations can be get from the database. Through the analysis of 1 027 prescriptions with pericarpium citri reticulatae, these prescriptions were commonly used to treat stomach aches, cough and other syndromes. The most frequency drug combinations were "Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium-Poria", "Paeoniae Radix Rubra-Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium" and so on. The drug association rules that the confidence was 1 were "Glycyrrhizae Radix ex Rhizoma --> Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium", "Paeoniae Alba Radix-Cyperi Rhizoma --> Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium", "Poria --> Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium", and so on. The drugs in the prescriptions containing pericarpium citri reticulatae that built by Professor Yan mostly had the effects of regulating the flow of Qi and invigorate blood circulation, which reflected the clearly thought when making prescriptions. PMID:25204133

Wu, Jia-Rui; Guo, Wei-Xian; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Bing; Sheng, Xiao-Guang

2014-02-01

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The Effects of Gokshura, Tribulus terrestris on Sex Reversal of Guppy, Poecilia reticulata  

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Full Text Available This study examined the effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT on sex reversal in guppy, Poecilia reticulata. The objective of this study was to introduce a new environmentally friendly method for masculinization in P. reticulata. Since male guppy has higher commercial value than female. TT is a natural, non-toxic herb which helps enhance testosterone levels in human and animals. It was prepared in a laboratory in France. Different concentration (0.0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 g L-1 of TT was investigated for sex reversal in the Poecilia reticulata. TT extract was administered by immersion of newly born offspring once weekly for two months. Among the dosages used in the present study 0.15 g L-1 TT was the most effective dosage that ensured maximum male ratio (80%, p<0.01. Although, sex ratios of 0.05 and 0.1 g L-1 TT were not significantly different from the expected 1:1 ratio, in these two groups treatment with TT also result in higher number of males (58.25 and 59.77%, respectively, than control (p>0.05. Total survival rates in all treatments and control were uniformly high ranging from 83 to 87% (p>0.05. It is concluded that TT has no negative effect on survival rate of P. reticulata. All groups of TT-treated fish exhibited successful growth acceleration comparing to the control group, but only TT treatment at the concentration of 0.15 and 0.1 g L-1 TT significantly improved growth rate of P. reticulata (p<0.01. Histological examinations revealed that testes of fish treated with TT-extract contained all stages of spermatogenesis. Sex reversal in P. reticulata demonstrated that TT treated new-born progenies showed successful sex reversal, spermatogenesis and better growth rate than untreated progenies.

Oehriban cek

2007-01-01

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Vulnerability of the mosquito larvae to the guppies (Poecilia reticulata in the presence of alternative preys  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: The predatory potential of the larvivorous fishes can be affected by the presence of alternative preys. In the present study the predation pattern of the sewage dwelling Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1872 on the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae was evaluated in the presence of alternative preys. Methods: The predation of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by different size groups of P. reticulata fishes was evaluated. In addition to this, the niche breadth (N and diet breadth (B were measured following Manly’s selectivity index (Si as an indicator of variation of such predation pattern in the presence of alternative prey types, like chironomid larvae and tubificid worms.Results: The consumption of IV instar Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by individual P. reticulata ranged between 65 and 84 in a 3 h feeding period and varied with the size of fish (F2, 33 = 34.91; p<0.001. The selectivity coefficient revealed a significantly low preference for the Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae (0.16, CL: 0.05 – 0.27; p< 0.05 compared to the chironomid larvae and tubificid worms, when all the three prey types were present. The niche breadth (N and diet breadth (B ranged from 0.77 to 0.92 and 0.69 to 0.93, respectively. The total consumption of all the prey types varied with the predator density, but the selectivity index for the mosquito larvae was significantly low in all the instances.Interpretation & conclusion: P. reticulata can consume a good number of mosquito larvae, with the consumption rate varying with the body size. P. reticulata fishes exhibit low preference for mosquito larvae as prey in the presence of alternative controphic preys like chironomid larvae and tubificid worms. Though establishment and sustenance of P. reticulata in new habitats will be favoured by the presence of alternative preys, but vulnerability of mosquito larvae may be reduced with availability of multiple preys in natural conditions.

Barnali Manna

2008-08-01

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HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN POECILIA RETICULATA AFTER INTERACTION OF IONIZING RADIATION AND ZINC SULFID  

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Full Text Available In our experiment we have studied interaction of ionizing radiation and zinc at Poecilia reticulata. Fish were irradiated with a 20 Gy of gamma-rays. Zinc sulphate in concentration 25 mg.l-1 was added to water in aquarium. Food intake, clinicl symptoms and histological changes were followed after gamma-irradiation and zinc sulfid in guppy Poecilia reticulata. In the first days timidity and lethargy were observed. The most prominent clinical symptoms observed were emaciation, hampered breathing and haemorrhages. Histological findings corresponded with these symptoms.doi:10.5219/228

Michaela Špalková

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Protective immunization against Tetrahymena sp. infection in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Systemic tetrahymenosis constitutes a serious problem in guppy (Poecilia reticulata) production worldwide and no therapeutic solution is available for this disease. Three immunization trials were conducted, testing the effectiveness of different Tetrahymena preparations applied by intraperitoneal injection (IP) with or without Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) and with or without booster dose. In trial 1, immunization with the pathogenic Tet-NI 6 lysate and live attenuated Tet-NI 1 did not provide significant protection from infection, although infection rates were significantly lower in the Tet-NI 6-immunized group than in controls. In trial 2, mortality in Tet-NI 6 + FCA-immunized fish was 10%, significantly lower than in all other treatment groups, including Tet-NI 6 lysate, live attenuated Tet-NI 1 and controls (77, 67 and 73%, respectively). In trial 3, the lowest mortality rates were obtained in the Tet-NI 6 + FCA + booster-immunized group (15%). These levels were lower but not significantly different from the non-boostered Tet-NI 6-immunized group (28%) and the groups immunized with Tet-NI 1, with and without booster (32 and 34%, respectively). Mortality in these four groups was significantly lower than in controls, including adjuvant- and PBS-injected groups (72 and 81%, respectively). Body homogenates of immunized fish immobilized Tetrahymena in-vitro, as compared to no or very little immobilization in controls. Lysozyme levels in the Tet-NI 6 + FCA + booster group were significantly higher than in all other treatments in trial 2 and controls in trial 3. There was no significant difference in anti-protease activity among the differently immunized fish. We conclude that immunization with Tetrahymena lysates in FCA confers a high degree of protection from infection, suggesting this preparation as a basis for vaccine development. PMID:19490943

Chettri, J Kumar; Leibowitz, M Pimenta; Ofir, R; Zilberg, D

2009-08-01

82

'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) immature fruits storage / Armazenamento de frutos imaturos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito do armazenamento de frutos e concentrações de sacarose no cultivo in vitro de embriões imaturos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco) x laranjeira 'Pêra' [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.]. Frutos com 3 a 4 cm de diâmetro foram coletados e coloc [...] ados em sacos pretos de polietileno perfurados e armazenados a 5±1ºC por um período de 135 dias. A cada 15 dias, uma amostra foi retirada, seus embriões foram excisados e inoculados individualmente em tubos de ensaio contendo 15 mL de meio MS acrescido de sacarose (0; 1,5; 3; 6; 12; 18 e 24 g L-1), 0,3 mg L-1 GA3 e 1 g L-1 de carvão ativado. Os tratamentos permaneceram 48 horas no escuro e em seguida foram transferidos para sala de crescimento a 27±1ºC com fotoperíodo de 16 horas e 32 µmol m-2 s-1 de intensidade luminosa. Frutos imaturos podem ser armazenados e posteriormente utilizados na excisão e cultura de embriões. Frutos com 120 dias após a polinização podem ser armazenados por mais de 135 dias sem afetar a viabilidade dos embriões. Observou-se melhor desenvolvimento da parte aérea e sistema radicular de plântulas oriundas de embriões de tangerineira 'Ponkan' x laranjeira 'Pêra' em meio MS com 12-18 g L-1 de sacarose. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of 'Ponkan' mandarin (C. reticulata) x 'Pêra' sweet orange (C. sinensis) immature fruits storage and sucrose concentrations on embryos in vitro culture. Fruits with 3 to 4 cm in diameter were harvested and placed inside black polyethylene bags with lat [...] eral openings and stored at 5±1ºC during 135 days. Every 15 days a sample was removed, its embryos were excised and individually inoculated in test tubes containing 15 mL of MS medium (Murashige & Skoog, 1962) with sucrose (0, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 g L-1) and 0.3 mg L-1 GA3 and 1 g L-1 activated charcoal. Those treatments rested 48 hours in the dark and later in a growth room at 27 ± 1ºC with a 16-h photoperiod and 32 µmol m-2 s-1 light intensity. Immature fruits can be stored for posterior excision and embryos culture. Fruits with 120 days after the pollination can be stored for at most 135 days without damaging the embryos viability. It was observed a better development of the aerial part and root system of plantlets from 'Ponkan' mandarin x 'Pêra' sweet orange embryos in MS medium with 12-18 g L-1 sucrose.

Moacir, Pasqual; Leonardo Ferreira, Dutra; Aparecida Gomes de, Araujo; Milene Alves de, Figueiredo.

1017-10-01

83

'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco immature fruits storage Armazenamento de frutos imaturos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco  

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Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of 'Ponkan' mandarin (C. reticulata x 'Pêra' sweet orange (C. sinensis immature fruits storage and sucrose concentrations on embryos in vitro culture. Fruits with 3 to 4 cm in diameter were harvested and placed inside black polyethylene bags with lateral openings and stored at 5±1ºC during 135 days. Every 15 days a sample was removed, its embryos were excised and individually inoculated in test tubes containing 15 mL of MS medium (Murashige & Skoog, 1962 with sucrose (0, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 g L-1 and 0.3 mg L-1 GA3 and 1 g L-1 activated charcoal. Those treatments rested 48 hours in the dark and later in a growth room at 27 ± 1ºC with a 16-h photoperiod and 32 µmol m-2 s-1 light intensity. Immature fruits can be stored for posterior excision and embryos culture. Fruits with 120 days after the pollination can be stored for at most 135 days without damaging the embryos viability. It was observed a better development of the aerial part and root system of plantlets from 'Ponkan' mandarin x 'Pêra' sweet orange embryos in MS medium with 12-18 g L-1 sucrose.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito do armazenamento de frutos e concentrações de sacarose no cultivo in vitro de embriões imaturos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco x laranjeira 'Pêra' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb.]. Frutos com 3 a 4 cm de diâmetro foram coletados e colocados em sacos pretos de polietileno perfurados e armazenados a 5±1ºC por um período de 135 dias. A cada 15 dias, uma amostra foi retirada, seus embriões foram excisados e inoculados individualmente em tubos de ensaio contendo 15 mL de meio MS acrescido de sacarose (0; 1,5; 3; 6; 12; 18 e 24 g L-1, 0,3 mg L-1 GA3 e 1 g L-1 de carvão ativado. Os tratamentos permaneceram 48 horas no escuro e em seguida foram transferidos para sala de crescimento a 27±1ºC com fotoperíodo de 16 horas e 32 µmol m-2 s-1 de intensidade luminosa. Frutos imaturos podem ser armazenados e posteriormente utilizados na excisão e cultura de embriões. Frutos com 120 dias após a polinização podem ser armazenados por mais de 135 dias sem afetar a viabilidade dos embriões. Observou-se melhor desenvolvimento da parte aérea e sistema radicular de plântulas oriundas de embriões de tangerineira 'Ponkan' x laranjeira 'Pêra' em meio MS com 12-18 g L-1 de sacarose.

Moacir Pasqual

2006-10-01

84

ADENOCARCINOMA OF THE RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM IN THE GUPPY POECILIA RETICULATA PETERS  

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A single case of adenocarcinoma of the retinal pigment epithelium occurred in a guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters. his is the first such tumor reported from fishes. he left eye of the affected fish was severely exophthalmic because of a large intraocular tumor mass. he tumor, whi...

85

Molecular and Biological Characterization of a Cryptosporidium molnari-Like Isolate from a Guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

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Histological, morphological, genetic, and phylogenetic analyses of a Cryptosporidium molnari-like isolate from a guppy (Poecilia reticulata) identified stages consistent with those of C. molnari and revealed that C. molnari is genetically very distinct from all other species of Cryptosporidium. This study represents the first genetic characterization of C. molnari.

Ryan, Una; O Hara, Amanda; Xiao, Lihua

2004-01-01

86

Changes of ionizing radiation on palace reticulata exposed to various doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigation of the effect of radiation on animal organisms help us to develop methods of protection against its unfavourable influences. The present study focused on changes, clinical symptoms and survival of Poecilia reticulata exposed to various doses of ionizing radiation. The fish were exposed to a single dose whole-body gamma radiation of 10, 20, 30, 35 and 40 Gy. (authors)

87

PROLIFERATIVE LESIONS IN SWIMBLADDER OF JAPANESE MEDAKA ORYZIAS LATIPES AND GUPPY POECILIA RETICULATA  

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Thirteen cases of proliferative lesions of the swimbladder were encountered in Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes and guppy Poecilia reticulata from about 10,000 medaka and 5,000 guppies used in carcinogenicity tests and histologically examined. Two of the four cases from medaka and...

88

Mutational changes in the courtship activity of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) after X-irradiation  

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The courtship activity of male F2 descendants of irradiated and control guppies, Poecilia reticulata, of the inbred strain Istanbul was compared. The results of Spieser and Schroeder (1978), who found a decrease in courtship activity of descendants of irradiated guppies, were confirmed under more natural conditions

89

Sequencing and characterization of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata transcriptome  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Next-generation sequencing is providing researchers with a relatively fast and affordable option for developing genomic resources for organisms that are not among the traditional genetic models. Here we present a de novo assembly of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata transcriptome using 454 sequence reads, and we evaluate potential uses of this transcriptome, including detection of sex-specific transcripts and deployment as a reference for gene expression analysis in guppies and a related species. Guppies have been model organisms in ecology, evolutionary biology, and animal behaviour for over 100 years. An annotated transcriptome and other genomic tools will facilitate understanding the genetic and molecular bases of adaptation and variation in a vertebrate species with a uniquely well known natural history. Results We generated approximately 336 Mbp of mRNA sequence data from male brain, male body, female brain, and female body. The resulting 1,162,670 reads assembled into 54,921 contigs, creating a reference transcriptome for the guppy with an average read depth of 28×. We annotated nearly 40% of this reference transcriptome by searching protein and gene ontology databases. Using this annotated transcriptome database, we identified candidate genes of interest to the guppy research community, putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and male-specific expressed genes. We also showed that our reference transcriptome can be used for RNA-sequencing-based analysis of differential gene expression. We identified transcripts that, in juveniles, are regulated differently in the presence and absence of an important predator, Rivulus hartii, including two genes implicated in stress response. For each sample in the RNA-seq study, >50% of high-quality reads mapped to unique sequences in the reference database with high confidence. In addition, we evaluated the use of the guppy reference transcriptome for gene expression analyses in a congeneric species, the sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna. Over 40% of reads from the sailfin molly sample aligned to the guppy transcriptome. Conclusions We show that next-generation sequencing provided a reliable and broad reference transcriptome. This resource allowed us to identify candidate gene variants, SNPs in coding regions, and sex-specific gene expression, and permitted quantitative analysis of differential gene expression.

Rodd F Helen

2011-04-01

90

Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 e Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 de peixes ornamentais de água doce no Brasil  

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In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2)...

Ml, Martins; Marchiori, N.; Roumbedakis, K.; Lami, F.

2012-01-01

91

USE OF THE JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES) AND GUPPY (POECILIA RETICULATA) IN CARCINOGENESIS TESTING UNDER NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM PROTOCOLS  

Science.gov (United States)

that are economical, sensitive, and scientifically acceptable. Among small fish models, the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) is preeminent for investigating effects of carcinogenic and/or toxic waterborne hazards to humans. The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), although less widely u...

92

Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 e Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 de peixes ornamentais de água doce no Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35, "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31, "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20, "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6, "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2 and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1. After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed.No presente trabalho Trichodina reticulata e T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae de peixes ornamentais de água doce cultivados no estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil são caracterizadas morfologicamente. A prevalência de infecção e uma lista comparative de medidas são discutidas. Foram examinados "platis" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35, "kinguios" Carassius auratus (n = 31, "guppys" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20, "molinésias" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6, "betas" Betta splendens (n = 2 e "espada" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1. Após a anestesia com solução de benzocaína, os peixes foram submetidos à avaliação parasitológca. Um total de 51,57% peixes estavam parasitados por Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus foi a espécie mais parasitada, seguida por X. maculatus e P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus e P. latipinna não estavam parasitados por tricodinídeos. Duas species de Trichodina foram coletadas da superfície corporal dos peixes: T. nobilis foi encontrada em C. auratus, P. reticulata e X. maculatus e T. reticulata foi observada apenas em C. auratus. A importância do manejo adequado em cultivos de peixes ornamentais também foi discutida.

ML Martins

2012-05-01

93

Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil / Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 e Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 de peixes ornamentais de água doce no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho Trichodina reticulata e T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) de peixes ornamentais de água doce cultivados no estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil são caracterizadas morfologicamente. A prevalência de infecção e uma lista comparative de medidas são discutidas. Foram examinados "pl [...] atis" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "kinguios" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppys" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "molinésias" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "betas" Betta splendens (n = 2) e "espada" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). Após a anestesia com solução de benzocaína, os peixes foram submetidos à avaliação parasitológca. Um total de 51,57% peixes estavam parasitados por Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus foi a espécie mais parasitada, seguida por X. maculatus e P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus e P. latipinna não estavam parasitados por tricodinídeos. Duas species de Trichodina foram coletadas da superfície corporal dos peixes: T. nobilis foi encontrada em C. auratus, P. reticulata e X. maculatus e T. reticulata foi observada apenas em C. auratus. A importância do manejo adequado em cultivos de peixes ornamentais também foi discutida. Abstract in english In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southe [...] rn platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35), "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31), "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20), "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6), "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2) and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1). After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed.

ML, Martins; N, Marchiori; K, Roumbedakis; F, Lami.

2012-05-01

94

Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine)  

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We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III) isolated from a single natural infected Citrus reticulata var. Clementine tree growing in a tree nursery in Manouba (near Tunis Capital). We describe the sequence variability of these viroids from their natural host without using an alternative passage by an indicator host or an artificial inoculation. This work...

Amine Elleuch; Fattouma Djilani Khouaja; Imen Hamdi; Nabiha Bsais; Jean-Pierre Perreault; Mohamed Marrakchi; Hatem Fakhfakh

2006-01-01

95

Sexual conflict and the function of genitalic claws in guppies (Poecilia reticulata)  

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Poeciliid fish, freshwater fish with internal fertilization, are known for the diversity of structures on the male intromittent organ, the gonopodium. Prominent among these, in some species, is a pair of claws at its tip. We conducted a manipulative study of these claws in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, to determine if these aid in transferring sperm to resistant females. We compared the sperm transfer rates of clawed versus surgically declawed males attempting to mate with either receptive ...

Kwan, Lucia; Cheng, Yun Yun; Rodd, F. Helen; Rowe, Locke

2013-01-01

96

Histamine H3 receptors inhibit serotonin release in substantia nigra pars reticulata.  

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The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) plays a key role in basal ganglia function. Projections from multiple basal ganglia nuclei converge at the SNr to regulate nigrothalamic output. The SNr is also characterized by abundant aminergic input, including dopaminergic dendrites and axons containing 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or histamine (HA). The functions of HA in the SNr include motor control via HA H3 receptors (H3Rs), although the mechanism remains far from elucidated. In Parkinson's di...

Threlfell, S.; Cragg, Sj; Kallo?, I.; Turi, Gf; Coen, Cw; Greenfield, Sa

2004-01-01

97

Efecto anabólico y androgénico del esteroide acetato de trembolona en el guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

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Se investigó el efecto del esteroide semisintético acetato de trembolona (ATB) en el pez de ornato Poecilia reticulata (guppy). Especímenes juveniles de 30 días de edad fueron tratados con el esteroide a dosis de 300 mg/kg de alimento durante 60 días. Al término del tratamiento, 40 días después, se estimó el efecto residual del esteroide. Se analizó la sobrevivencia, la proporción de peces masculinizados, así como el efecto anabólico. Los resultados indicaron que el ATB ...

Ctor Salgado Zamora, H. U. E.; Ndez, A. U. Edda Azpeitia Hern U. E.; Herrera, Samuel Mara U. F. U. F. N.; Eduardo Maya Pe\\u00F1a

2008-01-01

98

Sequencing and characterization of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) transcriptome  

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Abstract Background Next-generation sequencing is providing researchers with a relatively fast and affordable option for developing genomic resources for organisms that are not among the traditional genetic models. Here we present a de novo assembly of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) transcriptome using 454 sequence reads, and we evaluate potential uses of this transcriptome, including detection of sex-specific transcripts and deployment as a reference for g...

Helen, Rodd F.; Janowitz Ilana; Weadick Cameron J; Fraser Bonnie A; Hughes Kimberly A

2011-01-01

99

Population differentiation and sexual isolation among Poecilia reticulata (the guppy) populations  

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Guppy populations in Trinidad have been a model for studies of evolutionary ecology and sexual selection. This thesis extends these studies to examine the phylogeographic history of Poecilia reticulata Peters (the guppy), and to test whether patterns of parallel morphological divergence seen in Trinidad extend across the natural range. In Chapter 1, phylogenetic, nested clade, and population genetic analyses of nuclear (X-src) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences were used to investigate p...

Alexander, Heather Jane

2007-01-01

100

Joint toxicity of mixtures of groups of organic aquatic pollutants to the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

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In this study acute lethal concentrations (LC50) to the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) were determined for mixtures of 4 groups of aquatic pollutants. The groups were composed of 11 nonreactive, nonionized organic chemicals, 11 chloroanilines, 11 chlorophenols, and 9 reactive organic halides. Earlier studies indicated that the joint toxicity within each of these groups was concentration additive, probably because of a similar mode of action. The joint toxicity of combinations of one representati...

Hermens, J. L. M.; Leeuwangh, Peter; Musch, Aalt

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Active selection for large guppies, Poecilia reticulata, by the pike cichlid, Crenicichla saxatilis  

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Size-selective predation has been proposed to be one important evolutionary force shaping life-history traits in guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Populations living in the presence of the ring-tailed pike cichlid (Crenicichlasaxatilis) are smaller, mature earlier, allocate more energy to offspring and get more and smaller young than guppies in localities without Crenicichla. We investigated if Crenicichlasaxatilis is a size-selective predator, if the selectivity is a result of active choice and...

Johansson, Jonas; Turesson, Ha?kan; Persson, Anders

2004-01-01

102

Male display rate reveals ejaculate characteristics in the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata.  

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Previous work (Reynolds and Gross 1992) has demonstrated that mate choice enables female guppies, Poecilia reticulata, to obtain heritable benefits ('good genes') for their offspring. It is not yet known whether males also signal their functional fertility, that is, their viability as fathers, to female guppies. Our study tested the hypothesis that a male's behaviour reveals characteristics of his ejaculate. We uncovered a strong correlation between display rate and sperm number in male guppi...

Matthews, I. M.; Evans, J. P.; Magurran, A. E.

1997-01-01

103

Insemination efficiency of two alternative male mating tactics in the guppy Poecilia reticulata  

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In this study we compared the insemination efficiency of two alternative mating tactics (courtship and sneak mating) in the guppy Poecilia reticulata by quantifying the number of sperm delivered during a copulation. During a single copulation, guppies delivered between zero and 92% of the sperm available, as determined by mechanically stripping the males' sperm reserve at rest. The absolute number of sperm delivered after courtship was three times larger than that delivered through sneak mati...

Pilastro, A.; Bisazza, A.

1999-01-01

104

Interface between culturally based preferences and genetic preferences: female mate choice in Poecilia reticulata.  

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The relative contribution of genetic and socio-cultural factors in the shaping of behavior is of fundamental importance to biologists and social scientists, yet it has proven to be extremely difficult to study in a controlled, experimental fashion. Here I describe experiments that examined the strength of genetic and cultural (imitative) factors in determining female mate choice in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Female guppies from the Paria River in Trinidad have a genetic, heritable prefer...

Dugatkin, L. A.

1996-01-01

105

Female mate preference explains countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of guppies (Poecilia reticulata)  

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We tested the hypothesis that mate choice is responsible for countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The nature of the countergradient pattern is that geographical variation in the carotenoid content of the orange spots of males is counterbalanced by genetic variation in drosopterin production, resulting in a relatively uniform pigment ratio. A female hue preference could produce this pattern, because hue is the axis of colour variation...

Deere, Kerry A.; Grether, Gregory F.; Sun, Aida; Sinsheimer, Janet S.

2012-01-01

106

Predicting the direction of ornament evolution in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata)  

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Sexual selection is thought to be opposed by natural selection such that ornamental traits express a balance between these two antagonistic influences. Phenotypic variation among populations may indicate local shifts in this balance, or that different stable ‘solutions’ are possible, but testing these alternatives presents a major challenge. In the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a small freshwater fish with male-limited ornamental coloration, these issues can be addressed by transplanting f...

Kemp, Darrell J.; Reznick, David N.; Grether, Gregory F.; Endler, John A.

2009-01-01

107

Evolution of juvenile growth rates in female guppies (Poecilia reticulata): predator regime or resource level?  

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Recent theoretical and empirical work argues that growth rate can evolve and be optimized, rather than always being maximized. Chronically low resource availability is predicted to favour the evolution of slow growth, whereas attaining a size-refuge from mortality risk is predicted to favour the evolution of rapid growth. Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) evolve differences in behaviour, morphology and life-history traits in response to predation, thus demonstrating that predators are potent agen...

Arendt, Jeffrey D.; Reznick, David N.

2005-01-01

108

Investigation of LC50, NOEC and LOEC of Glyphosate, Deltamethrin and Pretilachlor in Guppies (Poecilia Reticulata)  

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Background: The presence of pesticides is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran. These toxic substances may accumulate in the food chain and cause serious ecological and health problems. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor as potential dangerous organic pesticides to assess lethal effects of these chemicals agents to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Methods: Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of glypho...

Ali Sadeghi; Aliakbar Hedayati

2014-01-01

109

Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of citrus jambhiri lush and citrus reticulata blanco essential oils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to investigate the time interval in which we can get maximum concentration of essential oil from the peels of Citrus jambhiri Lush and Citrus reticulata Blanco, to determine the composition of peel oils and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracted oils. It was observed that in case of Citrus jambhiri Lush maximum oil yield (I %) was obtained when fruits were immature (during October). As the fruit samples got matured, the oil yield decreased. In December the oil yield decreased to 0.2 %. In case of Citrus reticulata Blanco maximum oil yield (0.189 %) was obtained during the last week of January. Chemical analysis of essential oils showed that limonene was the most abundant compound (86 %-93 %) followed by alpha terpinene (2 %-4.5 %), beta-pinene(1 0/0-2 %) and nerol (0.5 %-1.5 %). The radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of essential oils were determined by DPPH and linoleic acid test. The essential oil of Citrus jambhiri Lush inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid by 54.98 % and that of Citrus reticulata Blanco inhibited by 49.98 %. Moreover, the essential oils also showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms. (author)

110

Efecto anabólico y androgénico del esteroide acetato de trembolona en el guppy (Poecilia reticulata) / Anabolic and androgenic effect of steroid trenbolone acetate on guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se investigó el efecto del esteroide semisintético acetato de trembolona (ATB) en el pez de ornato Poecilia reticulata (guppy). Especímenes juveniles de 30 días de edad fueron tratados con el esteroide a dosis de 300 mg/kg de alimento durante 60 días. Al término del tratamiento, 40 días después, se [...] estimó el efecto residual del esteroide. Se analizó la sobrevivencia, la proporción de peces masculinizados, así como el efecto anabólico. Los resultados indicaron que el ATB es eficaz para inducir la masculinización, a diferencia del grupo testigo, donde se registraron 32% de machos. Asimismo, el ATB tuvo un efecto anabólico, ya que los peces tratados mostraron mayor peso y talla e incremento de la aleta caudal. El esteroide no causó daño en la población tratada, al sobrevivir 93.3% de los peces, comparado con 83% del grupo testigo. Abstract in english The effect of semi-synthetic steroid trenbolone acetate (TBA) on the ornamental fish Poecilia reticulata (guppy) was studied. The steroid at a dose of 300 mg/kg feed was administered to 30 days old juvenile specimens during 60 days. Forty days after treatment was ended, an evaluation aimed to determ [...] ine the steroid residual effect was undertaken. Survival, masculinization ratio and the drug anabolic effect were analyzed. Results showed TBA to be effective to induce masculinization, differing (P

Héctor, Salgado Zamora; Aída, Azpeitia Hernández; Samuel, Marañón Herrera; Eduardo, Maya Peña.

2008-09-01

111

Chemical and pharmacognostical characterization of two Malaysian plants both known as Ajisamat  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Ajisamat, an herb commonly used as an aphrodisiac in the Malaysian traditional medicine, corresponds to two different species from different families - Salacia macrophylla Blume, Celastraceae, and Prismatomeris glabra (Korth.) Valeton, Rubiaceae. Macromorphological inspection of the vegetative parts [...] both plants reveals only a slight difference in the arrangement of the petioles. Microscopic investigation of the plants roots used as crude drugs revealed however distinctive anatomical features. Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and banded paratracheal parenchyma are characteristics of S. macrophylla while P. glabra displays an abundance as crystals. Other features such as vessels diameters and arrangements are also of diagnostic importance. Some of these characters were also identified in the powder of thes e plant materials and proposed for diagnostic purpose. The values for extraction of ethanol and water as well as total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash and sulfated ash were determined for both plants. Phytochemical studies were carried out on hexane and chloroform extracts of S. macrophylla and methanolic extract of P. glabra. S. macrophylla was shown to contain highly oxidized pentacyclic triterpenes while P. glabra contains anthraquinones. The pharmacognostical and hytochemical information can be utilised as the identification tools for Salacia macrophylla and Prismatomeris glabra

Tengku Azlan S. Tengku, Mohamad; Humera, Naz; Ratni S., Jalal; Khatijah, Hussin; Mohd R. Abd, Rahman; Aishah, Adam; Jean-Frederic F., Weber.

2013-09-01

112

Utilization of chemically modified citrus reticulata peels for biosorptive removal of acid yellow-73 dye from water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Textile effluents contain several varieties of natural and synthetic dyes, which are non-biodegradable. Acid Yellow-73 is one of them. In this research work, adsorptive removal of this dye was investigated using chemically modified Citrus reticulata peels, in batch mode. It was noted that adsorption of dye on Citrus reticulata peels increased by increasing contact time and decreased in basic pH conditions. Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal models were followed by equilibrium data, but the first isotherm fitted the data better, showing that chemisorption occurred more as compared to physiosorption, showing maximum adsorption capacity 96.46 mg.g-1.L-1. The thermodynamic study showed that adsorption of Acid Yellow-73 on chemically modified Citrus reticulata peels was favorable in nature, following pseudo-second order kinetics. (author)

113

Towards the elusive structure of kotalanol, a naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

This Highlight describes the detailed approach used to determine the absolute stereochemistry of the stereogenic centers in the acyclic side chain of kotalanol, a naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor isolated from the plant Salacia reticulata. The plant extract itself is used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. We highlight the syntheses of proposed candidates based on structure-activity relationships, the total synthesis of kotalanol, and crystallographic studies of kotalanol and its de-O-sulfonated derivative complexed with recombinant human maltase glucoamylase (MGA), a critical intestinal glucosidase involved in the breakdown of glucose oligomers into glucose. PMID:20336233

Mohan, Sankar; Pinto, B Mario

2010-04-01

114

Salacia oblonga root improves cardiac lipid metabolism in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: Modulation of cardiac PPAR-?-mediated transcription of fatty acid metabolic genes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Excess cardiac triglyceride accumulation in diabetes and obesity induces lipotoxicity, which predisposes the myocytes to death. On the other hand, increased cardiac fatty acid (FA) oxidation plays a role in the development of myocardial dysfunction in diabetes. PPAR-? plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis of lipid metabolism. We have previously demonstrated that the extract from Salacia oblonga root (SOE), an Ayurvedic anti-diabetic and anti-obesity medicine, improves hyperlipidemia in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats (a genetic model of type 2 diabetes and obesity) and possesses PPAR-? activating properties. Here we demonstrate that chronic oral administration of SOE reduces cardiac triglyceride and FA contents and decreases the Oil red O-stained area in the myocardium of ZDF rats, which parallels the effects on plasma triglyceride and FA levels. Furthermore, the treatment suppressed cardiac overexpression of both FA transporter protein-1 mRNA and protein in ZDF rats, suggesting inhibition of increased cardiac FA uptake as the basis for decreased cardiac FA levels. Additionally, the treatment also inhibited overexpression in ZDF rat heart of PPAR-? mRNA and protein and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, acyl-CoA oxidase and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase mRNAs and restored the downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA. These results suggest that SOE inhibits cardiac FA oxidation in ZDF rats. Thus, our findings suggest that improvement by SOE of excessggest that improvement by SOE of excess cardiac lipid accumulation and increased cardiac FA oxidation in diabetes and obesity occurs by reduction of cardiac FA uptake, thereby modulating cardiac PPAR-?-mediated FA metabolic gene transcription

115

Use of 65Zn as a radioactive tracer in the bioaccumulation study of zinc by Poecilia reticulata  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bioaccumulation of zinc by Poecilia reticulata from water as well as the elimination of the metal previously absorbed were determined by using 65Zn as radioactive tracer. The exposure time varied from 18 days to 30 days. The results obtained show that the absorption and elimination of zinc by Poecilia reticulata is slow, 30 days being necessary for the elimination of 70% of the previously absorbed zinc. The same experiment was also carried out by feeding fish with 65Zn contaminated food. The results obtained show that in 30 days only 40% of the zinc previously absorbed is eliminated by the fish. (author) 15 refs.; 3 figs

116

VARIATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF FRUIT PEELS OF CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO BY PHYSICAL EFFECTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The chemical composition of volatile oil of the fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) of Delhi Region has been studied under different physical factors. The oil was composed mainly monoterpenes (99.1 %) constituting l-limonene (92.4 %), ?-terpene (2.6 %) and ?-phellandrene (1.8 %). The volatile oil after heating at 110?C for 24 hours, exposing to sunlight for 48 hours and UV light for 24 hours and after treatment with silica gel and alumina neutral for 24 hours contained t...

Ali Mohammed; Husain Shahnaz Sultana; Ansari Shahid Husain

2011-01-01

117

Acute Toxicity of Premium Motor Spirit to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859  

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Full Text Available Static bioassays were made to determine acute toxicity of premium motor spirit on poecilia reticulata. Lethal doses of the oil were determined using LC50 software programmes based on Finneys probit statistical method. The 96 LC50 value of the oil for guppy was estimated as 1.69 (1.13-2.43 mg L-1. The fish exhibited behavioural changes in the form of aggression, rapid gulping of water, increased opercular movement and abnormal swimming movements. The significance of this sublethal effect particularly as a stress indicator of petrol oil contamination was discussed.

J .K. Saliu

2007-01-01

118

Sequence analysis of three citrus viroids infecting a single Tunisian citrus tree (Citrus, reticulata, Clementine)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We report the nucleotide sequences of three citrus viroids belonging to three different genera: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and Citrus viroid-III (CVd-III) isolated from a single natural infected Citrus reticulata var. Clementine tree growing in a tree nursery in Manouba [...] (near Tunis Capital). We describe the sequence variability of these viroids from their natural host without using an alternative passage by an indicator host or an artificial inoculation. This work confirms that naturally occurring viroid infections contain a mixture of sequence variants. These are the first sequences of citrus viroids from Africa.

Amine, Elleuch; Fattouma Djilani, Khouaja; Imen, Hamdi; Nabiha, Bsais; Jean-Pierre, Perreault; Mohamed, Marrakchi; Hatem, Fakhfakh.

119

Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Fetotoxicity, and Teratogenicity of Plathymenia reticulata Benth Barks Aqueous Extract  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientific assessment of harmful interactions of chemicals over the entire reproductive cycle are divided into three segments based on the period: from premating and mating to implantation (I), from implantation to major organogenesis (II), and late pregnancy and postnatal development (III). We combined the segments I and II to assess Plathymenia reticulata aqueous extract safety. In order to investigate reproductive toxicity (segment I), pregnant rats received orally 0.5 or 1.0?g/kg of extract, daily, during 18 days. These concentrations were determined by a preliminary in vitro LD50 test in CHO-k1 cells. A control group received deionized water. The offspring was removed at the 19th day, by caesarean, and a teratology study (segment II) was carried out. The corpora lutea, implants, resorptions, live, and dead fetuses were then counted. Placenta and fetuses were weighted. External and visceral morphology were provided by the fixation of fetuses in Bouin, whereas skeletal analysis was carried out on the diaphanizated ones. The increase in the weights of placenta and fetuses was the only abnormality observed. Since there was no sign of alteration on reproduction parameters at our experimental conditions, we conclude that P. reticulata aqueous extract is safe at 0.5 to 1.0?g/kg and is not considered teratogenic. PMID:24455668

de Barros Leite Albuquerque, Lia; dos Santos, Marcio Galdino; Lopes, Patricia Santos; Oshima-Franco, Yoko

2013-01-01

120

Toxicity response of Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae to some agricultural pesticides  

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Full Text Available Hedayati A, Tarkhani R, Shadi A. 2012. Mortality response of Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae to some agricultural pesticides. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 6-10. This research was performed to determine and compare acute toxicity of diazinon and deltamethrin as potential dangerous organic pesticides to assess mortality effects of these chemicals to the freshwater guppy Poecilia reticulata. LC50 of 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h was attained by probit analysis by Finney’s and using the maximum-likelihood procedure (SPSS. The 24-96 h LC50 for the diazinon were 40.9±0.98, 33.2±0.84, 23.2±0.74 and 16.8±0.57 ppm respectively. The 24-96 h LC50 for the deltamethrin were 0.297±0.13, 0.236±0.16, 0.204±0.47 and 0.195±0.06 ppm respectively. In the present study, LC50 values indicated that deltamethrin was more toxic than diazinon to this species. LC50 values obtained in the present study were different from the corresponding values that have been published in the literature for other species of fish.

ALIAKBAR HEDAYATI

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
121

Efficacy of Citrus reticulata and Mirazid in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on mice livers after treatment with the ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata root or the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree (Mirazid), as a new antishistosomal drug. Marker enzymes for di [...] fferent cell organelles were measured; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH); lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isoenzymes; glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase); acid phosphatase (AP) and 5'- nucleotidase. Liver function enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST); alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also estimated. Parasitological studies through ova count and worm burden will also be taken into consideration. The results showed a marked reduction in SDH, LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities and a significant increase in G-6-Pase, AP, 5'- nucleotidase, and ALP after S. mansoni infection. A noticeable alteration in LDH subunits were also noticed. Treatment with C. reticulata or Mirazid improved all the previous enzyme activities with a noticeable reduction in ova count and worm burden.

Manal A, Hamed; Mona H, Hetta.

2005-11-01

122

Cultivo de Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poecilidae) en cuerpos de agua tropicales,Veracruz,México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los peces ornamentales cultivados se han popularizado como mascotas,generando una demanda local que no se ha podido cubrir con la producción de México y por lo tanto deben importarse.Poecilia reticulata "guppy ",es un pez muy popular en el ámbito acuarístico,hoy en día se ha logrado desarrollar una [...] gran cantidad de variedades según su coloración,tipo y forma de cola.Son peces vivíparos que toleran un ámbito extremo de temperatura,siendo la más adecuada entre 25ºC y 28ºC.El tiempo que tardan las hembras en expulsar a las crías una vez que quedan preñadas,oscila entre los 25 y 30 días dependiendo de la temperatura.En esta investigación,el ciclo reproductivo completo se desarrolló en jaulas flotantes,en una laguna tropical situada en la Llanura Costera del Golfo Sur, Veracruz, México.Se diseñó la infraestructura necesaria para producir guppys (P.reticulata )incluyendo el manejo de reproductores,crianza,engorda,alimentación y comercialización,evaluando su factibilidad técnica y financiera.Se realizó un estudio de mercado,a través de una encuesta aplicada a los propietarios de los 22 acuarios existentes en la Ciudad de Veracruz,México.Se analizaron las frecuencias de oferta y demanda de cada especie con respecto a la temporada del año,lugar de origen y resistencia al manejo.Las características hidrobiológicas presentaron valores medios de temperatura (31.4ºC),oxígeno disuelto (4.5 mgl-1)y pH (6.8).Con los datos obtenidos en campo se realizó un modelo para producción de P.reticulata ,obteniendo una relación beneficio/costo=1.16,correspondiente al ingreso mínimo potencial con una ganancia bruta de US$257.67, proporcionando empleo a dos personas El aprovechamiento de cuerpos de agua en regiones tropicales a través de la producción de peces de ornato representa una alternativa para disminuir la presión sobre las poblaciones silvestres y las tierras de cultivo,proporcionar fuentes de empleo e incrementar los ingresos para el productor en comparación con sistemas tradicionales de producción. Abstract in english Culture of Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poecilidae)in tropical water bodies, Veracruz, México. Poecilia reticulata,also known as guppy,is the most popular fish in the aquarium environment. Guppys are viviparous fish with high tolerance to extreme temperatures.The development of the offspring takes be [...] tween 25 and 30 days.We developed a technology for raising guppys,which outlines infrastructure and devices for reproduction,nursery,feeding,and commercialization,evaluating the financial and technical feasibility of this technology in a case study.The complete reproductive cycle occured in floating cages with 1 mm mesh and the method was tested in a tropical lagoon in Mexico.Water quality was monitored throughout the study period (temperature,dissolved oxygen and pH levels).A marketing survey was carried out at all existing aquarium shops in Veracruz City.Data collected depict quantities demanded and offered for each species by season,place of origin,and resistance to handling.The hydrobiological characteristics were:average temperature 31.4 ºC, dissolved oxygen 4.5 mgl-1,and pH level 6.8.With these values we built a production function,and used it to evaluate profitability.We estimate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.16,with a net annual income of US$257.67.The system may provide two permanent jobs.Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4):951-958.Epub 2005 Jun 24.

Patricia, Devezé Murillo; Juan Lorenzo, Reta Mendiola; Basilio, Sánchez Luna.

2004-12-01

123

Cultivo de Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poecilidae en cuerpos de agua tropicales,Veracruz,México  

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Full Text Available Los peces ornamentales cultivados se han popularizado como mascotas,generando una demanda local que no se ha podido cubrir con la producción de México y por lo tanto deben importarse.Poecilia reticulata "guppy ",es un pez muy popular en el ámbito acuarístico,hoy en día se ha logrado desarrollar una gran cantidad de variedades según su coloración,tipo y forma de cola.Son peces vivíparos que toleran un ámbito extremo de temperatura,siendo la más adecuada entre 25ºC y 28ºC.El tiempo que tardan las hembras en expulsar a las crías una vez que quedan preñadas,oscila entre los 25 y 30 días dependiendo de la temperatura.En esta investigación,el ciclo reproductivo completo se desarrolló en jaulas flotantes,en una laguna tropical situada en la Llanura Costera del Golfo Sur, Veracruz, México.Se diseñó la infraestructura necesaria para producir guppys (P.reticulata incluyendo el manejo de reproductores,crianza,engorda,alimentación y comercialización,evaluando su factibilidad técnica y financiera.Se realizó un estudio de mercado,a través de una encuesta aplicada a los propietarios de los 22 acuarios existentes en la Ciudad de Veracruz,México.Se analizaron las frecuencias de oferta y demanda de cada especie con respecto a la temporada del año,lugar de origen y resistencia al manejo.Las características hidrobiológicas presentaron valores medios de temperatura (31.4ºC,oxígeno disuelto (4.5 mgl-1y pH (6.8.Con los datos obtenidos en campo se realizó un modelo para producción de P.reticulata ,obteniendo una relación beneficio/costo=1.16,correspondiente al ingreso mínimo potencial con una ganancia bruta de US$257.67, proporcionando empleo a dos personas El aprovechamiento de cuerpos de agua en regiones tropicales a través de la producción de peces de ornato representa una alternativa para disminuir la presión sobre las poblaciones silvestres y las tierras de cultivo,proporcionar fuentes de empleo e incrementar los ingresos para el productor en comparación con sistemas tradicionales de producción.Culture of Poecilia reticulata (Pisces:Poecilidaein tropical water bodies, Veracruz, México. Poecilia reticulata,also known as guppy,is the most popular fish in the aquarium environment. Guppys are viviparous fish with high tolerance to extreme temperatures.The development of the offspring takes between 25 and 30 days.We developed a technology for raising guppys,which outlines infrastructure and devices for reproduction,nursery,feeding,and commercialization,evaluating the financial and technical feasibility of this technology in a case study.The complete reproductive cycle occured in floating cages with 1 mm mesh and the method was tested in a tropical lagoon in Mexico.Water quality was monitored throughout the study period (temperature,dissolved oxygen and pH levels.A marketing survey was carried out at all existing aquarium shops in Veracruz City.Data collected depict quantities demanded and offered for each species by season,place of origin,and resistance to handling.The hydrobiological characteristics were:average temperature 31.4 ºC, dissolved oxygen 4.5 mgl-1,and pH level 6.8.With these values we built a production function,and used it to evaluate profitability.We estimate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.16,with a net annual income of US$257.67.The system may provide two permanent jobs.Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4:951-958.Epub 2005 Jun 24.

Patricia Devezé Murillo

2004-12-01

124

Upstream guppies (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859) go against the flow / Gupies (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859) de áreas de cabeceira se posicionam contra a corrente  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Populações de guppies (Poecilia reticulata Peters) que vivem em lagos e em cativeiro podem demonstrar menos reotaxia em comparação com populações que habitam rios e que estão frequentemente expostas a enchentes e que provocam a migração involuntária para jusante. Neste trabalho, vamos testar esta hi [...] pótese num rio artificial utilizando guppies de duas populações selvagens que habitam em rios, uma população que habita em lagos, e uma linhagem ornamental. Os resultados demonstram que os guppies de rios que provêm de localidades a montante demonstram maior reotaxia, diminuindo assim probabilidade de serem arrastados para jusante em períodos de enchentes. No entanto, não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre guppies de localidades a jusante, do lago Pitch ou ornamentais. Este resultado pode dever-se ao facto de existirem grandes diferenças ecológicas entre os habitats localizados a jusante e a montante dos rios. Devido ao facto de estas localidades estarem separadas por cachoeiras, impossibilitando a migração rio-acima, a seleção natural poderá estar a actuar contra guppies que sejam arrastados rio abaixo durantes os períodos de cheias Abstract in english Guppies (Poecilia reticulata Peters 1859) in lakes and from captive-bred populations are predicted to show little rheotaxis compared to conspecifics in a stream environment that are regularly exposed to flash floods associated with involuntary downstream migration. Here we test this hypothesis using [...] an artificial stream, examining guppies of two wild riverine populations, one lake population, and one ornamental strain. Guppies from the most upstream riverine habitat show the most pronounced rheotaxis and are less likely to be swept downstream during flooding events. However, there is no significant difference between guppies from the lowland riverine habitat, the Pitch Lake and ornamental strain. We propose that station-keeping behaviours are most strongly selected in the upstream population because large spatial differences exist in ecology and environment between up- and downstream habitats. Given that these sites are separated by barrier waterfalls that prevent compensatory upstream migration, natural selection operates particularly strong against upstream guppies that have been displaced downstream during flooding events.

Ryan Simon, Mohammed; Cock, van Oosterhout; Bettina, Schelkle; Joanne, Cable; Mark, McMullan.

2012-09-01

125

Pseudobrânquia do guaru Poecilia reticulata (Peter, 1859): análise estrutural, morfométrica e histoquímica para detecção de glicoconjugados / Pseudo-gill of guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Peter, 1859): structural, morphometric, and histochemical analyses for the detection of glycoconjugates  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A morfologia, os parâmetros citomorfométricos e os glicoconjugados presentes na pseudobrânquia de guaru, Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae), foram investigados por microscopia de luz acoplada ao sistema de captura e análise de imagens, juntamente por histoquímica com l [...] ectinas. A anatomia microscópica indicou que P. reticulata possui pseudobrânquia glandular formada por dois lóbulos, a qual se localiza abaixo do epitélio faringiano. O órgão é constituído por parênquima vascularizado e rico em células pseudobranquiais. Esse tipo celular exibe estado citofisiológico ativo, com abundante sistema de biomembranas e ausência de óstio na superfície apical,que por sua vez é encontrado nas células ricas em mitocôndrias das holobrânquias. Assim, indica-se que as células da pseudobrânquia se distinguem das células das holobrânquias em relação à morfologia, histoquímica e fisiologia. Em decorrência dessas características intrínsecas, a pseudobrânquia de alevinos do guaru pode desempenhar funções não respiratórias nas fases iniciais do desenvolvimento. Além disso, a caracterização da pseudobrânquia do guaru possibilitará estudos futuros sobre o efeito de poluentes aquáticos em espécies biomonitoras, como P. reticulata. Abstract in english The morphology, cytomorphometric parameters, and glycoconjugates present in the pseudo-gill of guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae), were investigated by light microscopy coupled to image capture and analysis system, and also by lectin histochemistry. The microsco [...] pic anatomy indicates that P. reticulata has a glandular pseudo-gill formed by two lobes, located underneath the pharynx epithelium. The organ is formed by vascularized parenchyma rich in pseudo-gill cells. This cell type exhibits active cytophysiological state with an abundant system of biomembranes and lacking of ostium in apical surface, which in turn is found in the mitochondria-rich cells of the holobranch. This indicates that the pseudo-gill cells distinguishe from the holobranch cells in their morphology, histochemistry and physiology. Due to these intrinsic characteristics, the pseudo-gill of guppy fingerlings may have non-respiratory function in the initial phase of their development. The characterization of guppy's pseudo-gill could facilitate further studies about the effect of water pollutants on biomonitor species, such as P. reticulata.

Thiago L., Rocha; Ana P.R., Santos; Simone M.T., Sabóia-Morais.

2013-05-01

126

EFECTOS ECOTOXICOLOGICOS DEL CARTAP SOBRE POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE Y PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE ECOTOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CARTAP ON POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE AND PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE  

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Full Text Available Se evaluó el impacto ecotoxicológico del insecticida carbámico cartap (1,3 di (carbamoytio-2-dimetiloaminopropano usado para el control de plagas agrícolas y como molusquicida de vectores de importancia en Salud Pública, sobre dos especies de peces del ecosistema acuático continental: Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859 "guppy" (Poecilidae y Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936 ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae. Ellos fueron utilizados como organismos no destinatarios en ensayos de corta duración, para determinar el impacto toxicológico del cartap. Para ambas especies de peces se evaluó el porcentaje de mortalidad, y dos respuestas subletales: el incremento del movimiento opercular y el nado extraño. A 3 h de exposición para P. reticulata, se encontró un valor de CL50 (Concentración letal media de 6,75 mg•L-1 y valores de CE50 (Concentración efectiva media de The ecotoxicological impact of the carbamate insecticide cartap (1,3 di (carbamoythio-2-dimethyloaminopropan used for agriculture pests and as mollusquicide of vectors of Public Health importance was evaluated, on two fish species of the continental aquatic ecosystem. Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859 ``guppy" (Poecilidae and Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936 ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae were employed as non-target organisms in assays of short duration to determine the toxicological impact of cartap. For both fish, percentage of mortality and two sublethal responses: increase of opercula movement and strange swim, were evaluated. In P. reticulata after 3 h exposure it was found a LC50 (mean Lethal Concentration of 6.75 mg'•L-1 and values of EC50 (mean Effective Concentration of <7.55 and <8.16 mg•L-1 as speed up of opercula movement and strange swim, respectively. For P. innesi, it was found an LC50 value of <0.02 mg•L-1 and values of EC50 of <0.01 and <0.03 mg•L-1, as speed up of opercula movement and strange swim, respectively. P. innesi was more sensitive to cartap than P. reticulata. Risk Quotients (RQ to evaluate environmental risk (ERA of this insecticide on aquatic ecosystem were calculated, indicating that P. innesi was more accurate than P. reticulata as ecotoxicological tool to evaluate cartap.

Jose Iannacone

2007-01-01

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Sexual conflict and the function of genitalic claws in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Poeciliid fish, freshwater fish with internal fertilization, are known for the diversity of structures on the male intromittent organ, the gonopodium. Prominent among these, in some species, is a pair of claws at its tip. We conducted a manipulative study of these claws in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, to determine if these aid in transferring sperm to resistant females. We compared the sperm transfer rates of clawed versus surgically declawed males attempting to mate with either receptive or unreceptive (i.e. resistant) females. Our analyses demonstrate that the gonopodial claws function to increase sperm transfer to unreceptive females during uncooperative matings but not during receptive matings. Up to threefold more sperm were transferred to unreceptive females by clawed than declawed males. These data suggest that the claw is a sexually antagonistic trait, functioning to aid in transferring sperm to resistant females, and implicate sexual conflict as a selective force in the diversification of the gonopodium in the Poeciliidae. PMID:23883572

Kwan, Lucia; Cheng, Yun Yun; Rodd, F Helen; Rowe, Locke

2013-10-23

128

Accumulation of dieldrin in an alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), Daphnia magna, and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)  

Science.gov (United States)

Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Poecilia reticulata accumulated dieldrin directly from water; average concentration factors (concentration in organism, dry weight, divided by concentration in water) were 1282 for the alga, 13,954 for D. magna, and 49,307 (estimated) for the guppy. The amount accumulated by each species at equilibrium (after about 1.5, 3-4, and 18 days, respectively) was directly proportional to the concentration of dieldrin in the water. Daphnia magna and guppies accumulated more dieldrin from water than from food that had been exposed to similar concentrations in water. When guppies were fed equal daily rations of D. magna containing different concentrations of insecticide, the amounts of dieldrin accumulated by the fish were directly proportional to the concentration in D. magna; when two lots of guppies were fed different quantities of D. magna (10 and 20 organisms per day) containing identical concentrations of dieldrin, however, the amounts accumulated did not differ substantially.

Reinert, Robert E.

1972-01-01

129

Subacute toxicity assessment of carotenoids extracted from citrus peel (Nanfengmiju, Citrus reticulata Blanco) in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mixture of carotenoids extracted from citrus peel (Nanfengmiju, Citrus reticulata Blanco) was tested for subacute oral toxicity. In this study, dose levels of 0, 200, 500 and 2000 mg/kg body weight/day were administered by gavage to 10 Wistar rats/sex/group for 28 days. No statistically significant, dose-related effect on food consumption, food efficiency, body weight gain, clinical signs or ophthalmoscopic parameters was observed in any treatment group. Urinalysis, hematological, blood coagulation and serum biochemical examination as well as necropsy or histopathology showed that no observed adverse effect was found. These findings suggested that the No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level for the mixture of carotenoids extracted from citrus peel was at least 2000 mg/kg body weight/day. PMID:22197624

Xue, Feng; Li, Chen; Pan, Siyi

2012-02-01

130

Root activity in kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata) using 32P in submontane Himalayan region of India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution pattern of root activity of 5-year old Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) trees was determined by the 32P soil-injection technique. The 32P solution was injected into the soil at lateral distances of 30, 60, 90 and 120 cm from the tree trunk at 15, 30, 60 and 90 cm depths and its uptake was determined in half and fully-expanded leaves at weekly intervals for 5 weeks. The maximum specific activity was noted at 14 days of injection, which decreased thereafter. The relative root activity was maximum at 30 cm depth at a radial distance of 90-120 cm from tree trunk in both the types of leaves. About 60% of the root activity was confined to this zone. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

131

Euclinostomum heterostomum infection in guppies Poecilia reticulata cultured in Southern Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

During April to June 2009 and February 2010 to February 2011, numerous digenetic trematode metacercariae were observed embedded in the muscles of guppies Poecilia reticulata cultured at Kidchakan Supamattaya Aquatic Animal Health Research Center, Songkhla, southern Thailand. A total of 424 guppies were examined to identify the parasite and to study its pathogenicity. Based on conventional parasitological techniques, the parasitic digenean found in the guppies was identified as Euclinostomum heterostomum Rudolphi, 1809. Histological analysis revealed numerous metacercariae embedded in the fish muscle. A life cycle study indicated that the snail Indoplanorbis exustus was the first intermediate host, with the guppies serving as the second intermediate host. No E. heterostomum metacercariae were found in cohabited fish species, giant sailfin molly Poecilia velifera or platy Xiphophorus maculatus, which indicated that the guppy was the only suitable fish host present. PMID:23709465

Suanyuk, Naraid; Mankhakhet, Suchanya; Soliman, Hatem; Saleh, Mona; El-Matbouli, Mansour

2013-05-27

132

DETAILED COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA LINN. AND ANNONA RETICULATA LINN. LEAVES  

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Full Text Available Annona squamosa Linn. and Annona reticulata Linn. are locally known as Sitaphala and Ramphala respectively both belongs to family Annonaceae. Leaves of both are used in various diseases like suppurant, toothache, anthelmintic commonly. Individually A. squamosa is used in anti diabetic, antispasmodic, dandruff and A. reticulate is used in flatulence and toothache. Till date there is no scientific comparative study has been reported. Pharmacognostical study of A. squamosa shows lysogenous cavity and sparse trichome where as, A. reticulate shows multicellular trichomes filled with tannin and stone cells. The powder characters of A. squamosa are stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate whereas A. reticulate shows pitted stones cells and micro rosettes crystals of calcium oxalate. Annular vessels, lysogenous cavity and paracytic stomata are common characters observed in both the leaves.

Jani Switu

2012-10-01

133

Influence of the protein quantity from combined fodder on the corporal development of guppy (Poecilia reticulata  

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Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the effects of various concentrations of protein premixtures onthe growth in length and weight of adult specimens of ornamental fish Poecilia reticulata, bred incaptivity. Of this consideration, the experiment was set up with six groups: R1, R2, R3, TG, TP and TD,which were fed differently as follows: R1 with mixed fodder containing 30% CP (crude protein, ownrecipe; R2 with mixed fodder containing 30% GP, own recipe; R3 with mixed fodder containing 30%CP, own recipe; TG with Troco Grower fodder containing 43% CP; TP with Troco Prim fodder containing44% CP; TD with Tetra Discus fodder containing 48% CP. The research was conducted over a period ofthree months in which there have been followed the length and weight, to determine body indices(average increase of the weight gain, Fulton index and average weight ratio multiplier.

Adrian Gruber

2013-03-01

134

Cloning and expression analysis of a prion protein encoding gene in guppy ( Poecilia reticulata)  

Science.gov (United States)

The full length cDNA of a prion protein (PrP) encoding gene of guppy ( Poecilia reticulata) and the corresponding genomic DNA were cloned. The cDNA was 2245 bp in length and contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1545 bp encoding a protein of 515 amino acids, which held all typical structural characteristics of the functional PrP. The cloned genomic DNA fragment corresponding to the cDNA was 3720 bp in length, consisting of 2 introns and 2 exons. The 5' untranslated region of cDNA originated from the 2 exons, while the ORF originated from the second exon. Although the gene was transcribed in diverse tissues including brain, eye, liver, intestine, muscle and tail, its transcript was most abundant in the brain. In addition, the transcription of the gene was enhanced by 5 salinity, implying that it was associated with the response of guppy to saline stress.

Wu, Suihan; Wei, Qiwei; Yang, Guanpin; Wang, Dengqiang; Zou, Guiwei; Chen, Daqing

2008-11-01

135

Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Essential Oil  

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Full Text Available The chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (PCR essential oil obtained using an improved Clevenger type apparatus were studied. Among the five different PCRs examined the highest yield of essential oil was found in Chachi 2004 (harvested and stored in 2004 and the lowest in Chachi 2008 (harvested and stored in 2008. Fifty three different volatile compounds were determined, including terpenic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters. D-limonene, one of terpenes, was the major constituent in PCR. The antioxidant capacity of PCR essential oil varied considerably with the duration of storage time, and the oil from Chachi 1994 has the strongest ferric-reducing antioxidant power. In addition, the essential oil possessed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, except Streptococcus faecalis, while had no effect on Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae.

Bei Gao

2011-05-01

136

Heterozygosity and orange coloration are associated in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

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The good-genes-as-heterozygosity hypothesis predicts that more elaborate male sexual ornaments are associated with higher levels of heterozygosity. Recent theoretical work suggests that such associations are likely to arise in finite, structured populations. We investigated the correlation between multilocus heterozygosity (MLH), which was estimated using 13 microsatellite loci, and male coloration in a wild population of guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a model species in sexual selection research. We found that MLH was a significant predictor of the relative area of orange spots, a trait that is subject to strong female preference in this species. Neither the relative area of black spots nor the number of black or orange spots was significantly correlated with MLH. We found no statistical support for local effects (i.e. strong effects of heterozygosity at specific markers), which suggests that relative orange spots area reflects genome-wide heterozygosity. PMID:24329722

Herdegen, M; Dudka, K; Radwan, J

2013-12-16

137

Environmental and physiological conditions affecting Tetrahymena sp. infection in guppies, Poecilia reticulata Peters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasitic infections caused by Tetrahymena sp. constitute a serious problem in guppies, Poecilia reticulata. Tetrahymena was isolated from skin lesions of naturally infected guppies in a commercial aquaculture farm, cultured in vitro and used in subsequent experimental infections. In addition to guppies, angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare, platyfish, Xiphophorus maculates, and neontetra, Paracheirodon innesi, were susceptible, whereas tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus xO. aureus) was resistant. The ciliate had a high affinity for dead fish. Skin abrasion did not affect the infection, but fish with gas bubble disease exhibited a significantly higher infection than non-affected fish. Infection was significantly higher when fish were exposed to high levels of ammonia, high organic load and low water temperatures. Under shipment conditions, infection was significantly elevated. Full recovery was achieved at a low fish density. Results suggest that poor environmental and physiological conditions enhance infection with Tetrahymena sp. PMID:16266327

Pimenta Leibowitz, M; Ariav, R; Zilberg, D

2005-09-01

138

Effect of male age on sperm traits and sperm competition success in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Deleterious mutations can accumulate in the germline with age, decreasing the genetic quality of sperm and imposing a cost on female fitness. If these mutations also affect sperm competition ability or sperm production, then females will benefit from polyandry as it incites sperm competition and, consequently, minimizes the mutational load in the offspring. We tested this hypothesis in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species characterized by polyandry and intense sperm competition, by investigating whether age affects post-copulatory male traits and sperm competition success. Females did not discriminate between old and young males in a mate choice experiment. While old males produced longer and slower sperm with larger reserves of strippable sperm, compared to young males, artificial insemination did not reveal any effect of age on sperm competition success. Altogether, these results do not support the hypothesis that polyandry evolved in response to costs associated with mating with old males in the guppy. PMID:19912453

Gasparini, C; Marino, I A M; Boschetto, C; Pilastro, A

2010-01-01

139

Development and Characterization of Somatic Hybrids of Ulva reticulata Forsskål (×) Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.)Doty  

Science.gov (United States)

Ulvophycean species with diverse trait characteristics provide an opportunity to create novel allelic recombinant variants. The present study reports the development of seaweed variants with improved agronomic traits through protoplast fusion between Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.) Doty and Ulva reticulata Forsskål. A total of 12 putative hybrids were screened based on the variations in morphology and total DNA content over the fusion partners. DNA-fingerprinting by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis confirmed genomic introgression in the hybrids. The DNA fingerprint revealed sharing of parental alleles in regenerated hybrids and a few alleles that were unique to hybrids. The epigenetic variations in hybrids estimated in terms of DNA methylation polymorphism also revealed sharing of methylation loci with both the fusion partners. The functional trait analysis for growth showed a hybrid with heterotic trait (DGR% = 36.7 ± 1.55%) over the fusion partners U. reticulata (33.2 ± 2.6%) and M. oxyspermum (17.8 ± 1.77%), while others were superior to the mid-parental value (25.2 ± 2.2%) (p acid (FA) analysis of hybrids showed notable variations over fusion partners. Most hybrids showed increased polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) compared to saturated FAs (SFAs) and mainly includes the nutritionally important linoleic acid, ?-linolenic acid, oleic acid, stearidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. The other differences observed include superior cellulose content and antioxidative potential in hybrids over fusion partners. The hybrid varieties with superior traits developed in this study unequivocally demonstrate the significance of protoplast fusion technique in developing improved varients of macroalgae. PMID:25688248

Gupta, Vishal; Kumari, Puja; Reddy, CRK

2015-01-01

140

Flutuação populacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton em Citrus deliciosa e no híbrido Murcott Citrus sinensis x Citrus reticulata Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton population fluctuation in Citrus deliciosa and Murcott hybrid Citrus sinensis x Citrus reticulata  

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O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a dinâmica populacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), o minador-dos-citros, em pomares de tangerineira Citrus deliciosa Tenore variedade Montenegrina e de tangoreiro híbrido "Murcott" Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck X Citrus reticulata Blanco, com manejo orgânico, em Montenegro (29° 68'S e 51° 46'O), Rio Grande do Sul. Foram realizadas amostragens quinzenais de julho de 2001 a junho de 2003. Os brotos coletados fo...

Cristiane Ramos de Jesus; Luiza Rodrigues Redaelli; Fábio Kessler Dal Soglio

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

EFECTOS ECOTOXICOLOGICOS DEL CARTAP SOBRE POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE) Y PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE) ECOTOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CARTAP ON POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE) AND PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE)  

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Se evaluó el impacto ecotoxicológico del insecticida carbámico cartap (1,3 di (carbamoytio)-2-dimetiloaminopropano) usado para el control de plagas agrícolas y como molusquicida de vectores de importancia en Salud Pública, sobre dos especies de peces del ecosistema acuático continental: Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859) "guppy" (Poecilidae) y Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936) ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae). Ellos fueron utilizados como organismos no destinatarios en ensayos de corta duraci?...

Jose Iannacone; Roxana Onofre; Olga Huanqui

2007-01-01

142

Heat shock transcription factors expression during fruit development and under hot air stress in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) play a role in plant responses to stress. Citrus is an economically important fruit whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed characterization of the Hsf gene family is available for citrus. A genome-wide analysis was carried out in Citrus clementina to identify Hsf genes, named CcHsfs. Eighteen CcHsfs were identified and classified into three main clades (clades A, B and C) according to the structural characteristics and the phylogenetic comparison with Arabidopsis and tomato. MEME motif analysis highlighted the conserved DBD and HR-A/B domains, which were similar to Hsf protein structures in other species. Gene expression analysis in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit identified 14 Hsf genes, named CrHsf, as important candidates for a role in fruit development and ripening, and showed seven genes to be expressed in response to hot air stress. CrHsfB2a and CrHsfB5 were considered to be important regulators of citrate content and showed variation in both developmentally-related and hot air-triggered citrate degradation processes. In summary, the data obtained from this investigation provides the basis for further study to dissect Hsf function during fruit development as well as in response to heat stress and also emphasizes the potential importance of CrHsfs in regulation of citrate metabolism in citrus fruit. PMID:25596345

Lin, Qiong; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Wang, Dengliang; Li, Shaojia; Liu, Chunrong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

2015-04-01

143

Study on the volatile oil contents of Annona glabra L., Annona squamosa L., Annona muricata L. and Annona reticulata L., from Vietnam.  

Science.gov (United States)

The volatile compounds identified from four species of Annona from Vietnam are being reported. The oils were obtained from aliquots of plant samples by steam distillation and subjected to GC and GC-MS analysis. The main compounds of Annona glabra L., were ?-caryophyllene (21.5%) germacrene D (17.7%), ?-cadinol (5.4%) and ?-elemene (5.2%). Annona squamosa L., comprised mainly of ?-pinene (1.0-11.9%), limonene (0.8-11.7%), ?-cubebene (0.5-13.0%), ?-caryophyllene (11.6-24.5%), spathulenol (0.8-9.0%), caryophyllene oxide (1.0-10.6%) and ?-cadinol (3.3-7.8%). The significant constituents of Annona muricata L., were ?-pinene (9.4%), ?-pinene (20.6%), ?-mentha-2,4(8)-diene (9.8%), ?-elemene (9.1%) and germacrene D (18.1%). However, camphene (0.2-6.6%), ?-copaene (2.0-7.3%), ?-elemene (5.9-16.6%), ?-caryophyllene (8.3-14.9%), ?-bisabolene (0.4-10.2%), ?-cadinene (1.7-4.8%) and germacrene D (9.3-22.8%) were the main compounds common to samples of Annona reticulata L. There were significant amounts of sabinene (11.2% and 2.7%; leaf and stem bark) and bicycloelemene (9.6% and 6.1%; stem and bark). PMID:22989376

Thang, T D; Dai, D N; Hoi, T M; Ogunwande, I A

2013-01-01

144

Investigation of Acute Toxicity of Pirimiphos-Methyl (Actellic®, 25%EC on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859  

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Full Text Available Pirimiphos-methyl is a broad spectrum organophosphate insecticide and potential toxic pollutant in aquatic ecosystems. The acute toxicity of Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic® was investigated using Guppy (Poecilia reticulata in a 96 h static renewal laboratory bioassay. Based on probit analysis, the LC50 was 0.026, 0.024, 0.022 and 0.019 ml L-1 at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA showed that there was significant difference (p<0.05 in the quantal response (mortality of P. reticulata to different concentrations of Actellic at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure. Actellic insecticide is toxic to fish; therefore its indiscriminate use in aquatic environment should be discouraged.

M.O. Lawal

2010-01-01

145

Multielemental analysis of mineral nutrients in Nagpur Santra (Citrus reticulata Blanco) leaves by thermal neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mn, Zn, Cu, Na, K, Fe and P have been determined in the Nagpur Santra (Citrus reticulata Blanco) leaves by thermal neutron activation analysis. The irradiated sample was dissolved in aqua regia in the presence of carriers. The ? and/or ? activities of the purified elements were measured after radiochemical separations involving solvent extraction and precipitation. The values obtained for the elements are comparable to those reported in literature for Indian citrus leaves. (author)

146

Comparação da sensibilidade de Danio rerio, Poecilia reticulata e Xiphophorus helleri a Aeromonas hydrophila e Aeromonas aquariorum  

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Este trabalho teve como objectivo comparar a sensibilidade de três das principais espécies de peixes ornamentais de água doce, Danio rerio, Poecilia reticulata e Xiphophorus helleri, a duas bactérias potencialmente zoonóticas para o Homem, Aeromonas hydprophila (SM 30016) e Aeromonas aquariorum (DSM 18362). De forma a efectuar a injecção intraperitoneal, foi necessário determinar a dose ideal de anestésico (MS-222) para cada uma das espécies de peixe estudadas, de modo a permi...

Chambel Martins, Joa?o

2011-01-01

147

Community Analysis of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Roots of Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus reticulata Based on SSU rDNA  

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Morphological observation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species in rhizospheric soil could not accurately reflect the actual AMF colonizing status in roots, while molecular identification of indigenous AMF colonizing citrus rootstocks at present was rare in China. In our study, community of AMF colonizing trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) and red tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) were analyzed based on small subunit of ribosomal DNA genes. Morphological observation sh...

Peng Wang; Yin Wang

2014-01-01

148

Acute Toxicity of Premium Motor Spirit to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Peters, 1859)  

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Static bioassays were made to determine acute toxicity of premium motor spirit on poecilia reticulata. Lethal doses of the oil were determined using LC50 software programmes based on Finneys probit statistical method. The 96 LC50 value of the oil for guppy was estimated as 1.69 (1.13-2.43) mg L-1. The fish exhibited behavioural changes in the form of aggression, rapid gulping of water, increased opercular movement and abnormal swimming movements. The si...

Saliu, J. K.

2007-01-01

149

Sex-specific effects of carotenoid intake on the immunological response to allografts in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).  

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Rarely are the evolutionary origins of mate preferences known, but, recently, the preference of female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) for males with carotenoid-based sexual coloration has been linked to a sensory bias that may have originally evolved for detecting carotenoid-rich fruits. If carotenoids enhance the immune systems of these fishes, as has been suggested for other species, this could explain the origin of the attraction to orange fruits as well as the maintenance of the female pre...

Grether, Gregory F.; Kasahara, Shinji; Kolluru, Gita R.; Cooper, Edwin L.

2004-01-01

150

Pigment Pattern Formation in the Guppy, Poecilia reticulata, Involves the Kita and Csf1ra Receptor Tyrosine Kinases  

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Males of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) vary tremendously in their ornamental patterns, which are thought to have evolved in response to a complex interplay between natural and sexual selection. Although the selection pressures acting on the color patterns of the guppy have been extensively studied, little is known about the genes that control their ontogeny. Over 50 years ago, two autosomal color loci, blue and golden, were described, both of which play a decisive role in the formation of t...

Kottler, Verena A.; Fadeev, Andrey; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

2013-01-01

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Diterpenos de Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Ducke com atividade larvicida contra Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera, Culicidae)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of diterpenoids obtained from the oil-resin of Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> against Aedes aegypti larvae, the principal vector of dengue and urban yellow fever. Four diterpenes were obtained from oil-resin extraction with organic solvents and subsequent chromatographic and spectroscopic procedures allowed to isolation and identification of these compounds as 3-b-acetoxylabdan-8(17)-13-dien-15-oic acid (1), alepterolic acid (2), 3-b-h...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Regina Geris; Ionizete Garcia da Silva; Heloísa Helena Garcia da Silva; Andersson Barison; Edson Rodrigues-Filho; Antônio Gilberto Ferreira</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/BPK/article/view/531"> <span id="translatedtitle">CONTROL DEMONSTRATION OF THE RICEFIELD BREEDING MOSQUITO ANOPHELES ACONITUS DONITZ IN CENTRAL JAVA, USING POECILIA <span class="hlt">RETICULATA</span> THROUGH COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION: 2. CULTURING, DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF FISH IN THE FIELD</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Suatu percobaan pemberantasan vektor malaria Anopheles aconitus dengan penyebaran ikan pema­kan jentik Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> di sawah telah dilakukan. Untuk memacu peran serta petani, penyebaran ikan P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> dilakukan bersamaan dengan minapadi di mana ikan Cyprinus carpio dipelihara di sawah. Beberapa aspek yang diteliti dalam percobaan ini adalah (1 biologi jentik An. aconitus dan ikan dan (2 cara-cara berkembangbiaknya ikan. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penyebaran An. aconitus di sawah pada umumnya 1/2 — 1 meter dari tepi pematang sawah, daya makan ikan P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> rata rata adalah 119,4 jentik/hari, daya reproduksi rata-rata ikan P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> adalah 109,3 ikan/bulan, daya produksi ikan C. carpio berkisar antara 5000 — 10.000 telur/3 bulan tergantung pada umur ikan betina. Kepadatan ikan P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> 2 ikan/m2 dapat menanggulangi populasi jentik di sawah.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sustriayu Nalim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.irjponline.com/admin/php/uploads/vol-2_issue-6/12.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">VARIATION OF THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF FRUIT PEELS OF CITRUS <span class="hlt">RETICULATA</span> BLANCO BY PHYSICAL EFFECTS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available The chemical composition of volatile oil of the fruit peels of Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco (Rutaceae of Delhi Region has been studied under different physical factors. The oil was composed mainly monoterpenes (99.1 % constituting l-limonene (92.4 %, ?-terpene (2.6 % and ?-phellandrene (1.8 %. The volatile oil after heating at 110?C for 24 hours, exposing to sunlight for 48 hours and UV light for 24 hours and after treatment with silica gel and alumina neutral for 24 hours contained the above three major components in varied amounts. ?-Pinene, ?-phellandrene, l-limonene, ?- terpinene and l-linalool were detected in all oil samples. ?-Thujene and trans-?-caryophyllene were produced when the oil was treated with silica gel for 24 hours. Trans-Verbenol was determined when the oil was heated at 110?C for 24 hours and exposed to sunlight for 48 hours. Terpen-4-ol disappeared in all the samples except exposition to the sunlight. Cis-?-farnesene, present in the fruit peels in trace amount, was not detected in other oil samples after impact of physical factors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ali Mohammed</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-29452008000300016"> <span id="translatedtitle">Crescimento de frutos da tangerineira 'Poncã' (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco Fruit gowth of 'Ponkan' mandarin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de frutos da tangerineira Poncã, desde o pegamento até a colheita dos frutos, em Viçosa - Minas Gerais. O desenvolvimento do fruto seguiu uma curva do tipo sigmóide simples, sendo a fase I compreendida da antese até o 85º dia após o pleno florescimento, com um período de transição na fase II, que foi até o 101º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase II teve início logo após a fase de transição, prolongando-se até o 251º dia após o pleno florescimento. A fase III, de amadurecimento do fruto, iniciou-se no 251º dia após o pleno florescimento e prolongou-se até a colheita dos frutos, a qual foi realizada no 276º dia após o pleno florescimento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit development of Ponkan mandarin (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco. Fruit development followed a simple sigmoid curve, with phase I extending from anthesis to the 85th day after full flowering, with a transition period to phase II that lasted up to the 101st day after full flowering. Phase II began soon after the transition phase, extending up to the 251st day after full flowering. Phase III, fruit ripening, began at the 251st day after full flowering and it was prolonged until harvest, which was carried out at the 276th day after full flowering.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marlon Dutra Degli Esposti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24669666"> <span id="translatedtitle">Norethindrone-induced masculinization and progeny testing in guppy, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Peters 1859).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Norethindrone(NE) was evaluated for its efficacy on alteration of sex ratio of P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. Either the young fry or the brooders and the resultant fry were fed a commercial diet incorporated with NE at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg kg(-1) diet (ppm) for 30-40 d in rectangular glass aquaria; this was followed by 40-60 d rearing on NE-free diet in out-door concrete tanks. In general, the androgen treatment altered sex ratio, leading to the production of a dose dependent increase in the percentage of males. The oral administration of the steroid at 75 ppm for 40 d or 100 ppmfor 30 or 40 d to first feeding fry, yielded 100% males. On the other hand, NE administration to brooders before parturition and the resultant fry also produced an all-male population of guppy. The sex ratio of the untreated control was almost 1:1. The survival of fish in all the trials was high, ranging between 67 and 100%. Mating masculinized males ("XX" male) with normal female resulted in an all-female progeny, while crossing normal male (XY) from treatment groups with normal female sired normal sex ratio (1:1), elucidating XX-XY sex determination system in the guppy. PMID:24669666</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Basavaraja, N; Chandrashekhara, B H; Ahamad, Rather Mansoor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22831751"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parasites pitched against nature: Pitch Lake water protects guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) from microbial and gyrodactylid infections.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SUMMARY The enemy release hypothesis proposes that in parasite depleted habitats, populations will experience relaxed selection and become more susceptible (or less tolerant) to pathogenic infections. Here, we focus on a population of guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) that are found in an extreme environment (the Pitch Lake, Trinidad) and examine whether this habitat represents a refuge from parasites. We investigated the efficacy of pitch in preventing microbial infections in Pitch Lake guppies, by exposing them to dechlorinated water, and reducing gyrodactylid infections on non-Pitch Lake guppies by transferring them to Pitch Lake water. We show that (i) natural prevalence of ectoparasites in the Pitch Lake is low compared to reference populations, (ii) Pitch Lake guppies transferred into aquarium water develop microbial infections, and (iii) experimentally infected guppies are cured of their gyrodactylid infections both by natural Pitch Lake water and by dechlorinated water containing solid pitch. These results indicate a role for Pitch Lake water in the defence of guppies from their parasites and suggest that Pitch Lake guppies might have undergone enemy release in this extreme environment. The Pitch Lake provides an ideal ecosystem for studies on immune gene evolution in the absence of parasites and long-term evolutionary implications of hydrocarbon pollution for vertebrates. PMID:22831751</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schelkle, Bettina; Mohammed, Ryan S; Coogan, Michael P; McMullan, Mark; Gillingham, Emma L; VAN Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Joanne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24423242"> <span id="translatedtitle">Controlled infection of Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Peters (guppy) with Tetrahymena by immersion and intraperitoneal injection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tetrahymena is a protozoan parasite, which infects guppy, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Peters, and causes substantial economical losses in commercial farms worldwide. Studies of guppy infected by Tetrahymena require standardized infection protocols. The LD50 for Tetrahymena infection of guppies by intraperitoneal (IP) injection was calibrated, and the level obtained was 946 parasites per fish. Guppy infection with Tetrahymena by immersion, imitating the natural route of infection via the integument, was studied under normal or stress conditions. Exposure to cold and netting (CNI) and to cold only (CI) followed by immersion exposure to 10 000 Tetrahymena per mL resulted in 22.5% and 19.2% mortality, respectively, as compared to 14.2% and 10% in groups that were netted only (NI) or non-stressed (I). Histopathology revealed that immersion infection resulted in a systemic infection. Lysozyme levels, measured 3 weeks after infection, were significantly higher in the CNI group (288 ?g per mg protein) compared with CI-, NI- and I-treated groups (94.5, 64 and 62.3 ?g mg(-1) , respectively). There was no evident parasite immobilization activity in body homogenates, suggesting no development of acquired immunity. Re-infection by IP injection revealed no increase in protection in any of the treatment groups, mortality range of 56.3-75%, higher than in the non-exposed control (40.6% mortality). PMID:24423242</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sharon, G; Pimenta-Leibowitz, M; Vilchis, M C L; Isakov, N; Zilberg, D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006NW.....93..431B"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effects of different predator species on antipredator behavior in the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Different types of predators often elicit different antipredator responses in a common type of prey. Alternatively, some prey species may adopt a general response, which provides limited protection from many different types of predator. The Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, is faced with a wide range of different predators throughout its range and is known to display varying levels of antipredator behavior depending on the predator assemblage. Pike cichlids, Crenicichla frenata, are regarded as the primary aquatic guppy predator in streams in the northern mountain range in Trinidad. As such, they are seen to be responsible for many of the differences in morphology, life history traits, and behavior between guppy populations from areas with few predators and those from areas with many pike cichlids. In this study we investigated how guppies responded when faced with different predator species using three common aquatic predators. We exposed shoals of ten guppies to one out of four treatments: no predator (control), pike cichlid, acara cichlid ( Aequidens pulcher), and wolf fish ( Hoplias malabaricus); and we made behavioral observations on both focal individuals and the shoal as a whole. Guppies showed significantly greater levels of predator inspection and shoaling behavior, foraged less, spent more time in the surface water, and stayed in significantly larger shoals when faced with pike cichlids than in other treatments. We discuss these results in the context of multiple predator effects.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Botham, M. S.; Kerfoot, C. J.; Louca, V.; Krause, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25152559"> <span id="translatedtitle">Combined effects of flow condition and parasitism on shoaling behaviour of female guppies Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Group living in fish can provide benefits of protection from predators and some parasites, more efficient foraging for food, increased mating opportunities and enhanced energetic benefit when swimming. For riverine species, shoaling behaviour can be influenced by various environmental stressors, yet little is known how flow rate might influence the shoaling of diseased fish shoals. In view of the increasingly unpredictable flow rates in streams and rivers, this study aimed to assess the combined effect of flow condition and parasitism on the shoaling behaviour of a model fish species. Shoal size, shoal cohesion and time spent shoaling of female guppies Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> were compared when infected with the directly transmitted ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli under flow and static conditions. Flow condition was an important factor in influencing shoaling behaviour of guppies with the fish forming larger shoals in the absence of flow. When a shoal member was infected with G. turnbulli, shoal cohesion was reduced, but the magnitude of this effect was dependent on flow condition. In both flow and static conditions, bigger fish formed larger shoals than smaller counterparts. Future changes to stream hydrology with more frequent flooding and drought events will affect the shoaling tendency of fish. During high-flow events, diseased fish may not be able to keep up with shoal mates and therefore have a higher risk of predation. Additionally, these findings may be important for aquaria and farmed species where an increase in flow rate may reduce aggregation in fish. PMID:25152559</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hockley, F A; Wilson, C A M E; Graham, N; Cable, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biomedcentral.com/1756-0500/4/31"> <span id="translatedtitle">The MC1R gene in the guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>: Genotypic and phenotypic polymorphisms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Abstract Background The guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> is an important model organism for studying sexual selection; male guppies have complex and conspicuous pigmentation, and female guppies exhibit preferences for males with specific color spots. Understanding the genetic basis underlying pigmentation variation in the guppy is important for exploring the factors causing the maintenance of color polymorphism in wild populations. Findings We focused on the melanic black pigmentation of guppies, and examined genetic variations in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene because variation in this gene is known to contribute to polymorphism of melanin pigmentation in several animal species. The complete coding sequence of the guppy MC1R gene was determined, and two different MC1R alleles (963 and 969 bp were found in wild populations. Ornamental strain guppies with a 963-bp MC1R tended to show less black pigmentation than those with a 969-bp MC1R, although the association between MC1R genotype and black pigmentation disappeared in the F2 offspring. Conclusions The guppy MC1R gene showed variation in the five wild Trinidadian populations we examined, and these populations also differed in terms of allele frequencies. We identified a significant association between black pigmentation and MC1R genotype in fish obtained from aquarium shops. However, the results from F2 families suggest that there are other genes that modify the effects of the MC1R gene.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yokoyama Jun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="plant salacia reticulata" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; 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height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:8340489"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effects of chronic irradiation on the breeding performance of the guppy, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Osteichthyes: Teleostei)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of chronic irradiation on the life-time breeding performance of the small tropical fish, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, have been investigated at mean dose-rates of 0.17, 0.40 and 1.27 rad hour-1. The total fecundity was markedly (P<0.001) reduced at all dose-rates owing to a decrease in mean actual brood-size and an increase in temporary and permanent infertility. Minor progressive changes in the interbrood time with age and dose-rate were noted. The neonatal death-rate, incidence of abnormalities, and survival and sex ratio of the offspring were unaffected by irradiation. The brood-size data have been used to derive estimates of the dominant lethal mutation rate which are of the same order as those determined for mammals. Histological studies indicate that functional sterility is not necessarily dependent on the destruction of the gonads, and it is possible that radiation effects on pituitary function are responsible for much of the observed infertility. (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18383630"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diterpenoids from Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Ducke with larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera, Culicidae).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of diterpenoids obtained from the oil-resin of Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> against Aedes aegypti larvae, the principal vector of dengue and urban yellow fever. Four diterpenes were obtained from oil-resin extraction with organic solvents and subsequent chromatographic and spectroscopic procedures allowed to isolation and identification of these compounds as 3-beta-acetoxylabdan-8(17)-13-dien-15-oic acid (1), alepterolic acid (2), 3-beta-hidroxylabdan-8(17)-en-15-oic acid (3), and ent-agatic acid (4). Each compound was previously dissolved in dimethylsulphoxide, and distilled water was added to obtain the desired concentrations. Twenty larvae of third instars were placed into plastic beckers, containing the solution test (25 mL), in a five repetitions scheme, and their mortality, indicated by torpor and darkening of the cephalic capsule, was recorded after 48 h. Probit analyses were used to determine lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) and their respective 95% confidence intervals. This study showed that only diterpenoids 1 and 2 exhibited larvicidal properties with LC50 of 0.8 ppm and 87.3 ppm, respectively, revealing the former as the most toxic compound against third instars of Ae. aegypti. Therefore, this compound seems to be an interesting source for new metabolite to be exploited. PMID:18383630</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geris, Regina; Silva, Ionizete Garcia da; Silva, Heloísa Helena Garcia da; Barison, Andersson; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antônio Gilberto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17354407"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Culture of Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Pisces: Poecilidae) in tropical water bodies, Veracruz, México].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, also known as guppy, is the most popular fish in the aquarium environment. Guppys are viviparous fish with high tolerance to extreme temperatures. The development of the offspring takes between 25 and 30 days. We developed a technology for raising guppys, which outlines infrastructure and devices for reproduction, nursery, feeding, and commercialization, evaluating the financial and technical feasibility of this technology in a case study. The complete reproductive cycle occured in floating cages with 1 mm mesh and the method was tested in a tropical lagoon in Mexico. Water quality was monitored throughout the study period (temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH levels). A marketing survey was carried out at all existing aquarium shops in Veracruz City. Data collected depict quantities demanded and offered for each species by season, place of origin, and resistance to handling. The hydrobiological characteristics were: average temperature 31.4 degrees C, dissolved oxygen 4.5 mgl(-1), and pH level 6.8. With these values we built a production function, and used it to evaluate profitability. We estimate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.16, with a net annual income of US$257.67. The system may provide two permanent jobs. PMID:17354407</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Murillo, Patricia Devezé; Mendiola, Juan Lorenzo Reta; Sánchez Luna, Basilio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ijt.arakmu.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=338&sid=1&slc_lang=en"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of LC50, NOEC and LOEC of Glyphosate, Deltamethrin and Pretilachlor in Guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">Reticulata</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Background: The presence of pesticides is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran. These toxic substances may accumulate in the food chain and cause serious ecological and health problems. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor as potential dangerous organic pesticides to assess lethal effects of these chemicals agents to the Guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. Methods: Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate (41% (0, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 25 ppm, deltamethrin (2.5% (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.10 and 0.30 ppm and pretilachlor (50% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm for 96 h and cumulative mortality of the guppies was calculated with 24 h intervals. Results: LC50-96h was 12.01±1.00, 0.08±0.47 and 8.24±0.42 for glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor respectively. The very low LC50 obtained for glyphosate (12.01±1.00 ppm, deltamethrin (0.08±0.47 ppm and pretilachlor (8.24±0.42 ppm indicate that glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor are highly toxic to guppies. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that deltamethrin and glyphosate had the lowest and highest rate of mortality on the guppy respectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ali Sadeghi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45088699"> <span id="translatedtitle">Use of multi species freshwater bio monitor (MFB) to assess behavioral changes of guppy Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> and freshwater prawn Macrobrachium lanchesteri in response to cadmium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Multi species Freshwater Bio monitor (MFB) uses the measurement and analysis of different types of behaviours from different aquatic organisms for monitoring the water quality in freshwater ecosystem. The aim of this study was to determine the specific response of freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium lanchesteri) and guppy fish (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) to cadmium (Cd) in the laboratory. Different concentrations of Cd were exposed to M. lanchesteri (1 ppb and 10 ppb) and P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (100 ppb and 560 ppb) and the behavioural changes of the organisms were recorded by MFB for 2 hours. Results showed that the behavioural and ventilation response of M. lanchesteri and P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> increased with increasing exposure concentrations of Cd. Results also showed that the shrimp was more sensitive to Cd than the guppy fish and these local species were suitable as indicator organism for the MFB. (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20403899"> <span id="translatedtitle">Whole toxicity removal for industrial and domestic effluents treated with electron beam radiation, evaluated with Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>; Reducao da toxicidade aguda de efluentes industriais e domesticos tratados por irradiacao com feixe de eletrons, avaliada com as especies Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several studies have been performed in order to apply ionizing radiation to treat real complexes effluents from different sources, at IPEN. This paper shows the results of such kind of application devoted to influents and effluents from Suzano Wastewater Treatment <span class="hlt">Plant</span>, Sao Paulo, Suzano WTP, from SABESP. The purpose of the work was to evaluate the radiation technology according to ecotoxicological aspects. The evaluation was carried out on the toxicity bases which included three sampling sites as follows: complex industrial effluents; domestic sewage mixed to the industrial discharge (GM) and final secondary effluent. The tested-organisms for toxicity evaluation were: the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri, the microcrustacean Daphnia similis and the guppy Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. The fish tests were applied only for secondary final effluents. The results demonstrated the original acute toxicity levels as well as the efficiency of electron beam for its reduction. An important acute toxicity removal was achieved: from 75% up to 95% with 50 kGy (UNA), 20 kGy (GM) and 5.0 kGy for the final effluent. The toxicity removal was a consequence of several organic solvents decomposed by radiation and acute toxicity reduction was about 95%. When the toxicity was evaluated for fish the radiation efficiency reached from 40% to 60%. The hypothesis tests showed a statistical significant removal in the developed studies condition. No residual hydrogen peroxide was found after 5.0 kGy was applied to final effluent. (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Borrely, Sueli Ivone</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0717-65382007000200005-chl"> <span id="translatedtitle">EFECTOS ECOTOXICOLOGICOS DEL CARTAP SOBRE POECILIA <span class="hlt">RETICULATA</span> "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE) Y PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE) / ECOTOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CARTAP ON POECILIA <span class="hlt">RETICULATA</span> "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE) AND PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el impacto ecotoxicológico del insecticida carbámico cartap (1,3 di (carbamoytio)-2-dimetiloaminopropano) usado para el control de plagas agrícolas y como molusquicida de vectores de importancia en Salud Pública, sobre dos especies de peces del ecosistema acuático continental: Poecilia ret [...] iculata (Peters 1859) "guppy" (Poecilidae) y Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936) ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae). Ellos fueron utilizados como organismos no destinatarios en ensayos de corta duración, para determinar el impacto toxicológico del cartap. Para ambas especies de peces se evaluó el porcentaje de mortalidad, y dos respuestas subletales: el incremento del movimiento opercular y el nado extraño. A 3 h de exposición para P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, se encontró un valor de CL50 (Concentración letal media) de 6,75 mg•L-1 y valores de CE50 (Concentración efectiva media) de Abstract in english The ecotoxicological impact of the carbamate insecticide cartap (1,3 di (carbamoythio)-2-dimethyloaminopropan) used for agriculture pests and as mollusquicide of vectors of Public Health importance was evaluated, on two fish species of the continental aquatic ecosystem. Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Peters 1 [...] 859) ``guppy" (Poecilidae) and Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936) ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae) were employed as non-target organisms in assays of short duration to determine the toxicological impact of cartap. For both fish, percentage of mortality and two sublethal responses: increase of opercula movement and strange swim, were evaluated. In P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> after 3 h exposure it was found a LC50 (mean Lethal Concentration) of 6.75 mg'•L-1 and values of EC50 (mean Effective Concentration) of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jose, Iannacone; Roxana, Onofre; Olga, Huanqui.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AcSpA.102...15S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4246775&rendertype=abstract"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phenological Variation Within and Among Populations of Plathymenia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> in Brazilian Cerrado, the Atlantic Forest and Transitional Sites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">• Background and Aims Plathymenia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Leguminosae) is a Brazilian tree that occurs in two biomes: Cerrado, a woody savanna vegetation, and the Atlantic Forest, a tropical forest. In this study, phenological patterns and their variability within and among populations located in these biomes and in transitional zones between them were assessed. • Methods During a 15-month period, individuals from two populations in Cerrado, two in the Atlantic Forest, and six in transitional zones (three in a cerrado-like environment and three in forest fragments) were evaluated in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The individuals were evaluated monthly according to the proportion of the canopy in each vegetative phenophase (leaf fall, leaf flush and mature leaves) and each reproductive phenophase (floral buds, flowers, immature fruits and mature fruit/seed dispersal). In order to assess the phenological variability within and among populations, habitats and biomes, the Shannon–Wiener diversity index, the Morisita–Horn similarity index and genetic population approach of partitioning diversity were used. • Key Results Populations of P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, in general, showed similar phenology; the main differences were related to leaf fall, a process that starts months earlier in the Cerrado than in transitional sites, and even later in forest areas. Considerable synchrony was observed for reproductive phenology among populations and between biomes. Most phenological diversity was due to differences among individuals within populations. • Conclusion In spite of environmental differences, P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> from the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado showed similar phenological behavior with only about 10?% of the total diversity being attributed to differences between biomes. PMID:15972799</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">GOULART, MAÍRA FIGUEIREDO; LEMOS FILHO, JOSÉ PIRES; LOVATO, MARIA BERNADETE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::05434c9fdf3a34376ac6da4215245cc6"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of the protein quantity from combined fodder on the corporal development of guppy (<i>Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span></i>)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper aims to highlight the effects of various concentrations of protein premixtures onthe growth in length and weight of adult specimens of ornamental fish Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, bred incaptivity. Of this consideration, the experiment was set up with six groups: R1, R2, R3, TG, TP and TD,which were fed differently as follows: R1 with mixed fodder containing 30% CP (crude protein), ownrecipe; R2 with mixed fodder containing 30% GP, own recipe; R3 with mixed fodder containing 30%CP, ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adrian Gruber; Pop, Ioan M.; Benone P?s?rin; Gabriel Hoha; Cristian Radu- Rusu; R?zvan Radu-Rusu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______370::b79d1c62667383c18355eb81dc6a6b29"> <span id="translatedtitle">Uptake and elimination of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in the guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) at sublethal and lethal aqueous concentrations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The kinetics of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) have been studied in an accumulation and elimination experiment. At a sublethal exposure, uptake and elimination rate constants of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene were determined, employing a first-order one-compartment model. The constants were found to be 492 ± 234 Lkg?1 d?1 (uptake), and 0.49 ± 0.22 d?1 (elimination) on the basis of wet weight. Exposing guppies to a time-varying lethal concentration of 1,2,4-trichlorobe...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eck, J. M. C.; Koelmans, A. A.; Deneer, J. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:34078522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Whole toxicity removal for industrial and domestic effluents treated with electron beam radiation, evaluated with Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several studies have been performed in order to apply ionizing radiation to treat real complexes effluents from different sources, at IPEN. This paper shows the results of such kind of application devoted to influents and effluents from Suzano Wastewater Treatment <span class="hlt">Plant</span>, Sao Paulo, Suzano WTP, from SABESP. The purpose of the work was to evaluate the radiation technology according to ecotoxicological aspects. The evaluation was carried out on the toxicity bases which included three sampling sites as follows: complex industrial effluents; domestic sewage mixed to the industrial discharge (GM) and final secondary effluent. The tested-organisms for toxicity evaluation were: the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri, the microcrustacean Daphnia similis and the guppy Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. The fish tests were applied only for secondary final effluents. The results demonstrated the original acute toxicity levels as well as the efficiency of electron beam for its reduction. An important acute toxicity removal was achieved: from 75% up to 95% with 50 kGy (UNA), 20 kGy (GM) and 5.0 kGy for the final effluent. The toxicity removal was a consequence of several organic solvents decomposed by radiation and acute toxicity reduction was about 95%. When the toxicity was evaluated for fish the radiation efficiency reached from 40% to 60%. The hypothesis tests showed a statistical significant removal in the developed studies condition. No residual hydrogen peroxide was found after 5.0 kGy was agen peroxide was found after 5.0 kGy was applied to final effluent. (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652008000100006"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diterpenos de Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Ducke com atividade larvicida contra Aedes aegypti (L. (Diptera, Culicidae</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of diterpenoids obtained from the oil-resin of Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> against Aedes aegypti larvae, the principal vector of dengue and urban yellow fever. Four diterpenes were obtained from oil-resin extraction with organic solvents and subsequent chromatographic and spectroscopic procedures allowed to isolation and identification of these compounds as 3-b-acetoxylabdan-8(17-13-dien-15-oic acid (1, alepterolic acid (2, 3-b-hidroxylabdan-8(17-en-15-oic acid (3, and ent-agatic acid (4. Each compound was previously dissolved in dimethylsulphoxide, and distilled water was added to obtain the desired concentrations. Twenty larvae of third instars were placed into plastic beckers, containing the solution test (25 mL, in a five repetitions scheme, and their mortality, indicated by torpor and darkening of the cephalic capsule, was recorded after 48h. Probit analyses were used to determine lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90 and their respective 95% confidence intervals. This study showed that only diterpenoids 1 and 2 exhibited larvicidal properties with LC50 of 0.8 ppm and 87.3 ppm, respectively, revealing the former as the most toxic compound against third instars of Ae. aegypti. Therefore, this compound seems to be an interesting source for new metabolite to be exploited.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade larvicida de diterpenos isolados do óleo-resina de Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> sobre Aedes aegypti, principal vetor de dengue e febre amarela urbana. Quatro diterpenóides foram obtidos a partir da extração do óleo-resina com solventes orgânicos e, subseqüentes procedimentos cromatográficos e espectroscópicos permitiram o isolamento e a identificação desses compostos como ácido 3-b-acetoxylabdan-8(17-13-dien-15-óico (1, ácido alepterólico (2, ácido 3-b-hidroxylabdan-8(17-en-15-óico (3 e ácido ent-agático (4. Cada um desses compostos foi previamente solubilizado em dimetilsulfóxido, acrescentando-se água, até se obterem as concentrações desejadas. Em cada bioensaio foram utilizadas 20 larvas de 3° estádio de Ae. aegypti colocadas em 25 mL da solução-teste. Foram feitas cinco repetições, e a mortalidade avaliada 48 h após a exposição, indicada pela ausência de movimentos e escurecimento da cápsula cefálica. Os dados obtidos da mortalidade x concentração (ppm foram analisados, em gráfico de Probit para avaliar as concentrações letais (CL50 e CL90. Este estudo revelou que os diterpenóides 1 e 2 mostraram atividade larvicida com CL50 de 0,8 e 87,3 ppm, respectivamente, sendo o diterpeno 1 o composto mais promissor a ser usado como larvicida para o controle de Ae. aegypti.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Regina Geris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0036-46652008000100006-scl"> <span id="translatedtitle">/ Diterpenos de Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Ducke com atividade larvicida contra Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera, Culicidae)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade larvicida de diterpenos isolados do óleo-resina de Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> sobre Aedes aegypti, principal vetor de dengue e febre amarela urbana. Quatro diterpenóides foram obtidos a partir da extração do óleo-resina com solventes orgânicos e, subseqüen [...] tes procedimentos cromatográficos e espectroscópicos permitiram o isolamento e a identificação desses compostos como ácido 3-b-acetoxylabdan-8(17)-13-dien-15-óico (1), ácido alepterólico (2), ácido 3-b-hidroxylabdan-8(17)-en-15-óico (3) e ácido ent-agático (4). Cada um desses compostos foi previamente solubilizado em dimetilsulfóxido, acrescentando-se água, até se obterem as concentrações desejadas. Em cada bioensaio foram utilizadas 20 larvas de 3° estádio de Ae. aegypti colocadas em 25 mL da solução-teste. Foram feitas cinco repetições, e a mortalidade avaliada 48 h após a exposição, indicada pela ausência de movimentos e escurecimento da cápsula cefálica. Os dados obtidos da mortalidade x concentração (ppm) foram analisados, em gráfico de Probit para avaliar as concentrações letais (CL50 e CL90). Este estudo revelou que os diterpenóides 1 e 2 mostraram atividade larvicida com CL50 de 0,8 e 87,3 ppm, respectivamente, sendo o diterpeno 1 o composto mais promissor a ser usado como larvicida para o controle de Ae. aegypti. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of diterpenoids obtained from the oil-resin of Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> against Aedes aegypti larvae, the principal vector of dengue and urban yellow fever. Four diterpenes were obtained from oil-resin extraction with organic solvents a [...] nd subsequent chromatographic and spectroscopic procedures allowed to isolation and identification of these compounds as 3-b-acetoxylabdan-8(17)-13-dien-15-oic acid (1), alepterolic acid (2), 3-b-hidroxylabdan-8(17)-en-15-oic acid (3), and ent-agatic acid (4). Each compound was previously dissolved in dimethylsulphoxide, and distilled water was added to obtain the desired concentrations. Twenty larvae of third instars were placed into plastic beckers, containing the solution test (25 mL), in a five repetitions scheme, and their mortality, indicated by torpor and darkening of the cephalic capsule, was recorded after 48h. Probit analyses were used to determine lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) and their respective 95% confidence intervals. This study showed that only diterpenoids 1 and 2 exhibited larvicidal properties with LC50 of 0.8 ppm and 87.3 ppm, respectively, revealing the former as the most toxic compound against third instars of Ae. aegypti. Therefore, this compound seems to be an interesting source for new metabolite to be exploited.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Regina, Geris; Ionizete Garcia da, Silva; Heloísa Helena Garcia da, Silva; Andersson, Barison; Edson, Rodrigues-Filho; Antônio Gilberto, Ferreira.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://sisbib.unmsm.edu.pe/BVRevistas/biologist/v06_n2/pdf/a02v6n2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">ACUTE TOXICITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK OF FIPRONIL TO GUPPY (POECILIA <span class="hlt">RETICULATA</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available The fipronil is an insecticide that has broad-spectrum of action to insect's control. Due the great volume applied in agriculture, it has the possibility of the fipronil to be leached, to suffer to runoff or drift, being able to reach the aquatic way and to provide danger for the aquatic population. To determine the acute toxicity and fipronil environmental risk on guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> 105 adult fishes were exposed at seven concentrations: 0.00, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, 0.125, and 0.15 mg·L-1, in aquariums with capacity for 7 L in static system. The exposed fishes to 0.1, 0.125, and 0.15 mg·L-1 had presented happened hyper-excitation symptoms alternated with lethargy and erratic swimming in 12 h first. The mortality after 96 h exposition were of 100.0, 86.6, and 80.0% to 0.15, 0.25 and 0.1 mg·L-1 respectively, and in the concentrations of 0.025, 0.05 and 0.075 mg·L-1, mortality were of 13.3, 20.0, and 33.3%, respectively. The LC of fipronil for guppy was of 50-96h 0.08 mg·L-1 classifying it as toxic extremely. The environment concentration estimated (CAS and the environment risk (RQ for a 0.3 water column in the recommended dosage highest (400 g ia·ha-1 was of 133.33 and 0.02 mg·L-1, and for 2.0 m was of 1666.63 and 0.25 mg·L-1, classified environmental with adverse effect and adverse possibility effect respectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gómez-Manrique, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00068/full"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial discounting of food and social rewards in guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available In temporal discounting, animals trade off the time to obtain a reward against the quality of a reward, choosing between a smaller reward available sooner versus a larger reward available later. Similar discounting can apply over space, when animals choose between smaller and closer versus larger and more distant rewards. Most studies of temporal and spatial discounting in nonhuman animals use food as the reward, and it is not established whether animals trade off other preferred stimuli in similar ways. Here, we offered female guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> a spatial discounting task in which we measured preferences for a larger reward as the distance to it increased relative to a closer but smaller reward. We tested whether the fish discounted reward types differently by offering subjects either food items or same-sex conspecifics as rewards. Before beginning the discounting tasks, we conducted validation tests to ensure that subjects equally valued the food and social stimuli in the quantities provided. In the discounting task, subjects switched their preferences from the larger to the smaller reward as the distance to the larger reward increased (spatial discounting, but the pattern and magnitude of discounting did not differ across the two reward types. These findings indicate that guppies show similar patterns of discounting food and social rewards in a spatial task. In an analysis of travel times, however, the fish swam faster to food rewards than to shoaling partners. This difference in travel times implies that fish temporally discounted social rewards less steeply than food rewards. Thus, reward type influences temporal discounting, suggesting a dissociation between temporal and spatial discounting. Our results illustrate how animals adjust choices and travel times depending on both the type of cost (time, distance and benefits (food, social partners.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">JeffreyRStevens</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25201899"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phenotypic plasticity changes correlations of traits following experimental introductions of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Colonization of novel environments can alter selective pressures and act as a catalyst for rapid evolution in nature. Theory and empirical studies suggest that the ability of a population to exhibit an adaptive evolutionary response to novel selection pressures should reflect the presence of sufficient additive genetic variance and covariance for individual and correlated traits. As correlated traits should not respond to selection independently, the structure of correlations of traits can bias or constrain adaptive evolution. Models of how multiple correlated traits respond to selection often assume spatial and temporal stability of trait-correlations within populations. Yet, trait-correlations can also be plastic in response to environmental variation. Phenotypic plasticity, the ability of a single genotype to produce different phenotypes across environments, is of particular interest because it can induce population-wide changes in the combination of traits exposed to selection and change the trajectory of evolutionary divergence. We tested the ability of phenotypic plasticity to modify trait-correlations by comparing phenotypic variance and covariance in the body-shapes of four experimental populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) to their ancestral population. We found that phenotypic plasticity produced both adaptive and novel aspects of body-shape, which was repeated in all four experimental populations. Further, phenotypic plasticity changed patterns of covariance among morphological characters. These findings suggest our ability to make inferences about patterns of divergence based on correlations of traits in extant populations may be limited if novel environments not only induce plasticity in multiple traits, but also change the correlations among the traits. PMID:25201899</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Handelsman, Corey A; Ruell, Emily W; Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Ghalambor, Cameron K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19720465"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cysteine proteases and acid phosphatases contribute to Tetrahymena spp. pathogenicity in guppies, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Systemic tetrahymenosis caused by the protozoan parasite Tetrahymena spp. is a serious problem in guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) farms worldwide. There is no therapeutic solution for the systemic form of this disease. Guppies severely infected with Tetrahymena spp. were imported by a commercial ornamental fish farm and brought to our laboratory. Tetrahymena sp. (Tet-NI) was isolated and in vitro cultured. Isolates maintained in culture for different time periods (as reflected by different numbers of passages in culture) were analyzed-Tet-NI 1, 4, 5 and 6, with Tet-NI 1 being cultured for the longest period (about 15 months, 54 passages) and Tet-NI 6 for the shortest (2.5 months, 10 passages). Controlled internal infection was successfully achieved by IP injection with most isolates, except for Tet-NI 1 which produced no infection. The isolate Tet-NI 6 induced the highest infection rates in internal organs (80% vs. 50% and 64% for Tet-NI 4 and 5, respectively) and mortality rates (67% vs. 20% and 27% for Tet-NI 4 and 5, respectively, and 6.7% for Tet-NI 1). The correlation between pathogenicity and Tetrahymena enzymatic activity was studied. Electrophoretic analyses revealed at least two bands of gelanolytic activity in Tet-NI 4 and 5, three bands in Tet-NI 6, and no activity in Tet-NI 1. Total inhibition of gelanolytic activity was observed after pretreatment of Tet-NI 6 with E-64, a highly selective cysteine protease inhibitor. Using hemoglobin as a substrate, Tet-NI 6 had two bands of proteolytic activity and no bands were observed in Tet-NI 1. A correlation was observed between pathogenicity and acid phosphatase activities (analyzed by commercial fluorescence kit) for Tet-NI 1 and Tet-NI 6. PMID:19720465</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leibowitz, M Pimenta; Ofir, R; Golan-Goldhirsh, A; Zilberg, D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23115112"> <span id="translatedtitle">Topography of dyskinesias and torticollis evoked by inhibition of substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">GABAergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (SNpr) and globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) constitute the output pathways of the basal ganglia. In monkeys, choreiform limb dyskinesias have been described after inhibition of the GPi, but not the SNpr. Given the anatomical and functional similarities between these structures, we hypothesized that choreiform dyskinesias could be evoked by inhibition of an appropriate region within the SNpr. The GABAA receptor agonist, muscimol, was infused into various sites within the SNpr and the adjacent STN of freely moving macaques. The effect of the GABAA antagonist, bicuculline (BIC), was also examined. Muscimol (MUS) in SNpr evoked the following: (1) choreiform dyskinesias of the contralateral arm and/or leg from central and lateral sites; (2) contralaterally directed torticollis from central and posterior sites; and (3) contraversive quadrupedal rotation from anterior and lateral sites. MUS infusions into the adjacent SN pars compacta or STN were without effect, ruling out a contribution of drug spread to adjacent structures. BIC in SNpr induced ipsiversive postures without choreiform dyskinesia or torticollis, whereas in the STN, it evoked ballistic movements. This is the first report of choreiform dyskinesia evoked by inhibition of the SNpr. This highly site-specific effect was obtained from a restricted region within the SNpr distinct from that responsible for inducing torticollis. These results suggest that overactivity of different SNpr outputs mediates choreiform dyskinesia and torticollis. These abnormalities are symptoms of dystonia, Huntington's disease, and iatrogenic dyskinesias, suggesting that these conditions may result, in part, from a loss of function in SNpr efferent projections. PMID:23115112</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dybdal, David; Forcelli, Patrick A; Dubach, Mark; Oppedisano, Michael; Holmes, Angela; Malkova, Ludise; Gale, Karen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S2179-975X2013000100006-scl"> <span id="translatedtitle">Use of artificial sediment to assess toxicity of chromium on Chironomus xanthus, Danio rerio and Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> / Utilização de sedimento artificial na avaliação da toxicidade do cromo sobre Chironomus xanthus, Danio rerio e Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Sedimentos artificiais com formulações simples foram utilizados para avaliar a toxicidade do Cr em C. xanthus, D. rerio e P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. MÉTODOS: Os organismos foram expostos a duas formulações: sem matéria orgânica (S0) e com 1% de matéria orgânica (SIII), contaminadas com Cr nas concentr [...] ações de 90; 180; 360; 720 e 1440 mg/kg para os ensaios com C. xanthus e 375; 750; 1500 e 3000 mg/kg para os ensaios com peixes. RESULTADOS: Os resultados dos ensaios agudos demonstraram uma redução de até quatro vezes na toxicidade frente à presença de matéria orgânica detrital biodegradável (MO). C. xanthus apresentou maior sensibilidade ao metal em relação aos peixes. A redução na toxicidade do Cr frente à presença de MO foi verificada nos valores de CL50, que estiveram mais elevados nos em SIII (C. xanthus = 1234,43 mg/kg ; D. rerio = 2263,54 m/kg e P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> = 2244,48 mg/kg) em relação à S0 (C. xanthus = 340,56 mg/kg; D. rerio = 1731,04 mg/kg e P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> = 1733,55 mg/kg). CONCLUSÕES: Os sedimentos artificiais com formulações simples foram satisfatórios na avaliação da toxicidade e asseguram resultados confiáveis em estudos ecotoxicológicos Abstract in english AIM: Artificial sediments with simple formulations were used to assess the toxicity of Cr to C. xanthus, D. rerio and P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. METHODS: The organisms were exposed to two sediment formulations: one without organic matter (S0) and one with 1% organic matter (SIII), both contaminated with Cr at c [...] oncentrations of 90, 180, 360, 720 and 1440 mg/kg for the assays with C. xanthus, and 375, 750, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg for those with the two fish species. Chromium was obtained from the potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). RESULTS: The results of the acute toxicity tests demonstrated a reduction of up to four times in toxicity with the presence of OM, consisting of biodegradable detritus, even at the low concentration used (1%), and that C. xanthus was most sensitive to the metal. The reduction in the chromium toxicity was indicated by the LC50 values, which were higher in SIII (1234.43 mg/kg; 2263.54 m/kg; 2244.48 mg/kg) than in S0 (340.56 mg/kg; 1731.04 mg/kg; 1733.55 mg/kg) for C. xanthus, D. rerio and P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Because of the repeatability of the results obtained, the artificial sediments with simple formulations were satisfactory to assess toxicity and can thus provide reliable results in ecotoxicological studies</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aline Fernanda, Campagna; Beatriz Kawamura, Rodrigues; Roberta Corrêa, Nogueirol; Nelsy Fenerich, Verani; Evaldo Luiz Gaeta, Espíndola; Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú, Alleoni.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="plant salacia reticulata" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; 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height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mdpi.com/journal/plants/editors"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plants</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href=""></a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Interests: <span class="hlt">plant</span> anatomy and development; seed biology; genomics; abiotic and biotic stress physiology; transcriptional regulation; systems biology Contribution: Special Issue: ...staff/vagner_benedito Interests: functional genetics and genomics; <span class="hlt">plant</span> development and molecular physiology; biological nitrogen fixation in legumes; hormonal Interactions in tomato ...html Interests: <span class="hlt">plant</span> anatomy and development (especially with regard to roots); stress physiology; aerenchyma formation; and programmed cell death Prof. Dr....shtml Interests: <span class="hlt">plant</span> responses to suboptimal environmental conditions; biochemistry; physiology; molecular biology; freezing stress tolerance Dr. Günter Hoch Institute of Botany,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24598083"> <span id="translatedtitle">Efficacy of garlic based treatments against monogenean parasites infecting the guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Peters)).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a well-known spice which also possesses anti-microbial and anti-parasitical properties. The current work aimed to test the efficacy of garlic-based treatments against infection with monogenean sp. in the guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>). Clipped sections of tail fins of guppies heavily infected with Gyrodactylus turnbulli were exposed to aqueous garlic extract (7.5 to 30 mL L(-1)) and visually observed under a dissecting microscope. Results revealed that exposure to garlic caused detachment of parasite and cessation of movement indicating death. A positive correlation was seen between garlic concentration and time to detachment and death of parasites, which, at the highest concentration of 30 mL L(-1), occurred at 4.1 and 8.6 min, respectively. Bathing in aqueous garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) was tested in guppies infected with G. turnbulli. Prior acute toxicity tests revealed the maximum tolerance levels of guppies to garlic extract to be 12.5 mL L(-1) for 1h. Bathing of infected fish in garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) significantly (pguppies infected with G. turnbulli and Dactylogyrus sp. Fish were fed with food containing 10% and 20% dry garlic powder for 14 days. Groups fed with garlic supplemented diets showed significantly reduced (p<0.05) mean prevalence and mean intensity of parasites as compared to the control. Dietary application of garlic did not appear to affect palatability. Fresh crushed garlic was added at a level of 1 gL(-1) and applied as an indefinite bath for 14 days. This treatment was seen to significantly reduce (p<0.05) parasite prevalence and mean intensity as compared to the control. Histopathology revealed elevated muscular dystrophy in the 20% garlic-fed group, as compared to control. These findings demonstrate the potential of garlic as a natural alternative to currently used chemical treatments for monogenean sp. infection in the guppy. PMID:24598083</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fridman, S; Sinai, T; Zilberg, D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://spasb.ro/index.php/spasb/article/view/286"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nutritional Evaluation of Raw Materials Entering the Structure to Mixed Fodder for the Specie Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Guppy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available In the ornamental pisciculture is a especial emphasis on the exterior shape and color to the fishes, issues that are dependent directly to the structure of compound feeds in relation to the nutritional characteristics of the raw materials.Own research or focused on analyzing the crude chemical composition with Weende scheme (water content and dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, SEN of raw materials can be used in the structure of a compound feeds for the Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (guppy species, for most of these materials there are no current data in the literature.These materials were analyzed: gelatin, wheat flour, sunflower meal, soybean meal, meal Spirulina platensis, carrot (Daucus carota, Pangasius fillet, Daphnia pulex, grount dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, grount nettle (Urtica dioica and yeast.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adrian Gruber</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.acgpubs.org/RNP/2010/Volume%204/Issue%201/17_RNP-0907-130.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Citrus Essential Oil of Nigeria Part IV: Volatile Constituents of Leaf Oils of Mandarins (Citrus <span class="hlt">Reticulata</span> Blanco From Nigeria</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available The chemical composition of hydrodistilled oils obtained from the leaves of six Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco (mandarin cultivars grown in Nigeria were examined by GC and GC/MS, the result of their chemical composition were further submitted to cluster analysis. Fifty seven constituents were characterized accounting for 88.2 - 96.7% of the total oils. Sabinene, g -terpinene, P-cymene, d -3-carene and (E- b -ocimene were observed in great variability in all the oils. Other constituents include linalool, myrcene, terpinen-4-ol and cis-sabinenehydrate. In addition, limonene, terpinolene, b -pinene, and a -pinene were also detected in appreciable concentrations. b -sinensal and a -sinensal were isolated by preparative GC and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adeleke A. Kasali</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25314840"> <span id="translatedtitle">The use of magnetic resonance imaging to better define hoof pathology in the reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 22-yr-old bull giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) with severely altered hoof conformation in both forelimbs was presented for necropsy following acute mortality. Due to multiple challenges that prevented safe immobilization, corrective hoof trimming procedures were never performed on this animal. To better define the extent of the damage of the soft tissue structures and bone within the hoof, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system was used to obtain images of these structures. The MRI study found evidence of severe osteolysis, phalangeal fractures of both forelimbs, and tenosynovitis of several tendon sheaths. These findings help demonstrate the impact that hoof overgrowth can have on internal structures within the hoof. By managing hoof problems early in the course of disease and investing in appropriate facilities that make giraffe immobilization safer, morbidity and mortality associated with hoof disease and overgrowth can potentially be reduced. PMID:25314840</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wakeman, Kyle A; Sanchez, Carlos R; Lung, Nancy P; Hersman, Jake; Barrett, Myra F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S1516-89132013000500010-scl"> <span id="translatedtitle">In vitro evaluation of adhesion and aggregation abilities of four potential probiotic strains isolated from guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this work was to study the probiotic-related characteristics of four strains of bacteria isolated from the normal flora of the guppy, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. In vitro results showed that the strains, namely, MBTU_PB1, MBTU_PB2, MBTU_PB3 and MBTU_PB4 had higher adhesion abilities than the tes [...] ted indicator strains. However, an association between the cell-surface hydrophobicity and the ability to adhere to the intestinal mucus was not observed for these strains. Further, the selected strains were strongly autoaggregating (autoaggregation percentage ? 80) and also showed strain-specific coaggregation abilities with the tested indicator strains.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aparna, Balakrishna.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApNan...5...73K"> <span id="translatedtitle">The green synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the biological activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Leptadenia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> leaf extract</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag Nps) was carried out using methanol leaves extract of L. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. Ag Nps were characterized based on the observations of UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. These Ag Nps were tested for antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method against different pathogenic microorganisms and antioxidant activity was performed using DPPH assay. Further, the in vitro cytotoxic effects of Ag Nps were screened against HCT15 cancer cell line and viability of tumor cells was confirmed using MTT ((3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole)) assay. The nuclear condensation was studied using the propidium iodide-staining method. The color change from green to dark brown and the absorbance peak at about 420 nm indicated the formation of nanoparticles. XRD pattern showed characteristic peaks indexed to the crystalline planes (111), (200) and (220) of face-centered cubic silver. The nanoparticles were of spherical shape with varying sizes ranging from 50 to 70 nm. Biosynthesized Ag Nps showed potent antibacterial activity and effective radical scavenging activity. MTT assay revealed a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability. Microscopic observations showed distinct cellular morphological changes indicating unhealthy cells, whereas the control appeared normal. Increase in the number of propidium iodide positive cells were observed in maximum concentration. Methanolic leaf extract of L. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> acts as an excellent capping agent for the formation of silver nanoparticles and demonstrates immense biological activities. Hence, these Ag NPs can be used as antibacterial, antioxidant as well as cytotoxic agent in treating many medical complications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kumara Swamy, M.; Sudipta, K. M.; Jayanta, K.; Balasubramanya, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApNan.tmp....9K"> <span id="translatedtitle">The green synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the biological activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Leptadenia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> leaf extract</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag Nps) was carried out using methanol leaves extract of L. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. Ag Nps were characterized based on the observations of UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. These Ag Nps were tested for antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method against different pathogenic microorganisms and antioxidant activity was performed using DPPH assay. Further, the in vitro cytotoxic effects of Ag Nps were screened against HCT15 cancer cell line and viability of tumor cells was confirmed using MTT ((3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole)) assay. The nuclear condensation was studied using the propidium iodide-staining method. The color change from green to dark brown and the absorbance peak at about 420 nm indicated the formation of nanoparticles. XRD pattern showed characteristic peaks indexed to the crystalline planes (111), (200) and (220) of face-centered cubic silver. The nanoparticles were of spherical shape with varying sizes ranging from 50 to 70 nm. Biosynthesized Ag Nps showed potent antibacterial activity and effective radical scavenging activity. MTT assay revealed a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability. Microscopic observations showed distinct cellular morphological changes indicating unhealthy cells, whereas the control appeared normal. Increase in the number of propidium iodide positive cells were observed in maximum concentration. Methanolic leaf extract of L. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> acts as an excellent capping agent for the formation of silver nanoparticles and demonstrates immense biological activities. Hence, these Ag NPs can be used as antibacterial, antioxidant as well as cytotoxic agent in treating many medical complications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kumara Swamy, M.; Sudipta, K. M.; Jayanta, K.; Balasubramanya, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16306171"> <span id="translatedtitle">Control of the subthalamic innervation of substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> by D1 and D2 dopamine receptors.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of activating dopaminergic D1 and D2 class receptors of the subthalamic projections that innervate the pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> of the subtantia nigra (SNr) were explored in slices of the rat brain using the whole cell patch-clamp technique. Excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) that could be blocked by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxalene-2,3-dione and D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid were evoked onto <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> GABAergic projection neurons by local field stimulation inside the subthalamic nucleus in the presence of bicuculline. Bath application of (RS)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride (SKF-38393), a dopaminergic D1-class receptor agonist, increased evoked EPSCs by approximately 30% whereas the D2-class receptor agonist, trans-(-)-4aR-4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a,9-octahydro-5-propyl-1H-pyrazolo(3,4-g)quinoline (quinpirole), reduced EPSCs by approximately 25%. These apparently opposing actions were blocked by the specific D1- and D2-class receptor antagonists: R-(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-1H-3-benzazepinehydrochloride (SCH 23390) and S-(-)-5-amino-sulfonyl-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-methyl]-2-methoxybenzamide (sulpiride), respectively. Both effects were accompanied by changes in the paired-pulse ratio, indicative of a presynaptic site of action. The presynaptic location of dopamine receptors at the subthalamonigral projections was confirmed by mean-variance analysis. The effects of both SKF-38393 and quinpirole could be observed on terminals contacting the same postsynaptic neuron. Sulpiride and SCH 23390 enhanced and reduced the evoked EPSC, respectively, suggesting a constitutive receptor activation probably arising from endogenous dopamine. These data suggest that dopamine presynaptically modulates the subthalamic projection that targets GABAergic neurons of the SNr. Implications of this modulation for basal ganglia function are discussed. PMID:16306171</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ibañez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Hernández, Adán; Florán, Benjamin; Galarraga, Elvira; Tapia, Dagoberto; Valdiosera, Rene; Erlij, David; Aceves, Jorge; Bargas, José</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0798-22592006000400011-ven"> <span id="translatedtitle">Capacidad Larvívora del Gold Fish (Carassius auratus auratus) y del Guppy Salvaje (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) Sobre Larvas de Aedes aegypti en Condiciones de Laboratorio / Larvivorous Capacity of the Gold Fish (Carassius auratus auratus) and the Wild Guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) on Larvaes of Aedes aegypti in Laboratory Conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El control biológico de vectores de importancia médica se presenta como una alternativa al uso de plaguicidas. La utilización de peces larvívoros se promueve como una nueva estrategia para el control de vectores. El propósito de este estudio es evaluar el potencial de dos especies ícticas para el co [...] ntrol biológico de mosquitos Aedes aegypti (principal vector del dengue) en condiciones de laboratorio. Un creciente número de larvas de A. aegypti en estadíos I, II y III (n: 25, 50 y 100) fueron colocados en acuarios con goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) y guppys salvajes (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>). Se cuantificó la relación peso corporal/larvas ingeridas/hora en diez ensayos. La especie Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> reflejó una mayor (P Abstract in english The biological control of vectors of medical importance is presented as an alternative to the use of plaguicides. The utilization of larvivorous fishes is promoted as a new strategy for the control of vectors. The proposal of this study is to evaluate the potential of two species of fishes for the b [...] iological control of mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (main vector of Dengue) under laboratory conditions. A growing number of larvaes in stages I, II and III of A. aegypti (n: 25, 50 and 100) was placed in aquariums with goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and wild guppys (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>). The ratio body weight/eliminated larvaes/hour was quantified in ten assays. The species Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> had a higher (P</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nereida, Valero; Eddy, Meleán; Mery, Maldonado; Milagros, Montiel; Yraima, Larreal; Luz Marina, Espina.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0121-37092010000100002-col"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comportamiento de la producción de lima Tahití (Citrus latifolia Tanaka), injertada sobre el patrón de Mandarina Cleopatra (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco) y la influencia del virus de la tristeza (CTV) en condiciones del piedemonte del Meta, 1997-2008 / Performance of the production of Tahiti lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) grafted on the pattern of Cleopatra Mandarin (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco) and the influence of tristeza virus (CTV) under the piedemont of Meta, 1997-2008</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La lima ácida Tahití (Citrus latifolia T) ocupa el tercer lugar dentro de las especies cítricas cultivadas en Colombia. Sus frutos se consumen en el mercado interno y presenta un creciente mercado de exportación. Entre las enfermedades virales que afectan a los cultivos de cítricos el Virus de la Tr [...] isteza de los Cítricos (CTV) es uno de los más limitantes para la producción y longevidad de las plantas en particular en las de lima Tahití. Este estudio se llevó a cabo bajo las condiciones agroecológicas del Centro de Investigación Corpoica La Libertad, en el piedemonte del departamento del Meta. Las plantas utilizadas se injertaron en vivero en 1996 con yemas provenientes de cultivos comerciales utilizándose como patrón la mandarina Cleopatra (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco). El cultivo se estableció en campo en 1997, ocupando una extensión de una hectárea, con una densidad de 490 plantas ha-1. Para determinar la producción del cultivo se llevaron registros anuales; y para la incidencia y severidad de la (CTV) se realizaron dos lecturas en las plantas, durante el séptimo y onceavo año después del transplante (addt). En el año 2008 (11 addt) se realizó la descripción de la sintomatología del daño ocasionado por la tristeza de los cítricos en la planta y se realizó el registro fotográfico. La producción de la lima Tahití se inicio en el 3 año después del transplante con 4 t/ha y se incremento anualmente hasta presentar el pico de producción en el 8 año con 62 t/ha, posteriormente decrece hasta obtener 2 t/ha en el año 11. La incidencia de CTV en el año 2003 (6 addt) fue de 16.5 % para un total de 80 plantas afectadas y en el 2008 (11 addt) el 100 % de las plantas estaban afectadas (490 plantas) La severidad del CTV, en el año 2003 fue de 29.4 %, mientras que en el 2008 fue del 84 %. Abstract in english Tahiti limes (Citrus latifolia T) is in third place among the citrus species cultivated in Colombia. Its fruits are consumed in the domestic market and has a growing export market. Among the viral diseases affecting citrus crops Virus Citrus Tristeza (CTV) is one of the most limiting for production [...] and longevity of <span class="hlt">plants</span> especially in Tahiti lime. This study was carried out under the ecological conditions of the Research Center Corpoica La Libertad, in the foothills of the department of Meta. The <span class="hlt">plants</span> used in the nursery in 1996 grafted with buds from crops used as standard Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco). The crop field was established in 1997, occupying an area of one hectare, with a density of 490 <span class="hlt">plants</span> ha-1. To determine crop production took annual records, and the incidence and severity of the (CTV) were two readings in <span class="hlt">plants</span>, during the seventh and eleventh year after transplantation (addt). In 2008 (11 addt) A description of the symptoms of the damage caused by citrus tristeza in the <span class="hlt">plant</span> and the photographic record was made. The Tahiti lime production started three years after transplantation with 4 t / ha and increased annually to present the peak of production in the eighth year with 62 t/ha, then decreased until 2 t/ha in year 11. The incidence of CTV in 2003 (6 addt) was 16.5 % for a total of 80 affected <span class="hlt">plants</span> and in 2008 (11 addt) 100 % of <span class="hlt">plants</span> were affected (490 <span class="hlt">plants</span>). The severity of CTV, in the 2003 was 29.4 %, while the reading of 2008 was 84 %.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Julio, Quiroga - Cardona; Francy L, Hernández- Parrado; María del Rosario, Silva- Herrera; Javier O., Orduz-Rodríguez.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/BPK/article/view/156"> <span id="translatedtitle">CONTROL DEMONSTRATION OF THE RICEFIELD BREEDING MOSQUITO ANOPHELES ACONITUS DONITZ IN CENTRAL JAVA, USING; POECILIA <span class="hlt">RETICULATA</span> THROUGH COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION : 1. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND CONCEPT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Penelitian dilakukan untuk menjajagi cara memberantas vektor malaria Anopheles aconitus di sawah dengan ikan pemakan jentik Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. Dalam penelitian ini terlihat bahwa dalam pelaksanaan program pemberantasan ini, partisipasi petani untuk mina padi dapat digalakkan melalui rapat kelompok tani. Program mina padi menye­diakan tempat hidup bagi ikan pemakan jentik. Rencana pelaksanaan program ini serta cara penggalakan   petani dibicarakan dalam makalah ini.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sustriayu Nalim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::deb9da2356799023d73984582b9f9d7d"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reproductive performance of the guppy fish Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> [Peters, 1859] fed with live Artemia franciscana [Kellog, 1906] cultured with inert and live diets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">El comportamiento reproductivo del guppy Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> ?evaluado como número de crías, longitud estándar, peso húmedo y seco de las crías y su proporción sexual? fue estudiado usando varias dietas para los reproductores. Los tratamientos consistieron en adultos vivos de Artemia franciscana cultivada con microalgas vivas (Tetraselmis suecica y Chaetoceros calcitrans), harina de Spirulina, harina de soya, harina de trigo, una mezcla 50%/50% de dichas harinas y una dieta comercial ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eda-ulloa, M. Garc U.; Eda-olea, C. J. Garc U.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::e1fdc556e3331343852c7e9b390a469d"> <span id="translatedtitle">Crossing-over between Y chromosomes: another possible source of phenotypic variability in the guppy, <i>Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span></i> Peters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Genetic linkage acting through crossing-over between X and X chromosomes, X and Y chromosomes, and autosomal gene recombination are the most important sources of color pattern polymorphisms in animals. Variability in male color patterns and fin morphologies in the guppy, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, a livebearing fish is an example of extreme pattern polymorphism. We explored the possibility that crossing-over between Y chromosomes can also contribute to the high degree of pattern polymorphism...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Valentin Petrescu-mag, I.; Bourne, Godfrey R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::b3d3490747650eb7dbfc4bc8f09122cb"> <span id="translatedtitle">ESTs and EST-linked polymorphisms for genetic mapping and phylogenetic reconstruction in the guppy, <it>Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span></it></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract Background The guppy, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, is a well-known model organism for studying inheritance and variation of male ornamental traits as well as adaptation to different river habitats. However, genomic resources for studying this important model were not previously widely available. Results With the aim of generating molecular markers for genetic mapping of the guppy, cDNA libraries were constructed from embryos and different adult organs ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tripathi Namita; Sprecher Andrea; Warthmann Norman; Riester Markus; Willing Eva-Maria; Lanz Christa; Hoffmann Margarete; Dreyer Christine; Henz Stefan R; Weigel Detlef</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::4f047c4e224398d81ebdd42d92a75a91"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of vitamin C on growth factors, survival, reproduction and sex ratio in guppy (<i>Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span></i>)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid, AA) ongrowth factors, survival, reproductive performance and sex ratio in guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>Peters,1859). Guppies were divided into 5 treatments with triplicate groups and fed with one of 5 dietsfor 20 weeks. The experimental vitamin C diets were formulated to contain 400, 800, 1200 and 2000 mgAA kg-1 (treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively) with 1 control group. The data obtained from...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bahareh Mehrad; Mohammad Sudagar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::0e189b05deb45c0f81837ba9e75ce7d2"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Gibberellic Acid (GA3), Naphtalin Acetic Acid (NAA), Ethephon and Urea on Alternate Bearing Control in Kinnow Mandarin (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Alternate bearing is a key factor in limiting citrus production. Chemical controls have proved to be the most effective solution to this problem. Two different experiments were conducted to study the effects of different growth regulators (GA3, NAA, Ethephon) and urea on alternate bearing control in Kinnow mandarin (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>). In the first experiment, GA3 at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mgl-1 were applied 3 times during late autumn and early winter 1993 on off trees. Flowe...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tafazoli, E.; Moghbeli Hanzaii, M. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::9972f24072f5c078f9c90a2528d20668"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove) and Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Tangerine Fruit)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum) and tangerine fruits (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oo, Johnson; Ga, Ayoola; Adenipekun, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25195433"> <span id="translatedtitle">Toxicity of pirimiphos methyl (Actellic 25EC) on Anopheles gambiae s.s., Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), and potential biocontrol agent, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Pisces: Poeciliidae).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The toxicity of an emulsifiable formulation of pirimiphos methyl (Actellic 25EC) on Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), and predator fish Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Peters (Pisces: Poeciliidae) was investigated. Acute toxicity tests were carried out to determine the effect of the larvicide on mosquito larvae and fish species. To investigate the nontarget effects on P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, fish of similar size (3.5 +/- 0.2 cm) were randomly selected and exposed for 28 d, under static renewal bioassay, to sublethal concentrations of the larvicide capable of killing 30 and 70% of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The 24 h LC50 value of pirimiphos methyl on the test organisms ranged between 20.44 and 697.30 microg liter(-1). The ultrastructural changes observed in the intestinal cells of P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> were characterized by degenerating cell membranes with gradual loss of gray area in pycnotic nucleus at lower concentration. Marked damage was found at higher concentration including distinct loss of gray areas in cytosol, absence of cristae, numerous ruptures, and several dead cells. Pirimiphos methyl was toxic to a predatory fish species, and for its relevance in vector control and crop protection, warrants cumulative assessment to establish its comprehensive ecological risk, and the dosage required for field larviciding. PMID:25195433</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anogwih, Joy A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-04202008000300005"> <span id="translatedtitle">Populational approach in ecophysiological studies: the case of Plathymenia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, a tree from Cerrado and Atlantic Forest Abordagem populacional em estudos ecofisiológicos: o caso de /Plathymenia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>/, uma árvore do Cerrado e da Mata Atlântica</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available The variability of ecophysiological traits among populations can be a result of selection in response to environmental pressure and/or due to random factors, like the genetic drift. The analysis of both genetic and phenotypic variation within populations can lead to better understanding of adaptation in order to colonize different habitats. In the last years we have developed several studies with an widely ecogeographic distributed legume tree species, Plathymenia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, which were focused on identifying specific morphological and physiological traits related to adaptation to the habitats of origin of each studied population. We studied populations from Atlantic Forest, Cerrado and ecotonal sites in relation to phenology, seed morphological traits and their relation with seed dispersion, seed dormancy and germination, and growth traits in a common garden experiment. In several analyzed traits we found high diversity in this species that can explain its occurrence in a broad geographical range. The existence of genetically based differences of traits in an adaptive way among savanna and forest populations suggests a degree of divergence that characterizes the existence of ecotypes from Cerrado and Atlantic Forest. We also pointed future perspectives in studies at population level in evolutionary ecophysiology and implications of these studies for flora conservation and habitat restoration.A variação em características ecofisiológicas entre populações pode ser devido ao resultado da seleção em resposta a pressão ambiental e/ou pode ser devido a fatores aleatórios como a deriva genética. A análise tanto da variação genética quanto da variação fenotípica das populações, pode levar ao melhor conhecimento sobre adaptações necessárias para a ocupação de diferentes ambientes. Nos últimos anos, nós temos desenvolvido diversos estudos com populações de Plathymenia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, uma leguminosa arbórea de ocorrência em ampla extensão ecogeográfica, com o objetivo de identificar características morfológicas e fisiológicas envolvidas na adaptação das populações aos seus ambientes de origem. Populações provenientes da Mata Atlântica, do Cerrado e de áreas ecotonais entre estes biomas foram avaliadas em relação à fenologia, morfologia e germinação de sementes, bem como em relação à características de crescimento de plantas cultivadas em um mesmo ambiente experimental. Em muitas das características analisadas nessa espécie foi encontrada grande diversidade, o que poderia explicar a sua ocorrência em uma ampla extensão geográfica. A existência de diferenças genéticas em características na direção adaptativa entre as populações provenientes de ambientes de savana e florestais sugere a existência de ecótipos de Cerrado e de Mata Atlântica. Nós também apontamos perspectivas futuras para estudos de ecofisiologia evolutiva em nível populacional, bem como implicações desta abordagem para a conservação da flora e restauração de ambientes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">José Pires de Lemos Filho</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="plant salacia reticulata" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; 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height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S1677-04202008000300005-scl"> <span id="translatedtitle">Populational approach in ecophysiological studies: the case of Plathymenia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, a tree from Cerrado and Atlantic Forest / Abordagem populacional em estudos ecofisiológicos: o caso de /Plathymenia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>/, uma árvore do Cerrado e da Mata Atlântica</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A variação em características ecofisiológicas entre populações pode ser devido ao resultado da seleção em resposta a pressão ambiental e/ou pode ser devido a fatores aleatórios como a deriva genética. A análise tanto da variação genética quanto da variação fenotípica das populações, pode levar ao me [...] lhor conhecimento sobre adaptações necessárias para a ocupação de diferentes ambientes. Nos últimos anos, nós temos desenvolvido diversos estudos com populações de Plathymenia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, uma leguminosa arbórea de ocorrência em ampla extensão ecogeográfica, com o objetivo de identificar características morfológicas e fisiológicas envolvidas na adaptação das populações aos seus ambientes de origem. Populações provenientes da Mata Atlântica, do Cerrado e de áreas ecotonais entre estes biomas foram avaliadas em relação à fenologia, morfologia e germinação de sementes, bem como em relação à características de crescimento de plantas cultivadas em um mesmo ambiente experimental. Em muitas das características analisadas nessa espécie foi encontrada grande diversidade, o que poderia explicar a sua ocorrência em uma ampla extensão geográfica. A existência de diferenças genéticas em características na direção adaptativa entre as populações provenientes de ambientes de savana e florestais sugere a existência de ecótipos de Cerrado e de Mata Atlântica. Nós também apontamos perspectivas futuras para estudos de ecofisiologia evolutiva em nível populacional, bem como implicações desta abordagem para a conservação da flora e restauração de ambientes. Abstract in english The variability of ecophysiological traits among populations can be a result of selection in response to environmental pressure and/or due to random factors, like the genetic drift. The analysis of both genetic and phenotypic variation within populations can lead to better understanding of adaptatio [...] n in order to colonize different habitats. In the last years we have developed several studies with an widely ecogeographic distributed legume tree species, Plathymenia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, which were focused on identifying specific morphological and physiological traits related to adaptation to the habitats of origin of each studied population. We studied populations from Atlantic Forest, Cerrado and ecotonal sites in relation to phenology, seed morphological traits and their relation with seed dispersion, seed dormancy and germination, and growth traits in a common garden experiment. In several analyzed traits we found high diversity in this species that can explain its occurrence in a broad geographical range. The existence of genetically based differences of traits in an adaptive way among savanna and forest populations suggests a degree of divergence that characterizes the existence of ecotypes from Cerrado and Atlantic Forest. We also pointed future perspectives in studies at population level in evolutionary ecophysiology and implications of these studies for flora conservation and habitat restoration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">José Pires de, Lemos Filho; Maíra Figueiredo, Goulart; Maria Bernadete, Lovato.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0100-736X2013000700011-scl"> <span id="translatedtitle">Atividade antimicrobiana do oleorresina de copaíba (Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) frente a Staphylococcus coagulase positiva isolados de casos de otite em cães / Antimicrobial activity of copaiba oil (Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) against coagulase positive Staphylococcus of canine otitis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar o potencial antimicrobiano do oleorresina de Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Ducke em isolados de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (SCP) provenientes de casos de otite externa em cães. O método de microdiluição em caldo foi utilizado para determinação da concentr [...] ação inibitória mínima (CIM) e concentração bactericida mínima (CBM) de oleorresina de copaíba. Em adição, foi determinado o perfil de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos dos isolados de SCP pelo método de difusão em ágar. Oito classes de antimicrobianos foram usadas para o cálculo de multirresistência antimicrobiana. A determinação da composição química do oleorresina de copaíba foi realizada por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (GC/MS), sendo que ?-cariofileno, ?-bisaboleno e (E)-?-bergamoteno foram os compostos majoritários. O oleorresina de copaíba demonstrou CIM90 de 0,164mg/mL e CBM90 de 1,31mg/mL. A multirresistência foi verificada em 27% das cepas testadas. Os resultados sugerem que o oleorresina de copaíba exerceu atividade bacteriostática e bactericida mesmo em cepas multirresistentes de Staphylococcus coagulase-positiva. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the oleoresin Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Ducke against Staphylococcus coagulase positive (SCP) isolated from otitis externa in dogs. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the oleores [...] in were determined by broth microdilution method. In addition, we verified the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates of SCP by agar diffusion method. Eight classes of antimicrobial were used to calculate the multidrug resistance. The chemical composition of the oleoresin was performed by gas chromatography coupled to the mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and ?-caryophyllene, ?-bisabolene, and (E)-?-bergamotene were the main compounds found. The copaiba oleoresin showed a MIC90 of 0.164mg/mL and a CBM90 of 1.3mg/mL. The multidrug resistance was found in 27% of the strains tested. The results suggest that copaiba oleoresin has bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity even in multidrug-resistant coagulase-positive strains.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rosangela E., Ziech; Luana D., Farias; Cláudia, Balzan; Magnos F., Ziech; Berta M., Heinzmann; Osmar A., Lameira; Agueda C. de, Vargas.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0034-77442004000400016-cri"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fecundidad,fertilidad e índice gonadosomático de Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Pisces:Poeciliidae)en Heredia,Costa Rica</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Entre setiembre y noviembre de 1998 se determinó la fecundidad,fertilidad e índice gonadosomático de Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Peters 1859),a partir de especímenes recolectados en un estanque en Santo Domingo de Heredia,Costa Rica.Las hembras presentaron una longitud total promedio de 34.43 ± 7.26 mm con [...] un ámbito entre 17.80 y 51.50 mm y un peso total promedio de 0.69 ± 0.48 g,con un ámbito entre 0.06 y 2.32 g.Se determinó que esta especie presenta superfetación,matrotrofía y se mantuvo sexualmente activa durante todo el período de estudio.La fertilidad se rigió por la ecuación F =0.527e0.1171Lt (r² =0.9404)y con una fertilidad promedio para la población de 56.1 ± 43.6,con un ámbito entre 7.98 y 197.58 (huevos +embriones).La fecundidad se rigió por la ecuación Fo = 0.695e0.1076 Lt (r² =0.9376)con una fecundidad promedio para la población de 48.95 ± 35.99, con un ámbito entre 6.98 y 178.99 (ovocitos +óvulos). El índice gonadosomático en hembras se rigió por la ecuación IGS =0.0014e 0.134 Lt (r 2 =0.8581)y se encontró un índice gonadosomático promedio de 0.25 ± 0.27%con un ámbito entre 0.02 y 1.31%. Abstract in english Fertility,fecundity and gonadosomatic index of Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Pisces:Poeciliidae)in Heredia,Costa Rica.Between September and November of 1998,1 432 females of Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> were collected in a pond in Santo Domingo,Heredia,Costa Rica.The average total length of females was 34.43 ± 7.26 m [...] m (range 17.80 and 51.50 mm)and the average total weight of 0.69 ± 0.48 g (range 0.06 and 2.32 g). This species is a viviparous matrotrofic and the specimens were sexually mature.The total length-fertility relationship was F =0.527e 0.1171Lt (r² =0.9404).The average fertility was 56.1 ± 43.6 (eggs +embryos)(range 8.0 and 197.6).The total length-fecundity relationship was Fo =0.695e0.1076 Lt (r² =0.9376).The average fecundity was of 49.0 ± 36.0 (oocytes +ova)(range 7.0 and 179.0).The total length-gonadosomatic index relationship was IGS =0.0014 e0.134 Lt (r² =0.8581).The average gonadosomatic index was 0.25 ± 0.27%(range 0.02 and 1.31%).Rev.Biol.Trop.52(4):945-950.Epub 2005 Jun 24.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mario, Urriola Hernández; Jorge, Cabrera Peña; Maurizio, Protti Quesada.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0103-50532013000600024-scl"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of nickel in alcoholic beverages by FAAS after online preconcentration using mandarin peel (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) as biosorbent</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um método de extração por fase sólida foi desenvolvido para determinação direta de níquel em bebidas alcóolicas. Este método baseia-se na adsorção de níquel em cascas de Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, conhecida como mexerica. O pH de solução, quantidade de adsorvente, vazão da amostra e do eluente, concentração [...] do eluente e efeito de matriz foram investigados usando estratégias de otimização multivariada. Estudos de dessorção foram feitos com HCl 1 mol L-1. As condições ideais de extração foram obtidas usando amostra em pH 6,0, vazão da amostra de 4,3 mL min-1, massa de adsorvente de 50 mg e HCl 1,0 mol L-1 na vazão de 2,0 mL min-1 usado como eluente. Fator de pré-concentração, precisão, limite de detecção (LOD), limite de quantificação (LOQ), índice de consumo e frequência analítica foram estimados como 12, 0,9% (30,0 µg L-1, n = 7), 3,1 µg L-1, 10,3 µg L-1, 0,85 mL e 15 amostras por h, respectivamente. O método foi aplicado em amostras de cachaça e uísque e os resultados para os testes de recuperação foram maiores que 99%. Abstract in english A solid phase extraction method was developed for the direct determination of nickel in alcoholic beverages. This method is based on the adsorption of nickel onto the peel of Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (mandarin orange). The solution pH, amount of adsorbent, sample and eluent flow rates, eluent concentration [...] and matrix effects were investigated using multivariate optimization strategies. Desorption studies were carried out with 1 mol L-1 HCl. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained using a sample pH of 6.0, sample flow rate of 4.3 mL min-1, 50 mg of sorbent mass and 1.0 mol L-1 HCl at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min-1 used as eluent. The preconcentration factor, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), consumption index and sample throughput were estimated as 12, 0.9% (30.0 µg L-1, n = 7), 3.1 µg L-1, 10.3 µg L-1, 0.85 mL and 15 samples per h, respectively. The method was applied to sugar cane spirit and whisky samples and the results for recovery tests were higher than 99%.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gabriela C., Ribeiro; Luciana M., Coelho; Nívia M. Melo, Coelho.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1072-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45110822"> <span id="translatedtitle">Change of mitotic behavior and ultra structure of 'Fuju' (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco) stem-apex clones after space flight</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">By using conventional squash stain technique and ultrathin sectioning technique, the effects of space flight on mitotic behavior and ultrastructure were studied in the shoot apical meristem of 'Fuju' (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco), which had been carried by China's seed-breeding satellite, Shijian-8. The results showed that space flight had effect on the mutagenesis of stem-apical meristem. Abnormal mitosis with various degrees had been detected in 13 mutant clones, of which mitotic aberrations in clone '08004' were significantly higher than the others. The aberration rate of numerical abnormalities of chromosomes at metaphase, lagging chromosome, micronucleus, C-spindle, S-spindle and polyarch spindle in the clone '08004' was 0.34%, 0.669%, 0.86%, 0.17%, 1.20% and 1.03%, respectively. The ultrastructure of mesophyll cell in most clones was unchanged, but nucleus chromatin agglutination, chloroplast thylakoid disintegrated, autophagosome appeared, cell vacuolated, plasmolysis and the formation of apoptotic body were found in the clone '08004', suggesting that programmed cell death (PCD) Nevertheless, no change in the mitochondrial structure was observed until terminal phase of PCD. (authors)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25455100"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transcriptome and metabolome analyses of sugar and organic acid metabolism in Ponkan (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) fruit during fruit maturation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ponkan (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco cv. Ponkan) is an important mandarin citrus in China. However, the low ratio of sugars to organic acids makes it less acceptable for consumers. In this work, three stages (S120, early development stage; S195, commercial harvest stage; S205, delayed harvest stage) of Ponkan fruit were selected for study. Among 28 primary metabolites analyzed in fruit, sugars increased while organic acids in general decreased. RNA-Seq analysis was carried out and 19,504 genes were matched to the Citrus clementina genome, with 85 up-regulated and 59 down-regulated genes identified during fruit maturation. A sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene was included in the up-regulated group, and this was supported by the transcript ratio distribution. Expression of two asparagine transferases (AST), and a specific ATP-citrate lyase (ACL) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) members increased during fruit maturation. It is suggested that SPS, AST, ACL and GAD coordinately contribute to sugar accumulation and organic acid degradation during Ponkan fruit maturation. Both the glycolysis pathway and TCA cycle were accelerated during later maturation, indicating the flux change from sucrose metabolism to organic acid metabolism was enhanced, with citrate degradation occurring mainly through the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and acetyl-CoA pathways. PMID:25455100</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lin, Qiong; Wang, Chengyang; Dong, Wencheng; Jiang, Qing; Wang, Dengliang; Li, Shaojia; Chen, Ming; Liu, Chunrong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12051803"> <span id="translatedtitle">Studies of masculinization, detoxification, and oxidative stress responses in guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) exposed to effluent from a pulp mill.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Potential masculinization, detoxification, and oxidative stress responses were assessed in domesticated female guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) exposed for 42 days to diluted effluent from a modern Swedish kraft pulp mill or a model androgen. Methyltestosterone induced male-like coloration and transformation of the anal fin into a gonopodium-like structure. The effluent did not induce any apparent changes of the anal fin morphology; however, the exposed guppies became more colored than control fish, which could be an androgenic response. A better understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in these responses would be required for a full evaluation. Both primary effluent and effluent which had undergone activated sludge treatment caused a moderate but significant induction of hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity. However, the general toxicity of both effluents was low, as mortality was negligible even at 25% dilutions. There was a continuous production of offspring in all groups (47-62% female fry), except by methyltestosterone-treated females, which did not reproduce. There were no indications that either effluent caused oxidative stress since hepatic glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and DT-diaphorase activities remained unchanged compared with controls. PMID:12051803</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Larsson, D G Joakim; Kinnberg, Karin; Sturve, Joachim; Stephensen, Eiríkur; Skön, Mandus; Förlin, Lars</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25511180"> <span id="translatedtitle">Disruption of dopaminergic transmission remodels tripartite synapse morphology and astrocytic calcium activity within substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (SNr) is a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia circuitry particularly sensitive to pathological dopamine depletion. Indeed, hyperactivity of SNr neurons is known to be responsible for some motor disorders characteristic of Parkinson's disease. The neuronal processing of basal ganglia dysfunction is well understood but, paradoxically, the role of astrocytes in the regulation of SNr activity has rarely been considered. We thus investigated the influence of the disruption of dopaminergic transmission on plastic changes at tripartite glutamatergic synapses in the rat SNr and on astrocyte calcium activity. In 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats, we observed structural plastic changes of tripartite glutamatergic synapses and perisynaptic astrocytic processes. These findings suggest that subthalamonigral synapses undergo morphological changes that accompany the pathophysiological processes of Parkinson's disease. The pharmacological blockade of dopaminergic transmission (with sulpiride and SCH-23390) increased astrocyte calcium excitability, synchrony and gap junction coupling within the SNr, suggesting a functional adaptation of astrocytes to dopamine transmission disruption in this output nucleus. This hyperactivity is partly reversed by subthalamic nucleus high-frequency stimulation which has emerged as an efficient symptomatic treatment for Parkinson's disease. Therefore, our results demonstrate structural and functional reshaping of neuronal and glial elements highlighting a functional plasticity of neuroglial interactions when dopamine transmission is disrupted. GLIA 2015;63:673-683. PMID:25511180</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bosson, Anthony; Boisseau, Sylvie; Buisson, Alain; Savasta, Marc; Albrieux, Mireille</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20102170"> <span id="translatedtitle">Additional insights on the bastadins: isolation of analogues from the sponge Ianthella cf. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> and exploration of the oxime configurations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The focus of this study is on the bastadin class of bromotyrosine derivatives, commonly isolated from Ianthella marine sponges, and is the first report on the secondary metabolites from Ianthella cf. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. Two new bastadins were isolated, (E,Z)-bastadin 19 (1a), a diastereoisomer of the known (E,E)-bastadin 19 (1b), and dioxepine bastadin 3 (2), an unusual dibenzo-1,3-dioxepine. A bastadin NMR database was created and assisted in the structure determination of 1b and 2 and the rapid dereplication of 10 other known compounds including bastadins 2-9 (3-10), 13 (11), and 19 (1a). The geometry of the 2-(hydroxyimino)-N-alkylamide chains, a chemical feature present in all bastadins, was further probed, and new insights regarding the natural oxime configuration are discussed. Bastadins possessing (E,Z)-, (Z,E)-, or (E,E)-dioxime configurations could be artifacts of isolation or storage in solution. Therefore, this point was explored by photochemical and thermal isomerization studies, as well as molecular mechanics calculations. Bastadins 13 (11) and 19 (1a) exhibited moderate inhibition against Trypanosoma brucei, and bastadin 4 (5) was cytotoxic to HCT-116 colon cancer cells. PMID:20102170</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Calcul, Laurent; Inman, Wayne D; Morris, Alexi A; Tenney, Karen; Ratnam, Joseline; McKerrow, James H; Valeriote, Frederick A; Crews, Phillip</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ejh.it/index.php/ejh/article/view/986"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cell proliferation and growth-associated protein 43 expression in the olfactory epithelium in Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> after copper solution exposure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available This study investigated the regeneration in the olfactory mucosa of the teleostean fish Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> when returned to dechlorinated tap water after 4-day exposure to 30 ?g/L of Cu2+. The regeneration process in the olfactory tissue was examined in fishes at 0, 3, 6 and 10 days of recovery in well water. Jade B staining permitted to evaluate the rate of the damage which was especially extended to olfactory neurons. Immediately after the end of exposure, a massive mitotic activity in the basal region of the mucosa was detected by immunostaining with PCNA. After 3 days of recovery the nuclei of the newly formed cells had already finished their migration to the upper portion of the epithelium, and cellular division was much less intense. Simultaneously, immunoreactivity for the neural growth-associated phosphoprotein GAP-43 increased respect to control levels, revealing that the new differentiating PCNA-positive elements belonged to immature neurons. After 6 days in well water no mitotic activity was detected, while the GAP-43 labelling appeared particularly concentrated in the apical surface of the olfactory epithelium.After 10 days the aspect of the olfactory epithelium was almost identical to the control. The present results suggest that after 10 days regeneration seems to be complete and integrity of the tissue restored. Furthermore, the epithelium reconstitution does not show apparent divergence from other fishes or mammals.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S Bettini</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25162057"> <span id="translatedtitle">Community analysis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots of Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> based on SSU rDNA.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Morphological observation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species in rhizospheric soil could not accurately reflect the actual AMF colonizing status in roots, while molecular identification of indigenous AMF colonizing citrus rootstocks at present was rare in China. In our study, community of AMF colonizing trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) and red tangerine (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco) were analyzed based on small subunit of ribosomal DNA genes. Morphological observation showed that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization, spore density, and hyphal length did not differ significantly between two rootstocks. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 173 screened AMF sequences clustered in at least 10 discrete groups (GLO1~GLO10), all belonging to the genus of Glomus Sensu Lato. Among them, GLO1 clade (clustering with uncultured Glomus) accounting for 54.43% clones was the most common in trifoliate orange roots, while GLO6 clade (clustering with Glomus intraradices) accounting for 35.00% clones was the most common in red tangerine roots. Although, Shannon-Wiener indices exhibited no notable differences between both rootstocks, relative proportions of observed clades analysis revealed that composition of AMF communities colonizing two rootstocks varied severely. The results indicated that native AMF species in citrus rhizosphere had diverse colonization potential between two different rootstocks in the present orchards. PMID:25162057</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Peng; Wang, Yin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24074607"> <span id="translatedtitle">In vitro and in vivo efficacy of garlic compounds against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting the guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Traditional compounds used to treat fish diseases in aquaculture and the ornamental fish industry (such as formalin and malachite green) can be more toxic to the hosts than their parasites. With the reviviscence in the use of herbal products, various botanicals have been heralded as cures for particular pathogens, but the efficacy of these compounds for parasitic worms is questionable. Here, we tested a range of garlic (Allium sativum) products against a major aquarium pathogen, Gyrodactylus turnbulli, infecting the guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>). All garlic products significantly reduced parasite mean survival time in vitro, from 13 h to <1 h. In fully randomised trials, the number of parasites was also significantly reduced on infected fish exposed to garlic from different sources. Two garlic treatments (minced and granule forms) reduced worm burdens by 66% and 75% after three doses, whereas Chinese freeze-dried garlic and allyl disulphide were 95% effective after a single application. In fact, Chinese freeze dried garlic was equally effective as Levamisole, a licensed livestock dewormer that is highly effective against G. turnbulli but not routinely prescribed for use in fish; hence, garlic may be a potential alternative treatment for gyrodactylosis. PMID:24074607</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schelkle, Bettina; Snellgrove, Donna; Cable, Joanne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=5551028"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chronic effects of Cd on the reproduction of the guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) through Cd-accumulated midge larvae (Chironomus yoshimatsui)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chronic effects of Cd on the growth and reproduction of the guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) were studied using a food chain model, midge larvae as prey and guppy as predator. The transfer rate of Cd from the midge to the guppy was between 0.5 and 1% during the 30-day experiment. Growth rate of the guppy fed Cd-accumulated midge larvae (270 micrograms/g dry wt) for 30 days was not impaired. Cumulative numbers of fry produced by the guppy fed Cd-accumulated midge larvae (210 micrograms/g) for 2 months decreased to ca. 80% of the control. Guppies had been fed the Cd-accumulated midges from 30 days old for 7 months. Cumulative numbers of fry produced by the guppy fed midge larvae-accumulated 500, 800, and 1300 micrograms Cd/g for 6 months decreased to 79, 65, and 55% of the control, respectively. Similar effects of Cd on the reproduction of guppy were shown between the guppies fed the Cd-accumulated midge larvae (500 micrograms Cd/g) and exposed to 10 or 20 micrograms Cd/liter for the 6 months. The Cd concentrations of the digestive tract, liver, and kidney increased strongly, indicating that such Cd accumulation was brought on mainly through the Cd-accumulated midges. Mortality of the female guppies fed larvae-accumulated 1300 micrograms Cd/g increased abruptly from the 6 months of the experiment, whereas no male guppy died during the experiment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hatakeyama, S.; Yasuno, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24816221"> <span id="translatedtitle">Replicated origin of female-biased adult sex ratio in introduced populations of the trinidadian guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There are many theoretical and empirical studies explaining variation in offspring sex ratio but relatively few that explain variation in adult sex ratio. Adult sex ratios are important because biased sex ratios can be a driver of sexual selection and will reduce effective population size, affecting population persistence and shapes how populations respond to natural selection. Previous work on guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) gives mixed results, usually showing a female-biased adult sex ratio. However, a detailed analysis showed that this bias varied dramatically throughout a year and with no consistent sex bias. We used a mark-recapture approach to examine the origin and consistency of female-biased sex ratio in four replicated introductions. We show that female-biased sex ratio arises predictably and is a consequence of higher male mortality and longer female life spans with little effect of offspring sex ratio. Inconsistencies with previous studies are likely due to sampling methods and sampling design, which should be less of an issue with mark-recapture techniques. Together with other long-term mark-recapture studies, our study suggests that bias in offspring sex ratio rarely contributes to adult sex ratio in vertebrates. Rather, sex differences in adult survival rates and longevity determine vertebrate adult sex ratio. PMID:24816221</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arendt, Jeffrey D; Reznick, David N; López-Sepulcre, Andres</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bioflux.com.ro/docs/vol1/2008.1.1-10.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Crossing-over between Y chromosomes: another possible source of phenotypic variability in the guppy, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Peters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Genetic linkage acting through crossing-over between X and X chromosomes, X and Y chromosomes, and autosomal gene recombination are the most important sources of color pattern polymorphisms in animals. Variability in male color patterns and fin morphologies in the guppy, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, a livebearing fish is an example of extreme pattern polymorphism. We explored the possibility that crossing-over between Y chromosomes can also contribute to the high degree of pattern polymorphism in guppies because YY individuals are easily induced in the boratory. However, note that YY individuals are also produced in natural populations. Our results indicated that YY crossing-over was another important source of phenotypic variability - probably because recombination may be possible ver the entire length of Y chromosomes, and at very high frequencies due to high degrees of homology. Thus, crossing-over between Y chromosomes is yet another mechanism that can contribute to extreme pattern polymorphism in the guppy, a popular aquarium and important research model species.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">I. Valentin Petrescu-Mag</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23937558"> <span id="translatedtitle">The importance of social dimension and maturation stage for the probabilistic maturation reaction norm in Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Maturation is an important event in an organism's life history, with important implications on dynamics of both wild and captive populations. The probabilistic maturation reaction norm (PMRN) has emerged as an important method to describe variation in maturation in wild fish. Because most PMRNs are based on age and size only, it is important to understand limitations of these variables in explaining maturation. We experimentally assessed (i) the sensitivity of age- and size-based PMRNs to unaccounted sources of plasticity, (ii) the role of social environment on maturation and (iii) the significance of estimating PMRNs early and late in the maturation process (initiation and completion of maturation, respectively). We reared male guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) under laboratory conditions, subjected to two food levels and three different social cues. We found that growth and social environment affected the maturation in a way that could not be accounted for by their effect on age and size. PMRNs estimated for the initiation stage were less plastic (growth differences and social cues influenced the PMRN shape only little) than those for completion. The initiation of maturation is probably closer to the maturation 'decision' and allows determining factors influencing maturation decision most accurately. PMID:23937558</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diaz Pauli, B; Pauli, B D; Heino, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bioflux.com.ro/docs/2010.3.163-170.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of vitamin C on growth factors, survival, reproduction and sex ratio in guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid, AA ongrowth factors, survival, reproductive performance and sex ratio in guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>Peters,1859. Guppies were divided into 5 treatments with triplicate groups and fed with one of 5 dietsfor 20 weeks. The experimental vitamin C diets were formulated to contain 400, 800, 1200 and 2000 mgAA kg-1 (treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively with 1 control group. The data obtained from the trial weresubjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA to test for effects of dietary treatments. In vitamin Ctreatments the body weight increase (BWI, percent body weight increase (PBWI, specific growth rate(SGR, daily growth rate (DGR and reproductive performance of guppies were increased significantlywith increasing the levels of vitamin C (P<0.05 and highest BWI, PBWI, SGR and DGR were observed intreatment 4. There were no significant differences in sex ratio observed between the treatments. Insurvival rate there was significant difference between treatment 2 with treatments 1, 3 and control(P<0.05. This study indicates that BWI, PBWI, SGR and DGR and reproductive performance can beimproved by dietary vitamin C supplementation and also may be concluded that the vitamin Crequirement of guppies fish for optimum growth and reproductive performance is 2000 mg/kg of drydiet.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bahareh Mehrad</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24465632"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multiple pigment cell types contribute to the black, blue, and orange ornaments of male guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fitness of male guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) highly depends on the size and number of their black, blue, and orange ornaments. Recently, progress has been made regarding the genetic mechanisms underlying male guppy pigment pattern formation, but we still know little about the pigment cell organization within these ornaments. Here, we investigate the pigment cell distribution within the black, blue, and orange trunk spots and selected fin color patterns of guppy males from three genetically divergent strains using transmission electron microscopy. We identified three types of pigment cells and found that at least two of these contribute to each color trait. Further, two pigment cell layers, one in the dermis and the other in the hypodermis, contribute to each trunk spot. The pigment cell organization within the black and orange trunk spots was similar between strains. The presence of iridophores in each of the investigated color traits is consistent with a key role for this pigment cell type in guppy color pattern formation. PMID:24465632</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kottler, Verena A; Koch, Iris; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25471572"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metabolism Regulates the Spontaneous Firing of Substantia Nigra Pars <span class="hlt">Reticulata</span> Neurons via KATP and Nonselective Cation Channels.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Neurons use glucose to fuel glycolysis and provide substrates for mitochondrial respiration, but neurons can also use alternative fuels that bypass glycolysis and feed directly into mitochondria. To determine whether neuronal pacemaking depends on active glucose metabolism, we switched the metabolic fuel from glucose to alternative fuels, lactate or ?-hydroxybutyrate, while monitoring the spontaneous firing of GABAergic neurons in mouse substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (SNr) brain slices. We found that alternative fuels, in the absence of glucose, sustained SNr spontaneous firing at basal rates, but glycolysis may still be supported by glycogen in the absence of glucose. To prevent any glycogen-fueled glycolysis, we directly inhibited glycolysis using either 2-deoxyglucose or iodoacetic acid. Inhibiting glycolysis in the presence of alternative fuels lowered SNr firing to a slower sustained firing rate. Surprisingly, we found that the decrease in SNr firing was not mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel activity, but if we lowered the perfusion flow rate or omitted the alternative fuel, KATP channels were activated and could silence SNr firing. The KATP-independent slowing of SNr firing that occurred with glycolytic inhibition in the presence of alternative fuels was consistent with a decrease in a nonselective cationic conductance. Although mitochondrial metabolism alone can prevent severe energy deprivation and KATP channel activation in SNr neurons, active glucose metabolism appears important for keeping open a class of ion channels that is crucial for the high spontaneous firing rate of SNr neurons. PMID:25471572</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lutas, Andrew; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Yellen, Gary</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12597435"> <span id="translatedtitle">Use of the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) in carcinogenesis testing under national toxicology program protocols.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A need exists for whole animal toxicity, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis models that are alternative to the traditional rodent test models and that are economical, sensitive, and scientifically acceptable. Among small fish models, the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) is preeminent for investigating effects of carcinogenic and/or toxic waterborne hazards to humans. The guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>), although less widely used, is valuable as a comparison species. Both species are easy to maintain and handle in the laboratory and there is a large body of background information on their responsiveness to a range of classes of carcinogens. There are considerable data on the occurrence of background diseases and on spontaneous neoplastic lesions, both of which occur relatively rarely. With few modifications, the medaka and guppy are amenable to carcinogenicity testing under the rigid standards established by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) for rodent tests. The advantages of the small fish in carcinogenesis studies are best realized in long-term studies that involve environmentally realistic exposures. Studies to identify chronic effects can be conducted in about 12 months, near the life span of medaka in our laboratory. Practically, 9-month studies are optimal but shorter study cycles and a variety of exposure/growout and initiation/promotion scenarios are available. Studies on 3 compounds tested in medaka under NTP protocols are under review and preliminary analysis indicates that chronic carcinogenicity bioassays with medaka, guppy, and potentially with other small fish species are feasible and scientifically valid. PMID:12597435</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hawkins, William E; Walker, William W; Fournie, John W; Manning, C Steve; Krol, Rena M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="plant salacia reticulata" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; 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height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::023d2f864d6a200ac878a807acc20e9c"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distribution of guppies Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Peters, 1860) and Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868) along a polluted stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil Distribuição dos guppies Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Peters, 1860) e Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868) ao longo de um trecho poluído do rio Paraíba do Sul, Brasil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cyprinodontiformes fishes (guppies) are widely distributed in Neotropical regions and use deteriorated microhabitats in rivers where few species can occur. This study was carried out in a stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River in bracketing a large urban-industrial complex. The aim was to assess eventual effects that the industrial complex could have on distribution of two closely related fish species of guppies, Phalloceros caudimaculatus and Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. The area was divided into thre...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fg, Arau?jo; Mg, Peixoto; Bct, Pinto; Tp, Teixeira</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JHyd..513..504P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal simulation of water, salinity and nitrate dynamics under drip irrigated mandarin (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) and assessing management options for drainage and nitrate leaching</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Estimation of all water fluxes temporally and spatially within and out of the crop root zone, and evaluation of issues like salinity and nutrient leaching, are necessary to fully appraise the efficiency of irrigation systems. Simulation models can be used to investigate these issues over several seasons when the cost of long term monitoring is prohibitive. Model results can be used to advise growers if improvements are required to various aspects of irrigation system operations. In this study, HYDRUS-2D was used to evaluate data measured during one season in a young mandarin (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) orchard, irrigated with an intensive surface drip fertigation system. Water contents, salinities, and nitrate concentrations measured weekly in the field were compared with model predictions. The temporal mean absolute error (MAE) values between weekly measured and simulated water contents ranged from 0.01 to 0.04 cm3 cm-3. However, modelling error (MAE) was slightly larger at 10 cm depth (0.04 cm3 cm-3), as compared to greater depths (0.02-0.03 cm3 cm-3). Similarly, the errors were larger in the surface soil layer (25 cm depth) for nitrate-nitrogen, NO3--N (1.52 mmol(c) L-1), as compared to greater depths. The spatial and temporal soil solution salinity (ECsw) and NO3--N data showed accumulation of salts and nitrate within the soil up until day 150 of the simulation (December, 2006), followed by leaching due to high precipitation and over irrigation at later times. Only 49% of applied water was used by the mandarin trees, while 33.5% was leached. On the other hand, the simulation revealed that a significant amount of applied nitrogen (85%) was taken up by the mandarin trees, and the remaining 15% was leached. The results indicate that the irrigation and fertigation schedule needs modifying as there was overwatering from December onwards. Different permutations and combinations of irrigation and fertigation scheduling were evaluated to optimise the water and nitrogen uptake and to reduce their leaching out of the crop root zone. Slightly higher nitrogen uptake (1.73 kg ha-1) was recorded when fertigation was applied second to last hour in an irrigation event, as compared to applying it earlier during an irrigation event. Similarly, a 20% reduction in irrigation and N application produced a pronounced reduction in drainage (28%) and N leaching (46.4%), but it also decreased <span class="hlt">plant</span> N uptake by 15.8% and water uptake by 4.8%, and increased salinity by 25.8%, as compared to the normal practice. This management would adversely impact the sustainability of this expensive irrigation system. However, reducing only irrigation by 30% during the 2nd half of the crop season (January to August) reduced drainage and N leaching by 37.2% and 50.5%, respectively, and increased N uptake by 6.9%. Such management of irrigation would be quite promising for the sustainability of the entire system. It is concluded that judicious manipulations of irrigation and fertilizer applications can be helpful in designing drip irrigation schedules for perennial horticultural crops to achieve improved efficiency of irrigation and fertigation applications and reduced contamination of receiving water bodies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Phogat, V.; Skewes, M. A.; Cox, J. W.; Sanderson, G.; Alam, J.; Šim?nek, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fnsys.2011.00006/full"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dopaminergic presynaptic modulation of nigral afferents: its role in the generation of recurrent bursting in substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> neurons</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Previous work has shown the functions associated with activation of dopamine presynaptic receptors in some substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (SNr afferents: i striatonigral terminals (direct pathway posses presynaptic dopamine D1-class receptors whose action is to enhance inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs and GABA transmission. ii Subthalamonigral terminals posses D1- and D2-class receptors where D1-class receptor activation enhances and D2-class receptor activation decreases excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs. Here we report that pallidonigral afferents posses D2-class receptors (D3 and D4 types that decrease inhibitory synaptic transmission via presynaptic modulation. No action of D1-class agonists was found on pallidonigral synapses. In contrast, administration of D1-receptor antagonists greatly decreased striatonigral IPSCs in the same preparation, suggesting that tonic dopamine levels help in maintaining the function of the striatonigral (direct pathway. When both D3 and D4 type receptors were blocked, pallidonigral IPSCs increased in amplitude while striatonigral connections had no significant change, suggesting that tonic dopamine levels are repressing a powerful inhibition conveyed by pallidonigral synapses (a branch of the indirect pathway. We then blocked both D1- and D2-class receptors to acutely decrease direct pathway (striatonigral and enhance indirect pathways (subthalamonigral and pallidonigral synaptic force. The result was that most SNr projection neurons entered a recurrent bursting firing mode similar to that observed during Parkinsonism in both patients and animal models. These results raise the question as to whether the lack of dopamine in basal ganglia output nuclei is enough to generate some pathological signs of Parkinsonism.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">JoseBargas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23581694"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acute toxicity and environmental risk of teflubenzuron to Daphnia magna, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> and Lemna minor in the absence and presence of sediment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study aimed to estimate the acute toxicity of teflubenzuron (1-(3,5-dichloro-2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)urea) (TFB) for Daphnia magna, Lemna minor and Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, in the absence and presence of sediment; evaluate the effect of sediment on the TFB bioavailability; and to classify this insecticide according to its environmental poisoning risk for agricultural and aquaculture uses. The tests of TFB acute toxicity were conducted in static system in a completely randomized design with increasing TFB concentrations, and a control group. The TFB has been classified according to the estimated values of EC50 and LC50 by its acute toxicity and environmental risk. The sediment significantly reduced toxicity and bioavailability of TFB in water column. Therefore, the insecticide can be classified as being highly toxic to Daphnia magna, which means the agricultural and aquacultural uses of TFB pose a high risk of environmental toxicity to non-target organisms. However, it was practically non-toxic to L. minor and P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. PMID:23581694</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Medeiros, Louise S; Souza, Jaqueline P; Winkaler, Elissandra U; Carraschi, Silvia P; Cruz, Claudinei; Souza-Júnior, Severino C; Machado-Neto, Joaquim G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19897016"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neuroprotective effect of seaweeds inhabiting South Indian coastal area (Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve): Cholinesterase inhibitory effect of Hypnea valentiae and Ulva <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, which is one of the four leading causes of death in developed nations. Until date the only symptomatic treatment for this disease is based on the "cholinergic hypothesis" where the drugs enhance acetylcholine levels in the brain by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In the course for screening cholinesterase inhibitors about eight seaweeds, with wide pharmaceutical applications, were collected from Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar, Marine Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu, India. Inhibitory effect of methanol extract of the seaweeds was studied in vitro by incubating various concentration of the extract with AChE or butyryl cholinesterase (BuChE) and assessing their activities by Ellman's colorimetric method. Kinetic parameters like IC(50), K(i) and V(max) were also analyzed. The results showed that of the eight seaweeds screened Hypnea valentiae, Padina gymnospora, Ulva <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> and Gracilaria edulis exhibited inhibitory activity to AChE with IC(50) value of 2.6, 3.5, 10 and 3mg/ml respectively, while H. valentiae, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Dictyota dichotoma and U. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> showed 50% inhibition to BuChE at concentration 3.9, 7, 6.5 and 10mg/ml respectively. The inhibitory activities of the seaweed extracts were comparable to the standard drug donepezil. Enzyme kinetic analysis showed that algal extracts exhibited mixed type inhibition (partial noncompetitive inhibition). PMID:19897016</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suganthy, N; Karutha Pandian, S; Pandima Devi, K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=83708302"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reproductive performance of the guppy fish Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> [Peters, 1859] fed with live Artemia franciscana [Kellog, 1906] cultured with inert and live diets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available El comportamiento reproductivo del guppy Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> ?evaluado como número de crías, longitud estándar, peso húmedo y seco de las crías y su proporción sexual? fue estudiado usando varias dietas para los reproductores. Los tratamientos consistieron en adultos vivos de Artemia franciscana cultivada con microalgas vivas (Tetraselmis suecica y Chaetoceros calcitrans, harina de Spirulina, harina de soya, harina de trigo, una mezcla 50%/50% de dichas harinas y una dieta comercial como grupo control. Después de 45 días bajo condiciones experimentales de laboratorio, no se encontraron diferencias significativas (P > 0.05 en el número de crías producidas por hembra y en la longitud estándar individual de las crías entre los tratamientos. Las crías producidas por el grupo control fueron más pesadas que las del resto de los tratamientos (4.14 y 1.06 mg de peso húmedo y seco, respectivamente. En promedio, el grupo de reproductores alimentado con Spirulina produjo mayor cantidad de machos. Los resultados destacan el uso de la dieta comercial para cubrir con los requerimientos reproductivos de P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Garc\\u00EDa-Ulloa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17018419"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of mixing low amounts of orange peel (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) with hydrocarbon-contaminated soil in solid culture to promote remediation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of mixing low amounts of orange peel (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) with a soil contaminated with hydrocarbons (58,000 mg kg(-1) soil) for promoting the soil remediation in solid culture was studied. The experimental design was established in solid culture at soil/orange (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) peel ratios of 100:0, 98:2, 96:4, 94:6 and 92:8, at 30% humidity and a C:N:P ratio of 100:10:1, for 15, 60 and 90 days, respectively. The total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) decreased significantly (69%) after 15 days in the treatment with a soil to orange peel ratio of 92:8. Furthermore, in this treatment bacterial counts increased from 17 to 20 ln CFU (2.6 x 10(6) to 5 x 10(8)), while the fungal count was 11 ln CFU (6.5 x 10(4)) at initial and final time of treatment. An increase in microbial respiration activity and TPH removal (69%) was observed at other soil/orange peel ratios after 60 days when moisture content and nutrients were adjusted; however, N and P were not consumed at a great extent. PMID:17018419</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roldán-Martín, A; Esparza-García, F; Calva-Calva, G; Rodríguez-Vázquez, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Effects+of+intraspecific+variation+in+reproductive+traits%2C+pectoral+fin+use+and+burst+swimming+on+metabolic+rates+and+swimming+performance+in+the+Trinidadian+guppy+%28Poecilia+reticulata%29"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is considerable intraspecific variation in metabolic rates and locomotor performance in aquatic ectothermic vertebrates; however, the mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. Using pregnant Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>), a livebearing teleost, we examined the effects of reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burse-assisted swimming on swimming metabolic rate, standard metabolic rate (MO2std) and prolonged swimming performance (Ucrit). Reproductive traits included reproductive allocation and pregnancy stage, the former defined as the mass of the reproductive tissues divided by the total body mass. Results showed that the metabolic rate increased curvilinearly with swimming speed. The slope of the relationship was used as an index of swimming cost. There was no evidence that reproductive traits correlated with swimming cost, MO2std or Ucrit. In contrast, data revealed strong effects of pectoral fin use on swimming cost and Ucrit. Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> employed body-caudal fin (BCF) swimming at all tested swimming speeds; however, fish with a high simultaneous use of the pectoral fins exhibited increased swimming cost and decreased Ucrit. These data indicated that combining BCF swimming and pectoral fin movement over a wide speed range, presumably to support swimming stability and control, is an inefficient swimming behaviour. Finally, transition to burst-assisted swimming was associated with an increase in aerobic metabolic rate. Our study highlights factors other than swimming speed that affect swimming cost and suggests that intraspecific diversity in biomechanical performance, such as pectoral fin use, is an important source of variation in both locomotor cost and maximal performance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Svendsen, Jon Christian; Banet, Amanda I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bioinfo.umontreal.ca/evenements/phylogenomics.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long-wavelength sensitive visual pigments of the guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>: six opsins expressed in a single individual</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Abstract Background The diversity of visual systems in fish has long been of interest for evolutionary biologists and neurophysiologists, and has recently begun to attract the attention of molecular evolutionary geneticists. Several recent studies on the copy number and genomic organization of visual pigment proteins, the opsins, have revealed an increased opsin diversity in fish relative to most vertebrates, brought about through recent instances of opsin duplication and divergence. However, for the subfamily of opsin genes that mediate vision at the long-wavelength end of the spectrum, the LWS opsins, it appears that most fishes possess only one or two loci, a value comparable to most other vertebrates. Here, we characterize the LWS opsins from cDNA of an individual guppy, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, a fish that is known exhibit variation in its long-wavelength sensitive visual system, mate preferences and colour patterns. Results We identified six LWS opsins expressed within a single individual. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these opsins descend from duplication events both pre-dating and following the divergence of the guppy lineage from that of the bluefin killifish, Lucania goodei, the closest species for which comparable data exists. Numerous amino acid substitutions exist among these different LWS opsins, many at sites known to be important for visual pigment function, including spectral sensitivity and G-protein activation. Likelihood analyses using codon-based models of evolution reveal significant changes in selective constraint along two of the guppy LWS opsin lineages. Conclusion The guppy displays an unusually high number of LWS opsins compared to other fish, and to vertebrates in general. Observing both substitutions at functionally important sites and the persistence of lineages across species boundaries suggests that these opsins might have functionally different roles, especially with regard to G-protein activation. The reasons why are currently unknown, but may relate to aspects of the guppy's behavioural ecology, in which both male colour patterns and the female mate preferences for these colour patterns experience strong, highly variable selection pressures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang Belinda SW</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25085773"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Peters) immunization against Tetrahymena sp. by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Analysis of the effectiveness of guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Peters) immunization based on measurements of antibody (Ab) titers suffers from a shortage of reagents that can detect guppy antibodies (Abs). To overcome this problem, we immunized mice with different preparations of guppy immunoglobulins (Igs) and used the mouse antisera to develop a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The most efficient immunogen for mouse immunization was guppy Igs adsorbed on protein A/G beads. Antisera from mice boosted with this immunoglobulin (Ig) preparation were highly specific and contained high Ab titers. They immunoreacted in a Western blot with Ig heavy and light chains from guppy serum, and Ig heavy chain from guppy whole-body homogenate. The mouse anti-guppy Ig was applied in an ELISA aimed at comparing the efficiency of different routes of guppy immunization against Tetrahymena: (i) anal intubation with sonicated Tetrahymena (40,000 Tetrahymena/fish in a total volume of 10 ?L) mixed with domperidon, deoxycholic acid and free amino acids (valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and tryptophan), or (ii) intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of sonicated Tetrahymena in complete Freund's adjuvant (15,000 Tetrahymena/fish in total a volume of 20 ?L). Negative control fish were anally intubated with the intubation mixture without Tetrahymena, or untreated. ELISA measurement of anti-Tetrahymena Ab titer revealed a significantly higher level of Abs in i.p.-immunized guppies, compared to the anally intubated and control fish. In addition, the efficiency of immunization was tested by monitoring guppy mortality following (i) i.p. challenge with Tetrahymena (900 Tetrahymena/fish) or (ii) cold stress followed by immersion in water containing 10,000 Tetrahymena/mL. Fish mortality on day 14 post-Tetrahymena infection by i.p. injection exceeded 50% in the control and anally intubated fish, compared to 31% in i.p.-immunized fish. Immunization did not protect from pathogen challenge by immersion. The results suggest a direct correlation between the anti-Tetrahymena Ab response and fish resistance to i.p.-injected Tetrahymena, but not to infection by immersion preceded by cold stress. PMID:25085773</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sharon, Galit; Nath, Pulak R; Isakov, Noah; Zilberg, Dina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11795159"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Host <span class="hlt">plants</span> of Aphis gossypii (Aphididae), vector of virus of Cucumis melo melon (Cucurbitaceae) in Costa Rica].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> species associated with commercial melon crops and surrounding areas were examined to identity the natural host <span class="hlt">plants</span> of Aphis gossypii Glover. The study was conducted in two farms located in different melon production areas and <span class="hlt">plant</span> life zones of Costa Rica. <span class="hlt">Plant</span> species diversity, percent coverage and distribution over time were recorded during one year. Differences between locations were observed. A total of 86 <span class="hlt">plant</span> species (49 families) and 72 <span class="hlt">plant</span> species (40 families) were identified associated to the crop in farms A and B, respectively. In both farms a total of 24 species <span class="hlt">plants</span> (16 families) were colonized by A. gossypii and 16 (10 families) are new reports of host <span class="hlt">plant</span> species for this aphid. The new reports are: Justicia comata, Tetramerium nervosum, Alternanthera pubiflora, Cassia massoni, C. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, Cleome viscosa, C. spinosa, Croton argenteus, Caperonia palustris, Chamaesyce gyssopilopia, Phyllantus amarus, Sida decumbens, Ludwigia erecta, Passiflora foetida, Guazuma ulmifolia and Corchorus orinocensis. PMID:11795159</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sánchez, M V; Agüero, R; Rivera, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S1519-69842009000100005-scl"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distribution of guppies Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Peters, 1860) and Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868) along a polluted stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil / Distribuição dos guppies Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Peters, 1860) e Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868) ao longo de um trecho poluído do rio Paraíba do Sul, Brasil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Peixes Cyprinodontiformes (guppies) são largamente distribuídos na região Neotropical e usam microhábitats deteriorados em rios onde poucas espécies podem ocorrer. Este estudo foi realizado em um trecho do rio Paraíba do Sul compreendendo um grande complexo urbano-industrial. O objetivo foi avaliar [...] eventuais efeitos que o complexo industrial poderia ter na distribuição de duas espécies de guppies proximamente relacionadas, Phalloceros caudimaculatus e Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. A área foi dividida em três zonas: Z1, 40 km rio acima do complexo urbano-industrial de Volta Redonda; Z2, imediatamente abaixo do complexo industrial; e Z3, 30 km abaixo do complexo. Seis locais (dois em cada zona) foram amostrados mensalmente entre novembro de 1998 e outubro de 1999, usando um esforço de pesca estandardizado com tarrafas, peneiras e arrastos, cobrindo diferentes microhábitats, isto é, corredeiras, remansos e a proximidade da margem dos rios. Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> foi largamente distribuído, apresentando pico na Z2, área mais poluída, enquanto P. caudimaculatus apresentou a maior abundância na Z3, sendo quase ausente na Z1. Ambas as espécies ocorreram em elevados números ao longo do ano, mas foram escassas entre abril e junho. Fêmeas foram mais numerosas do que machos para ambas as espécies na maioria das classes de tamanho e em todos os locais. Jovens foram mais abundantes que adultos, com fêmeas não grávidas predominando sobre fêmeas grávidas. Fator de condição foi sempre maior nos machos do que nas fêmeas, mas somente machos de P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> apresentaram diferenças significantes entre as três zonas, com os mais elevados valores na Z2. Maior número de fêmeas confirma as expectativas de que estas espécies podem usar áreas bem poluídas e que a disponibilidade de alimento provida pela carga orgânica permite sua distribuição ao longo de toda a área. Embora estas duas espécies tenham apresentado indicações de separação especial, seus similares padrões de ocorrência sazonal sugerem que elas respondem de maneira similar às variações das condições ambientais. Abstract in english Cyprinodontiformes fishes (guppies) are widely distributed in Neotropical regions and use deteriorated microhabitats in rivers where few species can occur. This study was carried out in a stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River in bracketing a large urban-industrial complex. The aim was to assess eventu [...] al effects that the industrial complex could have on distribution of two closely related fish species of guppies, Phalloceros caudimaculatus and Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. The area was divided into three zones: Z1, 40 km upriver of the major urban-industrial complex of Volta Redonda; Z2, just down river of the complex; and Z3, 30 km down river of the complex. Six sites (two in each zone) were sampled monthly between November 1998 and October 1999, using a standardized fishing effort with cast net throws, trays lifts and seine hauls, covering different microhabitats, that is, riffles, pools and the proximity of the river's margins. Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> was widely distributed, peaking at Z2, the most polluted area, while P. caudimaculatus showed the highest abundance at Z3, being almost absent in Z1. Both species occurred in high numbers throughout the year but they were scarce between April and June. Females outnumbered males for both species in most size classes and at all sites. Juveniles were more abundant than adults, with non-pregnant females outnumbering pregnant ones. Condition factor was always higher in males than females but only males P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> showed significant difference among the three zones, with the highest values at Z2. The higher number of females confirms the expectation that these species can use very polluted areas and that availability of food provided by organic loads allowed their distribution all over the area. Although these two species have shown indication of spatial separation in the study area, their simila</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">FG., Araújo; MG., Peixoto; BCT., Pinto; TP., Teixeira.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1519-69842009000100005"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distribution of guppies Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Peters, 1860 and Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868 along a polluted stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil Distribuição dos guppies Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Peters, 1860 e Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868 ao longo de um trecho poluído do rio Paraíba do Sul, Brasil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Cyprinodontiformes fishes (guppies are widely distributed in Neotropical regions and use deteriorated microhabitats in rivers where few species can occur. This study was carried out in a stretch of the Paraíba do Sul River in bracketing a large urban-industrial complex. The aim was to assess eventual effects that the industrial complex could have on distribution of two closely related fish species of guppies, Phalloceros caudimaculatus and Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. The area was divided into three zones: Z1, 40 km upriver of the major urban-industrial complex of Volta Redonda; Z2, just down river of the complex; and Z3, 30 km down river of the complex. Six sites (two in each zone were sampled monthly between November 1998 and October 1999, using a standardized fishing effort with cast net throws, trays lifts and seine hauls, covering different microhabitats, that is, riffles, pools and the proximity of the river's margins. Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> was widely distributed, peaking at Z2, the most polluted area, while P. caudimaculatus showed the highest abundance at Z3, being almost absent in Z1. Both species occurred in high numbers throughout the year but they were scarce between April and June. Females outnumbered males for both species in most size classes and at all sites. Juveniles were more abundant than adults, with non-pregnant females outnumbering pregnant ones. Condition factor was always higher in males than females but only males P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> showed significant difference among the three zones, with the highest values at Z2. The higher number of females confirms the expectation that these species can use very polluted areas and that availability of food provided by organic loads allowed their distribution all over the area. Although these two species have shown indication of spatial separation in the study area, their similar seasonal patterns of occurrence suggest that they respond in a similar way to changes in environmental conditions.Peixes Cyprinodontiformes (guppies são largamente distribuídos na região Neotropical e usam microhábitats deteriorados em rios onde poucas espécies podem ocorrer. Este estudo foi realizado em um trecho do rio Paraíba do Sul compreendendo um grande complexo urbano-industrial. O objetivo foi avaliar eventuais efeitos que o complexo industrial poderia ter na distribuição de duas espécies de guppies proximamente relacionadas, Phalloceros caudimaculatus e Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. A área foi dividida em três zonas: Z1, 40 km rio acima do complexo urbano-industrial de Volta Redonda; Z2, imediatamente abaixo do complexo industrial; e Z3, 30 km abaixo do complexo. Seis locais (dois em cada zona foram amostrados mensalmente entre novembro de 1998 e outubro de 1999, usando um esforço de pesca estandardizado com tarrafas, peneiras e arrastos, cobrindo diferentes microhábitats, isto é, corredeiras, remansos e a proximidade da margem dos rios. Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> foi largamente distribuído, apresentando pico na Z2, área mais poluída, enquanto P. caudimaculatus apresentou a maior abundância na Z3, sendo quase ausente na Z1. Ambas as espécies ocorreram em elevados números ao longo do ano, mas foram escassas entre abril e junho. Fêmeas foram mais numerosas do que machos para ambas as espécies na maioria das classes de tamanho e em todos os locais. Jovens foram mais abundantes que adultos, com fêmeas não grávidas predominando sobre fêmeas grávidas. Fator de condição foi sempre maior nos machos do que nas fêmeas, mas somente machos de P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> apresentaram diferenças significantes entre as três zonas, com os mais elevados valores na Z2. Maior número de fêmeas confirma as expectativas de que estas espécies podem usar áreas bem poluídas e que a disponibilidade de alimento provida pela carga orgânica permite sua distribuição ao longo de toda a área. Embora estas duas espécies tenham apresentado indicações de separação especial, seus similares padrões de ocorrência sazonal sugerem que elas respondem de maneira similar às variações das co</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">FG. Araújo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:44056031"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of natural radioactivity and the concentration of heavy metal in tissue of Guppy Fish, Poecilia <span class="hlt">Reticulata</span> and sediment on urban drawn in Klang, Selangor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study has been carried out to determine the natural radioactivity and concentration of heavy metal in guppy fish, Poecilia <span class="hlt">Reticulata</span> and sediment sample on urban drawn in Klang, Selangor. Natural radioactivity (U-238, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40) was determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The concentration of heavy metal was determined using Coupled-Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Guppy fish and sediment sample was taken from three different locations in research area. Sample treatment process was starting with separation of impurities in sample. Samples were dried in the oven at 100 degree Celsius in 72 hours, homogenization process, and then samples were filled into counts bottles, sealed and kept for a month to achieved secular equilibrium. The activities found for each location varied. In sediment samples the activity concentration of U-238, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 were in the range of 87.61 ± 13.47 to 180.88 ± 30.50 Bq/ kg, 59.45 ± 9.12 to 88.29 ± 2.73 Bq/ kg, 6.70 ± 3.13 to 8.53 ± 4.90 Bq/ kg and 246.83 ± 12.27 to 495.28 ± 22.30 Bq/ kg. For sediment samples, have 12 elements of heavy metals found are Mg, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Al, As, Ba and Pb. For guppy fish, P. <span class="hlt">Reticulata</span> have 7 elements of heavy metals achieved found are Mg, K, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Al. Concentration of U-238 and K-40 is higher than the world average value reported by UNSCEAR (2000). Th-232 is below the world average value. From comparative with IAEA (1990) reporcomparative with IAEA (1990) report showed that the concentration of heavy metals in sediment sample was at background level except for As and Pb. For concentration of heavy metal in guppy fish, P. <span class="hlt">Reticulata</span> showed that the values are highly than value of IAEA-407 report except for Zn and Mn. (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S1676-06032011000300007-scl"> <span id="translatedtitle">Length-weight relationship and reproduction of the guppy Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) in urban drainage channels in the Brazilian city of Belém / Relação peso-comprimento e reprodução do guppy Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) em canais de coleta residual na região metropolitana de Belém, Pará, Brasil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho tem por objetivo descrever aspectos populacionais relacionados ao estabelecimento da relação peso/comprimento, estimativa de tamanho de primeira maturação (L) e período reprodutivo de Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> encontrados em sistemas de coleta residual no campus da Universidade Federal [...] do Pará, região metropolitana de Belém - PA (Brasil). Foram realizadas coletas mensais no período de junho de 2006 a março de 2007, utilizando um puçá, que resultou na captura de 1.936 exemplares, sendo 942 machos e 994 fêmeas. As fêmeas apresentaram-se maiores e mais pesadas que os machos. A relação peso/comprimento para machos foi estabelecida pela equação Pt = 5 × 10-5 × Ct2,397 e para fêmeas esta foi dada pela fórmula Pt = 3 × 10-6 × Ct3,419. Os valores estimados para L foi 17,5 mm para machos 20,4 mm para fêmeas, sugerindo que os machos iniciam atividades reprodutivas em tamanhos menores que as fêmeas. A frequência mensal de fêmeas maduras não variou significativamente. Além disso, também não foram encontradas diferenças na proporção sexual durante os períodos investigados, sendo no geral, a proporção de fêmeas iguais as de machos. Desta forma, verificamos que, apesar das condições presentes nos sistemas de coleta residual da UFPA, a espécie P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> parece ter adaptado seus processos biológicos. Abstract in english This paper describes the length-weight relationship, size at first maturation (L), and breeding season of Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> found in drainage channels on the campus of the Federal University of Pará (UFPA) in the Brazilian city of Belém. A total of 1.936 specimens (942 males and 994 females) were [...] collected in monthly samples of the study area between June, 2006, and March, 2007. Females were significantly longer and heavier than males. The length-weight relationship for males was established by the equation Pt = 5 × 10-5 × Ct2.397 and for females by Pt = 3 × 10-6 × Ct3.419. The estimated value of L was 17.5 mm for males and 20.4 mm for females, suggesting that males initiate reproductive activity at a smaller size than females. The abundance of mature females did not vary significantly among months, and there was little variation in the sex ratio, which was close to parity overall. Despite the adverse conditions encountered in the UFPA drainage system, P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> appeared to have adapted its biological processes adequately.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luciano Fogaça de Assis, Montag; Tiago Magalhães da Silva, Freitas; Roberta Dannyele de Oliveira, Raiol; Marlene Vasconcelos da, Silva.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0103-84782008000300001-scl"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flutuação populacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton em Citrus deliciosa e no híbrido Murcott Citrus sinensis x Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> / Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton population fluctuation in Citrus deliciosa and Murcott hybrid Citrus sinensis x Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a dinâmica populacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), o minador-dos-citros, em pomares de tangerineira Citrus deliciosa Tenore variedade Montenegrina e de tangoreiro híbrido "Murcott" Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck X Citrus reticu [...] lata Blanco, com manejo orgânico, em Montenegro (29° 68'S e 51° 46'O), Rio Grande do Sul. Foram realizadas amostragens quinzenais de julho de 2001 a junho de 2003. Os brotos coletados foram examinados em laboratório e submetidos à análise do número de folhas por broto, a da presença ou ausência de minas, do número de minas, dos ovos, das larvas e das pupas de P. citrella. Em ambos os pomares não houve registro de minas de P. citrella no primeiro fluxo de brotação, de agosto a outubro. No ano I, as maiores densidades de minas foram registradas em meados de novembro, início de janeiro e início de abril, em ambos os pomares. No ano II, constataram-se as maiores densidades de minas e larvas em janeiro e em abril, em C. deliciosa, e de dezembro a março em "Murcott". Embora o número médio de brotos registrado tenha sido sempre maior em C. deliciosa, a colonização e o estabelecimento do minador-dos-citros seguiram o mesmo padrão em ambos os pomares. A temperatura mínima e média e a umidade relativa do ar foram os fatores abióticos que apresentaram maior influência no número de minas e de larvas de P. citrella. Abstract in english To evaluate the population dynamics of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), the citrus leafminer, in tangerine Citrus deliciosa Tenore var. Montenegrina and tangor 'Murcott' Citrus sinensis L Osbeck X Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco in organically managed orchards, in Montenegro [...] (29° 68'S e 51° 46'W), RS, fortnightly samples were carried out from July 2001 to June 2003. Sampled shoots were examined in the lab and the number of leaves, presence or absence of mines and the number of mines, eggs, larvae and pupae were recorded. In both orchards there were no records of P. citrella mines in the first leaf flush, from August to October. In the first year, the highest mine densities were recorded in the middle of November, beginning of January and in April for both orchards. In the following year, the highest mine and larval densities were in January and April for C. deliciosa var. Montenegrina and from December to March for 'Murcott'. Although the number of shoots has always been greater in C. deliciosa, the citrus leafminer colonization and establishment followed the same pattern for both orchards. Minimum and medium temperature and relative humidity were the abiotic factors showing the strongest influence in the numbers of P. citrella mines and larvae.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cristiane Ramos de, Jesus; Luiza Rodrigues, Redaelli; Fábio Kessler, Dal Soglio.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.jcimjournal.com/en/FullText2.aspx?articleID=jcim20120211"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preventive effects of Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> essential oil on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats and the mechanism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of essential oil of Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (EOCR on proliferation of human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELFs, and to explore its protective effects on bleomycin (BLM-induced lung fibrosis in rats.METHODS: Routinely cultured HELFs during the logarithmic phase of growth were divided into control and treated groups, and applied for evaluation of inhibitory activity using methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT assay. A rat model of BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis was used for the evaluation of antifibrotic effect of EOCR. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, prednisone group and different doses of EOCR groups. BLM was intratracheally instilled into all the rats except those in the normal group, and EOCR was orally given to BLM-treated rats at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg once per day for four weeks. The rats in the normal group were intratracheally administered the same volume of saline. On the 28th day, rats were sacrificed under anesthesia, and the serum and lung tissues were collected. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activities and malondialdehyde (MDA contents in serum and lung tissues were analyzed with corresponding kits; type ? collagen (Col ? content in lung tissues was evaluated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; pulmonary fibrosis was assessed by lung histology; protein and mRNA expressions of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF in lung tissues were measured with immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization semiquantitative image analyses, respectively.RESULTS: The EOCR at different concentrations displayed inhibitory activity on proliferation of HELFs. In in vivo experiment, the weight gain of the rats in groups treated with EOCR at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg per day was significantly higher than those in the model group at the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day (P?0.05 or P?0.01. The scores of alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis in the groups treated with EOCR at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg per day were significantly lower than those in the model group (P?0.01; the SOD levels in serum and pulmonary tissues of the EOCR (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg groups were markedly increased compared with the model group (P?0.01 , while the MDA levels in both serum and pulmonary tissues were markedly reduced (P?0.05; the Col ? level in pulmonary tissues of the EOCR (100 and 200 mg/kg per day groups were markedly lower than that of the model group (P?0.01; the protein and mRNA expressions of CTGF in the groups treated with EOCR at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg per day were down-regulated compared with the model group (P?0.01.CONCLUSION: The results indicate that EOCR has preventive effects on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. The mechanism may be via adjusting the unbalance of oxidation and antioxidation, down-regulating CTGF protein and mRNA expressions, and reducing collagen deposition and fibrosis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xian-mei Zhou</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.periodico.ebras.bio.br/ojs/index.php/ebras/article/view/29/74"> <span id="translatedtitle">Insetos Sugadores (Sternorrhyncha em Cultivo Orgânico de Tangerina cv. Poncã (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco: Diversidade, Constância, Freqüência e Flutuação Populacional</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a diversidade, constância, freqüência e a flutuação populacional de insetos sugadores da subordem Sternorrhyncha associados à tangerina cv. Poncã sob o sistema de cultivo orgânico. Os levantamentos foram realizados entre outubro de 2002 e outubro de 2003. Dentre os aleirodídeos, Aleurothrixus floccosus Maskell destacou-se dos demais, com média populacional igual a 74,06%. Aleurotrachelus cruzi Cassino obteve média de 52,6%. Entre as cochonilhas destacaram-se Selenaspidus articulatus (Morgan (23,96% e Pinnaspis aspidistrae (Signoret (19,38%. O psilídeo Diaphorina citri Kuwayama obteve média de 52,6%, sendo a segunda espécie com maior média. Os pulgões Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy e Toxoptera aurantii (Boyer, somente ocorreram em período de brotação e floração, com média populacional de 7,6% e 6,25%, respectivamente. Quanto à diversidade das espécies o período com maior diversidade, ocorreu na 1ª quinzena de setembro de 2003 (H’= 0,964, coincidindo com a menor dominância (D= 0,200, e menor diversidade na 1º quinzena de maio de 2003 (H’= 0,657 e maior dominância (D= 0,522. As espécies constantes foram: A. floccosus (100%, A. cruzi (96%, Coccus viridis (Green (100%, P. aspidistrae (100% e D. citri (100%. As espécies mais freqüentes foram: A. floccosus (30,79% e D. citri (21,87%. Os resultados sugerem que as espécies verificadas possuem a dinâmica populacional em parte influenciada pela competição interespecífica, pois quando há um aumento populacional dos aleirodídeos, há um decréscimo da população das cochonilhas e vice-versa, além dos fatores ambientais, a predação e o parasitismo.Sucker Insects (Sternorrhyncha in Organic Cropping of Tangerine cv. Ponkan (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco: Diversity, Constancy, Frequency and Populational FluctuationAbstract. The aim of this work was to study the diversity, constancy, frequency and the population fluctuation of the sucker insects of the suborder Sternorrhyncha associated with the tangerine cv. Ponkan cultivated under the organic. The study was conducted from October 2002 to October 2003. Among the whiteflies, Aleurothrixus floccosus Maskell had a population average equivalent to 74.06%. Aleurotrachelus cruzi Cassino reached 52.6%. Among the scale, Selenapidus articulatus Morgan reached 23.96% and Pinnaspis aspidistrae (Signoret 19.38%. The Diaphorina citri Kuwayama average was 52.6%, the second bigger average. The aphids Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy and Toxoptera aurantii (Boyer took place only during the budding and blooming, presenting a population average of 7.6% and 6.25%, respectively. The period in which occurred the largest diversity was the first fifteen days of September 2003 (H’= 0.964, simultaneously to the least dominance (D = 0.200, and in the first fifteen days of May 2003 occurred the least diversity (H’= 0.657 and the largest dominance (D = 0.522. The constant species that were more prominent were: A. floccosus (100%, A. cruzi (96%, Coccus viridis (Green (100%, P. aspidistrae (100% and D. citri (100%. The most frequent species were A. floccosus (30.79% and D. citri (21.87%. To sum up, the results show that all the species studied have a population dynamics in part influenced by the interspecific competition, as there is a population increasing of whiteflies, there is a population decrease of scale and vice-versa, as well as the environmental and predatory factors and the parasitism.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">William Costa Rodrigues</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0004-06222005000300013-ven"> <span id="translatedtitle">composicion quimica y compuestos bioactivos de las harinas de cascaras de naranja (citrus sinensis), mandarina (citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) y toronja (citrus paradisi) cultivadas en Venezuela / Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of flour of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peels cultivated in Venezuela</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la composición química y algunos compuestos bioactivos en las harinas de cáscaras de varias frutas cítricas de mayor consumo, que se cultivan en Venezuela. Se determinó la composición química, algunos elementos trazas, ácido ascórbico, carotenoides, fibr [...] a dietética, polifenoles totales y la eficiencia antirradical de los polifenoles utilizando 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracil (DPPH· ) en las cáscaras de naranja (Citrus sinensis), mandarina (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) y toronja, variedad blanca, (Citrus paradisi). Las muestras presentaron diferencias significativas (p Abstract in english The purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some bioactive compounds in the peel’s flour of some of the most consumed citrus fruits cultivated in Venezuela. Chemical composition as well as some trace elements, ascorbic acid, carotenoids dietary fiber, total polyphenols [...] and their antiradical efficiency, using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidracyl (DPPH· ) were assessed in the dried peels of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) and white grapefruit (Citrus paradisi). Moisture, fat, protein and ash content for all samples showed statistical differences (p</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alicia M, Rincón; A, Vásquez; Marina, Padilla; Fanny, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/acta_agronomica/article/view/15317"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparación del "Tabog" (Swinglea glutinosa Merr con el limón "rugoso" (Citrus jambhiri Swingle y la mandarina "Cleopatra" (C. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Swingle como porta-injerto para la lima acida ''Tahiti" (C. aurantifolia Swingle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available At the C.N.I.-I.C.A. Palmira, fruit trees program the influence of "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa was evaluated as rootstock for acid lime "Tahiti" Citrus aurantifolia, taking into account the following aspects: development and productivility of the trees quality and growth of fruits, demands of nutriments, and resistance or susceptibility to pest and disease; comparing its behavior with the commercial rootstocks rough, lemon C. jambhiri and mandarina, "Cleopatra" C. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>.En el C.N.l. Palmira del Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (lCA, se evaluó la influencia del "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa como porta-injerto para la lima "Tahiti " Citrus aurantifolia, teniendo en cuenta los siguientes aspectos: desarrollo y productividad del árbol, calidad y desarrollo de los frutos, exigencias de nutrimentos, resistencia o susceptibilidad a plagas y enfermedades; comparando su comportamiento con los porta-injertos comerciales limón "Rugoso" C. jambhiri y la mandarina "Cleopatra " C. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Restrepo C. Orlando</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="plant salacia reticulata" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; 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height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::3e372a64908884adfcd90e5bac4e58d5"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparación del "Tabog" (Swinglea glutinosa Merr) con el limón "rugoso" (Citrus jambhiri Swingle) y la mandarina "Cleopatra" (C. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Swingle) como porta-injerto para la lima acida ''Tahiti" (C. aurantifolia Swingle)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">At the C.N.I.-I.C.A. Palmira, fruit trees program the influence of "Tabog" Swinglea glutinosa was evaluated as rootstock for acid lime "Tahiti" Citrus aurantifolia, taking into account the following aspects: development and productivility of the trees quality and growth of fruits, demands of nutriments, and resistance or susceptibility to pest and disease; comparing its behavior with the commercial rootstocks rough, lemon C. jambhiri and mandarina, "Cleopatra" C. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>.En el C.N.l. P...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Orlando, Restrepo C.; Rau?l, Salazar C.; Rodrigo, Torres M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::0d0c88b450fd398056d1c8a7c721c2b4"> <span id="translatedtitle">The molecular basis of color vision in colorful fish: Four Long Wave-Sensitive (LWS) opsins in guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) are defined by amino acid substitutions at key functional sites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Comparisons of functionally important changes at the molecular level in modelsystems have identified key adaptations driving isolation and speciation. In cichlids, for example,long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsins appear to play a role in mate choice and male colorvariation within and among species. To test the hypothesis that the evolution of elaboratecoloration in male guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) is also associated with opsin gene diversity, wesequenced long wavelength-sensit...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Breden, Felix; Ward, Matthew; Churcher, Allison; Dick, Kevin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::04cae156f75b1228c87b3c0d019805ec"> <span id="translatedtitle">The molecular basis of color vision in colorful fish: Four Long Wave-Sensitive (LWS) opsins in guppies (<it>Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span></it>) are defined by amino acid substitutions at key functional sites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract Background Comparisons of functionally important changes at the molecular level in model systems have identified key adaptations driving isolation and speciation. In cichlids, for example, long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsins appear to play a role in mate choice and male color variation within and among species. To test the hypothesis that the evolution of elaborate coloration in male guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) is also associated with opsin gene diversi...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ward Pam R; Polack Megan D; Owens Greg L; Rj, Laver Chris; Dick Kevin J; Churcher Allison M; Ward Matthew N; Breden Felix; Taylor John S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::9fced262a34d46d4f4f714a6a5570c13"> <span id="translatedtitle">RT-qPCR reveals opsin gene upregulation associated with age and sex in guppies (<it>Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span></it>) - a species with color-based sexual selection and 11 visual-opsin genes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract Background PCR-based surveys have shown that guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) have an unusually large visual-opsin gene repertoire. This has led to speculation that opsin duplication and divergence has enhanced the evolution of elaborate male coloration because it improves spectral sensitivity and/or discrimination in females. However, this conjecture on evolutionary connections between opsin repertoire, vision, mate choice, and male coloration was generated wi...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Taylor John S; Rj, Laver Christopher</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2009000600025"> <span id="translatedtitle">Avaliação da toxicidade aguda e potencial neurotóxico do óleo-resina de copaíba (Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Ducke, Fabaceae Assessment of the neurotoxic potential and acute toxicity of copaiba</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available O óleo-resina de copaíba obtido do gênero Copaifera L., Fabaceae, é largamente utilizado na medicina popular como antiinflamatório, antimicrobiano e antitumoral. Porém, informações sobre seu potencial tóxico são escassos na literatura. O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer a toxicidade oral aguda e os possíveis efeitos neurotóxicos relacionados à ingestão do óleo-resina de Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Ducke, Fabaceae, em ratas Wistar. O estudo foi conduzido com quinze ratas nulíparas distribuídas nos grupos de doses 300 e 2000 mg/kg pc de óleo-resina administrado por gavagem. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que nestas doses não houve sinais clínicos de toxicidade ou neurotoxicidade, alteração no consumo de ração ou alteração no peso corpóreo. A dose letal aguda foi estimada como maior que 2000 mg/kg pc e classificada como categoria 5, segundo o Guia OECD 423. Estes resultados indicam que existe uma relativa margem de segurança para o uso do óleo-resina de copaíba como agente terapêutico, embora estudos toxicológicos adicionais sejam ainda necessários, principalmente com a administração repetida de baixas doses.Copaiba oil-resin obtained from Copaifera L. genus, Fabaceae, is largely used in popular medicine as antinflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumoral. Information concerning the potential toxicity of this oil is limited in the literature. The goal of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity and the possible neurotoxic effects related to the ingestion of Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Ducke, Fabaceae, oil-resin using female Wistar rats. Fifteen nulliparous rats were used and distributed in the experimental groups orally exposed to doses of 300 e 2000 mg/kg bw of oil-resin (gavage. No overt clinical signs of toxicity or neurotoxicity, alteration of food consumption or body weight were observed in the animals at the tested doses. The lethal oral toxicity was estimated to be higher than 2000 mg/kg bw, classified as category 5 according to OECD Guide 423. These results indicate that there is a certain safety margin associated with the use of copaiba as therapeutic agent, although additional toxicological studies are still necessary, mainly using repeated low doses.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Camile Giaretta Sachetti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S0102-695X2009000600025-scl"> <span id="translatedtitle">Avaliação da toxicidade aguda e potencial neurotóxico do óleo-resina de copaíba (Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Ducke, Fabaceae) / Assessment of the neurotoxic potential and acute toxicity of copaiba</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O óleo-resina de copaíba obtido do gênero Copaifera L., Fabaceae, é largamente utilizado na medicina popular como antiinflamatório, antimicrobiano e antitumoral. Porém, informações sobre seu potencial tóxico são escassos na literatura. O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer a toxicidade oral aguda [...] e os possíveis efeitos neurotóxicos relacionados à ingestão do óleo-resina de Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Ducke, Fabaceae, em ratas Wistar. O estudo foi conduzido com quinze ratas nulíparas distribuídas nos grupos de doses 300 e 2000 mg/kg pc de óleo-resina administrado por gavagem. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que nestas doses não houve sinais clínicos de toxicidade ou neurotoxicidade, alteração no consumo de ração ou alteração no peso corpóreo. A dose letal aguda foi estimada como maior que 2000 mg/kg pc e classificada como categoria 5, segundo o Guia OECD 423. Estes resultados indicam que existe uma relativa margem de segurança para o uso do óleo-resina de copaíba como agente terapêutico, embora estudos toxicológicos adicionais sejam ainda necessários, principalmente com a administração repetida de baixas doses. Abstract in english Copaiba oil-resin obtained from Copaifera L. genus, Fabaceae, is largely used in popular medicine as antinflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumoral. Information concerning the potential toxicity of this oil is limited in the literature. The goal of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity an [...] d the possible neurotoxic effects related to the ingestion of Copaifera <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Ducke, Fabaceae, oil-resin using female Wistar rats. Fifteen nulliparous rats were used and distributed in the experimental groups orally exposed to doses of 300 e 2000 mg/kg bw of oil-resin (gavage). No overt clinical signs of toxicity or neurotoxicity, alteration of food consumption or body weight were observed in the animals at the tested doses. The lethal oral toxicity was estimated to be higher than 2000 mg/kg bw, classified as category 5 according to OECD Guide 423. These results indicate that there is a certain safety margin associated with the use of copaiba as therapeutic agent, although additional toxicological studies are still necessary, mainly using repeated low doses.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Camile Giaretta, Sachetti; Maria Luiza, Fascineli; Juliana Alves, Sampaio; Osmar Alves, Lameira; Eloisa Dutra, Caldas.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.periodicos.uem.br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciAnimSci/article/view/1183"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comportamento, sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de lebistes, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, submetidos a agentes utilizados na profilaxia de doenças - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1183 Behaviour, survival, and development of guppies, Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, submitted to agents used in the prophylaxis of diseases - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1183</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento, a sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de larvas saudáveis de Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> submetidas à profilaxia contra bactérias, fungos e parasitas, foi conduzido no Laboratório de Aqüicultura da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, um experimento delineado ao acaso com 6 tratamentos (controle, azul de metileno, cloranfenicol, formalina, KMnO4 e NaCl e 4 repetições. Os banhos profiláticos variaram conforme o tratamento, de 30 minutos a 48 horas. Posteriormente, avaliou-se, por 20 dias, o desenvolvimento dos animais. A análise comportamental realizada durante o banho mostrou que, quando expostos à formalina, os animais perdiam o senso de direção e chocavam-se contra a parede. O desenvolvimento das larvas no tratamento com cloranfenicol apresentou-se melhor (P Aiming to evaluate the behavioural, survival and developmental responses of healthy larvae of Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> subjected to the prophyllatic against bacteria, fungi and parasites, a randomized experiment was carried out at the Aquaculture Laboratory of the State University of Maringá, state of Paraná, using six treatments (control, methylene blue, chloramphenicol, formalin, KMnO4 and NaCl and four repetitions. Length prophylactic treatment varied from 30 minutes to 48 hours. After bath treatment, animals’ growth was evaluated during the following 20 days. Behavioural analysis during bath treatment showed that when the animals were exposed to formalin, they lost their sense of direction and collided against the wall. In the treatment with chloramphenicol, development of the larvae was better (P < 0.05 when treated with formalin. In relation to survival, there were no differences between the treatments. Thus, any methodology may be applied in this study when related to survival. Prophylaxis with chloramphenicol is the preferred treatment to formalin when evaluating growth</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilson Rogério Boscolo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12524017"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of octylphenol and 17beta-estradiol on the gonads of guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) exposed as adults via the water or as embryos via the mother.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic compounds have been found in the aquatic environment, and concern has arisen over the ability of these compounds to affect the reproductive system of fish. In this study, the effects of exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of octylphenol or 17beta-estradiol on the gonad structure of fish were examined. Viviparous guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) were exposed as adults via the water or as embryos via the mother to 26 microg/l octylphenol or 0.85 microg/l 17beta-estradiol (mean measured water concentrations). Histological examinations revealed effects of the exposures on the gonads of the fish exposed as adults. Indications of blocked spermatogonial mitosis were seen in the testis structure of adult males after exposure to octylphenol or 17beta-estradiol. The post-parturition ovaries of adult females exposed to 17beta-estradiol showed effects suggesting an inhibited yolk deposition. At the tested concentrations, exposure to octylphenol or 17beta-estradiol via the mother fish did not significantly affect the weight, length, gonopodium index or sex distribution of the offspring. However, histology revealed effects on the liver structure, suggesting some effect of maternal exposure to octylphenol or 17beta-estradiol. These findings indicate that although octylphenol and 17beta-estradiol affect the gonad structure of adult male and female guppies, these substances have no significant effects on the sexual differentiation of the embryos at the tested concentrations. PMID:12524017</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kinnberg, Karin; Korsgaard, Bodil; Bjerregaard, Poul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12927554"> <span id="translatedtitle">Altered sexual characteristics in guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) exposed to 17beta-estradiol and 4-tert-octylphenol during sexual development.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of estrogenic compounds on the development of sexual characteristics in juvenile guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) were examined. After exposure for 3 months, the sex ratio was female biased in guppies exposed to 0.5 microg/L 17beta-estradiol (E2) or higher but unaffected by exposure to 4-tert-octylphenol (OP). When exposed to 100 microg/L OP, the male guppy sexual behavior and sperm count were increased. In contrast, the male sperm count was markedly reduced after exposure to a high concentration of E2. The length of the gonopodium (copulatory organ) was increased when exposed to 100 microg/L OP and at all the tested concentrations of E2. Similar concentrations of OP and E2 reduced the gonad weight of the females. The results demonstrate that the development of sexual characteristics in guppies can be disturbed by environmentally realistic concentrations of E2 but higher concentrations of OP are needed to induce similar alterations. PMID:12927554</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Toft, Gunnar; Baatrup, Erik</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22714039"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine-disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi-static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long-term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17?-estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine-disrupting action. PMID:22714039</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Sexual+characteristics+are+altered+by+4-tert-octylphenol+and+17beta-estradiol+in+the+adult+male+guppy+%28Poecilia+reticulata%29."> <span id="translatedtitle">Sexual characteristics are altered by 4-tert-octylphenol and 17beta-estradiol in the adult male guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are believed to interfere with animal reproduction, but only few biomarkers above the cellular level have been developed to assess the adverse effects of these chemicals. Using the guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) as a model organism, studies have been undertaken with the object of comparing biomarker responses to EDCs at increasing levels of biological complexity. Short-term exposure to the xenoestrogen 4-tert-octylphenol and the natural estrogen 17beta-estradiol (E2) changed important sexual characteristics in the adult male guppy. Both compounds increased the number of sperm cells in the ejaculates, reduced the area and color intensity of the sexually attractive orange spots, and inhibited testis growth. In the case of E2, the effects on sperm count and coloration were still evident after 3 months of recovery in clean water. Preliminary results on male reproductive capability demonstrated that treated males produced fewer offspring than untreated fish, indicating an impairment of reproduction itself. Udgivelsesdato: 2001-Jan</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Toft, G; Baatrup, E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://jstnar.iut.ac.ir/browse.php?a_code=A-10-2-213&slc_lang=en&sid=1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Gibberellic Acid (GA3, Naphtalin Acetic Acid (NAA, Ethephon and Urea on Alternate Bearing Control in Kinnow Mandarin (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Alternate bearing is a key factor in limiting citrus production. Chemical controls have proved to be the most effective solution to this problem. Two different experiments were conducted to study the effects of different growth regulators (GA3, NAA, Ethephon and urea on alternate bearing control in Kinnow mandarin (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. In the first experiment, GA3 at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mgl-1 were applied 3 times during late autumn and early winter 1993 on off trees. Flowers reduced as a result of GA3 application in the following spring but increased in the second spring. Best results obtained with 50 and 75 mgl-1. In the 2nd experiment thinning agents: NAA (0, 100, 200 and 300 mgl-1, ethephon (0, 100, 200, 300 mgl-1 and urea (0, 4, 8 and 12% were sprayed to the trees on on-year, when the fruitlets were about 0.75-1 cm in diameter. The results indicated that urea had no effect; however, both NAA and ethephon were effective on thinning of fruits and control of fruiting. Ethephon at 200 and 300 mgl-1, and NAA at 400 mgl-1 gave the best results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. Tafazoli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16454058"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of flour of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peels cultivated in Venezuela].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some bioactive compounds in the peel's flour of some of the most consumed citrus fruits cultivated in Venezuela. Chemical composition as well as some trace elements, ascorbic acid, carotenoids dietary fiber, total polyphenols and their antiradical efficiency, using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidracyl (DPPH) were assessed in the dried peels of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) and white grapefruit (Citrus paradisi). Moisture, fat, protein and ash content for all samples showed statistical differences (p peel showed the highest magnesium and carotenoid content, while highest ascorbic acid and carotenoid content was found in the grapefruit's peel. Dietary fiber content presented significant high value in the tangerine peel. All samples presented high content of extractable polyphenols (4.33; 7.6 and 5.1 g/100g). The highest antiradical efficiency was shown by the tangerine's peel, value which correlates with the polyphenol content. These results suggest that tangerine peel should be the most suitable, to reduce risk of some diseases such as cardiovascular and some associated to lipid oxidation. Studied samples are good sources of dietary fiber and phenolic compounds, whose use could be useful in the formulation of functional foods, taking advantage of the presence of dietary fiber and antioxidant compounds in only one ingredient. PMID:16454058</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rincón, Alicia M; Vásquez, A Marina; Padilla, Fanny C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-29452004000100005"> <span id="translatedtitle">Indução do florescimento e crescimento de tangerineira 'Poncã' (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco em função da irrigação e da aplicação de paclobutrazol Flowering induction and vegetative development of 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco by irrigation and paclobutrazol application</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP/Câmpus de Botucatu (SP, com o objetivo de avaliar o florescimento fora de época e o crescimento vegetativo da tangerineira 'Poncã'. Nesse contexto, adotou-se o delineamento estatístico em blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas, com duas repetições, na instalação do ensaio. Os dois tratamentos de -0,03 e -0,05 MPa, como potenciais mínimos da água no solo, constituíram as parcelas e as quatro doses de paclobutrazol: 0; 4; 8 e 12 g por planta, nas subparcelas. No segundo ano de pesquisa, foram mantidas as mesmas parcelas e foram aplicadas nas plantas das subparcelas as doses de 0; 500; 1000 e 2000 mg l-1 de paclobutrazol, via foliar. Cada parcela foi constituída de 16 plantas, sendo oito destinadas à avaliação. Utilizou-se, em ambas as combinações, de um tratamento sem irrigação (-0,07 MPa e sem aplicação de paclobutrazol, como testemunha. Foram avaliados parâmetros, como a altura, diâmetro médio, volume e área de projeção da copa e condutância estomática para caracterizar a resposta das plantas aos tratamentos empregados. Concluiu-se que a aplicação do paclobutrazol e a variação do potencial da água no solo não proporcionaram a indução do florescimento fora de época das tangerineiras, e que os níveis de paclobutrazol influenciaram no desenvolvimento das plantas.The aim of this research was to study the flowering out of season in no induction conditions and the vegetative development of 'Ponkan' mandarin by irrigation and paclobutrazol application. The experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences - UNESP/Botucatu, State of São Paulo. The treatments followed a randomized blocks experimental design, being distributed in split-splots, and two replications. Each experimental unit was represented per 16 <span class="hlt">plants</span>, being 8 destined for the evaluations. The treatments consisted of two soil water potential, -0,03 e -0,05 MPa that constituted the main experimental unit and the paclobutrazol levels that represented the sub units. In the second year of the experiment the units were maintained and it was applied the paclobutrazol: 0; 500; 1000 e 2000 mg L-1, by foliar application, in the <span class="hlt">plants</span> of the sub units. Both treatments was compared with the treatments without irrigation (control <span class="hlt">plants</span>: -0,07MPa and whitout paclobutrazol application <span class="hlt">plants</span>. It was evaluated the following parameters: height, scion diameter medium, scion projection area, scion volume and stomatic condutance showing the <span class="hlt">plant</span>'s response to treatments. It was concluded that the paclobutrazol application and the irrigation did not influence the <span class="hlt">plant</span>'s flowering out of season and that the paclobutrazol levels influenced the growth of 'Ponkan' mandarin <span class="hlt">plants</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carlos Henrique dos Santos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-29452007000200027"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regeneração de plantas após fusão de protoplastos de tangelo 'Page' e toranja 'Lau Tau' <span class="hlt">Plant</span> regeneration after protoplast fusion of 'Page' tangelo and 'Lau Tau' pummelo</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Buscou-se a hibridação somática entre tangelo 'Page' e toranja 'Lau Tau' visando à produção de porta-enxerto semelhante à laranja-azeda, por esta espécie ser considerada um provável híbrido entre C. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> e C. grandis. Após isolamento, fusão e cultivo de protoplastos, obtiveram-se brotações que foram enxertadas in vitro, em laranja 'Hamlin'. Dezessete plantas foram aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação. A análise de citometria de fluxo confirmou a constituição diplóide dessas plantas. Marcadores moleculares RAPD das plantas regeneradas apresentaram padrão de bandas similar ao de tangelo 'Page'. Entretanto, todas as plantas apresentaram conformação fenotípica diferente dos genitores.This work aimed to produce somatic hybrid between 'Page' tangelo and 'Lau Tau' pummelo in an attempt to regenerate a similar rootstock to sour orange, because this species is considered a probable hybrid between C. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> and C. grandis. After protoplast isolation, fusion and culture regenerated shoots were in vitro grafted on 'Hamlin' sweet orange. Seventeen <span class="hlt">plants</span> were acclimatized in a greenhouse. Citometric flow analyses revealed that all <span class="hlt">plants</span> are diploid. RAPD molecular markers of regenerated <span class="hlt">plants</span> had the same pattern as compared to 'Page' tangelo. However, all <span class="hlt">plants</span> had phenotypic traits different from both genitors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dayse Cristina de Carvalho</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:31018789"> <span id="translatedtitle">Histamine H3 receptor activation selectively inhibits dopamine D1 receptor-dependent [3H]GABA release from depolarization-stimulated slices of rat substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The release of [3H]GABA from slices of rat substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> induced by increasing extracellular K+ from 6 to 15 mM in the presence of 10 ?M sulpiride was inhibited by 73±3% by 1 ?M SCH 23390, consistent with a large component of release dependent upon D1 receptor activation. The histamine H3 receptor-selective agonist immepip (1 ?M) and the non-selective agonist histamine (100 ?M) inhibited [3H]GABA release by 78±2 and 80±2%, respectively. The inhibition by both agonists was reversed by the H3 receptor antagonist thioperamide (1 ?M). However, in the presence of 1 ?M SCH 23390 depolarization-induced release of [3H]GABA was not significantly decreased by 1 ?M immepip. In rats depleted of dopamine by pretreatment with reserpine, immepip no longer inhibited control release of [3H]GABA, but in the presence of 1 ?M SKF 38393, which produced a 7±1-fold stimulation of release, immepip reduced the release to a level not statistically different from that in the presence of immepip alone. Immepip (1 ?M) also inhibited the depolarization-induced release of [3H]dopamine from substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> slices, by 38±3%.The evidence is consistent with the proposition that activation of histamine H3 receptors leads to the selective inhibition of the component of depolarization-induced [3H]GABA release in substantia nigra pars retin substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> slices which is dependent upon D1 receptor activation. This appears to be largely an action at the terminals of the striatonigral GABA projection neurons, which may be enhanced by a partial inhibition of dendritic [3H]dopamine release. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ijpsdr.com/pdf/vol5-issue4/11.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove and Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> (Tangerine Fruit</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum and tangerine fruits (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity. The microorganisms used include, Staphylococcus aureus isolate, Escherichia coli isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans isolate, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 90028. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs ranged from 9.31×10-13 – 7.88 mg/ml for garlic oil, 0.16 – 2.66 mg/ml for tangerine oil and 5.95×10-31 – 1.24 mg/ml for the essential oil blend. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration indicated that the Garlic oil and Tangerine oil blend was better at inhibiting the tested microorganisms than the individual oils except for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (30.32% as the major component in the garlic oil extract and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha 4-trimethyl (33.38% in the tangerine oil. While the equal volume of the oil blend also revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (15.92% and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha.4-trimethyl (12.02% as the major constituents though in lower concentrations. Hence, the more potent antimicrobial properties demonstrated by the oil blend can be exploited further with a view to generate new effective antimicrobial compounds.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">OO Johnson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24400817"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ultra-deep Illumina sequencing accurately identifies MHC class IIb alleles and provides evidence for copy number variation in the guppy (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We address the bioinformatic issue of accurately separating amplified genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) from artefacts generated during high-throughput sequencing workflows. We fit observed ultra-deep sequencing depths (hundreds to thousands of sequences per amplicon) of allelic variants to expectations from genetic models of copy number variation (CNV). We provide a simple, accurate and repeatable method for genotyping multigene families, evaluating our method via analyses of 209 b of MHC class IIb exon 2 in guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>). Genotype repeatability for resequenced individuals (N = 49) was high (100%) within the same sequencing run. However, repeatability dropped to 83.7% between independent runs, either because of lower mean amplicon sequencing depth in the initial run or random PCR effects. This highlights the importance of fully independent replicates. Significant improvements in genotyping accuracy were made by greatly reducing type I genotyping error (i.e. accepting an artefact as a true allele), which may occur when using low-depth allele validation thresholds used by previous methods. Only a small amount (4.9%) of type II error (i.e. rejecting a genuine allele as an artefact) was detected through fully independent sequencing runs. We observed 1-6 alleles per individual, and evidence of sharing of alleles across loci. Variation in the total number of MHC class II loci among individuals, both among and within populations was also observed, and some genotypes appeared to be partially hemizygous; total allelic dosage added up to an odd number of allelic copies. Collectively, observations provide evidence of MHC CNV and its complex basis in natural populations. PMID:24400817</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lighten, Jackie; van Oosterhout, Cock; Paterson, Ian G; McMullan, Mark; Bentzen, Paul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:45036855"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine?disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi?static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long?term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17??estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine?disrupting action. -- Highlights: ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17??estradiol levels of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male guppies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=22215892"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine?disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi?static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long?term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17??estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine?disrupting action. -- Highlights: ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17??estradiol levels of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ? Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male guppies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo, E-mail: rusg@ouc.edu.cn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="plant salacia reticulata" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; 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height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://periodicos.uem.br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciAgron/article/view/5964/5964"> <span id="translatedtitle">Moscas frugívoras (Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae: ocorrência em pomares comerciais de tangerina (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco do município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba = Frugivorous flies (Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae: occurrence in commercials tangerine orchards (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco in Matinhas, state of Paraíba, Brazil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available O município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba com aproximadamente 1,3 milhões de plantas de tangerina, é responsável por 90% da produção do Estado. A pesquisa foi conduzida em cinco regiões geográficas do município de Matinhas, onde foram coletados 20 frutos na copa e 20 sob a copa da planta, objetivando pesquisar a ocorrência de moscasfrugívoras e seus níveis de infestação em tangerina. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a tangerina é infestada por Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann,1824, Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal e Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann,1830. O índice médio de infestação de C. capitata nas cinco regiões não ultrapassou 0,5 pupa fruto-1. A percentagem de emergência (P.E. de C. capitata em frutos coletados na planta e solo variou entre 14,0 a 54,0% de adultos fruto-1. Osíndices de infestação de N. zadolicha, em frutos coletados na planta e solo, variaram entre 0,4 a 4,3 pupários fruto-1. Os dados da percentagem de emergência (P.E. de N. zadolicha variaram entre 49,9 a 65,9% de adultos fruto-1, sendo considerada a espécie mais abundante, dominante e com uma alta taxa de sobrevivência. N. zadolicha foi considerada praga primária da tangerina nas condições de Matinhas. Este é, também, o primeiro relato das espécies N. zadolicha e N. glaberrima infestando tangerina na Paraíba.The municipality of Matinhas, with approximately 1.3 million tangerinetrees, is responsible for 90% of the tangerine production in the state of Paraíba. This research was carried out in five geographic regions of Matinhas, where 20 fruits on <span class="hlt">plant</span> and 20 fruits in soil were collected, with the aim of searching for the frugivorous flies and their levels of infestation in tangerine. The results showed that tangerine is infested by frugivorous flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann, 1824, Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal and Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann, 1830. The mean infestation index of C. capitata in five regions did not exceed 0.5 pupae fruit-1. The emergence percentage (EP of C. capitata adults in fruits collected on <span class="hlt">plant</span> and in soil varied between 14.0% and 54.0% of adults fruit-1. The infestation index for N. zadolicha had variations between 0.4 and 4.3 pupae fruit-1. The data on the emergence percentage (EP of N. zadolicha varied between 49.9% and 65.9% of adults fruit-1, which made it the most abundant and dominant species, with a high survival rate. N. zadolicha was considered the pest with the highest economic impact to tangerines in Matinhas. The present work is also the first report of the N. zadolicha and N. glaberiimaspecies causing infestation in tangerine fruits in the state of Paraíba.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Edson Batista Lopes</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S1807-86212008000500006-scl"> <span id="translatedtitle">Moscas frugívoras (Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae): ocorrência em pomares comerciais de tangerina (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco) do município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba / Frugivorous flies (Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae): occurrence in commercials tangerine orchards (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco) in Matinhas, state of Paraíba, Brazil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba com aproximadamente 1,3 milhões de plantas de tangerina, é responsável por 90% da produção do Estado. A pesquisa foi conduzida em cinco regiões geográficas do município de Matinhas, onde foram coletados 20 frutos na copa e 20 sob a copa da planta, objetivan [...] do pesquisar a ocorrência de moscas frugívoras e seus níveis de infestação em tangerina. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a tangerina é infestada por Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann,1824), Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal) e Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann,1830). O índice médio de infestação de C. capitata nas cinco regiões não ultrapassou 0,5 pupa fruto-1. A percentagem de emergência (P.E.) de C. capitata em frutos coletados na planta e solo variou entre 14,0 a 54,0% de adultos fruto-1. Os índices de infestação de N. zadolicha, em frutos coletados na planta e solo, variaram entre 0,4 a 4,3 pupários fruto-1. Os dados da percentagem de emergência (P.E.) de N . zadolicha variaram entre 49,9 a 65,9% de adultos fruto-1, sendo considerada a espécie mais abundante, dominante e com uma alta taxa de sobrevivência. N. zadolicha foi considerada praga primária da tangerina nas condições de Matinhas. Este é, também, o primeiro relato das espécies N. zadolicha e N. glaberrima infestando tangerina na Paraíba. Abstract in english The municipality of Matinhas, with approximately 1.3 million tangerine trees, is responsible for 90% of the tangerine production in the state of Paraíba. This research was carried out in five geographic regions of Matinhas, where 20 fruits on <span class="hlt">plant</span> and 20 fruits in soil were collected, with the aim [...] of searching for the frugivorous flies and their levels of infestation in tangerine. The results showed that tangerine is infested by frugivorous flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann, 1824), Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal) and Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann, 1830). The mean infestation index of C. capitata in five regions did not exceed 0.5 pupae fruit-1. The emergence percentage (EP) of C . capitata adults in fruits collected on <span class="hlt">plant</span> and in soil varied between 14.0% and 54.0% of adults fruit-1. The infestation index for N . zadolicha had variations between 0.4 and 4.3 pupae fruit-1. The data on the emergence percentage (EP) of N . zadolicha varied between 49.9% and 65.9% of adults fruit-1, which made it the most abundant and dominant species, with a high survival rate. N. zadolicha was considered the pest with the highest economic impact to tangerines in Matinhas. The present work is also the first report of the N. zadolicha and N. glaberiima species causing infestation in tangerine fruits in the state of Paraíba.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Edson Batista, Lopes; Jacinto de Luna, Batista; Ivanildo Cavalcanti de, Albuquerque; Carlos Henrique de, Brito.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=20057521"> <span id="translatedtitle">Histamine H{sub 3} receptor activation selectively inhibits dopamine D{sub 1} receptor-dependent [{sup 3}H]GABA release from depolarization-stimulated slices of rat substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The release of [{sup 3}H]GABA from slices of rat substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> induced by increasing extracellular K{sup +} from 6 to 15 mM in the presence of 10 {mu}M sulpiride was inhibited by 73{+-}3% by 1 {mu}M SCH 23390, consistent with a large component of release dependent upon D{sub 1} receptor activation. The histamine H{sub 3} receptor-selective agonist immepip (1 {mu}M) and the non-selective agonist histamine (100 {mu}M) inhibited [{sup 3}H]GABA release by 78{+-}2 and 80{+-}2%, respectively. The inhibition by both agonists was reversed by the H{sub 3} receptor antagonist thioperamide (1 {mu}M). However, in the presence of 1 {mu}M SCH 23390 depolarization-induced release of [{sup 3}H]GABA was not significantly decreased by 1 {mu}M immepip. In rats depleted of dopamine by pretreatment with reserpine, immepip no longer inhibited control release of [{sup 3}H]GABA, but in the presence of 1 {mu}M SKF 38393, which produced a 7{+-}1-fold stimulation of release, immepip reduced the release to a level not statistically different from that in the presence of immepip alone. Immepip (1 {mu}M) also inhibited the depolarization-induced release of [{sup 3}H]dopamine from substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> slices, by 38{+-}3%.The evidence is consistent with the proposition that activation of histamine H{sub 3} receptors leads to the selective inhibition of the component of depolarization-induced [{sup 3}H]GABA release in substantia nigra pars <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> slices which is dependent upon D{sub 1} receptor activation. This appears to be largely an action at the terminals of the striatonigral GABA projection neurons, which may be enhanced by a partial inhibition of dendritic [{sup 3}H]dopamine release. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aceves, J. [Departmento de Fisiologia, Biofisica y Neurociencias, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico (Mexico); Young, J.M. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Arias-Montano, J.A.; Floran, B.; Garcia, M. [Departmento de Fisiologia, Biofisica y Neurociencias, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico (Mexico)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-06-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24178608"> <span id="translatedtitle">Further evidence of a cybridization requirement for <span class="hlt">plant</span> regeneration from citrus leaf protoplasts following somatic fusion.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Somatic hybridization experiments in Citrus that involve the fusion of protoplasts of one parent isolated from either nucellus-derived embryogenic callus or suspension cultures with leaf-derived protoplasts of a second parent, often result in the regeneration of diploid <span class="hlt">plants</span> that phenotypically resemble the leaf parent. In this study, <span class="hlt">plants</span> of this type regenerated following somatic fusions of the following three parental combinations were analyzed to determine their genetic origin (nuclear and organelle): (embryogenic parent listed first, leaf parent second) (1) calamondin (C. microcarpa Bunge) + 'Keen' sour orange (C. aurantium L.), (2) Cleopatra mandarin (C. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco) + sour orange, and (3) 'Valencia' sweet orange (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck) + 'Femminello' lemon (C. limon (L.) Burm. f.). Isozyme analyses of PGI, PGM, GOT, and IDH zymograms of putative cybrid <span class="hlt">plants</span>, along with RFLP analyses using a nuclear genome-specific probe showed that these <span class="hlt">plants</span> contained the nucleus of the leaf parent. RFLP analyses using mtDNA-specific probes showed that these <span class="hlt">plants</span> contained the mitochondrial genome of the embryogenic callus donor, thereby confirming cybridization. RFLP analyses using cpDNA-specific probes revealed that the cybrid <span class="hlt">plants</span> contained the chloroplast genome of either one or the other parent. These results support previous reports indicating that acquisition of the mitochondria of embryogenic protoplasts by leaf protoplasts is a prerequisite for recovering <span class="hlt">plants</span> with the leaf parent phenotype via somatic embryogenesis following somatic fusion. PMID:24178608</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grosser, J W; Gmitter, F G; Tusa, N; Recupero, G R; Cucinotta, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://search.scielo.org/resource/en/art-S1516-89132008000100023-scl"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analyses of the sediment toxicity of Monjolinho River, São Carlos, São Paulo State, Brazil, using survey, growth and gill morphology of two fish species (Danio rerio and Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.scielo.org/php/index.php?lang=en">Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a toxicidade dos sedimentos do rio Monjolinho (São Carlos - São Paulo/Brasil), por meio de bioensaios de toxicidade crônicos parciais com juvenis de D. rerio e P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. Foram realizadas análises histológicas das brânquias dos organismos para detectar po [...] ssíveis efeitos deletérios que antecedam a mortalidade. Em todos os pontos amostrados, foram verificadas alterações nas brânquias (hiperplasia, fusão de lamelas secundárias e dilatação de vasos sanguíneos), sendo no ponto dois foram encontradas lesões mais acentuadas (segundo estágio). A análise biométrica dos indivíduos expostos em amostras de sedimento demonstrou condições inadequadas para o crescimento e desenvolvimentos dos organismos-teste em todo o ambiente estudado. Os sedimentos apresentaram maior toxicidade no período chuvoso, sendo estes resultados confirmados por meio das análises histológicas das brânquias dos organismos expostos, as quais demonstraram lesões mais acentuadas no mesmo período. Tal situação possivelmente decorre dos impactos antrópicos os quais o sistema está suscetível (efluentes domésticos, industriais e agrícolas), que foram constatados pelas análises físicas e químicas dos sedimentos. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the toxicity of the sediments of the Monjolinho River (São Carlos - São Paulo/Brazil), through partial chronic toxicity bioassays with juveniles of D. rerio and P. <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. Histological analyses of the gills and biometric measurements were conducted to d [...] etect the possible deleterious effects that caused the death. In all points the sampled the alterations were found in the gills (hyperplasia, fusion of secondary lamellas and dilation of blood vessels), with the most intense lesions (second stage) occurring at the point two. The biometric analysis pointed to inadequate conditions for the growth of the test-organisms when exposed to the sediment samples. These results showed that the conditions of these environments were not suitable for the survival and growth of these fishes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aline Fernanda, Campagna; Renata, Fracácio; Beatriz Kawamura, Rodrigues; Márcia Noélia, Eler; Nelsy Fenerich, Verani; Evaldo Luiz Gaeta, Espíndola.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23588349"> <span id="translatedtitle">Potent activity of nobiletin-rich Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> peel extract to facilitate cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB signaling associated with learning and memory in cultured hippocampal neurons: identification of the substances responsible for the pharmacological action.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB signaling linked to CRE-mediated transcription is crucial for learning and memory. We originally found nobiletin as a natural compound that stimulates this intracellular signaling and exhibits anti-dementia action in animals. Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> or C. unshiu peels are employed as "chinpi" and include a small amount of nobiletin. We here provide the first evidence for beneficial pharmacological actions on the cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB cascade of extracts from nobiletin-rich C.<span class="hlt">reticulata</span> peels designated as Nchinpi, the nobiletin content of which was 0.83 ± 0.13% of the dry weight or 16-fold higher than that of standard chinpi extracts. Nchinpi extracts potently facilitated CRE-mediated transcription in cultured hippocampal neurons, whereas the standard chinpi extracts showed no such activity. Also, the Nchinpi extract, but not the standard chinpi extract, stimulated PKA/ERK/CREB signaling. Interestingly, treatment with the Nchinpi extract at the concentration corresponding to approximately 5 ?M nobiletin more potently facilitated CRE-mediated transcriptional activity than did 30 ?M nobiletin alone. Consistently, sinensetin, tangeretin, 6-demethoxynobiletin, and 6-demethoxytangeretin were also identified as bioactive substances in Nchinpi that facilitated the CRE-mediated transcription. Purified sinensetin enhanced the transcription to a greater degree than nobiletin. Furthermore, samples reconstituted with the four purified compounds and nobiletin in the ratio of each constituent's content in the extract showed activity almost equal to that of the Nchinpi extract to stimulate CRE-mediated transcription. These findings suggest that above four compounds and nobiletin in the Nchinpi extract mainly cooperated to facilitate potently CRE-mediated transcription linked to the upstream cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB pathway in hippocampal neurons. PMID:23588349</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kawahata, Ichiro; Yoshida, Masaaki; Sun, Wen; Nakajima, Akira; Lai, Yanxin; Osaka, Naoya; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Yokosuka, Akihito; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Naganuma, Akira; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Yamakuni, Tohru</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.tropicultura.org/text/v21n1/10.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contribution à l'étude de l'écologie et de la biologie des homoptères ravageurs des arbres fruitiers et autres <span class="hlt">plantes</span>: II. - Influence de la <span class="hlt">plante</span>-hôte et de sa phénologie sur l'évolution des infestations d'Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Hom.: Aleyrodidae en République du Congo</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Contribution to the Knowlegde of the Ecology and Biology of Homopterous Pests of Fruit Trees and other <span class="hlt">Plants</span>: II. - The Influence of the Host <span class="hlt">Plant</span> and its Phenology on the Evolution of Infestation of Aleurodicus disperses Russell (Hom.: Aleyrodidae in Republic of the Congo. The purpose of this study was to estimate the infestations' frequencies of Aleurodicus dispersus Russell on 20 host <span class="hlt">plants</span> species. The observations carried out under natural conditions reveal the prominent part taken by host species and its phenology on the seasonal distribution of the infestations. The magnitude of the infestations seems to be correlated with the number of elderly leaves. Furthermore, it has been proved that hosts as Hura crepitans, Persea americana, Acacia auriculoformis, Elaeis guineensis and Eucalyptus alba x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid were very attractive for the laying of A. dispersus, while Mangifera indica, Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>, Carica papaya and Dacryodes edulis were less attractive for the whitefly.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kiyindou, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20801033"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probing the active-site requirements of human intestinal N-terminal maltase glucoamylase: the effect of replacing the sulfate moiety by a methyl ether in ponkoranol, a naturally occurring ?-glucosidase inhibitor.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ponkoranol is a naturally occurring glucosidase inhibitor isolated from the <span class="hlt">plant</span> <span class="hlt">Salacia</span> <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>. The compound comprises a sulfonium ion with an internal sulfate counter ion. We report here an efficient synthetic route to 3'-O-methyl ponkoranol to test the hypothesis that occupation of a hydrophobic pocket by a methyl group instead of the polar sulfate ion within the active site of human N-terminal maltase glucoamylase would be beneficial. The synthetic strategy relies on the nucleophilic attack of 2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl-1,4-anhydro-4-thio-D-arabinitol at the C-6 position of benzyl 6-O-p-toluenesulfonyl ?-D-glucopyranoside, followed by deprotection using boron trichloride and reduction with sodium borohydride. The target compound inhibited the N-terminal catalytic domain of intestinal human maltase glucoamylase (ntMGAM) with a K(i) value of 0.50 ± 0.04 ?M, higher than those of de-O-sulfonated ponkoranol (K(i)=43 ± 3 nM), or its 5'-stereoisomer (K(i)=15 ± 1 nM). We conclude that the interaction of the methyl group with hydrophobic residues in the active site is not as beneficial to inhibition of ntMGAM as the other interactions of the polyhydroxylated chain with active-site residues. PMID:20801033</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eskandari, Razieh; Jones, Kyra; Rose, David R; Pinto, B Mario</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:28054444"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of the contents and distribution characteristics of REE in natural <span class="hlt">plants</span> by NAA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The concentration of 8 REEs (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in 17 species of <span class="hlt">plants</span> and their host soil, which were collected from a rare earth ore area located in the south of China, have been determined by INAA. The chondritic normalized REE patterns for different parts of <span class="hlt">plants</span> (e.g., leaf, stem and root) and their host soils were studied. The results showed that the concentration levels of REE for most <span class="hlt">plants</span> in the sampling area were elevated. Particularly, the leaves of the fern (Dicranopteris dichotoma) contain extremely high concentration of the total REE (675-3358 ?g/g). Generally, these REE distribution patterns in every part of <span class="hlt">plants</span> were very similar and reflected the characteristics of their host soils. However, the chondritic normalized REE patterns in some <span class="hlt">plants</span> relative to the host soil revealed obvious fractionation, such as the depletion of the heavy REE (for fern, Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> and Brassia campestris), the heavy REE enrichment (for Camellia sinensis, Camellia oleifera and Ziziphus) and the Ce positive anomaly (for Gardenia jasminoides). (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12324338"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diversity of endophytic bacterial populations and their interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in citrus <span class="hlt">plants</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus <span class="hlt">plants</span> were studied by using cultivation as well as cultivation-independent techniques. The endophytic communities were assessed in surface-disinfected citrus branches by plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Dominant isolates were characterized by fatty-acid methyl ester analysis as Bacillus pumilus, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter cloacae, Methylobacterium spp. (including Methylobacterium extorquens, M. fujisawaense, M. mesophilicum, M. radiotolerans, and M. zatmanii), Nocardia sp., Pantoea agglomerans, and Xanthomonas campestris. We observed a relationship between CVC symptoms and the frequency of isolation of species of Methylobacterium, the genus that we most frequently isolated from symptomatic <span class="hlt">plants</span>. In contrast, we isolated C. flaccumfaciens significantly more frequently from asymptomatic <span class="hlt">plants</span> than from those with symptoms of CVC while P. agglomerans was frequently isolated from tangerine (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) and sweet-orange (C. sinensis) <span class="hlt">plants</span>, irrespective of whether the <span class="hlt">plants</span> were symptomatic or asymptomatic or showed symptoms of CVC. DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total <span class="hlt">plant</span> DNA resulted in several bands that matched those from the bacterial isolates, indicating that DGGE profiles can be used to detect some endophytic bacteria of citrus <span class="hlt">plants</span>. However, some bands had no match with any isolate, suggesting the occurrence of other, nonculturable or as yet uncultured, endophytic bacteria. A specific band with a high G+C ratio was observed only in asymptomatic <span class="hlt">plants</span>. The higher frequency of C. flaccumfaciens in asymptomatic <span class="hlt">plants</span> suggests a role for this organism in the resistance of <span class="hlt">plants</span> to CVC. PMID:12324338</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Araújo, Welington L; Marcon, Joelma; Maccheroni, Walter; Van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Van Vuurde, Jim W L; Azevedo, João Lúcio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1106::0ba0c6cf4691afad7d3ccc065fdb9a06"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> proteins</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Method for controlling the growth of a <span class="hlt">plant</span> cell or a <span class="hlt">plant</span> virus within the cell wherein the level and/or activity retinoblastoma protein in that <span class="hlt">plant</span> cell is increased or decreased by incorporating a recombinant nucleic acid</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gutie?rrez Armenta, Crisanto; Sanz Burgos, Andre?s; Xie, Qi; Suarez Lo?pez, Paula</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12447532"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> defensins.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> defensins are small, basic peptides that have a characteristic three-dimensional folding pattern that is stabilized by eight disulfide-linked cysteines. They are termed <span class="hlt">plant</span> defensins because they are structurally related to defensins found in other types of organism, including humans. To date, sequences of more than 80 different <span class="hlt">plant</span> defensin genes from different <span class="hlt">plant</span> species are available. In Arabidopsis thaliana, at least 13 putative <span class="hlt">plant</span> defensin genes (PDF) are present, encoding 11 different <span class="hlt">plant</span> defensins. Two additional genes appear to encode <span class="hlt">plant</span> defensin fusions. <span class="hlt">Plant</span> defensins inhibit the growth of a broad range of fungi but seem nontoxic to either mammalian or <span class="hlt">plant</span> cells. Antifungal activity of defensins appears to require specific binding to membrane targets. This review focuses on the classification of <span class="hlt">plant</span> defensins in general and in Arabidopsis specifically, and on the mode of action of <span class="hlt">plant</span> defensins against fungal pathogens. PMID:12447532</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomma, Bart P H J; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/8/210"> <span id="translatedtitle">The molecular basis of color vision in colorful fish: Four Long Wave-Sensitive (LWS opsins in guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> are defined by amino acid substitutions at key functional sites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparisons of functionally important changes at the molecular level in model systems have identified key adaptations driving isolation and speciation. In cichlids, for example, long wavelength-sensitive (LWS opsins appear to play a role in mate choice and male color variation within and among species. To test the hypothesis that the evolution of elaborate coloration in male guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> is also associated with opsin gene diversity, we sequenced long wavelength-sensitive (LWS opsin genes in six species of the family Poeciliidae. Results Sequences of four LWS opsin genes were amplified from the guppy genome and from mRNA isolated from adult guppy eyes. Variation in expression was quantified using qPCR. Three of the four genes encode opsins predicted to be most sensitive to different wavelengths of light because they vary at key amino acid positions. This family of LWS opsin genes was produced by a diversity of duplication events. One, an intronless gene, was produced prior to the divergence of families Fundulidae and Poeciliidae. Between-gene PCR and DNA sequencing show that two of the guppy LWS opsins are linked in an inverted orientation. This inverted tandem duplication event occurred near the base of the poeciliid tree in the common ancestor of Poecilia and Xiphophorus. The fourth sequence has been uncovered only in the genus Poecilia. In the guppies surveyed here, this sequence is a hybrid, with the 5' end most similar to one of the tandem duplicates and the 3' end identical to the other. Conclusion Enhanced wavelength discrimination, a possible consequence of opsin gene duplication and divergence, might have been an evolutionary prerequisite for color-based sexual selection and have led to the extraordinary coloration now observed in male guppies and in many other poeciliids.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ward Pam R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:28038298"> <span id="translatedtitle">Power <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The power <span class="hlt">plant</span> of simplified construction ensuring to increase the effectivness of transformation of solar and wind power with wide functional possibilities in autonomous work regime was elaborated. The power <span class="hlt">plant</span> has solar and wind <span class="hlt">plants</span>, electro generator and accumulating device. Solar <span class="hlt">plant</span> includes solar transformers with gears of azimuthal-zenithal shadowing for sun, the power <span class="hlt">plant</span> is supplied with shadowing sensor for sun. Solar and wind <span class="hlt">plants</span> have been made in the kind of two independent units. The wind wheel of <span class="hlt">plant</span> is fixed strongly on vertical rotation axle and the disk-multiplicator joined with rotor of electrogenerator is installed. (E.V.Kh.)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/plants/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Poisonous <span class="hlt">Plants</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Workplace Safety & Health Topics NIOSH Share Compartir POISONOUS <span class="hlt">PLANTS</span> On this Page How Poison Ivy Works U.S. ... this section courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Identification The old saying " Leaves of three, Let ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.vidacollection.org/browse/browseRecords/detail?recordId=606"> <span id="translatedtitle">Brassica <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Brassica is a <span class="hlt">plant</span> that produces small, yellow flowers. It starts out as a seed and sprouts into a seedling. The adult brassica <span class="hlt">plant</span>'s flowers must be cross-pollinated so that they can produce more seeds.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-06-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=anticancer+AND+plants&id=EJ548075"> <span id="translatedtitle">Medicinal <span class="hlt">Plants</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Highlights the demand for medicinal <span class="hlt">plants</span> as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from <span class="hlt">plants</span>, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of <span class="hlt">plants</span>. Contains 30 references. (JRH)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Phillipson, J. David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:34014808"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> walkdown</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report covers the following: preparatory steps for performing <span class="hlt">plant</span> walk-down; the objective of the first <span class="hlt">plant</span> walk-down; <span class="hlt">plant</span> walk-down procedures; earthquake screening evaluation; walk-down documentation; second <span class="hlt">plant</span> walk-down. The following objectives concerning the <span class="hlt">plant</span> walk-down(s) were achieved. The <span class="hlt">plant</span> system configuration is verified in order to proceed with event tree and fault tree analyses. Systems interactions, other types of dependencies or <span class="hlt">plant</span> unique features are identified. he safety related components that are judged to generically possess high capacities (i.e., larger than the earthquake review level) have been verified to contain no weaknesses. Further analyses needed to establish the capacities of remaining safety-related components are identified and necessary field data are obtained. Information on components is obtained to assist in HCLPF (fragility) evaluation and peer review of the seismic margin study</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/11/81"> <span id="translatedtitle">RT-qPCR reveals opsin gene upregulation associated with age and sex in guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> - a species with color-based sexual selection and 11 visual-opsin genes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Abstract Background PCR-based surveys have shown that guppies (Poecilia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> have an unusually large visual-opsin gene repertoire. This has led to speculation that opsin duplication and divergence has enhanced the evolution of elaborate male coloration because it improves spectral sensitivity and/or discrimination in females. However, this conjecture on evolutionary connections between opsin repertoire, vision, mate choice, and male coloration was generated with little data on gene expression. Here, we used RT-qPCR to survey visual-opsin gene expression in the eyes of males, females, and juveniles in order to further understand color-based sexual selection from the perspective of the visual system. Results Juvenile and adult (male and female guppies express 10 visual opsins at varying levels in the eye. Two opsin genes in juveniles, SWS2B and RH2-2, accounted for >85% of all visual-opsin transcripts in the eye, excluding RH1. This relative abundance (RA value dropped to about 65% in adults, as LWS-A180 expression increased from approximately 3% to 20% RA. The juvenile-to-female transition also showed LWS-S180 upregulation from about 1.5% to 7% RA. Finally, we found that expression in guppies' SWS2-LWS gene cluster is negatively correlated with distance from a candidate locus control region (LCR. Conclusions Selective pressures influencing visual-opsin gene expression appear to differ among age and sex. LWS upregulation in females is implicated in augmenting spectral discrimination of male coloration and courtship displays. In males, enhanced discrimination of carotenoid-rich food and possibly rival males are strong candidate selective pressures driving LWS upregulation. These developmental changes in expression suggest that adults possess better wavelength discrimination than juveniles. Opsin expression within the SWS2-LWS gene cluster appears to be regulated, in part, by a common LCR. Finally, by comparing our RT-qPCR data to MSP data, we were able to propose the first opsin-to-?max assignments for all photoreceptor types in the cone mosaic.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Taylor John S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://scout.wisc.edu/Reports/NSDL/LifeSci/2003/ls-030221#TopicInDepth"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carnivorous <span class="hlt">Plants</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The animal kingdom may have its egg-laying platypus, but the <span class="hlt">plant</span> kingdom is not without its own odd twists on taxonomy. If movies like Little Shop of Horrors are any indication, carnivorous <span class="hlt">plants</span> like the Venus flytrap, sundew, and pitcher <span class="hlt">plant</span> never fail to spark the imagination. The following set of Web sites presents a brief introduction to carnivorous <span class="hlt">plants</span> and includes loads of great photos. The first site (1) contains the Galleria Carnivora, a terrific collection of carnivorous <span class="hlt">plant</span> photographs, compiled by carnivorous <span class="hlt">plant</span> enthusiast Barry Rice. Rice has created a virtual art museum for these photos, which, together with his tongue-in-cheek commentary, provides a fun way to get acquainted with this diverse group of <span class="hlt">plants</span>. The second Web site contains another extensive image gallery (presented by Matthias and Oliver Schmidt), this time showing carnivorous <span class="hlt">plants</span> in their natural habitats (2). The Venus flytrap is the first carnivorous <span class="hlt">plant</span> many of us encounter. With this next Web site from HowStuffWorks, readers can find out exactly how the flytrap attracts, traps, and digests its insect prey (3). The following site from Indiana University's Roger P. Hangarter offers a cool QuickTime movie of a Venus flytrap in action -- part of the <span class="hlt">Plants</span>-In-Motion video collection (4). In this appealing and informative Web site (5), Marlis and Dennis Merbach present the Nepenthes (a genus of tropical pitcher <span class="hlt">plants</span>) of Borneo, the center of Nepenthes diversity. Visitors to the next site will be treated to a beautiful photomicrograph of a sundew <span class="hlt">plant</span>, entered by Earl Nishiguchi in Nikon's Small World Gallery photo contest (6). Boston's Museum of Science offers an interesting magnified image of a bladderwort, a tiny carnivorous <span class="hlt">plant</span> found in freshwater (7). And, another Web site from Barry Rice (mentioned above) provides an entertaining look at carnivorous <span class="hlt">plants</span> on TV and the silver screen, from Attack of the Killer Tomatoes to Minority Report and more (8).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sohmer, Rachel.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="plant salacia reticulata" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> </div><!-- page_14 div --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="plant salacia reticulata" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14503581"> <span id="translatedtitle">Native and introduced host <span class="hlt">plants</span> of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 <span class="hlt">plant</span> families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host <span class="hlt">plant</span> associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native <span class="hlt">plant</span> species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host <span class="hlt">plant</span> species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications. PMID:14503581</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18759238"> <span id="translatedtitle">Endophytic population of Pantoea agglomerans in citrus <span class="hlt">plants</span> and development of a cloning vector for endophytes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Harmless bacteria inhabiting inner <span class="hlt">plant</span> tissues are termed endophytes. Population fluctuations in the endophytic bacterium Pantoea agglomerans associated with two species of field cultured citrus <span class="hlt">plants</span> were monitored over a two-year period. The results demonstrated that populations of P. agglomerans fluctuated in Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> but not C. sinensis. A cryptic plasmid pPA3.0 (2.9 kb) was identified in 35 out of 44 endophytic isolates of P. agglomerans and was subsequently sequenced. The origins of replication were identified and nine out of 18 open reading frames (ORFs) revealed homology with described proteins. Notably, two ORFs were related to cellular transport systems and plasmid maintenance. Plasmid pPA3.0 was cloned and the gfp gene inserted to generate the pPAGFP vector. The vector was introduced into P. agglomerans isolates and revealed stability was dependent on the isolate genotype, ninety-percent stability values were reached after 60 hours of bacterial cultivation in most evaluated isolates. In order to definitively establish P. agglomerans as an endophyte, the non-transformed bacterium was reintroduced into in vitro cultivated seedlings and the density of inner tissue colonization in inoculated <span class="hlt">plants</span> was estimated by bacterium re-isolation, while the tissue niches preferred by the bacterium were investigated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Cells from P. agglomerans (strain ARB18) at similar densities were re-isolated from roots, stems and leaves and colonization of parenchyma and xylem tissues were observed. Data suggested that P. agglomerans is a ubiquitous citrus endophyte harboring cryptic plasmids. These characteristics suggest the potential to use the bacterium as a vehicle to introduce new genes in host <span class="hlt">plants</span> via endophytic bacterial transformation. PMID:18759238</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andreote, Fernando D; Rossetto, Priscilla B; Souza, Leonardo C A; Marcon, Joelma; Maccheroni, Walter; Azevedo, João L; Araújo, Welington L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.sciencemag.org/content/317/5840/910.full?sid=e12ed4b4-9664-47d9-9b54-e767fbb55b2a"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Speciation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Like the formation of animal species, <span class="hlt">plant</span> speciation is characterized by the evolution of barriers to genetic exchange between previously interbreeding populations. Prezygotic barriers, which impede mating or fertilization between species, typically contribute more to total reproductive isolation in <span class="hlt">plants</span> than do postzygotic barriers, in which hybrid offspring are selected against. Adaptive divergence in response to ecological factors such as pollinators and habitat commonly drives the evolution of prezygotic barriers, but the evolutionary forces responsible for the development of intrinsic postzygotic barriers are virtually unknown and frequently result in polymorphism of incompatibility factors within species. Polyploid speciation, in which the entire genome is duplicated, is particularly frequent in <span class="hlt">plants</span>, perhaps because polyploid <span class="hlt">plants</span> often exhibit ecological differentiation, local dispersal, high fecundity, perennial life history, and self-fertilization or asexual reproduction. Finally, species richness in <span class="hlt">plants</span> is correlated with many biological and geohistorical factors, most of which increase ecological opportunities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Loren H. Rieseberg (University of British Columbia/Indiana University;Department of Botany/Department of Biology); John Willis (Duke University;Department of Biology)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::5addabd2fbb3476733ca921215a93081"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Speciation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Like the formation of animal species, <span class="hlt">plant</span> speciation is characterized by the evolution of barriers to genetic exchange between previously interbreeding populations. Prezygotic barriers, which impede mating or fertilization between species, typically contribute more to total reproductive isolation in <span class="hlt">plants</span> than do postzygotic barriers, in which hybrid offspring are selected against. Adaptive divergence in response to ecological factors such as pollinators and habitat commonly drives the evo...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rieseberg, Loren H.; Willis, John H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.aibs.org/eye-on-education/eye_on_education_2003_10.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Blindness</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Eye on Education column, published in BioScience, highlights the "Prevent <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Blindness" program. The aim of the campaign is to liberate students from the many traps that lead to a lack of appreciation for and understanding of <span class="hlt">plants</span>, say its leaders, botanist-educators James Wandersee of Louisiana State University, in Baton Rouge, and Elizabeth Schussler of the Ruth Patrick Science Education Center, in Aiken, South Carolina.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cathy Lundmark (American Institute of Biological Sciences;)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/1450-7188/2010/1450-71881041195T.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> peel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Mandarin peel, a waste product coming from juice production, was extracted by conventional extraction with 70% acetone. Content of flavonoids in mandarin peel extract (MPE was determined by HPLC. Hesperidin was the most dominant flavonoid. Free radical scavenging activity of MPE on stable DPPH radicals and reactive hydroxyl radicals was also evaluated. EC50 value determined in spectrophotometrical DPPH radical assay was 0.179 mg/ml, while this value in ESR spin trapping hydroxyl radical assay was 0.415 mg/ml. Also, MPE showed protective effects in stabilising sunflower oil during accelerated storage. The results indicated that mandarin peel can be a valuable source of natural antioxidants.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tumbas Vesna T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=doajarticles::b900eb704ac8cb49aea8620c43620a73"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus <span class="hlt">reticulata</span>) peel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mandarin peel, a waste product coming from juice production, was extracted by conventional extraction with 70% acetone. Content of flavonoids in mandarin peel extract (MPE) was determined by HPLC. Hesperidin was the most dominant flavonoid. Free radical scavenging activity of MPE on stable DPPH radicals and reactive hydroxyl radicals was also evaluated. EC50 value determined in spectrophotometrical DPPH radical assay was 0.179 mg/ml, while this value in ESR spin trapping hydroxyl radica...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tumbas Vesna T.; ?etkovi? Gordana S.; ?ilas Sonja M.; ?anadanovi?-Brunet Jasna M.; Vuli? Jelena J.; Knez Željko; Škerget Mojca</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.vidacollection.org/browse/browseRecords/detail?recordId=773"> <span id="translatedtitle">Burdock <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Burdock seeds are curved and there is a kind of hook on one end of the seed. The hook is easily caught on animal fur and the clothing of humans as they pass by. This helps the seeds spread. This is a commensalistic relationship because the burdock <span class="hlt">plant</span> benefits while the animal or human is neither harmed nor helped.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael Becker (None;)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-07-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=160029"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PLANT</span> DIVERSITY</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Habitat change statistics and species-area curves were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on <span class="hlt">plant</span> diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future s...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.amnh.org/learn/biodiversity_counts/ident_help/Parts_Plants/parts_plants_index.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Morphology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Web page serves as a linked table of contents for the museum's supplemental resources on <span class="hlt">plant</span> morphology. From it, you can access the following illustrated guides with a single click: The Parts of a Soybean Seedling, The Parts of a Corn Seedling, Leaf Arrangement, Leaf Type, Types of Compound Leaves, Leaf Shape, Leaf Margin, and The Parts of a Flower.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ateec.org/invasive-plants"> <span id="translatedtitle">Invasive <span class="hlt">Plants</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This presentation from ATEEC describes the ecological impact of six invasive <span class="hlt">plant</span> species. A slide is provided with detailed information on the exotic bush honeysuckle, bull thistle, common buckthorn, Japanese honeysuckle, purple loosestrife and yellow starthistle. Habitat, management approaches, biology and spread are discussed for each. This document is provided as a PowerPoint file. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::d6351e813d26bb80952f1ba9ba9adcaf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> biotechnology.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The first decade of the 21st century has seen an intense debate of the potential contribution of <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Biotechnology to meeting present and future world demands of food and biomass. The discussion started in 1997 when the first genetically modified (GM) crops were approved by the EPA for commercial production. The debate has been later stimulated by the increasing awareness of the potential effects of global climate change on agricultural production, as the current crops may be poorly adapted...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Khalid Mahmood Khawar; Selma Onarici; Cigdem Alev Ozel; Muhammad Aasim; Allah Bakhsh; Abdul Qayyum Rao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23195818"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> adaptogens.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The term adaptogen has not yet been accepted in medicine. This is probably due to the difficulties in discriminating adaptogenic drugs from immunostimulators, anabolic drugs, nootropic drugs, and tonics. There can be not doubt, however, that, at least in animal experiments, there are <span class="hlt">plant</span> drugs capable of modulating distinct phases of the adaptation syndrome as defined by Seyle. These drugs either reduce stress reactions in the alarm phase or retard / prevent the exhaustion phase and thus provide a certain degree of protection against long-term stress. The small number of drugs the antistress activity of which has been proven or reported includes, among others, the <span class="hlt">plant</span> drugs Ginseng, Eleutherococcus, Withania, Ocimum, Rhodiola, and Codonopsis. This review summarizes the major findings of pharmacological tests and human studies carried out with these drugs. Currently used assay systems allowing detection of antistress activities are also reported. At present the most likely candidates responsible for the putative antistress activity of <span class="hlt">plant</span> drugs are special steroids, phenylprogane compounds and lignanes, respectively. Apart from influencing activities of the pituitary-adrenal axis and inducing stress proteins, many adaptogens also possess immunomodulatory and / or anabolic activities. PMID:23195818</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wagner, H; Nörr, H; Winterhoff, H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.sciencenter.org/chemistry/d/plantpower.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Power</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this chemistry challenge, learners identify which <span class="hlt">plants</span> have the enzyme "catalase" that breaks hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. Multiple fruits and vegetables, both raw and cooked (a few seconds in boiling water, or 30 seconds in the microwave) should be available for testing. Preparation time can be shortened by using a food processor. Background information is provided about enzymes (proteins that act as catalysts), and the specific enzyme catalase, which catalyzes hydrogen peroxide. Since heating destroys enzymes, cooked fruits and vegetables have no catalytic activity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sciencenter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:11505730"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span> operating with both a thermal and a fast reactor housed in the same containment building is discussed in this invention. The fuel elements are transferred between the two reactors using a charge/discharge machine. As the enrichment of the fuel elements in the thermal reactor falls (and hence also the reactor reactivity), the fuel elements are transferred to the fast reactor to permit re-enrichment of the isotopes which are fissionable by thermal neutrons. The fuel elements are then replaced in the thermal reactor. The advantage of obtaining a higher breeding ratio in the fast reactor by using a gaseous rather than a liquid metal coolant is also discussed. (U.K.)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:17020030"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Data concerning the existing nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span> in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear <span class="hlt">plants</span>, its status and type; installed nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span> by country; nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span> under construction by country; planned nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span> by country; cancelled nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span> by country; shut-down nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span> by country. (E.G.)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:28038245"> <span id="translatedtitle">LNG <span class="hlt">plant</span> combined with power <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The LNG <span class="hlt">plant</span> consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG <span class="hlt">plant</span> location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG <span class="hlt">plant</span> is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG <span class="hlt">plant</span> with power <span class="hlt">plant</span> will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power <span class="hlt">plant</span> by keeping higher average load of the power <span class="hlt">plant</span>, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power <span class="hlt">plant</span> can be extracted from the LNG <span class="hlt">plant</span>, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002863.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Caladium <span class="hlt">plant</span> poisoning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... describes poisoning caused by eating parts of the Caladium <span class="hlt">plant</span> and other <span class="hlt">plants</span> belonging to the Araceae ... Caladium and related <span class="hlt">plants</span> may be purchased as houseplants or used in landscapes. Types include Caladium esculentum ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mbgnet.net/bioplants/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biology of <span class="hlt">Plants</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Younger students can learn about <span class="hlt">plant</span> biology. Topics include characteristics of living things, germination and growth, the basic parts of <span class="hlt">plants</span>, photosynthesis, reproduction, and ecological adaptations of <span class="hlt">plants</span>. The information presented can also be ordered as a video.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://emergency.cdc.gov/radiation/pdf/infographic_nuclear_power_plant.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear Power <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Accidents</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">NUCLEAR POWER <span class="hlt">PLANT</span> ACCIDENTS Nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span> have safety and security procedures in place and are closely monitored ... a plume). What are the main dangers of nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span> accidents? Radioactive materials in the plume from ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="plant salacia reticulata" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; 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height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::dd5c8407bda9dfecfa334d49cf9f48c3"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">plant</span> microbiome</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> genomes contribute to the structure and function of the <span class="hlt">plant</span> microbiome, a key determinant of <span class="hlt">plant</span> health and productivity. High-throughput technologies are revealing interactions between these complex communities and their hosts in unprecedented detail.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Turner, Tr; James, Ek; Poole, Ps</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::fec54dee2a61674a59af9ef33168e1c1"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PLANT</span> DERMATITIS: ASIAN PERSPECTIVE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Occupational and recreational <span class="hlt">plant</span> exposure on the skin is fairly common. <span class="hlt">Plant</span> products and extracts are commonly used and found extensively in the environment. Adverse reactions to <span class="hlt">plants</span> and their products are also fairly common. However, making the diagnosis of contact dermatitis from <span class="hlt">plants</span> and <span class="hlt">plant</span> extracts is not always simple and straightforward. Phytodermatitis refers to inflammation of the skin caused by a <span class="hlt">plant</span>. The clinical patterns may be allergic phytodermatitis, photophytoder...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goon, Anthony Teik Jin; Goh, Chee Leok</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.teachengineering.org/view_activity.php?url=collection/duk_/activities/duk_sunflower_mary_act/duk_sunflower_mary_act.xml"> <span id="translatedtitle">Light <span class="hlt">Plants</span> and Dark <span class="hlt">Plants</span>, Wet <span class="hlt">Plants</span> and Dry Ones</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Students <span class="hlt">plant</span> sunflower seeds in plastic cups, and once germinated, expose them to varying light or soil moisture conditions. They measure growth of the seedlings every few days using non-standard measurement (inch cubes). After a few weeks, they compare the growth of <span class="hlt">plants</span> exposed to the different conditions and make bar comparative graphs, which they analyze to draw conclusions about the needs of <span class="hlt">plants</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Engineering K-Phd Program</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od______1106::12e9400d23d08c9255d699d9494a2a8b"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> GRAB proteins</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method of controlling <span class="hlt">plant</span> cell and <span class="hlt">plant</span> virus growth and/or replication, <span class="hlt">plant</span> cell cycle, differentiation, development and/or scenescence is provided characterised in that it comprises increasing or decreasing the levels or binding capabilities of GRAB (Geminivirus RepA Binding) proteins other than Rb (Retinoblastoma) proteins within <span class="hlt">plant</span> cells.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gutie?rrez Armenta, Crisanto; Xie, Qi; Sanz Burgos, Andre?s</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:25010654"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spanish Nuclear Power <span class="hlt">Plants</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report issued by the Nuclear Safety Conseil analyzes the technical characteristics, nuclear safety and radiation protection of spanish nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span>. The report elaborates on 3 chapters for each nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span>: 1.- Site characteristics. 2.- General description of Nuclear Power <span class="hlt">Plant</span>. 3.- Nuclear Power <span class="hlt">plant</span> history</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=6026183"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> cell culture</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The volume '<span class="hlt">Plant</span> cell culture' comprises biosynthesis of secondary products by cell cultures of higher <span class="hlt">plants</span>, immobilized <span class="hlt">plant</span> cells as well as production of useful metabolites and screening techniques for <span class="hlt">plant</span> cell cultures. Separate entries are available for 5 papers. (EF). With 51 figs., 18 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anderson, L.A.; Berlin, J.; Lambe, C.A.; Misawa, M.; Phillipson, J.D.; Roberts, M.F.; Rosevear, A.; Sasse, F.; Yamada, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/909418"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ethylene insensitive <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences are described which relate to an EIN6 gene, a gene involved in the <span class="hlt">plant</span> ethylene response. <span class="hlt">Plant</span> transformation vectors and transgenic <span class="hlt">plants</span> are described which display an altered ethylene-dependent phenotype due to altered expression of EIN6 in transformed <span class="hlt">plants</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ecker, Joseph R. (Carlsbad, CA); Nehring, Ramlah (La Jolla, CA); McGrath, Robert B. (Philadelphia, PA)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-05-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/5930051/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Research '75</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Research is reported on stomatal regulation of the gas exchanges between <span class="hlt">plant</span> and environment; inhibitory effects in flower formation; <span class="hlt">plant</span> growth and development through hormones; hormone action; development and nitrogen fixation in algae; primary cell wall glycoprotein ectensin; enzymic mechanisms and control of polysaccharide and glycoprotein synthesis; molecular studies of membrane studies; sensory transduction in <span class="hlt">plants</span>; regulation of formation of protein complexes and enzymes in higher <span class="hlt">plant</span> cell and mechanism of sulfur dioxide toxicity in <span class="hlt">plants</span>. (PCS)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/874093"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> fatty acid hydroxylases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This invention relates to <span class="hlt">plant</span> fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain <span class="hlt">plant</span> fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a <span class="hlt">plant</span> hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic <span class="hlt">plants</span>. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic <span class="hlt">plants</span> is described.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/8/4/2628/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pathogen Phytosensing: <span class="hlt">Plants</span> to Report <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Pathogens</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available Real-time systems that provide evidence of pathogen contamination in crops can be an important new line of early defense in agricultural centers. <span class="hlt">Plants</span> possess defense mechanisms to protect against pathogen attack. Inducible <span class="hlt">plant</span> defense is controlled by signal transduction pathways, inducible promoters and cis-regulatory elements corresponding to key genes involved in defense, and pathogen-specific responses. Identified inducible promoters and cis-acting elements could be utilized in <span class="hlt">plant</span> sentinels, or ‘phytosensors’, by fusing these to reporter genes to produce <span class="hlt">plants</span> with altered phenotypes in response to the presence of pathogens. Here, we have employed cis-acting elements from promoter regions of pathogen inducible genes as well as those responsive to the <span class="hlt">plant</span> defense signal molecules salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene. Synthetic promoters were constructed by combining various regulatory elements supplemented with the enhancer elements from the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter to increase basal level of the GUS expression. The inducibility of each synthetic promoter was first assessed in transient expression assays using Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts and then examined for efficacy in stably transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco <span class="hlt">plants</span>. Histochemical and fluorometric GUS expression analyses showed that both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco <span class="hlt">plants</span> responded to elicitor and phytohormone treatments with increased GUS expression when compared to untreated <span class="hlt">plants</span>. Pathogen-inducible phytosensor studies were initiated by analyzing the sensitivity of the synthetic promoters against virus infection. Transgenic tobacco <span class="hlt">plants</span> infected with Alfalfa mosaic virus showed an increase in GUS expression when compared to mock-inoculated control <span class="hlt">plants</span>, whereas Tobacco mosaic virus infection caused no changes in GUS expression. Further research, using these transgenic <span class="hlt">plants</span> against a range of different pathogens with the regulation of detectable reporter gene could provide biological evidence to define the functional differences between pathogens, and provide new technology and applications for transgenic <span class="hlt">plants</span> as phytosensors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Neal Stewart</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::c9565e64a97b7b77c08aaca1df0f2604"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pathogen Phytosensing: <span class="hlt">Plants</span> to Report <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Pathogens</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Real-time systems that provide evidence of pathogen contamination in crops can be an important new line of early defense in agricultural centers. <span class="hlt">Plants</span> possess defense mechanisms to protect against pathogen attack. Inducible <span class="hlt">plant</span> defense is controlled by signal transduction pathways, inducible promoters and cis-regulatory elements corresponding to key genes involved in defense, and pathogen-specific responses. Identified inducible promoters and cis-acting elements could be utilized in <span class="hlt">plant</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Neal Stewart, C.; Reza Hajimorad, M.; Irina Teplova; Mitra Mazarei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Multinationals+and+plant+survival"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multinationals and <span class="hlt">plant</span> survival</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect <span class="hlt">plant</span> survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic <span class="hlt">plants</span>’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing sector, I am able to separate <span class="hlt">plants</span> into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE <span class="hlt">plants</span> have lower survival rates than non-MNE <span class="hlt">plants</span>. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE <span class="hlt">plants</span> have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE <span class="hlt">plants</span> and exporting non-MNE <span class="hlt">plants</span> do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non-parametric estimates show that domestic MNE <span class="hlt">plants</span> are more likely to exit the market than other <span class="hlt">plants</span>, also when controlling for <span class="hlt">plant</span>-specific differences. Finally, foreign presence in the market seems to have had a negative impact on the survival rate of <span class="hlt">plants</span> in non-exporting non- MNEs, but not to have affected <span class="hlt">plants</span> in exporting non-MNEs or <span class="hlt">plants</span> in domestic MNEs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bandick, Roger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/850165-RcWXM4/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Phenotype Characterization System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of <span class="hlt">plant</span> root systems. The root systems of <span class="hlt">plants</span> are thought to be important in <span class="hlt">plant</span> yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of <span class="hlt">plant</span> root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing <span class="hlt">plant</span> root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow <span class="hlt">plant</span> specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same <span class="hlt">plant</span> can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in <span class="hlt">plant</span> physiology, <span class="hlt">plant</span> morphology, <span class="hlt">plant</span> breeding, <span class="hlt">plant</span> functional genomics and <span class="hlt">plant</span> genotype screening.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-09-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21177994"> <span id="translatedtitle">Catalogue of the Lower Cretaceous fossil <span class="hlt">plant</span> collection from the Autonomous Region of La Rioja (Spain) held at the Geominero Museum (Spanish Geological Survey); Catalogo de la coleccion de plantas fosiles del Cretacico Inferior de la Comunidad Autonoma de La Rioja (Espana) depositada en el Museo Geominero (Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espana)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Collection of Fossil Invertebrate and Flora from Spain constitutes a 76% of the total collections in the Geominero Museum. The fossil <span class="hlt">plant</span> mega remains form the Lower Cretaceous of La Rioja, included in such collection, have been revised from the bibliographical, museological, systematic and taxonomic points of view, and have shown significant historical and palaeobotanical interests. The 22 specimens come from the localities of Ortigosa de Cameros and Prejano. The samples from Prejano, collected during the production of the Spanish Geological Map of Calahorra in 1947, have an outstanding interest. They allowed giving an accurate age to the lignite in which the fossil <span class="hlt">plants</span> were found (Lower Cretaceous), after several wrong determinations. The museological study has allowed reorganizing the collections through inventorying, correction of errors and inclusion of new data. In relation to the taxonomic and systematic revision, it has provided a catalogue in which diverse genera and species of ferns (Sphenopteris [Brongniart] Sternberg, 1825; Weichselia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> [Stokes and Webb] Fontaine emend. Alvin, 1971) and conifers (Brachyphyllum Brongniart, 1828, Pagiophyllum Heer, 1881, Sphenolepis cf. debile Heer, 1881) have been identified. Moreover, the analysis of the collection from those points of view enabled the detection of specimens that do not belong to it (Pagiophyllum pedreranum Barale, 1989; Montsechia vidalii [Zeiller] Teixeira, 1954). Lower Cretaceous flora collections known from Cameros Basin are rare and fragmentary; as a result, the collection held at the Geominero Museum has additional interest. (Author) 40 refs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fuente, M de la; Gomez, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761991000600008"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> tissue culture techniques</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available <span class="hlt">Plant</span> cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single <span class="hlt">plant</span> cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rolf Dieter Illg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.apsnet.org/careers/careersinplantpathology/Pages/default.aspx"> <span id="translatedtitle">Careers in <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Pathology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This brochure reads easily and features pictures of <span class="hlt">plant</span> pathologists in action, curious-looking disease symptoms and microscopic views of pathogens. This tool is intended to inspire more young scientists to consider <span class="hlt">plant</span> pathology as a career choice.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Margaret Daughtrey (American Phytopathological Society; )</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/1032962/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> centromere compositions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of <span class="hlt">plant</span> centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic <span class="hlt">plant</span> and animal cells.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mach; Jennifer M. (Chicago, IL), Zieler; Helge (Del Mar, CA), Jin; RongGuan (Chesterfield, MO), Keith; Kevin (Three Forks, MT), Copenhaver; Gregory P. (Chapel Hill, NC), Preuss; Daphne (Chicago, IL)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/1026672/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> centromere compositions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of <span class="hlt">plant</span> centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic <span class="hlt">plant</span> and animal cells.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mach, Jennifer M. (Chicago, IL); Zieler, Helge (Del Mar, CA); Jin, RongGuan (Chesterfield, MO); Keith, Kevin (Three Forks, MT); Copenhaver, Gregory P. (Chapel Hill, NC); Preuss, Daphne (Chicago, IL)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ready.gov/nuclear-power-plants"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear Power <span class="hlt">Plants</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... illness or death. Before Before a Nuclear Power <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Emergency The following are things you can do ... of the President. During During a Nuclear Power <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Emergency If an accident at a nuclear power ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10349708"> <span id="translatedtitle">Poisonous <span class="hlt">plant</span> vouchers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Every published report of <span class="hlt">plant</span> poisoning, whether experimental or accidental, should document <span class="hlt">plant</span> identification. The essential elements are: complete botanical Latin name including species, specific epithet and author(s); name of the collaborating botanist who identified the <span class="hlt">plant</span>; and herbarium and collection number of a voucher specimen from the exposure lot. Additional information to aid identification might include <span class="hlt">plant</span> photographs, drawings, and descriptions. PMID:10349708</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wagstaff, D J; Wiersema, J H; Lellinger, D B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="plant salacia reticulata" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; 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height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::a6a8a0c7d6beab4a5a09766bf075ed59"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> abiotic stress signaling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stress signaling is central to <span class="hlt">plants</span> which—as immobile organisms—have to endure environmental fluctuations that constantly interfere with vigorous growth. As a result, <span class="hlt">plant</span>-specific, elaborate mechanisms have evolved to perceive and respond to stress conditions. Currently, these stress responses are plausibly being revealed to involve crosstalks with energy signaling pathways as any growth-limiting factor alters <span class="hlt">plant’s</span> energy status. Among these, autophagy, conventionally regarded as...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Akpinar, B. Ani; Avsar, Bihter; Lucas, Stuart J.; Budak, Hikmet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=936185"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> design: Integrating <span class="hlt">Plant</span> and Equipment Models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Like power <span class="hlt">plant</span> engineers, process <span class="hlt">plant</span> engineers must design generating units to operate efficiently, cleanly, and profitably despite fluctuating costs for raw materials and fuels. To do so, they increasingly create virtual <span class="hlt">plants</span> to enable evaluation of design concepts without the expense of building pilot-scale or demonstration facilities. Existing computational models describe an entire <span class="hlt">plant</span> either as a network of simplified equipment models or as a single, very detailed equipment model. The Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) project (Figure 5) sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) seeks to bridge the gap between models by integrating <span class="hlt">plant</span> modeling and equipment modeling software. The goal of the effort is to provide greater insight into the performance of proposed <span class="hlt">plant</span> designs. The software integration was done using the process-industry standard CAPE-OPEN (Computer Aided Process Engineering–Open), or CO interface. Several demonstration cases based on operating power <span class="hlt">plants</span> confirm the viability of this co-simulation approach.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sloan, David (Alstrom Power); Fiveland, Woody (Alstrom Power); Zitney, S.E.; Osawe, Maxwell (Ansys, Inc.)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://botany.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/gallery.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vascular <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Image Gallery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Texas A&M University's Bioinformatics Working Group offers this no-nonsense botany teaching resource. Vascular <span class="hlt">plants</span> are arranged alphabetically by family from Acanthaceae to Zygophyllaceae and users simply click for the images. Brief descriptions are provided (which may indicate the popular name of the <span class="hlt">plant</span>). The site is searchable. Familiarity with vascular <span class="hlt">plant</span> taxonomic nomenclature is assumed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Manhart, James R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=5414596"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> ozone injury symptoms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A study of the phytotoxicity of ozone to <span class="hlt">plants</span> was conducted in controlled-atmosphere greenhouses to determine if the symptoms of such exposure would be similar to symptoms exhibited by <span class="hlt">plants</span> exposed to photochemical smog (which contains ozone) in the Tokyo area. Test <span class="hlt">plants</span> used were herbaceous <span class="hlt">plants</span> and woody <span class="hlt">plants</span>, which were fumigated to 20 pphm ozone. <span class="hlt">Plants</span> used as controls for the oxone exposure experiments were placed in a carbon filtered greenhouse. Herbaceous <span class="hlt">plants</span> were generally sensitive to injury, especially Brassica rapa, Brassica pekinensis and others were extremely responsive species. In comparison with herbaceous <span class="hlt">plants</span>, woody <span class="hlt">plants</span> were rather resistant except for poplar. Depending on <span class="hlt">plant</span> species and severity of injury, ozone-injury symptoms of herbaceous <span class="hlt">plants</span> were bleaching, chlorosis, necrosis, and red-dish-brown flecks. Leaves of woody <span class="hlt">plants</span> developed discrete, punctate spots, reddish-brown pigment on the upper surfaces and lastly defoliation. Ozone injury was typically confined to the upper leaf surfaces and notably greater mature leaves. Microscopic examination showed that pallisade cells were much more prone to ozone injury than other tissues.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nouchi, I.; Odaira, T.; Sawada, T.; Oguchi, K.; Komeiji, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://youtu.be/eEOCRz0j6iA"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Planting</span> Brassica rapa</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This video resource explains and demonstrates how to <span class="hlt">plant</span> Fast <span class="hlt">Plants</span> in a bottle growing system made from recycled soda/water bottles was made by the instructors at UW-Madison who teach Biocore (a foundational undergraduate biology course). In this <span class="hlt">planting</span> approach, vermiculite is used along with a soil-less potting mix (e.g. Redi-Earth).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">UW-Madison Biocore</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/1046269/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Power <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Cycling Costs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power <span class="hlt">plant</span> cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power <span class="hlt">plant</span> cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, <span class="hlt">plant</span> personnel and power utilities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.teachengineering.org/view_activity.php?url=collection/cub_/activities/cub_desal/cub_desal_lesson01_activity2.xml"> <span id="translatedtitle">Water Desalination <span class="hlt">Plant</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Students use a thermal process approach to design, build and test a small-scale desalination <span class="hlt">plant</span> that is capable of significantly removing the salt content from a saltwater solution. Students use a saltwater circuit to test the efficiency of their model desalination <span class="hlt">plant</span> and learn how the water cycle is the basis for the thermal processes that drive their desalination <span class="hlt">plant</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4249712&rendertype=abstract"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> immunity in <span class="hlt">plant</span>–aphid interactions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aphids are economically important pests that cause extensive feeding damage and transmit viruses. While some species have a broad host range and cause damage to a variety of crops, others are restricted to only closely related <span class="hlt">plant</span> species. While probing and feeding aphids secrete saliva, containing effectors, into their hosts to manipulate host cell processes and promote infestation. Aphid effector discovery studies pointed out parallels between infection and infestation strategies of <span class="hlt">plant</span> pathogens and aphids. Interestingly, resistance to some aphid species is known to involve <span class="hlt">plant</span> resistance proteins with a typical NB-LRR domain structure. Whether these resistance proteins indeed recognize aphid effectors to trigger ETI remains to be elucidated. In addition, it was recently shown that unknown aphid derived elicitors can initiate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and callose deposition and that these responses were dependent on BAK1 (BRASSINOSTERIOD INSENSITIVE 1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE 1) which is a key component of the <span class="hlt">plant</span> immune system. In addition, BAK-1 contributes to non-host resistance to aphids pointing to another parallel between <span class="hlt">plant</span>-pathogen and – aphid interactions. Understanding the role of <span class="hlt">plant</span> immunity and non-host resistance to aphids is essential to generate durable and sustainable aphid control strategies. Although insect behavior plays a role in host selection and non-host resistance, an important observation is that aphids interact with non-host <span class="hlt">plants</span> by probing the leaf surface, but are unable to feed or establish colonization. Therefore, we hypothesize that aphids interact with non-host <span class="hlt">plants</span> at the molecular level, but are potentially not successful in suppressing <span class="hlt">plant</span> defenses and/or releasing nutrients. PMID:25520727</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jaouannet, Maëlle; Rodriguez, Patricia A.; Lenoir, Camille J. G.; MacLeod, Ruari; Escudero-Martinez, Carmen; Bos, Jorunn I.B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25217849"> <span id="translatedtitle">Steroid <span class="hlt">plant</span> hormones: Effects outside <span class="hlt">plant</span> kingdom.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Brassinosteroids (BS) are the first group of steroid-hormonal compounds isolated from and acting in <span class="hlt">plants</span>. Among numerous physiological effects of BS growth stimulation and adaptogenic activities are especially remarkable. In this review, we provide evidence that BS possess similar types of activity also beyond <span class="hlt">plant</span> kingdom at concentrations comparable with those for <span class="hlt">plants</span>. This finding allows looking at steroids from a new point of view: how common are the mechanisms of steroid bioregulation in different types of organisms from protozoa to higher animals. PMID:25217849</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhabinskii, Vladimir N; Khripach, Natalia B; Khripach, Vladimir A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:31062559"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydroelectric Power <span class="hlt">Plants</span> Dobsina</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this brochure the Hydroelectric Power <span class="hlt">Plants</span> Dobsina, (VED), subsidiary of the utility Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, plc. Bratislava) are presented. VED is mainly aimed at generating peak-load electrical energy and maintenance of operational equipment. Reaching its goals, company is first of all focused on reliability of production, economy and effectiveness, keeping principles of work safety and industry safety standards and also ecology. VED operates eight hydroelectric power <span class="hlt">plants</span>, from which PVE Ruzin I and PVE Dobsina I are pump storage ones and they are controlled directly by the Slovak Energy Dispatch Centre located in Zilina thought the system LS 3200. Those power <span class="hlt">plants</span> participate in secondary regulation of electrical network of Slovakia. They are used to compensate balance in reference to foreign electrical networks and they are put into operation independently from VED. Activity of the branch is focused mainly on support of fulfilment of such an important aim as electric network regulation. Beginnings of the subsidiary Hydroelectric Power <span class="hlt">Plants</span> Dobsina are related to the year of 1948. After commissioning of the pump storage Hydroelectric Power <span class="hlt">Plants</span> Dobsina in 1953, the <span class="hlt">plant</span> started to carry out its mission. Since that time the subsidiary has been enlarged by other seven power <span class="hlt">plants</span>, through which it is fulfilling its missions nowadays. The characteristics of these hydroelectric power <span class="hlt">plants</span> (The pump-storage power <span class="hlt">plant</span> Dobsina, Small hydroelectric power <span class="hlt">plant</span> Dobsina II, Small hydroelectric power <span class="hlt">plant</span> Rakovec, Small hydroelectric power <span class="hlt">plant</span> Svedlar, Hydroelectric power <span class="hlt">plant</span> Domasa, The pump-storage power <span class="hlt">plant</span> Ruzin, and Small hydroelectric power <span class="hlt">plant</span> Krompachy) are described in detail. Employees welfare and public relations are presented</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=237142"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">plant</span> pathology of native <span class="hlt">plant</span> restoration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Restoration of ecologically degraded sites will benefit from the convergence of knowledge drawn from such disparate and often compartmentalized (and heretofore not widely considered) areas of research as soil microbial ecology, <span class="hlt">plant</span> pathology and agronomy. Restoration following biological control w...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:39057666"> <span id="translatedtitle">Safe genetically engineered <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The application of genetic engineering to <span class="hlt">plants</span> has provided genetically modified <span class="hlt">plants</span> (GMPs, or transgenic <span class="hlt">plants</span>) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into <span class="hlt">plants</span> allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the <span class="hlt">plant</span> genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic <span class="hlt">plants</span> to non-transgenic crops or wild <span class="hlt">plants</span>. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated <span class="hlt">plants</span>, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage <span class="hlt">plant</span>. These emergfa, an important forage <span class="hlt">plant</span>. These emerging methods for <span class="hlt">plant</span> genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:29050764"> <span id="translatedtitle">Merchant <span class="hlt">Plant</span> activity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The changes facing the electric power industry in the 1990s have created opportunities to build new power <span class="hlt">plants</span>. These <span class="hlt">plants</span> are called Merchant <span class="hlt">Plants</span> because they will not benefit from long-term power purchase agreements as in the past. Currently in Canada and the United States, about 45 per cent of the generating capacity is provided by <span class="hlt">plants</span> that are more than 25 years old. These <span class="hlt">plants</span> have high heat rates (i.e. the cost of generating one kWh of electricity is high) and are a major source of pollution. Nuclear power, which held much promise 30 years ago, has been rejected on both sides of the border, and coal-fired power <span class="hlt">plants</span> are facing their own set of challenges. Modern natural gas-fired combined-cycle power <span class="hlt">plants</span> appear to be a feasible, less polluting way to generate electricity. The per kilowatt cost of building a modern combined-cycle power <span class="hlt">plant</span> averages about $500/kw which is far below the cost of coal or nuclear <span class="hlt">plants</span>. Costing and siting new merchant <span class="hlt">plants</span>, configuring a <span class="hlt">plant</span> in such a way as to achieve the lowest-cost power generation were some of the topics that were highlighted</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:19046100"> <span id="translatedtitle">BWR type power <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: To reduce ionic loads on ion exchange resins in a condensate desalter upon <span class="hlt">plant</span> start-up, by effectively removing CO2 gas in the <span class="hlt">plant</span>. Constitution: A recycle line is disposed for returning condensates from a condensator by detouring a condensate desalter. Then, the condensates are passed through the recycle line not through the desalter upon <span class="hlt">plant</span> start-up just after the <span class="hlt">plant</span> installation or just after the periodical <span class="hlt">plant</span> inspection. Further, a vacuum device is simultaneously connected to the condensator to reduce the pressure therein and remove the gaseous carbon dioxide from the condensates. Thus, it is possible to effectively eliminate gaseous carbon dioxide in the <span class="hlt">plant</span> to mitigate the ionic loads in the desalter upon <span class="hlt">plant</span> start-up. As a result, it is possible to employ such an operation method of discarding ion exchange resins without regeneration after using them for a certain period of time. (Ikeda, J.)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/sci;307/5715/1569?maxtoshow=&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=50&resourcetype=HWCIT"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PLANT</span> SCIENCES: <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Genes on Steroids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. <span class="hlt">Plants</span>, like animals, use steroid hormones to regulate their development. However, in <span class="hlt">plants</span>, the steroid hormone is bound by a receptor at the cell surface instead of a nuclear receptor. In a Perspective, Sablowski and Harberd discuss studies published here (He et al.) and elsewhere that provide the missing link between binding of the steroid by its receptor and changes in the expression of target genes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert Sablowski (John Innes Centre;Department of Cell and Developmental Biology); Nicholas P. Harberd (John Innes Centre;Department of Cell and Developmental Biology)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-03-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPCM...19M5005R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Safe genetically engineered <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The application of genetic engineering to <span class="hlt">plants</span> has provided genetically modified <span class="hlt">plants</span> (GMPs, or transgenic <span class="hlt">plants</span>) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into <span class="hlt">plants</span> allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the <span class="hlt">plant</span> genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic <span class="hlt">plants</span> to non-transgenic crops or wild <span class="hlt">plants</span>. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated <span class="hlt">plants</span>, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage <span class="hlt">plant</span>. These emerging methods for <span class="hlt">plant</span> genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21037674"> <span id="translatedtitle">Safe genetically engineered <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The application of genetic engineering to <span class="hlt">plants</span> has provided genetically modified <span class="hlt">plants</span> (GMPs, or transgenic <span class="hlt">plants</span>) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into <span class="hlt">plants</span> allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the <span class="hlt">plant</span> genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic <span class="hlt">plants</span> to non-transgenic crops or wild <span class="hlt">plants</span>. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated <span class="hlt">plants</span>, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage <span class="hlt">plant</span>. These emerging methods for <span class="hlt">plant</span> genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rosellini, D; Veronesi, F [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale e Biotecnologie Agroambientali e Zootecniche, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Borgo XX giugno 74, 06121 Perugia (Italy)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19401984"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Intoxications with <span class="hlt">plants</span>].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ingestions of <span class="hlt">plants</span> rarely lead to life-threatening intoxications. Highly toxic <span class="hlt">plants</span>, which can cause death, are monkshood (Aconitum sp.), yew (Taxus sp.) and autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale). Lethal ingestions of monkshood and yew are usually suicides, intoxications with autumn crocus are mostly accidental ingestions of the leaves mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Severe intoxications can occur with <span class="hlt">plants</span> of the nightshade family like deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), angel's trumpet (Datura suaveolens) or jimsonweed (Datura stramonium). These <span class="hlt">plants</span> are ingested for their psychoactive effects. Ingestion of <span class="hlt">plant</span> material by children most often only causes minor symptoms or no symptoms at all, as children usually do not eat great quantities of the <span class="hlt">plants</span>. They are especially attracted by the colorful berries. There are <span class="hlt">plants</span> with mostly cardiovascular effects like monkshood, yew and Digitalis sp. Some of the most dangerous <span class="hlt">plants</span> belong to this group. <span class="hlt">Plants</span> of the nightshade family cause an anticholinergic syndrome. With golden chain (Laburnum anagyroides), castor bean (Ricinus communis) and raw beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) we see severe gastrointestinal effects. Autumn crocus contains a cell toxin, colchicine, which leads to multiorgan failure. Different <span class="hlt">plants</span> are irritative or even caustic to the skin. Treatment is usually symptomatic. Activated charcoal is administered within one hour after ingestion (1 g/kg). Endoscopic removal of <span class="hlt">plant</span> material can be considered with ingestions of great quantities of highly toxic <span class="hlt">plants</span>. Administration of repeated doses of charcoal (1-2 g/h every 2-4 hours) may be effective in case of oleander poisoning. There exist only two antidotes: Anti-digoxin Fab fragments can be used with cardenolide glycoside-containing <span class="hlt">plants</span> (Digitalis sp., Oleander). Physostigmine is the antidote for severe anticholinergic symptoms of the CNS. Antibodies against colchicine, having been developed in France, are not available at the moment. PMID:19401984</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kupper, Jacqueline; Reichert, Cornelia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24336444"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> nuclear photorelocation movement.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Organelle movement and positioning are essential for proper cellular function. A nucleus moves dynamically during cell division and differentiation and in response to environmental changes in animal, fungal, and <span class="hlt">plant</span> cells. Nuclear movement is well-studied and the mechanisms have been mostly elucidated in animal and fungal cells, but not in <span class="hlt">plant</span> cells. In prothallial cells of the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris and leaf cells of the flowering <span class="hlt">plant</span> Arabidopsis thaliana, light induces nuclear movement and nuclei change their position according to wavelength, intensity, and direction of light. This nuclear photorelocation movement shows some common features with the photorelocation movement of chloroplasts, which is one of the best-characterized <span class="hlt">plant</span> organelle movements. This review summarizes nuclear movement and positioning in <span class="hlt">plant</span> cells, especially <span class="hlt">plant</span>-specific nuclear photorelocation movement and discusses the relationship between nuclear photorelocation movement and chloroplast photorelocation movement. PMID:24336444</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Higa, Takeshi; Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Wada, Masamitsu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/1015196"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conditional sterility in <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic <span class="hlt">plant</span> cells, <span class="hlt">plant</span> tissue and <span class="hlt">plants</span> which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic <span class="hlt">plants</span> are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such <span class="hlt">plants</span> are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic <span class="hlt">plants</span> also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meagher, Richard B. (Athens, GA); McKinney, Elizabeth (Athens, GA); Kim, Tehryung (Taejeon, KR)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="plant salacia reticulata" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; 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height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.sbmp.org.br/cbab/siscbab/uploads/bd530f0e-a35a-a150.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of <span class="hlt">plant</span> breeding</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=searchArticles">Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Full Text Available <span class="hlt">Plant</span> breeding is considered one of the longest ongoing activities undertaken by humans, who select plantsmore productive and useful to themselves and the animals for at least 10,000 years ago. The evolution of civilizationsparalleled the success of <span class="hlt">plant</span> breeding, although this has not been recognized by the public. The reason may be lack ofunderstanding of what <span class="hlt">plant</span> breeding encompasses. The concept of <span class="hlt">plant</span> breeding evolved, depending on the time it wasformulated, but without losing the essence of being art and science of manipulating <span class="hlt">plants</span> for man. This review discusses theevolution of the concepts and the methods of <span class="hlt">plant</span> breeding, here divided arbitrarily into selection based on phenotypes,breeding values and genotypes. No matter how big the pool of genetic information in recent years, the phenotype will continuesto be important in the present and future.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arnel R. Hallauer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::aead803dd92a5b768543b73bc2125245"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of <span class="hlt">plant</span> senescence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract Background Senescence is integral to the flowering <span class="hlt">plant</span> life-cycle. Senescence-like processes occur also in non-angiosperm land <span class="hlt">plants</span>, algae and photosynthetic prokaryotes. Increasing numbers of genes have been assigned functions in the regulation and execution of angiosperm senescence. At the same time there has been a large expansion in the number and taxonomic spread of <span class="hlt">plant</span> sequences in the genome databases. The present paper uses these resources to make a stu...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Young Mike; Huang Lin; Thomas Howard; Ougham Helen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______245::b616b286b1a57b9f4c7c2f030bc3129a"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Breeding Techniques</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seeds form the basis for agricultural production, but most organic growers know little about how their seedstocks have been produced. Within the organic movement the discussion on the compatibility of <span class="hlt">plant</span> breeding techniques has been accelerated by the public discussion on genetic engineering. This decision-making is important to develop a framework for organic <span class="hlt">plant</span> breeding and facilitate investment by breeding companies. This dossier explains all standard techniques used in modern <span class="hlt">plant</span> ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wyss, E.; Lammerts Bueren, E. T.; Hulscher, M.; Haring, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______333::7a5cc40c3a5da7313248725eaa3aa956"> <span id="translatedtitle">Small hydropower <span class="hlt">plant</span> automation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The diploma thesis presents the implementation of small hydropower <span class="hlt">plant</span> automation, to be precise control automation on the turbine guide vanes. The basic purpose of automation is to provide optimum turbine efficiency while significantly reducing or eliminating the need for manual management. At the beginning the composition of small hydropower <span class="hlt">plants</span> and their mode of action is described. Later on a small hydropower <span class="hlt">plant</span> "Krajcova žaga" is presented. At this location a saw, which had i...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hribar, Natas?a</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::fa60c0e116488dd71a9991c18986b9d3"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flooding and <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Growth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Special Issue is based on the 7th Conference of the International Society for <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Anaerobiosis (ISPA), held in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, 12–16 June 2001. The papers describe and analyse many of the responses that <span class="hlt">plants</span> display when subjected to waterlogging of the soil or deeper submergence. These responses may be injurious or adaptive, and are discussed at various levels of organizational complexity ranging from ecosystem processes, through individual <span class="hlt">plants</span> to single cells. The r...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Visser, E. J. W.; Voesenek, L. A. C. J.; Vartapetian, B. B.; Jackson, M. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______370::873bb04064399ce8518da072a7148cfd"> <span id="translatedtitle">Handbook of <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Virology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Handbook of <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Virology is a comprehensive guide to the terms and expressions commonly used in the study of <span class="hlt">plant</span> virology, complete with descriptions of <span class="hlt">plant</span> virus families down to the generic level. Rather than simply listing terms in alphabetical order, this unique book links each term to related terms within a theme and adds commentary from authors whose specific expertise adds additional dimensions to the topics. The result is an invaluable resource for research workers, educator...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Khan, J. A.; Dijkstra, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1620143"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Kuroshio power <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p class="result-summary">By outlining a new design or the Kuroshio power <span class="hlt">plant</span>, new approaches to turbine design, anchorage system planning, deep sea marine engineering and power <span class="hlt">plant</span> operations and maintenance are explored and suggested. The impact on the local environment, particularly in the face of natural disasters, is also considered to provide a well rounded introduction to plan and build a 30MW pilot power <span class="hlt">plant</span>. Following a literature review, the six chapters of this book propose a conceptual design by focusing on the <span class="hlt">plant</span>'s core technologies and establish the separate analysis logics for turbine design and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Falin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1401.4396.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Towards <span class="hlt">plant</span> wires</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://cdsweb.cern.ch/">CERN Document Server</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living <span class="hlt">plants</span>. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a <span class="hlt">plant</span> wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the <span class="hlt">plant</span> wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of <span class="hlt">plant</span>-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adamatzky, Andrew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/124976-XdXGzz/webviewable/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pilot <span class="hlt">plant</span> becomes demonstration <span class="hlt">plant</span> design</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Advanced or second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion <span class="hlt">plants</span> (APFBC) that generate electricity offer utilities the potential for significantly increased efficiencies with reduced costs of electricity and lower emissions while burning the nation`s abundant supply of high-sulfur coal. The three major objectives of Phase 3 are: test a 1.2-MWe equivalent carbonizer and Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor (CPFBC) with their associated ceramic candle filters as an integrated subsystem; evaluate the effect of coal-water paste feed on carbonizer performance; and revise the commercial <span class="hlt">plant</span> performance and economic predictions where necessary. This report describes the project.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robertson, A.; Hook, J. van; Burkhard, F. [and others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/sci;324/5928/734?maxtoshow=&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Science: An Invasive <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Paradox</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Why some <span class="hlt">plants</span> attain extremely high densities in communities where they are exotic, yet remain at low densities in their native ranges is a mystery. The pattern has been called a "paradox" because it conflicts with long-held ideas about the importance of local adaptation for the ecological performance of organisms. This biogeographical shift may be connected to other apparent ecological paradoxes that occur with <span class="hlt">plant</span> invasions involving processes mediated by soil microbes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marnie E. Rout (University of Montana;Division of Biological Sciences); Ragan M. Callaway (University of Montana;Division of Biological Sciences)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/Search.external?operation=search&search-query=ti:Plant+integrity%3A+an+important+factor+in+plant-pathogen+interactions"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> integrity: an important factor in <span class="hlt">plant</span>-pathogen interactions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://forskningsbasen.deff.dk/?lang=eng">DEFF Research Database (Denmark)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of <span class="hlt">plant</span> integrity and of aboveground-belowground defense signaling on <span class="hlt">plant</span> resistance against pathogens and herbivores is emerging as a subject of scientific research. There is increasing evidence that <span class="hlt">plant</span> defense responses to pathogen infection differ between whole intact <span class="hlt">plants</span> and detached leaves. Studies have revealed the importance of aboveground-belowground defense signaling for <span class="hlt">plant</span> defenses against herbivores, while our studies have uncovered that the roots as well as the <span class="hlt">plant</span> integrity are important for the resistance of the potato cultivar Sarpo Mira against the hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Furthermore, in the Sarpo Mira–P. infestans interactions, the <span class="hlt">plant’s</span> meristems, the stalks or both, seem to be associated with the development of the hypersensitive response and both the <span class="hlt">plant’s</span> roots and shoots contain antimicrobial compounds when the aerial parts of the <span class="hlt">plants</span> are infected. Here, we present a short overview of the evidence indicating the importance of <span class="hlt">plant</span> integrity on <span class="hlt">plant</span> defense responses</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Orlowska, Elzbieta Zofia; Llorente, Briardo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://energyquest.ca.gov/projects/geothermal-pp.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geothermal Power <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this activity, learners make a model of a power <span class="hlt">plant</span> that uses steam. Learners use simple materials like foil, a tin can, and a pot of water to model a geothermal power <span class="hlt">plant</span>. Learners use a pinwheel to observe the power produced by the steam. SAFETY NOTE: Adult assistance required.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">California Energy Commission</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/1082674"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modulating lignin in <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in <span class="hlt">plants</span> are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic <span class="hlt">plants</span> having a modulated lignin content.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=222734"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plants</span> without arbuscular mycorrhizae</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">P is second to N as the most limiting element for <span class="hlt">plant</span> growth. <span class="hlt">Plants</span> have evolved a number of effective strategies to acquire P and grow in a P-limited environment. Physiological, biochemical, and molecular studies of P-deficiency adaptations that occur in non-mycorrhizal species have provided str...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=light+AND+intensity+AND+photosynthesis&id=EJ442026"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Light Measurement & Calculations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The differences between measuring light intensity for the human eye and for <span class="hlt">plant</span> photosynthesis are discussed. Conversion factors needed to convert various units of light are provided. Photosynthetic efficiency and the electricity costs for <span class="hlt">plants</span> to undergo photosynthesis using interior lighting are described. (KR)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hershey, David R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=plant+AND+diversity&pg=2&id=EJ386191"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evolution & Diversity in <span class="hlt">Plants</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summarizes recent findings that help in understanding how evolution has brought about the diversity of <span class="hlt">plant</span> life that presently exists. Discusses basic concepts of evolution, diversity and classification, the three-line hypothesis of <span class="hlt">plant</span> evolution, the origin of fungi, and the geologic time table. Included are 31 references. (CW)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pearson, Lorentz C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:12575404"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gold in <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many <span class="hlt">plants</span> have the ability to take up gold from the soil and to accumulate it in their tisssue. Advances have been made in understanding these processes to the point where their exploitation in the field of prospecting for gold appears practically feasible. Neutron activation analysis is used for the determination of the small quantities of gold in <span class="hlt">plants</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20478885"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lifestyles of <span class="hlt">plant</span> viruses.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The vast majority of well-characterized eukaryotic viruses are those that cause acute or chronic infections in humans and domestic <span class="hlt">plants</span> and animals. However, asymptomatic persistent viruses have been described in animals, and are thought to be sources for emerging acute viruses. Although not previously described in these terms, there are also many viruses of <span class="hlt">plants</span> that maintain a persistent lifestyle. They have been largely ignored because they do not generally cause disease. The persistent viruses in <span class="hlt">plants</span> belong to the family Partitiviridae or the genus Endornavirus. These groups also have members that infect fungi. Phylogenetic analysis of the partitivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes suggests that these viruses have been transmitted between <span class="hlt">plants</span> and fungi. Additional families of viruses traditionally thought to be fungal viruses are also found frequently in <span class="hlt">plants</span>, and may represent a similar scenario of persistent lifestyles, and some acute or chronic viruses of crop <span class="hlt">plants</span> may maintain a persistent lifestyle in wild <span class="hlt">plants</span>. Persistent, chronic and acute lifestyles of <span class="hlt">plant</span> viruses are contrasted from both a functional and evolutionary perspective, and the potential role of these lifestyles in host evolution is discussed. PMID:20478885</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roossinck, Marilyn J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:41073832"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar thermal power <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The solar thermal power <span class="hlt">plant</span> technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power <span class="hlt">plants</span>, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power <span class="hlt">plant</span>, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough <span class="hlt">plants</span> can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power <span class="hlt">plant</span> of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the <span class="hlt">plant</span> started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power <span class="hlt">plants</span> are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power <span class="hlt">plant</span>, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)urope. (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/872868"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> fatty acid hydroxylase</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified <span class="hlt">plants</span> for the purpose of altering the composition of <span class="hlt">plant</span> oils, waxes and related compounds.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="plant salacia reticulata" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; 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height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fastplants.org/pdf/grow/fastplantscare.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fast <span class="hlt">Plants</span> Care</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This four-page handout explains the key steps to follow when caring for Wisconsin Fast <span class="hlt">Plants</span> (Brassica rapa) throughout their life cycle, from sowing through harvesting seeds. This handout includes information about the materials needed, methods for tending and caring for your <span class="hlt">plants</span>, and troubleshooting tips.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Program, The W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/1080288/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> pathogen resistance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in <span class="hlt">plants</span>. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a <span class="hlt">plant</span>'s defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Greenberg, Jean T; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.etde.org/etdeweb/details.jsp?query_id=1&page=0&osti_id=21342954"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar thermal power <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The solar thermal power <span class="hlt">plant</span> technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power <span class="hlt">plants</span>, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power <span class="hlt">plant</span>, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough <span class="hlt">plants</span> can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power <span class="hlt">plant</span> of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the <span class="hlt">plant</span> started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power <span class="hlt">plants</span> are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power <span class="hlt">plant</span>, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schnatbaum, L. [Solar Millennium AG, Erlanger (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nuclear+AND+power&pg=6&id=ED107522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear Power <span class="hlt">Plants</span>. Revised.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; <span class="hlt">Plants</span> in the United States; Developments in Foreign…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780000482&hterms=otec&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dotec"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ocean thermal <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Modular Ocean Thermal-Energy Conversion (OTEC) <span class="hlt">plant</span> permits vital component research and testing and serves as operational generator for 100 megawatts of electric power. Construction permits evaporators and condensers to be tested in same environment in which they will be used, and could result in design specifications for most efficient <span class="hlt">plant</span> facilities in future.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Owens, L. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:13692675"> <span id="translatedtitle">Kruemmel nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This short description of the site and the nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span> with information on the presumable effects on the environment and the general public is to provide some data material to the population in a popular form so that the citizens may in form themselves about the <span class="hlt">plant</span>. In this description which shall be presented to the safety report, the site, the technical design and the operation mode of the nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span> are described. Some problems of the emission and the effects of radioactive materials as well as other issues related to the <span class="hlt">plant</span> which are of interest to the public are dealt with. The supposed accidents and their handling are discussed. The description shows that the selected site is suitable for both setting-up and operation of the <span class="hlt">plant</span> without affecting the safety of the people living there and that in admissible burdens of the environment shall not have to be expected. (orig./HP)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://passel.unl.edu/pages/informationmodule.php?idinformationmodule=1130274248"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Breeding Coordinating Committee</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To view additional success stories click on the link in the left menu Please click here to report your <span class="hlt">plant</span> breeding success stories.  Click on TCAP logo to see the Economic impact of USDA-NIFA small grains CAPsThe <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Breeding Coordinating Committee (SCC 080) is the USDA-sponsored advisory group of representatives from land grant universities.  The <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Breeding Coordinating Committee represents national <span class="hlt">plant</span> breeding with a focus on education in the broader sense, including providing information to the public and administrators, and encouraging the development of formal educational opportunities, continuing education, and lifelong learning. Mission: To provide a forum for leadership on issues and opportunities of strategic importance to national core competency in <span class="hlt">plant</span> breeding research and education Membership: The PBCC members will consist of the representatives of the SCC-080 committee and others by request. </p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3548870"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> abiotic stress signaling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stress signaling is central to <span class="hlt">plants</span> which—as immobile organisms—have to endure environmental fluctuations that constantly interfere with vigorous growth. As a result, <span class="hlt">plant</span>-specific, elaborate mechanisms have evolved to perceive and respond to stress conditions. Currently, these stress responses are plausibly being revealed to involve crosstalks with energy signaling pathways as any growth-limiting factor alters <span class="hlt">plant’s</span> energy status. Among these, autophagy, conventionally regarded as the mechanism whereby <span class="hlt">plants</span> recycle and remobilize nutrients in bulk, has frequently been associated with stress responses. With the recent discoveries, however, autophagy has attained a novel role in stress signaling. In this review, major elements of abitoic stress signaling are summarized along with autophagy pathway, and in the light of recent discoveries, a putative, state-of-art role of autophagy is discussed.  PMID:22990453</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Akpinar, B. Ani; Avsar, Bihter; Lucas, Stuart J.; Budak, Hikmet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:25009734"> <span id="translatedtitle">Communal biomass conversion <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim was to show the agricultural advantages of farmers being in connection with Communal Biogas <span class="hlt">Plant</span>. Whether a more environmentally protectire distribution of <span class="hlt">plant</span> nutrients from animal manure takes place through a biogas <span class="hlt">plants</span> distribution system, whether the nitrogen in the digested slurry is better utilized and whether the connection results in slurry transportation-time reduction, are discussed. The average amount of nitrogen from animal manure used per hectare was reduced. The area of manure distribution was larger. The nitrogen efficiency was increased when using digested slurry and purchase of N mineral fertilizer decreased, resulting in considerable reduction in nitrogen leaching. The amount of slurry delivered to the local storage tanks was approximately 45 per cent of the total amount treated on the biogas <span class="hlt">plant</span>. Conditions of manure transport improved greatly as this was now the responsibility of the communal biomass conversion <span class="hlt">plant</span> administrators. (AB) (24 refs.)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cnps.org/"> <span id="translatedtitle">California Native <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Society</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This website presents the California Native <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Society, a national leader in biological diversity conservation science and advocacy. Established in 1965, the CNPS "is a statewide non-profit organization of amateurs and professionals with a common interest in California's native <span class="hlt">plants</span>." The site provides a variety of information and resources useful to botanists and native <span class="hlt">plant</span> enthusiasts alike. One notable feature is the site's Photo Gallery which contains many beautiful annotated photos from different parts of California. The site links to the Inventory of Rare and Endangered <span class="hlt">Plants</span> presenting "the most recent Inventory data from CNPS, plus thumbnail illustrations, maps, a variety of search tools, and links to additional information." The site also links to information about the Native <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Conservation Campaign, the Manual of California Vegetation (reported on in the Scout Report for Science & Engineering on December 9, 1998), and to online discussion opportunities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/node/488"> <span id="translatedtitle">University of Florida: Aquatic and Wetland <span class="hlt">Plants</span> and Invasive <span class="hlt">Plants</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aquatic <span class="hlt">plant</span> enthusiasts will enjoy this image-rich website from the Center for Aquatic and Invasive <span class="hlt">Plants</span> (APIRS) at the University of Florida. The site features images of nearly 400 native and non-native <span class="hlt">plant</span> species found in Florida. Site visitors can locate <span class="hlt">plant</span> species by scientific name, common name, and <span class="hlt">plant</span> type category (e.g. trees, shrubs, vines). Species pages contain several images accompanied by a brief description. Line drawings of numerous <span class="hlt">plant</span> species are available for viewing as well. In addition, the site offers an Introduction to Native <span class="hlt">Plants</span>, and an Introduction to Non-Native Invasive <span class="hlt">Plants</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12287843"> <span id="translatedtitle">Medicinal <span class="hlt">plants</span>: conception / contraception.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of <span class="hlt">plants</span>. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of <span class="hlt">plants</span>/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal <span class="hlt">plants</span> but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of <span class="hlt">plants</span> used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local <span class="hlt">plants</span>, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous <span class="hlt">plants</span> and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal <span class="hlt">plants</span> used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned. PMID:12287843</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/stis1991/opp93023/opp93023.txt"> <span id="translatedtitle">No Household <span class="hlt">Plants</span> in Antarctica</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Title : No Household <span class="hlt">Plants</span> in Antarctica Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : February 06 ... of Household <span class="hlt">Plants</span> Any household <span class="hlt">plants</span>, associated growth media (e.g., soil), and associated ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:31034679"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiation hormesis in <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose ?-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as acid rain or soil types could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from <span class="hlt">plant</span> culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed <span class="hlt">plants</span> from antioxidant enzyme (POD) were accomplished in the <span class="hlt">plant</span> irradiated with difference dosage of ?-ray</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/316666-BkLT9i/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span> outages</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls nuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span> safety in Finland. In addition to controlling the design, construction and operation of nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span>, STUK also controls refuelling and repair outages at the <span class="hlt">plants</span>. According to section 9 of the Nuclear Energy Act (990/87), it shall be the licence-holder`s obligation to ensure the safety of the use of nuclear energy. Requirements applicable to the licence-holder as regards the assurance of outage safety are presented in this guide. STUK`s regulatory control activities pertaining to outages are also described</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NONE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pcp.oxfordjournals.org/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> and Cell Physiology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This journal has recently been made available online. The Japanese Society of <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Physiologists, in combination with Oxford Journals Online, has posted recent issues of the journal <span class="hlt">Plant</span> and Cell Physiology, an international journal covering original research in the fields of "physiology, biochemistry, biophysics, chemistry, molecular biology, cell biology and gene engineering of <span class="hlt">plants</span> and micro-organisms." Online coverage includes full-text and abstracts from July 2000 to the present. Note that the electronic version of this journal is free through the end of 2000.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20511641"> <span id="translatedtitle">Beware the ornamental <span class="hlt">plant</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A keen female gardener presented to the emergency department of the hospital with a large corneal abrasion, conjunctival injection, an anterior chamber reaction and a hypopyon. She put it down to trauma that day while gardening, as she had been pruning her patio <span class="hlt">plant</span>. The Euphorbia species of ornamental <span class="hlt">plants</span> have been known to cause an intense reactive anterior uveitis and kerato-conjunctivitis caused by the milky sap it produces. Emergency medicine doctors and ophthalmologists should be aware of the effects of the sap of the Euphorbia species of <span class="hlt">plants</span>. PMID:20511641</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Amissah-Arthur, Kwesi N; Groppe, Markus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/20101217-YiIO65/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiation hormesis in <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from <span class="hlt">plant</span> culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed <span class="hlt">plants</span> from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the <span class="hlt">plant</span> irradiated with different dose of {gamma}-ray. (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Byung Hun; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:31047813"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiation hormesis in <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose ?-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from <span class="hlt">plant</span> culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed <span class="hlt">plants</span> from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the <span class="hlt">plant</span> irradiated with different dose of ?-ray. (author)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/20077245-FF1377/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiation hormesis in <span class="hlt">plant</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as acid rain or soil types could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from <span class="hlt">plant</span> culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed <span class="hlt">plants</span> from antioxidant enzyme (POD) were accomplished in the <span class="hlt">plant</span> irradiated with difference dosage of {gamma}-ray.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Cun, Ki Jung; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="plant salacia reticulata" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; 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height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=47213"> <span id="translatedtitle">SITE-SPECIFIC WATER QUALITY STUDIES OF THE STRAIGHT RIVER, MINNESOTA: COMPLEX EFFLUENT TOXICITY, ZINC TOXICITY, AND BIOLOGICAL SURVEY RELATIONSHIPS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Comparative laboratory toxicity tests using Ceriodaphnia <span class="hlt">reticulata</span> and the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas were conducted to establish relationships between the toxicity of a sewage treatment <span class="hlt">plant</span> effluent containing high concentrations of zinc, toxicity of the effluent in t...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nisenet.org/catalog/programs/sand_plants_pants"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sand, <span class="hlt">Plants</span> and Pants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this activity, learners explore how the application of nano-sized particles or coatings can change a bigger materialâs properties. Learners investigate the hydrophobic properties of <span class="hlt">plants</span>, nano-fabric pants and magic sand.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Network, Nanoscale I.; Houston, Children'S M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cpalms.org/Public/PreviewResourceUrl/Preview/27291"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Cycle Graphic Organizer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This resource provides 2 picture examples of a strategy for using a specific graphic organizer to help students learn the parts of a <span class="hlt">plant</span>. This strategy can be used by students to represent a variety of concepts across subject areas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heiblum, Heather</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24777794"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">plant</span> polyisoprenoids.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Polyisoprenoid alcohols are representatives of high-molecular terpenoids. Their hydrocarbon chains are built of 5 to more than 100 isoprene units giving rise to polymer molecules that differ in chain-length and/or geometrical configuration. <span class="hlt">Plants</span> have been shown to accumulate diverse polyisoprenoid mixtures with tissue-specific composition. In this chapter, methods of analysis of polyisoprenoid alcohols in <span class="hlt">plant</span> material are described, including isolation and purification of polyisoprenoids from <span class="hlt">plant</span> tissue, fast semiquantitative analysis of the polyisoprenoid profile by thin-layer chromatography (straight phase adsorption and reversed phase partition techniques), and quantification of polyisoprenoids with the aid of high performance liquid chromatography. This approach results in full characterization of complex polyisoprenoid mixtures accumulated in various <span class="hlt">plant</span> tissues and other matrixes. PMID:24777794</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gawarecka, Katarzyna; Swiezewska, Ewa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:20041371"> <span id="translatedtitle">Protoplasts and <span class="hlt">plant</span> viruses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of protoplasts in the study of <span class="hlt">plant</span> viruses has attracted considerable attention since its inception in the late 1960s. This article is an attempt to assess the current status of protoplasts (primarily) and all cell cultures (in some instances) in studies of virus infection, virus replication, cytopathology, cross-protection, virus resistance, and the use of in vitro methods and genetic engineering to recover virus-resistant <span class="hlt">plants</span>. These areas of study proved difficult to do entirely with whole <span class="hlt">plants</span> or <span class="hlt">plant</span> parts. However, because protoplasts could be synchronously infected with virus, they provided a valuable alternative means of following biochemical and cytological events in relation to the virus growth cycle in a more precise manner than previously possible</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::16c3447006a62a3f338dacad826f0df5"> <span id="translatedtitle">Higher <span class="hlt">plant</span> cellulose synthases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The sole function of cellulose synthases, which are found in <span class="hlt">plants</span> bacteria, fungi, and animals, is to produce the biopolymer cellulose. Although no crystal structure has yet been solved, a considerable amount is known about their structure, function and evolution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richmond, Todd</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.istc.ru/istc/db/projects.nsf/All/6CDA66BB8D12CCEEC32571760025449A?OpenDocument&search=1"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> for Demercurization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.istc.ru/istc/db/projects.nsf/projectsSearchByKeywords?OpenForm&type=All&lang=Eng">International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Development, Testing and Transfer to the «PKhZ» OJSC of a New Continuous Operating Full-Scale Industrial Vibro-Vacuum <span class="hlt">Plant</span> for the Anthropogenic Waste Demercurization, and Organization of the Maintenance Personnel Training</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980206469&hterms=gymnosperm+pseudotsuga+menziesii&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dgymnosperm%2Bpseudotsuga%2Bmenziesii"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Growth Facility (PGF)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a microgravity environment aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia Life and Microgravity Mission STS-78, compression wood formation and hence altered lignin deposition and cell wall structure, was induced upon mechanically bending the stems of the woody gymnosperms, Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda). Although there was significant degradation of many of the <span class="hlt">plant</span> specimens in space-flight due to unusually high temperatures experienced during the mission, it seems evident that gravity had little or no effect on compression wood formation upon bending even in microgravity. Instead, it apparently results from alterations in the stress gradient experienced by the <span class="hlt">plant</span> itself during bending under these conditions. This preliminary study now sets the stage for long-term <span class="hlt">plant</span> growth experiments to determine whether compression wood formation can be induced in microgravity during phototropic-guided realignment of growing woody <span class="hlt">plant</span> specimens, in the absence of any externally provided stress and strain.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/servlets/purl/1149534/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> Vascular Biology 2010</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="https://www.etde.org/etdeweb/fieldedsearch.jsp">Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This grant supported the Second International Conference on <span class="hlt">Plant</span> Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in <span class="hlt">plants</span>, under conditions of normal <span class="hlt">plant</span> growth and development as well as of <span class="hlt">plant</span> interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ding, Biao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fastplants.org/pdf/activities/bioassays.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bioassays with Fast <span class="hlt">Plants</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Instructional materials for experimenting to learn what will happen to your Fast <span class="hlt">Plant</span> if you subject it to a 10% liquid detergent solution? Experiment to determine the effects of substances in the environment on living organisms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Program, The W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24556876"> <span id="translatedtitle">Memristors in <span class="hlt">plants</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated electrical circuitry of the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera. The goal was to discover if these <span class="hlt">plants</span> might have a new electrical component--a resistor with memory. This element was postulated recently and the researchers were looking for its presence in different systems. The analysis was based on cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation of <span class="hlt">plants</span> by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in <span class="hlt">plant</span> tissue. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of <span class="hlt">plants</span> has properties of a memristor. This study can be a starting point for understanding mechanisms of memory, learning, circadian rhythms, and biological clocks. PMID:24556876</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Volkov, Alexander G; Tucket, Clayton; Reedus, Jada; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.eduplace.com/science/hmsc/1/a/unit.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plants</span>, Animals, and People</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This self-contained module on <span class="hlt">plants</span> and animals includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Houghton Mifflin Science</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.eduplace.com/science/hmsc/2/a/unit.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plants</span> and Animals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This self-contained module on <span class="hlt">plant</span> and animals includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Houghton Mifflin Science</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-9901498&hterms=Rose&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DRose"> <span id="translatedtitle">Overnight Scentsation Rose <span class="hlt">Plant</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.science.gov/">Science.gov (United States)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">International Flavors and Fragrances Inc., Dr. Braja Mookherjee with the Overnight Scentsation rose <span class="hlt">plant</span> after its flight aboard NASA's shuttle mission STS-95 for experimentation on scent in microgravity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:13693373"> <span id="translatedtitle">NMR, water and <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://inis.iaea.org/search/">International Nuclear Information System (INIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This thesis describes the application of a non-destructive pulsed proton NMR method mainly to measure water transport in the xylem vessels of <span class="hlt">plant</span> stems and in some model systems. The results are equally well applicable to liquid flow in other biological objects than <span class="hlt">plants</span>, e.g. flow of blood and other body fluids in human and animals. The method is based on a pulse sequence of equidistant ? pulses in combination with a linear magnetic field gradient. (Auth.)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::0e25eeb141b7b2c4bc40596aa3272042"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cyanogenic glycosides in <span class="hlt">plants</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The presence of cyanogenic glycosides was determined in 70 <span class="hlt">plant</span> species from the campus of the State University of Londrina, PR, Brazil, and a further 45 <span class="hlt">plant</span> species from the Forestry Reserve on the Doralice Farm in Ibiporã, PR, Brazil. Of the vegetative species from the State University of Londrina, 7.1% showed cyanogenic glycosides: Manihot esculenta (Euphorbiaceae), Passiflora edulis (Passifloraceae), Macadamia ternifolia (Proteaceae), Prunus persica (Rosaceae) and Beloperone sp (Acant...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Francisco, Ilza A.; Maria Helena Pimenta Pinotti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::a8d331e9b7dc0d0300e2ba2194da3553"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermonuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span> model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes a model of a thermonuclear power <span class="hlt">plant</span> with a very detailed electrical substation. The model includes facilities such as an operational railroad, a train shed, a container crane and two diesel oil filling stations. The result is very eye-catching and most suitable for the classroom or science-fair events. A brief technical explanation on the components of real-world nuclear power <span class="hlt">plants</span> and electrical substations is also given.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Esteves, Joa?o Sena; Sepu?lveda, Joa?o</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=dedup_wf_001::9edb5ca303730cad923f920d8e6891f6"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Breweries and malting <span class="hlt">plants</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document on breweries and malting <span class="hlt">plants</span> has been published within the SPIN project. In this project information has been collected on industrial <span class="hlt">plants</span> or industrial processes to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on the processes, emission sources, emissions to air and water, waste, emission factors, use of energy and energy factors, emission reduction, energy conservation, research on clean technology...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huizinga H; Awhm, Hoogenkamp</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::e3a597a5173a79ede3a280a305284ebe"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plant</span> secretome proteomics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">plant</span> secretome refers to the set of proteins secreted out of the <span class="hlt">plant</span> cell into the surrounding extracellular space commonly referred to as the apoplast. Secreted proteins maintain cell structure and acts in signaling and are crucial for stress responses where they can interact with pathogen effectors and control the extracellular environment. Typically, secreted proteins contain an N-terminal signal peptide and are directed through the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi pathway. However, in p...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alexandersson, Erik; Ali, Ashfaq; Resjo?, Svante; Andreasson, Erik</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://beta.openaire.eu/search/publication?articleId=od_______908::bd68efb622d48c17ad770fa80f272789"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plants</span> in light</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://search1.driver.research-infrastructures.eu/webInterface/simpleSearch.do?action=load">Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In nature, <span class="hlt">plants</span> have to face frequent fluctuations of intensity and spectral quality of their primary source of life—light, whose energy is needed to drive the processes of photosynthesis. A multilevel network of adaptations exists to help the <span class="hlt">plant</span> to track and cope with fluctuations in the light environment. At the molecular level, the light harvesting antenna complex of photosystem II (LHCII), which collects the most significant part of the light energy, was found to play a central reg...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruban, Alexander V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> <div id="refine_search_form_div" style="right:140px"> <form id="simple_search_form" method="post" action="http://worldwidescience.org/cgi-bin/wwsproxy.pl" onsubmit="return ValidationUtils.validateSimpleSearch('refine_search_terms');"> <input name="viewId" value="view0" type="hidden" /><input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /> <input id="search_terms" name="expression" value="plant salacia reticulata" class="TextInput" type="text" style="width:250; height:17pt"/> <input name="ssid" value="" type="hidden" /><button type="submit" class="search_submit" id="search_submit" title="New Search">Search</button> </form>  <br>  </div> </div> </div><!-- page_20 div --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:90%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://worldwidescience.org/wws/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("