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1

The cysteine proteinases of the pineapple plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineapple plant (Ananas comosus) was shown to contain at least four distinct cysteine proteinases, which were purified by a procedure involving active-site-directed affinity chromatography. The major proteinase present in extracts of plant stem was stem bromelain, whilst fruit bromelain was the major proteinase in the fruit. Two additional cysteine proteinases were detected only in the stem: these were ananain and a previously undescribed enzyme that we have called comosain. Stem bromelain, fruit bromelain and ananain were shown to be immunologically distinct. Enzymic characterization revealed differences in both substrate-specificities and inhibition profiles. A study of the cysteine proteinase derived from the related bromeliad Bromelia pinguin (pinguinain) indicated that in many respects it was similar to fruit bromelain, although it was found to be immunologically distinct. PMID:2327970

Rowan, A D; Buttle, D J; Barrett, A J

1990-03-15

2

Nematicidal effects of cysteine proteinases against sedentary plant parasitic nematodes.  

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Cysteine proteinases from the fruit and latex of plants, such as papaya, pineapple and fig, have previously been shown to have substantial anthelmintic efficacy, in vitro and in vivo, against a range of animal parasitic nematodes. In this paper, we describe the in vitro effects of these plant extracts against 2 sedentary plant parasitic nematodes of the genera Meloidogyne and Globodera. All the plant extracts examined caused digestion of the cuticle and decreased the activity of the tested nematodes. The specific inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, E-64, blocked this activity completely, indicating that it was essentially mediated by cysteine proteinases. In vitro, plant cysteine proteinases are active against second-stage juveniles of M. incognita and M. javanica, and some cysteine proteinases also affect the second-stage juveniles of Globodera rostochiensis. It is not known yet whether these plant extracts will interfere with, or prevent invasion of, host plants. PMID:17640402

Stepek, G; Curtis, R H C; Kerry, B R; Shewry, P R; Clark, S J; Lowe, A E; Duce, I R; Buttle, D J; Behnke, J M

2007-11-01

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Developing novel anthelmintics from plant cysteine proteinases  

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Full Text Available Abstract Intestinal helminth infections of livestock and humans are predominantly controlled by treatment with three classes of synthetic drugs, but some livestock nematodes have now developed resistance to all three classes and there are signs that human hookworms are becoming less responsive to the two classes (benzimidazoles and the nicotinic acetylcholine agonists that are licensed for treatment of humans. New anthelmintics are urgently needed, and whilst development of new synthetic drugs is ongoing, it is slow and there are no signs yet that novel compounds operating through different modes of action, will be available on the market in the current decade. The development of naturally-occurring compounds as medicines for human use and for treatment of animals is fraught with problems. In this paper we review the current status of cysteine proteinases from fruits and protective plant latices as novel anthelmintics, we consider some of the problems inherent in taking laboratory findings and those derived from folk-medicine to the market and we suggest that there is a wealth of new compounds still to be discovered that could be harvested to benefit humans and livestock.

Stepek Gillian

2008-09-01

4

Cysteine proteinases and cystatins  

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Full Text Available This review describeds the definition, localization, functions and examples of cysteine proteinases and their protein inhibitors in vertebrate, non-vertebrate animals and plants. These inhibitors are related with defense mechanisms of plant against pests. It also describes the factors involved in the specific cysteine proteinase-cystatin interaction and high degree of affinity and large specificity in this interaction which are not only represented by the compatibility between amino acid residues of the active site involved in catalysis, but also of all amino acid residues that participante in the enzyme-inhibitor interaction.

Oliveira Adeliana S.

2003-01-01

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Cysteine proteinases and cystatins  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Nesta revisão foram descritas definições, localizações, funções e exemplos de proteinases cisteínicas e suas proteinas inibidoras em animais vertebrados e invertebrados e plantas. Tratamos principalmente com aqueles inibidores que são relatados com o mecanismo de defesa da planta contra pestes. Em a [...] dição, comentamos sobre recentes trabalhos que contribuíram para uma melhor compreenção dos fatores envolvidos na interação específica proteinase cisteínica-cistatina. Por outro lado, chamamos atenção para o alto grau de afinidade e grande especificidade na interação que não são apenas representadas pela compatibilidade entre os residuos de aminoácidos do sítio ativo envolvidos na catalise, mas também de todos os resíduos de aminoácidos que participam da interação enzima-inibidor. Abstract in english This review describeds the definition, localization, functions and examples of cysteine proteinases and their protein inhibitors in vertebrate, non-vertebrate animals and plants. These inhibitors are related with defense mechanisms of plant against pests. It also describes the factors involved in th [...] e specific cysteine proteinase-cystatin interaction and high degree of affinity and large specificity in this interaction which are not only represented by the compatibility between amino acid residues of the active site involved in catalysis, but also of all amino acid residues that participante in the enzyme-inhibitor interaction.

Adeliana S., Oliveira; José, Xavier-Filho; Maurício P., Sales.

6

Inhibition of cysteine and aspartyl proteinases in the alfalfa weevil midgut with biochemical and plant-derived proteinase inhibitors.  

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Proteolytic activities in alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica) larval midguts have been characterized. Effects of pH, thiol activators, low-molecular weight inhibitors, and proteinase inhibitors (PIs) on general substrate hydrolysis by midgut extracts were determined. Hemoglobinolytic activity was highest in the acidic to mildly acidic pH range, but was maximal at pH 3.5. Addition of thiol-activators dithiothreitol (DTT), 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), or L-cysteine had little effect on hemoglobin hydrolysis at pH 3.5, but enhanced azocaseinolytic activity two to three-fold at pH 5.0. The broad cysteine PI E-64 reduced azocaseinolytic activity by 64% or 42% at pH 5 in the presence or absence of 5 mM L-cysteine, respectively. Inhibition by diazomethyl ketones, Z-Phe-Phe-CHN(2) and Z-Phe-Ala-CHN(2), suggest that cathepsins L and B are present and comprise approximately 70% and 30% of the cysteine proteolytic activity, respectively. An aspartyl proteinase component was identified using pepstatin A, which inhibited 32% (pH 3.5, hemoglobin) and 50% (pH 5, azocasein) of total proteolytic activity. This activity was completely inhibited by an aspartyl proteinase inhibitor from potato (API), and is consistent with the action of a cathepsin D-like enzyme. Hence, genes encoding PIs with specificity toward cathepsins L, B and D could potentially be effective for control of alfalfa weevil using transgenic plants. PMID:11044664

Wilhite, S E; Elden, T C; Brzin, J; Smigocki, A C

2000-12-01

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Investigations into the effects of plant derived cysteine proteinases on tapeworms (cestoda)  

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Gastrointestinal (GI) helminths pose a significant threat to the livestock industry and are a recognized cause of global morbidity in humans. Control relies principally on chemotherapy but in the case of nematodes is rapidly losing efficacy through widespread development and spread of resistance to conventional anthelmintics and hence the urgent need for novel classes of anthelmintics. Cysteine proteinases (CPs) from papaya latex have been shown to be effective against three murine nematodes ...

Mansur, Fadlul Azim Fauzi Bin

2013-01-01

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Developing a rapid throughput screen for detection of nematicidal activity of plant cysteine proteinases: the role of Caenorhabditis elegans cystatins.  

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Plant cysteine proteinases (CPs) from papaya (Carica papaya) are capable of killing parasitic nematode worms in vitro and have been shown to possess anthelmintic effects in vivo. The acute damage reported in gastrointestinal parasites has not been found in free-living nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans nor among the free-living stages of parasitic nematodes. This apparent difference in susceptibility might be the result of active production of cysteine proteinase inhibitors (such as cystatins) by the free-living stages or species. To test this possibility, a supernatant extract of refined papaya latex (PLS) with known active enzyme content was used. The effect on wild-type (Bristol N2) and cystatin null mutant (cpi-1(-/-) and cpi-2(-/-)) C. elegans was concentration-, temperature- and time-dependent. Cysteine proteinases digested the worm cuticle leading to release of internal structures and consequent death. Both cystatin null mutant strains were highly susceptible to PLS attack irrespective of the temperature and concentration of exposure, whereas wild-type N2 worms were generally resistant but far more susceptible to attack at low temperatures. PLS was able to induce elevated cpi-1 and cpi-2 cystatin expression. We conclude that wild-type C. elegans deploy cystatins CPI-1 and CPI-2 to resist CP attack. The results suggest that the cpi-1 or cpi-2 null mutants (or a double mutant combination of the two) could provide a cheap and effective rapid throughput C. elegans-based assay for screening plant CP extracts for anthelmintic activity. PMID:24001183

Phiri, A M; De Pomerai, D; Buttle, D J; Behnke, J M B

2014-02-01

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Molecular basis of Colorado potato beetle adaptation to potato plant defence at the level of digestive cysteine proteinases  

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Potato synthesises high levels of proteinase inhibitors in response to insect attack. This can adversely affect protein digestion in the insects, leading to reduced growth, delayed development and lowered fecundity. Colorado potato beetle overcomes this defence mechanism by changing the composition of its digestive proteinases. The induced cysteine proteinases in the adapted gut sustain a normal rate of protein hydrolysis either by inactivating the inhibitors by cleavage or by insensitivity t...

Gruden, K.; Kuipers, A. G. J.; Guncar, G.; Slapar, N.; Strukelj, B.; Jongsma, M. A.

2004-01-01

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In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic efficacy of plant cysteine proteinases against the rodent gastrointestinal nematode, Trichuris muris  

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We examined the mechanism of action and compared the anthelmintic efficacy of cysteine proteinases from papaya, pineapple, fig, kiwi fruit and Egyptian milkweed in vitro using the rodent gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Within a 2 h incubation period, all the cysteine proteinases, with the exception of the kiwi fruit extract, caused marked damage to the cuticle of H. polygyrus adult male and female worms, reflected in the loss of surface cuticular layers. Efficacy was ...

Stepek, G.; Lowe, A. E.; Buttle, D. J.; Duce, I. R.; Behnke, J. M.

2006-01-01

11

Assessment of the anthelmintic effect of natural plant cysteine proteinases against the gastrointestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, in vitro  

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We examined the mechanism of action and compared the anthelmintic efficacy of cysteine proteinases from papaya, pineapple, fig, kiwi fruit and Egyptian milkweed in vitro using the rodent gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Within a 2 h incubation period, all the cysteine proteinases, with the exception of the kiwi fruit extract, caused marked damage to the cuticle of H. polygyrus adult male and female worms, reflected in the loss of surface cuticular layers. Efficacy was ...

Stepek, G.; Buttle, D. J.; Duce, I. R.; Lowe, A.; Behnke, J. M.

2005-01-01

12

Structural characterization of the papaya cysteine proteinases at low pH.  

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Current control of gastrointestinal nematodes relies primarily on the use of synthetic drugs and encounters serious problems of resistance. Oral administration of plant cysteine proteinases, known to be capable of damaging nematode cuticles, has recently been recommended to overcome these problems. This prompted us to examine if plant cysteine proteinases like the four papaya proteinases papain, caricain, chymopapain, and glycine endopeptidase that have been investigated here can survive acidic pH conditions and pepsin degradation. The four papaya proteinases have been found to undergo, at low pH, a conformational transition that instantaneously converts their native forms into molten globules that are quite unstable and rapidly degraded by pepsin. As shown by activity measurements, the denatured state of these proteinases which finally results from acid treatment is completely irreversible. It is concluded that cysteine proteinases from plant origin may require to be protected against both acid denaturation and proteolysis to be effective in the gut after oral administration. PMID:16434027

Huet, Joëlle; Looze, Yvan; Bartik, Kristin; Raussens, Vincent; Wintjens, René; Boussard, Paule

2006-03-10

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Cystatins may confer viral resistance in plants by inhibition of a virus-induced cell death phenomenon in which cysteine proteinases are active: cloning and molecular characterization of a cDNA encoding cysteine-proteinase inhibitor (celostatin) from Celosia cristata (crested cock's comb).  

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Cystatins (cysteine proteinase inhibitors) have been recently used in plants as antiviral strategy against those viruses whose replication involves cysteine proteinase activity. We proposed an idea that cystatins may confer resistance by inhibition of a virus-induced cell-death phenomenon in which cysteine proteinases are active. To test this idea, a full-length cDNA library was constructed from the preflowering stage of Celosia cristata (crested cock's comb) leaves, and a cDNA clone with cystatin domain was isolated using an oligonucleotide probe designed on the basis of the conserved peptide of plant cystatins. It was expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system as a fusion protein. The purified recombinant product, termed 'celostatin' (Celosia cystatin), inhibited the enzymatic activity of papain indicating its cystatin activity and prevented TMV (tobacco mosaic virus)-induced hypersensitive-response cell death in Nicotiana glutinosa (a wild species of tobacco) leaves by 65-70% at the concentration of approx. 50 ng/ml. It also offered resistance against TMV and caused normal growth of the test plant. Since the activity of cysteine proteinases is not involved in the TMV replication process, we speculated that inhibition of the hypersensitive response by celostatin may be due to the inactivation of proteolysis involved in the plant cell death programme, a phenomenon that has already been reported in animal systems. PMID:15842197

Gholizadeh, Ashraf; Santha, Ittiaparambu Mana; Kohnehrouz, Bahram Baghban; Lodha, Madan Lal; Kapoor, Harish Chander

2005-12-01

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The anthelmintic efficacy of natural plant cysteine proteinases against two rodent cestodes Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis microstoma in vitro.  

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Little is known about the efficacy of cysteine proteinases (CP) as anthelmintics for cestode infections. We examined the effects of CPs on two rodent cestodes, Hymenolepis diminuta and H. microstoma in vitro. Our data showed that naturally occurring mixtures of CPs, such as those found in papaya latex, and relatively pure preparations of fruit bromelain, papain and stem bromelain, were active in vitro against both juvenile, artificially excysted scoleces, as well as against adult worms of both rodent cestodes. Significant dose-dependent reduction in motility, ultimately leading to death of the worms, was observed with both species, and against both freshly excysted scoleces and 14-day old pre-adult worms. The most effective was fruit bromelain (after 30 min of incubation of juvenile H. diminuta and H. microstoma IC50=63 and 74 ?M, respectively, and for pre-adult worms=199 and 260 ?M, respectively). The least effective was stem bromelain (after 30 min of incubation of juvenile H. diminuta and H. microstoma IC50=2855 and 2772 ?M, respectively, and for pre-adult worms=1374 and 1332 ?M, respectively) and the efficacies of papaya latex supernatant and papain were between these extremes. In all cases these values are higher than those reported previously for efficacy of CPs against intestinal nematodes, and in contrast to nematodes, all CPs were effective against cestodes in the absence of exogenous cysteine in incubation media. The CPs appeared to attack the tegument resulting in generalised erosion mainly on the strobila. The scolex was more resistant to CP attack but nevertheless some damage to the tegument on the scolex was detected. PMID:24462509

Mansur, F; Luoga, W; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Lowe, Ann; Behnke, J M

2014-03-17

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Use of a cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis as a protective agent during DNA extraction  

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Full Text Available We describe the use of a plant cysteine proteinase isolated from latex of Carica candamarcensis as a protective agent during isolation of bacterial DNA following growth in culture of these cells. Between 100 to 720 units of proteinase (1 µg = 6 units afforded good DNA protection when incubated with various kinds of microorganisms. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed that the resulting DNA was similar in size to DNA preparations obtained by treatment with proteinase K. The viability of the resulting material was checked by PCR amplification using species-specific primers. After standing at room temperature (25oC for 35 days, the enzyme lost 10% of its initial activity. The enzyme stability and good yield of DNA suggest the use of this proteinase as an alternative to proteinase K.

Genelhu M.S.

1998-01-01

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The nematicidal effect of cysteine proteinases on the root knot nematode Meloidogne incognita  

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Despite current control measures, plant parasitic nematodes are estimated to be responsible for > $100 billion of damage to worldwide crop production per annum. Current nematicides are highly toxic, and due to health and environmental safety concerns, many are being withdrawn from the market under directive 914/414/EEC. Alternative control strategies are urgently required. The cysteine proteinases papain, actinidain and recombinant endoproteinase B isoform 2 (R.EP-B2) have been demonstrate...

Gorny, Samuel Victor

2013-01-01

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New aspects of the molecular evolution of legumains, Asn-specific cysteine proteinases.  

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The molecular evolution of asparagine-specific cysteine proteinases, called legumains, from plants and animals was analyzed using newly available related amino acid sequences from lower eukaryotes, bacteria and Archaea. The results suggest that genuine legumains originate from prokaryote pro-legumains. The evolutionary roots of genuine legumains from plants and animals descend from Parabasalia and Alveolata before developing into their respective separate branches headed by Chlorophyta and Placozoa. The branch of legumain-like plant/animal glycosylphosphatidyl inositol transamidases separated from the general evolutionary stem of legumains at the level of lower eukaryotes. Modeling of the 3D structure of a plant genuine legumain underlined the previously suggested similarity of the active site geometry of legumains with caspases, which are Asp-specific bacterial and eukaryote proteinases. PMID:22196948

Shutov, Andrei D; Blattner, Frank R; Kakhovskaya, Irina A; Müntz, Klaus

2012-02-15

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Characterization of the cathepsin-like cysteine proteinases of Schistosoma mansoni.  

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Adult Schistosoma mansoni parasites synthesize and secrete both cathepsin L and cathepsin B cysteine proteinases. These cysteine proteinase activities, believed to be involved in hemoglobin digestion by adult schistosomes, were characterized by using specific fluorogenic peptide substrates and zymography. Both cathepsin L- and B-like activities with pH optima of 5.2 and 6.2, respectively, predominated in soluble extracts of worms, and both these activities were secreted by adult worms into th...

Dalton, J. P.; Clough, K. A.; Jones, M. K.; Brindley, P. J.

1996-01-01

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Coffee cysteine proteinases and related inhibitors with high expression during grain maturation and germination  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cysteine proteinases perform multiple functions in seeds, including participation in remodelling polypeptides and recycling amino acids during maturation and germination. Currently, few details exist concerning these genes and proteins in coffee. Furthermore, there is limited information on the cysteine proteinase inhibitors which influence the activities of these proteinases. Results Two cysteine proteinase (CP and four cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CPI gene sequences have been identified in coffee with significant expression during the maturation and germination of coffee grain. Detailed expression analysis of the cysteine proteinase genes CcCP1 and CcCP4 in Robusta using quantitative RT-PCR showed that these transcripts accumulate primarily during grain maturation and germination/post germination. The corresponding proteins were expressed in E. coli and purified, but only one, CcCP4, which has a KDDL/KDEL C-terminal sequence, was found to be active after a short acid treatment. QRT-PCR expression analysis of the four cysteine proteinase inhibitor genes in Robusta showed that CcCPI-1 is primarily expressed in developing and germinating grain and CcCPI-4 is very highly expressed during the late post germination period, as well as in mature, but not immature leaves. Transcripts corresponding to CcCPI-2 and CcCPI-3 were detected in most tissues examined at relatively similar, but generally low levels. Conclusions Several cysteine proteinase and cysteine proteinase inhibitor genes with strong, relatively specific expression during coffee grain maturation and germination are presented. The temporal expression of the CcCP1 gene suggests it is involved in modifying proteins during late grain maturation and germination. The expression pattern of CcCP4, and its close identity with KDEL containing CP proteins, implies this proteinase may play a role in protein and/or cell remodelling during late grain germination, and that it is likely to play a strong role in the programmed cell death associated with post-germination of the coffee grain. Expression analysis of the cysteine proteinase inhibitor genes suggests that CcCPI-1 could primarily be involved in modulating the activity of grain CP activity; while CcCPI-4 may play roles modulating grain CP activity and in the protection of the young coffee seedlings from insects and pathogens. CcCPI-2 and CcCPI-3, having lower and more widespread expression, could be more general "house-keeping" CPI genes.

Lepelley Maud

2012-03-01

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Th1 Cell Development Induced by Cysteine Proteinases A and B in Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Due to Leishmania guyanensis  

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The cysteine proteinases CPA and CPB from Leishmania major induced Th1 responses in patients with leishmaniasis due to Leishmania guyanensis. Furthermore, cysteine proteinases induced neither interleukin 4 (IL-4) nor IL-13 and low levels of IL-10 in controls and patients. The results suggest that CPs would be quite good candidates for a vaccine against different Leishmania species.

Pascalis, Herve?; Lavergne, Anne; Bourreau, Eliane; Pre?vot-linguet, Ghislaine; Kariminia, Amina; Pradinaud, Roger; Rafati, Sima; Launois, Pascal

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Recombinant Cysteine Proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi Implicated in Human and Dog T-Cell Responses  

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High in vitro lymphoproliferative responses were induced in humans and dogs by a recombinant Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi cysteine proteinase, with secretion of IFN-? in asymptomatic subjects or of IFN-?, interleukin 4 (IL-4), and IL-10 in oligosymptomatic subjects. In contrast, responses of symptomatic patients and dogs were lower, with production of IL-4 and IL-10.

Da Costa Pinheiro, Paulo Henrique; Souza Dias, Suzana; Eula?lio, Kelsen Dantas; Mendonc?a, Ivete L.; Katz, Simone; Barbie?ri, Clara Lu?cia

2005-01-01

22

Inhibition of Trypsin-Like Cysteine Proteinases (Gingipains) from Porphyromonas gingivalis by Tetracycline and Its Analogues  

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Extracellular cysteine proteinases, referred to as gingipains, are considered important virulence factors for Porphyromonas gingivalis, a bacterium recognized as a major etiologic agent of chronic periodontitis. We investigated the effect of tetracycline and its analogues, doxycycline and minocycline, on the enzymatic activities of gingipains. Tetracyclines at 100 ?M totally inhibited the amidolytic activity of arginine-specific gingipains (HRgpA and RgpB). In contrast, inhibition of Kgp was...

Imamura, Takahisa; Matsushita, Kenji; Travis, James; Potempa, Jan

2001-01-01

23

Fibronectin-Degrading Activity of Trypanosoma cruzi Cysteine Proteinase Plays a Role in Host Cell Invasion.  

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Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, binds to diverse extracellular matrix proteins. Such an ability prevails in the parasite forms that circulate in the bloodstream and contributes to host cell invasion. Whether this also applies to the insect-stage metacyclic trypomastigotes, the developmental forms that initiate infection in the mammalian host, is not clear. Using T. cruzi CL strain metacyclic forms, we investigated whether fibronectin bound to the parasites and affected target cell invasion. Fibronectin present in cell culture medium bound to metacyclic forms and was digested by cruzipain, the major T. cruzi cysteine proteinase. G strain, with negligible cruzipain activity, displayed a minimal fibronectin-degrading effect. Binding to fibronectin was mediated by gp82, the metacyclic stage-specific surface molecule implicated in parasite internalization. When exogenous fibronectin was present at concentrations higher than cruzipain can properly digest, or fibronectin expression was stimulated by treatment of epithelial HeLa cells with transforming growth factor beta, the parasite invasion was reduced. Treatment of HeLa cells with purified recombinant cruzipain increased parasite internalization, whereas the treatment of parasites with cysteine proteinase inhibitor had the opposite effect. Metacyclic trypomastigote entry into HeLa cells was not affected by anti-?1 integrin antibody but was inhibited by anti-fibronectin antibody. Overall, our results have indicated that the cysteine proteinase of T. cruzi metacyclic forms, through its fibronectin-degrading activity, is implicated in host cell invasion. PMID:25267835

Maeda, Fernando Yukio; Cortez, Cristian; Izidoro, Mario Augusto; Juliano, Luiz; Yoshida, Nobuko

2014-12-01

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Molecular Expression of a Cysteine Proteinase of Clonorchis sinensis and Its Application to an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Immunodiagnosis of Clonorchiasis  

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We produced a recombinant cysteine proteinase of Clonorchis sinensis and tested its value as an antigen for serologic diagnosis of C. sinensis infections. The predicted amino acid sequence of the cysteine proteinase of C. sinensis was 58, 48, and 40% identical to those of cathepsin L cysteine proteinases from Paragonimus westermani, Schistosoma japonicum, and Fasciola hepatica, respectively. Western blotting analysis showed that sera from patients infected with C. sinensis strongly reacted wi...

Nagano, Isao; Pei, Fuquan; Wu, Zhiliang; Wu, Jun; Cui, Huier; Boonmars, Thidarut; Takahashi, Yuzo

2004-01-01

25

Immunodiagnosis of Egyptian human fasciolosis gigantica using Fas1 and Fas2 cysteine proteinase antigens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola gigantica is one of the major public health problems in the world including Egypt. Immunodiagnostic methods are more applicable for their better sensitivity and specificity than other methods. The present study was conducted to cysteine proteinase (CP) antigens of F. gigantica in IgG-ELISA to diagnose human fasciolosis. IgG-ELISA with 2 cysteine proteinases of 27 kDa (Fas1) and 29 kDa (Fas2), obtained from the regurgitated materials of adult worms, were evaluated using serum samples from 90 Egyptian patients infected with F. gigantica, 55 patients with other parasitic infections and 50 healthy volunteers. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of Fas1 for detection of F. gigantica infection were 91.1% and 89.1%, respectively. The positivity of the assay was 95%. The positive and negative predicted values were 91% and 86%, respectively. These data suggest that IgG-ELISA with Fas1 is highly sensitive and specific assay and could be used for the immunodiagnosis of human fasciolosis. PMID:24640878

Rabee, Ibrahim; Mahana, Noha Ahmed; Badr, Abeer Mahmoud

2013-12-01

26

Biochemical and PMF MALDI-TOF analyses of two novel papain-like plant proteinases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two cysteine endopeptidases from latex of Araujia angustifolia (araujiain aI and araujiain aIII) were purified and characterized by means of conventional and proteomics techniques (MALDI-TOF). N-terminal sequences showed a high percentage of identity with cysteine proteinases belonging to the papain family. The peptide mass fingerprint analysis demonstrated a close homology among both proteinases. PMID:20001923

Obregón, W D; Liggieri, C S; Morcelle, S R; Trejo, S A; Avilés, F X; Priolo, N S

2009-01-01

27

Primary structure of CC-III, the glycosylated cysteine proteinase from the latex of Carica candamarcensis Hook.  

Science.gov (United States)

The amino acid sequence of the cysteine proteinase CC-III from the latex of the subtropical species Carica candamarcensis Hook has been determined with the exception of seven residues (pos. 180-186). It was deduced from the sequence analysis of the whole chain and peptides obtained by tryptic, chymotryptic, peptic and thermolysinolytic hydrolysis. CC-III consists of 214 amino acid residues. Out of a total of eight cysteine residues, six are located at positions involved in the formation of the three disulfide bridges stabilizing the structure of papain related enzymes. CC-III from Carica candamarcensis is a glycoprotein with the carbohydrate moiety bound to asparagine at position 44. Out of 210 residues compared with the sequences of the four cysteine proteinases of Carica papaya L., CC-III shares 125 identical ones (59.5%) with papain, 142 (67.6%) with papaya proteinase IV, 146 (69.5%) with papaya proteinase III and 156 (74.3%) with chymopapain. All amino acid residues constituting the active site and subsite S2 in chymopapain are conserved in CC-III with the exception of the substitution Leu157--> Val in the latter. This fact as well as the highest degree of identity between CC-III and chymopapain point to a similar specificity of both enzymes and thus CC-III might be a suitable substitute for chymopapain as a chemonucleolytic agent. PMID:7980869

Jaziri, M; Kleinschmidt, T; Walraevens, V; Schnek, A G; Looze, Y

1994-06-01

28

Development of an in vitro cleavage assay system to examine vaccinia virus I7L cysteine proteinase activity  

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Full Text Available Abstract Through the use of transient expression assays and directed genetics, the vaccinia virus (VV I7L gene product has been implicated as the major maturational proteinase required for viral core protein cleavage to occur during virion assembly. To confirm this hypothesis and to enable a biochemical examination of the I7L cysteine proteinase, an in vitro cleavage assay was developed. Using extracts of VV infected cells as the source of enzyme, reaction conditions were developed which allowed accurate and efficient cleavage of exogenously added core protein precursors (P4a, P4b and P25K. The cleavage reaction proceeded in a time-dependent manner and was optimal when incubated at 25°C. I7L-mediated cleavage was not affected by selected inhibitors of metalloproteinases, aspartic acid proteinases or serine proteinases (EDTA, pepstatin, and PMSF, respectively, but was sensitive to several general cysteine proteinase inhibitors (E-64, EST, Iodoacetic acid, and NEM as well as the I7L active site inhibitor TTP-6171 [C. Byrd et al., J. Virol. 78:12147–12156 (2004]. Finally, in antibody pull down experiments, it could be demonstrated that monospecific ?I7L serum depleted the enzyme activity whereas control sera including ?G1L, directed against the VV metalloproteinase, did not. Taken together, these data provide biochemical evidence that I7L is a cysteine proteinase which is directly involved in VV core protein cleavage. Furthermore, establishment of this I7L-mediated in vitro cleavage assay should enable future studies into the enzymology and co-factor requirements of the proteolysis reaction, and facilitate antiviral drug development against this essential target.

Hruby Dennis E

2005-08-01

29

Action of plant proteinase inhibitors on enzymes of physiopathological importance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Obtidas de sementes leguminosas, várias proteínas inibem proteinases de origem animal, incluindo humanas, e podem ser consideradas para o desenvolvimento de compostos com atividade biológica. Inibidores da família Bowman-Birk e da família Kunitz vegetal tem sido caracterizados em relação a especific [...] idade para proteinase, estrutura primária e sitio reativo. O nosso grupo majoritariamente vem estudando o gênero Bauhinia, principalmente as espécies bauhinioides, rufa, ungulatae variegata. Em algumas espécies, mais de um inibidor com propriedades diferentes foi caracterizado. Embora tais proteínas apresentem alta similaridade estrutural, diferem quanto à inibição de proteinases, e foram exploradas em estudos utilizando diversos modelos biológicos. Abstract in english Obtained from leguminous seeds, various plant proteins inhibit animal proteinases, including human, and can be considered for the development of compounds with biological activity. Inhibitors from the Bowman-Birk and plant Kunitz-type family have been characterized by proteinase specificity, primary [...] structure and reactive site. Our group mostly studies the genus Bauhinia, mainly the species bauhinioides, rufa, ungulata and variegata. In some species, more than one inhibitor was characterized, exhibiting different properties. Although proteins from this group share high structural similarity, they present differences in proteinase inhibition, explored in studies using diverse biological models.

Maria Luiza V., Oliva; Misako U., Sampaio.

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Altered expression of cruzipain and a cathepsin B-like target in a Trypanosoma cruzi cell line displaying resistance to synthetic inhibitors of cysteine-proteinases.  

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The therapeutic potential of synthetic inhibitors to the major cysteine-proteinase from Trypanosoma cruzi (cruzain or cruzipain) was recently demonstrated in animal models of Chagas' disease. A possible limitation of this strategy would be the emergence of parasite populations developing resistance to cysteine-proteinase inhibitors. Here, we describe the properties of a phenotypically stable T. cruzi cell line (R-Dm28) that displays increased resistance to Z-(SBz)Cys-Phe-CHN2, an irreversible cysteine-proteinase inhibitor which preferentially inactivates cathepsin L-like enzymes. Isolated from axenic cultures of the parental cells (IC50 1.5 microM), R-Dm28 epimastigotes exhibited 13-fold (IC50) 20 microM) higher resistance to this inhibitor and did not display cross-resistance to unrelated trypanocidal drugs, such as benznidazol and nifurtimox. Western blotting (with mAb), affinity labeling (with biotin-LVG-CHN2) and FACS analysis of R-Dm28 log-phase epimastigotes revealed that the cruzipain target was expressed at lower levels, as compared with Dm28c. Interestingly, this deficit was paralleled by increased expression of an unrelated Mr 30 000 cysteine-proteinase whose activity was somewhat refractory to inhibition by Z-(SBz)Cys-Phe-CHN,. N-terminal sequencing of the affinity-purified biotin-LVG-proteinase complex allowed its identification as a cathepsin B-like enzyme. Increased antigenic deposits of this proteinase were found in the grossly enlarged and electron dense reservosomes from R-Dm28 epimastigotes. Our data suggest that R-Dm28 resistance to toxic effects induced by the synthetic inhibitor may result from decreased availability of the most sensitive cysteine-proteinase target, cruzipain. The deficit in metabolic functions otherwise mediated by this cathepsin L-like proteinase is likely compensated by increased expression/accumulation of a cathepsin B-like target. PMID:10924756

Yong, V; Schmitz, V; Vannier-Santos, M A; de Lima, A P; Lalmanach, G; Juliano, L; Gauthier, F; Scharfstein, J

2000-06-01

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Purification and characterization of an inducible cysteine proteinase inhibitor from submandibular glands of isoproterenol-treated rats.  

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A low-molecular-weight protein, induced in rats following prolonged isoproterenol treatment, has been purified from rat submandibular glands by chromatography on columns of Sepharose CL-6B, DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B, and Sephadex G-75. The purified protein is homogeneous based on gel electrophoresis and Ouchterlony double diffusion. The molecular weight of the purified protein was 14,000 and 15,500 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration on a Superose 12 column, respectively. This protein contains 31% glutamic acid/glutamine and aspartic acid/asparagine, 3.6% cysteine, and 2.5% proline. This protein is shown to be an inhibitor of several cysteine proteinases, papain and ficin being inhibited very strongly in approximately 1:1 molar ratio of enzyme to inhibitor. The protein is not detected in normal rat tissues but is induced in submandibular and sublingual glands even after 1 day of isoproterenol treatment of rats as early as 7 days after birth. Based on cysteine proteinase inhibitor activity, molecular size, and chemical composition this protein appears to belong to the cystatin superfamily. PMID:2784654

Bedi, G S

1989-04-01

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The TvLEGU-1, a Legumain-Like Cysteine Proteinase, Plays a Key Role in Trichomonas vaginalis Cytoadherence  

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The goal of this paper was to characterize a Trichomonas vaginalis cysteine proteinase (CP) legumain-1 (TvLEGU-1) and determine its potential role as a virulence factor during T. vaginalis infection. A 30-kDa band, which migrates in three protein spots (pI~6.3, ~6.5, and ~6.7) with a different type and level of phosphorylation, was identified as TvLEGU-1 by one- and two-dimensional Western blot (WB) assays, using a protease-rich trichomonad extract and polyclonal antibodies produced against t...

Francisco Javier Rendón-Gandarilla; Lucero de los Angeles Ramón-Luing; Jaime Ortega-López; Ivone Rosa de Andrade; Marlene Benchimol; Rossana Arroyo

2013-01-01

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Isolation and primary structure of the CCI papain-like cysteine proteinases from the latex of Carica candamarcensis hook.  

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The dried latex of the mountain papaya, Carica candamarcensis, was chromatographed on CM-Sephadex C50, giving rise to three peaks (CCI, CCII and CCIII) with amidase activity on N-alpha-benzoyl-DL-arginine-4-nitroanilide. The less basic, most active, peak, CCI, was separated into two components, CCIa and CCIb, by reverse-phase HPLC under denaturing conditions. The primary structures of CCIa and CCIb are presented. They were deduced from sequence analysis of the whole proteins and peptides resulting from enzymatic digestions. Both proteinases are made of 213 amino acid residues, CCIb sharing 88-89% similarity with the three subvariants (G90/R212, E90/R212, E90/K212) of CCIa. 139-140 amino acid residues (65.8%) of CCIa and 141 residues (66.5%) of CCIb are common to papain. The seven cysteine residues are aligned with those of papain and the catalytic triad (Cys25, His159, Asn175) of all cysteine peptidases of the papain family is conserved. The similarity with the other cysteine proteases from Carica papaya is discussed. PMID:10355634

Walraevens, V; Vandermeers-Piret, M C; Vandermeers, A; Gourlet, P; Robberecht, P

1999-04-01

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Evaluation of Enzyme-linked Immunotransfer Blot for the Immunodiagnosis of Human Fascioliasis Using Cysteine Proteinase Antigen  

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Full Text Available The present study was targeted as examining sera obtaining from patients infected with Fasciola sp. by the Enzyme-linked Immunotransfer Blot (EITB technique using the parasite`s Cysteine Proteinase (CE antigen in order to evaluate the diagnostic potential of the assay. Altogether, a sort of sera including 80 cases of fasciolosis, 80 with other parasitosis other than fasciolosis and 30 normal control sera were enrolled in the trial. Hinge on the collected results, 78 fasciolosis serum samples recognized two antigenic polypeptides of 27 and 29 kDa. The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values for CP antigen were 97.5, 98.8, 98.7 and 97.7%, respectively. Utterly, one case of cross-reaction was verified with a toxocariasis case. Concluding remark suggests that the 27 and 29 kDa bands in EITB test could be imperative in the immunodiagnosis of human fascioliasis.

M.B. Rokni

2006-01-01

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The role of cysteine proteinases and their inhibitors in the host-pathogen cross talk.  

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Proteinases and their inhibitors play essential functional roles in basic biological processes in both hosts and pathogens. Endo/lysosomal cathepsins participate in immune response in pathogen recognition and elimination. They are essential for both antigen processing and presentation (host adaptive immune response) and activation of endosomal Toll like receptors (innate immune response). Pathogens can produce proteases and also natural inhibitors to subvert the host immune response. Several pathogens are sensed through the intracellular pathogen recognition receptors, but only some of them use the host proteolytic system to escape into the cytosol. In this review, I provide an update on the most recent developments regarding the role of proteinases and their inhibitors in the initiation and regulation of immune responses. PMID:23305363

Kopitar-Jerala, Natasa

2012-12-01

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Purification and characterization of native and recombinant SaPIN2a, a plant sieve element-localized proteinase inhibitor.  

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SaPIN2a encodes a proteinase inhibitor in nightshade (Solanum americanum), which is specifically localized to the enucleate sieve elements. It has been proposed to play an important role in phloem development by regulating proteolysis in sieve elements. In this study, we purified and characterized native SaPIN2a from nightshade stems and recombinant SaPIN2a expressed in Escherichia coli. Purified native SaPIN2a was found as a charge isomer family of homodimers, and was weakly glycosylated. Native SaPIN2a significantly inhibited serine proteinases such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, and subtilisin, with the most potent inhibitory activity on subtilisin. It did not inhibit cysteine proteinase papain and aspartic proteinase cathepsin D. Recombinant SaPIN2a had a strong inhibitory effect on chymotrypsin, but its inhibitory activities toward trypsin and especially toward subtilisin were greatly reduced. In addition, native SaPIN2a can effectively inhibit midgut trypsin-like activities from Trichoplusia ni and Spodoptera litura larvae, suggesting a potential for the production of insect-resistant transgenic plants. PMID:17870592

Wang, Zhen-Yu; Ding, Ling-Wen; Ge, Zhi-Juan; Wang, Zhaoyu; Wang, Fanghai; Li, Ning; Xu, Zeng-Fu

2007-01-01

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Development of cathepsin-L cysteine proteinase based Dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infection in buffaloes.  

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Native cathepsin-L cysteine proteinase (28 kDa) was purified from the excretory secretory products of Fasciola gigantica and was used for sero-diagnosis of F. gigantica infection in buffaloes by Dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Dot-ELISA). The test detected F. gigantica field infection in these animals with a sensitivity of ? 90%. No specific IgG antibody binding was displayed by sera obtained from 76 buffaloes considered to be Fasciola and other parasite-free by microscopic examination of faeces and necropsy examination of liver, rumen and intestine. Additionally, sera from 156 Fasciola-free buffaloes, yet infected with Gigantocotyle explanatum, Paramphistomum epiclitum, Gastrothylax spp., Strongyloides papillosus and hydatid cyst were all negative, indicating that F. gigantica cathepsin-L cysteine proteinase does not cross-react with these helminth parasites in natural infection of the host. The data indicated that cathepsin-L cysteine proteinase based Dot-ELISA reached ? 90% sensitivity and 100% specificity with relation to above parasites in the detection of bubaline fasciolosis. The present Dot-ELISA diagnostic assay is relevant to the field diagnosis of F. gigantica infection in buffaloes. PMID:22055612

Varghese, Anju; Raina, O K; Nagar, Gaurav; Garg, Rajat; Banerjee, P S; Maharana, B R; Kollannur, Justin D

2012-02-10

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Molecular characterization and mapping of murine genes encoding three members of the stefin family of cysteine proteinase inhibitors  

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Stefins or Type 1 cystatins belong to a large, evolutionarily conserved protein superfamily, the members of which inhibit the papain-like cysteine proteinases. The authors report here on the molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of three newly identified members of the murine stefin gene family. These genes, designated herein as mouse stefins 1, 2, and 3, were isolated on the basis of their relatively increased expression in moth-eaten viable compared to normal congenic mouse bone marrow cells. The open reading frames of the stefin cDNAs encode proteins of approximately 11.5 kDa that show between 50 and 92% identity to sequences of stefins isolated from various other species. Data from Southern analysis suggest that the murine stefin gene family encompasses at least 6 and possible 10-20 membranes, all of which appear to be clustered in the genome. Analysis of interspecific backcross mice indicates that the genes encoding the three mouse stefins all map to mouse chromosome 16, a localization that is consistent with the recent assignment of the human stefin A gene to a region of conserved homology between human chromosome 3q and the proximal region of mouse chromosome 16. 51 refs., 7 figs.

Tsui, F.W.L.; Hingwo Tsui; Mok, S. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada) Toronto Hospital, Ontario (Canada)); Mlinaric, I.; Siminovitch, K.A. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada) Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Copeland, N.G.; Gilbert, D.J.; Jenkins, N.A. (NCI-Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, MD (United States))

1993-03-01

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Cysteine proteinase-1 and cut protein isoform control dendritic innervation of two distinct sensory fields by a single neuron.  

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Dendrites often exhibit structural changes in response to local inputs. Although mechanisms that pattern and maintain dendritic arbors are becoming clearer, processes regulating regrowth, during context-dependent plasticity or after injury, remain poorly understood. We found that a class of Drosophila sensory neurons, through complete pruning and regeneration, can elaborate two distinct dendritic trees, innervating independent sensory fields. An expression screen identified Cysteine proteinase-1 (Cp1) as a critical regulator of this process. Unlike known ecdysone effectors, Cp1-mutant ddaC neurons pruned larval dendrites normally but failed to regrow adult dendrites. Cp1 expression was upregulated/concentrated in the nucleus during metamorphosis, controlling production of a truncated Cut homeodomain transcription factor. This truncated Cut, but not the full-length protein, allowed Cp1-mutant ddaC neurons to regenerate higher-order adult dendrites. These results identify a molecular pathway needed for dendrite regrowth after pruning, which allows the same neuron to innervate distinct sensory fields. PMID:24582961

Lyons, Gray R; Andersen, Ryan O; Abdi, Khadar; Song, Won-Seok; Kuo, Chay T

2014-03-13

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Comparison of clinical and environmental isolates of Acanthamoeba based on morphology, protease and gelatinase activity, and the cysteine proteinase gene  

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Full Text Available Acanthamoeba spp. are opportunistic pathogens that cause amebic keratitis and granulomatous amebic encephalitis in man. Recent attempts to correlate pathogenicity with species have been proven difficult due to inconsistencies in morphology-based classification. The objectives of this study were: (1 to compare clinical and environmental isolates based on morphology, protease and gelatinase activity, and the cysteine proteinase (CP gene, and (2 to determine whether these features can be used to differentiate the isolates. Results show some degree of variation in trophozoite and cyst morphology. Zymography, demonstrated gross differences in banding patterns, and the protease activity of clinical isolates was greater than the environmental isolates (p-value < 0.01. Amplification of the CP gene yielded two bands in the environmental isolates, approximately 755 bp and 440 bp in length. In contrast, only one band, either the 755 bp or 440 bp band was amplified in the clinical isolates. The results confirmed the limitations of morphology in differentiating Acanthamoeba species, and suggest that zymography, protease activity, and detection of the CP gene are useful reference tests to distinguish pathogenic from non-pathogenic isolates.

Gil M. Penuliar

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
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Putrescine-Dependent Re-Localization of TvCP39, a Cysteine Proteinase Involved in Trichomonas vaginalis Cytotoxicity  

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Polyamines are involved in the regulation of some Trichomonas vaginalis virulence factors such as the transcript, proteolytic activity, and cytotoxicity of TvCP65, a cysteine proteinase (CP) involved in the trichomonal cytotoxicity. In this work, we reported the putrescine effect on TvCP39, other CP that also participate in the trichomonal cytotoxicity. Parasites treated with 1,4-diamino-2-butanone (DAB) (an inhibitor of putrescine biosynthesis), diminished the amount and proteolytic activity of TvCP39 as compared with untreated parasites. Inhibition of putrescine biosynthesis also reduced ?80% the tvcp39 mRNA levels according to RT-PCR and qRT-PCR assays. Additionally, actinomycin D-treatment showed that the tvcp39 mRNA half-life decreased in the absence of putrescine. However, this reduction was restored by exogenous putrescine addition, suggesting that putrescine is necessary for tvcp39 mRNA stability. TvCP39 was localized in the cytoplasm but, in DAB treated parasites transferred into exogenous putrescine culture media, TvCP39 was re-localized to the nucleus and nuclear periphery of trichomonads. Interestingly, the amount and proteolytic activity of TvCP39 was recovered as well as the tvcp39 mRNA levels were restored when putrescine exogenous was added to the DAB-treated parasites. In conclusion, our data show that putrescine regulate the TvCP39 expression, protein amount, proteolytic activity, and cellular localization. PMID:25251406

Carvajal-Gamez, Bertha Isabel; Quintas-Granados, Laura Itzel; Arroyo, Rossana; Vázquez-Carrillo, Laura Isabel; Ramón-Luing, Lucero De los Angeles; Carrillo-Tapia, Eduardo; Alvarez-Sánchez, María Elizbeth

2014-01-01

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A Proteinase from Germinating Barley : I. Purification and Some Physical Properties of a 30 kD Cysteine Endoproteinase from Green Malt.  

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A proteinase was purified from germinated barley (green malt from Hordeum vulgare L. cv Morex) by acidic extraction, ammonium sulfate fractionation and successive chromatographies on CM-cellulose, hemoglobin sepharose, Sephadex G-75 and organomercurial agarose columns. The overall purification and final recovery were 290-fold and 7.5%, respectively. The purified enzyme was homogeneous on analytical gel electrophoresis, yielding a single protein associated with protease activity. An apparent molecular weight of about 20 kilodaltons was estimated for the native enzyme from gel filtration. SDS-gel electrophoresis revealed a single polypeptide of about 30 kilodaltons. The optimum pH for the hydrolysis of hemoglobin was around 3.8. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by leupeptin but was insensitive to phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, indicating that it was a cysteine proteinase. It hydrolyzed several large proteins from various origins. The ability of the enzyme to digest barley storage proteins in vitro was examined using SDS-gel electrophoresis. The hydrolysis patterns obtained showed that the enzyme rapidly hydrolyzed the large hordein polypeptides into relatively small fragments. The results of this study suggest that this 30 kilodalton enzyme is one of the predominant cysteine proteinases secreted into the starchy endosperm during barley germination and that it plays a major role in the mobilization of storage proteins. PMID:16666480

Poulle, M; Jones, B L

1988-12-01

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Structure and expression of a cysteine proteinase gene from Spodoptera litura and its response to biocontrol fungus Nomuraea rileyi.  

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Cysteine proteinases (Cyps) play vital roles in many biological processes, including physiological and pathological reactions. In the present study, we cloned a full cDNA of SlCyp, encoding a 344-amino-acid protein from Spodoptera litura. The putative amino acid sequence shared >75% identity with Cyps from other insects. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that SlCyp is closely related to other known lepidopteran Cyps. Real-time PCR and Western blotting analyses showed that SlCyp is induced by Nomuraea rileyi infection in all the tissues tested. The strongest SlCyp mRNA and protein expression was found in haemocytes, followed by the fat bodies, of unchallenged and N.?rileyi-challenged S.?litura. A time-course analysis showed that SlCyp mRNA and protein expression levels were upregulated in the haemocytes and fat bodies by N.?rileyi infection. Upon N.?rileyi infection, the proteolytic activities of SlCyp were also significantly higher in the haemolymph than in normal or phosphate-buffered-saline-challenged controls. These results suggest that SlCyp plays an important role in the innate immunity of S.?litura in response to N.?rileyi. SlCyp mRNA and protein expression and activities were also elevated during sixth-instar moulting and metamorphosis. Knocking down SlCyp transcripts with double-stranded RNA interference caused prepupal, pupal, and adult phenotypic changes, and SlCyp-silenced mutant larvae displayed a significantly lower survival rate after N.?rileyi infection. These facts suggest that SlCyp plays a significant role in resisting N.?rileyi infection and an essential role in larval development. Our data should facilitate the development of techniques for S.?litura control. PMID:24467606

Chen, H; Yin, Y; Feng, E; Xie, X; Wang, Z

2014-04-01

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The TvLEGU-1, a legumain-like cysteine proteinase, plays a key role in Trichomonas vaginalis cytoadherence.  

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The goal of this paper was to characterize a Trichomonas vaginalis cysteine proteinase (CP) legumain-1 (TvLEGU-1) and determine its potential role as a virulence factor during T. vaginalis infection. A 30-kDa band, which migrates in three protein spots (pI~6.3, ~6.5, and ~6.7) with a different type and level of phosphorylation, was identified as TvLEGU-1 by one- and two-dimensional Western blot (WB) assays, using a protease-rich trichomonad extract and polyclonal antibodies produced against the recombinant TvLEGU-1 (anti-TvLEGU-1r). Its identification was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Immunofluorescence, cell binding, and WB assays showed that TvLEGU-1 is upregulated by iron at the protein level, localized on the trichomonad surface and in lysosomes and Golgi complex, bound to the surface of HeLa cells, and was found in vaginal secretions. Additionally, the IgG and Fab fractions of the anti-TvLEGU-1r antibody inhibited trichomonal cytoadherence up to 45%. Moreover, the Aza-Peptidyl Michael Acceptor that inhibited legumain proteolytic activity in live parasites also reduced levels of trichomonal cytoadherence up to 80%. In conclusion, our data show that the proteolytic activity of TvLEGU-1 is necessary for trichomonal adherence. Thus, TvLEGU-1 is a novel virulence factor upregulated by iron. This is the first report that a legumain-like CP plays a role in a pathogen cytoadherence. PMID:23509742

Rendón-Gandarilla, Francisco Javier; Ramón-Luing, Lucero de Los Angeles; Ortega-López, Jaime; Rosa de Andrade, Ivone; Benchimol, Marlene; Arroyo, Rossana

2013-01-01

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Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteinase 5 binds integrin on colonic cells and stimulates NFkappaB-mediated pro-inflammatory responses.  

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Integrins are important mammalian receptors involved in normal cellular functions and the pathogenesis of inflammation and disease. Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that colonizes the gut, and in 10% of infected individuals, causes amebic colitis and liver abscess resulting in 10(5) deaths/year. E. histolytica-induced host inflammatory responses are critical in the pathogenesis of the disease, yet the host and parasite factors involved in disease are poorly defined. Here we show that pro-mature cysteine proteinase 5 (PCP5), a major virulent factor that is abundantly secreted and/or present on the surface of ameba, binds via its RGD motif to ?(V)?(3) integrin on Caco-2 colonic cells and stimulates NF?B-mediated pro-inflammatory responses. PCP5 RGD binding to ?(V)?(3) integrin triggered integrin-linked kinase(ILK)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt-473 that bound and induced the ubiquitination of NF-?B essential modulator (NEMO). As NEMO is required for activation of the IKK?-IKK? complex and NF?B signaling, these events markedly up-regulated pro-inflammatory mediator expressions in vitro in Caco-2 cells and in vivo in colonic loop studies in wild-type and Muc2(-/-) mice lacking an intact protective mucus barrier. These results have revealed that EhPCP5 RGD motif is a ligand for ?(V)?(3) integrin-mediated adhesion on colonic cells and represents a novel mechanism that E. histolytica trophozoites use to trigger an inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of intestinal amebiasis. PMID:20837477

Hou, Yongzhong; Mortimer, Leanne; Chadee, Kris

2010-11-12

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"Purification and evaluation of somatic, excretory-secretory and Cysteine proteinase antigens of Fasciola Hepatica using IgG-ELISA in diagnosing Fascioliasis "  

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Full Text Available Fasciolosis, or liver fluke disease, caused by parasites of the genus Fasciola is emerging as an important disease in man and animals, in the world and Iran, particularly in nortern parts. The economical losses in domestic animals are considerable. In the recent decade there were two major outbreaks of human fasciolosis in the Caspian region, northern part of Iran with 7000-10000 infected cases. Sicne it is impossible to diagnose fasciolosis in acute phase using coprological methods and even in chronic phases its sensitivity is low, evaluating and establishing a reliable and cost-effetive test is indispensable and notewortly.In the present survey, we produced and examined the sensitivity and specificity of liver fluke homogenate (LFH , excretory-secetory (ES and cysteine proteinase (CP antigens of F. hepatica using IgG-ELISA test. A 25-27 kilo Dalton coomassie blue-stained band was observed and using of specific inhibitors indicated that this antigen belongs to the class of cysteine proteinase. The sensitivity of LFH, ES and CP antigen in IgG-ELISa was 100% for each, while their specificity was 97.8%, 98.8% and 98.8% respectively. There was a significant difference in mean OD values between cases of proven fasciolosis and other true negative cases, including healthy control individuals and patients with other parasitic diseases.This present report is the first to demonstrate the purification and evaluation of F. hepatica cysteine proteinase antigen by IgG-ELISA test for the diagnosis of fasciolosis in Iran. In conclusion, the IgG-ELISa using ES and CP show high sensitivity and specificity and would be a valuable tool to diagnose human fasciolosis in Iran, particularly in endemic areas.

"Rokni MB

2001-08-01

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Use of a Recombinant Cysteine Proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi for the Immunotherapy of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis  

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Background A recombinant cysteine proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi (rLdccys1) was previously shown to induce protective immune responses against murine and canine visceral leishmaniasis. These findings encouraged us to use rLdccys1 in the immunotherapy of naturally infected dogs from Teresina, Piauí, a region of high incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty naturally infected mongrel dogs displaying clinical signs of visceral leishmaniasis were randomly divided in three groups: one group received three doses of rLdccys1 in combination with the adjuvant Propionibacterium acnes at one month interval between each dose; a second group received three doses of P. acnes alone; a third group received saline. The main findings were: 1) dogs that received rLdccys1 with P. acnes did not display increase of the following clinical signs: weight loss, alopecia, onychogryphosis, cachexia, anorexia, apathy, skin lesions, hyperkeratosis, ocular secretion, and enlarged lymph nodes; they also exhibited a significant reduction in the spleen parasite load in comparison to the control dogs; 2) rLdccys1-treated dogs exhibited a significant delayed type cutaneous hypersensitivity elicited by the recombinant antigen, as well as high IgG2 serum titers and low IgG1 serum titers; sera from rLdccys1-treated dogs also contained high IFN-? and low IL-10 concentrations; 3) control dogs exhibited all of the clinical signs of visceral leishmaniasis and had low serum IgG2 and IFN-? levels and high concentrations of IgG1 and IL-10; 4) all of the dogs treated with rLdccys1 were alive 12 months after treatment, whereas dogs which received either saline or P. acnes alone died within 3 to 7 months. Conclusions/Significance These findings illustrate the potential use of rLdccys1 as an additional tool for the immunotherapy of canine visceral leishmaniasis and support further studies designed to improve the efficacy of this recombinant antigen for the treatment of this neglected disease. PMID:24625516

Ferreira, Josie Haydee Lima; Silva, Lucilene dos Santos; Longo-Maugeri, Ieda Maria; Katz, Simone; Barbieri, Clara Lucia

2014-01-01

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Global proteome changes in larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae:Bruchinae) following ingestion of a cysteine proteinase inhibitor  

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The seed-feeding beetle Callosobruchus maculatus is an important cowpea pest (Vigna unguiculata) as well as an interesting model to study insect digestive physiology. The larvae of C. maculatus rely on cysteine and aspartic peptidases to digest proteins in their diet. In this work, the global proteomic changes induced in the intestinal tract of larval C. maculatus challenged by the ingestion of cystatin, a cysteine peptidase inhibitor, was investigated by a nanoLC-MS/MS approach. The ingestion of cystatin caused a delay in the development of the larvae, but the mortality was not high, indicating that C. maculatus is able to adapt to this inhibitor. This proteomic strategy resulted in the identification of 752 and 550 protein groups in the midgut epithelia and midgut contents, respectively, and quantitative analyses allowed us to establish relative differences of the identified proteins. Ingestion of cystatin led to significant changes in the proteome of both the midgut epithelia and midgut contents. We have observed that proteins related to plant cell wall degradation, particularly the key glycoside hydrolases of the families GH5 (endo-?-1,4-mannanase) and GH 28 (polygalacturonase) were overexpressed. Conversely, ?-amylases were downexpressed, indicating that an increase in hemicelluloses digestion helps the larvae to cope with the challenge of cystatin ingestion. Furthermore, a number of proteins associated with transcription/translation and antistress reactions were among the cystatin-responsive proteins, implying that a substantial rearrangement in the proteome occurred in C. maculatus exposed to the inhibitor.

Nogueira, Fábio C S; Silva, Carlos P

2012-01-01

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Prospects for using proteinase inhibitors to protect transgenic plants against attack by herbivorous insects.  

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Proteinase inhibitors which act on the digestive enzymes of insect herbivores are a basic mechanism of plant defence. Attempts to exploit this defence mechanism in plant genetic engineering have used over-expression of both endogenous and exogenous inhibitors. While significant protection against insect pests has been routinely achieved, the engineered plants do not show levels of resistance considered commercially viable. As a result of selective pressures, insect herbivores have developed multiple mechanisms of adaptation to overcome the defensive effects of plant proteinase inhibitors. Common polyphagous crop pests are well adapted to deal with a range of different inhibitors, which have only limited effects on fitness as a result. A range of strategies have been attempted to improve effectiveness of proteinase inhibitors as antimetabolites towards insects, including selection for inhibitory activity against insect digestive enzymes, mutagenesis for novel inhibitory activity, and engineering inhibitors with multiple functions. However, proteinase inhibitor genes have only been used in transgenic crops in combination with other insecticidal genes. In Chinese genetically engineered cotton varieties which express Bt toxins as an insecticidal protein against lepidopteran larvae, the CpTI (cowpea trypsin inhibitor) gene has been employed as a second transgene to improve protection. This gene combination represents the only commercial deployment of a proteinase inhibitor transgene to date, with Bt/CpTI cotton grown on over 0.5 million hectares in 2005. Future prospects for using proteinase inhibitor genes to enhance insect resistance in transgenic crops will require reassessment of their mechanisms of action, particularly in affecting processes other than digestion, as exemplified by effects on sap-feeding hemipteran pests. PMID:21418023

Gatehouse, John A

2011-08-01

50

Involvement of gibberellins in expression of a cysteine proteinase (SH-EP) in cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings.  

Science.gov (United States)

The expression of a papain-type proteinase, designated SH-EP, in cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings has been shown to require some factors in the embryonic axes. Gibberellin A1 (GA(1)) and GA(20) were identified by GC-MS in embryonic axes of V. mungo seedlings. The level of accumulation of SH-EP in cotyledons of V. mungo seedlings was greatly reduced by treatment of the seeds with uniconazole-P, an inhibitor for GA biosynthesis. The reduced level of accumulation of SH-EP in cotyledons by uniconazole-P was recovered by exogenous application of GA(1) and GA(20) to the seedlings. PMID:11726715

Taneyama, M; Okamoto, T; Yamane, H; Minamikawa, T

2001-11-01

51

Cysteine–based redox regulation and signaling in plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Living organisms are subjected to oxidative stress conditions which are characterized by the production of reactive oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur species. In plants as in other organisms, many of these compounds have a dual function as they damage different types of macromolecules but they also likely fulfil an important role as secondary messengers. Owing to the reactivity of their thiol groups, some protein cysteine residues are particularly prone to oxidation by these molecules. In the past...

Couturier, Je?re?my; Chibani, Kamel; Jacquot, Jean-pierre; Rouhier, Nicolas

2013-01-01

52

In silico predicted epitopes from the COOH-terminal extension of cysteine proteinase B inducing distinct immune responses during Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis experimental murine infection  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania parasites have been reported to interfere and even subvert their host immune responses to enhance their chances of survival and proliferation. Experimental Leishmania infection in mice has been widely used in the identification of specific parasite virulence factors involved in the interaction with the host immune system. Cysteine-proteinase B (CPB is an important virulence factor in parasites from the Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana complex: it inhibits lymphocytes Th1 and/or promotes Th2 responses either through proteolytic activity or through epitopes derived from its COOH-terminal extension. In the present study we analyzed the effects of Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis CPB COOH-terminal extension-derived peptides on cell cultures from murine strains with distinct levels of susceptibility to infection: BALB/c, highly susceptible, and CBA, mildly resistant. Results Predicted epitopes, obtained by in silico mapping, displayed the ability to induce cell proliferation and expression of cytokines related to Th1 and Th2 responses. Furthermore, we applied in silico simulations to investigate how the MHC/epitopes interactions could be related to the immunomodulatory effects on cytokines, finding evidence that specific interaction patterns can be related to in vitro activities. Conclusions Based on our results, we consider that some peptides from the CPB COOH-terminal extension may influence host immune responses in the murine infection, thus helping Leishmania survival.

Pereira Bernardo AS

2011-08-01

53

Plant collagenase: unique collagenolytic activity of cysteine proteases from ginger.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two cysteine proteases, GP2 and GP3, have been isolated from ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale). GP2 is virtually identical to a previously identified ginger protease GPII [K.H. Choi, and R.A. Laursen, Amino-acid sequence and glycan structures of cysteine proteases with proline specificity from ginger rhizome Zingiber officinale, Eur. J. Biochem. 267 (2000) 1516-1526.], and cleaves native type I collagen at multiple discrete sites, which are in the interior of the triple helical region of this molecule. In reaction with proline-containing peptides GP2 shows preference for Pro in the P2 position, and at least 10-fold higher efficiency of hydrolysis than papain. Comparison of models of GP2 and GP3 with the crystal structure of papain shows that the three enzymes have different S2 pocket structures. The S2 pocket in GP2 and GP3 is half the size of that of papain. GP2 is the only reported plant cysteine protease with a demonstrated ability to hydrolyse native collagen. The results support a role for ginger proteases as an alternative to papain, in commercial applications such as meat tenderization, where collagen is the target substrate. PMID:17920199

Kim, Misook; Hamilton, Susan E; Guddat, Luke W; Overall, Christopher M

2007-12-01

54

EndoS from Streptococcus pyogenes is hydrolyzed by the cysteine proteinase SpeB and requires glutamic acid 235 and tryptophans for IgG glycan-hydrolyzing activity  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The endoglycosidase EndoS and the cysteine proteinase SpeB from the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes are functionally related in that they both hydrolyze IgG leading to impairment of opsonizing antibodies and thus enhance bacterial survival in human blood. In this study, we further investigated the relationship between EndoS and SpeB by examining their in vitro temporal production and stability and activity of EndoS. Furthermore, theoretical structure modeling of EndoS combined with site-directed mutagenesis and chemical blocking of amino acids was used to identify amino acids required for the IgG glycan-hydrolyzing activity of EndoS. Results We could show that during growth in vitro S. pyogenes secretes the IgG glycan-hydrolyzing endoglycosidase EndoS prior to the cysteine proteinase SpeB. Upon maturation SpeB hydrolyzes EndoS that then loses its IgG glycan-hydrolyzing activity. Sequence analysis and structural homology modeling of EndoS provided a basis for further analysis of the prerequisites for IgG glycan-hydrolysis. Site-directed mutagenesis and chemical modification of amino acids revealed that glutamic acid 235 is an essential catalytic residue, and that tryptophan residues, but not the abundant lysine or the single cysteine residues, are important for EndoS activity. Conclusion We present novel information about the amino acid requirements for IgG glycan-hydrolyzing activity of the immunomodulating enzyme EndoS. Furthermore, we show that the cysteine proteinase SpeB processes/degrades EndoS and thus emphasize the importance of the SpeB as a degrading/processing enzyme of proteins from the bacterium itself.

Olsén Arne

2008-01-01

55

Trichocystatin-2 (TC-2): an endogenous inhibitor of cysteine proteinases in Trichomonas vaginalis is associated with TvCP39.  

Science.gov (United States)

The causal agent of trichomoniasis is a parasitic protist, Trichomonas vaginalis, which is rich in proteolytic activity, primarily carried out by cysteine proteases (CPs). Some CPs are known virulence factors. T. vaginalis also possesses three genes encoding endogenous cystatin-like CP inhibitors. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize one of these CP inhibitors. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS), a cystatin-like peptidase inhibitor dubbed Trichocystatin-2 (TC-2) was identified in the T. vaginalis active degradome in association with TvCP39, a 39kDa CP involved in cytotoxicity. To characterize the TC-2 inhibitor, we cloned and expressed the tvicp-2 gene, purified the recombinant protein (TC-2r), and produced a specific polyclonal antibody (?-TC-2r). This antibody recognized a 10kDa protein band by western blotting. An indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and cell fractionation assays using the ?-TC-2r antibody showed that TC-2 was localized in the cytoplasm and lysosomes and that it colocalized with TvCP39. TC-2r showed inhibitory activity against papain, cathepsin-L, and TvCP39 in trichomonad extracts and live parasites but not legumain-like CPs. Live trichomonads treated with TC-2r showed reduced trichomonal cytotoxicity to HeLa cell monolayers in a TC-2r-concentration-dependent manner. In this study, we identified and characterized an endogenous cystatin-like inhibitor in T. vaginalis, TC-2, which is associated with TvCP39 and appears to regulate the cellular damage caused by T. vaginalis. PMID:25200185

Puente-Rivera, Jonathan; Ramón-Luing, Lucero de los Ángeles; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa Elvira; Ortega-López, Jaime; Arroyo, Rossana

2014-09-01

56

Cysteine-based redox regulation and signaling in plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Living organisms are subjected to oxidative stress conditions which are characterized by the production of reactive oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur species. In plants as in other organisms, many of these compounds have a dual function as they damage different types of macromolecules but they also likely fulfil an important role as secondary messengers. Owing to the reactivity of their thiol groups, some protein cysteine residues are particularly prone to oxidation by these molecules. In the past years, besides their recognized catalytic and regulatory functions, the modification of cysteine thiol group was increasingly viewed as either protective or redox signaling mechanisms. The most physiologically relevant reversible redox post-translational modifications (PTMs) are disulfide bonds, sulfenic acids, S-glutathione adducts, S-nitrosothiols and to a lesser extent S-sulfenyl-amides, thiosulfinates and S-persulfides. These redox PTMs are mostly controlled by two oxidoreductase families, thioredoxins and glutaredoxins. This review focuses on recent advances highlighting the variety and physiological roles of these PTMs and the proteomic strategies used for their detection. PMID:23641245

Couturier, Jérémy; Chibani, Kamel; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Rouhier, Nicolas

2013-01-01

57

Cysteine–based redox regulation and signaling in plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Living organisms are subjected to oxidative stress conditions which are characterized by the production of reactive oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur species. In plants as in other organisms, many of these compounds have a dual function as they damage different types of macromolecules but they also likely fulfil an important role as secondary messengers. Owing to the reactivity of their thiol groups, some protein cysteine residues are particularly prone to oxidation by these molecules. In the past years, besides their recognized catalytic and regulatory functions, the modification of cysteine thiol group was increasingly viewed as either protective or redox signaling mechanisms. The most physiologically relevant reversible redox post-translational modifications (PTMs) are disulfide bonds, sulfenic acids, S-glutathione adducts, S-nitrosothiols and to a lesser extent S-sulfenyl-amides, thiosulfinates and S-persulfides. These redox PTMs are mostly controlled by two oxidoreductase families, thioredoxins and glutaredoxins. This review focuses on recent advances highlighting the variety and physiological roles of these PTMs and the proteomic strategies used for their detection. PMID:23641245

Couturier, Jérémy; Chibani, Kamel; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Rouhier, Nicolas

2013-01-01

58

Potato type I and II proteinase inhibitors: modulating plant physiology and host resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serine protease inhibitors (PIs) are a large and complex group of plant proteins. Members of the potato type I (Pin1) and II (Pin2) proteinase inhibitor families are among the first and most extensively characterized plant PIs. Many insects and phytopathogenic microorganisms use intracellular and extracellular serine proteases playing important roles in pathogenesis. Plants, however, are able to fight these pathogens through the activation of an intricate defence system that leads to the accumulation of various PIs, including Pin1 and Pin2. Several transgenic plants over-expressing members of the Pin1 and Pin2 families have been obtained in the last twenty years and their enhanced defensive capabilities demonstrated against insects, fungi and bacteria. Furthermore, Pin1 and Pin2 genetically engineered plants showed altered regulation of different plant physiological processes (e.g., dehydratation response, programmed cell death, plant growth, trichome density and branching), supporting an endogenous role in various plant species in addition to the well established defensive one. This review summarizes the current knowledge about Pin1 and Pin2 structure, the role of these proteins in plant defence and physiology, and their potential exploitation in biotechnology. PMID:21418020

Turra, David; Lorito, Matteo

2011-08-01

59

In vivo inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera gut pro-proteinase activation by non-host plant protease inhibitors.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated 22 different host and non-host plant protease inhibitors (PIs) for in vivo inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera gut pro- and proteinases, and their biological activity against the pod borer, H. armigera, the most important pest of agriculture and horticultural crops worldwide. In vitro activation of H. armigera gut pro-proteinases (HaGPPs) in larvae fed on non-host plant PIs showed significant in vivo inhibition of HaGPPs activation in solution as well as in gel assays. The larvae fed on diet incorporated with Datura alba ness PIs showed highest inhibition of HaGPPs, followed by Psophocarpus tetragonolobus. Non-host plant PIs from Pongamia pinnata, Mucuna pruriens, Capsicum annuum, and Nigela sativa showed maximum inhibitory potential towards HaGPs in vivo, and also exhibited moderate level of inhibition of pro-proteinases. However, some of non-host plant PIs, such as those from Penganum harmala and Solanum nigrum, and the principal host plant PIs, viz., Cicer arietinum and Cajanus cajan did not inhibit HaGPP activity. Pro-proteinase level increased with the growth of the larvae, and maximum HaGPP activity was observed in the fifth-instars. Larvae fed on diets with D. alba ness PIs showed greater inhibition of HaGPPs as compared to the larvae fed on diets with P. tetragonolobus. Low concentrations of partially purified HaGPs treated with gut extract of larvae fed on D. alba ness showed that out of 10 proteinase isoforms, HaGPs 5 and 9 were activators of pro-proteinases. Larval growth and development were significantly reduced in the larvae fed on the non-host plant PIs, of which D. alba ness resulted in highest stunted growth of H. armigera larvae. The in vivo studies indicated that non-host plant PIs were good candidates as inhibitors of the HaGPs as well as HaGPPs. The PIs from the non-host plants can be expressed in genetically engineered plants to confer resistance to H. armigera. PMID:20416317

Parde, Vinod D; Sharma, Hari C; Kachole, Manvendra S

2010-09-01

60

An in-built proteinase inhibitor system for the protection of recombinant proteins recovered from transgenic plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteolytic degradation represents a significant barrier to the efficient production of several recombinant proteins in plants, both in vivo during their expression and in vitro during their recovery from source tissues. Here, we describe a strategy to protect recombinant proteins during the recovery process, based on the coexpression of a heterologous proteinase inhibitor acting as a 'mouse trap' against the host proteases during extraction. After confirming the importance of trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like activities in crude protein extracts of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaves, transgenic lines of potato expressing either tomato cathepsin D inhibitor (CDI) or bovine aprotinin, both active against trypsin and chymotrypsin, were generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation. Leaf crude protein extracts from CDI-expressing lines, showing decreased levels of cathepsin D-like and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase hydrolysing activities in vitro, conducted decreased turnover rates of the selection marker protein neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) relative to the turnover rates measured for transgenic lines expressing only the marker protein. A similar stabilizing effect on NPTII was observed in leaf protein extracts from plant lines coexpressing bovine aprotinin, confirming the ability of ectopically expressed broad-spectrum serine proteinase inhibitors to reproduce the protein-stabilizing effect of low-molecular-weight proteinase inhibitors generally added to protein extraction media. PMID:17147641

Rivard, Daniel; Anguenot, Raphaël; Brunelle, France; Le, Van Quy; Vézina, Louis-Philippe; Trépanier, Sonia; Michaud, Dominique

2006-05-01

 
 
 
 
61

Digestive proteinases in Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera: Anobiidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius), is a common pest of stored foods. A study of digestive proteinases in L. serricorne was performed to identify potential targets for proteinaceous biopesticides, such as proteinase inhibitors. Optimal casein hydrolysis by luminal proteinases of L. serricorne was in pH 8.5-9.0 buffers, although the pH of luminal contents was slightly acidic. Results from substrate and inhibitor analyses indicated that the primary digestive proteinases were serine proteinases. The most effective inhibitors of caseinolytic hydrolysis were from soybean (both Bowman Birk and Kunitz), with some inhibition by chymostatin, N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone, and leupeptin. Casein zymogram analysis identified at least eight proteolytic activities. Activity blot analyses indicated one major proteinase activity that hydrolysed the trypsin substrate N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine rho-nitroanilide, and three major proteinase activities that hydrolysed the chymotrypsin substrate N-succinyl ala-ala-pro-phe rho-nitroanilide. The absence of cysteine, aspartic, and metallo proteinases in L. serricorne digestion was evidenced by the lack of activation by thiol reagents, alkaline pH optima, and the results from class-specific proteinase inhibitors. The data suggest that protein digestion in L. serricorne is primarily dependent on trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteinases. PMID:12191441

Oppert, B; Hartzer, K; Zuercher, M

2002-08-01

62

Chloroplast-like organelles were found in enucleate sieve elements of transgenic plants overexpressing a proteinase inhibitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

SaPIN2a, a plant proteinase inhibitor from nightshade (Solanum americanum), was located to the enucleate sieve elements (SEs) of phloem. The expressed SaPIN2a in transgenic lettuce showed inhibition of plant endogenous trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like activities, suggesting that SaPIN2a can regulate proteolysis in plant cells. To further investigate the physiological role of SaPIN2a, we produced transgenic nightshade and lettuce plants overexpressing SaPIN2a from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Overexpression of SaPIN2a in transgenic plants was demonstrated by northern blot and western blot analysis. SaPIN2a-overexpressing transgenic nightshade plants showed significantly lower height than wild-type plants. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that chloroplast-like organelles with thylakoids, which are not present in enucleate SEs of wild-type plants, were present in the enucleate SEs of SaPIN2a-overexpressing transgenic plants. This finding is discussed in terms of the possible role played by SaPIN2a in the regulation of proteolysis in SEs. PMID:17986772

Xie, Jun; Ouyang, Xue-Zhi; Xia, Kuai-Fei; Huang, Yu-Feng; Pan, Wen-Bi; Cai, Ying-Peng; Xu, Xinping; Li, Baojian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

2007-11-01

63

Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases  

Science.gov (United States)

This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

Anderson, Carl W. (Stony Brook, NY); Mangel, Walter F. (Shoreham, NY)

1999-08-10

64

Cardosins in postembryonic development of cardoon: towards an elucidation of the biological function of plant aspartic proteinases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following on from previous work, the temporal and spatial accumulation of the aspartic proteinases (EC 3.4.23) cardosin A and cardosin B during postembryonic seed development of cardoon (Cynara cardunculus) was studied, mRNA and protein analyses of both cardosins suggested that the proteins accumulate during seed maturation, and that cardosin A is later synthesised de novo at the time of radicle emergence. Immunocytochemistry revealed that the precursor form of cardosin A accumulates in protein bodies and cell walls. This localisation in seeds is different from that previously described for cardoon flowers, suggesting a tissue-dependent targeting of the protein. It is known that procardosins are active and may have a role in proteolysis and processing of storage proteins. However, the presence of procardosin A in seeds could be related to the proposed role of the plant-specific insert in membrane lipid conversion during water uptake and solute leakage in actively growing tissues. This is in accordance with the recently proposed bifunctional role of aspartic proteinase precursor molecules that possess a membrane-destabilising domain in addition to a protease domain. Mature cardosin B, but not its mRNA, was detected in the first hours after seed imbibition and disappeared at the time of radicle emergence. This extracellular aspartic protease has already been implicated in cell wall loosening and remodelling, and its role in seed germination could be related to loosening tissue constraints for radicle protusion. The described pattern of cardosin A and B expression suggests a finely tuned developmental regulation and prompts an analysis of their possible roles in the physiology of postembryonic development. PMID:18767217

Pereira, Cláudia Sofia; da Costa, Diana Soares; Pereira, Susana; Nogueira, F de Moura; Albuquerque, P M; Teixeira, J; Faro, C; Pissarra, J

2008-01-01

65

Action of plant proteinase inhibitors on enzymes of the kallikrein kinin system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serine proteinase inhibitors, in the seeds of several Leguminosae from the Pantanal region (West Brazil), were studied using bovine trypsin, Factor XIIa and human plasma kallikrein. The inhibitors were purified from Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Mr = 23,000), Torresea cearensis (Mr = 13,000), Bauhinia bauhinioides (Mr = 20,000), Bauhinia mollis (Mr = 20,000) and Bauhinia pentandra (Mr = 20,000). E. contortisiliquum inhibitor inactivates all three enzymes, whereas the T. cearensis inhibitor inactivates trypsin and Factor XIIa, but does not affect plasma kallikrein. B. bauhinioides and B. pentrandra inhibitors, on the other hand, inactivate trypsin and plasma kallikrein but only the B. pentandra inhibitor affects Factor XIIa, and B. mollis inhibitor causes trypsin inactivation only. Calculated Ki values were between 10(-7) and 10(-9) M. Chymotrypsin, like trypsin, is also inhibited, but with lower affinity. The trypsin inhibitors, isolated from E. contortisiliquum, B. pentandra, B. bauhinioides and B. mollis seem to be of the Kunitz type; the inhibitor purified from T. cearensis is of the Bowman-Birk type. PMID:1609642

Sampaio, C A; Motta, G; Sampaio, M U; Oliva, M L; Araújo, M S; Stella, R C; Tanaka, A S; Batista, I F

1992-01-01

66

The effects of a plant proteinase inhibitor from Enterolobium contortisiliquum on human tumor cell lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Supplementary to the efficient inhibition of trypsin, chymotrypsin, plasma kallikrein, and plasmin already described by the EcTI inhibitor from Enterolobium contortisiliquum, it also blocks human neutrophil elastase (K(iapp)=4.3 nM) and prevents phorbol ester (PMA)-stimulated activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 probably via interference with membrane-type 1 (MT1)-MMP. Moreover, plasminogen-induced activation of proMMP-9 and processing of active MMP-2 was also inhibited. Furthermore, the effect of EcTI on the human cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29 (colorectal), SkBr-3 and MCF-7 (breast), K562 and THP-1 (leukemia), as well as on human primary fibroblasts and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was studied. EcTI inhibited in a concentration range of 1.0-2.5 ?M rather specifically tumor cell viability without targeting primary fibroblasts and hMSCs. Taken together, our data indicate that the polyspecific proteinase inhibitor EcTI prevents proMMP activation and is cytotoxic against tumor cells without affecting normal tissue remodeling fibroblasts or regenerative hMSCs being an important tool in the studies of tumor cell development and dissemination. PMID:21781023

Nakahata, Adriana Miti; Mayer, Barbara; Ries, Christian; de Paula, Cláudia Alessandra Andrade; Karow, Marisa; Neth, Peter; Sampaio, Misako U; Jochum, Marianne; Oliva, Maria Luiza V

2011-04-01

67

Engineering plant cysteine protease inhibitors for the transgenic control of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) and other coleopteran insects in transgenic plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cysteine protease inhibitors (cystatins) are expressed in plants in response to wounding and insect herbivory and they form part of the native host-plant defence system. Cysteine proteases are enzymes important in the break down of dietary proteins mainly in the mid gut of coleopteran insects such as the banana weevil. The inhibition of these proteases has a direct effect on the digestive activity of the insect resulting in protein deficiency. This significantly affects insect development ...

Kiggundu, Andrew

2009-01-01

68

Proteinase activity in latex of three plants of the family Euphorbiaceae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Dentro da família Euphorbiaceae, os gêneros Euphorbia e Sapium são conhecidos por incluírem basicamente espécies produtoras de látex. No presente estudo, o látex das plantas Euphorbia selloi (Klotzsch & Garcke) Boiss., Euphorbia papillosa A.St.-Hil. e Sapium glandulosum (L.) Morong, espécies nativas [...] do Brasil, foi analisado em relação à atividade proteolítica. Todas as amostras analisadas possuem proteínas com significativa atividade, sendo que o látex da espécie E. papillosa apresenta a maior atividade específica. Com o objetivo de analisar quais os tipos de proteases responsáveis pela atividade proteolítica, realizaram-se ensaios com diferentes inibidores. Nas três plantas testadas a atividade foi inibida significativamente pelo cloridrato de 4-(fluoreto de 2-aminoetilbenzenossulfonil) (AEBSF), um inibidor de serino-proteases. Utilizando técnicas de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE), as subunidades das proteínas foram separadas de acordo com sua massa molecular e, através da zimografia, a atividade proteolítica pode ser detectada visualmente. Abstract in english In the family of Euphorbiaceae, the genera Euphorbia and Sapium are known to contain essentially latex-bearing species. In the present study, the latex of Euphorbia selloi (Klotzsch & Garcke) Boiss., Euphorbia papillosa A.St.-Hil., and Sapium glandulosum (L.) Morong, plants native from Brazil, were [...] examined concerning proteolytic activity. All studied species have proteins with significant proteolytic activity and E. papillosa has the greatest specific activity. Aiming to verify the type of protease present, an assay with different inhibitors was performed. In the three tested plants, the proteolytic activity was significantly inhibited by a serine protease inhibitor 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF). Using techniques of electrophoresis with polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE), the subunits of proteins were separated according to their molecular masses, and the protein activity was visually detected by zymography.

Andréa Michel, Sobottka; Fabiana, Tonial; Sonja, Sytwala; Matthias, Melzig.

2014-09-01

69

Selective adsorption of plant cysteine peptidases onto TiO2.  

Science.gov (United States)

A crude extract rich in plant cysteine peptidases was obtained from the latex of the fruits of Araujia hortorum, a South American climbing plant. The highly concentrated extract was immobilized onto titanium dioxide to produce biocatalysts through a simple adsorption procedure. Absorbance measurement at 280 nm and Bradford's method for protein quantification revealed that the protein content of the crude extract was selectively adsorbed onto the titanium dioxide surface at a very high rate. In 5 min of contact with the support all protein present in the crude extract was selectively withdrawn from the solution, leading to an immobilized biocatalyst with a high protein concentration. Caseinolytic assays indicated that, except for the catalyst obtained with the highest crude amount contacted with the support, all the proteolytic activity present in the crude extract was adsorbed onto TiO(2). The amidasic activity of the immobilized catalysts (Ah/TiO(2)) was tested in the hydrolysis of a synthetic chromogenic substrate (PFLNA) showing partial deactivation with respect to the native enzyme. In amidasic activity assays the ionic strength of the buffer medium showed to be a key feature to consider in order to avoid protease desorption from the support, indicating the importance of electrostatic interactions between the enzymes and TiO(2). Reuse of the produced biocatalysts with PFLNA as substrate revealed that after five successive uses Ah/TiO(2) retained more than 20% of its initial activity. PMID:19394803

Llerena-Suster, C R F; Foresti, M L; Briand, L E; Morcelle, S R

2009-08-01

70

A proteinase inhibitor from Nicotiana alata inhibits the normal development of light-brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana in transgenic apple plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insecticidal proteins are a potential resource to enhance resistance to insect pests in transgenic plants. Here, we describe the generation and analysis of the apple cultivar 'Royal Gala' transgenic for Nicotiana alata (N. alata) proteinase inhibitor (PI) and the impact of this PI on the growth and development of the Epiphyas postvittiana (light-brown apple moth). A cDNA clone encoding a proteinase inhibitor precursor from N. alata (Na-PI) under the control of either a double 35S promoter or a promoter from a ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small sub-unit gene (rbcS-E9 promoter) was stably incorporated into 'Royal Gala' apple using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A 40.3 kDa Na-PI precursor protein was expressed and correctly processed into 6-kDa proteinase inhibitors in the leaves of transgenic apple lines. The 6-kDa polypeptides accumulated to levels of 0.05 and 0.1% of the total soluble protein under the control of the rbc-E9 promoter and the double 35S promoter, respectively. Light-brown apple moth larvae fed with apple leaves expressing Na-PI had significantly reduced body weight after 7 days of feeding and female pupae were 19-28% smaller than controls. In addition, morphological changes such as pupal cases attached to the wing, deformed wings, deformed body shape, and pupal cases and curled wings attached to a deformed body were observed in adults that developed from larvae fed with apple leaves expressing Na-PI, when compared to larvae fed with the non-transformed apple leaves. PMID:17205336

Maheswaran, Gowri; Pridmore, Lucinda; Franz, Peter; Anderson, Marilyn A

2007-06-01

71

Significance of Cuscutain, a cysteine protease from Cuscuta reflexa, in host-parasite interactions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant infestation with parasitic weeds like Cuscuta reflexa induces morphological as well as biochemical changes in the host and the parasite. These modifications could be caused by a change in protein or gene activity. Using a comparative macroarray approach Cuscuta genes specifically upregulated at the host attachment site were identified. Results One of the infestation specific Cuscuta genes encodes a cysteine protease. The protein and its intrinsic inhibitory peptide were heterologously expressed, purified and biochemically characterized. The haustoria specific enzyme was named cuscutain in accordance with similar proteins from other plants, e.g. papaya. The role of cuscutain and its inhibitor during the host parasite interaction was studied by external application of an inhibitor suspension, which induced a significant reduction of successful infection events. Conclusions The study provides new information about molecular events during the parasitic plant - host interaction. Inhibition of cuscutain cysteine proteinase could provide means for antagonizing parasitic plants.

Fuchsbauer Hans-Lothar

2010-10-01

72

Overlapping binding sites for trypsin and papain on a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor from Prosopis juliflora.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteinase inhibitors are among the most promising candidates for expression by transgenic plants and consequent protection against insect predation. However, some insects can respond to the threat of the proteinase inhibitor by the production of enzymes insensitive to inhibition. Inhibitors combining more than one favorable activity are therefore strongly favored. Recently, a known small Kunitz trypsin inhibitor from Prosopis juliflora (PTPKI) has been shown to possess unexpected potent cysteine proteinase inhibitory activity. Here we show, by enzyme assay and gel filtration, that, unlike other Kunitz inhibitors with dual activities, this inhibitor is incapable of simultaneous inhibition of trypsin and papain. These data are most readily interpreted by proposing overlapping binding sites for the two enzymes. Molecular modeling and docking experiments favor an interaction mode in which the same inhibitor loop that interacts in a canonical fashion with trypsin can also bind into the papain catalytic site cleft. Unusual residue substitutions at the proposed interface can explain the relative rarity of twin trypsin/papain inhibition. Other changes seem responsible for the relative low affinity of PTPKI for trypsin. The predicted coincidence of trypsin and papain binding sites, once confirmed, would facilitate the search, by phage display for example, for mutants highly active against both proteinases. PMID:12360523

Franco, Octávio L; Grossi de Sá, Maria F; Sales, Maurício P; Mello, Luciane V; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Rigden, Daniel J

2002-11-15

73

Involvement of papain and legumain proteinase in the senescence process of Medicago truncatula nodules.  

Science.gov (United States)

The symbiotic interaction between legumes and Rhizobiaceae leads to the formation of new root organs called nodules. Within the nodule, Rhizobiaceae differentiate into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. However, this symbiotic interaction is time-limited as a result of the initiation of a senescence process, leading to a complete degradation of bacteroids and host plant cells. The increase in proteolytic activity is one of the key features of this process. In this study, we analysed the involvement of two different classes of cysteine proteinases, MtCP6 and MtVPE, in the senescence process of Medicago truncatula nodules. Spatiotemporal expression of MtCP6 and MtVPE was investigated using promoter- ?-glucuronidase fusions. Corresponding gene inductions were observed during both developmental and stress-induced nodule senescence. Both MtCP6 and MtVPE proteolytic activities were increased during stress-induced senescence. Down-regulation of both proteinases mediated by RNAi in the senescence zone delayed nodule senescence and increased nitrogen fixation, while their early expression promoted nodule senescence. Using green fluorescent protein fusions, in vivo confocal imaging showed that both proteinases accumulated in the vacuole of uninfected cells or the symbiosomes of infected cells. These data enlighten the crucial role of MtCP6 and MtVPE in the onset of nodule senescence. PMID:24527680

Pierre, Olivier; Hopkins, Julie; Combier, Maud; Baldacci, Fabien; Engler, Gilbert; Brouquisse, Renaud; Hérouart, Didier; Boncompagni, Eric

2014-05-01

74

Influence of air temperature on proteinase activity and beverage quality in Coffea arabica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fruits were collected from trees of Coffea arabica cv. Obatã grown at Mococa and Adamantina in São Paulo State, Brazil, which are regions with marked differences in air temperature that produce coffee with distinct qualities. Mococa is a cooler location that produces high-quality coffee, whereas coffee from Adamantina is of lower quality. The amino acid and protein contents, amino acid profile, and proteinase activity and type in endosperm protein extracts were analysed. Proteinase genes were identified, and their expression was assayed. All results indicate that temperature plays a role in controlling proteinase activity in coffee endosperm. Proteinase activity was higher in the endosperm of immature fruits from Adamantina, which was correlated with higher amino acid content, changes in the amino acid profile, and increased gene expression. Cysteine proteinases were the main class of proteinases in the protein extracts. These data suggest that temperature plays an important role in coffee quality by altering nitrogen compound composition.

Hellen Marília Couto de Abreu

2012-01-01

75

Differential subcellular targeting of recombinant human ??-proteinase inhibitor influences yield, biological activity and in planta stability of the protein in transgenic tomato plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The response of protein accumulation site on yield, biological activity and in planta stability of therapeutic recombinant human proteinase inhibitor (??-PI) was analyzed via targeting to different subcellular locations, like endoplasmic reticulum (ER), apoplast, vacuole and cytosol in leaves of transgenic tomato plants. In situ localization of the recombinant ??-PI protein in transgenic plant cells was monitored by immunohistochemical staining. Maximum accumulation of recombinant ??-PI in T? and T? transgenic tomato plants was achieved from 1.5 to 3.2% of total soluble protein (TSP) by retention in ER lumen, followed by vacuole and apoplast, whereas cytosolic targeting resulted into degradation of the protein. The plant-derived recombinant ??-PI showed biological activity for elastase inhibition, as monitored by residual porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) activity assay and band-shift assay. Recombinant ??-PI was purified from transgenic tomato plants with high yield, homogeneity and biological activity. Purified protein appeared as a single band of ?48-50 kDa on SDS-PAGE with pI value ranging between 5.1 and 5.3. Results of mass spectrometry and optical spectroscopy of purified recombinant ??-PI revealed the structural integrity of the recombinant protein comparable to native serum ??-PI. Enzymatic deglycosylation and lectin-binding assays with the purified recombinant ??-PI showed compartment-specific N-glycosylation of the protein targeted to ER, apoplast and vacuole. Conformational studies based on urea-induced denaturation and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy revealed relatively lower stability of the recombinant ??-PI protein, compared to its serum counterpart. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of plant derived recombinant and human plasma-purified ??-PI in rat, by intravenous route, revealed significantly faster plasma clearance and lower area under curve (AUC) of recombinant protein. Our data suggested significance of protein sorting sequences and feasibility to use transgenic plants for the production of stable, glycosylated and biologically active recombinant ??-PI for further therapeutic applications. PMID:23017899

Jha, Shweta; Agarwal, Saurabh; Sanyal, Indraneel; Jain, G K; Amla, D V

2012-11-01

76

Serpins in plants and green algae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Control of proteolysis is important for plant growth, development, responses to stress, and defence against insects and pathogens. Members of the serpin protein family are likely to play a critical role in this control through irreversible inhibition of endogenous and exogenous target proteinases. Serpins have been found in diverse species of the plant kingdom and represent a distinct clade among serpins in multicellular organisms. Serpins are also found in green algae, but the evolutionary relationship between these serpins and those of plants remains unknown. Plant serpins are potent inhibitors of mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family in vitro but, intriguingly, plants and green algae lack endogenous members of this proteinase family, the most common targets for animal serpins. An Arabidopsis serpin with a conserved reactive centre is now known to be capable of inhibiting an endogenous cysteine proteinase. Here, knowledge of plant serpins in terms of sequence diversity, inhibitory specificity, gene expression and function is reviewed. This was advanced through a phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of expressed plant serpins, delineation of plant serpin gene structures and prediction of inhibitory specificities based on identification of reactive centres. The review is intended to encourage elucidation of plant serpin functions.

Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Hejgaard, JØrn

2008-01-01

77

Isolation and characterization of a cysteine protease from the latex of Araujia hortorum fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new protease (araujiain h I) was purified to mass spectroscopy homogeneity from the latex of Araujia hortorum Fourn. (Asclepiadaceae) fruits by ultracentrifugation and ion exchange chromatography. The enzyme has a molecular mass of 24,031 (mass spectrometry) and an iso-electric point higher than 9.3. The optimum pH range for casein hydrolysis was 8.0-9.5. The enzyme showed remarkable caseinolytic activity at high temperatures, although its thermal stability decayed rapidly. The proteinase was activated by thiol compounds and inhibited by common thiol-blocking reagents, particularly E-64 and HgCl2, suggesting the enzyme belongs to the cysteine protease family. The concentration of active sites as determined by titration with E-64 was 3.3 microM. When assayed on N-alpha-CBZ-amino acid-p-nitrophenyl esters, the enzyme showed higher preference for the glutamine derivative, followed by those of alanine, asparagine, glycine, and leucine, in decreasing order. Partial homology (36-48%) with other plant cysteine proteinases was observed in an internal fragment obtained by Protease V8 treatment. PMID:10882171

Priolo, N; Morcelle del Valle, S; Arribére, M C; López, L; Caffini, N

2000-01-01

78

Co-factor activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases  

Science.gov (United States)

This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

Anderson, Carl W. (Stony Brook, NY); Mangel, Walter F. (Shoreham, NY)

1996-08-06

79

Salvage of the thiamin pyrimidine moiety by plant TenA proteins lacking an active-site cysteine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The TenA protein family occurs in prokaryotes, plants and fungi; it has two subfamilies, one (TenA_C) having an active-site cysteine, the other (TenA_E) not. TenA_C proteins participate in thiamin salvage by hydrolysing the thiamin breakdown product amino-HMP (4-amino-5-aminomethyl-2-methylpyrimidine) to HMP (4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine); the function of TenA_E proteins is unknown. Comparative analysis of prokaryote and plant genomes predicted that (i) TenA_E has a salvage role similar to, but not identical with, that of TenA_C and (ii) that TenA_E and TenA_C also have non-salvage roles since they occur in organisms that cannot make thiamin. Recombinant Arabidopsis and maize TenA_E proteins (At3g16990, GRMZM2G080501) hydrolysed amino-HMP to HMP and, far more actively, hydrolysed the N-formyl derivative of amino-HMP to amino-HMP. Ablating the At3g16990 gene in a line with a null mutation in the HMP biosynthesis gene ThiC prevented its rescue by amino-HMP. Ablating At3g16990 in the wild-type increased sensitivity to paraquat-induced oxidative stress; HMP overcame this increased sensitivity. Furthermore, the expression of TenA_E and ThiC genes in Arabidopsis and maize was inversely correlated. These results indicate that TenA_E proteins mediate amidohydrolase and aminohydrolase steps in the salvage of thiamin breakdown products. As such products can be toxic, TenA_E proteins may also pre-empt toxicity. PMID:25014715

Zallot, Rémi; Yazdani, Mohammad; Goyer, Aymeric; Ziemak, Michael J; Guan, Jiahn-Chou; McCarty, Donald R; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Gerdes, Svetlana; Garrett, Timothy J; Benach, Jordi; Hunt, John F; Shintani, David K; Hanson, Andrew D

2014-10-01

80

Plasmin: indigenous milk proteinase  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most important characteristic of plasmin, as significant indigenous milk proteinase, its concentration, concentration measuring procedure and activity of plasmin are described. The most important factors, which have an influence on concentration and plasmin activity in milk, are stage of lactation and mastitis (high somatic cell count – SCC. In high SCC milk indigenous proteinase activity increased, especially in plasmin and plasminogen system.Specific hydrolytic activity of plasmin during primary proteolysis of some casein fractions is described. ß-CN is most susceptible fraction, but ?s1-CN and ?s2-Cn are less susceptible to degradation by plasmin. Almost all fractions of ?-CN are resistant to degradation by plasmin. Activation of plasminogen to plasmin is very complex biochemical process influenced by activators and inhibitors in milk, and can be increased in high SCC milk. There are many various types of inhibitors in milk serum and ßlactoglobulin is the most important after its thermal denaturation. Addition of aprotinin and soybean tripsin inhibitors in milk inhibits plasmin activity. Most important characteristic of plasmin is its thermostability onpasteurisation and even sterilisation. Mechanism of thermal inactivation of plasmin with developing covalent disulphide interaction between molecule of plasmin and serum proteins (mostly ß-laktoglobulin is described. Thermosensitive inhibitors of plasminogen activators and inhibitors of plasmin are inactivated by short pasteurisation and therefore increase plasmin activity,while higher temperature and longer treatment time inactivate plasmin activity.

Samir Kalit

2002-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

Production of Plant Proteinase from Jack Fruit (Artocarpus integrifolis as a Source of Dairy Enzyme I. Isolation, Partial Purification and Some Properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to search for a novel plant proteinase enzyme from Jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolis as a source of dairy enzymes that would be natural products which can be easily extracted at relatively low cost and no legal barriers. This enzyme was subjected to a purification scheme composed of ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by gel filtration on G-100 Sephadex column. The enzyme was purified 2.70-fold with a total yield of 23.77% of the original activity. There were relationship between temperature and incubation time, the enzyme activity increase was observed up to 55°C for 60 min reaction time and still constant thereafter. Proteinase was active over a broad temperature range retained about 37.4 and 24.9% of temperature activity at 35 and 80°C for 5 and 60 min. An energy of activation of 9.98 KJ mole?1 for the enzyme activity was derived from the Arrhenius plot of initial velocity (Vo across a temperature ranging from 40 to 55°C. The optimum pH was pH 7.5. The rate of thermal inactivation proceeded more rapidly at pH 7.0 and 8.0, when heating at 50°C for 60 min the enzyme activity lost about 95 and 92% its activity, respectively. Michaelis-constant of (Km values of 2.0 mg ml?1 and a maximum initial velocity (Vmax of 0.75 µ moles mg?1 when casein used as a substrate. A Molecular weight (MW determination of ~22 kDa was estimated by gel filtration methods using a Sephadex G-100. Cu2+, K2+ , Fe2+ and Zn2+ strongly inhibited the enzyme. However, Ca++ slightly stimulated. EDTA, sodium azide, Sodium citrate and urea among the chemical reagents inhibited the proteinase activity.

Al-Sayed Al-Tanboly

2003-01-01

82

The remarkable efficiency of a Pin-II proteinase inhibitor sans two conserved disulfide bonds is due to enhanced flexibility and hydrogen bond density in the reactive site loop.  

Science.gov (United States)

Capsicum annuum (L.) expresses diverse potato type II family proteinase inhibitors comprising of inhibitory repeat domain (IRD) as basic functional unit. Most IRDs contain eight conserved cysteines forming four disulfide bonds, which are indispensible for their stability and activity. We investigated the functional significance of evolutionary variations in IRDs and their role in mediating interaction between the inhibitor and cognate proteinase. Among the 18 IRDs encoded by C. annuum, IRD-7, -9, and -12 were selected for further characterization on the basis of variation in their reactive site loop, number of conserved cysteine residues, and higher theoretical ?Gbind for interaction with Helicoverpa armigera trypsin. Moreover, inhibition kinetics showed that IRD-9, despite loss of some of the disulfide bonds, was a more potent proteinase inhibitor among the three selected IRDs. Molecular dynamic simulations revealed that serine residues in the place of cysteines at seventh and eighth positions of IRD-9 resulted in an increase in the density of intramolecular hydrogen bonds and reactive site loop flexibility. Results of the serine residues chemical modification also supported this observation and provided a possible explanation for the remarkable inhibitory potential of IRD-9. Furthermore, this natural variant among IRDs showed special attributes like stability to proteolysis and synergistic inhibitory effect on other IRDs. It is likely that IRDs have coevolved selective specialization of their structure and function as a response towards specific insect proteases they encountered. Understanding the molecular mechanism of pest protease-plant proteinaceous inhibitor interaction will help in developing effective pest control strategies. An animated interactive 3D complement (I3DC) is available in Proteopedia at http://proteopedia.org/w/Journal:JBSD:39. PMID:23256852

Joshi, Rakesh S; Mishra, Manasi; Tamhane, Vaijayanti A; Ghosh, Anirban; Sonavane, Uddhavesh; Suresh, C G; Joshi, Rajendra; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P

2014-01-01

83

Influence of air temperature on proteinase activity and beverage quality in Coffea arabica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Fruits were collected from trees of Coffea arabica cv. Obatã grown at Mococa and Adamantina in São Paulo State, Brazil, which are regions with marked differences in air temperature that produce coffee with distinct qualities. Mococa is a cooler location that produces high-quality coffee, whereas cof [...] fee from Adamantina is of lower quality. The amino acid and protein contents, amino acid profile, and proteinase activity and type in endosperm protein extracts were analysed. Proteinase genes were identified, and their expression was assayed. All results indicate that temperature plays a role in controlling proteinase activity in coffee endosperm. Proteinase activity was higher in the endosperm of immature fruits from Adamantina, which was correlated with higher amino acid content, changes in the amino acid profile, and increased gene expression. Cysteine proteinases were the main class of proteinases in the protein extracts. These data suggest that temperature plays an important role in coffee quality by altering nitrogen compound composition.

Hellen Marília Couto de, Abreu; Paula Macedo, Nobile; Milton Massao, Shimizu; Paula Yuri, Yamamoto; Emerson Alves, Silva; Carlos Augusto, Colombo; Paulo, Mazzafera.

84

Midgut proteinases of Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae): Characterization and relationship to resistance in cereals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Midgut proteinases are vital to the insects which digest ingested food in the midgut. Insect midgut proteinases, therefore, have been considered as possible targets for the control of insect pests. Proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors are very attractive for their potential use in developing insect resistant plant varieties via genetic engineering. Sitotroga cerealella is one of the major storage pests of cereals, and no antibiotic resistance in wheat against this insect has been identified to date. A series of diagnostic inhibitors, thiol-reducing agents and a metal-ion chelator were used in the identification of proteinases in crude extracts from S. cerealella larval midguts with both protein and ester substrates. The partial inhibition of proteolytic activity in crude midgut extract toward [3H]-methemoglobin by pepstatin A suggested the presence of another proteinase which was sensitive to pepstatin A. The optimum pH range for the proteolytic activity, however, indicated that the major midgut proteinases were not carboxyl proteinases. Two proteinases were successfully purified by a combination of fractionation with ammonium sulfate, gel permeation and anion exchange chromatography. Characterization of the enzymes with the purified enzyme preparations confirmed that the two major proteinases were serine endoproteinases with trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like specificities respectively. Bioassays were conducted using the artificial seeds to test naturally occurring proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors of potential value. Soybean trypsin inhibitor and the Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor had adverse effects on the development of the insect. A predictive model was constructed to evaluate effects of seed resistance in conjunction with other control methods on S. cerealella population dynamics

85

Extracellular proteinase activity of Cryptococcus neoformans.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Extracellular proteinase activity was studied for eight strains of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans and two strains of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. Proteinase activity was measured by protein agar clearance, azoalbumin hydrolysis, gelatin liquefaction, and protein substrate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. All strains of C. neoformans produced extracellular proteolytic activity. Maximal extracellular proteinase activity in supernatants of C. neoformans cultures was associate...

Chen, L. C.; Blank, E. S.; Casadevall, A.

1996-01-01

86

In vivo and in vitro effect of Capsicum annum proteinase inhibitors on Helicoverpa armigera gut proteinases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two proteinase inhibitors (PIs), CapA1 and CapA2, were purified from Capsicum annum Linn. Var. Phule Jyoti leaves and assessed for their in vitro and in vivo activity against Helicoverpa armigera gut proteinases (HGPs). Both the inhibitors exhibited molecular weights of about 12 kDa with inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin indicating presence of probable two-inhibitor repeats of PIN II family. CapA1 and CapA2 inhibited 60-80% HGP (azocaseinolytic) activity of fourth instar larvae feeding on various host plants while 45-65% inhibition of HGP activity of various instars (II to VI) larvae reared on artificial diet. The partial purification of HGP isoforms, their characterization with synthetic inhibitors and inhibition by C. annum PIs revealed that most of the trypsin-like activity (68-91%) of HGPs was sensitive to C. annum PIs while 39-85% chymotrypsin-like activity of HGPs was insensitive to these inhibitors. The feeding of C. annum leaf extracts and two purified PIs in various doses to H. armigera larvae for two successive generations through artificial diet demonstrated their potential in inhibiting larval growth and development, delay in pupation period and dramatic reduction in fecundity and fertility. This is the first report-demonstrating efficacy of C. annum PIs against insect gut proteinases as well as larval growth and development of H. armigera. PMID:15715970

Tamhane, Vaijayanti A; Chougule, Nanasaheb P; Giri, Ashok P; Dixit, Anirudha R; Sainani, Mohini N; Gupta, Vidya S

2005-03-11

87

A secreted protein with plant-specific cysteine-rich motif functions as a mannose-binding lectin that exhibits antifungal activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants have a variety of mechanisms for defending against plant pathogens and tolerating environmental stresses such as drought and high salinity. Ginkbilobin2 (Gnk2) is a seed storage protein in gymnosperm that possesses antifungal activity and a plant-specific cysteine-rich motif (domain of unknown function26 [DUF26]). The Gnk2-homologous sequence is also observed in an extracellular region of cysteine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases that function in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we report the lectin-like molecular function of Gnk2 and the structural basis of its monosaccharide recognition. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments showed that mannan was the only yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell wall polysaccharide that interacted with Gnk2. Gnk2 also interacted with mannose, a building block of mannan, with a specificity that was similar to those of mannose-binding legume lectins, by strictly recognizing the configuration of the hydroxy group at the C4 position of the monosaccharide. The crystal structure of Gnk2 in complex with mannose revealed that three residues (asparagine-11, arginine-93, and glutamate-104) recognized mannose by hydrogen bonds, which defined the carbohydrate-binding specificity. These interactions were directly related to the ability of Gnk2 to inhibit the growth of fungi, including the plant pathogenic Fusarium spp., which were disrupted by mutation of arginine-93 or the presence of yeast mannan in the assay system. In addition, Gnk2 did not inhibit the growth of a yeast mutant strain lacking the ?1,2-linked mannose moiety. These results provide insights into the molecular basis of the DUF26 protein family. PMID:25139159

Miyakawa, Takuya; Hatano, Ken-Ichi; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Suwa, You-Ichi; Sawano, Yoriko; Tanokura, Masaru

2014-10-01

88

Molecular Structure of Cysteine  

Science.gov (United States)

Although cysteine is synthesized in the body, it can also be obtained from poultry, wheat, broccoli, eggs and garlic. Cysteine is well known for its aid in the detoxification of the human body as well as for protection of the liver. Additionally, this compound is an aid to the metabolism of biochemicals such as heparin, biotin, coenzyme A and glutathione. There is little data to affirm any side effects of overdose of cysteine, though insufficient levels of cysteine are thought to increase the risk of cancer in the uterus. Because cysteine is converted to N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) to perform the majority of its useful functions, NAC is sold as the dietary supplement rather than cysteine alone.

2002-08-20

89

Enterolobium contortisiliquum trypsin inhibitor (EcTI), a plant proteinase inhibitor, decreases in vitro cell adhesion and invasion by inhibition of Src protein-focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling pathways.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumor cell invasion is vital for cancer progression and metastasis. Adhesion, migration, and degradation of the extracellular matrix are important events involved in the establishment of cancer cells at a new site, and therefore molecular targets are sought to inhibit such processes. The effect of a plant proteinase inhibitor, Enterolobium contortisiliquum trypsin inhibitor (EcTI), on the adhesion, migration, and invasion of gastric cancer cells was the focus of this study. EcTI showed no effect on the proliferation of gastric cancer cells or fibroblasts but inhibited the adhesion, migration, and cell invasion of gastric cancer cells; however, EcTI had no effect upon the adhesion of fibroblasts. EcTI was shown to decrease the expression and disrupt the cellular organization of molecules involved in the formation and maturation of invadopodia, such as integrin ?1, cortactin, neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, membrane type 1 metalloprotease, and metalloproteinase-2. Moreover, gastric cancer cells treated with EcTI presented a significant decrease in intracellular phosphorylated Src and focal adhesion kinase, integrin-dependent cell signaling components. Together, these results indicate that EcTI inhibits the invasion of gastric cancer cells through alterations in integrin-dependent cell signaling pathways. PMID:22039045

de Paula, Cláudia Alessandra Andrade; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien Jane; Ferreira, Joana Gasperazzo; Maza, Paloma Korehisa; Suzuki, Erika; Nakahata, Adriana Miti; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Sampaio, Misako Uemura; Oliva, Maria Luiza V

2012-01-01

90

Enterolobium contortisiliquum Trypsin Inhibitor (EcTI), a Plant Proteinase Inhibitor, Decreases in Vitro Cell Adhesion and Invasion by Inhibition of Src Protein-Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) Signaling Pathways*  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumor cell invasion is vital for cancer progression and metastasis. Adhesion, migration, and degradation of the extracellular matrix are important events involved in the establishment of cancer cells at a new site, and therefore molecular targets are sought to inhibit such processes. The effect of a plant proteinase inhibitor, Enterolobium contortisiliquum trypsin inhibitor (EcTI), on the adhesion, migration, and invasion of gastric cancer cells was the focus of this study. EcTI showed no effect on the proliferation of gastric cancer cells or fibroblasts but inhibited the adhesion, migration, and cell invasion of gastric cancer cells; however, EcTI had no effect upon the adhesion of fibroblasts. EcTI was shown to decrease the expression and disrupt the cellular organization of molecules involved in the formation and maturation of invadopodia, such as integrin ?1, cortactin, neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, membrane type 1 metalloprotease, and metalloproteinase-2. Moreover, gastric cancer cells treated with EcTI presented a significant decrease in intracellular phosphorylated Src and focal adhesion kinase, integrin-dependent cell signaling components. Together, these results indicate that EcTI inhibits the invasion of gastric cancer cells through alterations in integrin-dependent cell signaling pathways. PMID:22039045

de Paula, Claudia Alessandra Andrade; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien Jane; Ferreira, Joana Gasperazzo; Maza, Paloma Korehisa; Suzuki, Erika; Nakahata, Adriana Miti; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Sampaio, Misako Uemura; Oliva, Maria Luiza V.

2012-01-01

91

A naturally occurring plant cysteine protease possesses remarkable toxicity against insect pests and synergizes Bacillus thuringiensis toxin.  

Science.gov (United States)

When caterpillars feed on maize (Zea maize L.) lines with native resistance to several Lepidopteran pests, a defensive cysteine protease, Mir1-CP, rapidly accumulates at the wound site. Mir1-CP has been shown to inhibit caterpillar growth in vivo by attacking and permeabilizing the insect's peritrophic matrix (PM), a structure that surrounds the food bolus, assists in digestion and protects the midgut from microbes and toxins. PM permeabilization weakens the caterpillar defenses by facilitating the movement of other insecticidal proteins in the diet to the midgut microvilli and thereby enhancing their toxicity. To directly determine the toxicity of Mir1-CP, the purified recombinant enzyme was directly tested against four economically significant Lepidopteran pests in bioassays. Mir1-CP LC(50) values were 1.8, 3.6, 0.6, and 8.0 ppm for corn earworm, tobacco budworm, fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer, respectively. These values were the same order of magnitude as those determined for the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Bt-CryIIA. In addition to being directly toxic to the larvae, 60 ppb Mir1-CP synergized sublethal concentrations of Bt-CryIIA in all four species. Permeabilization of the PM by Mir1-CP probably provides ready access to Bt-binding sites on the midgut microvilli and increases its activity. Consequently, Mir1-CP could be used for controlling caterpillar pests in maize using non-transgenic approaches and potentially could be used in other crops either singly or in combination with Bt-toxins. PMID:18335057

Mohan, Srinidi; Ma, Peter W K; Williams, W Paul; Luthe, Dawn S

2008-01-01

92

The Cysteine Protease–Cysteine Protease Inhibitor System Explored in Soybean Nodule Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Almost all protease families have been associated with plant development, particularly senescence, which is the final developmental stage of every organ before cell death. Proteolysis remobilizes and recycles nitrogen from senescent organs that is required, for example, seed development. Senescence-associated expression of proteases has recently been characterized using large-scale gene expression analysis seeking to identify and characterize senescence-related genes. Increasing activities of proteolytic enzymes, particularly cysteine proteases, are observed during the senescence of legume nodules, in which a symbiotic relationship between the host plant and bacteria (Rhizobia facilitate the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. It is generally considered that cysteine proteases are compartmentalized to prevent uncontrolled proteolysis in nitrogen-fixing nodules. In addition, the activities of cysteine proteases are regulated by endogenous cysteine protease inhibitors called cystatins. These small proteins form reversible complexes with cysteine proteases, leading to inactivation. However, very little is currently known about how the cysteine protease-cysteine protease inhibitor (cystatin system is regulated during nodule development. Moreover, our current understanding of the expression and functions of proteases and protease inhibitors in nodules is fragmented. To address this issue, we have summarized the current knowledge and techniques used for studying proteases and their inhibitors including the application of “omics” tools, with a particular focus on changes in the cysteine protease-cystatin system during nodule development.

Marian Dorcas Quain

2013-08-01

93

Proteinase inhibitors in Brazilian Leguminosae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serine proteinase inhibitors, in the seeds of several Leguminosae from the Pantanal region (West Brazil), were studied using bovine trypsin, a digestive enzyme, Factor XIIa and human plasma kallikrein, two blood clotting factors. The inhibitors were purified from Enterolobium contortisiliquum (M(r) = 23,000), Torresea cearensis (M(r) = 13,000), Bauhinia pentandra (M(r) = 20,000) and Bauhinia bauhinioides (M(r) = 20,000). E. contortisiliquum inhibitor inactivates all three enzymes, whereas the T. cearensis inhibitor inactivates trypsin and Factor XIIa, but does not affect plasma kallikrein; both Bauhinia inhibitors, on the other hand, inactivate trypsin and plasma kallikrein but only the B. pentandra inhibitor affects Factor XIIa. Ki values were calculated between 10(-7) and 10(-8) M. PMID:1842003

Sampaio, C A; Oliva, M L; Tanaka, A S; Sampaio, M U

1991-01-01

94

Seed-specific aspartic proteinase FeAP12 from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aspartic proteinase gene (FeAP12) has been isolated from the cDNA library of developing buckwheat seeds. Analysis of its deduced amino acid sequence showed that it resembled the structure and shared high homology with typical plant aspartic proteinases (AP) characterized by the presence of a plant-specific insert (PSI), unique among APs. It was shown that FeAP12 mRNA was not present in the leaves, roots, steam and flowers, but was seed-specifically expressed. Moreover, the highest levels of F...

Timotijevi? Gordana S.; Milisavljevi? Mira ?.; Radovi? Svetlana R.; Konstantinovi? M.M.; Maksimovi? Vesna R.

2010-01-01

95

Wound and methyl jasmonate induced pigeon pea defensive proteinase inhibitor has potency to inhibit insect digestive proteinases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wounding of plants by chewing insects or other damage induces the synthesis of defensive proteinase inhibitors (PI) in both wounded and distal unwounded leaves. In the present paper we report the characterization of inducible defensive PI from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) and its in vitro interaction with Helicoverpa armigera gut proteinases (HGP). We found that PI activity was induced in local as well as systemic leaves of pigeon pea by the wounding and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) application. Consistent induction of PI was observed in two wild cultivars of pigeon pea at various growth stages. The estimated molecular weight of inducible PI was ~16.5 kDa. Electrophoretic analysis and enzyme assays revealed that the induced PI significantly inhibited total gut proteinase as well as trypsin-like activity from the midgut of H. armigera. The induced PI was found to be inhibitor of trypsin as well as chymotrypsin. Study could be important to know the further roles of defensive PIs. PMID:22721949

Lomate, Purushottam R; Hivrale, Vandana K

2012-08-01

96

Pacifastin, a novel 155-kDa heterodimeric proteinase inhibitor containing a unique transferrin?chain  

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A 155-kDa proteinase inhibitor, pacifastin, from plasma of the freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, was found to be composed of two covalently linked subunits. The two subunits are encoded by two different mRNAs, which were cloned and sequenced. The heavy chain of pacifastin (105 kDa) is related to transferrins, containing three transferrin lobes, two of which seem to be active for iron binding. The light chain of pacifastin (44 kDa) is the inhibitory subunit, and has nine cysteine-...

Liang, Zicai; Sottrup-jensen, Lars; Aspa?n, Anna; Hall, Martin; So?derha?ll, Kenneth

1997-01-01

97

The major neutral proteinase of Entamoeba histolytica  

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FPLC anion-exchange and chromatofocusing chromatography were used to purify the major neutral proteinase from secretions of axenically cultured Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. HM-1 strain trophozoites, which were more proteolytically active than the less virulent HK-9 strain, were used for purification of the enzyme. It is a thiol proteinase with a subunit Mr of approximately 56,000, a neutral pH optimum, and a pI of 6. The importance of this enzyme in extraintestinal amoebiasis is sugges...

1986-01-01

98

Differential antibiosis against Helicoverpa armigera exerted by distinct inhibitory repeat domains of Capsicum annuum proteinase inhibitors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant defensive serine proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are known to have negative impact on digestive physiology of herbivore insects and thus have a crucial role in plant protection. Here, we have assessed the efficacy and specificity of three previously characterized inhibitory repeat domain (IRD) variants from Capsicum annuum PIs viz., IRD-7, -9 and -12 against gut proteinases from Helicoverpa armigera. Comparative study of in silico binding energy revealed that IRD-9 possesses higher affinity towards H. armigera serine proteinases as compared to IRD-7 and -12. H. armigera fed on artificial diet containing 5 TIU/g of recombinant IRD proteins exhibited differential effects on larval growth, survival rate and other nutritional parameters. Major digestive gut trypsin and chymotrypsin genes were down regulated in the IRD fed larvae, while few of them were up-regulated, this indicate alterations in insect digestive physiology. The results corroborated with proteinase activity assays and zymography. These findings suggest that the sequence variations among PIs reflect in their efficacy against proteinases in vitro and in vivo, which also could be used for developing tailor-made multi-domain inhibitor gene(s). PMID:24559910

Joshi, Rakesh S; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P

2014-05-01

99

PAPAIN, A PLANT ENZYME OF BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE: A REVIEW  

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Full Text Available Papain is a plant proteolytic enzyme for the cysteine proteinase family cysteine protease enzyme in which enormous progress has been made to understand its functions. Papain is found naturally in papaya (Carica papaya L. manufactured from the latex of raw papaya fruits. The enzyme is able to break down organic molecules made of amino acids, known as polypeptides and thus plays a crucial role in diverse biological processes in physiological and pathological states, drug designs, industrial uses such as meat tenderizers and pharmaceutical preparations. The unique structure of papain gives it the functionality that helps elucidate how proteolytic enzymes work and also makes it valuable for a variety of purposes. In the present review, its biological importance, properties and structural features that are important to an understanding of their biological function are presented. Its potential for production and market opportunities are also discussed.

Ezekiel Amri

2012-01-01

100

Revisiting the enzymes stored in the laticifers of Carica papaya in the context of their possible participation in the plant defence mechanism.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the tropical species Carica papaya, the articulated and anastomosing laticifers form a dense network of vessels displayed in all aerial parts of the plant. Damaging the papaya tree inevitably severs its laticifers, eliciting an abrupt release of latex. Besides the well-known cysteine proteinases, papain, chymopapain, caricain and glycyl endopeptidase, papaya latex is also a rich source of other enzymes. Together, these enzymes could provide an important contribution to plant defence mechanisms by sanitising and sealing the wounded areas on the tree. PMID:11361091

El Moussaoui, A; Nijs, M; Paul, C; Wintjens, R; Vincentelli, J; Azarkan, M; Looze, Y

2001-04-01

 
 
 
 
101

Plasmodium falciparum proteinases: cloning of the putative gene coding for the merozoite proteinase for erythrocyte invasion (MPEI) and determination of hydrolysis sites of spectrin by Pf37 proteinase  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Numerous proteinase activities have been shown to be essential for the survival of Plasmodium falciparum. One approach to antimalarial chemotherapy, would be to block specifically one or several of these activities, by using compounds structurally analogous to the substrates of these proteinases. Su [...] ch a strategy requires a detailed knowledge of the active site of the proteinase, in order to identify the best substrate for the proteinase. Aiming at developing such a strategy, two proteinases previously identified in our laboratory, were chosen for further characterization of their molecular structure and properties: the merozoite proteinase for erythrocytic invasion (MPEI), involved in the erythrocyte invasion by the merozoites, and the Pf37 proteinase, which hydrolyses human spectrin in vitro.

I., Florent; S., Le Bonniec; B., Carcy; P., Grellier; O., Mercereau-Puijalon; S., Bonnefoy; D., Dhermy; M., Monsigny; R., Mayer; J., Schrével.

102

Two-dimensional analysis of proteinase activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method was developed to separate proteinases in a complex mixture in two dimensions followed by activity detection using class specific substrates. Using this method, serine proteinase activity was evaluated in gut extracts from a stored-product pest, Plodia interpunctella. With the substrate n-alpha-benzoyl-l-arginine rho-nitroanilide, three major groups of at least six trypsin-like activities were identified, consisting of proteinases with estimated molecular masses of 25-27, 40-41, and 289 kDa, and all with an acidic pI of 4.7-5.5. With the substrate, n-succinyl-ala-ala-pro-phenylalanine rho-nitroanilide, two groups of at least five chymotrypsin-like activities were detected, with estimated molecular masses of 28 and 192 kDa and pI values ranging from 6.1 to 7.3. Using the 2-DE activity blot method, information was obtained on the relative number and physical properties of serine proteinases in a mixture of insect gut proteinases without prior fractionation. PMID:16616785

Oppert, Brenda

2006-06-30

103

Peptic ulcer: the many proteinases of aggression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peptic activity has long been recognized as an essential factor in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer and related diseases, but only recently has it become clear that this activity is derived from a remarkable diversity of enzymes, all of which belong to the aspartic proteinase family of enzymes. These include two types of pepsinogens and two types of cathepsins. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in characterizing these proteinases and in applying this information to the study of a number of gastrointestinal disorders. The intent of this article is to update recent basic and clinical information on these topics and to suggest several areas that merit further investigation. PMID:2642445

Samloff, I M

1989-02-01

104

Squash inhibitor family of serine proteinases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Squash inhibitors of serine proteinases form an uniform family of small proteins. They are built of 27-33 amino-acid residues and cross-linked with three disulfide bridges. The reactive site peptide bond (P1-P1`) is between residue 5 (Lys, Arg or Leu) and 6 (always Ile). High resolution X-ray structures are available for two squash inhibitors complexed with trypsin. NMR solution structures have also been determined for free inhibitors. The major structural motif is a distorted, triple-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet. A similar folding motif has been recently found in a number of proteins, including: conotoxins from fish-hunting snails, carboxypeptidase inhibitor from potato, kalata B1 polypeptide, and in some growth factors (e.g. nerve growth factor, transforming growth factor {beta}2, platelet-derived growth factor). Squash inhibitors are highly stable and rigid proteins. They inhibit a number of serine proteinases: trypsin, plasmin, kallikrein, blood clotting factors: X{sub a} and XII{sub a}, cathepsin G. The inhibition spectrum can be much broadened if specific amino-acid substitutions are introduced, especially at residues which contact proteinase. Squash inhibitors inhibit proteinases via the standard mechanism. According to the mechanism, inhibitors are substrates which exhibit at neutral pH a high k{sub cat}/K{sub m} index for hydrolysis and resynthesis of the reactive site, and a low value of the hydrolysis constant. (author) 81 refs, 4 figs

Otlewski, J.; Krowarsch, D. [Institute of Biochemistry, University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland)

1996-12-31

105

Formation of cysteine-S-conjugates in the Maillard reaction of cysteine and xylose.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysteine-S-conjugates (CS-conjugates) occur in foods derived from plant sources like grape, passion fruit, onion, garlic, bell pepper and hops. During eating CS-conjugates are degraded into aroma-active thiols by ?-lyases that originate from oral microflora. The present study provides evidence for the formation of the CS-conjugates S-furfuryl-l-cysteine (FFT-S-Cys) and S-(2-methyl-3-furyl)-l-cysteine (MFT-S-Cys) in the Maillard reaction of xylose with cysteine at 100°C for 2h. The CS-conjugates were isolated using cationic exchange and reversed-phase chromatography and identified by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and LC-MS(2). Spectra and LC retention times matched those of authentic standards. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that CS-conjugates are described as Maillard reaction products. Furfuryl alcohol (FFA) is proposed as an intermediate which undergoes a nucleophilic substitution with cysteine. Both FFT-S-Cys and MFT-S-Cys are odourless but produce strong aroma when tasted in aqueous solutions, supposedly induced by ? -lyases from the oral microflora. The perceived aromas resemble those of the corresponding aroma-active thiols 2-furfurylthiol (FFT) and 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (MFT) which smell coffee-like and meaty, respectively. PMID:23790889

Cerny, Christoph; Guntz-Dubini, Renée

2013-11-15

106

Cloning and sequence analysis of serine proteinase of Gloydius ussuriensis venom gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To construct a cDNA library by using mRNA from Gloydius ussuriensis (G. Ussuriensis) venom gland, to clone and analyze serine proteinase gene from the cDNA library. Methods: Total RNA was isolated from venom gland of G. ussuriensis, mRNA was purified by using mRNA isolation Kit. The whole length cDNA was synthesized by means of smart cDNA synthesis strategy, and amplified by long distance PCR procedure, lately cDAN was cloned into vector pBluescrip-sk. The recombinant cDNA was transformed into E. coli DH5?. The cDNA of serine proteinase gene in the venom gland of G. ussuriensis was detected and amplified using the in situ hybridization. The cDNA fragment was inserted into pGEMT vector, cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. Results: The capacity of cDNA library of venom gland was above 2.3 x 106. Its open reading frame was composed of 702 nucleotides and coded a protein pre-zymogen of 234 amino acids. It contained 12 cysteine residues. The sequence analysis indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA fragment shared high identity with the thrombin-like enzyme genes of other snakes in the GenBank. the query sequence exhibited strong amino acid sequence homology of 85% to the serine proteas of T. gramineus, thrombin-like serine proteinase I of D. acutus and serine protease catroxase II of C. atrox respectively. Based on the amino acid sequences of other thrombin-like enzymes, the catalytic residues and disulfide bridges catalytic residues and disulfide bridges of this thrombin-like enzyme were deduced as follows: catalytic residues, His41, Asp86, Ser180; and six disulfide bridges Cys7-Cys139, Cys26-Cys42, Cys74-Cys232, Cys118-Cys186, Cys150-Cys165, Cys176-Cys201. Conclusion: The capacity of cDNA library of venom gland is above 2.3 x 106, overtop the level of 105 capicity. The constructed cDNA library of G. ussuriensis venom gland would be helpful platform to detect new target genes and further gene manipulate. The cloned serine proteinase gene exhibits strong amino acid sequence homology of 85% to the serine proteas of T. gramineus, thrombin-like serine proteinase I of D. acutus and serine protease catroxase II of C. atrox respectively. (authors)

107

The relevance of compartmentation for cysteine synthesis in phototrophic organisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the vascular plant Arabidopsis thaliana, synthesis of cysteine and its precursors O-acetylserine and sulfide is distributed between the cytosol, chloroplasts, and mitochondria. This compartmentation contributes to regulation of cysteine synthesis. In contrast to Arabidopsis, cysteine synthesis is exclusively restricted to chloroplasts in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Thus, the question arises, whether specification of compartmentation was driven by multicellularity and specified organs and tissues. The moss Physcomitrella patens colonizes land but is still characterized by a simple morphology compared to vascular plants. It was therefore used as model organism to study evolution of compartmented cysteine synthesis. The presence of O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OAS-TL) proteins, which catalyze the final step of cysteine synthesis, in different compartments was applied as criterion. Purification and characterization of native OAS-TL proteins demonstrated the presence of five OAS-TL protein species encoded by two genes in Physcomitrella. At least one of the gene products is dual targeted to plastids and cytosol, as shown by combination of GFP fusion localization studies, purification of chloroplasts, and identification of N termini from native proteins. The bulk of OAS-TL protein is targeted to plastids, whereas there is no evidence for a mitochondrial OAS-TL isoform and only a minor part of OAS-TL protein is localized in the cytosol. This demonstrates that subcellular diversification of cysteine synthesis is already initialized in Physcomitrella but appears to gain relevance later during evolution of vascular plants. PMID:22543690

Birke, Hannah; Müller, Stefanie J; Rother, Michael; Zimmer, Andreas D; Hoernstein, Sebastian N W; Wesenberg, Dirk; Wirtz, Markus; Krauss, Gerd-Joachim; Reski, Ralf; Hell, Rüdiger

2012-06-01

108

Two cysteine proteinases respond to bacterial and WSSV challenge in Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cDNAs encoding CathL and legumain from Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis (FcCathL, FcLegu) were obtained. Both FcCathL and FcLegu mRNA were expressed mainly in the hepatopancreas of unchallenged shrimp. Time-course analysis of FcCathL showed that FcCathL was upregulated in the hepatopancreas of shrimp challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) at 12 h. FcLegu mRNA in hepatopancreas was down-regulated by Vibrio. FcLegu transcript first declined from 2 h to 6 h and then recovered from 12 h to 24 h in hepatopancreas challenged with WSSV. FcCathL protein was detected in the hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gill, stomach, and intestine of unchallenged shrimp. Three bands of FcCathL protein detected in some tissues may represent preproenzyme, single chain and mature double chain form respectively. In hepatopancreas, FcLegu was detected in the proenzyme form. In other tissues, only active form could be detected. The protein of FcLegu was down-regulated by Vibrio or WSSV challenge in the stomach and gills. FcCathL and FcLegu were proposed to play a role in shrimp innate immunity for the first time. PMID:20362060

Ren, Qian; Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Sun, Yun-Dong; Sun, Shan-Shan; Zhou, Jing; Wang, Zong-Heng; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

2010-10-01

109

Specificity of binding of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein to different conformational states of the clade E serpins plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and proteinase nexin-1  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is the principal clearance receptor for serpins and serpin-proteinase complexes. The ligand binding regions of LRP consist of clusters of cysteine-rich approximately 40-residue complement-like repeats (CR), with cluster II being the principal ligand-binding region. To better understand the specificity of binding at different sites within the cluster and the ability of LRP to discriminate in vivo between uncomplexed and proteinase-complexed serpins, we have systematically examined the affinities of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and proteinase nexin-1 (PN-1) in their native, cleaved, and proteinase-complexed states to (CR)(2) and (CR)(3) fragments of LRP cluster II. A consistent blue shift of the CR domain tryptophan fluorescence suggested a common mode of serpin binding, involving lysines on the serpin engaging the acidic region around the calcium binding site of the CR domain. High affinity binding of non-proteinase-complexed PAI-1 and PN-1 occurred to all fragments containing three CR domains (3-59 nm) and most that contain only two CR domains, although binding energies to different (CR)(3) fragments differed by up to 18% for PAI-1 and 9% for PN-1. No detectable difference in affinity was seen between native and cleaved serpin. However, the presence of proteinase in complex with the serpin enhanced affinity modestly and presumably nonspecifically. This may be sufficient to give preferential binding of such complexes in vivo at the relevant physiological concentrations.

Jensen, Jan Kristian; Dolmer, Klavs

2009-01-01

110

Seed-specific aspartic proteinase FeAP12 from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aspartic proteinase gene (FeAP12 has been isolated from the cDNA library of developing buckwheat seeds. Analysis of its deduced amino acid sequence showed that it resembled the structure and shared high homology with typical plant aspartic proteinases (AP characterized by the presence of a plant-specific insert (PSI, unique among APs. It was shown that FeAP12 mRNA was not present in the leaves, roots, steam and flowers, but was seed-specifically expressed. Moreover, the highest levels of FeAP12 expression were observed in the early stages of seed development, therefore suggesting its potential role in nucellar degradation.

Timotijevi? Gordana S.

2010-01-01

111

High sequence variability among hemocyte-specific Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors in decapod crustaceans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crustacean hemocytes were found to produce a large number of transcripts coding for Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs). A detailed study performed with the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus and the shrimp Penaeus monodon revealed the presence of at least 26 and 20 different Kazal domains from the hemocyte KPIs, respectively. Comparisons with KPIs from other taxa indicate that the sequences of these domains evolve rapidly. A few conserved positions, e.g. six invariant cysteines were present in all domain sequences whereas the position of P1 amino acid, a determinant for substrate specificity, varied highly. A study with a single crayfish animal suggested that even at the individual level considerable sequence variability among hemocyte KPIs produced exist. Expression analysis of four crayfish KPI transcripts in hematopoietic tissue cells and different hemocyte types suggest that some of these KPIs are likely to be involved in hematopoiesis or hemocyte release as they were produced in particular hemocyte types or maturation stages only. PMID:19715720

Cerenius, Lage; Liu, Haipeng; Zhang, Yanjiao; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Gunnar Andersson, M; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Söderhäll, Irene

2010-01-01

112

A multifaceted study of stigma/style cysteine-rich adhesin (SCA)-like Arabidopsis lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) suggests diversified roles for these LTPs in plant growth and reproduction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lily stigma/style cysteine-rich adhesin (SCA), a plant lipid transfer protein (LTP) which is secreted into the extracellular matrix, functions in pollen tube guidance in fertilization. A gain-of-function mutant (ltp5-1) for Arabidopsis LTP5, an SCA-like molecule, was recently shown to display defects in sexual reproduction. In the current study, it is reported that ltp5-1 plants have dwarfed primary shoots, delayed hypocotyl elongation, various abnormal tissue fusions, and display multibranching. These mutant phenotypes in vegetative growth are recessive. No abnormality was found in ltp5-1/+ plants. In a phylogenetic analysis of plant LTPs, SCA-like Arabidopsis LTPs were classified with conventional plant LTPs. Homology modelling-based electrostatic similarity index (ESI) clustering was used to show diversity in spatial distributions of electrostatic potentials of SCA-like LTPs, suggestive of their various roles in interaction in the extracellular matrix space. ?-Glucuronidase (GUS) analysis showed that SCA-like Arabidopsis LTP genes are diversely present in various tissues. LTP4 was found specifically in the guard cells and LTP6 in trichomes as well as in other tissues. LTP1 levels were specifically abundant in the stigma, and both LTP3 and LTP6 in the ovules. LTP2 and LTP4 gene levels were up-regulated in whole seedlings with 20% polyethylene glycol (PEG) and 300 mM NaCl treatments, respectively. LTP5 was up-regulated in the hypocotyl with 3?d dark growth conditions. LTP6 was specifically expressed in the tip of the cotyledon under drought stress conditions. The results suggest that SCA-like Arabidopsis LTPs are multifunctional, with diversified roles in plant growth and reproduction. PMID:20667964

Chae, Keun; Gonong, Benedict J; Kim, Seung-Chul; Kieslich, Chris A; Morikis, Dimitrios; Balasubramanian, Shruthi; Lord, Elizabeth M

2010-10-01

113

Stress inducible proteinase inhibitor diversity in Capsicum annuum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Wound-inducible Pin-II Proteinase inhibitors (PIs are one of the important plant serine PIs which have been studied extensively for their structural and functional diversity and relevance in plant defense against insect pests. To explore the functional specialization of an array of Capsicum annuum (L. proteinase inhibitor (CanPIs genes, we studied their expression, processing and tissue-specific distribution under steady-state and induced conditions. Inductions were performed by subjecting C. annuum leaves to various treatments, namely aphid infestation or mechanical wounding followed by treatment with either oral secretion (OS of Helicoverpa armigera or water. Results The elicitation treatments regulated the accumulation of CanPIs corresponding to 4-, 3-, and 2-inhibitory repeat domains (IRDs. Fourty seven different CanPI genes composed of 28 unique IRDs were identified in total along with those reported earlier. The CanPI gene pool either from uninduced or induced leaves was dominated by 3-IRD PIs and trypsin inhibitory domains. Also a major contribution by 4-IRD CanPI genes possessing trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor domains was specifically revealed in wounded leaves treated with OS. Wounding displayed the highest number of unique CanPIs while wounding with OS treatment resulted in the high accumulation of specifically CanPI-4, -7 and ?10. Characterization of the PI protein activity through two dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed tissue and induction specific patterns. Consistent with transcript abundance, wound plus OS or water treated C. annuum leaves exhibited significantly higher PI activity and isoform diversity contributed by 3- and 4-IRD CanPIs. CanPI accumulation and activity was weakly elicited by aphid infestation yet resulted in the higher expression of CanPI-26, -41 and ?43. Conclusions Plants can differentially perceive various kinds of insect attacks and respond appropriately through activating plant defenses including regulation of PIs at transcriptional and post-translational levels. Based on the differentially elicited CanPI accumulation patterns, it is intriguing to speculate that generating sequence diversity in the form of multi-IRD PIs is a part of elaborative plant defense strategy to obtain a diverse pool of functional units to confine insect attack.

Mishra Manasi

2012-11-01

114

Mapping of the P1 proteinase cleavage site in the polyprotein of Wheat streak mosaic virus (genus Tritimovirus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Monopartite members of the family Potyviridae utilize three virus-encoded proteinases to cleave the viral polyprotein into mature proteins. The amino-terminal region of the viral polyprotein is autolytically cleaved by the P1 proteinase. A domain required for P1 proteinase activity of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) was mapped using a series of templates with nested 3'-truncations or 5'-deletions to program in vitro transcription-translation reactions. The WSMV P1 proteinase cleavage site was mapped to a position downstream of amino acid residue 348 and upstream of amino acid residue 353, with the peptide bond between amino acid residues Y(352) and G(353) the most probable site of hydrolysis. An alignment of potyvirus polyprotein sequences in the carboxy-terminal region of the P1 domain revealed WSMV P1 contained conserved H(257), D(267), S(303) and FIVXG(325-329) residues upstream of the cleavage site that are typical of serine proteinases and shown by others to be required for P1 proteolysis in Tobacco etch virus. Insertion of the GUS reporter gene immediately downstream of the P1 cleavage site in a full-length clone of WSMV resulted in systemic infection and GUS expression upon inoculation of plants with in vitro transcripts. When cleaved by P1 at the amino terminus and NIa proteinase at a site engineered in the carboxy-terminus, active GUS protein expressed by WSMV in infected wheat had electrophoretic mobility similar to wild-type GUS protein. PMID:11807238

Choi, Il-Ryong; Horken, Kempton M; Stenger, Drake C; French, Roy

2002-02-01

115

Purification and partial characterisation of a cathepsin L-like proteinase from sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) and its tissue distribution in body wall.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cathepsin L-like proteinase (CLP) with molecular weight of 30.9 kDa from the gut of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicas, S. japonicus) was isolated and purified to homogeneity by several chromatographic procedures. The enzyme exhibited optimum activity at pH 5.0-5.5 and 50 °C, and showed thermostability up to 40 °C. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by Zn(2+), strongly inhibited by Fe(2+) and Cu(2+), drastically reduced by cysteine proteinase inhibitors, but slightly enhanced by thiol-activating agents. The enzyme efficiently hydrolysed the specific substrate of cathepsin L, but hardly hydrolysed the specific substrates for cathepsin B, cathepsin H and cathepsin K. Immunohistochemical studies indicated that the CLP was more abundant in the epidermis rather than in the dermis of S. japonicus body wall. The distribution of CLP showed positive correlation with autolysis rate. Therefore, the relationship between CLP and autolysis deserved further study. PMID:24731331

Zhou, Da-Yong; Chang, Xian-Na; Bao, Sha-Sha; Song, Liang; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Zong, Yuan; Li, Dong-Mei; Zhang, Mao-Mao; Liu, Yu-Xin; Murata, Yoshiyuki

2014-09-01

116

Overexpression of a Weed (Solanum americanum) Proteinase Inhibitor in Transgenic Tobacco Results in Increased Glandular Trichome Density and Enhanced Resistance to Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study we produced transgenic tobacco plants by overexpressing a serine proteinase inhibitor gene, SaPIN2a, from the American black nightshade Solanum americanum under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. SaPIN2a was properly transcribed and translated as indicated by Northern blot and Western blot analyses. Functional integrity of SaPIN2a in transgenic plants was confirmed by proteinase inhibitory activity assay. Bioassays for i...

Zeng-Fu Xu; Yinpeng Cai; Kuai-Fei Xia; Huapeng Li; Ming Luo; Zhaoyu Wang

2009-01-01

117

Isolation and structural analysis of a gene coding for a novel type of aspartic proteinase from buckwheat seed (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)  

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A novel type of aspartic proteinase gene was isolated from the cDNA library of developing buckwheat seeds. This cDNA, FeAPL1, encoded an AP-like protein lacking the plant-specific insert (PSI) domain characteristic of typical plant aspartic proteinases. In addition the corresponding genomic fragment was isolated. It is demonstrated that this gene does not contain introns. Since bioinformatics analysis of the Arabidopsis genome showed that most potential AP genes are intronless and PSI-less, i...

Milisavljevi? Mira ?.; Timotijevi? Gordana S.; Radovi? Svetlana R.; Konstantinovi? M.M.; Maksimovi? Vesna R.

2007-01-01

118

Inhibitors of the major cysteinyl proteinase (GP57/51) impair host cell invasion and arrest the intracellular development of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peptidyl diazomethane (PDAM) derivatives, a class of irreversible inhibitors for cysteine proteinase, were screened for the ability to impair Trypanosoma cruzi invasion and intracellular development in primary cultures of heart muscle cells (HMC). T. cruzi GP57/51, a purified cysteinyl proteinase, and the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec were used to determine inhibition rate constants (k'+2) by continuous kinetic assays. The k'+2 values ranged from 25,400 to 2,800. The best inhibitors of GP57/51 had bulky hydrophobic residues in the P1 position (in addition to P2), the S1 sub-site specificity of the enzyme being thus similar to mammalian cathepsin L. The effects of these PDAM on parasite infectivity were then investigated. The ability to invade HMC was markedly impaired when trypomastigotes were briefly exposed to 10 microM of Z-(S-Bzl)Cys-Phe-CHN2. Striking effects were observed when PDAM were added to HMC cultures that had been previously infected with trypomastigotes: Z-(S-Bzl)Cys-Phe-CHN2 with an IC50 of 0.4 microM, and less markedly Z-Phe-Phe-CHN2 and Z-Tyr-Phe-CHN2 (or Z-Phe-Tyr-CHN2) blocked amastigote replication as well as their transformation into trypomastigotes, thereby arresting intracellular development. Bz-Phe-Gly-CHN2, in contrast, failed to display antiparasite activity. Direct characterization of the target cysteinyl proteinase was sought, by incubating viable amastigotes or infected HMC with Z-[125I]Tyr-Phe-CHN2. Affinity labeling implicated GP57/51 as the major cysteinyl proteinase target for this probe. We propose that T. cruzi intracellular development is critically dependent on GP57/51 (cruzipain). Selective inhibitors for this cysteinyl proteinase may have therapeutic potential. PMID:1620157

Meirelles, M N; Juliano, L; Carmona, E; Silva, S G; Costa, E M; Murta, A C; Scharfstein, J

1992-06-01

119

A cysteine protease of Dieffenbachia maculata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants of the genus Dieffenbachia, very popular as indoor ornamental plants, are known for their toxic as well as therapeutic properties. Their toxic manifestations have been partly attributed to their proteolytic activity. The work described in the present paper shows that stem leaves and petiole of Dieffenbachia maculata Schott, a commonly grown species, contain significant proteolytic activity, different parts showing different types of protease activities. Stem showed the highest enzyme activity and this protease was purified about 55 fold by solvent precipitation, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. The enzyme has a relative molecular mass of 61 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and has an optimum pH of 8.0 and optimum temperature of 50 degrees C. Effects of various substrates, inhibitors and activators indicate that the enzyme is a cysteine protease with leucylpeptidase activity. PMID:10412230

Chitre, A; Padmanabhan, S; Shastri, N V

1998-12-01

120

The induction of proteinases in corn and soybean by anoxia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study characterized the anaerobic changes in proteinase activities in corn and soybean roots and to investigate the possibility that these changes might contribute to the differential anaerobiosis tolerance of the two species. After 24 h of anoxia, crude protein extracts from H60 corn and Keller soybean root tips (10cm) were assayed for proteinase activities at pH range from 4.5 to 9.5. Turnover of aberrant proteins was studied in seedlings labelled with 3H-leucine for 12 h under: (a) puromycin (0.64 mM) in air, (b) ethanol (1%) in air, (c) nitrogen and (d) air. After the treatment, the labelled proteins remaining in roots were determined every 2 h for 6 h. In both corn and soybean, activities of alkali proteinases increased, and activities of acid proteinases declined under anoxia. Neutral proteinases increase in anoxic corn roots, but decline in anoxic soybean roots. The protein turnover rate in corn treated with puromycin, ethanol and nitrogen was much higher than in control roots. The protein turnover rate in soybean roots treated with puromycin, ethanol was similar to the rate of the control. The results indicated that: (a) anoxic corn can degrade aberrant proteins, but anoxic soybean cannot, (b) the degradation of aberrant proteins in anoxic corn is accomplished by neutral proteinases, and (c) the accumulation of aberrant proteins in soybean might contribute to the susceptibility of this species to anoxia

 
 
 
 
121

Multiplicity of aspartic proteinases from Cynara cardunculus L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aspartic proteinases (AP) play major roles in physiologic and pathologic scenarios in a wide range of organisms from vertebrates to plants or viruses. The present work deals with the purification and characterisation of four new APs from the cardoon Cynara cardunculus L., bringing the number of APs that have been isolated, purified and biochemically characterised from this organism to nine. This is, to our knowledge, one of the highest number of APs purified from a single organism, consistent with a specific and important biological function of these protein within C. cardunculus. These enzymes, cardosins E, F, G and H, are dimeric, glycosylated, pepstatin-sensitive APs, active at acidic pH, with a maximum activity around pH 4.3. Their primary structures were partially determined by N- and C-terminal sequence analysis, peptide mass fingerprint analysis on a MALDI-TOF/TOF instrument and by LC-MS/MS analysis on a Q-TRAP instrument. All four enzymes are present on C. cardunculus L. pistils, along with cyprosins and cardosins A and B. Their micro-heterogeneity was detected by 2D-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The enzymes resemble cardosin A more than they resemble cardosin B or cyprosin, with cardosin E and cardosin G being more active than cardosin A, towards the synthetic peptide KPAEFF(NO(2))AL. The specificity of these enzymes was investigated and it is shown that cardosin E, although closely related to cardosin A, exhibits different specificity. PMID:19488781

Sarmento, Ana Cristina; Lopes, Henrique; Oliveira, Cláudia S; Vitorino, Rui; Samyn, Bart; Sergeant, Kjell; Debyser, Griet; Van Beeumen, Jozef; Domingues, Pedro; Amado, Francisco; Pires, Euclides; Domingues, M Rosário M; Barros, Marlene T

2009-07-01

122

Using a Caesalpinia echinata Lam. protease inhibitor as a tool for studying the roles of neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G and proteinase 3 in pulmonary edema.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by neutrophil infiltration and the release of proteases, mainly elastase (NE), cathepsin G (Cat G) and proteinase 3 (PR3), which can be controlled by specific endogenous inhibitors. However, inhibitors of these proteases have been isolated from different sources, including plants. For this study, CeEI, or Caesalpinia echinata elastase inhibitor, was purified from C. echinata (Brazil-wood) seeds after acetone fractionation, followed by ion exchange and reversed phase chromatographic steps. Characterization with SDS-PAGE, stability assays, amino acid sequencing and alignment with other protein sequences confirmed that CeEI is a member of the soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor family. Like other members of this family, CeEI is a 20 kDa monomeric protein; it is stable within a large pH and temperature range, with four cysteine residues forming two disulfide bridges, conserved amino acid residues and leucine-isoleucine residues in the reactive site. CeEI was able to inhibit NE and Cat G at a nanomolar range (with K(i)s of 1.9 and 3.6 nM, respectively) and inhibited PR3 within a micromolar range (K(i) 3.7 ?M), leading to hydrolysis of specific synthetic substrates. In a lung edema model, CeEI reduced the lung weight and pulmonary artery pressure until 180 min after the injection of zymosan-activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils. In experiments performed in the presence of a Cat G and PR3, but not an NE inhibitor, lung edema was reduced only until 150 min and pulmonary artery pressure was similar to that of the control. These results confirm that NE action is crucial to edema establishment and progression. Additionally, CeEI appears to be a useful tool for studying the physiology of pulmonary edema and provides a template for molecular engineering and drug design for ALI therapy. PMID:24140156

Cruz-Silva, Ilana; Neuhof, Christiane; Gozzo, Andrezza Justino; Nunes, Viviane Abreu; Hirata, Izaura Yoshico; Sampaio, Misako Uemura; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia; Neuhof, Heinz; Araújo, Mariana da Silva

2013-12-01

123

Cysteine metabolism in the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta.  

Science.gov (United States)

The major pathways for cysteine catabolism in Hymenolepis diminuta have been investigated. The parasite has an active cystathionine-beta-synthase and, as in other tissues, this enzyme has a wide substrate specificity. However, the enzyme from H. diminuta differs significantly from the mammalian enzyme in showing a high serine sulphydrase activity and a high serine lyase activity. There was only low gamma-cystathionase activity in H. diminuta and again the enzyme showed a range of substrate specificities. Cysteine aminotransferase activity was readily demonstrated in the tapeworm, but there was no evidence for 3-mercaptopyruvate sulphotransferase activity. An oxidative pathway for cysteine catabolism in H. diminuta was shown by the presence of cysteine dioxygenase and cysteine sulphinate transaminase. The properties of the helminth cysteine dioxygenase were very similar to those of rat liver. H. diminuta was able to reduce cystine to cysteine via a glutathione-cysteine transhydrogenase system. PMID:3174234

Gomez-Bautista, M; Barrett, J

1988-08-01

124

The antihypertensive effect of cysteine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypertension is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Individuals with hypertension are at an increased risk for stroke, heart disease and kidney failure. Essential hypertension results from a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors. One such lifestyle factor is diet, and its role in the control of blood pressure has come under much scrutiny. Just as increased salt and sugar are known to elevate blood pressure, other dietary factors may have antihypertensive effects. Studies including the Optimal Macronutrient Intake to Prevent Heart Disease (OmniHeart) study, Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT), International Study of Salt and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) study have demonstrated an inverse relationship between dietary protein and blood pressure. One component of dietary protein that may partially account for its antihypertensive effect is the nonessential amino acid cysteine. Studies in hypertensive humans and animal models of hypertension have shown that N-acetylcysteine, a stable cysteine analogue, lowers blood pressure, which substantiates this idea. Cysteine may exert its antihypertensive effects directly or through its storage form, glutathione, by decreasing oxidative stress, improving insulin resistance and glucose metabolism, lowering advanced glycation end products, and modulating levels of nitric oxide and other vasoactive molecules. Therefore, adopting a balanced diet containing cysteine-rich proteins may be a beneficial lifestyle choice for individuals with hypertension. An example of such a diet is the DASH diet, which is low in salt and saturated fat; includes whole grains, poultry, fish and nuts; and is rich in vegetables, fruits and low-fat dairy products. PMID:22477470

Vasdev, Sudesh; Singal, Pawan; Gill, Vicki

2009-01-01

125

Selective modification of phosphoribulokinase cysteines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The most reactive sulfhydryl in native phosphoribulokinase can be selectively alkylated with iodoacetate; complete loss of activity results. Composition and N-terminal analyses of the peptide bearing this -SH show that cys-16 is the modification site. In the presence of Mg and ATP, a nonessential -SH is modified; catalytic activity is unchanged. The peptide bearing this cysteine has been characterized by amino acid composition and N-terminal analyses (Phe-Phe-Asn-Pro-Val-Tyr-(Ile/Leu)...). Enzyme alkylated at this site is subject to reversible oxidative inactivation, showing that this cysteine is not involved in regulation of activity. A cysteine distinct from this nonessential residue is suggested by crosslinking studies to be close (5a) to cys-16. The site-directed inhibitor fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine (FSBA) inactivates enzyme by modifying cys-16. Carboxymethylation of enzyme after FSBA incorporation, followed by DTT treatment, unmasks the initial modification site and allows (/sup 14/C)-iodoacetate labeling. The tryptic peptide bearing this residue co-chromatographs with and is identical in composition to the cys-16 containing peptide.

Krieger, T.J.; Mende-Mueller, L.M.; Miziorko, H.M.

1987-05-01

126

Differential gene expression for suicide-substrate serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) in vegetative and grain tissues of barley  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Proteins of the serpin superfamily (similar to43 kDa) from mature cereal grains are in vitro suicide-substrate inhibitors of specific mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family. However, unlike the 'standard-mechanism' serine proteinase inhibitors (<25 kDa), the biological functions of plant serpins are unknown. Expression studies of genes encoding members of three subfamilies of serpins (BSZx, BSZ4 and BSZ7) in developing grain and vegetative tissues of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) showed that transcripts encoding BSZx, which inhibits distinct proteinases at overlapping reactive centres in vitro, were ubiquitous at low levels, but the protein could not be detected. EST analysis showed that expression of genes for serpins with BSZx-type reactive centres in vegetative tissues is widespread in the plant kingdom, suggesting a common regulatory function. For BSZ4 and BSZ7, expression at the protein level was highest in the maturing grain (greater than or equal to15 d post-anthesis), where these serpins were localized by immunomicroscopy to the central and peripheral starchy endosperm, subaleurone, and (at lower levels) to the aleurone. Serpins were also localized to the meristem and vascular tissues of roots, and to the phloem of coleoptiles and leaves. The identification of BSZ4 in vegetative tissues by western blotting was confirmed for the roots by purification and amino acid sequencing, and for the leaves by in vitro reactive-centre loop cleavage studies. Plant serpins are likely to use their irreversible inhibitory mechanism in the inhibition of exogenous proteinases capable of breaking down seed storage proteins, and in the defence of specific cell types in vegetative tissues.

Hejgaard, JØrn

2003-01-01

127

Effects of leupeptin on proteinase and germination of castor beans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Leupeptin, tripeptide inhibitor of some proteinases, was shown previously to maintain the stability of several enzymes (isocitrate lyase, fumarase, and catalase) in crude extracts of castor bean endosperm. This reagent is now shown to inhibit the breakdown of water-soluble and crystalloid-storage proteins of the protein bodies isolated from castor beans by the SH-proteinase and it also inhibits the endopeptidase from mung beans. When suitably introduced into the endosperm of dry castor beans it strongly inhibits germination and seedling development. Application of leupeptin to endosperm halves removed from the seed prevents the normal development of enzymes concerned with gluconeogenesis from fat and drastically curtails sugar production. The results suggest that the SH-proteinase is intimately involved in the mobilization of storage proteins.

Alpi, A.; Beevers, H.

1981-10-01

128

S-Substituted cysteine derivatives and thiosulfinate formation in Petiveria alliacea-part II.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three cysteine derivatives, (R)-S-(2-hydroxyethyl)cysteine, together with (R(S)R(C))- and (S(S)R(C))-S-(2-hydroxyethyl)cysteine sulfoxides, have been isolated from the roots of Petiveria alliacea. Furthermore, three additional amino acids, S-methyl-, S-ethyl-, and S-propylcysteine derivatives, were detected. They were present only in trace amounts (thiosulfinates, S-(2-hydroxyethyl) (2-hydroxyethane)-, S-(2-hydroxyethyl) phenylmethane-, S-benzyl (2-hydroxyethane)- and S-benzyl phenylmethanethiosulfinates, have been found in a homogenate of the roots. The formation pathways of various benzyl/phenyl-containing compounds previously found in the plant were also discussed. PMID:12423888

Kubec, Roman; Kim, Seokwon; Musah, Rabi A

2002-11-01

129

Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers’ regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses. PMID:22465191

Rodrigues, Silas P.; Ventura, Jose A.; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Nohara, Lilian L.; Wermelinger, Luciana S.; Almeida, Igor C.; Zingali, Russolina B.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

2012-01-01

130

Overexpression of a Weed (Solanum americanum Proteinase Inhibitor in Transgenic Tobacco Results in Increased Glandular Trichome Density and Enhanced Resistance to Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we produced transgenic tobacco plants by overexpressing a serine proteinase inhibitor gene, SaPIN2a, from the American black nightshade Solanum americanum under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. SaPIN2a was properly transcribed and translated as indicated by Northern blot and Western blot analyses. Functional integrity of SaPIN2a in transgenic plants was confirmed by proteinase inhibitory activity assay. Bioassays for insect resistance showed that SaPIN2a-overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants were more resistant to cotton bollworm(Helicoverpa armigera and tobacco cutworm(Spodoptera litura larvae, two devastating pests of important crop plants, than the control plants. Interestingly, overexpression of SaPIN2a in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in a significant increase in glandular trichome density and a promotion of trichome branching, which could also provide an additional resistance mechanism in transgenic plants against insect pests. Therefore, SaPIN2a could be used as an alternative proteinase inhibitor for the production of insect-resistant transgenic plants.

Zeng-Fu Xu

2009-04-01

131

Perspectives of digestive pest control with proteinase inhibitors that mainly affect the trypsin-like activity of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study describes the main characteristics of the proteolytic activities of the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, and their sensitivity to proteinase inhibitors and activators. Midguts of last instar larvae reared on an artificial diet were homogenized in 0.15 M NaCl an [...] d centrifuged at 14,000 g for 10 min at 4ºC and the supernatants were used in enzymatic assays at 30ºC, pH 10.0. Basal total proteolytic activity (azocasein hydrolysis) was 1.14 ± 0.15 absorbance variation min-1 mg protein-1, at 420 nm; basal trypsin-like activity (N-benzoyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide, BApNA, hydrolysis) was 0.217 ± 0.02 mmol p-nitroaniline min-1 mg protein-1. The maximum proteolytic activities were observed at pH 10.5 using azocasein and at pH 10.0 using BApNA, this pH being identical to the midgut pH of 10.0. The maximum trypsin-like activity occurred at 50ºC, a temperature that reduces enzyme stability to 80 and 60% of the original, when pre-incubated for 5 and 30 min, respectively. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibited the proteolytic activities with an IC50 of 0.39 mM for azocasein hydrolysis and of 1.35 mM for BApNA hydrolysis. Benzamidine inhibited the hydrolysis with an IC50 of 0.69 and 0.076 mM for azocasein and BApNA, respectively. The absence of cysteine-proteinases is indicated by the fact that 2-mercaptoethanol and L-cysteine did not increase the rate of azocasein hydrolysis. These results demonstrate the presence of serine-proteinases and the predominance of trypsin-like activity in the midgut of Lepidoptera insects, now also detected in A. gemmatalis, and suggest this enzyme as a major target for pest control based on disruption of protein metabolism using proteinase inhibitors.

M.E., Pereira; F.A., Dörr; N.C., Peixoto; J.F., Lima-Garcia; F., Dörr; G.G., Brito.

1633-16-01

132

The aspartic proteinase family of three Phytophthora species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora species are oomycete plant pathogens with such major social and economic impact that genome sequences have been determined for Phytophthora infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum. Pepsin-like aspartic proteinases (APs are produced in a wide variety of species (from bacteria to humans and contain conserved motifs and landmark residues. APs fulfil critical roles in infectious organisms and their host cells. Annotation of Phytophthora APs would provide invaluable information for studies into their roles in the physiology of Phytophthora species and interactions with their hosts. Results Genomes of Phytophthora infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum contain 11-12 genes encoding APs. Nine of the original gene models in the P. infestans database and several in P. sojae and P. ramorum (three and four, respectively were erroneous. Gene models were corrected on the basis of EST data, consistent positioning of introns between orthologues and conservation of hallmark motifs. Phylogenetic analysis resolved the Phytophthora APs into 5 clades. Of the 12 sub-families, several contained an unconventional architecture, as they either lacked a signal peptide or a propart region. Remarkably, almost all APs are predicted to be membrane-bound. Conclusions One of the twelve Phytophthora APs is an unprecedented fusion protein with a putative G-protein coupled receptor as the C-terminal partner. The others appear to be related to well-documented enzymes from other species, including a vacuolar enzyme that is encoded in every fungal genome sequenced to date. Unexpectedly, however, the oomycetes were found to have both active and probably-inactive forms of an AP similar to vertebrate BACE, the enzyme responsible for initiating the processing cascade that generates the A? peptide central to Alzheimer's Disease. The oomycetes also encode enzymes similar to plasmepsin V, a membrane-bound AP that cleaves effector proteins of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum during their translocation into the host red blood cell. Since the translocation of Phytophthora effector proteins is currently a topic of intense research activity, the identification in Phytophthora of potential functional homologues of plasmepsin V would appear worthy of investigation. Indeed, elucidation of the physiological roles of the APs identified here offers areas for future study. The significant revision of gene models and detailed annotation presented here should significantly facilitate experimental design.

ten Have Arjen

2011-05-01

133

Functional role of aspartic proteinase cathepsin D in insect metamorphosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Metamorphosis is a complex, highly conserved and strictly regulated development process that involves the programmed cell death of obsolete larval organs. Here we show a novel functional role for the aspartic proteinase cathepsin D during insect metamorphosis. Results Cathepsin D of the silkworm Bombyx mori (BmCatD) was ecdysone-induced, differentially and spatially expressed in the larval fat body of the final instar and in...

Seo Sook; Je Yeon; Kim Iksoo; Yoon Hyung; Kang Pil; Choo Young; Wei Ya; Choi Yong; Kim Bo; Lee Kwang; Gui Zhong; Lee Sang; Guo Xijie; Sohn Hung; Jin Byung

2006-01-01

134

Dental enamel development: proteinases and their enamel matrix substrates.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review focuses on recent discoveries and delves in detail about what is known about each of the proteins (amelogenin, ameloblastin, and enamelin) and proteinases (matrix metalloproteinase-20 and kallikrein-related peptidase-4) that are secreted into the enamel matrix. After an overview of enamel development, this review focuses on these enamel proteins by describing their nomenclature, tissue expression, functions, proteinase activation, and proteinase substrate specificity. These proteins and their respective null mice and human mutations are also evaluated to shed light on the mechanisms that cause nonsyndromic enamel malformations termed amelogenesis imperfecta. Pertinent controversies are addressed. For example, do any of these proteins have a critical function in addition to their role in enamel development? Does amelogenin initiate crystallite growth, does it inhibit crystallite growth in width and thickness, or does it do neither? Detailed examination of the null mouse literature provides unmistakable clues and/or answers to these questions, and this data is thoroughly analyzed. Striking conclusions from this analysis reveal that widely held paradigms of enamel formation are inadequate. The final section of this review weaves the recent data into a plausible new mechanism by which these enamel matrix proteins support and promote enamel development. PMID:24159389

Bartlett, John D

2013-01-01

135

Trichoderma harzianum transformant has high extracellular alkaline proteinase expression during specific mycoparasitic interactions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mycoparasite Trichoderma harzianum produces an alkaline proteinase that may be specifically involved in mycoparasitism. We have constructed transformant strains of this fungus that overexpress this alkaline proteinase. Some of the transformants were assessed for alkaline proteinase activity, and those with higher activity than the wild type were selected for further studies. One of these transformant strains produced an elevated and constitutive pbr1 mRNA level during mycoparasitic interactions with Rhizoctonia solani.

Goldman Maria Helena S.

1998-01-01

136

The role of proteinase enzymes in the process of conversion of muscle to meat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Post mortem meat tenderization is a complex mechanism and unfortunately it has not been fully identified scientifically. It is known that endogenous proteinases have an important role in this mechanism. Detailed studies are being performed about the destructive effects of lysosomal proteinases and calcium dependent proteinases on the myofibrils and these are most common topics that are being investigated about meat tenderization processes by the scientists. The aim of this paper is to review the role of proteinase enzymes in the process of conversion of muscle to meat. .

Dümen Emek

2006-01-01

137

A new crystal form of proteinase A, a non-pepsin-type acid proteinase from Aspergillus niger var. macrosporus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteinase A from Aspergillus niger var. macrosporus is a non-pepsin-type acid proteinase, whose catalytic residues and mechanism remain to be elucidated. A new form of proteinase A crystals more suitable for crystallography than that obtained previously was prepared from an ammonium sulfate solution at pH 3.5 by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. The space group of the crystals was P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit cell dimensions of a = 69.75 +/- 0.06 A, b = 87.55 +/- 0.05 A, and c = 60.83 +/- 0.04 A. On the assumption of two enzyme molecules per asymmetric unit, the calculated volume to unit protein mass ratio (Vm) was 2.08 A3/Da. By assuming the specific volume to be 0.74 cm3/g, the solvent content (Vso1) was estimated to be 41%, i.e., much larger than that of the crystal form obtained previously at pH 2.0 (Vso1 = 26%). Diffraction data were collected up to a resolution higher than 1.6 A, using the Weissenberg camera for macromolecular crystallography with synchrotron radiation. PMID:8276753

Tanokura, M; Sasaki, H; Muramatsu, T; Iwata, S; Hamaya, T; Takizawa, T; Takahashi, K

1993-10-01

138

Autophagic activity measured in whole rat hepatocytes as the accumulation of a novel BHMT fragment (p10), generated in amphisomes by the asparaginyl proteinase, legumain.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the stepwise autophagic-lysosomal processing of hepatocellular proteins, the abundant cytosolic enzyme, betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) was used as a probe. Full-length (45 kDa) endogenous BHMT was found to be cleaved in an autophagy-dependent (3-methyladenine-sensitive) manner in isolated rat hepatocytes to generate a novel N-terminal 10-kDa fragment (p10) identified and characterized by mass spectrometry. The cleavage site was consistent with cleavage by the asparaginyl proteinase, legumain and indeed a specific inhibitor of this enzyme (AJN-230) was able to completely suppress p10 formation in intact cells, causing instead accumulation of a 42-kDa intermediate. To prevent further degradation of p10 or p42 by the cysteine proteinases present in autophagic vacuoles, the proteinase inhibitor leupeptin had to be present. Asparagine, an inhibitor of amphisome-lysosome fusion, did not detectably impede either p42 or p10 formation, indicating that BHMT processing primarily takes place in amphisomes rather than in lysosomes. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was similarly degraded primarily in amphisomes by leupeptin-sensitive proteolysis, but some additional leupeptin-resistant LDH degradation in lysosomes was also indicated. The autophagic sequestration of BHMT appeared to be nonselective, as the accumulation of p10 (in the presence of leupeptin) or of its precursors (in the additional presence of AJN-230) proceeded at approximately the same rate as the model autophagic cargo, LDH. The complete lack of a cytosolic background makes p10 suitable for use in a "fragment assay" of autophagic activity in whole cells. Incubation of hepatocytes with ammonium chloride, which neutralizes amphisomes as well as lysosomes, caused rapid, irreversible inhibition of legumain activity and stopped all p10 formation. The availability of several methods for selective targeting of legumain in intact cells may facilitate functional studies of this enigmatic enzyme, and perhaps suggest novel ways to reduce its contribution to cancer cell metastasis or autoimmune disease. PMID:21610319

Øverbye, Anders; Sætre, Frank; Hagen, Linda Korseberg; Johansen, Harald Thidemann; Seglen, Per O

2011-09-01

139

Molecular cloning, sequencing, and mapping of the gene encoding protease I and characterization of proteinase and proteinase-defective Escherichia coli mutants.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Clones carrying the gene encoding a proteinase were isolated from Clarke and Carbon's collection, using a chromogenic substrate, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-phenylalanine beta-naphthyl ester. The three clones isolated, pLC6-33, pLC13-1, and pLC36-46, shared the same chromosomal DNA region. A 0.9-kb Sau3AI fragment within this region was found to be responsible for the overproduction of the proteinase, and the nucleotide sequence of the region was then determined. The proteinase was purified to homo...

Ichihara, S.; Matsubara, Y.; Kato, C.; Akasaka, K.; Mizushima, S.

1993-01-01

140

Crystal Structure of Mammalian Cysteine dioxygenase: A Novel Mononuclear Iron Center for Cysteine Thiol Oxidation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cysteine dioxygenase is a mononuclear iron-dependent enzyme responsible for the oxidation of cysteine with molecular oxygen to form cysteinesulfinate. This reaction commits cysteine to either catabolism to sulfate and pyruvate or to the taurine biosynthetic pathway. Cysteine dioxygenase is a member of the cupin superfamily of proteins. The crystal structure of recombinant rat cysteine dioxygenase has been determined to 1.5 Angstroms resolution, and these results confirm the canonical cupin {beta}-sandwich fold and the rare cysteinyl-tyrosine intramolecular crosslink (between Cys93 and Tyr157) seen in the recently reported murine cysteine dioxygenase structure. In contrast to the catalytically inactive mononuclear Ni(II) metallocenter present in the murine structure, crystallization of a catalytically competent preparation of rat cysteine dioxygenase revealed a novel tetrahedrally coordinated mononuclear iron center involving three histidines (His86, His88, and His140) and a water molecule. Attempts to acquire a structure with bound ligand using either co-crystallization or soaks with cysteine revealed the formation of a mixed disulfide involving Cys164 near the active site, which may explain previously observed substrate inhibition. This work provides a framework for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in thiol dioxygenation and sets the stage for exploring the chemistry of both the novel mononuclear iron center and the catalytic role of the cysteinyl-tyrosine linkage.

Simmons,C.; Liu, Q.; Huang, Q.; Hao, Q.; Begley, T.; Karplus, P.; Stipanuk, M.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Primary structure of potato Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The serine proteinase inhibitor (PSPI-51) isolated from potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L,) comprises two protein species with pi 5.2 and 6.3, denoted as PSPI-21-5.2 and PSPI-21-6.3, respectively. They were separated by anion exchange chromatography on a Mono Q FPLC column. Both species tightly inhibit human leukocyte elastase, whereas their interaction with trypsin and chymotrypsin is substantially weaker. The sequences of both PSPI-21-5.2 and PSPI-21-6.3 were determined by analysis of over...

Valueva, Tatyana A.; Revina, Tatyana A.; Mosolov, Vladimir V.; Mentele, Reinhard

2000-01-01

142

Purification and characterization of alkaline serine proteinase from photosynthetic bacterium, Rubrivivax gelatinosus KDDS1.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to reduce the protein content of wastewater, photosynthetic bacteria producing proteinases were screened from wastewater of various sources and stocked in culture. An isolated strain, KDDS1, was identified as Rubrivivax gelatinosus, a purple nonsulfur bacterium that secretes proteinase under micro-aerobic conditions under light at 35 degrees C. Molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 32.5 kDa. The enzyme showed the highest activity at 45 degrees C and pH 9.6, and the activity was completely inhibited by phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), but not by EDTA. The amino-terminal 24 amino acid sequence of the enzyme showed about 50% identity to those of serine proteinases from Pseudoalteromonas piscicida strain O-7 and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Thus, the enzyme from Rvi. gelatinosus KDDS1 was thought to be a serine-type proteinase. This was the first serine proteinase characterized from photosynthetic bacteria. PMID:15056899

Oda, Kohei; Tanskul, Somporn; Oyama, Hiroshi; Noparatnaraporn, Napavarn

2004-03-01

143

Stratum corneum thiol protease (SCTP): a novel cysteine protease of late epidermal differentiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteolytic enzymes play crucial roles in the formation of the stratum corneum barrier tissue and in its subsequent maturation. Despite this, the proteases involved in stratum corneum physiology are not well characterized. Hence, studies were performed to identify these proteolytic enzymes present in the peripheral layers of this tissue using a combination of tape stripping and zymography. Using this approach, a novel human cysteine protease was identified and characterized, and named stratum corneum thiol protease (SCTP). Gelatin zymography revealed that SCTP is composed of two variants with apparent molecular weights of 34 and 35 kDa which do not correspond to any previously described stratum corneum protease. Mechanistically SCTP belongs to the cysteine proteinase class as shown by: (1) acid protease activity, (2) a requirement for mild reducing conditions, and (3) the specific inhibition of activity by E64 and Z-phe-ala-diazomethylketone. Further analysis using concanavalin A affinity chromatography demonstrated that the two 34 and 35 kDa variants are both glycoproteins, which, after removal of the oligosaccharide sidechains with the specific enzyme N-glycopeptidase F, reveal a single active core protease of 32 kDa. SCTP did not crossreact with antibodies raised against the lysosomal cysteine proteases cathepsins B, H or L, thereby distinguishing it from the classical cysteine cathepsins. Localization studies revealed that SCTP is present at all depths in the stratum corneum, thereby precluding microbial contamination as the enzyme source. Moreover, it was also present at all body sites investigated, except for the hyperkeratotic palmoplantar stratum corneum. SCTP was found to be a product of late differentiation in cultured human keratinocytes; the enzyme was synthesized by differentiated calcium-switched cells and secreted into the medium, whereas nondifferentiated basal keratinocytes did not produce this protease. Moreover, human fibroblast cultures did not produce the enzyme, suggesting that SCTP is not produced by the dermis and hence is epidermal specific. The function of SCTP is unknown, but the observed gelatinolytic activity coupled with its secretion into the medium by cultured keratinocytes indicates that physiologically it is responsible for the degradation of extracellular structural proteins. Furthermore, the optimal activity at acid pH suggests that it can function in the acidic environment of the stratum corneum. It remains to be elucidated whether this enzyme has a role in desquamation. PMID:10367708

Watkinson, A

1999-05-01

144

Nivulian-II a new milk clotting cysteine protease of Euphorbia nivulia latex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nivulian-II, new milk clotting cysteine protease has been purified from the latex of Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham. Nivulian-II is a monomeric protein with an apparent molecular mass 43670.846 Da. It presents its optimum activity at pH 6.3 and temperature of 50°C. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by common thiol-blocking reagents thereby indicating that it belongs to cysteine protease family. Nivulian-II is a type of glycoprotein and its pI is 3.4. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Nivulian-II is DFPPNTCCCICC. This sequence showed relatively low homology with several other proteases of Euphorbian plants, suggesting that the isolated enzyme is a new cysteine protease. PMID:25043129

Badgujar, Shamkant B; Mahajan, Raghunath T

2014-09-01

145

In vitro differential activity of phospholipases and acid proteinases of clinical isolates of Candida / Atividade diferencial in vitro de fosfolipases e proteinases ácidas de isolados clínicos de Candida  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Candida são leveduras comensais, porém, se o equilíbrio da flora normal for interrompido ou as defesas imunitárias estiverem comprometidas, espécies de Candida podem causar manifestações de doença. Vários atributos contribuem na virulência e patogenicidade de Candida, inclusive a produçã [...] o de enzimas extracelulares hidrolíticas, especialmente fosfolipases e proteinases. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a atividade in vitro de fosfolipases e proteinases ácidas em isolados clínicos de Candida spp. MÉTODOS: Oitenta e dois isolados provenientes de pacientes hospitalizados coletados a partir de sítios de origem diversos foram analisados. A produção de fosfolipase foi verificada em meio egg yolk e a de proteinase em meio contendo soro albumina bovina. O estudo foi feito em triplicata. RESULTADOS: Cinquenta e seis (68,3%) dos isolados testados apresentaram atividade de fosfolipase positiva e 16 (44,4%) foram positivos para atividade de proteinase. C. tropicalis foi a espécie que apresentou o maior número de isolados positivos para fosfolipases (91,7%). Diferenças estatisticamente significantes em relação à produção de fosfolipases entre as espécies e entre as cepas provenientes de diferentes sítios de origem foram detectadas. Quanto à produção de proteinases ácidas, os isolados de C. parapsilosis testados foram os maiores produtores (69,2%). Entre as espécies analisadas, a porcentagem de produção de proteinase entre os isolados não diferiu estatisticamente (?2=1.9 p=0.5901 (?2=1.9 p=0.5901). CONCLUSÕES: A maioria dos isolados de C. não-albicans, assim como os de C. albicans, foram grandes produtores de enzimas hidrolíticas e, consequentemente, podem ser capazes de causar infecção em condições adequadas. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Candida yeasts are commensals; however, if the balance of normal flora is disrupted or the immune defenses are compromised, Candida species can cause disease manifestations. Several attributes contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of Candida, including the production of extrace [...] llular hydrolytic enzymes, particularly phospholipase and proteinase. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro activity of phospholipases and acid proteinases in clinical isolates of Candida spp. METHODS: Eighty-two isolates from hospitalized patients collected from various sites of origin were analyzed. Phospholipase production was performed in egg yolk medium and the production of proteinase was verified in a medium containing bovine serum albumin. The study was performed in triplicate. RESULTS: Fifty-six (68.3%) of isolates tested were phospholipase positive and 16 (44.4%) were positive for proteinase activity. C. tropicalis was the species with the highest number of positive isolates for phospholipase (91.7%). Statistically significant differences were observed in relation to production of phospholipases among species (p

Aurean, D' Eça Júnior; Anderson França, Silva; Fernanda Costa, Rosa; Sílvio Gomes, Monteiro; Patrícia de Maria Silva, Figueiredo; Cristina de Andrade, Monteiro.

146

In vitro differential activity of phospholipases and acid proteinases of clinical isolates of Candida / Atividade diferencial in vitro de fosfolipases e proteinases ácidas de isolados clínicos de Candida  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Candida são leveduras comensais, porém, se o equilíbrio da flora normal for interrompido ou as defesas imunitárias estiverem comprometidas, espécies de Candida podem causar manifestações de doença. Vários atributos contribuem na virulência e patogenicidade de Candida, inclusive a produçã [...] o de enzimas extracelulares hidrolíticas, especialmente fosfolipases e proteinases. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a atividade in vitro de fosfolipases e proteinases ácidas em isolados clínicos de Candida spp. MÉTODOS: Oitenta e dois isolados provenientes de pacientes hospitalizados coletados a partir de sítios de origem diversos foram analisados. A produção de fosfolipase foi verificada em meio egg yolk e a de proteinase em meio contendo soro albumina bovina. O estudo foi feito em triplicata. RESULTADOS: Cinquenta e seis (68,3%) dos isolados testados apresentaram atividade de fosfolipase positiva e 16 (44,4%) foram positivos para atividade de proteinase. C. tropicalis foi a espécie que apresentou o maior número de isolados positivos para fosfolipases (91,7%). Diferenças estatisticamente significantes em relação à produção de fosfolipases entre as espécies e entre as cepas provenientes de diferentes sítios de origem foram detectadas. Quanto à produção de proteinases ácidas, os isolados de C. parapsilosis testados foram os maiores produtores (69,2%). Entre as espécies analisadas, a porcentagem de produção de proteinase entre os isolados não diferiu estatisticamente (?2=1.9 p=0.5901 (?2=1.9 p=0.5901). CONCLUSÕES: A maioria dos isolados de C. não-albicans, assim como os de C. albicans, foram grandes produtores de enzimas hidrolíticas e, consequentemente, podem ser capazes de causar infecção em condições adequadas. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Candida yeasts are commensals; however, if the balance of normal flora is disrupted or the immune defenses are compromised, Candida species can cause disease manifestations. Several attributes contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of Candida, including the production of extrace [...] llular hydrolytic enzymes, particularly phospholipase and proteinase. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro activity of phospholipases and acid proteinases in clinical isolates of Candida spp. METHODS: Eighty-two isolates from hospitalized patients collected from various sites of origin were analyzed. Phospholipase production was performed in egg yolk medium and the production of proteinase was verified in a medium containing bovine serum albumin. The study was performed in triplicate. RESULTS: Fifty-six (68.3%) of isolates tested were phospholipase positive and 16 (44.4%) were positive for proteinase activity. C. tropicalis was the species with the highest number of positive isolates for phospholipase (91.7%). Statistically significant differences were observed in relation to production of phospholipases among species (p

Aurean, D' Eça Júnior; Anderson França, Silva; Fernanda Costa, Rosa; Sílvio Gomes, Monteiro; Patrícia de Maria Silva, Figueiredo; Cristina de Andrade, Monteiro.

2011-06-01

147

S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides, alliinase and aroma in Leucocoryne.  

Science.gov (United States)

Levels of S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides, alliinase and enzymatically generated pyruvic acid were determined in the bulb, leaf and scape of five species and a natural hybrid of Leucocoryne (Liliaceae), a genus of ornamental geophytes indigenous to Chile. (+)-S-Methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (MCSO) was present in all plant parts of all species at levels between 0.09 and 1.41 mg g(-1) fr. wt. Trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (PRENCSO) was present in plant parts of three species only (L. angustipetala, L. oadorata and L. purpurea) at levels between 0.12 and 1.82 mg g(-1) fr. wt. No other S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides were detected. Alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) was detected in the leaf, bulb and scape of L. angustipetala and L. purpurea, only in the leaves of L. coquimbensis and L. purpurea x L. coquimbensis, and only in the bulb of L. odorata. Enzymatically generated pyruvic acid was detected in all plant parts of all species at levels between trace amounts and 5.33 micromol g(-1) fr. wt. As PRENCSO is produced only in Leucocoryne species exhibiting a strong and unpleasant onion-like aroma, it is probable that the enzymatic degradation of PRENCSO is the main cause of that aroma. Consequently, Leucocoryne cultivars should be selected in species and hybrids that lack the ability to synthesise PRENCSO. PMID:11065288

Lancaster, J E; Shaw, M L; Walton, E F

2000-09-01

148

Cysteine-selective reactions for antibody conjugation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Moving tracks from maleimide: New site-selective protein modification reactions at cysteine have been developed. Unlike conventional maleimide conjugation, which results in a labile thioether succinimide, the new bioconjugation reactions result in stable conjugates and provide opportunities to develop a new generation of homogeneous, stable, and therapeutically useful conjugates. PMID:25070879

Cal, Pedro M S D; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Gois, Pedro M P

2014-09-26

149

Digestive proteinases of larvae of the corn earworm, Heliothis zea: characterization, distribution, and dietary relationships.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteinases and peptidases from the intestinal tract of fifth-instar larvae of Heliothis (= Helicoverpa) zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) were characterized based on their substrate specificity, tissue of origin, and pH optimum. Activity corresponding to trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidases A and B, and leucine aminopeptidase was detected in regurgitated fluids, midgut contents, and midgut wall. High levels of proteinase activity were detected in whole midgut homogenates, with much lower levels being observed in foregut and salivary gland homogenates. In addition, enzyme levels were determined from midgut lumen contents, midgut wall homogenates, and regurgitated fluids. Proteinase activities were highest in the regurgitated fluids and midgut lumen contents, with the exception of leucine aminopeptidase activity, which was found primarily in the midgut wall. Larvae fed their natural diet of soybean leaves had digestive proteinase levels that were similar to those of larvae fed artificial diet. No major differences in midgut proteinase activity were detected between larvae reared under axenic or xenic conditions, indicating that the larvae are capable of digesting proteins in the absence of gut microorganisms. The effect of pH on the activity of each proteinase was studied. The pH optima for the major proteinases were determined to be pH 8.0-8.5 for trypsin, when tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester was used as the substrate; and pH 7.5-8.0 for chymotrypsin, when benzoyl-L-tyrosine ethyl ester was used as the substrate. PMID:1799675

Lenz, C J; Kang, J; Rice, W C; McIntosh, A H; Chippendale, G M; Schubert, K R

1991-01-01

150

Effects of sulphate-deficiency on cysteine metabolism in the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plants, bacteria and fungi have the ability to assimilate inorganic sulphur and incorporate it into inorganic compounds. Animals on the contrary, do not assimilate inorganic sulphur; they require methionine as an essential amino acid for their source of sulphur nutrient. The amino acid cysteine (Cys) is the first committed molecule in plant metabolism containing sulphur and it is the sulphide donor for the generation of methionine, glutathione (GSH), phytochelatins, iron-sulphur clusters,...

Salbitani, Giovanna

2010-01-01

151

Serine- and SH-proteinase inhibitors from Enterolobium contortisiliquum beans. Purification and preliminary characterization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two types of proteinase inhibitors were purified from Enterolobium contortisiliquum beans. The inhibitor of serine-proteinases inhibited trypsin (Ki = 5 nM), chymotrypsin (Ki = 10 nM) and plasma kallikrein, but not tissue kallikreins. The molecular weight is approximately 23 kDal and two polypeptide chains are detected after reduction. The second inhibitor with activity directed against SH-proteinases was isolated by CM-papain-Sepharose. The molecular weight is approximately 60 kDal and only one polypeptide chain was detected after reduction. Papain (Ki = 0.6 nM) and bromelain are inhibited. PMID:3484236

Oliva, M L; Sampaio, M U; Sampaio, C A

1987-01-01

152

Homology models of main proteinase from coronavirus associated with SARS  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, two homology models of the main proteinase (M pro) from the novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) were constructed. These models reveal three distinct functional domains, in which an intervening loop connecting domains II and III as well as a catalytic cleft containing the substrate binding subsites S1 and S2 between domains I and II are observed. S2 exhibits structural variations more significantly than S1 during the 200 ps molecular dynamics simulations because it is located at the open mouth of the catalytic cleft and the amino acid residues lining up this subsite are least conserved. In addition, the higher structural variation of S2 makes it flexible enough to accommodate a bulky hydrophobic residue from the substrate.

Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Lin, Jin-Chung; Ho, Yih; Chen, Chin-Wen

2005-01-01

153

Ozone effects on inhibitors of human neutrophil proteinases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of ozone on human alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (A-1-PI), alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (A-1-Achy), bronchial leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (BLPI), and Eglin C were studied using in vitro exposures in phosphate-buffered solutions. Following ozone exposure, inhibitory activities against human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and/or cathepsin G (Cat G) were measured. Exposure of A-1-PI to 50 mol O3/mol protein resulted in a complete loss of HNE inhibitory activity, whereas A-1-Achy lost only 50% of its Cat G inhibitory activity and remained half active even after exposure to 250 mol of O3. At 40 mol O3/mol protein, BLPI lost 79% of its activity against HNE and 87% of its Cat G inhibitory activity. Eglin C, a leech-derived inhibitor, lost 81% of its HNE inhibitory activity and 92% of its ability to inhibit Cat G when exposed to 40 mol O3/mol. Amino acid analyses of ozone-exposed inhibitors showed destruction of Trp, Met, Tyr, and His with as little as 10 mol O3/mol protein, and higher levels of O3 resulted in more extensive oxidation of susceptible residues. The variable ozone susceptibility of the different amino acid residues in the four proteins indicated that oxidation was a function of protein structure, as well as the inherent susceptibility of particular amino acids. Exposure of A-1-PI and BLPI in the presence of the antioxidants, Trolox C (water soluble vitamin E) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C), showed that antioxidant vitamins may protect proteins from oxidative inactivation by ozone. Methionine-specific modification of BLPI reduced its HNE and Cat G inhibitory activities. Two moles of N-chlorosuccinimide per mole of BLPI methionine caused an 80% reduction in activity against Cat G, but only a 40% reduction in HNE inhibitory activity.

Smith, C.E.; Stack, M.S.; Johnson, D.A.

1987-02-15

154

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray investigation of proteinase A, a non-pepsin-type acid proteinase from Aspergillus niger var. macrosporus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteinase A from Aspergillus niger var. macrosporus is a non-pepsin-type acid proteinase distinctly different in various properties from the family of pepsin-type aspartic proteinases, and so far it remains unknown which residues participate in the catalysis of the enzyme and how the mechanism operates. The acid proteinase A was crystallized from an ammonium sulfate solution by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. The space group of the crystals was P2(1)2(1)2(1) with unit cell dimensions of a = 54.7 A, b = 70.4 A and c = 38.0 A. On the assumption that there is one enzyme molecule in the asymmetric unit, the calculated ratio of volume to unit protein mass (Vm) was 1.64 A3 per dalton. Diffraction data were collected up to a resolution higher than 1.5 A, using the Weissenberg camera for macromolecular crystallography with synchrotron radiation. The crystal of proteinase A is, therefore, suitable for the structural analysis with a high resolution. PMID:1731082

Tanokura, M; Matsuzaki, H; Iwata, S; Nakagawa, A; Hamaya, T; Takizawa, T; Takahashi, K

1992-01-01

155

Influence of air temperature on proteinase activity and beverage quality in Coffea arabica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fruits were collected from trees of Coffea arabica cv. Obatã grown at Mococa and Adamantina in São Paulo State, Brazil, which are regions with marked differences in air temperature that produce coffee with distinct qualities. Mococa is a cooler location that produces high-quality coffee, whereas coffee from Adamantina is of lower quality. The amino acid and protein contents, amino acid profile, and proteinase activity and type in endosperm protein extracts were analysed. Proteinase genes we...

Hellen Marília Couto de Abreu; Paula Macedo Nobile; Milton Massao Shimizu; Paula Yuri Yamamoto; Emerson Alves Silva; Carlos Augusto Colombo; Paulo Mazzafera

2012-01-01

156

Molecular identification of a bevy of serine proteinases in Manduca sexta hemolymph.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracellular serine proteinase pathways control immune and homeostatic processes in insects. Our current knowledge of their components is limited-prophenoloxidase-activating proteinases (PAPs) are among the few hemolymph proteinases (HPs) with known functions. To identify components of proteinase systems in the hemolymph of Manduca sexta, we amplified cDNAs from larval fat body or hemocytes using degenerate primers coding for two conserved regions in S1 family serine proteinases. PCR yielded fragments encoding seven known (HP1-HP4, PAP-1, PAP-2 and PAP-3) and 18 unknown (HP5-HP22) serine proteinases. We screened cDNA libraries and isolated clones for 17 of the newly discovered HPs (HP5-HP22 except for HP11) and prepared antibodies to 14 recombinant proteins (HP6, HP8-HP10, HP12, HP14-HP19, HP21 and HP22). Fourteen of the HPs contain regulatory clip domain(s) at their amino-terminus--HP1, HP2, HP6, HP8, HP13, HP17, HP18, HP21, HP22 and PAP-1 have one, whereas HP12, HP15, PAP-2 and PAP-3 have two clip domains. Multiple sequence alignment of catalytic domains in these and other arthropod serine proteinases provided useful clues for future functional analysis. Northern blot and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analyses showed increases in HP2, HP7, HP9, HP10, HP12-HP22 mRNA levels at 24h after a bacterial challenge, and immunoblot analysis confirmed elevated concentrations of HP12, HP14-HP19, HP21 and HP22 proteins in plasma in response to injected bacteria. Hemocytes express HP13 and HP18; fat body produces HP12, HP20-HP22; both tissues synthesize the other HPs. These results collectively indicate the existence of a complex serine proteinase network in M. sexta hemolymph, predicted to mediate rapid defense responses upon wounding and/or microbial infection. PMID:15944088

Jiang, Haobo; Wang, Yang; Gu, Yongli; Guo, Xiaoping; Zou, Zhen; Scholz, Frank; Trenczek, Tina E; Kanost, Michael R

2005-08-01

157

Molecular identification of a bevy of serine proteinases in Manduca sextahemolymph?  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracellular serine proteinase pathways control immune and homeostatic processes in insects. Our current knowledge of their components is limited—prophenoloxidase-activating proteinases (PAPs) are among the few hemolymph proteinases (HPs) with known functions. To identify components of proteinase systems in the hemolymph of Manduca sexta, we amplified cDNAs from larval fat body or hemocytes using degenerate primers coding for two conserved regions in S1 family serine proteinases. PCR yielded fragments encoding seven known (HP1-HP4, PAP-1, PAP-2 and PAP-3) and 18 unknown (HP5-HP22) serine proteinases. We screened cDNA libraries and isolated clones for 17 of the newly discovered HPs (HP5-HP22 except for HP11) and prepared antibodies to 14 recombinant proteins (HP6, HP8-HP10, HP12, HP14-HP19, HP21 and HP22). Fourteen of the HPs contain regulatory clip domain(s) at their amino-terminus—HP1, HP2, HP6, HP8, HP13, HP17, HP18, HP21, HP22 and PAP-1 have one, whereas HP12, HP15, PAP-2 and PAP-3 have two clip domains. Multiple sequence alignment of catalytic domains in these and other arthropod serine proteinases provided useful clues for future functional analysis. Northern blot and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analyses showed increases in HP2, HP7, HP9, HP10, HP12–HP22 mRNA levels at 24 h after a bacterial challenge, and immunoblot analysis confirmed elevated concentrations of HP12, HP14–HP19, HP21 and HP22 proteins in plasma in response to injected bacteria. Hemocytes express HP13 and HP18; fat body produces HP12, HP20–HP22; both tissues synthesize the other HPs. These results collectively indicate the existence of a complex serine proteinase network in M. sexta hemolymph, predicted to mediate rapid defense responses upon wounding and/or microbial infection. PMID:15944088

Jiang, Haobo; Wang, Yang; Gu, Yongli; Guo, Xiaoping; Zou, Zhen; Scholz, Frank; Trenczek, Tina E.; Kanost, Michael R.

2007-01-01

158

Reaction of 5-halocytosine derivatives with cysteine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

5-Bromo-(1) and 5-iodo-2[prime]-deoxycytidine (2) undergo 100 percent dehalogenation to 2[prime]-deoxycytidine on heating with cysteine in 1N aq K[sub 2]CO[sub 3] in a nitrogen atmosphere at 50[degrees] for 72 h and 21 h, respectively. 5-Chloro-2[prime]-deoxycytidine (3) and 1-methyl-5-chlorocytosine (3m) on the other hand undergo very little dehalogenation, forming instead two products, 4, 5 and 4m, 5m respectively, whose structures have been determined by mass spectrometry and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the 3m products: 1-methyl-5(cystein-S-yl)cytosine (4m) and 3-methyl-2,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-oxo-3H-pyrimido [5,4-b][1,4]-thiazine-7-carboxylic acid (5m), mp. 236[degrees]C, 78 percent yield. Initially produced 4m undergoes a novel and facile cyclization to form 5m with loss of NH[sub 3] in the presence of cysteine. The compound 3m, mp. 258[degrees]C, has been synthesized by treating 1-methylcytosine with N-chlorosuccinimide in acetic acid at 105[degrees] for 3 h in 56 percent yield. Ultraviolet absorption spectral properties of 1, 2, 3, 3m, 4, 4m, 5, and 5m are reported.

Pal, B.C.; Ghosh, C.; Sethi, S.K.; Suttle, B.E.; McCloskey, J.A. (ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN (United States) Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

1988-01-01

159

The mitochondrial toxicity of cysteine-S-conjugates: Studies with pentachlorobutadienyl-L-cysteine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nephrotoxic cysteine conjugates, arising from mercapturate biosynthesis, can perturb the mitochondrial membrane potential and calcium homeostasis in renal epithelial cells. Activation of these cysteine conjugates to reactive species by mitochondrial ?-lyases results in covalent binding and mitochondrial damage. PCBC and related cysteine conjugates inhibit ADP-stimulated respiration in mitochondria respiring on alpha-ketoglutrate/malate and succinate indicating that both dehydrogenases may be targets. The respiratory inhibition is blocked by aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of the ?-lyase. Hence, metabolic activation is required implying that covalent binding of reactive intermediates may be important to the mitochondrial injury. Binding of 35S-fragments has been found for 5 conjugates with varying degrees of mitochondrial toxicity. PCBC is more lipophilic and has a higher affinity for cellular membranes than other cysteine conjugates. PCBC rapidly depolarizes the inner membrane potential resulting in an inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and calcium upon sequestration. Consequently, mitochondria and renal epithelial cells exposed to PCBC show a sudden release of calcium upon exposure to PCBC which is followed by a later increase in state 4 respiration leading to an inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation. The primary effect of other cysteine conjugates is an inhibition of the dehydrogenases, thus inhibiting state 3 respiration

160

Purification of a novel serine proteinase inhibitor from the skeletal muscle of white croaker (Argyrosomus argentatus).  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel serine proteinase inhibitor has been purified to homogeneity from the skeletal muscle of white croaker (Argyrosomus argentatus). The purification was carried out by ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-Sephacel, heating treatment followed by column chromatographies on SP-Sepharose, Sephadex G-150 and gel-filtration high performance liquid chromatography. The molecular mass of the inhibitor was 55 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. It specifically inhibited a myofibril-bound serine proteinase (MBSP) isolated from the skeletal muscle of lizard fish (Saurida wanieso). No inhibition, however, was detected toward other serine proteinases such as bovine trypsin, bovine chymotrypsin and a myofibril-bound serine proteinase from carp (Cyprinus carpio) muscle. Interestingly, the sequences of tryptic digested peptide fragments of MBSPI revealed high identity to that of porcine phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) (76%) and other PGIs. Furthermore, purified MBSPI exhibits PGI activity, suggesting the inhibitor is a protein closely related to PGI. When rabbit muscle PGI was investigated, it also specifically suppressed the activity of MBSP. It thus strongly suggests that MBSPI is actually PGI and conversely, PGI is a specific inhibitor toward myofibril-bound serine proteinase(s). PMID:10833440

Cao, M J; Osatomi, K; Matsuda, R; Ohkubo, M; Hara, K; Ishihara, T

2000-06-01

 
 
 
 
161

Transamination of L-cysteine sulfinate in the growing rat.  

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Full Text Available The enzyme activities involved in the transamination of L-cysteine sulfinate (L-alanine 3-sulfinic acid, L-aspartate and L-cysteine were examined in fetal, neonatal and maternal rat liver and placenta. In fetal and neonatal rat liver, aminotransferase activity was most active with L-cysteine sulfinate as a substrate and was also active with L-aspartate, while activity with L-cysteine was very low. The activity of transamination of L-cysteine sulfinate in rat liver developed in parallel with that of L-aspartate and L-cysteine. The aminotransferase activity markedly increased after the 19th day of gestation, reaching the same value as adult liver on the 3rd day after birth. The ratios of transamination of L-cysteine sulfinate to that of L-aspartate and to that of L-cysteine were constant during development. These observations suggest that L-cysteine sulfinate, L-aspartate and L-cysteine are transaminated by the same enzyme in the rat liver during development. Since placental aminotransferase activity was extremely low compared with that of the liver, it was suggested that the placenta did not play an important role in the transamination of these amino acids during pregnancy.

Akahori,Shuichiro

1987-12-01

162

Inhibitory selectivity of canecystatin: a recombinant cysteine peptidase inhibitor from sugarcane  

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The cDNA of a cystein peptidase inhibitor was isolated from sugarcane and expressed in Escherichia coli. The protein, named canecystatin, has previously been shown to exert antifungal activity on the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Herein, the inhibitory specificity of canecystatin was further characterized. It inhibits the cysteine peptidases from plant source papain (Ki=3.3 nM) and baupain (Ki=2.1x10-8 M), but no inhibitory effect was observed on ficin or bromelain. Canecystatin also inhibits lysosomal cysteine peptidases such as human cathepsin B (Ki=125 nM), cathepsin K (Ki=0.76 nM), cathepsin L (Ki=0.6 nM), and cathepsin V (Ki=1.0 nM), but not the aspartyl peptidase cathepsin D. The activity of serine peptidases such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, pancreatic, and neutrophil elastases, and human plasma kallikrein is not affected by the inhibitor, nor is the activity of the metallopeptidases angiotensin converting enzyme and neutral endopeptidase. This is the first report of inhibitory activity of a sugarcane cystatin on cysteine peptidases

163

Molecular characterization, expression and function analysis of a five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.  

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Serine proteinase inhibitors represent an expanding superfamily of endogenous inhibitors that are regulate proteolytic events and involved in a variety of physiological and immunological processes. A five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (poKSPI) was identified and characterized from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata based on expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis. The full-length cDNA was 737 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) 660 bp encoding a 219 amino acid protein a theoretical molecular weight (Mw) of 23.3 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.40. A putative signal peptide of 19 amino acid residues and five tandem Kazal domains were identified. Four of the Kazal domains had the highly conserved motif sequences with six cysteine residues responsible for the formation of disulfide bridges. The deduced amino acid sequence of the poKSPI shared high homology with KSPIs from Hirudo medicinalis. The poKSPI mRNA could be detected in all examined tissues, the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA was the highest in mantle and gonad, while the lowest in haemocyte and intestine. After LPS challenge, the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA in digestive gland was significantly up-regulated at 4 h post-challenge and reached the peak at 12 h post-challenge, which was 4.23-fold higher than control group; the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA in gill was also significantly up-regulated at 8 and 12 h post-challenge, which were 4.48 and 2.26-fold higher than control group. After Vibrio alginolyticus challenge, the expression levels of the poKSPI mRNA in digestive gland were significantly up-regulated at 8, 12, 48 and 72 h post-challenge, which were 1.70, 1.79, 3.89 and 5.69-fold higher than control group, respectively; the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA in gill was significantly up-regulated at 24 h post-challenge, which was 5.30-fold higher than control group. The recombinant poKSPI protein could inhibit chymotrypsin and trypsin activities in dose-dependent manner, when the ratios of rpoKSPI to chymotrypsin and trypsin were 36:1 and 72:1, respectively, the proteinase activities of chymotrypsin and trypsin could be almost completely inhibited, but the rpoKSPI could not inhibit subtilisin. PMID:24378679

Zhang, Dianchang; Ma, Jianjun; Jiang, Shigui

2014-03-01

164

Isolation and characterization of a serine proteinase specific to human C3b from human erythrocyte membranes  

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In a previous report, they have shown that human C3b bound through CR1 to human erythrocytes is cleaved by a membrane proteinase activity. Following the molecular analysis of this proteinase activity, they have purified it by a four step procedure: ammonium sulfate precipitation, biogel filtration, fluid phase electrophoresis and hydroxylapatite chromatography. The highly purified proteinase was labeled by 125I iodine or 3H-DFP and analyzed by gel electrophoresis: a single band membrane component was characterized by its apparent molecular weight of 57 K or 60 K, under non reducing or reducing conditions respectively and was called p 57. Its reactivity with 3H-DFP and the inhibition by PMSF of the proteinase activity indicate that p 57 is a serine proteinase. Moreover, it is sensitive to aprotinin and ?1-antitrypsin. This membrane proteinase presents a higher activity in the presence of detergent and cleaves both alpha and beta chains of human C3b. Polyclonal antibody prepared against this purified proteinase inhibits its activity. On the basis of its structure and its functions, i.e. molecular weight, antigenic properties, proteinase properties and proteinases inhibitors sensitivity, p57 is not related to CR1 or DAF, two others membrane components which react with human C3b and identified by others on human erythrocytes. These specific antibodies allow to analyze the presence of p57 on human cells

165

Cell-Wall-Bound Proteinase of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis ACA-DC 178: Characterization and Specificity for ?-Casein  

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Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis ACA-DC 178, which was isolated from Greek Kasseri cheese, produces a cell-wall-bound proteinase. The proteinase was removed from the cell envelope by washing the cells with a Ca2+-free buffer. The crude proteinase extract shows its highest activity at pH 6.0 and 40°C. It is inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, showing that the enzyme is a serine-type proteinase. Considering the substrate specificity, the enzyme is similar to the lactococcal PI-t...

Tsakalidou, E.; Anastasiou, R.; Vandenberghe, I.; Beeumen, J.; Kalantzopoulos, G.

1999-01-01

166

Pulse photolysis of NADH in the presence of cysteine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the UV irradiation of NADH under anaerobic conditions, cysteine, which often acts as a radioprotective substance, has a sensitizing effect. With the aid of pulse photolysis, it was studied which reaction mechanisms in the presence or absence of cysteine are responsible for the damage to NADH in aqueous solution. In the absence of cysteine, the characteristic NADH absorption at 340 nm is reduced immediately after UV quanta have been absorbed by the adenine fraction of the molecules; in the presence of cysteine, a secondary reaction causes additional damage. The spectra of the intermediate products of NADH and cysteine have been recorded for different cysteine concentrations, and the reaction constants have been determined. These values suggest that the sensitizing effect is due to a reaction of NADH with radical anions produced by photolysis. (orig.)

167

Describing some characters of serine proteinase using fractal analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we calculated the fractal dimensions of four proteins, chymotrypsin, elastase, trypsin and subtilisin, which are made up of about 220–275 amino acids and belong to the family of serine proteinase by using three definitions of fractal dimension i.e. the chain fractal dimension (DL), the mass fractal dimension (Dm) and the correlation fractal dimension (Dc). We also analyzed the relationship between fractal dimension and space structure or secondary structure contents of proteins. The results showed that the values of fractal dimensions are almost same for the global mammalian enzymes (chymotrypsin, elastase and trypsin), but different for the global subtilisin. This demonstrated that the more similar structures, the more equal fractal dimensions, and if the fractal dimensions of proteins are different from each other, the three dimensional structures should not be similar. On the other hand, the detailed structures and fractal dimensions of the active sites of four enzymes are extraordinarily similar. Therefore, the fractal method can be applied to the elucidation of the proteins evolution.

168

Functional role of aspartic proteinase cathepsin D in insect metamorphosis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Metamorphosis is a complex, highly conserved and strictly regulated development process that involves the programmed cell death of obsolete larval organs. Here we show a novel functional role for the aspartic proteinase cathepsin D during insect metamorphosis. Results Cathepsin D of the silkworm Bombyx mori (BmCatD was ecdysone-induced, differentially and spatially expressed in the larval fat body of the final instar and in the larval gut of pupal stage, and its expression led to programmed cell death. Furthermore, BmCatD was highly induced in the fat body of baculovirus-infected B. mori larvae, suggesting that this gene is involved in the induction of metamorphosis of host insects infected with baculovirus. RNA interference (RNAi-mediated BmCatD knock-down inhibited programmed cell death of the larval fat body, resulting in the arrest of larval-pupal transformation. BmCatD RNAi also inhibited the programmed cell death of larval gut during pupal stage. Conclusion Based on these results, we concluded that BmCatD is critically involved in the programmed cell death of the larval fat body and larval gut in silkworm metamorphosis.

Seo Sook

2006-10-01

169

[Investigation of acid proteinase and phospholipase activity as virulence factors in clinical Aspergillus spp. isolates].  

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Aspergillus spp. are widespread in nature and cause severe infections especially in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus fumigatus complex is the most common species that causes infections in humans; however Aspergillus niger complex and Aspergillus flavus complex are the emerging agents that are isolated frequently from clinical specimens more recently. Besides the host factors such as immunosuppression, hematologic malignancy and corticosteroid use, fungal virulence factors such as elastase, acid protease and phospholipase enzymes are considered among the factors that affect the development of invasive aspergillosis. The aim of this study was to detect the acid proteinase and phospholipase enzyme activities in 30 A.fumigatus complex, nine A.flavus complex and four A.niger complex strains isolated from clinical specimens. Acid proteinase and phospholipase activities of the isolates were investigated by using bovine serum albumin agar (BSA), and egg yolk agar plates, respectively. Acid proteinase and phospholipase activity was detected in 76.7% (23/30) and 93.3% (28/30) of A.fumigatus complex isolates, respectively. None of the nine A.flavus complex isolates exhibited acid proteinase or phospholipase activity. Acid proteinase activity was not detected in any of the A.niger complex isolates (n= 4), however phospholipase activity was detected in one (25%) isolate. All of the acid proteinase positive A.fumigatus complex strains (n= 23) were also positive for phospholipase activity. In conclusion, further larger scale multicenter studies supported by clinical data, are needed to enlighten the roles of acid proteinase and phospholipase in the pathogenesis of infections due to Aspergillus spp. PMID:25052116

B?r?nci, Asuman; B?lg?n, Kemal; Tanriverd? Çayci, Yeliz

2014-07-01

170

Modulation of ion transport across rat distal colon by cysteine  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the actions of stimulation of endogenous production of H2S by cysteine, the substrate for the two H2S-producing enzymes, cystathionin-beta-synthase and cystathionin-gamma-lyase, on ion transport across rat distal colon. Changes in short-circuit current (Isc induced by cysteine were measured in Ussing chambers. Free cysteine caused a concentration-dependent, transient fall in Isc, which was sensitive to amino-oxyacetate and beta-cyano-L-alanine, i.e. inhibitors of H2S-producing enzymes. In contrast, Na cysteinate evoked a biphasic change in Isc, i.e. an initial fall followed by a secondary increase, which was also reduced by these enzyme inhibitors. All responses were dependent on the presence of Cl- and inhibited by bumetanide, suggesting that free cysteine induces an inhibition of transcellular Cl- secretion, whereas Na cysteinate – after a transient inhibitory phase – activates anion secretion. The assumed reason for this discrepancy is a fall in the cytosolic pH induced by free cysteine, but not by Na cysteinate, as observed in isolated colonic crypts loaded with the pH-sensitive dye, BCECF. Intracellular acidification is known to inhibit epithelial K+ channels. Indeed, after preinhibition of basolateral K+ channels with tetrapentylammonium or Ba2+, the negative Isc induced by free cysteine was reduced significantly. In consequence, stimulation of endogenous H2S production by Na cysteinate causes, after a short inhibitory response, a delayed activation of anion secretion, which is missing in the case of free cysteine, probably due to the cytosolic acidification. In contrast, diallyl trisulfide, which is intracellularly converted to H2S, only evoked a monophasic increase in Isc without the initial fall observed with Na cysteinate. Consequently, time course and amount of produced H2S seem to strongly influence the functional response of the colonic epithelium evoked by this gasotransmitter.

MartinDiener

2012-03-01

171

Cysteine-containing peptides having antioxidant properties  

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Cysteine containing amphipathic alpha helices of the exchangeable apolipoproteins, as exemplified by apolipoprotein (apo) A-I.sub.Milano (R173C) and apoA-I.sub.Paris, (R151C) were found to exhibit potent antioxidant activity on phospholipid surfaces. The addition of a free thiol, at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface of an amphipathic alpha helix of synthetic peptides that mimic HDL-related proteins, imparts a unique antioxidant activity to these peptides which inhibits lipid peroxidation and protects phospholipids from water-soluble free radical initiators. These peptides can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, ischemia, bone disease and other inflammatory related diseases.

Bielicki, John K. (Castro Valley, CA)

2009-10-13

172

Structural and functional characterization of proteinase inhibitors from seeds of Cajanus cajan (cv. ICP 7118).  

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Proteinase inhibitors (C11PI) from mature dry seeds of Cajanus cajan (cv. ICP 7118) were purified by chromatography which resulted in 87-fold purification and 7.9% yield. SDS-PAGE, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrum and two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis together resolved that C11PI possessed molecular mass of 8385.682 Da and existed as isoinhibitors. However, several of these isoinhibitors exhibited self association tendency to form small oligomers. All the isoinhibitors resolved in Native-PAGE and 2-D gel electrophoresis showed inhibitory activity against bovine pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin as well as Achaea janata midgut trypsin-like proteases (AjPs), a devastating pest of castor plant. Partial sequences of isoinhibitor (pI 6.0) obtained from MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis and N-terminal sequencing showed 100% homology to Bowman-Birk Inhibitors (BBIs) of leguminous plants. C11PI showed non-competitive inhibition against trypsin and chymotrypsin. A marginal loss (<15%) in C11PI activity against trypsin at 80 (°)C and basic pH (12.0) was associated with concurrent changes in its far-UV CD spectra. Further, in vitro assays demonstrated that C11PI possessed significant inhibitory potential (IC50 of 78 ng) against AjPs. On the other hand, in vivo leaf coating assays demonstrated that C11PI caused significant mortality rate with concomitant reduction in body weight of both larvae and pupae, prolonged the duration of transition from larva to pupa along with formation of abnormal larval-pupal and pupal-adult intermediates. Being smaller peptides, it is possible to express C11PI in castor to protect them against its devastating pest A. janata. PMID:25093261

Swathi, Marri; Lokya, Vadthya; Swaroop, Vanka; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Kannan, Monica; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna; Padmasree, Kollipara

2014-10-01

173

Wound-induced proteinase inhibitor in Salix viminalis and its association with defence against insects  

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For successful traditional breeding, the plant material has to be screened for genetic variation for the desired traits. By screening Salix clones for wound-induced proteinase inhibitor (PI) activity and ethylene evolution, it was possible to identify variation for both characters among the Salix clones tested. However, no correlation was observed with insect and pathogen resistance. Since there was no simple relationship between wound-induced ethylene production, accumulation of PI and pest resistance, a more systematic investigation of Salix PIs was begun. A gene (swin1.1) encoding a 21 kDa trypsin inhibitor with characteristics of Kunitz-type of PI was sequenced. The trypsin inhibitor encoded by the isolated swin1.1 gene was shown to be functional in vitro and exhibit specificity for trypsin. It is therefore likely that this PI is involved in the plant defence in Salix, since many insects have trypsin as their major digestive protease. In further support of this view, in bio-tests with poplar the mortality of the first instar larvae (Lymantria dispar) was significantly increased, both after application of the trypsin inhibitor encoded by swin1.1 directly on poplar leaves and after feeding the larvae with transgenic poplar over-expressing the swin1.1 gene. In Salix, the swin1.1 gene was shown to be induced by mechanical wounding, insect feeding and by treatment with the signalling substances salicylic and jasmonic acid. The locally wound-induced response (mechanical and insect) was greater than the systemic response. Other swin1 gene family members were also differentially expressed after the inductive treatment. 187 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Saarikoski, P. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics

1997-09-01

174

Cysteine-reactive covalent capture tags for enrichment of cysteine-containing peptides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considering the tremendous complexity and the wide dynamic range of protein samples from biological origin and their proteolytic peptide mixtures, proteomics largely requires simplification strategies. One common approach to reduce sample complexity is to target a particular amino acid in proteins or peptides, such as cysteine (Cys), with chemical tags in order to reduce the analysis to a subset of the whole proteome. The present work describes the synthesis and the use of two new cysteinyl tags, so-called cysteine-reactive covalent capture tags (C3T), for the isolation of Cys-containing peptides. These bifunctional molecules were specifically designed to react with cysteines through iodoacetyl and acryloyl moieties and permit efficient selection of the tagged peptides. To do so, a thioproline was chosen as the isolating group to form, after a deprotection/activation step, a thiazolidine with an aldehyde resin by the covalent capture (CC) method. The applicability of the enrichment strategy was demonstrated on small synthetic peptides as well as on peptides derived from digested proteins. Mass spectrometric (MS) analysis and tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) sequencing confirmed the efficient and straightforward selection of the cysteine-containing peptides. The combination of C3T and CC methods provides an effective alternative to reduce sample complexity and access low abundance proteins. PMID:19813279

Giron, Priscille; Dayon, Loïc; Mihala, Nikolett; Sanchez, Jean-Charles; Rose, Keith

2009-11-01

175

Cysteine Transport through Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 3 (EAAT3)  

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Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) limit glutamatergic signaling and maintain extracellular glutamate concentrations below neurotoxic levels. Of the five known EAAT isoforms (EAATs 1–5), only the neuronal isoform, EAAT3 (EAAC1), can efficiently transport the uncharged amino acid L-cysteine. EAAT3-mediated cysteine transport has been proposed to be a primary mechanism used by neurons to obtain cysteine for the synthesis of glutathione, a key molecule in preventing oxidative stress and neuronal toxicity. The molecular mechanisms underlying the selective transport of cysteine by EAAT3 have not been elucidated. Here we propose that the transport of cysteine through EAAT3 requires formation of the thiolate form of cysteine in the binding site. Using Xenopus oocytes and HEK293 cells expressing EAAT2 and EAAT3, we assessed the transport kinetics of different substrates and measured transporter-associated currents electrophysiologically. Our results show that L-selenocysteine, a cysteine analog that forms a negatively-charged selenolate ion at physiological pH, is efficiently transported by EAATs 1–3 and has a much higher apparent affinity for transport when compared to cysteine. Using a membrane tethered GFP variant to monitor intracellular pH changes associated with transport activity, we observed that transport of either L-glutamate or L-selenocysteine by EAAT3 decreased intracellular pH, whereas transport of cysteine resulted in cytoplasmic alkalinization. No change in pH was observed when cysteine was applied to cells expressing EAAT2, which displays negligible transport of cysteine. Under conditions that favor release of intracellular substrates through EAAT3 we observed release of labeled intracellular glutamate but did not detect cysteine release. Our results support a model whereby cysteine transport through EAAT3 is facilitated through cysteine de-protonation and that once inside, the thiolate is rapidly re-protonated. Moreover, these findings suggest that cysteine transport is predominantly unidirectional and that reverse transport does not contribute to depletion of intracellular cysteine pools. PMID:25275463

Watts, Spencer D.; Torres-Salazar, Delany; Divito, Christopher B.; Amara, Susan G.

2014-01-01

176

Cysteine Transport through Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 3 (EAAT3).  

Science.gov (United States)

Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) limit glutamatergic signaling and maintain extracellular glutamate concentrations below neurotoxic levels. Of the five known EAAT isoforms (EAATs 1-5), only the neuronal isoform, EAAT3 (EAAC1), can efficiently transport the uncharged amino acid L-cysteine. EAAT3-mediated cysteine transport has been proposed to be a primary mechanism used by neurons to obtain cysteine for the synthesis of glutathione, a key molecule in preventing oxidative stress and neuronal toxicity. The molecular mechanisms underlying the selective transport of cysteine by EAAT3 have not been elucidated. Here we propose that the transport of cysteine through EAAT3 requires formation of the thiolate form of cysteine in the binding site. Using Xenopus oocytes and HEK293 cells expressing EAAT2 and EAAT3, we assessed the transport kinetics of different substrates and measured transporter-associated currents electrophysiologically. Our results show that L-selenocysteine, a cysteine analog that forms a negatively-charged selenolate ion at physiological pH, is efficiently transported by EAATs 1-3 and has a much higher apparent affinity for transport when compared to cysteine. Using a membrane tethered GFP variant to monitor intracellular pH changes associated with transport activity, we observed that transport of either L-glutamate or L-selenocysteine by EAAT3 decreased intracellular pH, whereas transport of cysteine resulted in cytoplasmic alkalinization. No change in pH was observed when cysteine was applied to cells expressing EAAT2, which displays negligible transport of cysteine. Under conditions that favor release of intracellular substrates through EAAT3 we observed release of labeled intracellular glutamate but did not detect cysteine release. Our results support a model whereby cysteine transport through EAAT3 is facilitated through cysteine de-protonation and that once inside, the thiolate is rapidly re-protonated. Moreover, these findings suggest that cysteine transport is predominantly unidirectional and that reverse transport does not contribute to depletion of intracellular cysteine pools. PMID:25275463

Watts, Spencer D; Torres-Salazar, Delany; Divito, Christopher B; Amara, Susan G

2014-01-01

177

Peptide-Formation on Cysteine-Containing Peptide Scaffolds  

Science.gov (United States)

Monomeric cysteine residues attached to cysteine-containing peptides by disulfide bonds can be activated by carbonyldiimidazole. If two monomeric cysteine residues, attached to a `scaffold' peptide Gly-Cys-Gly_n-Cys-Glu_10, (n = 0, 1, 2, 3) are activated, they react to form the dipeptide Cys-Cys. in 25-65% yield. Similarly, the activation of a cysteine residue attached to the `scaffold' peptide Gly-Cys-Gly-Glu_10 in the presence of Arg_5 leads to the formation of Cys-Arg_5 in 50% yield. The significance of these results for prebiotic chemistry is discussed.

Chu, Barbara C. F.; Orgel, Leslie E.

1999-10-01

178

Impact of sulfur starvation on cysteine biosynthesis in T-DNA mutants deficient for compartment-specific serine-acetyltransferase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfur plays a pivotal role in the cellular metabolism of many organisms. In plants, the uptake and assimilation of sulfate is strongly regulated at the transcriptional level. Regulatory factors are the demand of reduced sulfur in organic or non-organic form and the level of O-acetylserine (OAS), the carbon precursor for cysteine biosynthesis. In plants, cysteine is synthesized by action of the cysteine-synthase complex (CSC) containing serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and O-acetylserine-(thiol)-lyase (OASTL). Both enzymes are located in plastids, mitochondria and the cytosol. The function of the compartmentation of the CSC to regulate sulfate uptake and assimilation is still not clearly resolved. To address this question, we analyzed Arabidopsis thaliana mutants for the plastidic and cytosolic SAT isoenzymes under sulfur starvation conditions. In addition, subcellular metabolite analysis by non-aqueous fractionation revealed distinct changes in subcellular metabolite distribution upon short-term sulfur starvation. Metabolite and transcript analyses of SERAT1.1 and SERAT2.1 mutants [previously analyzed in Krueger et al. (Plant Cell Environ 32:349-367, 2009)] grown under sulfur starvation conditions indicate that both isoenzymes do not contribute directly to the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in sulfate uptake and assimilation. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about the regulation of cysteine biosynthesis and the contribution of the different compartments to this metabolic process. We relate hypotheses and views of the regulation of cysteine biosynthesis with our results of applying sulfur starvation to mutants impaired in compartment-specific cysteine biosynthetic enzymes. PMID:20379751

Krueger, Stephan; Donath, Andrea; Lopez-Martin, M Carmen; Hoefgen, Rainer; Gotor, Cecilia; Hesse, Holger

2010-10-01

179

Substrate specificity of alkaline serine proteinase isolated from photosynthetic bacterium, Rubrivivax gelatinosus KDDS1.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel type of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) combinatorial libraries were used for the characterization of alkaline serine proteinase produced from Rubrivivax gelatinosus KDDS1. This enzyme was the first serine proteinase characterized from photosynthetic bacteria. The proteinase was found to prefer Met and Phe at the P1 position, Ile and Lys at the P2 position, and Arg and Phe at the P3 position. To date, no serine proteinase has exhibited a preference for Met at the P1 position. Thus, the alkaline serine proteinase from R. gelatinosus KDDS1 is very unique in terms of substrate specificity. A highly sensitive substrate, Boc-Arg-Ile-Met-MCA, was synthesized for kinetic study based on the results reported here. The optimum pH of the enzyme for this substrate was pH 10.7, and the values of kcat, Km, and kcat/Km were 23.7 s(-1), 15.4 microM, and 1.54 microM(-1) s(-1), respectively. PMID:12963024

Tanskul, Somporn; Oda, Kohei; Oyama, Hiroshi; Noparatnaraporn, Napavarn; Tsunemi, Masahiko; Takada, Katsumi

2003-09-26

180

Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors in the midgut of Phlebotomus papatasi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are important disease vectors of parasites of the genus Leishmania, as well as bacteria and viruses. Following studies of the midgut transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi, the principal vector of Leishmania major, two non-classical Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors were identified (PpKzl1 and PpKzl2). Analyses of expression profiles indicated that PpKzl1 and PpKzl2 transcripts are both regulated by blood-feeding in the midgut of P. papatasi and are also expressed in males, larva and pupa. We expressed a recombinant PpKzl2 in a mammalian expression system (CHO-S free style cells) that was applied to in vitro studies to assess serine proteinase inhibition. Recombinant PpKzl2 inhibited ?-chymotrypsin to 9.4% residual activity and also inhibited ?-thrombin and trypsin to 33.5% and 63.9% residual activity, suggesting that native PpKzl2 is an active serine proteinase inhibitor and likely involved in regulating digestive enzymes in the midgut. Early stages of Leishmania are susceptible to killing by digestive proteinases in the sandfly midgut. Thus, characterising serine proteinase inhibitors may provide new targets and strategies to prevent transmission of Leishmania. PMID:24037187

Sigle, Leah Theresa; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
181

Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors in the midgut of Phlebotomus papatasi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are important disease vectors of parasites of the genus Leishmania, as well as bacteria and viruses. Following studies of the midgut transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi, the principal vector of Leishmania major, two non-classical Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibi [...] tors were identified (PpKzl1 and PpKzl2). Analyses of expression profiles indicated that PpKzl1 and PpKzl2 transcripts are both regulated by blood-feeding in the midgut of P. papatasi and are also expressed in males, larva and pupa. We expressed a recombinant PpKzl2 in a mammalian expression system (CHO-S free style cells) that was applied to in vitro studies to assess serine proteinase inhibition. Recombinant PpKzl2 inhibited ?-chymotrypsin to 9.4% residual activity and also inhibited ?-thrombin and trypsin to 33.5% and 63.9% residual activity, suggesting that native PpKzl2 is an active serine proteinase inhibitor and likely involved in regulating digestive enzymes in the midgut. Early stages of Leishmania are susceptible to killing by digestive proteinases in the sandfly midgut. Thus, characterising serine proteinase inhibitors may provide new targets and strategies to prevent transmission of Leishmania.

Leah Theresa, Sigle; Marcelo, Ramalho-Ortigao.

182

Evaluation of the acrosomal membrane in bovine spermatozoa: effects of proteinase inhibitors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thawed bovine spermatozoa are characterized by a lack of homogeneity in the acrosomal membrane. Therefore, it is difficult to visualize the acrosome to assess morphology. Synthetic proteinase inhibitors were tested on thawed bovine semen for their effect on the integrity of acrosomal membranes. The proteinase inhibitors 4-nitrophenyl-4-guanidinobenzoate (NPGB) and N-L-p-tosyl-L-lysine-chloromethylketone (TLCK) were added to a medium containing spermatozoa separated on a percoll gradient. After incubation for 30 min at 38 degrees C in 5% CO(2), 95% air (final concentration 1 mM), the action of these inhibitors was controlled by measuring the activity of acrosome proteinases. The acrosomal membrane was evaluated by means of a dual stain procedure (trypan blue, Giemsa). In contrast to spermatozoa that had been incubated with proteinase inhibitor-free solution, samples that had been incubated with TLCK showed homogeneity in 90% of the acrosomal membranes and excellent visualization of the acrosome itself; in the NPGB-treated samples, homogeneous staining was observed in 83% of spermatozoa (P staining procedures. The addition of proteinase inhibitors before staining offers a new possibility for improved assessment of the acrosome in bovine spermatozoa. PMID:16727666

Sánchez, R; Risopatrón, J; Sepúlveda, G; Peña, P; Miska, W

1995-03-01

183

Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors in the midgut of Phlebotomus papatasi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are important disease vectors of parasites of the genus Leishmania, as well as bacteria and viruses. Following studies of the midgut transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi, the principal vector of Leishmania major, two non-classical Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibi [...] tors were identified (PpKzl1 and PpKzl2). Analyses of expression profiles indicated that PpKzl1 and PpKzl2 transcripts are both regulated by blood-feeding in the midgut of P. papatasi and are also expressed in males, larva and pupa. We expressed a recombinant PpKzl2 in a mammalian expression system (CHO-S free style cells) that was applied to in vitro studies to assess serine proteinase inhibition. Recombinant PpKzl2 inhibited ?-chymotrypsin to 9.4% residual activity and also inhibited ?-thrombin and trypsin to 33.5% and 63.9% residual activity, suggesting that native PpKzl2 is an active serine proteinase inhibitor and likely involved in regulating digestive enzymes in the midgut. Early stages of Leishmania are susceptible to killing by digestive proteinases in the sandfly midgut. Thus, characterising serine proteinase inhibitors may provide new targets and strategies to prevent transmission of Leishmania.

Leah Theresa, Sigle; Marcelo, Ramalho-Ortigao.

2013-09-01

184

Determination of germ tube, phospholipase, and proteinase production by bloodstream isolates of Candida albicans  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction Candida albicans is a commensal and opportunistic agent that causes infection in immunocompromised individuals. Several attributes contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of this yeast, including the production of germ tubes (GTs) and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, particularl [...] y phospholipase and proteinase. This study aimed to investigate GT production and phospholipase and proteinase activities in bloodstream isolates of C. albicans. Methods One hundred fifty-three C. albicans isolates were obtained from blood samples and analyzed for GT, phospholipase, and proteinase production. The assays were performed in duplicate in egg yolk medium containing bovine serum albumin and human serum. Results Detectable amounts of proteinase were produced by 97% of the isolates, and 78% of the isolates produced phospholipase. GTs were produced by 95% of the isolates. A majority of the isolates exhibited low levels of phospholipase production and high levels of proteinase production. Conclusions Bloodstream isolates of C. albicans produce virulence factors such as GT and hydrolytic enzymes that enable them to cause infection under favorable conditions.

Antonella Souza, Mattei; Sydney Hartz, Alves; Cecilia Bittencourt, Severo; Luciana da Silva, Guazzelli; Flavio de Mattos, Oliveira; Luiz Carlos, Severo.

2013-06-01

185

Cloning and postharvest expression of serine proteinase transcripts in the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increases in both the levels and the activity of serine proteinase have been previously described in the senescing mushroom Agaricus bisporus. cDNA encoding serine proteinase was amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using a degenerate primer based on the N-terminal sequence of a previously isolated A. bisporus serine proteinase and then cloned. The cDNA was sequenced and shown to be homologous to those of other fungal serine proteinases. Northern analysis showed that this serine proteinase gene (Spr1) was not expressed in freshly harvested sporophores but was strongly up-regulated postharvest and found almost entirely in the stipe of the sporophore (approximately 0.08% of mRNAs 2 days after harvest). Low-level expression was detectable in the flesh (pileus trama) and gill (lamellae) tissues of the cap, but none was detected in the skin (pilei pellis). In three of the cloned cDNAs, sequence analysis showed that the poly(A) tail starts at different positions. Expression of Spr1 in Escherichia coli caused restricted colony growth. PMID:11343400

Kingsnorth, C S; Eastwood, D C; Burton, K S

2001-04-01

186

Proteinase 3, a potent secretagogue in airways, is present in cystic fibrosis sputum.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the roles of proteinase 3 (PR3) and human neutrophil elastase (HNE), two neutrophil serine proteinases in the mechanisms leading to airway inflammation and hypersecretion in cystic fibrosis (CF). Using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we found higher levels of PR3 than HNE in sputum from CF patients. Using two inhibitors, ICI (Imperial Chemical Industries) 200,355 (which inhibits both HNE and PR3) and secretory leukoproteinase inhibitor (SLPI) (which inhibits only HNE), we showed that PR3 was enzymatically active in sputum, and its activity, as assessed by SLPI-resistant serine proteinase activity, correlated highly with its antigenic concentration measured by ELISA. Interestingly, sputum pellet-associated serine proteinase activity was mostly due to HNE. PR3 purified from neutrophil azurophil granules triggered airway gland secretion, as measured by the release of radiolabeled molecules from cultured bovine tracheal serous cells pulse-labeled with Na235SO4. This secretory activity was inhibited by ICI 200,355. PR3 concentration in CF sputum was highly correlated with taurine concentration, a reliable marker of airway inflammation and respiratory scores (e.g., FEV1%), whereas no significant correlation was observed with HNE. We verified that Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteinases did not interfere with the assessment of PR3 and HNE. Indeed, the PR3/HNE ratio was greatest in patients chronically infected by P. aeruginosa. We suggest that PR3 may play a role in the hypersecretory process that is characteristic of CF. PMID:10101005

Witko-Sarsat, V; Halbwachs-Mecarelli, L; Schuster, A; Nusbaum, P; Ueki, I; Canteloup, S; Lenoir, G; Descamps-Latscha, B; Nadel, J A

1999-04-01

187

General proteinase assay by formation of SDS-protein gels of proteolyzed substrate proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new approach to the assay of proteinases is described. The method relies on water-insoluble protein substrates, such as gluten and fibrin, which form expanded gels in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) reagent. Powdered substrate is dispersed in buffer and aliquots are pipetted into long, narrow, 400-microliters tubes made of clear polypropylene. After the addition of enzyme and a period of incubation, a SDS reagent is added, the tubes are centrifuged, and the height of the SDS-protein gel is measured. Reduction of gel height gives a direct measure of enzyme activity. Salt concentration, pH, and incubation times must be consistent for both test and control reactions in order to obtain reproducible results. Examples of proteinases measured by this method are trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, pronase, papain, pepsin, an insect (Nysius huttoni) salivary proteinase, and wheat proteinase. The assay could detect enzyme in crude extracts or in purified form. In 1-h incubations, 10 ng of pepsin and elastase or 20 ng of purified insect proteinase could be detected. The assay was simple, fast, economical, and sensitive. PMID:1952067

Every, D

1991-08-15

188

Isolation and properties of collagenolytic serine proteinase isoenzyme from King Crab Paralithodes camtschatica.  

Science.gov (United States)

An electrophoretically homogeneous isoenzyme CSP-2 of collagenolytic serine proteinase has been isolated from the total preparation of king crab digestive enzymes. The molecular mass of the proteinase is 24.8 +/- 0.3 kD, pH optimum for activity is 8.5, the temperature optimum for activity is 38-40 degrees C, and the pH range of stability is 7-10. The enzyme has dual substrate specificity, but preference for positively charged amino acid residues in P(1)-position is more pronounced than in the case of the major isoenzyme. The temperature dependence of kinetic constants for synthetic substrate hydrolysis by CSP-2 has been investigated. Inhibition specificity of the enzyme is characteristic of serine proteinases but more like that of crab trypsin than that of the major CSP isoenzyme. The isolated collagenolytic proteinase also cleaves fibrinogen and fibrin and activates plasminogen. The amino acid sequence of the CSP-2 proteinase, which has been partially determined by tandem mass spectrometry, displays some similarity to the sequence of the major CSP isoenzyme. PMID:18991559

Semenova, S A; Rudenskaya, G N; Lyutova, L V; Nikitina, O A

2008-10-01

189

Domain 15 of the serine proteinase inhibitor LEKTI blocks HIV infection in vitro  

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Full Text Available Background: Lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor (LEKTI is a 15-domain serine proteinase inhibitor, parts of which have first been isolated from human blood filtrate. It is encoded by the gene SPINK5. In the past, different groups reported antiviral activities of certain serine proteinase inhibitors, such as mucous proteinase inhibitor and alpha1-proteinase inhibitor. The purpose of this study was to test two representative domains of the proteinase inhibitor LEKTI for anti-HIV activities.Methods: LEKTI domains 6 and 15 were recombinantly produced in E.coli. To test their inhibitory activity against HIV infection, the reporter cell line P4-R5 MAGI carrying an HIV-inducible reporter gene was infected by a CCR5-tropic HIV strain in the presence of different inhibitor concentrations. After three days, infection rates were determined by quantifying ß-galactosidase activities using the Galacto-Light Plus™ ß-Galactosidase Reporter Gene Assay.Results: In contrast to LEKTI domain 6, LEKTI domain 15 suppressed HIV-induced reporter gene activities with an IC50 value of approximately 29 µM.Conclusion: LEKTI domain 15 represents an inhibitor of HIV infection. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:131-5. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i3.580Keywords: HIV, inhibition, LEKTI, P4-R5 MAGI

David Palesch

2013-08-01

190

Cysteine could change the transport mechanism of PVP-coated silver nanoparticles in porous media  

Science.gov (United States)

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can hardly be removed by wastewater treatment plant and have big potential to enter groundwater, jeopardizing the water quality & aquatic ecosystem. Most AgNPs have surface coatings such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) which dominate their transport in porous media. Our previous study shows that PVP may promote the deposition of AgNPs on silica surface by a bridging mechanism. This study further explored how cysteine, a natural organic matter type, may influence the role of the PVP coating on AgNP translocation. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurement (Figure 1A) shows that the PVP coating rendered the AgNP dispersion high stability during the measuring period (3hrs). Addition of 100 ppm cysteine to the dispersion resulted in a rapid decrease in particle size from 100nm to 52nm within one hour, following which no further decline in particle size occurred. Column experiment results (Figure 1B) show that corresponding to the particle size change was a substantial decrease in particle deposition rates: introduction of 100 ppm cysteine into the particle dispersion resulted in a decrease in AgNP attenuation by the porous medium from 67% to 26%. The decline in particle size suggested that cysteine may have displaced the macromolecular PVP from the particle surface. Desorption of PVP resulted in a weakening or vanish of polymer bridging effect which in turn lowered the deposition rates substantially. This study demonstrated an implication of environmental transformation of coated AgNPs to their mobility in saturated sand aquifers. Acknowledgment Xinyao Yang appreciates the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.:41101475) for covering the registration fee and traveling costs.igure 1 Particle size measurement (A) and breakthrough curves (B) of PVP-coated silver nanoparticle in the absence and presence of cysteine: pH=7.0, ionic strength=1mM, flow rate=1ml/min.

Yang, X.; Lin, S.; Wiesner, M.

2012-12-01

191

Oxidized mucus proteinase inhibitor: a fairly potent neutrophil elastase inhibitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

N-chlorosuccinimide oxidizes one of the methionine residues of mucus proteinase inhibitor with a second-order rate constant of 1.5 M-1.s-1. Cyanogen bromide cleavage and NH2-terminal sequencing show that the modified residue is methionine-73, the P'1 component of the inhibitor's active centre. Oxidation of the inhibitor decreases its neutrophil elastase inhibitory capacity but does not fully abolish it. The kinetic parameters describing the elastase-oxidized inhibitor interaction are: association rate constant kass. = 2.6 x 10(5) M-1.s-1, dissociation rate constant kdiss. = 2.9 x 10(-3) s-1 and equilibrium dissociation constant Ki = 1.1 x 10(-8) M. Comparison with the native inhibitor indicates that oxidation decreases kass. by a factor of 18.8 and increases kdiss. by a factor of 6.4, and therefore leads to a 120-fold increase in Ki. Yet, the oxidized inhibitor may still act as a potent elastase inhibitor in the upper respiratory tract where its concentration is 500-fold higher than Ki, i.e. where the elastase inhibition is pseudo-irreversible. Experiments in vitro with fibrous human lung elastin, the most important natural substrate of elastase, support this view: 1.35 microM elastase is fully inhibited by 5-6 microM oxidized inhibitor whether the enzyme-inhibitor complex is formed in the presence or absence of elastin and whether elastase is pre-adsorbed on elastin or not. PMID:7945266

Boudier, C; Bieth, J G

1994-10-01

192

Neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3 trafficking routes in myelomonocytic cells  

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Neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase 3 (PR3) differ in intracellular localization, which may reflect different trafficking mechanisms of the precursor forms when synthesized at immature stages of neutrophils. To shed further light on these mechanisms, we compared the trafficking of precursor NE (proNE) and precursor PR3 (proPR3). Like proNE [1], proPR3 interacted with CD63 upon heterologous co-expression in COS cells but endogenous interaction was not detected although cell surface proNE/proPR3/CD63 were co-endocytosed in myelomonocytic cells. Cell surface proNE/proPR3 turned over more rapidly than cell surface CD63 consistent with processing/degradation of the pro-proteases but recycling of CD63. Colocalization of proNE/proPR3/CD63 with clathrin and Rab 7 suggested trafficking through coated vesicles and late endosomes. Partial caveolar trafficking of proNE/CD63 but not proPR3 was suggested by colocalization with caveolin-1. Blocking the C-terminus of proNE/proPR3 by creating a fusion with FK506 binding protein inhibited endosomal re-uptake of proNE but not proPR3 indicating 'pro{sub C}'-peptide-dependent structural/conformational requirements for proNE but not for proPR3 endocytosis. The NE aminoacid residue Y199 of a proposed NE sorting motif that interacts with AP-3 [2] was not required for proNE processing, sorting or endocytosis in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells expressing heterologous Y199-deleted proNE; this suggests operation of another AP-3-link for proNE targeting. Our results show intracellular multi-step trafficking to be different between proNE and proPR3 consistent with their differential subcellular NE/PR3 localization in neutrophils.

Kaellquist, Linda; Rosen, Hanna [Department of Hematology, BMC C14, Lund University, SE-221 84 Lund (Sweden); Nordenfelt, Pontus [Section for Clinical and Experimental Infection Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, SE-221 84 Lund (Sweden); Calafat, Jero; Janssen, Hans [Division of Cell Biology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 1211066, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Persson, Ann-Maj [Department of Hematology, BMC C14, Lund University, SE-221 84 Lund (Sweden); Hansson, Markus, E-mail: Markus.Hansson@med.lu.se [Department of Hematology, BMC C14, Lund University, SE-221 84 Lund (Sweden); Olsson, Inge [Department of Hematology, BMC C14, Lund University, SE-221 84 Lund (Sweden)

2010-11-15

193

Human placental extract mediated inhibition of proteinase K: implications of heparin and glycoproteins in wound physiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efficient debridement of the wound bed following the removal of microbial load prevents its progression into a chronic wound. Bacterial infection and excessive proteolysis characterize impaired healing and therefore, their inhibition might restore the disturbed equilibrium in the healing process. Human placental extract exhibits reversible, non-competitive inhibition towards Proteinase K, a microbial protease, by stabilizing it against auto-digestion. Scattering and fluorescence studies followed by biochemical analysis indicated the involvement of a glycan moiety. Surface plasmon resonance demonstrated specific interaction of heparin with Proteinase K having Kd in ?M range. Further, Proteinase K contains sequence motifs similar to other heparin-binding proteins. Molecular docking revealed presence of clefts suitable for binding of heparin-derived oligosaccharides. Comprehensive analysis of this inhibitory property of placental extract partly explains its efficacy in curing wounds with common bacterial infections. PMID:24435659

Sharma, Kanika; Mukherjee, Chaitali; Roy, Siddhartha; De, Debashree; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

2014-09-01

194

Evaluation and modification of an assay procedure for cysteine dioxygenase activity: high-performance liquid chromatography method for measurement of cysteine sulfinate and demonstration of physiological relevance of cysteine dioxygenase activity in cysteine catabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conflicting reports in the literature of appropriate assay procedures for measurement of cysteine dioxygenase activity led us to evaluate the procedure for assay of cysteine dioxygenase activity in rat liver preparations. Cysteine dioxygenase activity was largely in the soluble fraction of liver and was stimulated by addition of NAD+ and Fe2+. The pH optimum of the enzyme was 6.1. Addition of an inhibitor of pyridoxal 5-phosphate-dependent enzymes was necessary to prevent rapid removal of the reaction product cysteine sulfinate. Cysteine sulfinate and cysteic acid were separated by anion-exchange HPLC on a polymer-based column with trimethylamino active groups, and the reaction products were quantitated by measurement of 35S radioactivity or by formation and measurement of fluorescent derivatives. This assay of cysteine dioxygenase under optimal conditions provides a physiologically relevant measure of cysteine dioxygenase activity in liver and hepatocytes based on the observation that this activity was highly correlated with the capacity for cysteine catabolism and taurine production by isolated hepatocytes. PMID:7668390

Bagley, P J; Hirschberger, L L; Stipanuk, M H

1995-05-01

195

An O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase from Leucaena leucocephala is a cysteine synthase but not a mimosine synthase.  

Science.gov (United States)

In plants, the final step of cysteine formation is catalyzed by O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OAS-TL). The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize an OAS-TL from the tree legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena). Leucaena contains a toxic, nonprotein amino acid, mimosine, which is also formed by an OAS-TL, and characterization of this enzyme is essential for developing a mimosine-free leucaena for its use as a protein-rich fodder. The cDNA for a cytosolic leucaena OAS-TL isoform was obtained through interspecies suppression subtractive hybridization. A 40-kDa recombinant protein was purified from Escherichia coli and used in enzyme activity assays where it was found to synthesize only cysteine. The enzyme followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and the Km was calculated to be 1,850±414 ?M sulfide and the Vmax was 200.6±19.92 ?M cysteine min(-1). The N-terminal affinity His-tag was cleaved from the recombinant OAS-TL to eliminate its possible interference in binding with the substrate, 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone, for mimosine formation. The His-tag-cleaved OAS-TL was again observed to catalyze the formation of cysteine but not mimosine. Thus, the cytosolic OAS-TL from leucaena used in this study is specific for only cysteine synthesis and is different from previously reported OAS-TLs that also function as ?-substituted alanine synthases. PMID:24777760

Yafuso, Jannai T; Negi, Vishal Singh; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Borthakur, Dulal

2014-07-01

196

Coronavirus 3CLpro proteinase cleavage sites: Possible relevance to SARS virus pathology  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the passing of more than a year since the first outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS, efficient counter-measures are still few and many believe that reappearance of SARS, or a similar disease caused by a coronavirus, is not unlikely. For other virus families like the picornaviruses it is known that pathology is related to proteolytic cleavage of host proteins by viral proteinases. Furthermore, several studies indicate that virus proliferation can be arrested using specific proteinase inhibitors supporting the belief that proteinases are indeed important during infection. Prompted by this, we set out to analyse and predict cleavage by the coronavirus main proteinase using computational methods. Results We retrieved sequence data on seven fully sequenced coronaviruses and identified the main 3CL proteinase cleavage sites in polyproteins using alignments. A neural network was trained to recognise the cleavage sites in the genomes obtaining a sensitivity of 87.0% and a specificity of 99.0%. Several proteins known to be cleaved by other viruses were submitted to prediction as well as proteins suspected relevant in coronavirus pathology. Cleavage sites were predicted in proteins such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, transcription factors CREB-RP and OCT-1, and components of the ubiquitin pathway. Conclusions Our prediction method NetCorona predicts coronavirus cleavage sites with high specificity and several potential cleavage candidates were identified which might be important to elucidate coronavirus pathology. Furthermore, the method might assist in design of proteinase inhibitors for treatment of SARS and possible future diseases caused by coronaviruses. It is made available for public use at our website: http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetCorona/.

Blom Nikolaj

2004-06-01

197

Coronavirus 3CL(pro) proteinase cleavage sites: Possible relevance to SARS virus pathology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Despite the passing of more than a year since the first outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), efficient counter-measures are still few and many believe that reappearance of SARS, or a similar disease caused by a coronavirus, is not unlikely. For other virus families like the picornaviruses it is known that pathology is related to proteolytic cleavage of host proteins by viral proteinases. Furthermore, several studies indicate that virus proliferation can be arrested using specific proteinase inhibitors supporting the belief that proteinases are indeed important during infection. Prompted by this, we set out to analyse and predict cleavage by the coronavirus main proteinase using computational methods. Results: We retrieved sequence data on seven fully sequenced coronaviruses and identified the main 3CL proteinase cleavage sites in polyproteins using alignments. A neural network was trained to recognise the cleavage sites in the genomes obtaining a sensitivity of 87.0% and a specificity of 99.0%. Several proteins known to be cleaved by other viruses were submitted to prediction as well as proteins suspected relevant in coronavirus pathology. Cleavage sites were predicted in proteins such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator ( CFTR), transcription factors CREB-RP and OCT-I, and components of the ubiquitin pathway. Conclusions: Our prediction method NetCorona predicts coronavirus cleavage sites with high specificity and several potential cleavage candidates were identified which might be important to elucidate coronavirus pathology. Furthermore, the method might assist in design of proteinase inhibitors for treatment of SARS and possible future diseases caused by coronaviruses.

Kiemer, Lars; Lund, Ole

2004-01-01

198

Analysis of midgut proteinases from Bacillus thuringiensis-susceptible and -resistant Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).  

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Insects with altered proteinases can avoid intoxication by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins. Therefore, proteinase activities from gut extracts of Bt-susceptible (YDK) and -resistant (YHD2-B, CXC and KCBhyb) Heliothis virescens strains were compared. The overall pH of gut extracts from YDK and CXC were statistically similar (9.56 and 9.62, respectively), while the pH of extracts from KCBhyb and YHD2-B were significantly more alkaline (9.81 and 10.0, respectively). Gut extracts from YHD2-B and CXC larvae processed Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa protoxin slower than extracts from YDK larvae, suggesting that differences in proteolysis contribute to resistance in these strains. Casein zymogram analysis of gut extracts revealed both qualitative and quantitative differences in caseinolytic activities among all strains, but the overall caseinolytic activity of YHD2-B gut extract was lower. Kinetic microplate assays with a trypsin substrate (l-BApNA) demonstrated that proteinases in YDK gut extract had increased alkaline pH optima compared to resistant strains YHD2-B, CXC and KCBhyb. Gut extracts from YHD2-B had reduced trypsin-like activity, and activity blots indicated that YHD2-B had lost a trypsin-like proteinase activity. In assays with a chymotrypsin substrate (SAAPFpNA), enzymes from all Bt-resistant strains had increased pH optima, especially those from KCBhyb. Activity blots indicated that CXC had lost a chymotrypsin-like proteinase activity. Because serine proteinases are a critical component of Bt toxin mode of action, these differences may contribute to decreased toxicity in the Bt-resistant strains. PMID:17145193

Karumbaiah, Lohitash; Oppert, Brenda; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan L; Adang, Michael J

2007-01-01

199

?-ketoheterocycles as inhibitors of Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease CPB.  

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Cysteine proteases of the papain superfamily are present in nearly all eukaryotes and also play pivotal roles in the biology of parasites. Inhibition of cysteine proteases is emerging as an important strategy to combat parasitic diseases such as sleeping sickness, Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis. Inspired by the in?vivo antiparasitic activity of the vinylsulfone-based cysteine protease inhibitors, a series of ?-ketoheterocycles were developed as reversible inhibitors of a recombinant L.?mexicana cysteine protease, CPB2.8. Three isoxazoles and especially one oxadiazole compound are potent reversible inhibitors of CPB2.8; however, in?vitro whole-organism screening against a panel of protozoan parasites did not fully correlate with the observed inhibition of the cysteine protease. PMID:20799311

Steert, Koen; Berg, Maya; Mottram, Jeremy C; Westrop, Gareth D; Coombs, Graham H; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis; Joossens, Jurgen; Van der Veken, Pieter; Haemers, Achiel; Augustyns, Koen

2010-10-01

200

A VOLTAMMETRIC STUDY ON THE INTERACTION OF NOVOBIOCIN WITH CYSTEINE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The interaction of novobiocin (NOV), an aminocoumarin antibiotic, with cysteine was studied by square-wave voltammetry technique on the hanging mercury drop electrode in different pH values. After the addition of NOV into the cysteine solution, the peak current of mercurous cysteine thiolate decreas [...] ed and its voltammetric peak potential shifted to more positive values. Voltammetric results showed that NOV binds with cysteine forming 1:1 nonelectroactive molecular complex by means of electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding interactions. The binding constants of NOV with cysteine at pHs 5, 7 and 10 were calculated to be 3.06x10³, 1.54x10(4) and 1.06x10(5) M-1, respectively. Furthermore, apossible mechanism of such interaction was also discussed.

ENDER, BÇER; PAKZE, QETNKAYA.

 
 
 
 
201

Discovery of novel antimicrobial peptides with unusual cysteine motifs in dandelion Taraxacum officinale Wigg. flowers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three novel antimicrobial peptides designated ToAMP1, ToAMP2 and ToAMP3 were purified from Taraxacum officinale flowers. Their amino acid sequences were determined. The peptides are cationic and cysteine-rich and consist of 38, 44 and 42 amino acid residues for ToAMP1, ToAMP2 and ToAMP3, respectively. Importantly, according to cysteine motifs, the peptides are representatives of two novel previously unknown families of plant antimicrobial peptides. ToAMP1 and ToAMP2 share high sequence identity and belong to 6-Cys-containing antimicrobial peptides, while ToAMP3 is a member of a distinct 8-Cys family. The peptides were shown to display high antimicrobial activity both against fungal and bacterial pathogens, and therefore represent new promising molecules for biotechnological and medicinal applications. PMID:22640720

Astafieva, A A; Rogozhin, E A; Odintsova, T I; Khadeeva, N V; Grishin, E V; Egorov, Ts A

2012-08-01

202

Determination of Disulfide Bond Connectivity of Cysteine-rich Peptide IpTxa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cysteine-rich peptides stabilized by intramolecular disulfide bonds have often been isolated from venoms of microbes, animals and plants. These peptides typically have much higher stability and improved biopharmaceutical properties compared to their linear counterparts. Therefore the correct disulfide bond formation of small proteins and peptides has been extensively studied for a better understanding of their folding mechanism and achieving efficient generation of the naturally occurring biologically active product. Imperatoxin A (IpTxa), a peptide toxin containing 6 cysteine residues, was isolated from the venom of scorpion Pandinus imperator, selectively binds the ryanodine receptors and activates Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). IpTxa increases the binding of ryanodine to ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and encourages reconstituted single channel to induce subconductance states

203

Two new cysteine endopeptidases obtained from the latex of Araujia hortorum fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new endopeptidases were purified to homogeneity from the latex of Araujia hortorum fruits by a simple purification procedure involving ultracentrifugation and ion exchange chromatography. Molecular weights of araujiain h II and araujiain h III were 23,718 and 23546 (mass spectrometry), respectively. The isoelectric point of araujiain h II was 8.9, whereas araujiain h III had a pI higher than 9.3. Maximum proteolytic activity on caseine was reached at pH 8.0-9.0 for both endopeptidases, which were irreversibly inhibited by iodoacetate and E-64, suggesting they belong to the cysteine protease family. Esterolytic activity was determined on N-alpha-CBZ-amino acid-p-nitrophenyl esters, and the highest kcat/Km values for the both enzymes were obtained with the glutamine derivative. The N-terminal sequences of araujiain h II and araujiain h III showed a high degree of homology with other plant cysteine endopeptidases. PMID:11594466

Obregón, W D; Arribére, M C; del Valle, S M; Liggieri, C; Caffini, N; Priolo, N

2001-05-01

204

Unusual chromatographic behaviour and one-step purification of a novel membrane proteinase from Bacillus cereus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cell envelopes of Bacillus cereus contain a casein-cleaving membrane proteinase (CCMP) and an insulin-cleaving membrane proteinase (ICMP), which differ in their substrate and inhibitor specificity from all Bacillus proteinases described previously. They remained localized in the cytoplasmic membrane after treatment with lysozyme and mutanolysin and they are strongly attached to the membrane compared with other known membrane proteinases. Only high a concentration of the Zwitterionic detergent sulfobetain SB-12 enabled an effective solubilization of both membrane proteinases. The usual conventional purification methods, such as chromatofocusing, ion-exchange chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography in the presence of detergent concentrations beyond their critical micelle concentration, could not be applied to the purification, because the solubilized membrane proteinases bound strongly and irreversibly to the chromatographic matrix. In the search for other purification methods, we used a tentacle ion-exchanger (EMD trimethylaminoethyl-Fractogel) to reduce the hydrophobic interactions between the proteinases and the matrix. All contaminating proteins could be removed by a first gradient of sodium chloride without elution of CCMP; a second gradient with isopropanol and a decreasing salt concentration resulted in an efficiently purified CCMP. The ICMP was irreversibly denaturated. Purified CCMP is a member of the metalloproteinase family with a pH optimum in the neutral range and a temperature optimum of 40 degrees C, whose properties differ from the serine-type membrane proteinase of Bacillus subtilis described by Shimizu et al. [Agric. Biol. Chem., 47 (1983) 1775]. It consists of two subunits in sodiumdodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) under reducing conditions (Mr 53,000 and 65,000); however, the molecular mass of the purified enzyme could not be determined by size exclusion or SDS-PAGE, because the purified enzyme aggregated at the top of the gel matrix. CCMP solubilized before the purification process, could be eluted in the presence of 0.1% octylphenol-poly(ethyleneglycol ether)9-10 (Triton X-100) in two peaks of Mr 56,000 and 128,000, respectively. We discuss this special chromatographic behaviour of the CCMP from Bacillus cereus, with regard to the strong hydrophobic interactions of the enzyme with the chromatographic matrix and additional self-aggregation, which could only be dissolved by solvents such as isopropanol. PMID:8520670

Fricke, B; Buchmann, T; Friebe, S

1995-11-01

205

CHARACTERIZATION OF DANSYLATED CYSTEINE, GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE, CYSTEINE AND CYSTINE BY NARROW BORE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY  

Science.gov (United States)

A method using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric (RP-LC/ESI-MS) method has been developed to confirm the identity of dansylated derivatives of cysteine and glutathione, and their respective dimers. Cysteine, GSH, CSSC...

206

Simultaneous electrochemical determination of L-cysteine and L-cysteine disulfide at carbon ionic liquid electrode.  

Science.gov (United States)

A linear sweep voltammetric method is used for direct simultaneous determination of L-cysteine and L-cysteine disulfide (cystine) based on carbon ionic liquid electrode. With carbon ionic liquid electrode as a high performance electrode, two oxidation peaks for L-cysteine (0.62 V) and L-cysteine disulfide (1.3 V) were observed with a significant separation of about 680 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) in phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0). The linear ranges were obtained as 1.0-450 and 5.0-700 ?M and detection limits were estimated to be 0.298 and 4.258 ?M for L-cysteine and L-cysteine disulfide, respectively. This composite electrode was applied for simultaneous determination of L-cysteine and L-cysteine disulfide in two real samples, artificial urine and nutrient broth. Satisfactory results were obtained which clearly indicate the applicability of the proposed electrode for simultaneous determination of these compounds in complex matrices. PMID:24459003

Safavi, Afsaneh; Ahmadi, Raheleh; Mahyari, Farzaneh Aghakhani

2014-04-01

207

Negative Effects of a Nonhost Proteinase Inhibitor of ~19.8?kDa from Madhuca indica Seeds on Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner).  

Science.gov (United States)

An affinity purified trypsin inhibitor from the seed flour extracts of Madhuca indica (MiTI) on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that MiTI consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of ~19.8?kDa. MiTI inhibited the total proteolytic and trypsin-like activities of the midgut proteinases of Helicoverpa armigera larvae by 87.51% and 76.12%, respectively, at concentration of 5?µg/mL with an IC50 of 1.75?µg/mL against trypsin like midgut proteinases. The enzyme kinetic studies demonstrated that MiTI is a competitive inhibitor with a K i value of 4.1 × 10(-10)?M for Helicoverpa trypsin like midgut proteinases. In vivo experiments with different concentrations of MiTI in artificial diet (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5%?w/w) showed an effective downfall in the larval body weight and an increase in larval mortality. The concentration of MiTI in the artificial diet to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 1.5%?w/w and that to cause reduction in mass of larvae by 50% (ED50) was 1.0%?w/w. Nutritional indices observations suggest the toxic and adverse effects of MiTI on the growth and development of H. armigera larvae. The results suggest a strong bioinsecticidal potential of affinity purified MiTI which can be exploited in insect pest management of crop plants. PMID:25298962

Jamal, Farrukh; Singh, Dushyant; Pandey, Prabhash K

2014-01-01

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Negative Effects of a Nonhost Proteinase Inhibitor of ~19.8 kDa from Madhuca indica Seeds on Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera (H?bner)  

Science.gov (United States)

An affinity purified trypsin inhibitor from the seed flour extracts of Madhuca indica (MiTI) on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that MiTI consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of ~19.8?kDa. MiTI inhibited the total proteolytic and trypsin-like activities of the midgut proteinases of Helicoverpa armigera larvae by 87.51% and 76.12%, respectively, at concentration of 5?µg/mL with an IC50 of 1.75?µg/mL against trypsin like midgut proteinases. The enzyme kinetic studies demonstrated that MiTI is a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 4.1 × 10?10?M for Helicoverpa trypsin like midgut proteinases. In vivo experiments with different concentrations of MiTI in artificial diet (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5%?w/w) showed an effective downfall in the larval body weight and an increase in larval mortality. The concentration of MiTI in the artificial diet to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 1.5%?w/w and that to cause reduction in mass of larvae by 50% (ED50) was 1.0%?w/w. Nutritional indices observations suggest the toxic and adverse effects of MiTI on the growth and development of H. armigera larvae. The results suggest a strong bioinsecticidal potential of affinity purified MiTI which can be exploited in insect pest management of crop plants.

Jamal, Farrukh; Singh, Dushyant; Pandey, Prabhash K.

2014-01-01

209

Reduction of guanosyl radical by cysteine and cysteine-glycine studied by time-resolved CIDNP.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a model for chemical DNA repair, reduction of guanosyl radicals in the reaction with cysteine or the dipeptide cysteine-glycine has been studied by time-resolved chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (CIDNP). Radicals were generated photochemically by pulsed laser irradiation of a solution containing the photosensitizer 2,2'-dipyridyl, guanosine-5'-monophosphate, and the amino acid or peptide. In neutral and basic aqueous solution, the neutral guanosyl radical is formed via electron or hydrogen atom transfer to the triplet excited dye. The rate constants for reduction of guanosyl radical were determined by quantitative analysis of the CIDNP kinetics, which are sensitive to the rates of fast radical reactions. The rate constants vary from (1.0 ± 0.3) × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1) for the thiol form of cysteine to (1.6 ± 0.2) × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) for the thiolate anion. These values are comparable with corresponding rate constants for reduction of neutral guanosyl radical by tyrosine. PMID:22708799

Morozova, Olga B; Kaptein, Robert; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V

2012-07-19

210

Expression of human ?1-proteinase inhibitor in Aspergillus niger  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Human ?1-proteinase inhibitor (?1-PI, also known as antitrypsin, is the most abundant serine protease inhibitor (serpin in plasma. Its deficiency is associated with development of progressive, ultimately fatal emphysema. Currently in the United States, ?1-PI is available for replacement therapy as an FDA licensed plasma-derived (pd product. However, the plasma source itself is limited; moreover, even with efficient viral inactivation steps used in manufacture of plasma products, the risk of contamination from emerging viruses may still exist. Therefore, recombinant ?1-PI (r-?1-PI could provide an attractive alternative. Although r-?1-PI has been produced in several hosts, protein stability in vitro and rapid clearance from the circulation have been major issues, primarily due to absent or altered glycosylation. Results We have explored the possibility of expressing the gene for human ?1-PI in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger (A. niger, a system reported to be capable of providing more "mammalian-like" glycosylation patterns to secretable proteins than commonly used yeast hosts. Our expression strategy was based on fusion of ?1-PI with a strongly expressed, secreted leader protein (glucoamylase G2, separated by dibasic processing site (N-V-I-S-K-R that provides in vivo cleavage. SDS-PAGE, Western blot, ELISA, and ?1-PI activity assays enabled us to select the transformant(s secreting a biologically active glycosylated r-?1-PI with yields of up to 12 mg/L. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS analysis further confirmed that molecular mass of the r-?1-PI was similar to that of the pd-?1-PI. In vitro stability of the r-?1-PI from A. niger was tested in comparison with pd-?1-PI reference and non-glycosylated human r-?1-PI from E. coli. Conclusion We examined the suitability of the filamentous fungus A. niger for the expression of the human gene for ?1-PI, a medium size glycoprotein of high therapeutic value. The heterologous expression of the human gene for ?1-PI in A. niger was successfully achieved to produce the secreted mature human r-?1-PI in A. niger as a biologically active glycosylated protein with improved stability and with yields of up to 12 mg/L in shake-flask growth.

Punt Peter J

2007-10-01

211

Gas-phase acidities of cysteine-polyglycine peptides: the effect of the cysteine position.  

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The sequence and conformational effects on the gas-phase acidities of peptides have been studied by using two pairs of isomeric cysteine-polyglycine peptides, CysGly(3,4)NH(2) and Gly(3,4)CysNH(2). The extended Cooks kinetic method was employed to determine the gas-phase acidities using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with an electrospray ionization source. The ion activation was achieved via collision-induced dissociation experiments. The deprotonation enthalpies (Delta(acid)H) were determined to be 323.9 +/- 2.5 kcal/mol (CysGly(3)NH(2)), 319.2 +/- 2.3 kcal/mol (CysGly(4)NH(2)), 333.8 +/- 2.1 kcal/mol (Gly(3)CysNH(2)), and 321.9 +/- 2.8 kcal/mol (Gly(4)CysNH(2)), respectively. The corresponding deprotonation entropies (Delta(acid)S) of the peptides were estimated. The gas-phase acidities (Delta(acid)G) were derived to be 318.4 +/- 2.5 kcal/mol (CysGly(3)NH(2)), 314.9 +/- 2.3 kcal/mol (CysGly(4)NH(2)), 327.5 +/- 2.1 kcal/mol (Gly(3)CysNH(2)), and 317.4 +/- 2.8 kcal/mol (Gly(4)CysNH(2)), respectively. Conformations and energetic information of the neutral and anionic peptides were calculated through simulated annealing (Tripos), geometry optimization (AM1), and single point energy calculations (B3LYP/6-31+G(d)), respectively. Both neutral and deprotonated peptides adopt many possible conformations of similar energies. All neutral peptides are mainly random coils. The two C-cysteine anionic peptides, Gly(3,4)(Cys-H)(-)NH(2), are also random coils. The two N-cysteine anionic peptides, (Cys-H)(-)Gly(3,4)NH(2), may exist in both random coils and stretched helices. The two N-cysteine peptides, CysGly(3)NH(2) and CysGly(4)NH(2), are significantly more acidic than the corresponding C-terminal cysteine ones, Gly(3)CysNH(2) and Gly(4)CysNH(2). The stronger acidities of the former may come from the greater stability of the thiolate anion resulting from the interaction with the helix-macrodipole, in addition to the hydrogen bonding interactions. PMID:20106677

Morishetti, Kiran Kumar; Huang, Betty De Suan; Yates, Jessica Marney; Ren, Jianhua

2010-04-01

212

Purification and characterization of cysteine aminotransferase from rat liver cytosol.  

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Full Text Available Cysteine aminotransferase (L-cysteine: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, EC 2.6.1.3 was purified over 400-fold from the high-speed supernatant fraction of rat liver. The purified enzyme was homogeneous as judged by gel filtration, isoelectric focusing and disc electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the enzyme was about 74,000 by gel filtration and the isoelectric point was 6.2 (4 degrees C. The enzyme catalyzed transamination between L-cysteine and 2-oxoglutarate and the reverse reaction. The optimum pH was 9.7. The Km value for L-cysteine was 22.2 mM, and that for 2-oxoglutaric acid was 0.06 mM. L-Aspartate was a potent inhibitor of the cysteine aminotransferase reaction. The enzyme was very active toward L-alanine 3-sulfinic acid at pH 8.0, and was also very active toward L-aspartic acid (Km = 1.6 mM. Ratios of activities for L-aspartic acid and L-cysteine were essentially constant during the purification of the enzyme. Evidence based on substrate specificity, enzyme inhibition, and physicochemical properties indicates that cytosolic cysteine aminotransferase is identical with cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase (L-aspartate: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, EC 2.6.1.1.

Akagi,Reiko

1982-06-01

213

Metabolism of L-cysteine in guinea pig liver.  

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Full Text Available The metabolism of L-cysteine in guinea pig liver was studied. Guinea pig liver contained 0.45 +/- 0.05 (mean +/- SD mumol of cysteine, 0.180 +/- 0.080 mumol of 3-mercaptolactate-cysteine disulfide [S-(2-hydroxy-2-carboxyethylthiocysteine, HCETC], and 8.082 +/- 0.516 mumol of reduced glutathione per g of fresh tissue. The taurine content was 0.912 +/- 0.158 mumol per g of fresh liver. Cysteine dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.20 activity was several-fold lower than cysteine aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.3 activity. Lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27 activity was about 10-fold higher than 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (EC 2.8.1.2 activity. These results indicate that the oxidative metabolism of L-cysteine in the guinea pig liver is not as active as in the rat liver and that L-cysteine, at least in part, is metabolized via the transaminative pathway, in which 3-mercaptopyruvate is partly reduced to 3-mercaptolactate and is utilized to form HCETC.

Hosaki,Yasuhiro

1986-02-01

214

Prospeção de inibidores de serinoproteinases em folhas de leguminosas arbóreas da floresta Amazônica Prospecting serine proteinase inhibitors in leaves from leguminous trees of the Amazon forest  

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Full Text Available Os inibidores de proteinases são proteínas extensivamente investigadas nos tecidos de estocagem, mas pouco prospectadas em outros tecidos vegetais. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de inibidores de serinoproteinases em extratos foliares de quinze espécies de leguminosas arbóreas da Amazônia. As espécies estudadas foram: Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata e S. polyphylla. Folhas foram coletadas, secas a 30ºC durante 48 h, trituradas e submetidas à extração com NaCl (0,15 M, 10% p/v resultando no extrato total. Ensaios foram executados para determinar a concentração de proteínas e detectar a atividade inibitória contra a tripsina e quimotripsina bovina. Os teores de proteínas bruta e solúvel nos extratos foliares variaram de 7,9 a 31,2% e 1,3 a 14,8%, respectivamente. A atividade inibitória sobre a tripsina e quimotripsina foi observada em todos os extratos foliares. Contudo, nos extratos de E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata e S. polyphylla a inibição foi maior sobre a tripsina, enquanto o extrato de P. multijuga foi mais efetivo contra a quimotripsina. Nós concluímos que nos extratos foliares de leguminosas arbóreas têm inibidores de serinoproteinases e exibem potencial aplicações biotecnológicas.The proteinase inhibitors are proteins extensively investigated in tissue storage, but few prospected in other plant tissues. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of serine proteinase inhibitors in leaf extracts from fifteen species of leguminous trees of the Amazon forest. The species studied were Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata and S. polyphylla. Leaves were collected, dried at 30ºC for 48 h, crushed and subjected to extraction with NaCl (0.15 M, 10% w/v, resulting in the total extract. Tests were performed to determine the concentration of proteins and to detect of inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin. The content of crude and soluble protein in leaf extracts varied from 7.9 to 31.2% and 1.3 to 14.8%, respectively. The inhibitory activity on trypsin and chymotrypsin was observed in all leaf extracts. However, in extracts of E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata and S. polyphylla, the inhibition was greater on trypsin, while extract of P. multijuga was more effective against chymotrypsin. We conclude that leaf extracts of leguminous trees have serine proteinase inhibitors and show potential biotecnological applications.

Larissa Ramos Chevreuil

2011-03-01

215

Biased signalling and proteinase-activated receptors (PARs): targeting inflammatory disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although it has been known since the 1960s that trypsin and chymotrypsin can mimic hormone action in tissues, it took until the 1990s to discover that serine proteinases can regulate cells by cleaving and activating a unique four-member family of GPCRs known as proteinase-activated receptors (PARs). PAR activation involves the proteolytic exposure of its N-terminal receptor sequence that folds back to function as a 'tethered' receptor-activating ligand (TL). A key N-terminal arginine in each of PARs 1 to 4 has been singled out as a target for cleavage by thrombin (PARs 1, 3 and 4), trypsin (PARs 2 and 4) or other proteases to unmask the TL that activates signalling via Gq , Gi or G12 /13 . Similarly, synthetic receptor-activating peptides, corresponding to the exposed 'TL sequences' (e.g. SFLLRN-, for PAR1 or SLIGRL- for PAR2) can, like proteinase activation, also drive signalling via Gq , Gi and G12 /13 , without requiring receptor cleavage. Recent data show, however, that distinct proteinase-revealed 'non-canonical' PAR tethered-ligand sequences and PAR-activating agonist and antagonist peptide analogues can induce 'biased' PAR signalling, for example, via G12 /13 -MAPKinase instead of Gq -calcium. This overview summarizes implications of this 'biased' signalling by PAR agonists and antagonists for the recognized roles the PARs play in inflammatory settings. PMID:24354792

Hollenberg, M D; Mihara, K; Polley, D; Suen, J Y; Han, A; Fairlie, D P; Ramachandran, R

2014-03-01

216

Correlation of phospholipase and proteinase production of Candida with in vivo pathogenicity in Galleria mellonella  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english An essential factor to the virulence of the genus Candida is the ability to produce enzymes and this may be crucial in the establishment of fungal infections. AIM:This study investigated in vitro enzymatic activities of Candida species and their virulence in an in vivo Galleria mellonella experiment [...] al model. METHODS: Twenty-four clinical strains of Candida spp. isolated from the human oral cavity were evaluated, including the following species: C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. norvegensis, C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii. All Candida strains were tested in vitro for production of proteinase and phospholipase. The Candida strains were also injected into Galleria mellonella larvae to induce experimental candidiasis, and after 24 hours, the survival rate was assessed. RESULTS: Phospholipase and proteinase activity were observed in 100% of the C. albicans strains. In the non-albicans species, proteinase and phospholipase activity were observed in 25 and 43% of the studied strains, respectively. The most pathogenic Candida species in G. mellonella were C. albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. lusitaniae, whereas C. glabrata was the least virulent species. Furthermore, a positive significant correlation was found between both enzymatic activities with virulence in G. mellonella. CONCLUSIONS: The virulence of Candida strains in G. mellonella is related to the quantity of proteinases and phospholipases production of each strain.

Rodnei Dennis, Rossoni; Júnia Oliveira, Barbosa; Simone Furgeri Godinho, Vilela; Jéssica Diane dos, Santos; Antonio Olavo Cardoso, Jorge; Juliana Campos, Junqueira.

2013-09-01

217

Proteinase-activated receptors - mediators of early and delayed normal tissue radiation responses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are G-protein coupled receptors that are activated by proteolytic exposure of a receptor-tethered ligand. The discovery of this receptor family represents one of the most intriguing recent developments in signal transduction. PARs are involved in the regulation of many normal and pathophysiological processes, notably inflammatory and fibroproliferative responses to injury. Preclinical studies performed in our laboratory suggest that proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) plays a critical role in the mechanism of chronicity of radiation fibrosis, while proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) may mediate important fibroproliferative responses in irradiated intestine. Specifically, activation of PAR-1 by thrombin, and PAR-2 by pancreatic trypsin and mast cell proteinases, appears to be involved in acute radiation-induced inflammation, as well as in subsequent extracellular matrix deposition, leading to the development of intestinal wall fibrosis and clinical complications. Pharmacological modulators of PAR-1 or PAR-2 expression or activation would be potentially useful as preventive or therapeutic agents in patients who receive radiation therapy, especially if blockade could be targeted to specific tissues or cellular compartments

218

Proteinases release 35S-labeled macromolecules from cultured airway epithelial cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine whether proteinases release radiolabeled macromolecules from airway cells devoid of secretory granules, they studied canine cultured tracheal epithelial cells grown to confluency. At this time the cells are bound by tight junctions, maintain anion transport, have a well developed glycocalyx, but contain no secretory granules. They labeled the cells with 35SO4 (50?ci/ml/24h) then changed the medium every 20 min and measured nondialyzable 35S released into the medium. Two h later, the rate of spontaneous release of 35S-labeled-macromolecules was 5700 +/- 1600 CPM/20 min (mean +/- SD). At this time trypsin, thermolysin, pseudomonas elastase and alkaline proteinase, each released 35S-labeled-macromolecules, whereas aspergillus acid proteinase did not. In more detailed studies, trypsin released 35S in a concentration dependent fashion, with a threshold below 10 units/ml and a response to 1000 units/ml of 1092 +/- 173% (mean +/- SD; n=5 cultures) above pre-trypsin baseline. Sepharose CL4B chromatography of the radiolabeled materials released by trypsin showed a void volume fraction (MW ? 106), and a second, included fraction (MW 2-3 x 105). These results indicate that cultured airway epithelial cells synthesize macromolecules and release them into the medium, and that proteinases increase the rate of macromolecule release markedly

219

Expression of a pathogen-induced cysteine protease (AdCP) in tapetum results in male sterility in transgenic tobacco.  

Science.gov (United States)

Usable male sterility systems have immense potential in developing hybrid varieties in crop plants, which can also be used as a biological safety containment to prevent horizontal transgene flow. Barnase-Barstar system developed earlier was the first approach to engineer male sterility in plants. In an analogous situation, we have evolved a system of inducing pollen abortion and male sterility in transgenic tobacco by expressing a plant gene coding for a protein with known developmental function in contrast to the Barnase-Barstar system, which deploys genes of prokaryotic origin, i.e., from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. We have used a plant pathogen-induced gene, cysteine protease for inducing male sterility. This gene was identified in the wild peanut, Arachis diogoi differentially expressed when it was challenged with the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata. Arachis diogoi cysteine protease (AdCP) was expressed under the strong tapetum-specific promoter (TA29) and tobacco transformants were generated. Morphological and histological analysis of AdCP transgenic plants showed ablated tapetum and complete pollen abortion in three transgenic lines. Furthermore, transcript analysis displayed the expression of cysteine protease in these male sterile lines and the expression of the protein was identified in western blot analysis using its polyclonal antibody raised in the rabbit system. PMID:24615687

Shukla, Pawan; Singh, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Dilip; Vijayan, Sambasivam; Ahmed, Israr; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

2014-06-01

220

Reference: GARE4HVEPB1 [PLACE  

Full Text Available GARE4HVEPB1 Cercos M, Gomez-Cadenas A, Ho THD Hormonal regulation of a cysteine proteinase gene, ... egulated by gibberellins and abscisic acid Plant J 19 : 107-118 (19 99) PubMed: 10476058 ...

 
 
 
 
221

Loss of expression of neutrophil proteinase-3: a factor contributing to thrombotic risk in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria  

Science.gov (United States)

Background A deficiency of specific glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored proteins in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria may be responsible for most of the clinical features of this disease, but some functional consequences may be indirect. For example, the absence of certain glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored proteins in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria cells may influence expression of other membrane proteins. Membrane-bound proteinase 3 co-localizes with glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-linked neutrophil antigen 2a, which is absent in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Design and Methods We compared expression of proteinase 3 and neutrophil antigen 2a by flow cytometry and western blotting in normal and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria cells and measured cytoplasmic and soluble levels of proteinase 3 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in controls and patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Finally, we studied the effects of proteinase 3 on platelet activation using an in vitro aggregometry assay and flow cytometry. Results We showed that membrane-bound proteinase 3 is deficient in patients’ cells, but invariantly present in the cytoplasm regardless of disease phenotype. When we isolated lipid rafts from patients, both molecules were detected only in the rafts from normal cells, but not diseased ones. Membrane-bound proteinase 3 was associated with a decrease in plasma proteinase 3 levels, clone size and history of thrombosis. In addition, we found that treating platelets ex vivo with proteinase 3, but not other agonists, decreased the exposure of an epitope on protease activated receptor-1 needed for thrombin activation. Conversely, treatment of whole blood with serine protease inhibitor enhanced expression of this epitope on protease activated receptor-1 located C-terminal to the thrombin cleavage site on platelets. Conclusions We demonstrated that deficiency of glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored proteins in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria results in decreased membrane-bound and soluble proteinase 3 levels. This phenomenon may constitute another mechanism contributing to a prothrombotic propensity in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. PMID:21546506

Jankowska, Anna M.; Szpurka, Hadrian; Calabro, Mark; Mohan, Sanjay; Schade, Andrew E.; Clemente, Michael; Silverstein, Roy L.; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P.

2011-01-01

222

Phylogenetic analysis of alkaline proteinase producing fluorescent pseudomonads associated with green gram (Vigna radiata L.) rhizosphere.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifty fluorescent pseudomonads were isolated from rhizospheric soil of green gram from nearby area of Kaziranga, Assam, India and assayed for their extracellular proteinase production. Out of these isolates, 20 were found to be prominent in proteinase production. Genetic diversity of the 20 isolates were analyzed through BOX-PCR fingerprinting and 16S rDNA-RFLP along with three reference strains, viz., Pseudomonas fluorescens (NCIM2099(T)), Pseudomonas aureofaciens (NCIM2026(T)), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC2582(T)). BOX-PCR produced two distinct clusters at 56% similarity coefficient and seven distinct BOX profiles. 16S rDNA-RFLP with three tetra-cutters restriction enzymes (HaeIII, AluI, and MspI) revealed two major clusters A and B; cluster A contained only single isolate FPS9 while the rest of 22 isolates belonged to the cluster B. Based on phenotypic characters and 16S rDNA sequence similarity, all the eight highly proteinase-producing strains were affiliated with P. aeruginosa. The proteinase was extracted from two most prominent strains (KFP1 and KFP2), purified by a three-step process involving (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation, gel filtration, and ion exchange chromatography. The enzyme had an optimal pH of 8.0 and exhibit highest activity at 60°C and 37°C by KFP1 and KFP2 respectively. The specific activities were recorded as 75,050 (for KFP1) and 81,320 U/mg (for KFP2). The purified enzyme was migrated as a single band on native and SDS-PAGE with a molecular mass of 32 kDa. Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Ni(2+) ion inhibited the enzyme activity. Enzyme activity was also inhibited by EDTA established as their metallo-proteinase nature. PMID:22374358

Sarma, Rupak K; Debnath, Rajal; Saikia, Ratul; Handique, Pratap J; Bora, Tarun C

2012-03-01

223

Co-expression of proteinase inhibitor enhances recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor production in transgenic rice cell suspension culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The synthetic gene (sPI-II) harboring the chymotrypsin (C1) and trypsin (T1) inhibitor domains of the Nicotiana alata serine proteinase inhibitor II gene has been previously expressed, and extracellular protease activity was shown to be reduced in the suspension culture medium. In this study, the sPI-II gene was introduced into transgenic rice cells expressing rhGM-CSF (recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), in an effort to reduce protease activity and increase rhGM-CSF accumulation in the suspension culture medium. The integration and expression of the introduced sPI-II gene in the transgenic rice cells were verified via genomic DNA PCR amplification and Northern blot analysis, respectively. Relative protease activity was found to have been reduced and rhGM-CSF production was increased 2-fold in the co-transformed cell suspension culture with rhGM-CSF and the sPI-II gene, as compared with that observed in the transformed cell suspension culture expressing rhGM-CSF only. These results indicate that a transformed plant cell suspension culture system expressing the proteinase inhibitor can be a useful tool for increasing recombinant protein production. PMID:18634882

Kim, Tae-Geum; Lee, Ho-Jin; Jang, Yong-Suk; Shin, Yun-Ji; Kwon, Tae-Ho; Yang, Moon-Sik

2008-10-01

224

"Purification and evaluation of somatic, excretory-secretory and Cysteine proteinase antigens of Fasciola Hepatica using IgG-ELISA in diagnosing Fascioliasis "  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fasciolosis, or liver fluke disease, caused by parasites of the genus Fasciola is emerging as an important disease in man and animals, in the world and Iran, particularly in nortern parts. The economical losses in domestic animals are considerable. In the recent decade there were two major outbreaks of human fasciolosis in the Caspian region, northern part of Iran with 7000-10000 infected cases. Sicne it is impossible to diagnose fasciolosis in acute phase using coprological methods and even ...

Mb, Rokni; Massoud J; Pezeshki M; Jalali M

2001-01-01

225

Contribution of cationic amino acids toward the inhibition of Arg-specific cysteine proteinase (Arg-gingipain) by the antimicrobial dodecapeptide, CL(14-25), from rice protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

CL(14-25), a dodecapeptide, exhibits antimicrobial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis with the 50% growth-inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) value of 145 µM, and arginine-specific gingipain (Rgp)-inhibitory activity. Kinetic analysis revealed that CL(14-25) is a mixed-type inhibitor, with inhibition constants (Ki and Ki ' values) of 1.4 × 10(-6) M and 4.3 × 10(-6) M, respectively. To elucidate the contributions of four cationic amino acid residues at the N- and C-termini of CL(14-25) toward Rgp-inhibitory activity, we investigated the Rgp-inhibitory activities of truncated and alanine-substituted analogs of CL(14-25). Rgp-inhibitory activities significantly decreased by truncated analogs, CL(15-25) and CL(16-25), whereas those of CL(14-24) and CL(14-23) were almost as high as that of CL(14-25). Rgp-inhibitory activities of alanine-substituted analogs, CL(R14A) and CL(R14A, R15A) also significantly decreased, whereas those of CL(K25A) and CL(R24A, K25A) were higher than that of CL(14-25). These results suggest that the arginine residue at position 15 substantially contributes to the Rgp-inhibitory activity and that the arginine residue at position 14 plays important roles in exerting Rgp-inhibitory activity. In this study, we demonstrated that CL(K25A) was a potent, dual function, peptide inhibitor candidate, exhibiting Rgp-inhibitory activity with Ki and Ki ' of 9.6 × 10(-7) M and 1.9 × 10(-6) M, respectively, and antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis with an IC50 value of 51 µM. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 102: 379-389, 2014. PMID:25046435

Taniguchi, Masayuki; Matsuhashi, Yoshiyasu; Abe, Takako K; Ishiyama, Yohei; Saitoh, Eiichi; Kato, Tetsuo; Ochiai, Akihito; Tanaka, Takaaki

2014-09-01

226

Plants  

... Plants Plants, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal. Plants Submit to Plants Login Register MDPI Journals A-Z For Authors For Editors ...Microarrays Micromachines Microorganisms Minerals Molbank Molecules Nanomaterials Nutrients Pathogens Pharmaceuticals Pharmaceutics Pharmacy Plants Polymers Processes Proteomes Publications Religions Remote Sensing Resources Risks Robotics Sensors ...Project Report Reply Retraction Review Short Note Technical Note Special Issue Page Plants Plants Home About this journal Indexing & Abstracting Instructions for ... 1 (2012) Plants — Editors Journal Contact Plants Editorial Office MDPI AG, Klybeckstrasse 64, 4057 Basel, Switzerland E-Mail: plants@mdpi.com ...

227

Vanadium oxide nanoparticles as optical sensors of cysteine.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on the synthesis of vanadium oxide nanoparticles using the laser ablation in solution technique. The particles were characterized by dynamic light scattering-DLS, transmission electron microscopy-TEM, X-ray diffraction-XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy-XPS and UV-Vis optical spectroscopy. The oxide nanoparticles are mainly composed of tetragonal V2O5, a semiconductor with a 2.2 eV band gap. The interaction of the nanoparticles with cysteine, a very important aminoacid present in proteins, was studied. Upon reaction with cysteine, the bandgap of the nanoparticles shifts to the ultraviolet region at 2.87 eV. This color change from yellow to transparent can be used for selective cysteine sensing. Additionally, the intervalence band of the optical absorption spectra shows capability for cysteine sensing in the microM range. PMID:21770095

Celestino-Santos, W; Bezerra, A G Júnior; Cezar, A B; Mattoso, N; Schreiner, W H

2011-06-01

228

Reversible targeting of noncatalytic cysteines with chemically tuned electrophiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Targeting noncatalytic cysteine residues with irreversible acrylamide-based inhibitors is a powerful approach for enhancing pharmacological potency and selectivity. Nevertheless, concerns about off-target modification motivate the development of reversible cysteine-targeting strategies. Here we show that electron-deficient olefins, including acrylamides, can be tuned to react with cysteine thiols in a rapidly reversible manner. Installation of a nitrile group increased the olefins' intrinsic reactivity, but, paradoxically, eliminated the formation of irreversible adducts. Incorporation of these electrophiles into a noncovalent kinase-recognition scaffold produced slowly dissociating, covalent inhibitors of the p90 ribosomal protein S6 kinase RSK2. A cocrystal structure revealed specific noncovalent interactions that stabilize the complex by positioning the electrophilic carbon near the targeted cysteine. Disruption of these interactions by protein unfolding or proteolysis promoted instantaneous cleavage of the covalent bond. Our results establish a chemistry-based framework for engineering sustained covalent inhibition without accumulating permanently modified proteins and peptides. PMID:22466421

Serafimova, Iana M; Pufall, Miles A; Krishnan, Shyam; Duda, Katarzyna; Cohen, Michael S; Maglathlin, Rebecca L; McFarland, Jesse M; Miller, Rand M; Frödin, Morten; Taunton, Jack

2012-05-01

229

Reversible targeting of noncatalytic cysteines with chemically tuned electrophiles  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Targeting noncatalytic cysteine residues with irreversible acrylamide-based inhibitors is a powerful approach for enhancing pharmacological potency and selectivity. Nevertheless, concerns about off-target modification motivate the development of reversible cysteine-targeting strategies. Here we show that electron-deficient olefins, including acrylamides, can be tuned to react with cysteine thiols in a rapidly reversible manner. Installation of a nitrile group increased the olefins' intrinsic reactivity, but, paradoxically, eliminated the formation of irreversible adducts. Incorporation of these electrophiles into a noncovalent kinase-recognition scaffold produced slowly dissociating, covalent inhibitors of the p90 ribosomal protein S6 kinase RSK2. A cocrystal structure revealed specific noncovalent interactions that stabilize the complex by positioning the electrophilic carbon near the targeted cysteine. Disruption of these interactions by protein unfolding or proteolysis promoted instantaneous cleavage of the covalent bond. Our results establish a chemistry-based framework for engineering sustained covalent inhibition without accumulating permanently modified proteins and peptides.

Serafimova, Iana M; Pufall, Miles A

2012-01-01

230

Cysteine proteases activity and gene expression studies in soybean nodules during development and drought stress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Activity and transcription profiles of two classes of cysteine proteases, papain- and legumain-like cysteine proteases, as well as their potential inhibitors, cysteine protease inhibitors (cystatins), were investigated in soybean nodules during nodule development and after drought inducing premature senescence. During nodule development total protease activity increased with major activity bands detected protease zymography in older nodules. Expressed cysteine proteases during nodule developm...

Du Plessis, Magdeleen

2013-01-01

231

Cathodic Behaviour of Cysteine at a Platinum Electrode  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The electroreduction behaviour of cysteine was investigated using cyclic, square wave and differencial pulse voltammetric techniques at a platinum working electrode. The reduction of cysteine occurs at a potential of -0.36 V independent of pH. It is a reversible process, controlled mainly by diffusion and in the mechanism of reduction 1 electron per molecule is involved. Using the voltammetric techniques: Cyclic Voltammetry, Square Wave Voltammetry and Differencial Pulse Voltammetry, differen...

Fa?tima Barroso, M.; Teresa Santos; Sales, M. Goreti F.; Cristina Delerue-Matos; Vaz, M. Carmo V. F.

2007-01-01

232

Cysteine sulfoxides and alliinase activity of some Allium species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The flavor precursors of 17 species belonging to the Alliaceae family were analyzed by HPLC, and results were evaluated with respect to the classification of species into their genus, subgenus, and section. Identification and quantification of these precursors were carried out by synthetic and natural reference materials. In addition, nine of these species were investigated in terms of their alliinase activity. Alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) catalyzes the conversion of odorless (+)-S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides into volatile thiosulfinates. Cysteine sulfoxides as well as alliinase activity were found in all investigated samples, and (+)-S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide was most abundant. (+)-S-Propyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide was detected in only a few, not closely related, species. Analysis of the crude protein extract of nine species gave evidence that alliinase activities of samples were similar in terms of pH and temperature optimum, K(M) value, and substrate specificity. For all investigated protein extracts, the highest specific alliinase activity was found for (+)-S-(2-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (alliin). The substrate specificity of these enzymes was not related to relative abundance of the cysteine sulfoxides. However, SDS-PAGE yielded some significant differences among species in terms of their total protein compositions. Species belonging to different subgenera exhibited a specific protein pattern with molecular masses between 13 and 35 kDa. PMID:10956182

Krest, I; Glodek, J; Keusgen, M

2000-08-01

233

Controlling the chiral inversion reaction of the metallopeptide Ni-asparagine-cysteine-cysteine with dioxygen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Synthetically generated metallopeptides have the potential to serve a variety of roles in biotechnology applications, but the use of such systems is often hampered by the inability to control secondary reactions. We have previously reported that the Ni(II) complex of the tripeptide LLL-asparagine-cysteine-cysteine, LLL-Ni(II)-NCC, undergoes metal-facilitated chiral inversion to dld-Ni(II)-NCC, which increases the observed superoxide scavenging activity. However, the mechanism for this process remained unexplored. Electronic absorption and circular dichroism studies of the chiral inversion reaction of Ni(II)-NCC reveal a unique dependence on dioxygen. Specifically, in the absence of dioxygen, the chiral inversion is not observed, even at elevated pH, whereas the addition of O(2) initiates this reactivity and concomitantly generates superoxide. Scavenging experiments using acetaldehyde are indicative of the formation of carbanion intermediates, demonstrating that inversion takes place by deprotonation of the alpha carbons of Asn1 and Cys3. Together, these data are consistent with the chiral inversion being dependent on the formation of a Ni(III)-NCC intermediate from Ni(II)-NCC and O(2). The data further suggest that the anionic thiolate and amide ligands in Ni(II)-NCC inhibit C?-H deprotonation for the Ni(II) oxidation state, leading to a stable complex in the absence of O(2). Together, these results offer insights into the factors controlling reactivity in synthetic metallopeptides. PMID:22928993

Glass, Amanda M; Krause, Mary E; Laurence, Jennifer S; Jackson, Timothy A

2012-09-17

234

The crystal structure of the cysteine protease Xylellain from Xylella fastidiosa reveals an intriguing activation mechanism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Xylella fastidiosa is responsible for a wide range of economically important plant diseases. We report here the crystal structure and kinetic data of Xylellain, the first cysteine protease characterized from the genome of the pathogenic X. fastidiosa strain 9a5c. Xylellain has a papain-family fold, and part of the N-terminal sequence blocks the enzyme active site, thereby mediating protein activity. One novel feature identified in the structure is the presence of a ribonucleotide bound outside the active site. We show that this ribonucleotide plays an important regulatory role in Xylellain enzyme kinetics, possibly functioning as a physiological mediator. PMID:23333295

Leite, Ney Ribeiro; Faro, Aline Regis; Dotta, Maria Amélia Oliva; Faim, Livia Maria; Gianotti, Andreia; Silva, Flavio Henrique; Oliva, Glaucius; Thiemann, Otavio Henrique

2013-02-14

235

Comparative studies of the Spi1 proteins of three equine alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor haplotypes following isolation by affinity chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Antiproteinase deficiency can result in excessive proteinase-induced tissue damage. The major anti-elastase (Spi1) protein of equine alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1-PI) was isolated from the plasma/serum of three common haplotypes (I, L and U). 2. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the three inhibitors were identical, but were only approx 65-77% homologous with two other published equine Spi1 sequences. 3. All three inhibitors complexed quickly and irreversibly with equine leucocyte proteinase 2A (kass = 2 x 10(7) M-1 sec-1). They were also efficient inhibitors of chymase (rat mast cell proteinase-II; kass = 2 x 10(5) M-1 sec-1; Ki = 2 x 10(-10) M). There was therefore no evidence of deficient inhibition in the Spi1 variants of the I,L and U haplotypes. PMID:8224372

Pemberton, A D; Miller, H R; John, H A; Scudamore, C L

1993-09-01

236

Hypothesis for a serine proteinase-like domain at the COOH terminus of Slowpoke calcium-activated potassium channels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) is a 58-residue protein with three disulfide bonds that belongs to the Kunitz family of serine proteinase inhibitors. BPTI is an extremely potent inhibitor of trypsin, but it also specifically binds to various active and inactive serine proteinase homologs with KD values that range over eight orders of magnitude. We previously described an interaction of BPTI at an intracellular site that results in the production of discrete subconductance events in...

Moss, Gw; Marshall, J.; Moczydlowski, E.

1996-01-01

237

Cysteine- and glutathione-mediated uptake of lead and cadmium into Zea mays and Brassica napus roots  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines a new mechanism for the uptake of Pb and Cd into Brassica napus and Zea mays roots. During hydroponic experiments, the uptake of Pb and Cd was enhanced in the presence of cysteine and glutathione, whereas no or very low uptake was observed in EDTA and penicillamine controls. Uptake rates were also enhanced after pre-exposure to cysteine or glutathione and inhibited in the presence of vanadate, suggesting a biological mechanism of uptake. Increasing concentrations of glutathione in solution resulted in decreasing Pb uptake rates, indicating competition for transport between free-glutathione and Pb-glutathione species. Pb uptake in the presence of increasing cysteine concentrations resulted in decreased uptake initially but linearly increasing uptake at higher concentrations. Experimentation showed concentration dependent Pb uptake rates. We speculate that there are specific transporters for these thiol ligands and describe what barriers remain for application of this novel transport mechanism in chelator-assisted phytoremediation. - Cysteine and glutathione mediate the transport of lead and cadmium into plant roots.

Vadas, Timothy M., E-mail: tvadas@umbc.ed [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, 320 Riley-Robb Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Ahner, Beth A., E-mail: baa7@cornell.ed [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, 320 Riley-Robb Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

2009-08-15

238

N-Acetyl-l-Cysteine Affects Growth, Extracellular Polysaccharide Production, and Bacterial Biofilm Formation on Solid Surfaces  

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N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) is used in medical treatment of patients with chronic bronchitis. The positive effects of NAC treatment have primarily been attributed to the mucus-dissolving properties of NAC, as well as its ability to decrease biofilm formation, which reduces bacterial infections. Our results suggest that NAC also may be an interesting candidate for use as an agent to reduce and prevent biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces in environments typical of paper mill plants. Usi...

Olofsson, Ann-cathrin; Hermansson, Malte; Elwing, Hans

2003-01-01

239

Differential expression of cysteine desulfurases in soybean  

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Abstract Background Iron-sulfur [Fe-S] clusters are prosthetic groups required to sustain fundamental life processes including electron transfer, metabolic reactions, sensing, signaling, gene regulation and stabilization of protein structures. In plants, the biogenesis of Fe-S protein is compartmentalized and adapted to specific needs of the cell. Many environmental factors affect plant development and limit productivity and geographical distribution. The impact of these limi...

Heis Marta D; Ditmer Elisabeth M; de Oliveira Luisa A; Frazzon Ana Paula G; Margis Rogério; Frazzon Jeverson

2011-01-01

240

Further characterization of a sarcoplasmic serine proteinase from the skeletal muscle of white croaker (Argyrosomus argentatus).  

Science.gov (United States)

A trypsin-type serine proteinase (WSP) was purified previously from the sarcoplasmic fraction of skeletal muscle of white croaker (Argyrosomus argentatus) by Yanagihara et al. ((1991) Nippon Suisan Gakaishi, 57, 133-142). However, further research on WSP was not carried out. In the present study, we determined the N-terminal amino acid sequence of this enzyme (27 amino acid residues), which revealed relatively high identity in the conserved region to other trypsin-type serine proteinases. Degradation action of WSP on neuropeptides is also reported in this manuscript. The results show that WSP only cleaves at the carboxyl side of Arg or Lys residue of the peptides, especially between dibasic amino acid residues such as Arg-Arg and Arg-Lys. PMID:16271035

Cao, Min-Jie; Hara, Kenji; Weng, Ling; Zhang, Nong; Su, Wen-Jin

2005-10-01

 
 
 
 
241

Suppression of collagen-induced arthritis with a serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) derived from myxoma virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many viruses encode virulence factors to facilitate their own survival by modulating a host's inflammatory response. One of these factors, secreted from cells infected with myxoma virus, is the serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) Serp-1. Because Serp-1 had demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties in arterial injury models and viral infections, it was cloned and evaluated for therapeutic efficacy in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Clinical severity was significantly lower in the Serp-1 protocols (ptype hypersensitivity was lower in the Serp-1 group but antibody titers to type II collagen were not significantly altered. Recipients had minimal histopathologic synovial changes and did not develop neutralizing antibodies to Serp-1. These results indicate that Serp-1 impedes the pathogenesis of CIA and suggests that the therapeutic potential of serine proteinase inhibitors in inflammatory joint diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, should be investigated further. PMID:24845791

Brahn, Ernest; Lee, Sarah; Lucas, Alexandra; McFadden, Grant; Macaulay, Colin

2014-08-01

242

Characterization of a glutenin-specific serine proteinase of Sunn bug Eurygaster integricepts Put.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glutenin hydrolyzing proteinases (GHPs) have been purified, by affinity chromatography, from wheat seeds damaged by the Sunn bug Eurygaster integriceps (Hemiptera, Scutelleridae). A 28 kDa protein was partially sequenced by mass spectrometry and Edman degradation which showed homology to serine proteases from various insects. Three full length clones were obtained from cDNA isolated from Sunn bug salivary glands using degenerate PCR based on the sequences obtained. The cleavage site of the protease was determined using recombinant and synthetic peptides and shown to be between the consensus hexapeptide and nonapeptide repeat motifs present in the high molecular weight subunits of wheat glutenin (PGQGQQ?GYYPTSLQQ). Homology models were generated for the three proteinases identified in this study using the high resolution X-ray structure of a crayfish (Pontastacus leptodactylus) trypsin complexed with a peptide inhibitor as template (PDB accession 2F91). The novel specificity of this protease may find applications in both fundamental and applied studies. PMID:21323348

Konarev, Alexander V; Beaudoin, Frédéric; Marsh, Justin; Vilkova, Nina A; Nefedova, Ludmila I; Sivri, Dilek; Köksel, Hamit; Shewry, Peter R; Lovegrove, Alison

2011-03-23

243

Enhanced response of a proteinase K-based conductometric biosensor using nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteinases are involved in a multitude of important physiological processes, such as protein metabolism. For this reason, a conductometric enzyme biosensor based on proteinase K was developed using two types of nanoparticles (gold and magnetic). The enzyme was directly adsorbed on negatively charged nanoparticles and then deposited and cross-linked on a planar interdigitated electrode (IDE). The biosensor was characterized with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a standard protein. Higher sensitivity was obtained using gold nanoparticles. The linear range for BSA determination was then from 0.5 to 10 mg/L with a maximum response of 154 µs. These results are greater than that found without any nanoparticles (maximum response of 10 µs). The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.3 mg/L. An inter-sensor reproducibility of 3.5% was obtained. PMID:25057139

Nouira, Wided; Maaref, Abderrazak; Elaissari, Hamid; Vocanson, Francis; Siadat, Maryam; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

2014-01-01

244

The selective anticancer activity of the endogenous inhibitor of calcium-activated neutral proteinase. A histological,...  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cytotoxicity of an endogenous inhibitor of calcium-activated neutral proteinase (CANP-I) was evaluated using various mammalian tumor-derived cell lines and human cell cultures. The inhibitor was selectively cytotoxic to human tumor cells from lung, bladder, melanoma and chronic myeloid leukemia tissues, in a dose-dependent manner, and was also cytotoxic to Walker rat tumor cells. The inhibitor was not cytotoxic to normal human, urothelial, fallopian tub...

Logothetou-rella, H.

1994-01-01

245

Effect of acute ozone exposure on the proteinase-antiproteinase balance in the rat lung  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lung disease may result from a persisting proteinase excess or a depletion of antiproteinase in pulmonary parenchyma. We investigated the in vivo effect of a 48-hr exposure to ozone at 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 ppm on proteinase and antiproteinase activity of rat lungs. Elastase inhibitory capacities of serum, lung tissue, and airway washings were measured as indicators of antielastase activity. Trypsin inhibitory capacity was measured using an esterolytic procedure. Proteinase was measured as radioactive release from a 14C-globin substrate. The 48-hr exposures to O3 at levels up to 1 ppm produced concentration-dependent decreases of 35-80% of antiproteinase activities in serum and in lung tissue. However, exposure to 1.5 ppm O3 resulted in no decrease in antiproteinase activities. Acid proteinase activities (pH 4.2) were increased 65-120% by exposure to 1 or 1.5 ppm O3, which correlated with inflammatory cells noted histologically. At 1.5 ppm O3, pulmonary edema and hemorrhage were noted in histologic sections. These changes led to a flooding of the alveoli with up to 40 times normal protein levels and a greater than fivefold increase in airway antiproteinase. These data suggest that serum and soluble lung tissue antiproteinase activity decreased upon exposure to low levels of ozone. However, if O3 exposure is high enough to produce pulmonary hemorrhage, antiproteinase may increase following serum exudation. Thmay increase following serum exudation. These changes may be important in the development of ozone-induced lung diseases, especially emphysema

246

SARS CoV Main Proteinase: The Monomer-Dimer Equilibrium Dissociation Constant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The SARS coronavirus main proteinase (SARS CoV main proteinase) is required for the replication of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV), the virus that causes SARS. One function of the enzyme is to process viral polyproteins. The active form of the SARS CoV main proteinase is a homodimer. In the literature, estimates of the monomer-dimer equilibrium dissociation constant, K{sub D}, have varied more than 650000-fold, from <1 nM to more than 200 {mu}M. Because of these discrepancies and because compounds that interfere with activation of the enzyme by dimerization may be potential antiviral agents, we investigated the monomer-dimer equilibrium by three different techniques: small-angle X-ray scattering, chemical cross-linking, and enzyme kinetics. Analysis of small-angle X-ray scattering data from a series of measurements at different SARS CoV main proteinase concentrations yielded K{sub D} values of 5.8 {+-} 0.8 {mu}M (obtained from the entire scattering curve), 6.5 {+-} 2.2 {mu}M (obtained from the radii of gyration), and 6.8 {+-} 1.5 {mu}M (obtained from the forward scattering). The K{sub D} from chemical cross-linking was 12.7 {+-} 1.1 {mu}M, and from enzyme kinetics, it was 5.2 {+-} 0.4 {mu}M. While each of these three techniques can present different, potential limitations, they all yielded similar K{sub D} values.

Graziano,V.; McGrath, W.; Yang, L.; Mangel, W.

2006-01-01

247

Diversity in specificity of the extracellular proteinases in Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims:?To investigate the diversity in specificity of cell-bound extracellular proteinases in Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. Methods and Results:?HPLC analysis of whole-cell preparations of 14 Lact. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and eight Lact. helveticus strains incubated with ?s1-casein (f 1–23) detected at least six distinct proteolytic patterns. Differences between groups were found in both the primary and secondary specificity toward ?s1-...

Oberg, C. J.; Broadbent, Jeffery R.; Strickland, M.; Mcmahon, D. J.

2002-01-01

248

Positive role of cell wall anchored proteinase PrtP in adhesion of lactococci  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The first step in biofilm formation is bacterial attachment to solid surfaces, which is dependent on the cell surface physico-chemical properties. Cell wall anchored proteins (CWAP are among the known adhesins that confer the adhesive properties to pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria. To investigate the role of CWAP of non-pathogen Gram-positive bacteria in the initial steps of biofilm formation, we evaluated the physico-chemical properties and adhesion to solid surfaces of Lactococcus lactis. To be able to grow in milk this dairy bacterium expresses a cell wall anchored proteinase PrtP for breakdown of milk caseins. Results The influence of the anchored cell wall proteinase PrtP on microbial surface physico-chemical properties, and consequently on adhesion, was evaluated using lactococci carrying different alleles of prtP. The presence of cell wall anchored proteinase on the surface of lactococcal cells resulted in an increased affinity to solvents with different physico-chemical properties (apolar and Lewis acid-base solvents. These properties were observed regardless of whether the PrtP variant was biologically active or not, and were not observed in strains without PrtP. Anchored PrtP displayed a significant increase in cell adhesion to solid glass and tetrafluoroethylene surfaces. Conclusion Obtained results indicate that exposure of an anchored cell wall proteinase PrtP, and not its proteolytic activity, is responsible for greater cell hydrophobicity and adhesion. The increased bacterial affinity to polar and apolar solvents indicated that exposure of PrtP on lactococcal cell surface could enhance the capacity to exchange attractive van der Waals interactions, and consequently increase their adhesion to different types of solid surfaces and solvents.

Buist Girbe

2007-05-01

249

Purification and partial characterization of a thiol proteinase inhibitor from Enterolobium contortisiliquum beans.  

Science.gov (United States)

A thiol proteinase inhibitor was purified from Enterolobium contortisiliquum beans by affinity chromatography on carboxy-methylated-papain-Sepharose. The inhibitor represents a single polypeptide chain with a molecular mass of 60 kDa and inactivates papain (Ki = 0.58 x 10(-9) M) and bromelain. The inhibitor shows activity in the pH range 2 to 10 and at temperatures up to 60 degrees C. PMID:3202965

Oliva, M L; Sampaio, M U; Sampaio, C A

1988-05-01

250

A Single Step Purification of Gastricsin-Like Proteinase from Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A gastricsin-like proteinase was purified from gastric mucosa of Atlantic cod by a single step purification scheme on ion-exchange of Amberlite CG-50. The purification was very efficient as the recovery was 205% and the purification factor was 1796-fold. The enzyme preparation was homogeneous as observed by SDS-PAGE and isoelectric focusing. The enzyme has an estimated molecular weight of 34 kDa and the pI of 4.4.

M. A. Amiza

2002-01-01

251

Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease heterologous expressed in yeast  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During germination of barley seeds, the mobilization of protein is essential and Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins [1]. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme until activated through reduction of the active site cysteines and via removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. One of the key cysteine proteases in Barley, (Hordeum vulgare) endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned with and without the 5 amino acid C-terminal sequence into the Pichia pastoris expression vector pPICZ A? and electrotransformed into Pichia pastoris strain SDM1163. Heterologous protein production was induced with 2% MeOH and the protein expression were monitered during induction by collecting 1 ml samples every hr for 24 hrs. After 4 days, the supernatant were harvested and analyzed by SDS-PAGE, activity assay and Western blot. A significant amount of functional, heterologous protein was produced and the protein production was highest after 4 days and the expression in the C-terminal mutant was slightly higher than for the full length protease.

Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe

252

Non enzymatic glycosylation of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor of human plasma.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human plasma contains inhibitors, which control the activity of proteolytic enzymes. Alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor and alpha-2-macroglobulin are two of them present in high concentration in human plasma, which inhibit action of trypsin among other proteinases. The trypsin inhibitory capacity (TIC of human plasma is observed to be decreased in pathological conditions like diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms of decrease in TIC was due to nonenzymatic glycosylation of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (A1PI. A1PI was partially purified from normal human plasma by steps involving ammonium sulphate precipitation, DEAE Sepharose CL6B chromatography, Concanavalin A Sepharose Chromatography and Sephadex G-100 Gel filtration. Purified inhibitor was glycosylated in vitro by incubating it with varying glucose concentrations, under nitrogen for different periods of time in reducing conditions. After glycosylation, the molecular weight of inhibitor increased from 52 kDa to 57 KDa because of binding with glucose molecules. The percent free amino groups in the protein decreased with increasing glucose concentration and days of incubation. The TIC of such modified inhibitor decreased significantly. Decrease in TIC was dependent on the glucose concentration and period of incubation used during in-vitro glycosylation of native inhibitor.

Phadke M

1998-04-01

253

A heme-binding aspartic proteinase from the eggs of the hard tick Boophilus microplus.  

Science.gov (United States)

An aspartic proteinase that binds heme with a 1:1 stoichiometry was isolated and cloned from the eggs of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. This proteinase, herein named THAP (tick heme-binding aspartic proteinase) showed pepstatin-sensitive hydrolytic activity against several peptide and protein substrates. Although hemoglobin was a good substrate for THAP, low proteolytic activity was observed against globin devoid of the heme prosthetic group. Hydrolysis of globin by THAP increased as increasing amounts of heme were added to globin, with maximum activation at a heme-to-globin 1:1 ratio. Further additions of heme to the reaction medium inhibited proteolysis, back to a level similar to that observed against globin alone. The addition of heme did not change THAP activity toward a synthetic peptide or against ribonuclease, a non-hemeprotein substrate. The major storage protein of tick eggs, vitellin (VT), the probable physiological substrate of THAP, is a hemeprotein. Hydrolysis of VT by THAP was also inhibited by the addition of heme to the incubation media. Taken together, our results suggest that THAP uses heme bound to VT as a docking site to increase specificity and regulate VT degradation according to heme availability. PMID:10896678

Sorgine, M H; Logullo, C; Zingali, R B; Paiva-Silva, G O; Juliano, L; Oliveira, P L

2000-09-15

254

Effect of Trichoderma reesei proteinases on the affinity of an inorganic-binding peptide.  

Science.gov (United States)

An inorganic-binding peptide sequence with high affinity to silica-containing materials was fused to a glycoside hydrolase GH26 mannanase, ManA, from the extremely thermophilic bacterium Dictyoglomus thermophilum. The resulting recombinant enzyme produced in Escherichia coli, ManA-Linker, displayed high binding affinity towards synthetic zeolite while retaining its catalytic activity at 80 °C. ManA-Linker was able to bind to the zeolite at different pH levels, indicating a true pH-independent binding. However, complete degradation of the peptide linker was observed when the recombinant ManA-Linker was exposed to the supernatant from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. This degradation was caused by extracellular proteinases produced by T. reesei during its growth phase. Several derivatives of ManA-Linker were designed and expressed in E. coli. All the derivatives carrying a single sequence of the linker were still susceptible to T. reesei proteinase degradation. Complete substitution of the linker sequence by (GGGGS)16 resulted in a proteinase-resistant ManA derivative, ManA-Linker-(GGGGS)16, which was able to bind to zeolite in a pH-dependent manner. PMID:24970048

Care, Andrew; Nevalainen, Helena; Bergquist, Peter L; Sunna, Anwar

2014-08-01

255

Neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3, and cathepsin G as therapeutic targets in human diseases.  

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Polymorphonuclear neutrophils are the first cells recruited to inflammatory sites and form the earliest line of defense against invading microorganisms. Neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3, and cathepsin G are three hematopoietic serine proteases stored in large quantities in neutrophil cytoplasmic azurophilic granules. They act in combination with reactive oxygen species to help degrade engulfed microorganisms inside phagolysosomes. These proteases are also externalized in an active form during neutrophil activation at inflammatory sites, thus contributing to the regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. As multifunctional proteases, they also play a regulatory role in noninfectious inflammatory diseases. Mutations in the ELA2/ELANE gene, encoding neutrophil elastase, are the cause of human congenital neutropenia. Neutrophil membrane-bound proteinase 3 serves as an autoantigen in Wegener granulomatosis, a systemic autoimmune vasculitis. All three proteases are affected by mutations of the gene (CTSC) encoding dipeptidyl peptidase I, a protease required for activation of their proform before storage in cytoplasmic granules. Mutations of CTSC cause Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome. Because of their roles in host defense and disease, elastase, proteinase 3, and cathepsin G are of interest as potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we describe the physicochemical functions of these proteases, toward a goal of better delineating their role in human diseases and identifying new therapeutic strategies based on the modulation of their bioavailability and activity. We also describe how nonhuman primate experimental models could assist with testing the efficacy of proposed therapeutic strategies. PMID:21079042

Korkmaz, Brice; Horwitz, Marshall S; Jenne, Dieter E; Gauthier, Francis

2010-12-01

256

Development of nitrile-based peptidic inhibitors of cysteine cathepsins.  

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It is now becoming clear that several papain-like cysteine cathepsins are involved in the pathophysiology of diseases such as osteoporosis, autoimmune disorders, and cancer. Therefore, the development of potent and selective cathepsin inhibitors is an attractive subject for medicinal chemists. New advances have been made for nitrile-based inhibitors, leading to the identification of the cathepsin K inhibitor odanacatib and other candidates with potential for therapeutic use. This review summarizes the development of peptidic and peptidomimetic compounds with an electrophilic nitrile 'warhead' as inhibitors of the cysteine cathepsins B, S, L, C, and K. Peptide nitriles have been shown to reversibly react with the active site cysteine under formation of a covalent thioimidate adduct. The structural optimization with respect to the positions P3, P2, P1, P1', and P2' resulted in the identification of potent and selective inhibitors of the corresponding cathepsins. The underlying structure-activity relationships are discussed herein. PMID:20166952

Frizler, Maxim; Stirnberg, Marit; Sisay, Mihiret Tekeste; Gütschow, Michael

2010-01-01

257

Cathodic Behaviour of Cysteine at a Platinum Electrode  

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Full Text Available The electroreduction behaviour of cysteine was investigated using cyclic, square wave and differencial pulse voltammetric techniques at a platinum working electrode. The reduction of cysteine occurs at a potential of -0.36 V independent of pH. It is a reversible process, controlled mainly by diffusion and in the mechanism of reduction 1 electron per molecule is involved. Using the voltammetric techniques: Cyclic Voltammetry, Square Wave Voltammetry and Differencial Pulse Voltammetry, different parameters (pH, frequency, step potential, pulse amplitude, scan rate were optimized in order to develop an electrochemical procedure for determination of cysteine in pharmaceutical products. The repeatability, reproducibility, precision and accuracy of the methods were studied. No electroactive interferences from the excipient were found in the pharmaceutical compounds.

M. Fátima Barroso

2007-01-01

258

Procollagen C Proteinase Enhancer 1 Genes Are Important Determinants of the Mechanical Properties and Geometry of Bone and the Ultrastructure of Connective Tissues  

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Procollagen C proteinases (pCPs) cleave type I to III procollagen C propeptides as a necessary step in assembling the major fibrous components of vertebrate extracellular matrix. The protein PCOLCE1 (procollagen C proteinase enhancer 1) is not a proteinase but can enhance the activity of pCPs ?10-fold in vitro and has reported roles in inhibiting other proteinases and in growth control. Here we have generated mice with null alleles of the PCOLCE1 gene, Pcolce, to ascertain in vivo roles. Al...

Steiglitz, Barry M.; Kreider, Jaclynn M.; Frankenburg, Elizabeth P.; Pappano, William N.; Hoffman, Guy G.; Meganck, Jeffrey A.; Liang, Xiaowen; Ho?o?k, Magnus; Birk, David E.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Greenspan, Daniel S.

2006-01-01

259

Transcriptional activation of a 37 kDa ethylene responsive cysteine protease gene, RbCP1, is associated with protein degradation during petal abscission in rose  

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Cysteine proteases play an important role in several developmental processes in plants, particularly those related to senescence and cell death. A cysteine protease gene, RbCP1, has been identified that encodes a putative protein of 357 amino acids and is expressed in the abscission zone (AZ) of petals in rose. The gene was responsive to ethylene in petals, petal abscission zones, leaves, and thalamus. The expression of RbCP1 increased during both ethylene-induced as well as natural abscissio...

Tripathi, Siddharth Kaushal; Singh, Amar Pal; Sane, Aniruddha P.; Nath, Pravendra

2009-01-01

260

Conformational structures and optical rotation of serine and cysteine  

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Gas-phase structures of neutral serine and of neutral cysteine were optimized by means of density functional theory. Moreover, three zwitterion structures stabilized by four water molecules were found for each system. Optical rotation of each conformer of neutral and zwitterion structures was calculated using Hartree-Fock and density-functional theory (with Coulomb attenuated functional), employing analytical response theory. The optical rotation of both amino acids is found to be very sensitive to the molecular conformation, to the extent that it changes sign for the different conformers. Dependence of optical rotation on the side-chain conformation is similar for serine and cysteine.

Pecul, Magdalena

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Resonant dissociative electron attachments to cysteine and cystine.  

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Shape-resonant electron attachments to cysteine and cystine and the subsequent dissociation dynamics are investigated with the single-center expansion potential scattering calculations. Selectivity of the direct bond cleavage at a given resonant state or by the specific resonant state coupling is demonstrated with the one-dimensional complex potential energy curves of the temporary anion (cysteine)(-). The wave function of the lowest shape resonant state of the temporary anion (cystine)(-) distinctly shows the localized anti-bond (S-S)* character, implying that this disulfide bond can be easily broken due to the low-energy electron resonant attachment. PMID:21785790

Wang, Yong-Feng; Tian, Shan Xi; Yang, Jinlong

2011-09-14

262

Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of DESC1, a new member of the type II transmembrane serine proteinase family.  

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DESC1 was identified using gene-expression analysis between squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and normal tissue. It belongs to the type II transmembrane multidomain serine proteinases (TTSPs), an expanding family of serine proteinases, whose members are differentially expressed in several tissues. The biological role of these proteins is currently under investigation, although in some cases their participation in specific functions has been reported. This is the case for enteropeptidase, hepsin, matriptase and corin. Some members, including DESC1, are associated with cell differentiation and have been described as tumor markers. TTSPs belong to the type II transmembrane proteins that display, in addition to a C-terminal trypsin-like serine proteinase domain, a differing set of stem domains, a transmembrane segment and a short N-terminal cytoplasmic region. Based on sequence analysis, the TTSP family is subdivided into four subfamilies: hepsin/transmembrane proteinase, serine (TMPRSS); matriptase; corin; and the human airway trypsin (HAT)/HAT-like/DESC subfamily. Members of the hepsin and matriptase subfamilies are known structurally and here we present the crystal structure of DESC1 as a first member of the HAT/HAT-like/DESC subfamily in complex with benzamidine. The proteinase domain of DESC1 exhibits a trypsin-like serine proteinase fold with a thrombin-like S1 pocket, a urokinase-type plasminogen activator-type S2 pocket, to accept small residues, and an open hydrophobic S3/S4 cavity to accept large hydrophobic residues. The deduced substrate specificity for DESC1 differs markedly from that of other structurally known TTSPs. Based on surface analysis, we propose a rigid domain association for the N-terminal SEA domain with the back site of the proteinase domain. PMID:17388811

Kyrieleis, Otto J P; Huber, Robert; Ong, Edgar; Oehler, Ryan; Hunter, Mike; Madison, Edwin L; Jacob, Uwe

2007-04-01

263

Purification and characterization of a 39,000-Da serine proteinase from the hemolymph of a solitary ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi.  

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A new endogenous serine proteinase from the cell-free hemolymph of a solitary ascidian, Halocythia roretzi, was purified by a combination of ammonium sulfate fractionation, hydrophobic interaction chromatography on TSKgel Toyopearl HW 65 F, ion exchange chromatography on TSKgel DEAE-Toyopearl 650 M, affinity chromatography on Arginine-Sepharose 4B, gel filtration on TSKgel Toyopearl HW 65F and hydroxyapatite chromatography on Bio-Gel HT. The serine proteinase is a single polypeptide chain whose molecular weight and isoelectric point are 39 kDa and about 7.6 pI, respectively. The most susceptible substrate was Boc-Leu-Gly-Arg-4-methyl-coumaryl-7-amide (MCA), and activity was optimal at pH 8. The enzyme was relatively stable at high temperatures; about 50% activity was retained even at 60 degrees C for 30 min in 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, containing 0.5 M NaCl, and 0.05% Brij-35. The enzyme was characterized by the inhibitory effects of synthetic or natural inhibitors, substrate specificity toward 26 peptidyl-MCAs, proteinase activity toward natural proteins and complex formation with a serine proteinase inhibitor (58 kDa) previously found in H. roretzi hemolymph, indicating that the enzyme was a member of serine proteinases and strongly inhibited by the 58 kDa serine proteinase inhibitor as well as human antithrombin III. We also demonstrated the clotting enzyme activity of the purified serine proteinase toward bovine fibrinogen and Limulus coagulogen, a fibrinogen-like clottable protein of horseshoe crabs. PMID:9418002

Shishikura, F; Abe, T; Ohtake, S; Tanaka, K

1997-09-01

264

Processing and trafficking of a single isoform of the aspartic proteinase cardosin A on the vacuolar pathway.  

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Cardosin A is the major vacuolar aspartic proteinase (APs) (E.C.3.4.23) in pistils of Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon). Plant APs carry a unique domain, the plant-specific-insert (PSI), and a pro-segment which are separated from the catalytic domains during maturation but the sequence and location of processing steps for cardosins have not been established. Here transient expression in tobacco and inducible expression in Arabidopsis indicate that processing of cardosin A is conserved in heterologous species. Pulse chase analysis in tobacco protoplasts indicated that cleavage at the carboxy-terminus of the PSI could generate a short-lived 50 kDa intermediate which was converted to a more stable 35 kDa intermediate by removal of the PSI. Processing intermediates detected immunologically in tobacco leaves and Arabidopsis seedlings confirmed that cleavage at the amino-terminus of the PSI either preceded or followed quickly after cleavage at its carboxy-terminus. Thus removal of PSI preceded the loss of the prosegment in contrast to the well-characterised barley AP, phytepsin. PreprocardosinA acquired a complex glycan and its processing was inhibited by brefeldin A and dominant-inhibitory AtSAR1 or AtRAB-D2(a )mutants indicating that it was transported via the Golgi and that processing followed ER export. The 35 kDa intermediate was present in the cell wall and protoplast culture medium as well as the vacuole but the 31 kDa mature subunit, lacking the amino-terminal prosegment, was detected only in the vacuole. Thus maturation appears to occur only after sorting from the trans-Golgi to the vacuole. Processing or transport of cardosin A was apparently slower in tobacco protoplasts than in whole cells. PMID:18273641

Duarte, Patrícia; Pissarra, José; Moore, Ian

2008-05-01

265

Purification and characterization of cysteine protease from germinating cotyledons of horse gram  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteolytic enzymes play central role in the biochemical mechanism of germination and intricately involved in many aspects of plant physiology and development. To study the mechanism of protein mobilization, undertaken the task of purifying and characterizing proteases, which occur transiently in germinating seeds of horse gram. Results Cysteine protease (CPRHG was purified to homogeneity with 118 fold by four step procedure comprising Crude extract, (NH42SO4 fractionation, DEAE-Cellulose and CM-sephacel chromatography from the 2 day germinating cotyledons of horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam. Verdc.. CPRHG is a monomer with molecular mass of 30 k Da, was determined by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. The purified enzyme on IEF showed two isoforms having pI values of 5.85 and 6.1. CPRHG composed of high content of aspartic acid, glutamic acid and serine. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by pCMB, iodoacetate and DEPC indicating cysteine and histidine residues at the active site. However, on addition of sulfhydryl reagents (cysteine, dithiothreitol, glutathione and beta-ME reverse the strong inhibition by pCMB. The enzyme is fairly stable toward pH and temperature. Immunoblot analysis shows that the enzyme synthesized as zymogen (preproenzyme with 81 kDa and processed to a 40 kDa proenzyme which was further degraded to give 30 kDa active enzyme. Conclusion It appears that the newly synthesized protease is inactive, and activation takes place during germination. CPRHG has a broad substrate specificity and stability in pH, temperature, etc. therefore, this protease may turn out to be an efficient choice for the pharmaceutical, medicinal, food, and biotechnology industry.

Rao Sridhar K

2009-11-01

266

Enabling olefin metathesis on proteins: chemical methods for installation of S-allyl cysteine.  

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Multiple, complementary methods are reported for the chemical conversion of cysteine to S-allyl cysteine on protein surfaces, a useful transformation for the exploration of olefin metathesis on proteins.

Chalker, Jm; Lin, Ya; Boutureira, O.; Davis, Bg

2009-01-01

267

Induction of release and up-regulated gene expression of interleukin (IL-8 in A549 cells by serine proteinases  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypersecretion of cytokines and serine proteinases has been observed in asthma. Since protease-activated receptors (PARs are receptors of several serine proteinases and airway epithelial cells are a major source of cytokines, the influence of serine proteinases and PARs on interleukin (IL-8 secretion and gene expression in cultured A549 cells was examined. Results A549 cells express all four PARs at both protein and mRNA levels as assessed by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence microscopy and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Thrombin, tryptase, elastase and trypsin induce a up to 8, 4.3, 4.4 and 5.1 fold increase in IL-8 release from A549 cells, respectively following 16 h incubation period. The thrombin, elastase and trypsin induced secretion of IL-8 can be abolished by their specific inhibitors. Agonist peptides of PAR-1, PAR-2 and PAR-4 stimulate up to 15.6, 6.6 and 3.5 fold increase in IL-8 secretion, respectively. Real time PCR shows that IL-8 mRNA is up-regulated by the serine proteinases tested and by agonist peptides of PAR-1 and PAR-2. Conclusion The proteinases, possibly through activation of PARs can stimulate IL-8 release from A549 cells, suggesting that they are likely to contribute to IL-8 related airway inflammatory disorders in man.

He Shaoheng

2006-05-01

268

DNA cleavage by oxymyoglobin and cysteine-introduced metmyoglobin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Double stranded DNA was cleaved oxidatively by incubation with oxygenated myoglobin, and Lys96Cys sperm whale myoglobin in its stable ferric form functioned as an artificial nuclease under air by formation of an oxygenated species, owing to electron transfer from the SH group of the introduced cysteine to the heme. PMID:25327831

Deshpande, Megha Subhash; Junedi, Sendy; Prakash, Halan; Nagao, Satoshi; Yamanaka, Masaru; Hirota, Shun

2014-11-01

269

Cysteine functionalized copper organosol: synthesis, characterization and catalytic application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We herein report a facile one-pot synthesis, stabilization, redispersion and Cu-S interaction of L-cysteine and dodecanethiol (DDT) protected copper organosol in toluene from precursor copper stearate using sodium borohydride in toluene under a nitrogen atmosphere. Surface modification of the synthesized copper organosol with an amino acid L-cysteine and an alkanethiol (dodecanethiol, DDT) is accomplished by a thiolate bond between the used ligands and nanoparticle surface. The cysteine molecule binds the copper surface via a thiolate and amine linkage but not through electrostatic interaction with the carboxylate group due to the solvent polarity and dielectric medium. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis was performed to confirm the surface functionalization of the amino acid and DDT to the copper surface. Copper organosol has been characterized by optical spectroscopy (UV/vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The as-synthesized particles are spherical in shape and exhibit a Mie scattering profile with an absorption maxima in the visible range. Copper nanoparticles capped by cysteine and/or DDT in non-aqueous media are found to represent an interesting catalytic approach for the synthesis of octylphenyl ether

270

Biochemical characterization of VQ-VII, a cysteine peptidase with broad specificity, isolated from Vasconcellea quercifolia latex.  

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The latex from Vasconcellea quercifolia ("oak leaved papaya"), a member of the Caricaceae family, contains at least seven cysteine endopeptidases with high proteolytic activity, which helps to protect these plants against injury. In this study, we isolated and characterized the most basic of these cysteine endopeptidases, named VQ-VII. This new purified enzyme was homogeneous by bidimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and exhibited a molecular mass of 23,984 Da and an isoelectric point >11. The enzymatic activity of VQ-VII was completely inhibited by E-64 and iodoacetic acid, confirming that it belongs to the catalytic group of cysteine endopeptidases. By investigating the cleavage of the oxidized insulin B-chain to establish the hydrolytic specificity of VQ-VII, we found 13 cleavage sites on the substrate, revealing that it is a broad-specificity peptidase. The pH profiles toward p-Glu-Phe-Leu-p-nitroanilide (PFLNA) and casein showed that the optimum pH is about 6.8 for both substrates, and that in casein, it is active over a wide pH range (activity higher than 80 % between pH 6 and 9.5). Kinetic enzymatic assays were performed with the thiol peptidase substrate PFLNA (K m = 0.454 ± 0.046 mM, k cat = 1.57 ± 0.07 s(-1), k cat/K m = 3.46 × 10(3) ± 14 s(-1) M(-1)). The N-terminal sequence (21 amino acids) of VQ-VII showed an identity >70 % with 11 plant cysteine peptidases and the presence of highly conserved residues and motifs shared with the "papain-like" family of peptidases. VQ-VII proved to be a new latex enzyme of broad specificity, which can degrade extensively proteins of different nature in a wide pH range. PMID:23568402

Torres, María José; Trejo, Sebastián Alejandro; Natalucci, Claudia Luisa; López, Laura María Isabel

2013-06-01

271

Cysteine pKa values for the bacterial peroxiredoxin AhpC†‡  

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Salmonella typhimurium AhpC is a founding member of the peroxiredoxin family, a ubiquitous group of cysteine-based peroxidases with high reactivity toward hydrogen peroxide, organic hydroperoxides and peroxynitrite. For all of the peroxiredoxins, the catalytic cysteine, referred to as the peroxidatic cysteine (CP), acts as a nucleophile in attacking the peroxide substrate, forming a cysteine sulfenic acid at the active site. Because thiolates are far stronger nucleophiles than thiol groups, i...

Nelson, Kimberly J.; Parsonage, Derek; Hall, Andrea; Karplus, P. Andrew; Poole, Leslie B.

2008-01-01

272

Emission of hydrogen sulfide by leaf tissue in response to L-cysteine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

r L-cysteine elicited H2S emission. Aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of pyridoxal phosphate dependent enzymes, inhibited the emission. In a cell free system from cucumber leaves, H2S formation and its release occurred in response to L-cysteine. Feeding experiments with [35S]t-cysteine showed that most of the sulfur in H2S was derived from sulfur in the L-cysteine supplied

273

Effects of cysteine on growth, protease production, and catalase activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens.  

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Cysteine inhibits growth of and protease production by Pseudomonas fluorescens NC3. Catalase activity in P. fluorescens NC3 was increased by cysteine. The addition of exogenous hydrogen peroxide did not increase catalase activity, thus suggesting a role for the endogenous generation of hydrogen peroxide via the autoxidation of cysteine.

Himelbloom, B. H.; Hassan, H. M.

1986-01-01

274

Immunocytochemical and flow cytometric detection of proteinase 3 (myeloblastin) in normal and leukaemic myeloid cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteinase 3 (P3) is a serine proteinase present in the primary granules of neutrophils. We have investigated the expression of this protein in samples of bone marrow from healthy individuals and patients with different types of leukaemias by using immunocytochemical staining and flow cytometric quantitation. In normal bone marrow the enzyme was found in promyelocytes, myelocytes, metamyelocytes, band forms and polymorphonuclear neutrophils, correlating with the synthesis of neutrophil serine proteinases during myeloid maturation. No staining was found within the lymphoid, erythroid and megakaryocytic lineage. In the leukaemic samples, only those of acute myeloid and chronic myeloid leukaemia patients were labelled with the antiproteinase 3 antibody. Cases of acute lymphoblastic and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, as well as other malignant lymphomas, were consistently negative, indicating that P3 may be used as a specific marker for the discrimination between myeloid and lymphoid leukaemias. In addition, immunoreactivity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was investigated and the expression of P3 and MPO correlated with the French-American-British (FAB) classification. P3 was not detected in minimally differentiated M0 and M1 cases but was in predominantly labelled cells of M2 and M3 subtypes plus half of the M4 and one out of six M5 cases but not those of M6. These findings correspond to the differentiation stage in which P3 is expressed and stored in the primary granules. Therefore the enzyme may also be used as an adjunct to the classic morphological and cytochemical methods to elucidate further the stage at which the differentiation arrest of the leukaemic clone has occurred. PMID:7873374

Dengler, R; Münstermann, U; al-Batran, S; Hausner, I; Faderl, S; Nerl, C; Emmerich, B

1995-02-01

275

Why strategies to control Leishmania spp. multiplication based on the use of proteinase inhibitors should consider multiple targets and not only a single enzyme.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of proteinases as targets to develop novel chemotherapies against Leishmania spp. infections is a very promising strategy. Based on a previous study by Goyal et al. [J Mol Model (2014) 20:2099], we discuss herein the idea that only a combined treatment with distinct proteinase inhibitors would be an effective antileishmanial therapy. PMID:25296889

Alves, Carlos Roberto; Pereira, Bernardo Acácio Santini; Silva-Almeida, Mariana; da Silva, Franklin Souza

2014-10-01

276

Crystal structure of a putative aspartic proteinase domain of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell surface antigen PE_PGRS16.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the crystal structure of the first prokaryotic aspartic proteinase-like domain identified in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A search in the genomes of Mycobacterium species showed that the C-terminal domains of some of the PE family proteins contain two classic DT/SG motifs of aspartic proteinases with a low overall sequence similarity to HIV proteinase. The three-dimensional structure of one of them, Rv0977 (PE_PGRS16) of M. tuberculosis revealed the characteristic pepsin-fold and catalytic site architecture. However, the active site was completely blocked by the N-terminal His-tag. Surprisingly, the enzyme was found to be inactive even after the removal of the N-terminal His-tag. A comparison of the structure with pepsins showed significant differences in the critical substrate binding residues and in the flap tyrosine conformation that could contribute to the lack of proteolytic activity of Rv0977. PMID:23923105

Barathy, Deivanayaga V; Suguna, Kaza

2013-01-01

277

Subcellular location of the helper component-proteinase of Cowpea Aphid-Borne Mosaic Virus  

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The helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) was expressed in Escherichia coli and used to obtain HC-Pro antiserum that was used as an analytical tool for HC-Pro studies. The antiserum was used in immunofluorescence assays to study the subcellular location of HC-Pro expressed with other viral proteins in cowpea protoplasts in a natural CABMV infection, or in protoplasts transfected with a transient expression construct expressing HC-Pro separately from o...

Mlotshwa, S.; Verver, J.; Sithole-niang, I.; Gopinath, K.; Carette, J.; Kammen, A.; Wellink, J.

2002-01-01

278

The helper component-proteinase of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus  

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Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyvirus causes severe yield losses in cowpea, an important legume crop in semi-arid regions of Africa. We have elucidated the genomic sequence of the virus and subsequently focused our attention on the so-called helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro), a virus-encoded multifunctional protein with roles in different steps of the virus life cycle. Our study has shed more insight into some of the molecular properties of this protein. We have shown that HC-Pro is able to ...

Mlotshwa, S.

2000-01-01

279

A?PP/APLP2 Family of Kunitz Serine Proteinase Inhibitors Regulate Cerebral Thrombosis  

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The amyloid ?-protein precursor (A?PP) is best recognized as the precursor to the A? peptide that accumulates in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease, but less is known about its physiological functions. Isoforms of A?PP that contain a Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor (KPI) domain are expressed in brain and, outside the CNS, in circulating blood platelets. Recently, we showed that KPI-containing forms of A?PP regulates cerebral thrombosis in vivo (Xu et al., 2005 Proc...

Xu, Feng; Previti, Mary Lou; Nieman, Marvin T.; Davis, Judianne; Schmaier, Alvin H.; Nostrand, William E.

2009-01-01

280

Biochemical features, molecular biology and clinical relevance of the human 15-domain serine proteinase inhibitor LEKTI.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the isolation of a 55 amino acid peptide from human hemofiltrate, we cloned the cDNA for a novel human 15-domain serine proteinase inhibitor termed LEKTI. A trypsin-inhibiting activity was demonstrated for three different domains. High levels of expression of the corresponding gene were detected in oral mucosa, followed by the tonsils, parathyroid glands, thymus, and trachea. Hovnanian and coworkers recently found that certain mutations within the LEKTI gene are linked to the severe congenital disease Netherton syndrome and atopic manifestations (including asthma). Thus, a future therapeutic use of LEKTI is conceivable. PMID:12437098

Walden, Michael; Kreutzmann, Peter; Drögemüller, Katrin; John, Harald; Forssmann, Wolf-Georg; Hans-Jürgen, Mägert

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Biochemical characterization, cDNA cloning, and molecular modeling of araujiain aII, a papain-like cysteine protease from Araujia angustifolia latex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Araujiain aII, the protease with highest specific activity purified from latex of Araujia angustifolia (Apocynaceae), shows optimum proteolytic activity at alkaline pH, and it is completely inhibited by the irreversible inhibitor of cysteine proteases trans-epoxysucciny-L: -leucyl-amido(4-guanidino) butane. It exhibits esterolytic activity on several N-?-Cbz-amino acid p-nitrophenyl esters with a preference for Gln, Ala, and Gly derivatives. Kinetic enzymatic assays were performed with the thiol proteinase substrate p-Glu-Phe-Leu-p-nitroanilide (K (m) = 0.18 ± 0.03 mM, k (cat) = 1.078 ± 0.055 s(-1), k (cat)/K (m) = 5.99 ± 0.57 s(-1) mM(-l)). The enzyme has a pI value above 9.3 and a molecular mass of 23.528 kDa determined by mass spectrometry. cDNA of the peptidase was obtained by reverse transcription-PCR starting from total RNA isolated from latex. The deduced amino acid sequence was confirmed by peptide mass fingerprinting analysis. The N-terminus of the mature protein was determined by automated sequencing using Edman's degradation and compared with the sequence deduced from cDNA. The full araujiain aII sequence was thus obtained with a total of 213 amino acid residues. The peptidase, as well as other Apocynaceae latex peptidases, is a member of the subfamily C1A of cysteine proteases. The enzyme belongs to the alpha + beta class of proteins, with two disulfide bridges (Cys22-Cys63 and Cys56-Cys95) in the alpha domain, and another one (Cys150-Cys201) in the beta domain, as was suggested by molecular modeling. PMID:21424535

Obregón, Walter D; Lufrano, Daniela; Liggieri, Constanza S; Trejo, Sebastián A; Vairo-Cavalli, Sandra E; Avilés, Francesc X; Priolo, Nora S

2011-08-01

282

Proteinase-Activated Receptor 2 Expression in Breast Cancer and Its Role in Breast Cancer Cell Migration  

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Proteinase-activated receptor2 (PAR2) is a GPCR that is activated by trypsin-like proteinases. PAR2 is detected in breast tumor specimens; however, it is not clear how PAR2 level in breast cancer cell/tissues compares to normal cell/tissues. Here, we show the elevation of PAR2 protein level in 76 out of 105 breast tumor specimens but only 5 out of 24 normal breast tissues. PAR2 level is also greater in breast cancer cell lines than that in normal breast cells and non-cancerous breast cell lin...

Su, S.; Li, Y.; Luo, Y.; Sheng, Y.; Su, Y.; Padia, Rn; Pan, Zk; Dong, Z.; Huang, S.

2009-01-01

283

Frequency and enzymatic activity (proteinase and phospholipase of Candida albicans from edentulous patients, with and without denture stomatitis  

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Full Text Available The so called erithematous stomatitis is frequently observed in denture wearers, being local factors, mainly related to the presence of yeasts, considered important for its development. Having these aspects in mind, we evaluated edentulous patients with and without denture stomatitis (DS, identifying the yeasts obtained from the palate, and determining the relative level of the proteinase and phospholipase exo-enzymes produced by C. albicans. The results suggested that C. albicans was the most frequent species observed, being more prevalent in patients presenting DS, isolated or in association with other yeasts, with high expression of proteinase.

PENHA Sibele Sarti

2000-01-01

284

Prospeção de inibidores de serinoproteinases em folhas de leguminosas arbóreas da floresta Amazônica / Prospecting serine proteinase inhibitors in leaves from leguminous trees of the Amazon forest  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os inibidores de proteinases são proteínas extensivamente investigadas nos tecidos de estocagem, mas pouco prospectadas em outros tecidos vegetais. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de inibidores de serinoproteinases em extratos foliares de quinze espécies de leguminosas arbóreas da Am [...] azônia. As espécies estudadas foram: Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata e S. polyphylla. Folhas foram coletadas, secas a 30ºC durante 48 h, trituradas e submetidas à extração com NaCl (0,15 M, 10% p/v) resultando no extrato total. Ensaios foram executados para determinar a concentração de proteínas e detectar a atividade inibitória contra a tripsina e quimotripsina bovina. Os teores de proteínas bruta e solúvel nos extratos foliares variaram de 7,9 a 31,2% e 1,3 a 14,8%, respectivamente. A atividade inibitória sobre a tripsina e quimotripsina foi observada em todos os extratos foliares. Contudo, nos extratos de E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata e S. polyphylla a inibição foi maior sobre a tripsina, enquanto o extrato de P. multijuga foi mais efetivo contra a quimotripsina. Nós concluímos que nos extratos foliares de leguminosas arbóreas têm inibidores de serinoproteinases e exibem potencial aplicações biotecnológicas. Abstract in english The proteinase inhibitors are proteins extensively investigated in tissue storage, but few prospected in other plant tissues. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of serine proteinase inhibitors in leaf extracts from fifteen species of leguminous trees of the Amazon forest. The species s [...] tudied were Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata and S. polyphylla. Leaves were collected, dried at 30ºC for 48 h, crushed and subjected to extraction with NaCl (0.15 M, 10% w/v), resulting in the total extract. Tests were performed to determine the concentration of proteins and to detect of inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin. The content of crude and soluble protein in leaf extracts varied from 7.9 to 31.2% and 1.3 to 14.8%, respectively. The inhibitory activity on trypsin and chymotrypsin was observed in all leaf extracts. However, in extracts of E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata and S. polyphylla, the inhibition was greater on trypsin, while extract of P. multijuga was more effective against chymotrypsin. We conclude that leaf extracts of leguminous trees have serine proteinase inhibitors and show potential biotecnological applications.

Larissa Ramos, Chevreuil; José Francisco de Carvalho, Gonçalves; Flávia Camila, SCHIMPL; Cristiane Santos do Carmo Ribeiro de, Souza; Luiz Augusto Gomes de, Souza; Silvana Cristina, Pando.

2011-03-01

285

Activated human CD4 T cells express transporters for both cysteine and cystine  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Because naïve T cells are unable to import cystine due to the absence of cystine transporters, it has been suggested that T cell activation is dependent on cysteine generated by antigen presenting cells. The aim of this study was to determine at which phases during T cell activation exogenous cystine/cysteine is required and how T cells meet this requirement. We found that early activation of T cells is independent of exogenous cystine/cysteine, whereas T cell proliferation is strictly dependent of uptake of exogenous cystine/cysteine. Naïve T cells express no or very low levels of both cystine and cysteine transporters. However, we found that these transporters become strongly up-regulated during T cell activation and provide activated T cells with the required amount of cystine/cysteine needed for T cell proliferation. Thus, T cells are equipped with mechanisms that allow T cell activation and proliferation independently of cysteine generated by antigen presenting cells.

Levring, Trine BØegh; Hansen, Ann Kathrine

2012-01-01

286

Biophysical and Proteomic Characterization Strategies for Cysteine Modifications in Ras GTPases  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysteine is one of the most reactive amino acids and is modified by a number of oxidants. The reactivity of cysteines is dependent on the thiol pKa; however, measuring cysteine pKa values is nontrivial. Ras family GTPases have been shown to contain a free cysteine that is sensitive to oxidation, and free radical-mediated oxidation of this cysteine has been shown to be activating. Here, we present a new technique that allows for measuring cysteine pKa values using a fluorescent detection system with the molecule 4-fluoro-7-aminosulfonylbenzofurazan (ABD-F). In addition, we also describe how to generate several oxidants. Lastly, we describe several mass spectrometry-based experiments and the necessary adjustments to the experiments to detect cysteine oxidation. PMID:24470020

Hobbs, G. Aaron; Gunawardena, Harsha P.; Campbell, Sharon L.

2014-01-01

287

[Conformational stability of serine proteinase inhibitor from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa].  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of different environmental values of the pH and temperature on the spatial organization of serine proteinase inhibitor from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa (=Radianthus macrodactylus) on the level of tertiary and secondary structure was studied by CD spectroscopy. The molecule InhVJ was shown to possess a high conformational thermo- and pH-stability. We determined the point of conformational thermotransition of polypeptide (70 degrees C) after which the molecule gets denaturational stable state with conservation of 80% proteinase inhibitory activity. The significant partial reversible changes of molecule spatial organization were established to occur at the level of tertiary structure in the process of acid-base titration in the range of pH 11.0-13.0. This can be explained by of ionization of tyrosine residues. The molecule InhVJ is conformationally stable at the low pH values (2.0). The quenching of tyrosine residues by acrylamide showed that two of these residues are accessible to the quencher in full, while the third part is available. PMID:21899045

Vakorina, T I; Gladkikh, I N; Monastyrnaia, M M; Kozlovskaia, E P

2011-01-01

288

Proteinase-activated receptor 2 expression in the intestinal tract of the horse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is a G-protein-coupled receptor for trypsin and mast cell tryptase; it is highly expressed at the intestinal level with multiple functions, such as epithelial permeability and intestinal motility. Many proteases activate PAR2 during tissue damage, suggesting a role of the inflammatory response receptors. The aim of the study was to evaluate the distribution and expression of PAR2 in the jejunum, the ileum and the pelvic flexure, using samples collected from healthy adult horses after slaughter. Proteinase-activated receptor 2 immunoreactivity (PAR2-IR) was observed in the enterocytes, intestinal glands, the smooth muscle of the muscularis mucosae, and the longitudinal and circular muscle layers; there were no differences in the distribution of PAR2-IR in the different sections of the intestinal tract. The protein expression level showed that the relative amount of the PAR2 content in the mucosa of the intestinal tract decreased from the small to the large intestine while the PAR2 mRNA analysed showed similar values. This study provides relevant findings concerning the distribution of the PAR2 in the intestines of healthy horses and represents the starting point for evaluating the role of the PAR2 during strangulative intestinal disease and consequent systemic intestinal reperfusion/injury complications in horses in order to identify and employ antagonist PAR2 molecules. PMID:24656343

Zannoni, Augusta; Bombardi, Cristiano; Dondi, Francesco; Morini, Maria; Forni, Monica; Chiocchetti, Roberto; Spadari, Alessandro; Romagnoli, Noemi

2014-06-01

289

Oxidized elafin and trappin poorly inhibit the elastolytic activity of neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neutrophil proteinase-mediated lung tissue destruction is prevented by inhibitors, including elafin and its precursor, trappin. We wanted to establish whether neutrophil-derived oxidants might impair the inhibitory function of these molecules. Myeloperoxidase/H(2)O(2) and N-chlorosuccinimide oxidation of the inhibitors was checked by mass spectrometry and enzymatic methods. Oxidation significantly lowers the affinities of the two inhibitors for neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase 3 (Pr3). This decrease in affinity is essentially caused by an increase in the rate of inhibitory complex dissociation. Oxidized elafin and trappin have, however, reasonable affinities for NE (K(i) = 4.0-9.2 x 10(-9) M) and for Pr3 (K(i) = 2.5-5.0 x 10(-8) M). These affinities are theoretically sufficient to allow the oxidized inhibitors to form tight binding complexes with NE and Pr3 in lung secretions where their physiological concentrations are in the micromolar range. Yet, they are unable to efficiently inhibit the elastolytic activity of the two enzymes. At their physiological concentration, fully oxidized elafin and trappin do not inhibit more than 30% of an equimolar concentration of NE or Pr3. We conclude that in vivo oxidation of elafin and trappin strongly impairs their activity. Inhibitor-based therapy of inflammatory lung diseases must be carried out using oxidation-resistant variants of these molecules. PMID:16279952

Nobar, Shila M; Zani, Marie-Louise; Boudier, Christian; Moreau, Thierry; Bieth, Joseph G

2005-11-01

290

Isolation of an aspartic proteinase precursor from the egg of a hard tick, Boophilus microplus.  

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An aspartic proteinase precursor, herein named BYC (Boophilus Yolk pro-Cathepsin) was isolated from eggs of the hard tick, Boophilus microplus. As judged by electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide slab gel (SDS-PAGE), purified BYC presented 2 bands of 54 and 49 kDa, bearing the same NH2-terminal amino acid sequence. By Western blot analysis, BYC was also found in the haemolymph, indicating an extraovarian site of synthesis. Several organs were incubated in culture medium with [35S]methionine, and only the gut and fat body showed synthesis of BYC polypeptides. Protein sequencing of both the NH2-terminal and an internal sequence obtained after cyanogen bromide (CNBr) cleavage of BYC revealed homology with several aspartic proteinase precursors. Incubation at pH 3.5 resulted in autoproteolysis of BYC, which produced the mature form of the enzyme, that displayed pepstatin-sensitive hydrolytic activity against haemoglobin. Western blot analysis using anti-BYC monoclonal antibodies showed proteolytic processing of BYC during embryogenesis and suggested activation of the enzyme during development. A role of BYC in degradation of vitellin, the major yolk protein of tick eggs, is discussed. PMID:9651935

Logullo, C; Vaz, I da S; Sorgine, M H; Paiva-Silva, G O; Faria, F S; Zingali, R B; De Lima, M F; Abreu, L; Oliveira, E F; Alves, E W; Masuda, H; Gonzales, J C; Masuda, A; Oliveira, P L

1998-06-01

291

Aspartic proteinase phylogeny and the origin of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phylogenetic relationships of eukaryotic aspartic proteinases were reconstructed in order to understand the origin of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs), which constitute a large gene family expressed in the trophoblast and placenta of mammals in the order Artiodactyla. The phylogeny supported the hypothesis that PAGs originated in mammals, being most closely related to a group of PAG-like molecules (including rodent pepsin F) found in other mammalian orders. These two groups in turn form a sister group to a group of digestive enzymes from birds and mammals, which includes pepsin A. Sequence similarity in the promoter region of artiodactyl PAGs and mouse pepsin F also supported a close relationship between these genes. Ancestral sequence reconstruction revealed that, at the residues corresponding to positions 148-150 of pepsin A, in the ancestor of artiodactyl PAGs the motif QNL was replaced by EPV; and EPV (or occasionally EPI) is conserved at these sites in known PAGs. The conservation of this ancestral change suggests that it may be important to PAG function, particularly the fact that PAGs lack proteinase activity in spite of the conservation of active site residues in most PAGs. PMID:12949149

Hughes, Austin L; Green, Jonathan A; Piontkivska, Helen; Roberts, R Michael

2003-11-01

292

The contribution of residues 192 and 193 to the specificity of snake venom serine proteinases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Snake venom serine proteinases, which belong to the subfamily of trypsin-like serine proteinases, exhibit a high degree of sequence identity (60-66%). Their stringent macromolecular substrate specificity contrasts with that of the less specific enzyme trypsin. One of them, the plasminogen activator from Trimeresurus stejnegeri venom (TSV-PA), which shares 63% sequence identity with batroxobin, a fibrinogen clotting enzyme from Bothrops atrox venom, specifically activates plasminogen to plasmin like tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), even though it exhibits only 23% sequence identity with t-PA. This study shows that TSV-PA, t-PA, and batroxobin are quite different in their specificity toward small chromogenic substrates, TSV-PA being less selective than t-PA, and batroxobin not being efficient at all. The specificity of TSV-PA, with respect to t-PA and batroxobin, was investigated further by site-directed mutagenesis in the 189-195 segment, which forms the basement of the S(1) pocket of TSV-PA and presents a His at position 192 and a unique Phe at position 193. This study demonstrates that Phe(193) plays a more significant role than His(192) in determining substrate specificity and inhibition resistance. Interestingly, the TSV-PA variant F193G possesses a 8-9-fold increased activity for plasminogen and becomes sensitive to bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. PMID:10636881

Braud, S; Parry, M A; Maroun, R; Bon, C; Wisner, A

2000-01-21

293

Chitosan in Plant Protection  

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Full Text Available Chitin and chitosan are naturally-occurring compounds that have potential in agriculture with regard to controlling plant diseases. These molecules were shown to display toxicity and inhibit fungal growth and development. They were reported to be active against viruses, bacteria and other pests. Fragments from chitin and chitosan are known to have eliciting activities leading to a variety of defense responses in host plants in response to microbial infections, including the accumulation of phytoalexins, pathogen-related (PR proteins and proteinase inhibitors, lignin synthesis, and callose formation. Based on these and other proprieties that help strengthen host plant defenses, interest has been growing in using them in agricultural systems to reduce the negative impact of diseases on yield and quality of crops. This review recapitulates the properties and uses of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives, and will focus on their applications and mechanisms of action during plant-pathogen interactions.

Abdelbasset El Hadrami

2010-03-01

294

Cysteine turnover in human cell lines is influenced by glyphosate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides are widely spread in the environment and there is a lack of knowledge concerning the impact of these substances on the human cell. In the present study the effect of low doses of the pesticides bentazon, metalaxyl and glyphosate on the cellular metabolism of glutathione and cysteine was examined in HeLa and hepatoma cell cultures. No effect was observed when the cells were exposed to bentazon or metalaxyl. However, significant changes in the intra- and extracellular concentration of cysteine, a precursor for glutathione synthesis, were detected when glyphosate was added to the medium. This finding was observed in the presence of micromolar concentration range of glyphosate, and is relevant when compared to concentrations observed in monitoring programmes. PMID:21783784

Hultberg, Malin

2007-07-01

295

Heterologous expression of Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease in yeast  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins during germination. Several Cysteine proteases have been identified in barley. One of the key enzymes, Hordeum vulgare endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned with and without the 5 amino acid C-terminal sequence into the Pichia pastoris expression vector pPICZ A? and electrotransformed into Pichia pastoris strain SDM1163. Heterologous protein production was induced with 2% MeOH. To monitor the protein expression during induction, 1 ml samples was collected every hr for 24 hrs. After 4 days, the supernatant were harvested and analyzed by SDS-PAGE, activity assay and Western blot. A significant amount of heterologous protein was produced and the protein production was highest after 4 days and the expression in the C-terminal mutant was slightly higher than for the full length protease.

Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe

296

Cysteine String Protein Functions Directly in Regulated Exocytosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cysteine string protein (Csp) is essential for neurotransmitter release in Drosophila. It has been suggested that Csp functions by regulating the activity of presynaptic Ca2+ channels, thus controlling exocytosis. We have examined the effect of overexpressing Csp1 in PC12 cells, a neuroendocrine cell line. PC12 cell clones overexpressing Csp1 did not show any changes in morphology, granule number or distribution, or in the levels of other key exocytotic proteins. This overexpression did not a...

Chamberlain, Luke H.; Burgoyne, Robert D.

1998-01-01

297

Cysteine Peptidases as Schistosomiasis Vaccines with Inbuilt Adjuvanticity  

Science.gov (United States)

Schistosomiasis is caused by several worm species of the genus Schistosoma and afflicts up to 600 million people in 74 tropical and sub-tropical countries in the developing world. Present disease control depends on treatment with the only available drug praziquantel. No vaccine exists despite the intense search for molecular candidates and adjuvant formulations over the last three decades. Cysteine peptidases such as papain and Der p 1 are well known environmental allergens that sensitize the immune system driving potent Th2-responses. Recently, we showed that the administration of active papain to mice induced significant protection (P<0.02, 50%) against an experimental challenge infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Since schistosomes express and secrete papain-like cysteine peptidases we reasoned that these could be employed as vaccines with inbuilt adjuvanticity to protect against these parasites. Here we demonstrate that sub-cutaneous injection of functionally active S. mansoni cathepsin B1 (SmCB1), or a cathepsin L from a related parasite Fasciola hepatica (FhCL1), elicits highly significant (P<0.0001) protection (up to 73%) against an experimental challenge worm infection. Protection and reduction in worm egg burden were further increased (up to 83%) when the cysteine peptidases were combined with other S. mansoni vaccine candidates, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (SG3PDH) and peroxiredoxin (PRX-MAP), without the need to add chemical adjuvants. These studies demonstrate the capacity of helminth cysteine peptidases to behave simultaneously as immunogens and adjuvants, and offer an innovative approach towards developing schistosomiasis vaccines PMID:24465551

El Ridi, Rashika; Tallima, Hatem; Selim, Sahar; Donnelly, Sheila; Cotton, Sophie; Gonzales Santana, Bibiana; Dalton, John P.

2014-01-01

298

Cysteine peptidases as schistosomiasis vaccines with inbuilt adjuvanticity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schistosomiasis is caused by several worm species of the genus Schistosoma and afflicts up to 600 million people in 74 tropical and sub-tropical countries in the developing world. Present disease control depends on treatment with the only available drug praziquantel. No vaccine exists despite the intense search for molecular candidates and adjuvant formulations over the last three decades. Cysteine peptidases such as papain and Der p 1 are well known environmental allergens that sensitize the immune system driving potent Th2-responses. Recently, we showed that the administration of active papain to mice induced significant protection (PFasciola hepatica (FhCL1), elicits highly significant (P<0.0001) protection (up to 73%) against an experimental challenge worm infection. Protection and reduction in worm egg burden were further increased (up to 83%) when the cysteine peptidases were combined with other S. mansoni vaccine candidates, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (SG3PDH) and peroxiredoxin (PRX-MAP), without the need to add chemical adjuvants. These studies demonstrate the capacity of helminth cysteine peptidases to behave simultaneously as immunogens and adjuvants, and offer an innovative approach towards developing schistosomiasis vaccines. PMID:24465551

El Ridi, Rashika; Tallima, Hatem; Selim, Sahar; Donnelly, Sheila; Cotton, Sophie; Gonzales Santana, Bibiana; Dalton, John P

2014-01-01

299

The effect of cysteine on electrodeposition of gold nanoparticle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Cysteine was found as an appropriate additive for electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles. ? The deposition mechanism of gold nanoparticle was determined as instantaneous nucleation. ? Oxygen reduction on the gold nanoparticle surface was eight times greater than that on the conventional gold deposits. - Abstract: The most applications of gold nanoparticles are in the photo-electronical accessories and bio-chemical sensors. Chloride solution with cysteine additive was used as electrolyte in gold nanoparticles electrodeposition. The nucleation and growing mechanism were studied by electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, in order to obtain a suitable nano structure. The deposition mechanism was determined as instantaneous nucleation and the dimension of particles was controlled in nanometric particle size range. Atomic Force Microscope was used to evaluate the effect of cysteine on the morphology and topography of gold nanoparticles. Finally the catalytic property of gold nanoparticle electrodeposited was studied in KOH solution, where oxygen reduction on the gold nanoparticle surface was eight times greater than that on the conventional gold deposits.

300

Characterization of cysteine string protein in rat parotid acinar cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysteine string proteins (CSPs) are secretory vesicle chaperone proteins that contain: (i) a heavily palmitoylated cysteine string (comprised of 14 cysteine residues, responsible for the localization of CSP to secretory vesicle membranes), (ii) an N-terminal J-domain (DnaJ domain of Hsc70, 70kDa heat-shock cognate protein family of co-chaperones), and (iii) a linker domain (important in mediating CSP effects on secretion). In this study, we investigated the localization of CSP1 in rat parotid acinar cells and evaluated the role of CSP1 in parotid secretion. RT-PCR and western blotting revealed that CSP1 was expressed and associated with Hsc70 in rat parotid acinar cells. Further, CSP1 associated with syntaxin 4, but not with syntaxin 3, on the apical plasma membrane. Introduction of anti-CSP1 antibody into SLO-permeabilized acinar cells enhanced isoproterenol (IPR)-induced amylase release. Introduction of GST-CSP11-112, containing both the J-domain and the adjacent linker region, enhanced IPR-induced amylase release, whereas neither GST-CSP11-82, containing the J-domain only, nor GST-CSP183-112, containing the linker region only, did produce detectable enhancement. These results indicated that both the J-domain and the linker domain of CSP1 are necessary to function an important role in acinar cell exocytosis. PMID:23942053

Shimomura, Hiromi; Imai, Akane; Nashida, Tomoko

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
301

The effect of cysteine on electrodeposition of gold nanoparticle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: > Cysteine was found as an appropriate additive for electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles. > The deposition mechanism of gold nanoparticle was determined as instantaneous nucleation. > Oxygen reduction on the gold nanoparticle surface was eight times greater than that on the conventional gold deposits. - Abstract: The most applications of gold nanoparticles are in the photo-electronical accessories and bio-chemical sensors. Chloride solution with cysteine additive was used as electrolyte in gold nanoparticles electrodeposition. The nucleation and growing mechanism were studied by electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, in order to obtain a suitable nano structure. The deposition mechanism was determined as instantaneous nucleation and the dimension of particles was controlled in nanometric particle size range. Atomic Force Microscope was used to evaluate the effect of cysteine on the morphology and topography of gold nanoparticles. Finally the catalytic property of gold nanoparticle electrodeposited was studied in KOH solution, where oxygen reduction on the gold nanoparticle surface was eight times greater than that on the conventional gold deposits.

Dolati, A., E-mail: Dolati@sharif.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Imanieh, I.; Salehi, F.; Farahani, M. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-09-25

302

Interaction of murine intestinal mast cell proteinase with inhibitors (serpins) in blood; analysis by SDS-PAGE and western blotting.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interaction of mouse intestinal mast cell proteinase (IMCP) with serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) in blood was analysed: (i) by examining the capacity of the inhibitors in blood to block the binding of the irreversible serine esterase inhibitor [3H]diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP); (ii) by Western blotting. The binding of [3H]DFP to IMCP was blocked very rapidly by inhibitors in mouse serum and, by Western blotting, this inhibition was associated with the appearance of a 73,000 MW proteinase/inhibitor complex together with a series of higher (greater than 100,000) MW complexes. IMCP was not dissociated from these complexes when electrophoresed under reducing conditions, although prior heat treatment of mouse serum (60 for 30-160 min) abolished the formation of all proteinase/inhibitor complexes. Similarly, the activity of a 48,000 MW inhibitor of chymotrypsin was abolished by heat treatment. A titration experiment established that between 0.5 and 5 mg IMCP were inhibited per ml of serum. The properties and MW of the IMCP inhibitor complexes are typical of serpins and suggest that IMCP secreted during intestinal immunological reactions would be rapidly and irreversibly inactivated by plasma-derived inhibitors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:2312150

Irvine, J; Newlands, G F; Huntley, J F; Miller, H R

1990-01-01

303

Molecular cloning and targeted deletion of PEP2 which encodes a novel aspartic proteinase from Aspergillus fumigatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

An aspartic proteinase PEP2 [EC 3.4.23.25] was purified from a cell wall fraction of Aspergillus fumigatus. The enzyme, which showed a broad range of activity from pH 2.0 to 7.0 and migrated as a single band of 39 kDa in SDS-PAGE, was not detected in the culture supernatant. A specific gene probe was designed on the basis of the N-terminal sequence of the native protein, and the PEP2 genomic and cDNA were isolated from corresponding libraries. The deduced amino acid sequence of PEP2 consists of 398 amino acids. A signal sequence of 18 amino acids and a proregion of another 52 amino acids were identified. The mature protein consists of 328 amino acids which include the two DTG-motifs of the active site common to almost all pepsin-like enzymes. PEP2 showed a 64% identity with the vacuolar proteinase A (PrA), of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and an 88% identity with PEPE, an aspartic proteinase of Aspergillus niger. Recombinant PEP2 was overexpressed in Pichia pastoris and the active enzyme was secreted into the culture supernatant. Targeted deletion of PEP2 did not affect vegetative growth or cell and colony morphology. Identification of proteinases, such as PEP2, which are apparently associated with the Aspergillus cell wall raises new interest in these molecules with respect to their possible function in the pathogenesis of invasive aspergillosis. PMID:11043985

Reichard, U; Cole, G T; Rüchel, R; Monod, M

2000-03-01

304

Alanine scanning of all cysteines and construction of a functional cysteine-less Cdr1p, a multidrug ABC transporter of Candida albicans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herein, we discuss the role of the native cysteines present in a major multidrug ABC transporter of Candida albicans, Cdr1p, and describe the construction of this transporter's functional cysteine-less (cysless) protein version for cross-linking studies. In the experiments in which all 23 cysteines were replaced individually, we observed that most of the cysteine replacements were tolerated by the protein, but the replacement of C1056, C1091, C1106, C1294 or C1336 resulted in an enhanced drug susceptibility together with an abrogated drug efflux. Notably, the ATPase activity was uncoupled, which largely remained unaffected in these variants. The substitution of the critical cysteines with serines restored the normal expression and functionality of Cdr1p because serine can effectively mimic the hydrogen bonding properties of cysteine. Finally, we constructed a functional cysless His-tagged Cdr1p in which all the cysteines of the native protein were replaced with alanines and the critical cysteines were replaced with serines. Notably, cysless GFP-tagged variant of Cdr1p was non-functional. The cysless His-tagged variant of Cdr1p is the first example of a cysless ABC transporter in yeast, and it will lead to a greater understanding of the architecture of this important protein and provide insight into the nature of drug binding and interdomain communication. PMID:22166216

Prasad, Rajendra; Shah, Abdul Haseeb; Sanwal, Hina; Kapoor, Khyati

2012-01-01

305

Spontaneous mutagenesis of a plant potyvirus genome after insertion of a foreign gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

The RNA genome of tobacco etch potyvirus (TEV) was engineered to express bacterial beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fused to the virus helper component proteinase (HC-Pro). It was shown previously that prolonged periods (approximately 1 month) of TEV-GUS propagation in plants resulted in the appearance of spontaneous deletion variants. Nine deletion mutants were identified by nucleotide sequence analysis of 40 cDNA clones obtained after polymerase chain reaction amplification. The mutants were missing between 1,741 and 2,074 nucleotides from TEV-GUS, including the sequences coding for most of GUS and the N-terminal region of HC-Pro. This region of HC-Pro contains determinants involved in helper component activity during aphid transmission, as well as a highly conserved series of cysteine residues. The deletion variants were shown to replicate and move systemically without the aid of a helper virus. Infectious viruses harboring the two largest HC-Pro deletions (termed TEV-2del and TEV-7del) were reconstructed by subcloning the corresponding mutated regions into full-length DNA copies of the TEV genome. Characterization of these and additional variants derived by site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that deletion of sequences coding for the HC-Pro N-terminal domain had a negative effect on accumulation of viral RNA and coat protein. The TEV-2del variant possessed an aphid-nontransmissible phenotype that could be rescued partially by prefeeding of aphids on active HC-Pro from another potyvirus. These data suggest that the N-terminal domain of HC-Pro or its coding sequence enhances virus replication or genome expression but does not provide an activity essential for these processes. The function of this domain, as well as a proposed deletion mechanism involving nonhomologous recombination, is discussed. PMID:8371351

Dolja, V V; Herndon, K L; Pirone, T P; Carrington, J C

1993-10-01

306

Metabolism of L-cysteine in rats fed low and high protein diets.  

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Full Text Available L-Cysteine (5.0 mmol per kg of body weight was intraperitoneally injected into rats fed a 25% casein or 5% casein diet. Concentrations of acidic and neutral amino acids in various tissues were determined 2 h later. In the rats fed the 25% casein diet there was a tendency for tissue amino acid and glutathione levels to be slightly lower than controls. In the 5% casein diet group, however, concentrations of tissue amino acids and glutathione generally increased after L-cysteine administration. S-(2-Hydroxy-2-carboxyethylthiocysteine (HCETC,3-mercaptolactate-cysteine disulfide, though in trace amounts, was detected in kidney and blood plasma in the 5% casein diet group. Increases in cysteine-glutathione disulfide in liver, kidney and erythrocytes in the 5% casein diet group were considerable. These results indicate that L-cysteine was rapidly metabolized in the 25% casein diet group through the oxidative pathway, while in the 5% casein diet group, in which liver cysteine dioxygenase activity is supposed to be quite low, the oxidative metabolism of L-cysteine decreased and part of the L-cysteine was metabolized through the transaminative pathway. Administration of 15.0 mmol L-cysteine per kg of body weight to rats fed the 25% casein diet resulted in an increase in cysteine-glutathione disulfide in liver, kidney and erythrocytes, and the appearance of HCETC in blood plasma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS

Mikami,Haruhiko

1984-10-01

307

A new tyrosine-specific chymotrypsin-like and angiotensin-degrading serine proteinase from Vipera lebetina snake venom.  

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Vipera lebetina venom contains different metallo- and serine proteinases that affect coagulation and fibrin(ogen)olysis. A novel serine proteinase from V. Lebetina venom having ChymoTrypsin Like Proteolytic activity (VLCTLP) was purified to homogeneity from the venom using Sephadex G-100sf, DEAE-cellulose, heparin-agarose and FPLC on Superdex 75 chromatographies. VLCTLP is a glycosylated serine proteinase with a molecular mass of 41926 Da. It reacts with N-acetyl-L-tyrosine ethyl ester (ATEE) but not with Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA or Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Leu-pNA. The complete amino acid sequence of the VLCTLP is deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA encoding this protein. The full-length cDNA sequence of the VLCTLP encodes open reading frame of 257 amino acid residues that includes a putative signal peptide of 18 amino acids, a proposed activation peptide of six amino acid residues and serine proteinase of 233 amino acid residues. VLCTLP belongs to the S1 (chymotrypsin) subfamily of proteases. The multiple alignment of its deduced amino acid sequence showed structural similarity with other serine proteases from snake venoms. The protease weakly hydrolyses azocasein, A?-chain and more slowly B?-chain of fibrinogen. VLCTLP does not cleave fibrin and has no gelatinolytic activity. Specificity studies against peptide substrates (angiotensin I and II, oxidized insulin B-chain, glucagon, fibrinogen fragments etc.) showed that VLCTLP catalysed the cleavage of peptide bonds after tyrosine residues. VLCTLP is the only purified and characterized serine proteinase from snake venoms that catalyses ATEE hydrolysis. We detected ATEE-hydrolysing activities also in 9 different Viperidae and Crotalidae venoms. PMID:20950666

Siigur, Ene; Tõnismägi, Külli; Trummal, Katrin; Samel, Mari; Vija, Heiki; Aaspõllu, Anu; Rönnholm, Gunilla; Subbi, Juhan; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Siigur, Jüri

2011-02-01

308

Cysteine and serine protease-mediated proteolysis in body homogenate of a zooplankter, Moina macrocopa, is inhibited by the toxic cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806.  

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The paper describes the characterization of proteases in the whole body homogenate of Moina macrocopa, which can possibly be inhibited by the extracts of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806. With the use of oligopeptide substrates and specific inhibitors, we detected the activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase and cysteine protease. Cysteine protease, the predominant enzyme behind proteolysis of a natural substrate, casein, was partially purified by gel filtration. The substrate SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of body homogenate revealed the presence of nine bands of proteases (17-72 kDa). The apparent molecular mass of an exclusive cysteine protease was 60 kDa, whereas of trypsin, it was 17-24 kDa. An extract of M. aeruginosa PCC7806 significantly inhibited the activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin and cysteine protease in M. macrocopa body homogenate at estimated IC(50) of 6- to 79-microg dry mass mL(-1). Upon fractionation by C-18 solid-phase extraction, 60% methanolic elute contained all the protease inhibitors, and these metabolites could be further separated by reverse-phase liquid chromatography. The metabolites inhibitory to M. macrocopa proteases also inhibited the corresponding class of proteases of mammalian/plant origin. The study suggests that protease inhibition may contribute to chemical interaction of cyanobacteria and crustacean zooplankton. PMID:15820132

Agrawal, Manish Kumar; Bagchi, Divya; Bagchi, Suvendra Nath

2005-05-01

309

Enhancement of thioredoxin/glutaredoxin-mediated L-cysteine synthesis from S-sulfocysteine increases L-cysteine production in Escherichia coli  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli has two L-cysteine biosynthetic pathways; one is synthesized from O-acetyl L-serine (OAS and sulfate by L-cysteine synthase (CysK, and another is produced via S-sulfocysteine (SSC from OAS and thiosulfate by SSC synthase (CysM. SSC is converted into L-cysteine and sulfite by an uncharacterized reaction. As thioredoxins (Trx1 and Trx2 and glutaredoxins (Grx1, Grx2, Grx3, Grx4, and NrdH are known as reductases of peptidyl disulfides, overexpression of such reductases might be a good way for improving L-cysteine production to accelerate the reduction of SSC in E. coli. Results Because the redox enzymes can reduce the disulfide that forms on proteins, we first tested whether these enzymes catalyze the reduction of SSC to L-cysteine. All His-tagged recombinant enzymes, except for Grx4, efficiently convert SSC into L-cysteine in vitro. Overexpression of Grx1 and NrdH enhanced a 15-40% increase in the E. coliL-cysteine production. On the other hand, disruption of the cysM gene cancelled the effect caused by the overexpression of Grx1 and NrdH, suggesting that its improvement was due to the efficient reduction of SSC under the fermentative conditions. Moreover, L-cysteine production in knockout mutants of the sulfite reductase genes (?cysI and ?cysJ and the L-cysteine synthase gene (?cysK each decreased to about 50% of that in the wild-type strain. Interestingly, there was no significant difference in L-cysteine production between wild-type strain and gene deletion mutant of the upstream pathway of sulfite (?cysC or ?cysH. These results indicate that sulfite generated from the SSC reduction is available as the sulfur source to produce additional L-cysteine molecule. It was finally found that in the E. coliL-cysteine producer that co-overexpress glutaredoxin (NrdH, sulfite reductase (CysI, and L-cysteine synthase (CysK, there was the highest amount of L-cysteine produced per cell. Conclusions In this work, we showed that Grx1 and NrdH reduce SSC to L-cysteine, and the generated sulfite is then utilized as the sulfur source to produce additional L-cysteine molecule through the sulfate pathway in E. coli. We also found that co-overexpression of NrdH, CysI, and CysK increases L-cysteine production. Our results propose that the enhancement of thioredoxin/glutaredoxin-mediated L-cysteine synthesis from SSC is a novel method for improvement of L-cysteine production.

Nakatani Takeshi

2012-05-01

310

Protein degradation in Euglena gracilis: Purification and characterization of the major proteinase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protolysis in a crude extract of Euglena gracilis was characterized by autolysis and the hydrolysis of 125I-labeled bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA). Both procedures showed similar properties: stimulation by dithiothreitol, inhibition by leupeptin, and the same pH optima. Hydrolysis of 125I-BSA increased with growth stage and with the depletion of nutrient in the medium. The major proteolytic enzyme was purified to near homogeneity from extracts of dark-grown, stationary-phase Euglena gracilis by acid treatment, and by chromatography on CM-cellulose, DEAE-cellulose, Sephadex G-75, and hydroxyapatite using 125I-BSA as substrate. The molecular weight of the proteinase was 30,000 when determined by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and 15,000 when estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The enzyme therefore appears to be composed of two subunits

311

Production and administration to dogs of aerosols of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor  

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The feasibility of aerosol administration of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (human) (A1PI) was assessed. Of three different methods of aerosolizing A1PI that were evaluated, an ultrasonic nebulizer was found to be best suited to the present purpose, producing particles of a size that allowed them to reach the distal air spaces of the lung and that retained specific A1PI anti-elastase activity. Administration of 20 mg/kg of A1PI and 150 microCi of 131-iodine-A1PI to three dogs was accomplished without complications. Gamma camera scans documented a relatively homogenous distribution throughout the lungs. Bronchial lavage fluid that was recovered from the lungs of the dogs six hours after administration contained large amounts of human A1PI and showed a proportional elevation of anti-elastase activity. There was no evidence of acute toxicity

312

The effect of proteinases (keratinases) in the pathogenesis of Dermatophyte infection using scanning electron microscope  

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Objective: To study the inter-relationship between the stratum corneum of host and the fungal micro-organisms using scanning electron microscopy for a complete understanding of the host parasite relationship. Material and Methods: Skin surface biopsies were obtained two patients suffering from tinea cruris infection. One patient was infected with trichophyton rubrum and the other with epidermophytom floccosum strains. Results: The scanning electron microphotographs obtained from two patients showed a large number of villi in the infected area. The fungal hyphae were seen to placed intercellularly as well seem to be traversing through the corneocytes in many places. Conclusion: From the results observed in this study it could be suggested that the secretion of proteinases from the fungal hyphae together with the mechanical force of the invading organisms in vivo might be playing part in the invasion of the organisms. (author)

313

Cysteine reacts to form blue-green pigments with thiosulfinates obtained from garlic (Allium sativum L.).  

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Cysteine was found to form pigments with garlic thiosulfinates in this investigation, in contrast to previous reports. Pigments were formed only when the molar concentration ratios of cysteine to total thiosulfinates were smaller than 2:1. Cysteine does not form pigments with thiosulfinates in the same manner as other pigment-forming amino compounds because it has a sulfhydryl (SH) group. A colour reaction of cysteine with thiosulfinates is proposed where colourless disulphide-type S-alk(en)yl mercaptocysteines (SAMCs) are formed first by the SH-involved reaction between cysteine and thiosulfinates, and then SAMCs react with residual thiosulfinates to form pigments. When the cysteine to total thiosulfinate molar concentration ratio was 2:1 or greater, total thiosulfinates were consumed to form SAMCs without leaving any thiosulfinates remaining available for the following colour reactions. PMID:24001834

Shin, Young Keum; Kyung, Kyu Hang

2014-01-01

314

Novel odors affect gene expression for cytokines and proteinases in the rat amygdala and hippocampus.  

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Olfaction in rodents provides an excellent modality for the study of cellular mechanisms of information processing and storage, since a single occurrence of precisely timed stimuli has high survival value. We have followed up preliminary evidence of cytokine and proteinase involvement in normal (as opposed to pathologically-induced) brain plasticity by surveying for the presence of these factors in the olfactory circuitry of the rat. Genes for 25-30 common cytokines and their receptors, and over 30 cell matrix and adhesion molecules were found to be expressed across the olfactory bulb, insular cortex, amygdala, and dorsal hippocampus. We then measured by real-time PCR the transcriptional expression of seven of these genes following a one-time exposure to the novel odor of blueberry bars or cornnuts, in contrast to presentation of the familiar odor of lab chow. In the amygdala significant up-regulation of interleukin-1 receptor 1 (IL1r1), interleukin-4 receptor (IL4r), fibroblast growth factor 13 (FGF13), and cathepsin-H (CtsH) was observed in males in response to the odor of cornnuts only. Changes were less consistent and widespread in the hippocampus, but were again sex specific for three genes: cathepsin-L (CtsL), matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14) and MMP-16. Our results show that transcription for several specific cytokines, growth factors, and proteinases responds to a one-time exposure to a novel odor, in a manner that tends to be region- and sex-specific. This suggests considerable variation in the way that olfactory information is processed at the cellular level in different brain regions and by the two sexes. PMID:23103411

Irwin, Louis N; Byers, Donna M

2012-12-13

315

Proteinase-free myeloperoxidase increases airway epithelial permeability in a whole trachea model.  

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In cystic fibrosis the bronchiectatic conducting airways have large numbers of neutrophils in their walls and in their luminal contents. The neutrophil's primary granule enzyme activities of elastase and peroxidase are increased in the sputum of these patients. It has been postulated that these enzymes--together or individually--act to damage the airway epithelium. However, only peroxidase activity has consistently correlated with the degree of structural and functional airway disease in these patients with leakage of plasma protein into the airway lumen (Regelmann et al., Pediatr Pulmonol, 1995; 19:1-9). The present study was designed to test whether human neutrophil-derived myeloperoxidase can independently produce bronchial epithelial damage without the presence of proteases, as measured by increased permeability of the airway epithelium. Human peripheral blood neutrophils were purified, their primary granules isolated, and their peroxidase purified using affinity and ion exchange column chromatography. Activity of the proteinase-free peroxidase was measured using a chromogenic substrate. The effect of this peroxidase on the permeability of excised rat tracheas was measured using radioactive and fluorescent-labeled non-ionic molecules of varying molecular weight. Rat tracheas exposed to 15 minute treatments with either 130 U of peroxidase or hydrogen peroxide (10(-5) M) did not show a significant increase in the permeability of the epithelium to [3H]inulin, [14C]sucrose, and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran 20 compared with control tracheas. However, those tracheas exposed to 130 U peroxidase followed by 10(-5) M hydrogen peroxide showed an increased permeability to each of the three test solutes. We conclude that proteinase-free myeloperoxidase, in the presence of non-toxic concentrations of its substrates, hydrogen peroxide and halide, produced increases in permeability to non-ionic molecules in the rat trachea within 15 minutes. PMID:9261850

Regelmann, W E; Schneider, L A; Fahrenkrug, S C; Gray, B H; Johnson, S; Herron, J M; Clawson, C C; Clawson, D J; Wangensteen, O D

1997-07-01

316

Extended interaction network of procollagen C-proteinase enhancer-1 in the extracellular matrix.  

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PCPE-1 (procollagen C-proteinase enhancer-1) is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that can stimulate procollagen processing by procollagen C-proteinases such as BMP-1 (bone morphogenetic protein 1). PCPE-1 interacts with several proteins in addition to procollagens and BMP-1, suggesting that it could be involved in biological processes other than collagen maturation. We thus searched for additional partners of PCPE-1 in the extracellular matrix, which could provide new insights into its biological roles. We identified 17 new partners of PCPE-1 by SPR (surface plasmon resonance) imaging. PCPE-1 forms a transient complex with the ?-amyloid peptide, whereas it forms high or very high affinity complexes with laminin-111 (KD=58.8 pM), collagen VI (KD=9.5 nM), TSP-1 (thrombospondin-1) (KD1=19.9 pM, KD2=14.5 nM), collagen IV (KD=49.4 nM) and endostatin, a fragment of collagen XVIII (KD1=0.30 nM, KD2=1.1 nM). Endostatin binds to the NTR (netrin-like) domain of PCPE-1 and decreases the degree of superstimulation of PCPE-1 enhancing activity by heparin. The analysis of the PCPE-1 interaction network based on Gene Ontology terms suggests that, besides its role in collagen deposition, PCPE-1 might be involved in tumour growth, neurodegenerative diseases and angiogenesis. In vitro assays have indeed shown that the CUB1CUB2 (where CUB is complement protein subcomponents C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor and BMP-1) fragment of PCPE-1 inhibits angiogenesis. PMID:24117177

Salza, Romain; Peysselon, Franck; Chautard, Emilie; Faye, Clément; Moschcovich, Laura; Weiss, Tali; Perrin-Cocon, Laure; Lotteau, Vincent; Kessler, Efrat; Ricard-Blum, Sylvie

2014-01-01

317

Calcium protects a mesophilic xylanase from proteinase inactivation and thermal unfolding.  

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Crystal structure analysis of Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa xylanase A (XYLA) indicated that the enzyme contained a single calcium binding site that did not exhibit structural features typical of the EF-hand motif. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that XYLA binds calcium with a Ka of 4.9 x 10(4) M-1 and a stoichiometry consistent with one calcium binding site per molecule of enzyme. Occupancy of the calcium binding domain with its ligand protected XYLA from proteinase and thermal inactivation and increased the melting temperature of the enzyme from 60.8 to 66.5 degrees C. However, the addition of calcium or EDTA did not influence the catalytic activity of the xylanase. Replacement of the calcium binding domain, which is located within loop 7 of XYLA, with the corresponding short loop from Cex (a Cellulomonas fimi xylanase/exoglucanase), did not significantly alter the biochemical properties of the enzyme. These data suggest that the primary function of the calcium binding domain is to increase the stability of the enzyme against thermal unfolding and proteolytic attack. To understand further the nature of the calcium binding domain of XYLA, four variants of the xylanase, D256A, N261A, D262A, and XYLA"', in which Asp-256, Asn-261, and Asp-262 had all been changed to alanine, were constructed. These mutated enzymes did not show any significant binding to Ca2+, indicating that Asp-256, Asn-261, and Asp-262 play a pivotal role in the affinity of XYLA for the divalent cation. In the presence or absence of calcium, XYLA"' exhibited thermal stability similar to that of the native enzyme bound to Ca2+ ions, although the variant was sensitive to proteinase inactivation. The role of the calcium binding domain in vivo and the possible mechanism by which the domain evolved are discussed. PMID:9211898

Spurway, T D; Morland, C; Cooper, A; Sumner, I; Hazlewood, G P; O'Donnell, A G; Pickersgill, R W; Gilbert, H J

1997-07-11

318

SERINE proteinase like activity in apolipophorin III from the hemolymph of desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria.  

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Apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) has been known as a lipid transport protein of insects. Recent studies indicated the involvement of apoLp-III in immune reactions and in the control of cell destruction, but no enzymatic activity has so far been detected. In the present study, a protease from the hemolymph of Schistocerca gregaria was purified to homogeneity and its enzymatic activity was examined. Identity as chymotrypsin-like proteinase was established by its high affinity toward bulky aromatic substrates and its catalytic specificity for amide or ester bonds on the synthetic substrates, Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Xaa-AMC (where Xaa was Phe, Tyr, Trp, and Lys, and AMC is 7-amino-4-methyl-coumarin) and thiolbenzyl ester substrate Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-SBzl. The sensitivity for serine protease and chymotrypsin-specific covalent inhibitors, PMSF, TPCK, and noncovalent inhibitors SGCI, showed that it is a chymotrypsin-like proteinase. It showed its maximum activity at pH 8.0 and 55°C for the hydrolysis of Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Tyr-AMC. According to similarities in the amino terminal sequence, molar mass (19 kDa) and retention on reversed-phase analytical high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column, this protein is S. gregaria homologue of Locusta migratoria apoLp-III. Our data suggest that apoLp-III also has an inherent proteolytic activity. Results indicated that S. gregaria apoLp-III is a good catalyst and could be used as a biotechnological tool in food processing and in agricultural biotechnology. PMID:22499434

Malik, Zulfiqar A; Amir, Sumaira; Venekei, István

2012-06-01

319

Isolation and characterization of alpha1-proteinase inhibitor from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) seminal plasma.  

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Using a three-step procedure, we purified (79 and 51.6-fold to homogeneity) and characterized the two isoforms (a and b) of alpha1-proteinase inhibitor-like protein from carp seminal plasma. The isoforms have molecular masses of 55.5 and 54.0 kDa, respectively. These inhibitors formed SDS-stable complexes with cod and bovine trypsin, chymotrypsin and elastase. The thirty-three amino acids within the reactive loop SLPDTVILNRPFLVLIVEDTTKSILFMGKITNP were identified for isoform b. The same first ten amino acids were obtained for isoform a, and this sequence revealed 100% homology to carp alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha1-PI) from perimeningeal fluid. Both isoforms of alpha1-PI are glycoproteins and their carbohydrate content was determined to be 12.6 and 12.1% for a and b, respectively. Our results indicated that alpha1-PI is one of the main proteins of carp seminal plasma. Using polyclonal anti-alpha1-PI antibodies, alpha1-PI was for the first time localized to the carp testis. The presence of alpha1-PI in testis lobules and in the area surrounding spermatides suggests that this inhibitor may be involved in the maintenance of testis connective tissue integrity, control of spermatogenesis or protection of tissue and spermatozoa against unwanted proteolysis. Since similar alpha1-PI has been identified in rainbow trout semen it can be suggested that the presence of alpha1-PI in seminal plasma is a common feature of cyprinid and salmonid fish. PMID:17681818

Wojtczak, M; Ca?ka, J; Glogowski, J; Ciereszko, A

2007-11-01

320

Flow injection spectrofluorimetric determination of cystine and cysteine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um procedimento relativamente simples e sensível com detecção espectrofluorimétrica foi desenvolvido para a determinação de cistina e cisteína por sistema de injeção em fluxo com determinação seqüencial. Esse método é fundamentado na redução de Tl(III) com cisteína em meio ácido, produzindo o reagen [...] te fluorescente TlCl3(2-) (?ex = 227 nm, ?em = 419 nm). Antes da injeção, a solução da amostra foi dividida em dois fluxos. O primeiro fluxo foi tratado com coluna de redução de Cd e então refluxado com a solução do carregador para reagir em pH 5,0 com Tl(III), passado através de uma cela de reação de 100 cm e posteriormente para a cela fluxo do espectrofluorímetro, onde a intensidade de fluorescência foi medida (?ex = 227 nm, ?em = 419 nm). Esse sinal está relacionado às concentrações de cistina e cisteína. O segundo fluxo da solução de amostra foi injetado diretamente no fluxo carregador para reagir e, então, pela cela de reação e detector para medida da intensidade de fluorescência. O sinal nessa etapa é relacionado apenas à cisteína. Assim, o conteúdo de cistina foi determinado diretamente da diferença entre os dois sinais. Cistina e cisteína podem ser determinadas no intervalo de 0,10 a 5,50 µmol L-1 e 0,20 a 8,0 µmol L-1, respectivamente, em uma razão de 20 amostras por hora. O limite de detecção (3s/k) foi 0,10 µmol L-1 para os dois analitos. Os desvios padrões relativos para a determinação de dez replicatas de 4,0 e 3,5 µmol L-1 de cistina ou cisteína foram 1,1% e 1,8%, respectivamente. A influência de substâncias interferentes foi estudada. O método proposto foi aplicado com sucesso na determinação seqüencial de ambos analitos em amostras farmacêuticas. Abstract in english A relatively simple and sensitive procedure with spectrofluorimetric detection was developed for the determination of cystine and cysteine by flow injection system with sequential determination. This method is based on the reduction of Tl(III) with cysteine in acidic media, producing a fluorescence [...] reagent, TlCl3(2-) (?ex = 227 nm, ?em = 419 nm). Before injection, the sample solution was divided into two streams. The first stream was treated with Cd reduction column and then joined with the carrier to react with Tl(III) at pH 5.0 and then passed through a 100 cm reaction coil to the flow cell of the spectrofluorimeter, where the fluorescence intensity was measured (?ex = 227 nm, ?em = 419 nm). This signal is related to cystine and cysteine concentrations. The second stream of sample solution was injected directly into the carrier stream to react with the reagents and then passed through the reaction coil and detector for measuring the fluorescence intensity. The signal in this step is related only to cysteine. Thus, the cystine content was determined directly from difference of the two signals. Cystine and cysteine can be determined in the range of 0.10 to 5.50 µmol L-1 and 0.20 to 8.0 µmol L-1, respectively, at a rate of 20 samples per hour. The limit of detection (3s/k) was 0.10 µmol L-1 for both analytes. The relative standard deviations for ten replicates determination of 4.0 and 3.5 µmol L-1 cystine or cysteine were 1.1% and 1.8%, respectively. The influence of potential interfering substances was studied. The proposed method was successfully applied to the sequential determination of both analytes in pharmaceutical samples.

Ali A., Ensafi; B., Rezaei; S., Nouroozi.

 
 
 
 
321

Phospholipid hydroperoxide cysteine peroxidase activity of human serum albumin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human serum albumin (HSA) reduced the phospholipid hydroperoxide, 1-palmitoyl-2-(13-hydroperoxy-cis-9, trans-11-octadecadienoyl)-l-3-phosphatidylcholine (PLPC-OOH) to the corresponding hydroxy-derivative with a high apparent affinity (Km=9. 23+/-0.95 microM). Removal of bound lipid during purification increased this activity. At physiological concentration, HSA reduced the phospholipid hydroperoxide in the absence of a cofactor. However, in the presence of a cofactor (reductant), the rate of the reaction was increased. All of the major aminothiols in plasma could act as reductants, the best being the most abundant, cysteine (Km=600+/-80 microM). For every nanomole of PLPC-OOH reduced by HSA, 1.26 nmol of cystine was formed, indicating a reaction stoichiometry of 1 mol PLPC-OOH to 2 mol cysteine. We used chemical modification to determine which amino acid residues on HSA were responsible for the activity. Oxidation of thiol group(s) by N-ethylmaleimide led to a reduction in the rate of activity, whereas reduction of thiols by either dithiothreitol or the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, increased the activity. Both N-ethylmaleimide-modified HSA and dithiothreitol-treated HSA exhibited increased apparent affinities for PLPC-OOH. For a range of preparations of albumin with different modifications, the activity on PLPC-OOH was dependent on the amount of free thiol groups on the albumin (correlation coefficient=0.91). Patients with lowered albumin concentrations after septic shock showed lowered total plasma thiol concentrations and decreased phospholipid hydroperoxide cysteine peroxidase (PHCPx) activities. These results therefore show for the first time that HSA exhibits PHCPx activity, and that the majority of the activity depends on the presence of reduced thiol group(s) on the albumin. PMID:10051445

Hurst, R; Bao, Y; Ridley, S; Williamson, G

1999-03-15

322

Oxidation of cysteine S-conjugates by rabbit liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed flavin-containing mono-oxygenases: studies with S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine, S-(1,2,2-trichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine, S-allyl-L-cysteine, and S-benzyl-L-cysteine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rabbit liver microsomes catalyzed the highly stereoselective, NADPH- and time-dependent S-oxidation of S-benzyl-L-cysteine (SBC), S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC), S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC), and S-(1,2,2-trichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (TCVC) to their respective sulfoxides. Methimazole, a flavin-containing mono-oxygenase (FMO) substrate, inhibited S-oxidation of all four conjugates. The cytochrome P450 inhibitor 1-benzylimidazole did not affect SAC, SBC, or DCVC S-oxidation but inhibited the S-oxidation of TCVC. Solubilization of microsomes also inhibited TCVC activity, whereas SBC, SAC, and DCVC activities were not affected. Because these results suggested that FMOs were the major catalysts of SBC, SAC, and DCVC sulfoxidations, the four conjugates were evaluated as substrates for cDNA-expressed rabbit FMO isoforms FMO1, FMO2, FMO3, and FMO5. At equimolar concentrations (10 mM), FMO1 S-oxidized SBC and SAC, but no sulfoxides were detected with DCVC or TCVC. FMO3 S-oxidized all four conjugates. Km values determined with FMO3 were comparable to Km values from rabbit liver microsomes. S-Oxidation by FMO2 was detected only with SAC, and no sulfoxides were detected in incubations with FMO5. These results show that FMO isoforms can catalyze cysteine conjugate S-oxidation and that the specific isoform involved depends on the structure of the cysteine conjugate. The cysteine conjugates with more nucleophilic sulfur atoms, SAC and SBC, were much better FMO substrates than those having the less nucleophilic sulfur atoms DCVC and TCVC. The sulfoxides of TCVC and DCVC were reactive toward GSH, whereas the sulfoxides of SBC and SAC were not reactive. These results provide evidence for different chemical reactivities of these sulfoxides. PMID:9058607

Ripp, S L; Overby, L H; Philpot, R M; Elfarra, A A

1997-03-01

323

Paired natural cysteine mutation mapping: aid to constraining models of protein tertiary structure.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the benefit of mapping paired cysteine mutation patterns as a guide to identifying the positions of protein disulfide bonds. This information can facilitate the computer modeling of protein tertiary structure. First, a simple, paired natural-cysteine-mutation map is presented that identifies the positions of putative disulfide bonds in protein families. The method is based on the observation that if, during the process of evolution, a disulfide-bonded cysteine residue is ...

Kreisberg, R.; Buchner, V.; Arad, D.

1995-01-01

324

Characterization of Amylase, Cellulase and Proteinase Enzyme in Stomach and Intestine of the Mekong Giant Catfish Fed with Various Diets Consisting of Spirulina  

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Full Text Available The amylase, cellulase and proteinase enzyme from the stomach and intestine of the Mekong GiantCatfish that had been fed with various diets consisting of Spirulina, were studied at pH 2-12 and at temperaturesbetween 25-80ºC. This study found that; amylase activities of the stomach were alkaline amylase and theoptimal temperatures to be 25 and 50ºC. Amylase activities of the intestine were neutral amylase as well asalkaline amylase and the optimal temperature range was at 25-30ºC. The cellulase activities were acidiccellulase and alkaline cellulase in both the stomach and the intestine. In the stomach, the acidic cellulaseshowed the optimal temperatures to be at 30, 40 and 50ºC, however alkaline cellulase were 30 and 50ºC. In theintestine, acidic cellulase showed the optimal temperatures to be at 25, 60 and 70ºC and the alkaline cellulaseto be 80ºC. For proteinase activity, the stomach was acidic proteinase and alkaline proteinase, but the intestinewas alkaline proteinase. The acidic proteinase activities of the stomach showed the optimal temperatures to beat 40, 50 and 60ºC and the alkaline proteinase activity proved to be at 40, 60 and 70ºC. The optimal conditionsfor amylase enzymes showed the higher specific activity in the intestine than in the stomach including theproteinase enzyme. At room temperature (25-30ºC, amylase and proteinase specific acitivity dominated in theintestine, while cellulase specific activity dominated in the stomach.

Sudaporn Tongsiri

2010-07-01

325

Cysteine proteases: mode of action and role in epidermal differentiation.  

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Desquamation or cell shedding in mammalian skin is known to involve serine proteases, aspartic proteases and glycosidases. In addition, evidence continues to accumulate that papain-like cysteine proteases and an inhibitor cystatin M/E largely confined to the cutaneous epithelia also play key roles in the process. This involves the complete proteolysis of cell adhesive structures of the stratum corneum, the corneodesmosomes and notably of the desmogleins. Continual cell replacement in the epidermis is the result of the balance between the loss of the outer squames and mitosis of the cells in the basal cell layer. This article provides a brief account of the salient features of the characteristics and catalytic mechanism of cysteine proteases, followed by a discussion of the relevant epidermal biology. The proteases include the asparaginyl endopeptidase legumain, which exerts a strict specificity for the hydrolysis of asparaginyl bonds, cathepsin-V and cathepsin-L. The control of these enzymes by cystatin M/E regulates the processing of transglutaminases and is crucial in the biochemical pathway responsible for regulating the cross-linking and desquamation of the stratum corneum. In addition, caspase-14 has now been shown to play a major part in epidermal maturation. Uncontrolled proteolytic activity leads to abnormal hair follicle formation and deleterious effects on the skin barrier function. PMID:23344364

Brocklehurst, Keith; Philpott, Mike P

2013-02-01

326

Copper oxide assisted cysteine hierarchical structures for immunosensor application  

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The present work describes the promising electrochemical immunosensing strategy based on copper (II) assisted hierarchical cysteine structures (CuCys) varying from star to flower like morphology. The CuCys having average size of 10 ?m have been synthesised using L-Cysteine as initial precursor in presence of copper oxide under environmentally friendly conditions in aqueous medium. To delineate the synthesis mechanism, detailed structural investigations have been carried out using characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The electrochemical behaviour of self-assembled CuCys on gold electrode shows surface controlled electrode reaction with an apparent electron transfer rate constant of 3.38 × 10-4 cm s-1. This innovative platform has been utilized to fabricate an immunosensor by covalently immobilizing monoclonal antibodies specific for Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli). Under the optimal conditions, the fabricated immunosensor is found to be sensitive and specific for the detection of E. coli with a detection limit of 10 cfu/ml.

Pandey, Chandra Mouli; Sumana, Gajjala; Tiwari, Ida

2014-09-01

327

Enzyme structure captures four cysteines aligned for disulfide relay.  

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Thioredoxin superfamily proteins introduce disulfide bonds into substrates, catalyze the removal of disulfides, and operate in electron relays. These functions rely on one or more dithiol/disulfide exchange reactions. The flavoenzyme quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase (QSOX), a catalyst of disulfide bond formation with an interdomain electron transfer step in its catalytic cycle, provides a unique opportunity for exploring the structural environment of enzymatic dithiol/disulfide exchange. Wild-type Rattus norvegicus QSOX1 (RnQSOX1) was crystallized in a conformation that juxtaposes the two redox-active di-cysteine motifs in the enzyme, presenting the entire electron-transfer pathway and proton-transfer participants in their native configurations. As such a state cannot generally be enriched and stabilized for analysis, RnQSOX1 gives unprecedented insight into the functional group environments of the four cysteines involved in dithiol/disulfide exchange and provides the framework for analysis of the energetics of electron transfer in the presence of the bound flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor. Hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) free energy simulations based on the X-ray crystal structure suggest that formation of the interdomain disulfide intermediate is highly favorable and secures the flexible enzyme in a state from which further electron transfer via the flavin can occur. PMID:24888638

Gat, Yair; Vardi-Kilshtain, Alexandra; Grossman, Iris; Major, Dan Thomas; Fass, Deborah

2014-08-01

328

In vitro digestibility of globulins from sapucaia (Lecythis pisonis Camb.) nuts by mammalian digestive proteinases / Digestibilidade in vitro de globulinas das amêndoas de sapucaia (Lecythis pisonis Camb.) por proteinases digestivas de mamíferos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Amêndoas cruas de Sapucaia (Lecythis pisonis Camb.) colhidas no Brasil foram analisadas para se determinar a composição centesimal, o perfil de aminoácidos de suas proteínas, a digestibilidade protéica in vitro e a presença de fatores antinutricionais, para avaliar o seu potencial como complemento a [...] limentar protéico. As amêndoas apresentaram quantidades adequadas de aminoácidos essenciais, ácidos graxos e minerais; no entanto, baixo teor de fibra foi observado. No presente estudo, a presença de lectinas ou inibidores de proteinases, quando detectada, apresentou baixos níveis. A digestibilidade in vitro de globulinas, in natura ou aquecidas, por proteinases digestivas de mamíferos foi realizada utilizando-se tripsina + quimotripsina + peptidase, obtendo-se valores aproximados de 71,5 e 73,5%, respectivamente. Estes resultados sugerem que as amêndoas de sapucaia podem ser utilizadas como complemento alimentar de proteínas, sendo um potencial agente nutricional. Abstract in english Sapucaia (Lecythis pisonis Camb.) raw nuts collected from Brazil were analyzed to determine the proximate composition, amino acid profile of protein fractions, in vitro protein digestibility and antinutritional factors in order to evaluate their potential as a protein alimentary complement. The nuts [...] contained adequate amounts of essential amino acids, fatty acids and minerals. In the present study, no hemagglutinating or inhibitory activities were observed in any of the samples investigated, indicating low or non-detectable levels of proteinase inhibitors or lectins in the samples. In vitro digestibility of in natura and heated nut globulins by mammalian digestive proteinases was carried out using trypsin + chymotrypsin + peptidase, with resulting mean values of approximately 70.30 and 71.35%, respectively. Taken together, the results suggest that sapucaia nuts may provide a new source of protein to use as a potential nutritional agent.

Sandra Maria Silveira, Denadai; Priscila Aiko, Hiane; Sergio, Marangoni; Paulo Aparecido, Baldasso; Ana Maria Rauen de Oliveira, Miguel; Maria Lígia Rodrigues, Macedo.

329

A novel cysteine-rich antifungal peptide ToAMP4 from Taraxacum officinale Wigg. flowers.  

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A novel peptide named ToAMP4 was isolated from Taraxacum officinale Wigg. flowers by a combination of acetic acid extraction and different types of chromatography: affinity, size-exclusion, and RP-HPLC. The amino acid sequence of ToAMP4 was determined by automated Edman degradation. The peptide is basic, consists of 41 amino acids, and incorporates three disulphide bonds. Due to the unusual cysteine spacing pattern, ToAMP4 does not belong to any known plant AMP family, but classifies together with two other antimicrobial peptides ToAMP1 and ToAMP2 previously isolated from the dandelion flowers. To study the biological activity of ToAMP4, it was successfully produced in a prokaryotic expression system as a fusion protein with thioredoxin. The recombinant peptide was shown to be identical to the native ToAMP4 by chromatographic behavior, molecular mass, and N-terminal amino acid sequence. The peptide displays broad-spectrum antifungal activity against important phytopathogens. Two ToAMP4-mediated inhibition strategies depending on the fungus were demonstrated. The results obtained add to our knowledge on the structural and functional diversity of AMPs in plants. PMID:23771034

Astafieva, A A; Rogozhin, Eugene A; Andreev, Yaroslav A; Odintsova, T I; Kozlov, S A; Grishin, Eugene V; Egorov, Tsezi A

2013-09-01

330

Proteinases from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum moench seeds: Purification and properties of the 47 kDa enzyme  

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Full Text Available Aspartic proteinases from buckwheat seeds are analyzed. Three forms of 47 kDa, 40 kDa and 28 kDa, were purified from mature buckwheat seeds, while two forms of 47 kDa and 28 kDa were detected in developing buckwheat seeds using pepstatin A affinity chromatography. A form of 47 kDa was selectively precipitated from other forms by ammonium sulfate precipitation. This enzyme resembles the chymosin-like pattern of proteolytic activity, as it was shown using BSA and k-casein as substrates, clarifying its ability for milk-clotting. The 47 kDa aspartic proteinase form is localized in the membrane fraction. .

Timotijevi? Gordana S.

2006-01-01

331

Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor as alternative culture medium substrates for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis AMT-3  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor or yeast extract were used as the sole organic forms for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis in submerged fermentation. The influence of the C and N concentrations, as well as the incubation periods, were assessed. Eight proteolytic bands wer [...] e detected through gelatin-gel-electrophoresis in the various extracts obtained from the different media and after different incubation periods, with apparent molecular masses of 20, 35, 43, 50, 70, 100, 116 and 212 kDa. The results obtained suggest an opportunity for exploring this alternative strategy for proteinases production by actinomycetes, using BSG and CSL as economically feasible substrates.

Rodrigo Pires do, Nascimento; Nelson, Alves Junior; Rosalie Reed Rodrigues, Coelho.

1384-13-01

332

Role of endogenous proteinase inhibitors in the regulation of the blood clotting system of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus.  

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Blood clotting in Limulus is dependent on the activity of a proteinase which converts the zymogen, coagulogen, into a form that undergoes polymerization to form the clot. The abilities of a series of recently discovered endogenous proteinase inhibitors to inhibit this enzyme and thereby serve as potential regulators of its activity were explored. The blood plasma of Limulus contains a single inhibitor that is functionally and structurally homologous to vertebrate alpha 2 macroglobulin. During exocytosis, the blood cells (amebocytes) release a series of inhibitors, including small quantities of the alpha 2 macroglobulin homologue; a low molecular weight, acid-and heat-stable inhibitor; and an acid acid-labile activity. Of the three inhibitory activities, only the cell-released, acid-labile inhibitor is capable of inhibiting the clotting enzyme. PMID:6084318

Armstrong, P B; Levin, J; Quigley, J P

1984-10-31

333

Complex of digestive proteinases of Galleria mellonella Caterpillars: composition, properties, and limited proteolysis of Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins.  

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The complex of digestive proteinases in caterpillars of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella was studied. Using chromogenic substrates and inhibitor analysis, it was found that serine proteinases play a key role in this complex. Three anionic and two cationic forms of trypsin and one anionic and one cationic form of chymotrypsin were identified by zymography in the midgut extract of G. mellonella. The most active trypsin was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity, and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was shown to be identical to that of mature trypsin from Plodia interpunctella. Midgut extract from G. mellonella was capable of processing Cry-proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. galleriae. Enzymes with tryptic and chymotryptic activities participate in this process, and activation of protoxin Cry9A is not the rate-limiting stage in the toxic action of this protein on the greater wax moth. PMID:21639838

Bulushova, N V; Elpidina, E N; Zhuzhikov, D P; Lyutikova, L I; Ortego, F; Kirillova, N E; Zalunin, I A; Chestukhina, G G

2011-05-01

334

Elimination of hydrogen sulphide and ? substitution in cystein, catalyzed by the cysteine-lyase of hens yolk-sac and yolk (1961)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The yolk of incubated hen's eggs contains a pyridoxal phosphate activated enzyme, free of iron, copper, magnesium and calcium. This enzyme activates the ?-carbon atom of cysteine. Its reactivity is demonstrated by the ease with which this ?-carbon fixes various sulfur containing substances in which the sulfur has reducing properties: inorganic sulfide, sulfide or cysteine itself. In the absence of substances able to react with the ?-carbon atom, the active complex, consisting of the enzyme and the aminated tri-carbon chain, is hydrolysed to pyruvic acid and ammonia. The liberation of hydrogen sulfide thus appears to be the consequence either of the substitution of the ?-carbon atom of cysteine or of the decomposition of the complex which this aminoacid forms with the enzyme studied. The latter seems therefore to possess an activity which differs from the activity of the desulfhydrases as yet known. We suggest to call this enzyme cystein-lyase. (authors)

335

Cardiovascular actions of L-cysteine and L-cysteine sulfinic acid in the nucleus tractus solitarius of the rat.  

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The sulfur-containing excitatory amino acid (EAA) L-cysteine sulfinic acid (CSA), a neurotransmitter candidate, is endogenously synthesized from L-cysteine (Cys). Exogenous Cys administration into the brain produces cardiovascular effects; these effects likely occur via synaptic stimulation of central nervous system (CNS) neurons that regulate peripheral cardiovascular function. However, the cardiovascular responses produced by CNS Cys administration could result from CSA biosynthesized in synapse. The present study examined the role of CSA in Cys-induced cardiovascular responses within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of anesthetized rats. The NTS receives input from various visceral afferents that gate autonomic reflexes, including cardiovascular reflexes. Within the NTS, both Cys and CSA microinjections produced decrease responses in arterial blood pressure and heart rate that were similar to those produced by L-glutamate. Co-injection of the ionotropic EAA receptor antagonist kynurenic acid abolished Cys-, but not CSA-, induced cardiovascular responses. This finding suggests that only Cys-induced cardiovascular responses are mediated by kynurenate-sensitive receptors. This study provides the first demonstration that Cys- and CSA-induced cardiovascular responses occur via different mechanisms in the NTS of rats. Further, this study also indicates that Cys-induced cardiovascular responses do not occur via CSA. Thus, within the NTS, endogenous Cys and/or CSA might be involved in cardiovascular regulation. PMID:24699770

Takemoto, Yumi

2014-07-01

336

Effect of the Echinocandin Caspofungin on Expression of Candida albicans Secretory Aspartyl Proteinases and Phospholipase In Vitro  

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Although the echinocandin caspofungin primarily inhibits the synthesis of cell wall 1,3-?-d-glucan, its fungicidal activity could also potentially perturb the expression of virulence factors involved in the ability of Candida albicans to cause infection. Expression of the C. albicans secretory aspartyl proteinase (SAP) and phospholipase B (PLB) virulence genes was determined by reverse transcription-PCR after the addition of caspofungin to cells grown for 15 h in Sabouraud dextrose broth. In...

Ripeau, Jean-se?bastien; Aumont, Francine; Belhumeur, Pierre; Ostrosky-zeichner, Luis; Rex, John H.; Repentigny, Louis

2002-01-01

337

Effects of serine protease inhibitors on growth and development and digestive serine proteinases of the Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps.  

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In the current study the effects of serine proteinase inhibitors (TLCK, TPCK, SBTI, and a combination of SBTI and TPCK) with concentrations of 1% and 4% of dietary protein in artificial diets were tested against growth of the Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), development, and its gut serine proteinase targets. Analysis of variance indicated that protease inhibitors affected nymphal development time, adult weight, and survival. Mean development time of third instar nymphs in control, SBTI (1%), TLCK (1%), and TPCK was 7.18, 9.74, 9.97, and 8.52 days, respectively. The highest mortality (100 % mortality) was observed when a combination of TPCK and SBTI, both at 4% of dietary protein, was used followed by TPCK (4%) that produced 95% mortality. There were significant differences in proteinase activity between treatments and controls when BApNA and SAAPFpNA were used as substrates for trypsin and chymotrypsin, respectively. Reduction of trypsin activity in insects fed with low doses of SBTI (1%), TLCK (1%), and both doses of TPCK (1% and 4%) was 40, 26, 23, and 17%, respectively. Inhibition of chymotrypsin activity was seen in the insects fed on SBTI (1%), TLCK (1%), and TPCK (4%) where inhibition was 14, 9, and 36%, respectively. Maximum inhibition of chymotrypsin activity was observed in the insects fed on diets containing high doses of TPCK (4%). In gel assays, the greatest effects were observed when E. integriceps were fed on high doses of SBTI and TPCK. Therefore, TPCK followed by SBTI proved to be the most effective proteinase inhibitors of E. integriceps. PMID:21867440

Saadati, Fatemeh; Bandani, Ali R

2011-01-01

338

Structure-nephrotoxicity relationships of S-(2-chloroethyl)-DL-cysteine and analogs: role for an episulfonium ion.  

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1,2-Dichloroethane produces kidney damage, but the mechanism is unclear. Cysteine conjugates, which could arise from S-(2-chloroethyl)glutathione or S-(2-chloroethyl)cysteine have been identified. In this study, rats given S-(2-chloroethyl)-DL-cysteine (100 mg/kg i.p.) showed significant increases in blood urea nitrogen and urine glucose concentrations. Histopathological examination of kidneys, 36 hr after treatment showed acute proximal tubular nephrosis and punctuate glomerular necrosis. No hepatic lesions were seen and serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase activities were only elevated slightly. The extent of S-(2-chloroethyl)-DL-cysteine renal toxicity was dose- and time-dependent. Equimolar doses of analogs of S-(2-chloroethyl)-DL-cysteine, S-ethyl-L-cysteine, S-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N-acetyl-DL-cysteine, S-(2-hydroxyethyl)-DL-cysteine, or S-(3-chloropropyl)-DL-cysteine, failed to produce nephrotoxicity; rats given L-cysteine (100 mg/kg i.p.), S-ethyl-L-cysteine (100 mg/kg i.p.) or probenecid (60 mg/kg i.p.) 30 min before receiving S-(2-chloroethyl)-DL-cysteine had significant reductions of the S-(2-chloroethyl)-DL-cysteine-induced blood urea nitrogen and urine glucose elevations. These results show that S-(2-chloroethyl)-DL-cysteine is a potent, selective nephrotoxin that may be responsible for the renal damage associated with 1,2-dichloroethane. The formation of an episulfonium ion plays an important role in S-(2-chloroethyl)-DL-cysteine-induced nephrotoxicity. The protection against renal damage provided by S-ethyl-L-cysteine or probenecid may involve competition with S-(2-chloroethyl)-DL-cysteine for cellular or transport binding sites. PMID:3999033

Elfarra, A A; Baggs, R B; Anders, M W

1985-05-01

339

Purification and characterization of four new cysteine endopeptidases from fruits of Bromelia pinguin L. grown in Cuba.  

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Bromelia pinguin L. is a plant broadly distributed in Central America and Caribbean islands. The fruits have been used in traditional medicine as anthelmintic, probably owed to the presence of a mixture of cysteine endopeptidases, initially termed pinguinain. This work deals with the purification and characterization of the four main components of that mixture, two of them showing acid pI and the other two alkaline pI. Molecular masses (SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF), N-terminal sequence and the reactivity and kinetic parameters versus synthetic substrates (p-nitrophenyl-N-alpha-CBZ-amino acid esters, PFLNA, Z-Arg-Arg-p-NA, and Z-Phe-Arg-p-NA) of the studied peptidases are given, as well as the N-terminal sequences of the enzymes and the homology degree with other plant endopeptidases. PMID:17932734

Payrol, Juan Abreu; Obregón, Walter D; Trejo, Sebastián A; Caffini, Néstor O

2008-02-01

340

Secretion of cysteine and glutathione from mucosa to lumen in rat small intestine.  

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Using a vascularly perfused rat intestinal preparation, we found that large quantities (i.e., 100-200 microM) of acid-soluble thiols accumulated in the jejunal lumen in 10-30 min and that the accumulation was largely unaffected by dietary food restriction for 24 or 48 h. Depending on the length of perfusion, cysteine comprised 20-40% of total luminal thiols, whereas glutathione (GSH) made up only 0-3%. To determine whether luminal cysteine accumulation resulted from mucosal secretion of GSH and subsequent degradation by brush-border gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) and dipeptidases, acivicin or serine-borate was used to inhibit gamma-GT. Both agents inhibited gamma-GT activity by > 95%, reduced luminal cysteine by approximately 40-50%, and caused a modest elevation of luminal GSH to approximately 10-13 microM, indicating that GSH secretion does occur but cannot account for all of the luminal cysteine accumulation. Luminal thiol trapping experiments with Ellman's reagent supported this conclusion. Given that cysteine made up 15-20% of the mucosal thiol pool in jejunum, secretion of cysteine from mucosa to lumen likely accounted for the majority of luminal cysteine. Given the mucolytic nature of thiols and the role of cysteine in iron absorption, intestinal thiol secretion may be important in intestinal function. PMID:7915497

Dahm, L J; Jones, D P

1994-08-01

 
 
 
 
341

Dietary cysteine alleviates sucrose-induced oxidative stress and insulin resistance.  

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Diets that promote oxidative stress favor impairment in glucose homeostasis. In this context, increasing the cysteine intake may be beneficial by maintaining glutathione status. We have investigated the effects of dietary cysteine on oxidative stress and glucose homeostasis in rats fed a high-sucrose (HS) diet. Rats were assigned for 6 weeks to a standard diet or to HS diets in which the protein source was either an alpha-lactalbumin-rich whey concentrate (a cysteine-rich protein) or the total milk proteins alone or supplemented with 5.8 or 20 g N-acetylcysteine per kilogram of food. Increasing the cysteine intake prevented HS-induced oxidative stress, as assessed by blood and tissue glutathione and carbonyl levels. At the same time, the HS-induced glucose intolerance, impaired postprandial glycemic control, and decrease in muscle and liver insulin-induced activation of insulin receptor substrate 1 and Akt were prevented by increasing the level of dietary cysteine, a major original finding. Of great interest was the observation that all beneficial effects of cysteine supplementation were duplicated by the consumption of a cysteine-rich protein. These data show that increasing the cysteine intake limits HS-induced impairment of glucose homeostasis and suggest that these effects are mediated by a reduction in oxidative stress. PMID:17349935

Blouet, Clémence; Mariotti, François; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Mathé, Véronique; Mikogami, Takashi; Tomé, Daniel; Huneau, Jean-François

2007-04-01

342

Isolation, characterization and cDNA sequencing of a Kazal family proteinase inhibitor from seminal plasma of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).  

Science.gov (United States)

The turkey reproductive tract and seminal plasma contain a serine proteinase inhibitor that seems to be unique for the reproductive tract. Our experimental objective was to isolate, characterize and cDNA sequence the Kazal family proteinase inhibitor from turkey seminal plasma and testis. Seminal plasma contains two forms of a Kazal family inhibitor: virgin (Ia) represented by an inhibitor of moderate electrophoretic migration rate (present also in the testis) and modified (Ib, a split peptide bond) represented by an inhibitor with a fast migration rate. The inhibitor from the seminal plasma was purified by affinity, ion-exchange and reverse phase chromatography. The testis inhibitor was purified by affinity and ion-exchange chromatography. N-terminal Edman sequencing of the two seminal plasma inhibitors and testis inhibitor were identical. This sequence was used to construct primers and obtain a cDNA sequence from the testis. Analysis of a cDNA sequence indicated that turkey proteinase inhibitor belongs to Kazal family inhibitors (pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitors, mammalian acrosin inhibitors) and caltrin. The turkey seminal plasma Kazal inhibitor belongs to low molecular mass inhibitors and is characterized by a high value of the equilibrium association constant for inhibitor/trypsin complexes. PMID:18430598

S?owi?ska, Mariola; Olczak, Mariusz; Wojtczak, Mariola; Glogowski, Jan; Jankowski, Jan; Watorek, Wies?aw; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Ciereszko, Andrzej

2008-06-01

343

Proteinase-activated receptor-2: two potential inflammatory mediators of the gastrointestinal tract in Atlantic salmon  

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Full Text Available Abstract Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2, activated by trypsin and other serine proteinases, is a key initiator of inflammatory responses in the intestine of mammals. Atlantic salmon fed diets with standard qualities of soybean meal (SBM show enteritis of the distal intestine as well as increased activity of trypsin in both luminal contents and wall tissue. Luminal trypsin activity may possibly be involved in immune related disorders of the intestine also in Atlantic salmon via activation of PAR 2. In the present study our aim was to investigate if PAR-2 play a role in SBM induced enteritis. We performed multiple alignments based on nucleic acid sequences of PAR-2 from various animals available from public databases, and designed primers for use in cloning of the Atlantic salmon PAR-2 transcript. We further cloned and characterized the full length sequence of Atlantic salmon PAR-2 and investigated the expression in both early and chronic stages of SBM induced enteropathy. Two full length versions of PAR-2 cDNA were identified and termed PAR-2a and PAR-2b. Expression of the two PAR-2 transcripts was detected in all 18 tissues examined, but most extensively in the intestine and gills. A significant up-regulation in the distal intestine was observed for the PAR-2a transcript after 1 day feeding diets containing SBM. After 3 weeks of feeding, PAR-2a was down-regulated compared to the fish fed control diets. These findings may indicate that PAR-2a participates in inflammatory responses in both the early and later stages of the SBM enteropathy. In the chronic stages of the enteropathy, down-regulation of PAR-2a may indicate a possible desensitization of the PAR-2a receptor. Expression of PAR-2b was not altered in the first 7 days of SBM feeding, but a significant up regulation was observed after 3 weeks, suggesting a putative role in chronic stages of SBM induced enteritis. The expression differences of the two PAR-2 transcripts in the feed trials may indicate that they have different roles in the SBM induced enteritis.

Valen Elin

2008-10-01

344

Proteinase-activated receptor 4 stimulation-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in alveolar epithelial cells  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs; PAR1–4 that can be activated by serine proteinases such as thrombin and neutrophil catepsin G are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of various pulmonary diseases including fibrosis. Among these PARs, especially PAR4, a newly identified subtype, is highly expressed in the lung. Here, we examined whether PAR4 stimulation plays a role in the formation of fibrotic response in the lung, through alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT which contributes to the increase in myofibroblast population. Methods EMT was assessed by measuring the changes in each specific cell markers, E-cadherin for epithelial cell, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA for myofibroblast, using primary cultured mouse alveolar epithelial cells and human lung carcinoma-derived alveolar epithelial cell line (A549 cells. Results Stimulation of PAR with thrombin (1 U/ml or a synthetic PAR4 agonist peptide (AYPGKF-NH2, 100 ?M for 72 h induced morphological changes from cobblestone-like structure to elongated shape in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells and A549 cells. In immunocytochemical analyses of these cells, such PAR4 stimulation decreased E-cadherin-like immunoreactivity and increased ?-SMA-like immunoreactivity, as observed with a typical EMT-inducer, tumor growth factor-? (TGF-?. Western blot analyses of PAR4-stimulated A549 cells also showed similar changes in expression of these EMT-related marker proteins. Such PAR4-mediated changes were attenuated by inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR kinase and Src. PAR4-mediated morphological changes in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells were reduced in the presence of these inhibitors. PAR4 stimulation increased tyrosine phosphorylated EGFR or tyrosine phosphorylated Src level in A549 cells, and the former response being inhibited by Src inhibitor. Conclusion PAR4 stimulation of alveolar epithelial cells induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT as monitored by cell shapes, and epithelial or myofibroblast marker at least partly through EGFR transactivation via receptor-linked Src activation.

Araki Hiromasa

2007-04-01

345

vfr, a Novel Locus Affecting Cysteine Protease Production in Streptococcus pyogenes?  

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A gene unique to Streptococcus pyogenes, called vfr, that negatively regulates speB, an important extracellular proteinase, has been identified. Disruption of vfr markedly increased SpeB production in a clinical strain of S. pyogenes and relieved its growth phase dependency. These findings may provide important insights into the pathogenesis of invasive S. pyogenes infections.

Ma, Yongsheng; Bryant, Amy E.; Salmi, Dan B.; Mcindoo, Eric; Stevens, Dennis L.

2009-01-01

346

Replication of murine coronavirus requires multiple cysteines in the endodomain of spike protein  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A conserved cysteine-rich motif located between the transmembrane domain and the endodomain is essential for membrane fusion and assembly of coronavirus spike (S) protein. Here, we proved that three cysteines within the motif, but not dependent on position, are minimally required for the survival of the recombinant mouse hepatitis virus. When the carboxy termini with these mutated motifs of S proteins were respectively introduced into a heterogeneous protein, both incorporation into lipid rafts and S-palmitoylation of these recombinant proteins showed a similar quantity requirement to cysteine residues. Meanwhile, the redistribution of these proteins on cellular surface indicated that the absence of the positively charged rather than cysteine residues in the motif might lead the dramatic reduction in syncytial formation of some mutants with the deleted motifs. These results suggest that multiple cysteine as well as charged residues concurrently improves the membrane-associated functions of S protein in viral replication and cytopathogenesis.

347

Replication of murine coronavirus requires multiple cysteines in the endodomain of spike protein  

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A conserved cysteine-rich motif located between the transmembrane domain and the endodomain is essential for membrane fusion and assembly of coronavirus spike (S) protein. Here, we proved that three cysteines within the motif, but not dependent on position, are minimally required for the survival of the recombinant mouse hepatitis virus. When the carboxy termini with these mutated motifs of S proteins were respectively introduced into a heterogeneous protein, both incorporation into lipid rafts and S-palmitoylation of these recombinant proteins showed a similar quantity requirement to cysteine residues. Meanwhile, the redistribution of these proteins on cellular surface indicated that the absence of the positively charged rather than cysteine residues in the motif might lead the dramatic reduction in syncytial formation of some mutants with the deleted motifs. These results suggest that multiple cysteine as well as charged residues concurrently improves the membrane-associated functions of S protein in viral replication and cytopathogenesis.

Yang, Jinhua; Lv, Jun; Wang, Yuyan; Gao, Shuang; Yao, Qianqian; Qu, Di; Ye, Rong, E-mail: yerong24@fudan.edu.cn

2012-06-05

348

The role of lysosomal cysteine proteases in crustacean immune response  

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Full Text Available Over the long course of evolution and under the selective pressure exerted by pathogens and parasites, animals have selectively fixed a number of defense mechanisms against the constant attack of intruders. The immune response represents a key component to optimize the biological fitness of individuals. Two decades ago, prevention and control of diseases in crustacean aquaculture systems were considered priorities in most shrimp-producing countries, but knowledge was scarce and various pathogens have severely affected aquaculture development around the world. Scientific contributions have improved our understanding of the crustacean immune response. Several studies confirm the central role played by proteases in the immune response of animals, and the cooperative interaction of these enzymes in a wide variety of organisms is well known. This review summarizes the current information regarding the role of cysteine proteases in the immune system of Crustacea and points to aspects that are needed to provide a better integration of our knowledge.

FL Garcia-Carreño

2014-04-01

349

Formation of three N-acetyl-L-cysteine monoadducts and one diadduct by the reaction of S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide with N-acetyl-L-cysteine at physiological conditions: chemical mechanisms and toxicological implications.  

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Previously, our laboratory has shown that S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (DCVCS), a Michael acceptor produced by a flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3)-mediated oxidation of S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC), is a more potent nephrotoxicant than DCVC. In the present study, we characterized reactions of DCVCS with nucleophilic amino acids. DCVCS incubations with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C for 1 h resulted in the formation of three monoadducts and one diadduct characterized by LC/MS, 1H NMR, and 1H-detected heteronuclear single quantum correlation. The formation of all adducts (with relative ratios of 29, 31, 24, and 12%, respectively) was rapid and time-dependent; the half-lives of the two DCVCS diastereomers in the presence of NAC were 13.8 (diastereomer I) and 9.4 min (diastereomer II). Adducts 1 and 2 were determined to be diastereomers of S-[1-chloro-2-(N-acetyl-L-cystein- S-yl)vinyl]-L-cysteine sulfoxide formed by Michael addition of NAC to the terminal vinylic carbon of DCVCS followed by loss of HCl. Adduct 4 was determined to be S-[2-chloro-2-(N-acetyl-L-cystein- S-yl)vinyl]-L-cysteine sulfoxide formed from the initial Michael addition product followed by a less favorable loss of HCl and/or by a rearrangement of adduct 2 through the formation of a cyclic chloronium ion. The addition of another molecule of NAC to monoadducts 1, 2, or 4 resulted in the formation of the novel diadduct, S-[2,2-( N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)vinyl]-L-cysteine sulfoxide (adduct 3), whose detection in relatively large amount suggests that DCVCS could act as a cross-linking agent. DCVCS was not reactive with N-acetyl-L-lysine or L-valinamide at similar incubation conditions. Collectively, the results suggest selective reactivity of DCVCS toward protein sulfhydryl groups. Furthermore, the cross-linking properties of DCVCS may in part explain its high nephrotoxic potency. PMID:17892265

Barshteyn, Nella; Elfarra, Adnan A

2007-10-01

350

Atypical Thioredoxins in Poplar: The Glutathione-Dependent Thioredoxin-Like 2.1 Supports the Activity of Target Enzymes Possessing a Single Redox Active Cysteine1[W  

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Plant thioredoxins (Trxs) constitute a complex family of thiol oxidoreductases generally sharing a WCGPC active site sequence. Some recently identified plant Trxs (Clot, Trx-like1 and -2, Trx-lilium1, -2, and -3) display atypical active site sequences with altered residues between the two conserved cysteines. The transcript expression patterns, subcellular localizations, and biochemical properties of some representative poplar (Populus spp.) isoforms were investigated. Measurements of transcript levels for the 10 members in poplar organs indicate that most genes are constitutively expressed. Using transient expression of green fluorescent protein fusions, Clot and Trx-like1 were found to be mainly cytosolic, whereas Trx-like2.1 was located in plastids. All soluble recombinant proteins, except Clot, exhibited insulin reductase activity, although with variable efficiencies. Whereas Trx-like2.1 and Trx-lilium2.2 were efficiently regenerated both by NADPH-Trx reductase and glutathione, none of the proteins were reduced by the ferredoxin-Trx reductase. Only Trx-like2.1 supports the activity of plastidial thiol peroxidases and methionine sulfoxide reductases employing a single cysteine residue for catalysis and using a glutathione recycling system. The second active site cysteine of Trx-like2.1 is dispensable for this reaction, indicating that the protein possesses a glutaredoxin-like activity. Interestingly, the Trx-like2.1 active site replacement, from WCRKC to WCGPC, suppresses its capacity to use glutathione as a reductant but is sufficient to allow the regeneration of target proteins employing two cysteines for catalysis, indicating that the nature of the residues composing the active site sequence is crucial for substrate selectivity/recognition. This study provides another example of the cross talk existing between the glutathione/glutaredoxin and Trx-dependent pathways. PMID:22523226

Chibani, Kamel; Tarrago, Lionel; Gualberto, Jose Manuel; Wingsle, Gunnar; Rey, Pascal; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Rouhier, Nicolas

2012-01-01

351

Atypical thioredoxins in poplar: the glutathione-dependent thioredoxin-like 2.1 supports the activity of target enzymes possessing a single redox active cysteine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant thioredoxins (Trxs) constitute a complex family of thiol oxidoreductases generally sharing a WCGPC active site sequence. Some recently identified plant Trxs (Clot, Trx-like1 and -2, Trx-lilium1, -2, and -3) display atypical active site sequences with altered residues between the two conserved cysteines. The transcript expression patterns, subcellular localizations, and biochemical properties of some representative poplar (Populus spp.) isoforms were investigated. Measurements of transcript levels for the 10 members in poplar organs indicate that most genes are constitutively expressed. Using transient expression of green fluorescent protein fusions, Clot and Trx-like1 were found to be mainly cytosolic, whereas Trx-like2.1 was located in plastids. All soluble recombinant proteins, except Clot, exhibited insulin reductase activity, although with variable efficiencies. Whereas Trx-like2.1 and Trx-lilium2.2 were efficiently regenerated both by NADPH-Trx reductase and glutathione, none of the proteins were reduced by the ferredoxin-Trx reductase. Only Trx-like2.1 supports the activity of plastidial thiol peroxidases and methionine sulfoxide reductases employing a single cysteine residue for catalysis and using a glutathione recycling system. The second active site cysteine of Trx-like2.1 is dispensable for this reaction, indicating that the protein possesses a glutaredoxin-like activity. Interestingly, the Trx-like2.1 active site replacement, from WCRKC to WCGPC, suppresses its capacity to use glutathione as a reductant but is sufficient to allow the regeneration of target proteins employing two cysteines for catalysis, indicating that the nature of the residues composing the active site sequence is crucial for substrate selectivity/recognition. This study provides another example of the cross talk existing between the glutathione/glutaredoxin and Trx-dependent pathways. PMID:22523226

Chibani, Kamel; Tarrago, Lionel; Gualberto, José Manuel; Wingsle, Gunnar; Rey, Pascal; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Rouhier, Nicolas

2012-06-01

352

Computational study of some benzamidine-based inhibitors of thrombin-like snake venom proteinases  

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Pit viper venoms contain a number of serine proteinases that, despite their observed coagulant thrombin-like action in vitro, exhibit a paradoxical benign defibrinogenating (anticoagulant) action in vivo, with clinical applications in preventing thrombi and improved blood circulation. Considering that several benzamidine-based inhibitors, some highly selective to thrombin, also inhibit the enzymatic activity of such venombins, the modeling of their enzyme-inhibitor interactions could provide valuable information on the topological factors that determine the divergences in activity. The first step, and the object of the present study, was to derive the necessary set of parameters, consistent with the CHARMM force field, and to perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on a few selected representatives of the inhibitors in question under physiological conditions. Bonding and van der Waals parameters were derived by analogy to similar ones in the existing force field. Net atomic charges were obtained with a restrained fitting to the molecular electrostatic potential generated at B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. The parameters were refined to reproduce the available experimental geometries and crystal data, and the MD simulations of the free inhibitors in aqueous solution at 298 K provided an insightful description of their available conformational space.

Henriques, Elsa S.; Nascimento, Marco A. C.; Ramos, Maria João

353

Proteinase 3 carries small unusual carbohydrates and associates with ?lpha-defensins  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The neutrophil granulocyte is an important first line of defense against intruding pathogens and it contains a range of granules armed with antibacterial peptides and proteins. Proteinase 3 (PR3) is one among several serine proteases of the azurophilic granules in neutrophil granulocytes. Here, we characterize the glycosylation of PR3 and its association with antimicrobial human neutrophil peptides (HNPs, ?-defensins) and the effect of these on the mechanism of inhibition of the major plasma inhibitor of PR3, ?1-antitrypsin. The glycosylation of purified, mature PR3 showed some heterogeneity with carbohydrates at Asn 102 and 147 carrying unusual small moieties indicating heavy processing. Mass spectrometric analysis and immuno blotting revealed strong association of highly purified PR3 with ?-defensins and oligomers hereof. Irreversible inhibition of PR3 by ?1-antitrypsin did not affect its association with defensins. Other proteins from neutrophil granules were also found to be associated with defensins, whereas purified plasma proteins did not carry defensins. These results point to a role of defensins in controlling and targeting the activity of neutrophil granule proteins.

Zoega, Morten; Ravnsborg, Tina

2012-01-01

354

Subcellular distribution of calcium-activated neutral proteinase (CANP) in rat brain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In pursuing the association of calcium-activated neutral proteinase (CANP) with purified myelin, its subcellular distribution in myelin and other organelles of rat brain has been determined quantitatively. Subcellular fractions were prepared according to Eichberg et al. CANP was assayed using 14C-azocasein as substrate in 50 mM Tris acetate buffer, pH 7.4, 0.1% Triton X-100 and 5 mM ?-mercaptoethanol, with and without Ca2+. TCA-soluble radioactivity was that activity over an EGTA control. Triton X-100 increased CANP activitiy in homogenate and myelin by ten fold. CANP activity was present primarily in the particulate fractions P1 (nuclear), P2 (mitochondrial) and P3 (microsomal). On subfractionation of these fractions, over 50% of the activity was recovered in the myelin-rich fractions (P1A, P2A, P3A). The distribution of activity was P2A > P1 A > P3 A. The cytosolic fraction contained 30% of the homogenate activity. Further purification of myelin of P2A increased the specific activity by more than 2.5-fold over homogenate. The same myelin had the highest proportion and specific activity of CNPase. The purity of each subcellular fraction was tested by monitoring the activity of suitable marker enzymes. Their results indicate that in CNS CANP is present as membrane bound and soluble forms and the bulk of CANP is intimately associated withulk of CANP is intimately associated with the myelin membrane

355

Proteinase 3-dependent caspase-3 cleavage modulates neutrophil death and inflammation.  

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Caspase-3-mediated spontaneous death in neutrophils is a prototype of programmed cell death and is critical for modulating physiopathological inflammatory responses; however, the underlying regulatory pathways remain ill defined. Here we determined that in aging neutrophils, the cleavage and activation of caspase-3 is independent of the canonical caspase-8- or caspase-9-mediated pathway. Instead, caspase-3 activation was mediated by serine protease proteinase 3 (PR3), which is present in the cytosol of aging neutrophils. Specifically, PR3 cleaved procaspase-3 at a site upstream of the canonical caspase-9 cleavage site. In mature neutrophils, PR3 was sequestered in granules and released during aging via lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), leading to procaspase-3 cleavage and apoptosis. Pharmacological inhibition or knockdown of PR3 delayed neutrophil death in vitro and consistently delayed neutrophil death and augmented neutrophil accumulation at sites of inflammation in a murine model of peritonitis. Adoptive transfer of both WT and PR3-deficient neutrophils revealed that the delayed death of neutrophils lacking PR3 is due to an altered intrinsic apoptosis/survival pathway, rather than the inflammatory microenvironment. The presence of the suicide protease inhibitor SERPINB1 counterbalanced the protease activity of PR3 in aging neutrophils, and deletion of Serpinb1 accelerated neutrophil death. Taken together, our results reveal that PR3-mediated caspase-3 activation controls neutrophil spontaneous death. PMID:25180606

Loison, Fabien; Zhu, Haiyan; Karatepe, Kutay; Kasorn, Anongnard; Liu, Peng; Ye, Keqiang; Zhou, Jiaxi; Cao, Shannan; Gong, Haiyan; Jenne, Dieter E; Remold-O'Donnell, Eileen; Xu, Yuanfu; Luo, Hongbo R

2014-10-01

356

Proteinase activated-receptors-associated signaling in the control of gastric cancer.  

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Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer in the world and the second cause of cancer-related death. Gastric carcinogenesis is a multifactorial process, in which environmental and genetic factors interact to activate multiple intracellular signals thus leading to uncontrolled growth and survival of GC cells. One such a pathway is regulated by proteinase activated-receptors (PARs), seven transmembrane-spanning domain G protein-coupled receptors, which comprise four receptors (i.e., PAR-1, PAR-2, PAR-3, and PAR-4) activated by various proteases. Both PAR-1 and PAR-2 are over-expressed on GC cells and their activation triggers and/or amplifies intracellular pathways, which sustain gastric carcinogenesis. There is also evidence that expression of either PAR-1 or PAR-2 correlates with depth of wall invasion and metastatic dissemination and inversely with the overall survival of patients. Consistently, data emerging from experimental models of GC suggest that both these receptors can be important targets for therapeutic interventions in GC patients. In contrast, PAR-4 levels are down-regulated in GC and correlate inversely with the aggressiveness of GC, thus suggesting a negative role of this receptor in the control of GC. In this article we review the available data on the expression and role of PARs in GC and discuss whether manipulation of PAR-driven signals may be useful for interfering with GC cell behavior. PMID:25232234

Sedda, Silvia; Marafini, Irene; Caruso, Roberta; Pallone, Francesco; Monteleone, Giovanni

2014-09-14

357

Conformational changes of ovine ?-1-proteinase inhibitor: The influence of heparin binding  

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?-1-Proteinase inhibitor (?-1-PI), the archetypal serpin causes rapid, irreversible stoichiometric inhibition of redundant circulating serine proteases and is associated with emphysema, inflammatory response and maintenance of protease-inhibitor equilibrium in vascular and peri-vascular spaces. A homogenous preparation of heparin octasaccharide binds to ovine and human ?-1-PI and enhances their protease inhibitory activity phenomenally. Size-exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering experiments reveal that ovine ?-1-PI undergoes a decrease in the Stokes' radius upon heparin binding. A strong binding; characterizes this ?-1-PI-heparin interaction as revealed by the binding constant ( K?) 1.98 ± 0.2 × 10 -6 M and 2.1 ± 0.2 × 10 -6 M determined by fluorescence spectroscopy and equilibrium dialysis, respectively. The stoichiometry of heparin binding to ovine ?-1-PI was 1.1 ± 0.2:1. The Stern-Volmer constants ( Ksv) for heparin activated ovine and human ?-1-PI were found to be 5.13 × 10 -6 M and 5.67 × 10 -6 M, respectively, significantly higher than the native inhibitors. FTIR and CD spectroscopy project the systematic structural reorientations that ?-1-PI undergoes upon heparin binding characterized by a decrease in ?-helical content and a concomitant increase in ?-turn and random coil elements. It is likely that these conformational changes result in the movement of the ?-1-PI reactive site loop into an extended structure that is better poised to combat the cognate protease and accelerate the inhibition.

Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Gowda, Lalitha R.

2008-11-01

358

Molecular cloning of the rat proteinase-activated receptor 4 (PAR4  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The proteinase-activated receptor 4 (PAR4 is a G-protein-coupled receptor activated by proteases such as thrombin and trypsin. Although activation of PAR4 has been shown to modulate rat gastrointestinal motility, the rat PAR4 sequence was unknown until now. This study aimed to identify the rat PAR4 cDNA. Results The cDNA coding for the rat PAR4 homologue was cloned from the duodenum. Northern blots demonstrated a 3.0 kb transcript in the duodenum. Protein homology with mouse and human counterparts was 90% and 75% respectively. PAR4 is expressed predominantly in the esophagus, stomach, duodenum and the spleen. When expressed in COS cells, PAR4 is activated by trypsin (1 nM, thrombin (50 nM, mouse PAR4 specific peptide (500 ?M and a putative rat PAR4 specific activating peptide (100 ?M, as measured by intracellular Ca2+-changes. Conclusions We have identified and characterized cDNA encoding the rat PAR4 homologue. PAR4 is expressed predominantly in the upper gastrointestinal tract. It is activated by trypsin, thrombin and its newly identified rat PAR4 specific activating peptide.

Zou Lei

2002-02-01

359

Elastase-induced emphysema: retention of instilled proteinase in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Airway instillation of proteinases with the ability to degrade elastin has been used to produce disease in the rat analogous to human pulmonary emphysema. This study examined the retention, localization, and fate of endotracheally instilled elastase using 125I labeled enzyme and immunoperoxidase histochemistry. Porcine pancreatic elastase labeled with 125I was detected in rat lungs through 96 h after instillation; over half of the label was still present after 7 h. Similar results were obtained when elastase was reacted with a specific, catalytic site inactivator prior to instillation. Trypsin and denatured elastase, however, were cleared much more rapidly from the lung (less than half of the label present after 30 min). When lungs were homogenized after instillation of active elastase, the soluble fraction contained elastase bound to rat alpha1-antitrypsin. In addition, a small amount of label (less than 10%) appeared bound to insoluble components for extended periods of time. Using immunoperoxidase histochemistry, it was found that exogenous elastase was rapidly contained with pulmonary alveolar macrophages, as well as associated with alveolar septums and other parenchymal structures. Similar results were obtained with elastase from both porcine pancreas and human neutrophils. These results suggest that exogenous elastase in the rat, and perhaps endogenous elastolytic enzymes in humans, may have several fates in the lungs: complex formation with endogenous inhibitors, containment within the macrophage, and/or association with connective tissue targets

360

Differential expression of cysteine peptidase genes in the inner integument and endosperm of developing seeds of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae).  

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In several plant tissues, programmed cell death (PCD) is mediated by the combined action of cysteine peptidases, namely KDEL-tailed cysteine peptidases (KDEL-CysEP) and vacuolar processing enzymes (VPE). Here, we performed a search of the draft genome of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) and identified 2 genes for KDEL-CysEP (Jc-CysEP1 and Jc-CysEP2) and 3 genes for VPE (Jc-?VPE, Jc-?VPE and Jc-?VPE) and determined the expression patterns of these genes by RT-qPCR in integument and cellular endosperm of seeds collected at seven different developmental stages. We were able to demonstrate that the expression of Jc-CysEP1, Jc-CysEP2, Jc-?VPE and Jc-?VPE proceeded rapidly from Stage IV, with Jc-CysEP2 displaying the highest relative expression; expression of Jc-?VPE could not be detected in any of the tissues/developmental stages analyzed. Additionally, we showed that the expression pattern of these peptidases correlates with anatomical changes in integument and cellular endosperm, thus suggesting a role for both classes of peptidases in PCD and in protein processing, both of which occur simultaneously in each of these tissues. PMID:24157205

Rocha, Antônio J; Soares, Emanoella L; Costa, José H; Costa, Washington L G; Soares, Arlete A; Nogueira, Fábio C S; Domont, Gilberto B; Campos, Francisco A P

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
361

Structural and biochemical analyses of Microcystis aeruginosa O-acetylserine sulfhydrylases reveal a negative feedback regulation of cysteine biosynthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS) catalyzes the final step of cysteine biosynthesis from O-acetylserine (OAS) and inorganic sulfide in plants and bacteria. Bioinformatics analyses combined with activity assays enabled us to annotate the two putative genes of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 to CysK1 and CysK2, which encode the two 75% sequence-identical OASS paralogs. Moreover, we solved the crystal structures of CysK1 at 2.30? and cystine-complexed CysK2 at 1.91?, revealing a quite similar overall structure that belongs to the family of fold-type II PLP-dependent enzymes. Structural comparison indicated a significant induced fit upon binding to the cystine, which occupies the binding site for the substrate OAS and blocks the product release tunnel. Subsequent enzymatic assays further confirmed that cystine is a competitive inhibitor of the substrate OAS. Moreover, multiple-sequence alignment revealed that the cystine-binding residues are highly conserved in all OASS proteins, suggesting that this auto-inhibition of cystine might be a universal mechanism of cysteine biosynthesis pathway. PMID:24275508

Lu, Mo; Xu, Bo-Ying; Zhou, Kang; Cheng, Wang; Jiang, Yong-Liang; Chen, Yuxing; Zhou, Cong-Zhao

2014-02-01

362

"Comparison of Adult Somatic and Cysteine Proteinas Antigens of Fasciola gigantica in Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Serodiagnosis of Human Fasciolosis"  

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Full Text Available Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica and F.gigantica is one of the major public health problems in the world and in Iran. Considering that stool examination for Fasciola eggs is not a sensitive method and only 25% of infected patients pass the eggs in the faeces , and immunodiagnosis methods are more applicable for this purpose, the present study was conducted to compare the somatic (S and cysteine proteinase (CP antigens of F.gigantica in IgG-ELISA to diagnose human fasciolosis. This has been the first report on this case so far in Iran. Serum samples obtained from 178 individuals collected during the fasciolosis outbreak in 1999 in the Gilan province, northern Iran, that were coprologically positive for fasciolosis, were analyzed by IgG-ELISA for total antibody responses against (S and CP antigens from Fasciola gigantica. The cut-off points for (S and CP were 0.38 and 0.33, respectively. All cases that showed clinical manifestations of fasciolosis, were also seropositive using both (S and CP antigens whereas all 25 non-infected controls were seronegative. Therefore, the sensitivity of the test was 100% for both antigens. On the other hand the specificity of (S and CP antigens were calculated as 96.4% and 98.1%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of the test regarding (S antigen were 97.8% and 100%, whereas these values as for CP antigen were 98.9% and 100% correspondingly. Two individuals with hydatidosis and two with toxocariasis had antibodies against (S antigen whereas concerning CP antigen, one individual with hydatidosis and another with toxocariasis showed cross reactivity against it. We have demonstrated that altogether CP antigen provide a more conclusive diagnosis as possessing lower cut-off and enabling better to discriminate between seronegative and seropositive subpopulations.This study may be useful to implement a reliable test to diagnose human fasciolosis and for seroepidmiological objectives.

MB Rokni

2002-08-01

363

Transaminative metabolism of L-cysteine in guinea pig liver and kidney.  

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Full Text Available Transaminative metabolism of L-cysteine was investigated using homogenates of guinea pig liver and kidney. L-Cysteine was transaminated in the presence of 2-oxoglutarate and the homogenate of either liver or kidney. S-(2-Hydroxy-2-carboxyethylthiocysteine (HCETC (3-mercaptolactate-cysteine disulfide was formed by liver homogenate, but the amount was very small. On the other hand, a relatively large amount of HCETC was formed in the presence of kidney homogenate. Transamination between 3-mercaptopyruvate and certain amino acids was catalyzed actively by both liver and kidney homogenates in the presence of L-glutamate. However, more half-cysteine was formed by liver than kidney, and more HCETC was produced by kidney than liver. L-Glutamate was the most potent amino donor, and L-aspartate strongly inhibited the reaction. Results indicate that L-cysteine can be transaminated both in liver and kidney of the guinea pig, and that kidney is more active than liver. 2-Oxoglutarate is the most active 2-oxo acid for cysteine transamination. Oxaloacetate (and aspartate in the reverse reaction is inhibitory to the reaction. These results are in agreement with the previous conclusion that cysteine aminotransferase is identical with aspartate aminotransferase.

Taniguchi,Miyabi

1984-08-01

364

Acetaldehyde Removal from Indoor Air through Chemical Absorption Using L-Cysteine  

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Full Text Available The irreversible removal of acetaldehyde from indoor air via a chemical reaction with amino acids was investigated. To compare effectiveness, five types of amino acid (glycine, L-lysine, L-methionine, L-cysteine, and L-cystine were used as the reactants. First, acetaldehyde-laden air was introduced into aqueous solutions of each amino acid and the removal abilities were compared. Among the five amino acids, L-cysteine solution showed much higher removal efficiency, while the other amino acids solutions didn’t show any significant differences from the removal efficiency of water used as a control. Next, as a test of the removal abilities of acetaldehyde by semi-solid L-cysteine, a gel containing L-cysteine solution was put in a fluororesin bag filled with acetaldehyde gas, and the change of acetaldehyde concentration was measured. The L-cysteine-containing gel removed 80% of the acetaldehyde in the air within 24 hours. The removal ability likely depended on the unique reaction whereby acetaldehyde and L-cysteine rapidly produce 2-methylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid. These results suggested that the reaction between acetaldehyde and L-cysteine has possibilities for irreversibly removing toxic acetaldehyde from indoor air.

Miyuki Noguchi

2010-09-01

365

The mechanism of cysteine detection in biological media by means of vanadium oxide nanoparticles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report on the interaction of vanadate nanoparticles, produced using the laser ablation in liquids synthesis, with cysteine in biological molecules. Cysteine is a very important amino acid present in most proteins, but also because cysteine and the tripeptide glutathione are the main antioxidant molecules in our body system. Detailed UV-Vis absorption spectra and dynamic light scattering measurements were done to investigate the detection of cysteine in large biological molecules. The intervalence band of the optical absorption spectra shows capability for quantitative cysteine sensing in the {mu}M range in biological macromolecules. Tests included cytoplasmic repetitive antigen and flagellar repetitive antigen proteins of the Trypanosoma cruzi protozoa, as well as the capsid p24 proteins from Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 and type 2. Detailed NMR measurements for hydrogen, carbon, and vanadium nuclei show that cysteine in contact with the vanadate looses hydrogen of the sulphydryl side chain, while the vanadate is reduced. The subsequent detachment of two deprotonated molecules to form cystine and the slow return to the vanadate complete the oxidation-reduction cycle. Therefore, the vanadate acts as a charge exchanging catalyst on cysteine to form cystine. The NMR results also indicate that the nanoparticles are not formed by the common orthorhombic V{sub 2}O{sub 5} form.

Bezerra, A. G. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Departamento Academico de Fisica (Brazil); Barison, A. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Quimica (Brazil); Oliveira, V. S. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Fisica (Brazil); Foti, L.; Krieger, M. A. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Instituto de Biologia Molecular do Parana (Brazil); Dhalia, R.; Viana, I. F. T. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhaes (Brazil); Schreiner, W. H., E-mail: wido@fisica.ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Fisica (Brazil)

2012-09-15

366

The mechanism of cysteine detection in biological media by means of vanadium oxide nanoparticles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on the interaction of vanadate nanoparticles, produced using the laser ablation in liquids synthesis, with cysteine in biological molecules. Cysteine is a very important amino acid present in most proteins, but also because cysteine and the tripeptide glutathione are the main antioxidant molecules in our body system. Detailed UV–Vis absorption sp