WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant cysteine proteinases

  1. Cysteine proteinases and cystatins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeliana S. Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describeds the definition, localization, functions and examples of cysteine proteinases and their protein inhibitors in vertebrate, non-vertebrate animals and plants. These inhibitors are related with defense mechanisms of plant against pests. It also describes the factors involved in the specific cysteine proteinase-cystatin interaction and high degree of affinity and large specificity in this interaction which are not only represented by the compatibility between amino acid residues of the active site involved in catalysis, but also of all amino acid residues that participante in the enzyme-inhibitor interaction.Nesta revisão foram descritas definições, localizações, funções e exemplos de proteinases cisteínicas e suas proteinas inibidoras em animais vertebrados e invertebrados e plantas. Tratamos principalmente com aqueles inibidores que são relatados com o mecanismo de defesa da planta contra pestes. Em adição, comentamos sobre recentes trabalhos que contribuíram para uma melhor compreenção dos fatores envolvidos na interação específica proteinase cisteínica-cistatina. Por outro lado, chamamos atenção para o alto grau de afinidade e grande especificidade na interação que não são apenas representadas pela compatibilidade entre os residuos de aminoácidos do sítio ativo envolvidos na catalise, mas também de todos os resíduos de aminoácidos que participam da interação enzima-inibidor.

  2. The origin and evolution of plant cystatins and their target cysteine proteinases indicate a complex functional relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz Isabel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystatins and their putative targets, the families of cysteine proteinases C1A and C13 play key roles in plants. Comparative genomic analyses are powerful tools to obtain valuable insights into the conservation and evolution of the proteinases and their proteinaceous inhibitors, and could aid to elucidate issues concerning the function of these proteins. Results We have performed an evolutionary comparative analysis of cysteine proteinases C1A and C13 and their putative inhibitors in representative species of different taxonomic groups that appeared during the evolution of the Viridiplantae. The results indicate that whereas C1A cysteine proteinases are present in all taxonomic groups, cystatins and C13 cysteine proteinases are absent in some basal groups. Moreover, gene duplication events have been associated to the increasing structural and functional complexities acquired in land plants. Conclusion Comparative genomic analyses have provided us valuable insights into the conservation and evolution of the cystatin inhibitory family and their putative targets, the cysteine proteinases from families C1A and C13. Functionality of both families of proteins in plants must be the result of a coevolutionary process that might have occurred during the evolution of basal and land plants leading to a complex functional relationship among them.

  3. Caiman kininogen-like cysteine proteinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, M S; Andreotti, R; Chudzinski, A M; Sampaio, C A; Sampaio, M U

    1992-01-01

    Kininogens are the major mammalian plasma cysteine proteinase inhibitors; a kininogen-like protein was also found in the snake Bothrops jararaca plasma. This communication describes a kininogen-like protein in plasma of Caiman crocodilus vacare. Caiman crude plasma, unlike snake plasma, contains a detectable cysteine proteinase inhibitor. The inhibitor was purified by DEAE-Sephadex ion-exchange chromatography and chromatography on carboxy-methylated-papain-Sepharose. The estimated molecular weight of Caiman cysteine proteinase inhibitor is 70,000. Caiman plasma also hydrolyzes plasma kallikrein synthetic substrates and inhibits trypsin. Reptilian kininogen may lack the site for interaction with plasma prokallikrein, and the sequence of the released kinin may be distinct from bradykinin. The poor effectiveness of bradykinin on reptile smooth muscle shows that the reptile kinin receptors may be adapted to a specific kinin. PMID:1466283

  4. Identification, classification and expression pattern analysis of sugarcane cysteine proteinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Coelho Correa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine proteases are peptidyl hydrolyses dependent on a cysteine residue at the active center. The physical and chemical properties of cysteine proteases have been extensively characterized, but their precise biological functions have not yet been completely understood, although it is known that they are involved in a number of events such as protein turnover, cancer, germination, programmed cell death and senescence. Protein sequences from different cysteine proteinases, classified as members of the E.C.3.4.22 sub-sub-class, were used to perform a T-BLAST-n search on the Brazilian Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tags project (SUCEST data bank. Sequence homology was found with 76 cluster sequences that corresponded to possible cysteine proteinases. The alignments of these SUCEST clusters with the sequence of cysteine proteinases of known origins provided important information about the classification and possible function of these sugarcane enzymes. Inferences about the expression pattern of each gene were made by direct correlation with the SUCEST cDNA libraries from which each cluster was derived. Since no previous reports of sugarcane cysteine proteinases genes exists, this study represents a first step in the study of new biochemical, physiological and biotechnological aspects of sugarcane cysteine proteases.Proteinases cisteínicas são peptidil-hidrolases dependentes de um resíduo de cisteína em seu sítio ativo. As propriedades físico-químicas destas proteinases têm sido amplamente caracterizadas, entretanto suas funções biológicas ainda não foram completamente elucidadas. Elas estão envolvidas em um grande número de eventos, tais como: processamento e degradação protéica, câncer, germinação, morte celular programada e processos de senescência. Diferentes proteinases cisteínicas, classificadas pelo Comitê de Nomenclatura da União Internacional de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular (IUBMB como pertencentes à sub-sub-classe E.C.3.4.22, foram usadas na busca de clusters no banco de dados do SUCEST (SUgarCane EST project, utilizando-s o programa T-BLAST-n. Homologia de seqüências foram encontradas com 76 clusters que correspondem a prováveis proteinases cisteínicas. O alinhamento destas seqüências com a de outras proteases cisteínicas, de diversas origens, forneceu informação quanto à classificação e possível função das proteinases de cana-de-açúcar. Além disso, o padrão de expressão de cada gene foi postulado a partir da correlação direta com as bibliotecas de cDNA do SUCEST dos quais os clusters foram derivados. Uma vez que nenhum gene de protease cisteínica foi anteriormente evidenciado em cana-de-açúcar, este estudo representa uma etapa inicial para o estudo de novos aspectos bioquímicos, fisiológicos e biotecnológicos destas enzimas.

  5. A hybrid, broad-spectrum inhibitor of Colorado potato beetle aspartate and cysteine digestive proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, France; Girard, Cécile; Cloutier, Conrad; Michaud, Dominique

    2005-09-01

    Protein engineering approaches are currently being devised to improve the inhibitory properties of plant proteinase inhibitors against digestive proteinases of herbivorous insects. Here we engineered a potent hybrid inhibitor of aspartate and cysteine digestive proteinases found in the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say. Three cathepsin D inhibitors (CDIs) from stressed potato and tomato were first compared in their potency to inhibit digestive cathepsin D-like activity of the insect. After showing the high inhibitory potency of tomato CDI (M(r) approximately 21 kDa), an approximately 33-kDa hybrid inhibitor was generated by fusing this inhibitor to the N terminus of corn cystatin II (CCII), a potent inhibitor of cysteine proteinases. Inhibitory assays with recombinant forms of CDI, CCII, and CDI-CCII expressed in Escherichia coli showed the CDI-CCII fusion to exhibit a dual inhibitory effect against cystatin-sensitive and cathepsin D-like enzymes of the potato beetle, resulting in detrimental effects against 3rd-instar larvae fed the hybrid inhibitor. The inhibitory potency of CDI and CCII was not altered after their fusion, as suggested by IC(50) values for the interaction of CDI-CCII with target proteinases similar to those measured for each inhibitor. These observations suggest the potential of plant CDIs and cystatins as functional inhibitory modules for the design of effective broad-spectrum, hybrid inhibitors of herbivorous insect cysteine and aspartate digestive proteinases. PMID:16116621

  6. Use of a cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis as a protective agent during DNA extraction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.S., Genelhu; M.S., Zanini; I.F., Veloso; A.M.D., Carneiro; M.T.P., Lopes; C.E., Salas.

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the use of a plant cysteine proteinase isolated from latex of Carica candamarcensis as a protective agent during isolation of bacterial DNA following growth in culture of these cells. Between 100 to 720 units of proteinase (1 µg = 6 units) afforded good DNA protection when incubated with [...] various kinds of microorganisms. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed that the resulting DNA was similar in size to DNA preparations obtained by treatment with proteinase K. The viability of the resulting material was checked by PCR amplification using species-specific primers. After standing at room temperature (25oC) for 35 days, the enzyme lost 10% of its initial activity. The enzyme stability and good yield of DNA suggest the use of this proteinase as an alternative to proteinase K.

  7. Ethylene-regulated expression of a carnation cysteine proteinase during flower petal senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M L; Larsen, P B; Woodson, W R

    1995-06-01

    The senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower petals is regulated by the phytohormone ethylene and is associated with considerable catabolic activity including the loss of protein. In this paper we present the molecular cloning of a cysteine proteinase and show that its expression is regulated by ethylene and associated with petal senescence. A 1600 bp cDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using a 5'-specific primer and 3'-nonspecific primer designed to amplify a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase cDNA from reverse-transcribed stylar RNA. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned product (pDCCP1) was found to share significant homology to several cysteine proteinases rather than ACC synthase. A single open reading frame of 428 amino acids was shown to share significant homology with other plant cysteine proteinases including greater than 70% identity with a cysteine proteinase from Arabidopsis thaliana. Amino acids in the active site of cysteine proteinases were conserved in the pDCCP1 peptide. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that the expression of pDCCP1 increased substantially with the onset of ethylene production and senescence of petals. Increased pDCCP1 expression was also associated with ethylene production in other senescing floral organs including ovaries and styles. The pDCCP1 transcript accumulated in petals treated with exogenous ethylene within 3 h and treatment of flowers with 2,5-norbornadiene, an inhibitor of ethylene action, prevented the increase in pDCCP1 expression in petals. The temporal and spatial patterns of pDCCP1 expression suggests a role for cysteine proteinase in the loss of protein during floral senescence. PMID:7632919

  8. A novel Glycine soja cysteine proteinase inhibitor GsCPI14, interacting with the calcium/calmodulin-binding receptor-like kinase GsCBRLK, regulated plant tolerance to alkali stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Yang, Shanshan; Sun, Mingzhe; Wang, Sunting; Ding, Xiaodong; Zhu, Dan; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Zhao, Chaoyue; Wang, Xuedong; Zhu, Yanming

    2014-05-01

    It has been well demonstrated that cystatins regulated plant stress tolerance through inhibiting the cysteine proteinase activity under environmental stress. However, there was limited information about the role of cystatins in plant alkali stress response, especially in wild soybean. Here, in this study, we focused on the biological characterization of a novel Glycine soja cystatin protein GsCPI14, which interacted with the calcium/calmodulin-binding receptor-like kinase GsCBRLK and positively regulated plant alkali stress tolerance. The protein-protein interaction between GsCBRLK and GsCPI14 was confirmed by using split-ubiquitin based membrane yeast two-hybrid analysis and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. Expression of GsCPI14 was greatly induced by salt, ABA and alkali stress in G. soja, and GsCBRLK overexpression (OX) in Glycine max promoted the stress induction of GmCPI14 expression under stress conditions. Furthermore, we found that GsCPI14-eGFP fusion protein localized in the entire Arabidopsis protoplast and onion epidermal cell, and GsCPI14 showed ubiquitous expression in different tissues of G. soja. In addition, we gave evidence that the GST-GsCPI14 fusion protein inhibited the proteolytic activity of papain in vitro. At last, we demonstrated that OX of GsCPI14 in Arabidopsis promoted the seed germination under alkali stress, as evidenced by higher germination rates. GsCPI14 transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings also displayed better growth performance and physiological index under alkali stress. Taken together, results presented in this study demonstrated that the G. soja cysteine proteinase inhibitor GsCPI14 interacted with the calcium/calmodulin-binding receptor-like kinase GsCBRLK and regulated plant tolerance to alkali stress. PMID:24407891

  9. Coffee cysteine proteinases and related inhibitors with high expression during grain maturation and germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepelley Maud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cysteine proteinases perform multiple functions in seeds, including participation in remodelling polypeptides and recycling amino acids during maturation and germination. Currently, few details exist concerning these genes and proteins in coffee. Furthermore, there is limited information on the cysteine proteinase inhibitors which influence the activities of these proteinases. Results Two cysteine proteinase (CP and four cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CPI gene sequences have been identified in coffee with significant expression during the maturation and germination of coffee grain. Detailed expression analysis of the cysteine proteinase genes CcCP1 and CcCP4 in Robusta using quantitative RT-PCR showed that these transcripts accumulate primarily during grain maturation and germination/post germination. The corresponding proteins were expressed in E. coli and purified, but only one, CcCP4, which has a KDDL/KDEL C-terminal sequence, was found to be active after a short acid treatment. QRT-PCR expression analysis of the four cysteine proteinase inhibitor genes in Robusta showed that CcCPI-1 is primarily expressed in developing and germinating grain and CcCPI-4 is very highly expressed during the late post germination period, as well as in mature, but not immature leaves. Transcripts corresponding to CcCPI-2 and CcCPI-3 were detected in most tissues examined at relatively similar, but generally low levels. Conclusions Several cysteine proteinase and cysteine proteinase inhibitor genes with strong, relatively specific expression during coffee grain maturation and germination are presented. The temporal expression of the CcCP1 gene suggests it is involved in modifying proteins during late grain maturation and germination. The expression pattern of CcCP4, and its close identity with KDEL containing CP proteins, implies this proteinase may play a role in protein and/or cell remodelling during late grain germination, and that it is likely to play a strong role in the programmed cell death associated with post-germination of the coffee grain. Expression analysis of the cysteine proteinase inhibitor genes suggests that CcCPI-1 could primarily be involved in modulating the activity of grain CP activity; while CcCPI-4 may play roles modulating grain CP activity and in the protection of the young coffee seedlings from insects and pathogens. CcCPI-2 and CcCPI-3, having lower and more widespread expression, could be more general "house-keeping" CPI genes.

  10. Protective effects of a cysteine proteinase propeptide expressed in transgenic soybean roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Brener M; Souza, Djair S L; Aguiar, João N; Firmino, Alexandre A P; Sarto, Rafael P D; Silva, Francine B; Almeida, Charles D S; Cares, Juvenil E; Continho, Marise V; Martins-de-Sa, Cezar; Franco, Octavio L; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2009-05-01

    Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes cause extensive damage to a large number of ornamental plants and food crops, with estimated economical losses over 100 billion US$ worldwide. Various efforts have put forth in order to minimize nematode damage, which typically involve the use of nematicides that have high cost and enhanced toxicity to humans and the environment. Additionally, different strategies have been applied in order to develop genetically modified plants with improved nematode resistance. Among the strategies are anti-invasion and migration, feeding-cell attenuation, and anti-nematode feeding. In the present study, we focus on anti-nematode feeding, which involves the evaluation and potential use of the cysteine proteinase (CPs) propeptide as a control alternative. The cysteine proteinase prodomain, isolated from Heterodera glycines (HGCP prodomain), is a natural inhibitory peptide used to transform soybean cotyledons using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Genetically modified soybean roots expressing the propeptide were detected by Western blot and expression levels were measured by ELISA (around 0.3%). The transgenic roots expressing the propeptide were inoculated with a thousand H. glycines at the second juvenile stage, and a remarkable reduction in the number of females and eggs was observed. A reduction of female length and diameter was also observed after 35 days post-inoculation. Furthermore, the H. glycines mature protein was detected in females fed on soybean transformed root expressing or not expressing the propeptide. The data presented here indicate that the HGCP propeptide can reduce soybean cyst nematode infection and this strategy could be applied in the near future to generate resistant crop cultivars. PMID:19428757

  11. Biochemical and immunological characterization of a recombinantly-produced antifungal cysteine proteinase inhibitor from green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Milica; Andjelkovic, Uros; Burazer, Lidija; Lindner, Buko; Petersen, Arnd; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija

    2013-10-01

    Plant proteinase inhibitors are considered important defense molecules against insect and pathogen attack. The cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CPI) from green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) belongs to the cystatin family and shows potent antifungal activity (in vitro and in vivo). However, the low abundance of this molecule in fruit (6?g/g of fresh fruit) seems to limit further investigations on the interaction between phytocystatin and photopathogenic fungi. In this paper the cDNA of the kiwi CPI was expressed in Escherichia coli. Fifteen N-terminal amino acids were identified by Edman degradation, and 77% of the rCPI primary structure was confirmed by mass fingerprint. The structural homology of recombinant CPI (rCPI) to its natural counterpart has been clearly demonstrated in immunological assays (immunoblot and ELISA inhibition). Biological activity of rCPI was demonstrated in inhibition assay with cysteine proteinase papain (EC50 2.78nM). In addition, rCPI reveals antifungal properties toward pathogenic fungi (Alternaria radicina and Botrytis cinerea), which designates it as an interesting model protein for the exploration of plant phytocystatins - pathogen interactions. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of natural plant resistance could lead to the development of ecologically safe fungicides for controlling post-harvest diseases and maintaining food quality. PMID:23830694

  12. Nitric oxide inhibits cruzipain, the major papain-like cysteine proteinase from Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, G; Salvati, L; Muolo, M; Colasanti, M; Gradoni, L; Ascenzi, P

    2000-04-13

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a pluripotent regulatory molecule showing, among others, an antiparasitic activity. Moreover, NO inhibits cysteine proteinase action by nitrosylating the Cys catalytic residue. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of the substrate N-alpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-arginine-(7-amino-4-methyl coumarin) and of NO on the catalytic activity of cruzipain, the major papain-like cysteine proteinase from Trypanosoma cruzi (the hemoflagellate protozoan parasite which causes the American trypanosomiasis), is reported. In particular, NO-donors S-nitroso-glutathione (GSNO), (+/-)-(E)-4-ethyl-2-[(E)-hydroxyimino]-5-nitro-3-hexenamide (NOR-3), 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), S-nitroso-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) dose-dependently inhibited cruzipain, this effect being likely attributable to the S-nitrosylation of the Cys25 catalytic residue. These results were analyzed in parallel with those concerning the inhibitory effect of the substrate and of NO on the catalytic activity of falcipain, the cruzipain-homologous cysteine proteinase from Plasmodium falciparum. The modulation of the cruzipain and falcipain activity by NO may be relevant in developing new strategies against T. cruzi and P. falciparum in human host. As a whole, the NO-mediated S-nitrosylation of pathogenic viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic cysteine proteinases may represent a general mechanism of antimicrobial and antiparasitic host defences. PMID:10753643

  13. Allicin from garlic strongly inhibits cysteine proteinases and cytopathic effects of Entamoeba histolytica.

    OpenAIRE

    Ankri, S.; Miron, T.; Rabinkov, A.; Wilchek, M.; Mirelman, D.

    1997-01-01

    The ability of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites to destroy monolayers of baby hamster kidney cells is inhibited by allicin, one of the active principles of garlic. Cysteine proteinases, an important contributor to amebic virulence, as well as alcohol dehydrogenase, are strongly inhibited by allicin.

  14. Humoral response (IgG) of goats experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica against cysteine proteinases of adult fluke

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Antonio; Molina, Jose?; Gonza?lez, Jorge; Marti?nez-moreno, Francisco; Gutie?rrez, Pedro; Marti?i?nez-moreno, A?lvaro

    2003-01-01

    The use of cysteine proteinases from Fasciola hepatica adult flukes for the serodiagnosis of caprine fasciolosis by means of an indirect ELISA test was studied. Two proteolytic fractions from adult fluke homogenates, with apparent molecular weights of 28 and 34 kDa (P28 and P34 respectively), were characterised as cysteine proteinases using azocasein assays and gelatin gel analysis. Both P28 and P34 fractions were electroluted and used as antigens in two different indirect ELISA tests. Serum ...

  15. Molecular cloning of a cysteine proteinase cDNA from the cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira Neto, Osmundo Brilhante; Batista, João Aguiar Nogueira; Rigden, Daniel John; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Fragoso, Rodrigo Rocha; Monteiro, Ana Carolina Santos; Monnerat, Rose Gomes; Grossi-De-Sa, Maria Fátima

    2004-06-01

    The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) causes severe cotton crop losses in North and South America. This report describes the presence of cysteine proteinase activity in the cotton boll weevil. Cysteine proteinase inhibitors from different sources were assayed against total A. grandis proteinases but, unexpectedly, no inhibitor tested was particularly effective. In order to screen for active inhibitors against the boll weevil, a cysteine proteinase cDNA (Agcys1) was isolated from A. grandis larvae using degenerate primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques. Sequence analysis showed significant homologies with other insect cysteine proteinases. Northern blot analysis indicated that the mRNA encoding the proteinase was transcribed mainly in the gut of larvae. No mRNA was detected in neonatal larvae, pupae, or in the gut of the adult insect, suggesting that Agcys1 is an important cysteine proteinase for larvae digestion. The isolated gene will facilitate the search for highly active inhibitors towards boll weevil larvae that may provide a new opportunity to control this important insect pest. PMID:15215586

  16. Functional Properties of a Cysteine Proteinase from Pineapple Fruit with Improved Resistance to Fungal Pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In plant cells, many cysteine proteinases (CPs are synthesized as precursors in the endoplasmic reticulum, and then are subject to post-translational modifications to form the active mature proteinases. They participate in various cellular and physiological functions. Here, AcCP2, a CP from pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus L. belonging to the C1A subfamily is analyzed based on the molecular modeling and homology alignment. Transcripts of AcCP2 can be detected in the different parts of fruits (particularly outer sarcocarps, and gradually increased during fruit development until maturity. To analyze the substrate specificity of AcCP2, the recombinant protein was overexpressed and purified from Pichia pastoris. The precursor of purified AcCP2 can be processed to a 25 kDa active form after acid treatment (pH 4.3. Its optimum proteolytic activity to Bz-Phe-Val-Arg-NH-Mec is at neutral pH. In addition, the overexpression of AcCP2 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana can improve the resistance to fungal pathogen of Botrytis cinerea. These data indicate that AcCP2 is a multifunctional proteinase, and its expression could cause fruit developmental characteristics of pineapple and resistance responses in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

  17. Fibronectin-degrading activity of Trypanosoma cruzi cysteine proteinase plays a role in host cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Fernando Yukio; Cortez, Cristian; Izidoro, Mario Augusto; Juliano, Luiz; Yoshida, Nobuko

    2014-12-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, binds to diverse extracellular matrix proteins. Such an ability prevails in the parasite forms that circulate in the bloodstream and contributes to host cell invasion. Whether this also applies to the insect-stage metacyclic trypomastigotes, the developmental forms that initiate infection in the mammalian host, is not clear. Using T. cruzi CL strain metacyclic forms, we investigated whether fibronectin bound to the parasites and affected target cell invasion. Fibronectin present in cell culture medium bound to metacyclic forms and was digested by cruzipain, the major T. cruzi cysteine proteinase. G strain, with negligible cruzipain activity, displayed a minimal fibronectin-degrading effect. Binding to fibronectin was mediated by gp82, the metacyclic stage-specific surface molecule implicated in parasite internalization. When exogenous fibronectin was present at concentrations higher than cruzipain can properly digest, or fibronectin expression was stimulated by treatment of epithelial HeLa cells with transforming growth factor beta, the parasite invasion was reduced. Treatment of HeLa cells with purified recombinant cruzipain increased parasite internalization, whereas the treatment of parasites with cysteine proteinase inhibitor had the opposite effect. Metacyclic trypomastigote entry into HeLa cells was not affected by anti-?1 integrin antibody but was inhibited by anti-fibronectin antibody. Overall, our results have indicated that the cysteine proteinase of T. cruzi metacyclic forms, through its fibronectin-degrading activity, is implicated in host cell invasion. PMID:25267835

  18. Midgut cysteine protease-inhibiting activity in Trichoplusia ni protects the peritrophic membrane from degradation by plant cysteine proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changyou; Song, Xiaozhao; Li, Guoxun; Wang, Ping

    2009-10-01

    The action of plant cysteine proteases on the midgut peritrophic membrane (PM) of a polyphagous herbivorous lepidopteran, Trichoplusia ni, was studied. Proteins in PMs isolated from T. ni larvae were confirmed to be highly resistant to the serine proteinases trypsin and chymotrypsin, but were susceptible to degradation by plant cysteine proteases, which is consistent with the known molecular and biochemical characteristics of the T. ni PM proteins. However, the PM proteins were not degraded by plant cysteine proteases in larvae or in the presence of larval midgut fluid in vitro. With further biochemical analysis, cysteine protease-inhibiting activity was identified in the midgut fluid of T. ni larvae. The cysteine protease-inhibiting activity was heat resistant and active in the tested pH range from 6.0 to 10.0, but could be suppressed by thiol reducing reagents or reduced by treatment with catalase. In addition to T. ni, cysteine protease-inhibiting activity was also identified from two other polyphagous Lepidoptera species, Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens. In conclusion, results from this study uncovered that herbivorous insects may counteract the attack of plant cysteine proteases on the PM by inhibiting the potentially insecticidal cysteine proteases from plants in the digestive tract. However, the biochemical identity of the cysteine protease-inhibiting activity in midgut fluid has yet to be identified. PMID:19729065

  19. Structure of the Autocatalytic Cysteine Protease Domain of Potyvirus Helper-component Proteinase*

    OpenAIRE

    Guo?, Bihong; Lin?, Jinzhong; Ye?, Keqiong

    2011-01-01

    The helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) of potyvirus is involved in polyprotein processing, aphid transmission, and suppression of antiviral RNA silencing. There is no high resolution structure reported for any part of HC-Pro, hindering mechanistic understanding of its multiple functions. We have determined the crystal structure of the cysteine protease domain of HC-Pro from turnip mosaic virus at 2.0 Å resolution. As a protease, HC-Pro only cleaves a Gly-Gly dipeptide at its own C terminus...

  20. Kininogens: inhibitors of cysteine proteinases in plasma and a similar inhibitor in chicken egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzin, J; Jos, K; Trstenjak, J M; Machleidt, W; Turk, V

    1986-01-01

    Isolation, based on their inhibitory properties, is a fast and simple alternative method for the preparation of kininogens from human plasma. Pure native low Mr kininogen can be obtained in a much higher yield than with classical methods, provided that a similarly efficient inhibition of proteolysis is included. Chicken egg white also contains a high Mr inhibitor of cysteine proteinases. It closely resembles low Mr kininogen in its molecular weight, acidic isoelectric point and 1:2 inhibitor to enzyme molar binding ratio. Its relation to chicken serum kininogen is not known. PMID:3495262

  1. Human cysteine proteinases and their protein inhibitors stefins, cystatins and kininogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, V; Brzin, J; Kotnik, M; Lenarcic, B; Popovi?, T; Ritonja, A; Trstenjak, M; Begi?-Odobasi?, L; Machleidt, W

    1986-01-01

    The cathepsins B, H and L of human origin were isolated in pure form in sufficient quantities for structural characterization. The complete amino acid sequence of human liver cathepsin B was determined. Partial amino acid sequences of the human kidney cathepsin H and L show the highly conserved region around the active site cysteine. The cysteine proteinase inhibitors stefin A, human stefin B and human cystatin C were isolated, characterized and sequenced. Their amino acid sequences are compared with sequences of other protein inhibitors of the stefin and cystatin family, showing a high degree of homology throughout both families. The stefin and cystatin family, together with newly discovered kininogen family belong to the same superfamily of cystatins. The constructed dendrogram shows that the most closely related inhibitors so far sequenced are human stefin B and rat liver TPI. PMID:3495261

  2. Sequence conservation in the chagasin family suggests a common trend in cysteine proteinase binding by unrelated protein inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Rigden, Daniel J.; Mosolov, Vladimir V.; Galperin, Michael Y.

    2002-01-01

    The recently described inhibitor of cysteine proteinases from Trypanosoma cruzi, chagasin, was found to have close homologs in several eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea, the first protein inhibitors of cysteine proteases in prokaryotes. These previously uncharacterized 110–130 residue-long proteins share a well-conserved sequence motif that corresponds to two adjacent ?-strands and the short loop connecting them. Chagasin-like proteins also have other conserved, mostly aromatic, residues, a...

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of CMS1MS2: a cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis latex

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Marco Túlio Ribeiro; Teixeira, Raphael Dias; Ribeiro, Henrique de Assis Lopes; Turchetti, Andréia Pereira; Junqueira, Caroline Furtado; Lopes, Míriam Tereza Paz; Salas, Carlos Edmundo; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto

    2008-01-01

    CMS1MS2, a cysteine proteinase from C. candamarcensis, displays high amidase activity against the substrate BAPNA. The enzyme was purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop method and preliminary diffraction data were collected to 1.8?Å resolution.

  4. Trichomonas vaginalis Cysteine Proteinases: Iron Response in Gene Expression and Proteolytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Guerra, Rosa Elena; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa Elvira; Puente-Rivera, Jonathan; Zamudio-Prieto, Olga; Ortega-López, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the iron response of Trichomonas vaginalis to gene family products such as the cysteine proteinases (CPs) involved in virulence properties. In particular, we examined the effect of iron on the gene expression regulation and function of cathepsin L-like and asparaginyl endopeptidase-like CPs as virulence factors. We addressed some important aspects about CPs genomic organization and we offer possible explanations to the fact that only few members of this large gene family are expressed at the RNA and protein levels and the way to control their proteolytic activity. We also summarized all known iron regulations of CPs at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels along with new insights into the possible epigenetic and miRNA processes. PMID:26090464

  5. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against the major cysteine proteinase of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, G; Orn, A; Cazzulo, J J; Grönvik, K O

    1994-10-01

    In the present study we describe the production and characterization of a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) directed against cruzipain (Crz), the major cysteine proteinase from Trypanosoma cruzi. The five MoAbs, BD6, BF2, CG2, CH8, and DC10 were analysed with respect to affinity and specificity. None of the MoAbs cross-reacted with papain, which has regions of high homology with Crz. Treatment of the antigen with periodate did not affect the binding of the MoAbs, suggesting that they bind to the polypeptide moiety of Crz. CH8 recognized a continuous epitope located at the C-terminal extension of the proteinase that appeared to be highly immunogenic. Although the rest of the MoAbs recognized epitopes located in the catalytic domain, the enzymatic activity of Crz was not impaired by the binding of the MoAbs. Characterization of the antibody-binding sites revealed the presence of at least four separate epitopes. PMID:7939410

  6. Development of an in vitro cleavage assay system to examine vaccinia virus I7L cysteine proteinase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hruby Dennis E

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Through the use of transient expression assays and directed genetics, the vaccinia virus (VV I7L gene product has been implicated as the major maturational proteinase required for viral core protein cleavage to occur during virion assembly. To confirm this hypothesis and to enable a biochemical examination of the I7L cysteine proteinase, an in vitro cleavage assay was developed. Using extracts of VV infected cells as the source of enzyme, reaction conditions were developed which allowed accurate and efficient cleavage of exogenously added core protein precursors (P4a, P4b and P25K. The cleavage reaction proceeded in a time-dependent manner and was optimal when incubated at 25°C. I7L-mediated cleavage was not affected by selected inhibitors of metalloproteinases, aspartic acid proteinases or serine proteinases (EDTA, pepstatin, and PMSF, respectively, but was sensitive to several general cysteine proteinase inhibitors (E-64, EST, Iodoacetic acid, and NEM as well as the I7L active site inhibitor TTP-6171 [C. Byrd et al., J. Virol. 78:12147–12156 (2004]. Finally, in antibody pull down experiments, it could be demonstrated that monospecific ?I7L serum depleted the enzyme activity whereas control sera including ?G1L, directed against the VV metalloproteinase, did not. Taken together, these data provide biochemical evidence that I7L is a cysteine proteinase which is directly involved in VV core protein cleavage. Furthermore, establishment of this I7L-mediated in vitro cleavage assay should enable future studies into the enzymology and co-factor requirements of the proteolysis reaction, and facilitate antiviral drug development against this essential target.

  7. Cysteine proteinases of Trypanosoma cruzi: from digestive enzymes to programmed cell death

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gregor, Kosec; Vanina, Alvarez; Juan J., Cazzulo.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite causing Chagas disease, contains a number of proteolytic enzymes. The recent completion of the genome sequence of the T. cruzi CL Brener clone suggests the presence of 70 cysteine peptidases, 40 serine peptidases (none of them from the chymotrypsin family), about 250 [...] metallopeptidases (most leishmanolysin homologues), 25 threonine peptidases, and only two aspartyl peptidases, none of them from the pepsin family. The cysteine peptidases belong to 7 families of Clan CA, 3 families of Clan CD, and one each of Clans CE and CF. In Clan CA, the C1 family is represented by cruzipains 1 and 2, biochemically well characterized, as well as cathepsin B and two other cathepsins. There are a number of homologues to calpains (family C2), probably non-functional, lacking the Ca-binding domain. Family C54 includes the Atg4 proteinases (autophagins), which seem to be involved in the autophagic process. Clan CD includes family C14, the metacaspases. We have expressed the metacaspases TcMCA3 and TcMCA5, and obtained indirect evidence of their participation in programmed cell death induced by fresh human serum in the parasite. More experiments are required to better define their role in apoptosis.

  8. Cysteine proteinases of Trypanosoma cruzi: from digestive enzymes to programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Kosec

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite causing Chagas disease, contains a number of proteolytic enzymes. The recent completion of the genome sequence of the T. cruzi CL Brener clone suggests the presence of 70 cysteine peptidases, 40 serine peptidases (none of them from the chymotrypsin family, about 250 metallopeptidases (most leishmanolysin homologues, 25 threonine peptidases, and only two aspartyl peptidases, none of them from the pepsin family. The cysteine peptidases belong to 7 families of Clan CA, 3 families of Clan CD, and one each of Clans CE and CF. In Clan CA, the C1 family is represented by cruzipains 1 and 2, biochemically well characterized, as well as cathepsin B and two other cathepsins. There are a number of homologues to calpains (family C2, probably non-functional, lacking the Ca-binding domain. Family C54 includes the Atg4 proteinases (autophagins, which seem to be involved in the autophagic process. Clan CD includes family C14, the metacaspases. We have expressed the metacaspases TcMCA3 and TcMCA5, and obtained indirect evidence of their participation in programmed cell death induced by fresh human serum in the parasite. More experiments are required to better define their role in apoptosis.

  9. Evaluation of Enzyme-linked Immunotransfer Blot for the Immunodiagnosis of Human Fascioliasis Using Cysteine Proteinase Antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Rokni, M. B.; Baghernejad, A.; Mohebali, M.; Kia, E. B.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was targeted as examining sera obtaining from patients infected with Fasciola sp. by the Enzyme-linked Immunotransfer Blot (EITB) technique using the parasite`s Cysteine Proteinase (CE) antigen in order to evaluate the diagnostic potential of the assay. Altogether, a sort of sera including 80 cases of fasciolosis, 80 with other parasitosis other than fasciolosis and 30 normal control sera were enrolled in the trial. Hinge on the collected results, 78 fasciolosis serum sample...

  10. Contrasting globulin and cysteine proteinase gene expression patterns reveal fundamental developmental differences between zygotic and somatic embryos of oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberlenc-Bertossi, Frédérique; Chabrillange, Nathalie; Duval, Yves; Tregear, James

    2008-08-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) somatic embryos differ from zygotic embryos in that they accumulate only small amounts of storage proteins. We compared the balance between deposition and degradation of storage proteins during zygotic or somatic embryogenesis and germinative growth in the two types of embryos. During mid to late zygotic embryogenesis, storage proteins accumulated and globulin 7S (GLO7A) gene transcripts were detected, whereas neither protease activity nor cysteine proteinase (CPR) gene transcripts were detected. Globulin degradation occurred after 8 days of in vitro germination in zygotic embryos and was accompanied by a decrease in GLO7A transcripts. Transcripts of three cysteine proteinase genes of the papain family were detected as early as Day 2 of in vitro germination. Several proteolytically active protein bands were identified by zymography, and CPR-like proteins were detected with an antibody raised against the Vicia sativa L. cysteine proteinase CPR1. Protease activities and CPR-like proteins were observed from Day 8 onward when globulin degradation occurred. During somatic embryogenesis and subsequent germinative growth, only small amounts of storage proteins accumulated, even though GLO7A transcripts were detected. Two of the three cysteine proteinase genes were expressed throughout both somatic embryogenesis and germinative growth. Protease activities and CPR-like protein species were detected in somatic embryos at several developmental stages. In contrast to zygotic embryogenesis, the accumulation of globulins and their subsequent mobilization appear to be concomitant processes during somatic embryogenesis, which could explain the low accumulation of storage proteins in somatic embryos. PMID:18519247

  11. Proregion of Acanthoscelides obtectus cysteine proteinase: a novel peptide with enhanced selectivity toward endogenous enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F B; Monteiro, A C S; Del Sarto, R P; Marra, B M; Dias, S C; Figueira, E L Z; Oliveira, G R; Rocha, T L; Souza, D S L; da Silva, M C M; Franco, O L; Grossi-de-Sa, M F

    2007-06-01

    Acanthoscelides obtectus is a devastating storage insect pest capable of causing severe bean crop losses. In order to maintain their own development, insect pest larvae feed continuously, synthesizing efficient digestive enzymes. Among them, cysteine proteinases (CPs) are commonly produced as inactive precursors (procysteines), requiring a cleavage of the peptide proregion to become active. The proregion fits tightly into the active site of procysteines, efficiently preventing their activity. In this report, a CP cDNA (cpao) was isolated from A. obtectus midgut larvae. In silico studies indicated that the complete CP sequence contains a hydrophobic signal peptide, a prodomain and a conserved catalytic region. Moreover, the encoding cDNA contains 963bp translating into a 321 residue protein, CPAo, which was expressed in E. coli, fused with thioredoxin. Enzymatic assays using the recombinant protein revealed that the enzyme was catalytically active, being able to cleave the synthetic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-7-AMC. Additionally, this report also focuses the cpao propeptide (PCPAo) subcloning and expression. The expressed propeptide efficiently inhibited CPAo, as well as digestive CP of other bean bruchids. Little or no activity was found against proteolytic enzymes of two other coleopterans: Rhyzopertha dominica and Anthonomus grandis. The data reported here indicate the possibility of endogenous propeptides as a novel strategy on bruchids control, which could be applicable to bean improvement programs. PMID:17485144

  12. Molecular karyotype and chromosomal localization of genes encoding ß-tubulin, cysteine proteinase, hsp 70 and actin in Trypanosoma rangeli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toaldo CB

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular karyotype of nine Trypanosoma rangeli strains was analyzed by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis, followed by the chromosomal localization of ß-tubulin, cysteine proteinase, 70 kDa heat shock protein (hsp 70 and actin genes. The T. rangeli strains were isolated from either insects or mammals from El Salvador, Honduras, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama and southern Brazil. Also, T. cruzi CL-Brener clone was included for comparison. Despite the great similarity observed among strains from Brazil, the molecular karyotype of all T. rangeli strains analyzed revealed extensive chromosome polymorphism. In addition, it was possible to distinguish T. rangeli from T. cruzi by the chromosomal DNA electrophoresis pattern. The localization of ß-tubulin genes revealed differences among T. rangeli strains and confirmed the similarity between the isolates from Brazil. Hybridization assays using probes directed to the cysteine proteinase, hsp 70 and actin genes discriminated T. rangeli from T. cruzi, proving that these genes are useful molecular markers for the differential diagnosis between these two species. Numerical analysis based on the molecular karyotype data revealed a high degree of polymorphism among T. rangeli strains isolated from southern Brazil and strains isolated from Central and the northern South America. The T. cruzi reference strain was not clustered with any T. rangeli strain.

  13. The families of papain- and legumain-like cysteine proteinases from embryonic axes and cotyledons of Vicia seeds: developmental patterns, intracellular localization and functions in globulin proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, J; Becker, C; Hillmer, S; Horstmann, C; Neubohn, B; Schlereth, A; Senyuk, V; Shutov, A; Müntz, K

    2000-05-01

    Families of papain- and legumain-like cysteine proteinases (CPR) were found in Vicia seeds. cDNAs and antibodies were used to follow organ specificity and the developmental course of CPR-specific mRNAs and polypeptides. Four papain-like cysteine proteinases (CPR1, CPR2, proteinase A and CPR4) from vetch seeds (Vicia sativa L.) were analysed. CPR2 and its mRNA were already found in dry embryonic axes. CPR1 was only detected there during early germination. Both CPR1 and CPR2 strongly increased later during germination. In cotyledons, both CPR1 and CPR2 were only observed one to two days later than in the axis. Proteinase A was not found in axes. In cotyledons it could only be detected several days after seeds had germinated. CPR4 mRNA and polypeptide were already present in embryonic axes and cotyledons during seed maturation and decreased in both organs during germination. Purified CPR1, CPR2 and proteinase A exhibited partially different patterns of globulin degradation products in vitro. Although the cDNA-deduced amino acid sequence of the precursor of proteinase A has an N-terminal signal peptide, the enzyme was not found in vacuoles whereas the other papain-like CPRs showed vacuolar localization. Four different legumain-like cysteine proteinases (VsPB2, proteinase B, VnPB1 and VnPB2) of Vicia species were analysed. Proteinase B and VnPB1 mRNAs were detected in cotyledons and seedling organs after seeds had germinated. Proteinase B degraded globulins isolated from mature vetch seeds in vitro. VsPB2 and proteinase B are localized to protein bodies of maturing seeds and seedlings, respectively, of V. sativa. Like VsPB2 from V sativa, also VnPB2 of V. narbonensis corresponds to vacuolar processing enzymes (betaVPE). Based on these results different functions in molecular maturation and mobilization of storage proteins could be attributed to the various members of the CPR families. PMID:10949376

  14. Evaluation of Enzyme-linked Immunotransfer Blot for the Immunodiagnosis of Human Fascioliasis Using Cysteine Proteinase Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Rokni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was targeted as examining sera obtaining from patients infected with Fasciola sp. by the Enzyme-linked Immunotransfer Blot (EITB technique using the parasite`s Cysteine Proteinase (CE antigen in order to evaluate the diagnostic potential of the assay. Altogether, a sort of sera including 80 cases of fasciolosis, 80 with other parasitosis other than fasciolosis and 30 normal control sera were enrolled in the trial. Hinge on the collected results, 78 fasciolosis serum samples recognized two antigenic polypeptides of 27 and 29 kDa. The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values for CP antigen were 97.5, 98.8, 98.7 and 97.7%, respectively. Utterly, one case of cross-reaction was verified with a toxocariasis case. Concluding remark suggests that the 27 and 29 kDa bands in EITB test could be imperative in the immunodiagnosis of human fascioliasis.

  15. Antigen genes for molecular epidemiology of leishmaniasis: polymorphism of cysteine proteinase B and surface metalloprotease glycoprotein 63 in the Leishmania donovani complex

    OpenAIRE

    Quispe Tintaya, K. W.; Ying, X.; Dedet, J. P.; Rijal, S.; Bolle, X.; Dujardin, J. C.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Efficient monitoring of endemic and resurgent visceral leishmaniasis (VL) requires discriminatory molecular tools that allow direct characterization of etiological agents (i.e., the Leishmania donovani complex) in host tissues. This characterization is possible through restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified sequences (PCR-RFLP). METHODS: We present 2 new PCR-RFLP assays that target the gene locus of cysteine proteinase...

  16. Comparison of clinical and environmental isolates of Acanthamoeba based on morphology, protease and gelatinase activity, and the cysteine proteinase gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil M. Penuliar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba spp. are opportunistic pathogens that cause amebic keratitis and granulomatous amebic encephalitis in man. Recent attempts to correlate pathogenicity with species have been proven difficult due to inconsistencies in morphology-based classification. The objectives of this study were: (1 to compare clinical and environmental isolates based on morphology, protease and gelatinase activity, and the cysteine proteinase (CP gene, and (2 to determine whether these features can be used to differentiate the isolates. Results show some degree of variation in trophozoite and cyst morphology. Zymography, demonstrated gross differences in banding patterns, and the protease activity of clinical isolates was greater than the environmental isolates (p-value < 0.01. Amplification of the CP gene yielded two bands in the environmental isolates, approximately 755 bp and 440 bp in length. In contrast, only one band, either the 755 bp or 440 bp band was amplified in the clinical isolates. The results confirmed the limitations of morphology in differentiating Acanthamoeba species, and suggest that zymography, protease activity, and detection of the CP gene are useful reference tests to distinguish pathogenic from non-pathogenic isolates.

  17. Cysteine Proteinase-1 and Cut Protein Isoform Control Dendritic Innervation of Two Distinct Sensory Fields by a Single Neuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray R. Lyons

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dendrites often exhibit structural changes in response to local inputs. Although mechanisms that pattern and maintain dendritic arbors are becoming clearer, processes regulating regrowth, during context-dependent plasticity or after injury, remain poorly understood. We found that a class of Drosophila sensory neurons, through complete pruning and regeneration, can elaborate two distinct dendritic trees, innervating independent sensory fields. An expression screen identified Cysteine proteinase-1 (Cp1 as a critical regulator of this process. Unlike known ecdysone effectors, Cp1-mutant ddaC neurons pruned larval dendrites normally but failed to regrow adult dendrites. Cp1 expression was upregulated/concentrated in the nucleus during metamorphosis, controlling production of a truncated Cut homeodomain transcription factor. This truncated Cut, but not the full-length protein, allowed Cp1-mutant ddaC neurons to regenerate higher-order adult dendrites. These results identify a molecular pathway needed for dendrite regrowth after pruning, which allows the same neuron to innervate distinct sensory fields.

  18. A cystatin-based affinity procedure for the isolation and analysis of papain-like cysteine proteinases from tissue extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombaccini, D; Mocali, A; Weber, E; Paoletti, F

    2001-02-15

    Cysteine-proteinases (CP) of the papain family can be affinity-adsorbed by egg white cystatin C coupled to Sepharose 4B, thus allowing their selective isolation from either tissue or cultured cell extracts as well as biolological fluids and culture media. CP complexed by immobilized cystatin are further analyzed by means of SDS-PAGE and Western blot followed by serial or parallel immunological detection. The single-step affinity adsorption of papain-like enzymes has the advantage, over immunoprecipitation techniques, of yielding the simultaneous and comprehensive picture of most CP, as both precursor and mature forms, in a given sample. Moreover, cell extraction in the presence of immobilized cystatin ensures a fast complexation of CP, avoiding artifacts, due to conversion, degradation, and, eventually, subtraction of constitutive enzymes from the sample because of their interactions with endogenous inhibitors. This will provide a pattern that might reflect more closely the real CP levels in intact cells. The method may be useful in the field of biochemistry, cell biology, and, possibly, clinical chemistry to perform rapid analyses of papain-like enzymes and to monitor changes in both cellular and extracellular CP profiles along with different physiopathological conditions. PMID:11161316

  19. Bmcystatin, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor characterized from the tick Boophilus microplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a blood-sucking animal, which is responsible for Babesia spp and Anaplasma marginale transmission for cattle. From a B. microplus fat body cDNA library, 465 selected clones were sequenced randomly and resulted in 60 Contigs. An open reading frame (ORF) contains 98 amino acids named Bmcystatin, due to 70% amino acid identity to a classical type 1 cystatin from Ixodes scapularis tick (GenBank Accession No. DQ066227). The Bmcystatin amino acid sequence analysis showed two cysteine residues, theoretical pI of 5.92 and Mr of 11kDa. Bmcystatin gene was cloned in pET 26b vector and the protein expressed using bacteria Escherichia coli BL21 SI. Recombinant Bmcystatin (rBmcystatin) purified by affinity chromatography on Ni-NTA-agarose column and ionic exchange chromatography on HiTrap Q column presented molecular mass of 11kDa, by SDS-PAGE and the N-terminal amino acid sequenced revealed unprocessed N-terminal containing part of pelB signal sequence. Purified rBmcystatin showed to be a C1 cysteine peptidase inhibitor with Ki value of 0.1 and 0.6nM for human cathepsin L and VTDCE (vitellin degrading cysteine endopeptidase), respectively. The rBmcystatin expression analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the amplification of a specific DNA sequence (294bp) in the fat body and ovary cDNA preparation. On the other hand, a protein band was detected in the fat body, ovary, and the salivary gland extrt body, ovary, and the salivary gland extracts using anti-Bmcystatin antibody by Western blot. The present results suggest a possible role of Bmcystatin in the ovary, even though the gene was cloned from the fat body, which could be another site of this protein synthesis

  20. Characterization of a mixture of lobster digestive cysteine proteinases by ionspray mass spectrometry and tryptic mapping with LC--MS and LC--MS--MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, P.; Pleasance, S.; Laycock, M. V.; Mackay, R. M.; Boyd, R. K.

    1991-12-01

    An inseparable mixture of two cysteine proteinases, isolated from the digestive tract of the American lobster, was investigated by ionspray mass spectrometry (ISP-MS), using a combination of infusion of intact proteins with on-line liquid chromatography--mass spectrometry (LC--MS) and LC--MS--MS analyses of tryptic digests. These data were interpreted by comparisons with predictions from results of molecular cloning of cysteine-proteinase-encoding messenger RNA sequences previously isolated from the lobster hepatopancreas. Investigations of the numbers of free thiol groups and of disulfide bonds were made by measuring the molecular weights of the alkylated proteins with and without prior reduction of disulfide bonds, and comparison with the corresponding data for the native proteins. Identification of tyrptic fragment peptides containing cysteine residues was facilitated by comparing LC--MS analyses of tryptic digests of denatured and of denatured and alkylated proteins, since such tryptic peptides are subject to shifts in both mass and retention time upon reduction and alkylation. Confirmation of amino acid sequences was obtained from fragment ion spectra of each tryptic peptide (alkylated or not) as it eluted from the column. Acquisition of such on-line LC--MS data was possible through use of the entire effluent from a standard 1 mm high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column by an IonsSpray® LC--MS interface (pneumatically assisted electrospray).

  1. "Purification and evaluation of somatic, excretory-secretory and Cysteine proteinase antigens of Fasciola Hepatica using IgG-ELISA in diagnosing Fascioliasis "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Rokni MB

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis, or liver fluke disease, caused by parasites of the genus Fasciola is emerging as an important disease in man and animals, in the world and Iran, particularly in nortern parts. The economical losses in domestic animals are considerable. In the recent decade there were two major outbreaks of human fasciolosis in the Caspian region, northern part of Iran with 7000-10000 infected cases. Sicne it is impossible to diagnose fasciolosis in acute phase using coprological methods and even in chronic phases its sensitivity is low, evaluating and establishing a reliable and cost-effetive test is indispensable and notewortly.In the present survey, we produced and examined the sensitivity and specificity of liver fluke homogenate (LFH , excretory-secetory (ES and cysteine proteinase (CP antigens of F. hepatica using IgG-ELISA test. A 25-27 kilo Dalton coomassie blue-stained band was observed and using of specific inhibitors indicated that this antigen belongs to the class of cysteine proteinase. The sensitivity of LFH, ES and CP antigen in IgG-ELISa was 100% for each, while their specificity was 97.8%, 98.8% and 98.8% respectively. There was a significant difference in mean OD values between cases of proven fasciolosis and other true negative cases, including healthy control individuals and patients with other parasitic diseases.This present report is the first to demonstrate the purification and evaluation of F. hepatica cysteine proteinase antigen by IgG-ELISA test for the diagnosis of fasciolosis in Iran. In conclusion, the IgG-ELISa using ES and CP show high sensitivity and specificity and would be a valuable tool to diagnose human fasciolosis in Iran, particularly in endemic areas.

  2. Growth and development of Colorado potato beetle larvae, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, on potato plants expressing the oryzacystatin II proteinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingel, Aleksandar; Savi?, Jelena; Vinterhalter, Branka; Vinterhalter, Dragan; Kosti?, Miroslav; Šešlija Jovanovi?, Darka; Smigocki, Ann; Ninkovi?, Slavica

    2015-08-01

    Plant proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are attractive tools for crop improvement and their heterologous expression can enhance insect resistance in transgenic plants. PI oryzacystatin II (OCII), isolated from rice, showed potential in controlling pests that utilize cysteine proteinases for protein digestion. To evaluate the applicability of the OCII gene in enhancing plant defence, OCII-transformed potatoes were bioassayed for resistance to Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say). Feeding on transformed leaves of potato cultivars Desiree and Jelica significantly affected larval growth and development, but did not change mortality rates. During the L2 and L3 developmental stages larvae consumed the OCII-transformed foliage faster as compared to the nontransformed control. Also these larvae reached the prepupal stage (end of L4 stage) 2 days earlier than those fed on control leaves. However, the total amounts of consumed OCII-transformed leaves were up to 23 % lower than of control, and the maximal weights of prepupal larvae were reduced by up to 18 % as compared to larvae fed on nontransformed leaves. The reduction in insect fitness reported in this study in combination with other control measures, could lead to improved CPB resistance management in potato. PMID:25820664

  3. Overexpression of the prosystemin gene in transgenic tomato plants generates a systemic signal that constitutively induces proteinase inhibitor synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    McGurl, B; Orozco-Cardenas, M; Pearce, G.; Ryan, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum, var. Better Boy) were stably transformed with a gene consisting of the open reading frame of a prosystemin cDNA under the regulation of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. The leaves of the transgenic plants constitutively produced proteinase inhibitor I and II proteins, which accumulated over time to levels exceeding 1 mg/g of dry leaf weight. This phenotype contrasts with that of untransformed plants, which produce proteinase inhibitor proteins...

  4. Complexity in specificities and expression of Helicoverpa armigera gut proteinases explains polyphagous nature of the insect pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, A G; Giri, A P; Harsulkar, A M; Sainani, M N; Deshpande, V V; Ranjekar, P K; Gupta, V S

    2001-03-15

    Helicoverpa armigera is a devastating pest of cotton and other important crop plants all over the world. A detailed biochemical investigation of H. armigera gut proteinases is essential for planning effective proteinase inhibitor (PI)-based strategies to counter the insect infestation. In this study, we report the complexity of gut proteinase composition of H. armigera fed on four different host plants, viz. chickpea, pigeonpea, cotton and okra, and during larval development. H. armigera fed on chickpea showed more than 2.5- to 3-fold proteinase activity than those fed on the other host plants. H. armigera gut proteinase composition revealed the predominance of serine proteinase activity; however, the larvae fed on pigeonpea revealed the presence of metalloproteases and low levels of aspartic and cysteine proteases as well. Gut proteinase activity increased during larval development with the highest activity seen in the fifth instar larvae which, however, declined sharply in the sixth instar. Over 90% of the gut proteinase activity of the fifth instar larvae was of the serine proteinase type, however, the second instar larvae showed the presence of proteinases of other mechanistic classes like metalloproteases, aspartic and cysteine proteases along with serine proteinase activity as evident by inhibition studies. Analysis of fecal matter of larvae showed significant increase in proteinase activity when fed on an artificial diet with or without non-host PIs than larvae fed on a natural diet. The diversity in the proteinase activity observed in H. armigera gut and the flexibility in their expression during developmental stages and depending upon the diet provides a base for selection of proper PIs for insect resistance in transgenic crop plants. PMID:11222955

  5. Signals involved in wound-induced proteinase inhibitor II gene expression in tomato and potato plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Peña-Cortés, H; Fisahn, J; Willmitzer, L

    1995-01-01

    Chemical and physical signals have been reported to mediate wound-induced proteinase inhibitor II (Pin2) gene expression in tomato and potato plants. Among the chemical signals, phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and the peptide systemin represent the best characterized systems. Furthermore, electrical and hydraulic mechanisms have also been postulated as putative Pin2-inducing systemic signals. Most of the chemical agents are able to induce Pin2 gene expression ...

  6. Antitumor Effects In Vitro and In Vivo and Mechanisms of Protection against Melanoma B16F10-Nex2 Cells By Fastuosain, a Cysteine Proteinase from Bromelia fastuosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla A. Guimarães-Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the antitumor effect of fastuosain, a cysteine proteinase from Bromelia fastuosa, was investigated. In the intravenous model of lung colonization in C57BI/6 mice, fastuosain and bromelain injected intraperitoneally were protective, very few nodules of B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells were detected. Tumor cells treated with fastuosain showed reduced expression of CD44 and decreased invasion through Matrigel, lost their cytoplasmic extensions and substrate adherence, became round and detached, forming strongly bound cell clusters in suspension. Peritoneal cells recruited and activated by fastuosain treatment (mainly monocytic cells and lymphocytes migrated to the lung, where pulmonary melanoma metastases grew. Adoptive transference of peritoneal cells recruited by fastuosain had no protective effect against lung metastases in recipient mice. Treatment of green fluorescent protein -chimeric animals with fastuosain did not change the number of cells that migrated to the lung, compared to PBSinjected control mice, but the number of positive major histocompatibility complex class II cells increased with fastuosain treatment. Murine antibodies against fastuosain, bromelain, cathepsins B and L crossreacted in ELISA and recognized surface and cytoplasmic components expressed on B16F10-Nex2 cells. Anti-fastuosain antibodies were cytotoxic/lytic to B16F10-Nex2 cells. Antitumor effects of fastuosain involve mainly the direct effect of the enzyme and elicitation of protective antibodies.

  7. Identification of three stage-specific proteinases of Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    We have identified and characterized three stage-specific proteinases of Plasmodium falciparum that are active at neutral pH. We analyzed ring-, trophozoite-, schizont-, and merozoite-stage parasites by gelatin substrate PAGE and characterized the identified proteinases with class-specific proteinase inhibitors. No proteinase activity was detected with rings. Trophozoites had a 28 kD proteinase that was inhibited by inhibitors of cysteine proteinases. Mature schizonts had a 35-40 kD proteinas...

  8. Cysteine proteinase cathepsin H in tumours and sera of lung cancer patients: relation to prognosis and cigarette smoking

    OpenAIRE

    A. Schweiger; Staib, A; Werle, B.; Kras?ovec, M; Lah, T T; EBERT, W.; Turk, V.; Kos, J.

    2000-01-01

    In order to evaluate the role of cysteine peptidase cathepsin H (Cath H) in human lung cancer its protein levels were determined in 148 pairs of lung tumour tissue and adjacent non-tumourous lung parenchyma using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Additionally, Cath H levels were determined in sera of 171 patients with malignant tumours, 34 patients with benign lung diseases and 47 healthy controls. The median level of Cath H in tumour tissue was 0.64 times that in the correspon...

  9. Mitochondrial cysteine synthase complex regulates O-acetylserine biosynthesis in plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Wirtz, M.; Beard, Kf; Lee, Cp; Boltz, A.; Schwarzla?nder, M.; Fuchs, C.; Meyer, Aj; Heeg, C.; Sweetlove, Lj; Ratcliffe, Rg; Hell, R.

    2012-01-01

    Cysteine synthesis is catalyzed by serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OAS-TL) in the cytosol, plastids, and mitochondria of plants. Biochemical analyses of recombinant plant SAT and OAS-TL indicate that the reversible association of the proteins in the cysteine synthase complex (CSC) controls cellular sulfur homeostasis. However, the relevance of CSC formation in each compartment for flux control of cysteine synthesis remains controversial. Here, we demonstrate t...

  10. Biological and prognostic role of acid cysteine proteinase inhibitor (ACPI, cystatin A) in non?small?cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, T; Pirinen, R; Böhm, J; Johansson, R; Rinne, A; Weber, E; Kosma, V?M

    2007-01-01

    Background Acid cysteine protease inhibitor (ACPI) is an intracellular protein, often linked to neoplastic changes in epithelium and thought to have an inhibitory role in malignant transformation. Aim To analyse the expression and prognostic role of ACPI in non?small?cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Method Histological samples from 199 patients with resected NSCLC were stained immunohistochemically for the expression of ACPI in normal and preneoplastic bronchial epithelium, and in various types of lung carcinomas. Results A normal bronchial epithelium showed positive staining for ACPI in the basal cells, whereas the upper two?thirds of the dysplastic epithelium was ACPI positive. High staining for ACPI was found in 74% (91/123) of squamous?cell carcinomas, whereas 16% (8/49) of adenocarcinomas and 30% of (8/27) large?cell carcinomas showed the high expression of ACPI (p<0.001). Among squamous?cell carcinomas, low expression of ACPI was correlated with poor tumour differentiation (p?=?0.032). In the whole tissue, reduced expression of ACPI was associated with tumour recurrence (p?=?0.024). In overall survival (OS) and disease?free survival (DFS) analyses, the histological type of the tumour (both p<0.001) and stage of the tumour (p?=?0.001, p?=?0.013, respectively) were related to patient outcome. Low expression of ACPI in tumour cells was associated with poor OS and DFS (p<0.041, p?=?0.004, respectively). In multivariate analysis, ACPI did not retain its prognostic value, whereas the traditional factors were the most important prognostic factors. Conclusions ACPI expression is linked with the malignant transformation of the bronchial epithelium and predicts a risk of tumour recurrence as well as poor rate of survival for the patients. However, ACPI does not have any independent prognostic value in NSCLC. PMID:16790691

  11. Characterization of cysteine proteases in Malian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah, Sékou; Paulsen, Berit S; Diallo, Drissa; Johansen, Harald T

    2006-09-19

    Extracts form 10 different Malian medicinal plants with a traditional use against schistosomiasis were investigated for their possible content of proteolytic activity. The proteolytic activity was studied by measuring the hydrolysis of two synthetic peptide substrates Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec and Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec. Legumain- and papain-like activities were found in all tested crude extracts except those from Entada africana, with the papain-like activity being the strongest. Cissus quadrangularis, Securidaca longepedunculata and Stylosanthes erecta extracts showed high proteolytic activities towards both substrates. After gel filtration the proteolytic activity towards the substrate Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec in root extract of Securidaca longepedunculata appeared to have Mr of 30 and 97kDa, while the activity in extracts from Cissus quadrangularis was at 39kDa. Enzymatic activity cleaving the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec showed apparent Mr of 97 and 26kDa in extracts from roots and leaves of Securidaca longepedunculata, while in Cissus quadrangularis extracts the activity eluted at 39 and 20kDa, with the highest activity in the latter. All Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec activities were inhibited by E-64 but unaffected by PMSF. The legumain activity was unaffected by E-64 and PMSF. The SDS-PAGE analysis exhibited five distinct gelatinolytic bands for Cissus quadrangularis extracts (115, 59, 31, 22 and 20kDa), while two bands (59 and 30kDa) were detected in Securidaca longepedunculata extracts. The inhibition profile of the gelatinolytic bands and that of the hydrolysis of the synthetic substrates indicate the cysteine protease class of the proteolytic activities. Several cysteine protease activities with different molecular weights along with a strong variability of these activities between species as well as between plant parts from the same species were observed. PMID:16621376

  12. The cysteine regulatory complex from plants and microbes: what was old is new again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jez, Joseph M; Dey, Sanghamitra

    2013-04-01

    The physical organization of enzymes in metabolism is an old concept being revisited by new experimental approaches. In plants and microbes, the enzymes of cysteine biosynthesis-serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS)-form a bi-enzyme complex called the cysteine regulatory complex (CRC), which likely plays a role in modulating cysteine biosynthesis in response to sulfur nutrient state. Structural and biochemical studies of SAT and OASS as individual enzymes and recent advances in structural, biophysical, and in vivo analysis of the CRC provide new insights on the function of this macromolecular assembly in plants and microbes and opens biotechnology and pharmaceutical opportunities for future exploration. PMID:23510784

  13. Structure and Function of the Hetero-oligomeric Cysteine Synthase Complex in Plants*

    OpenAIRE

    Wirtz, Markus; Birke, Hannah; Heeg, Corinna; Mu?ller, Christopher; Hosp, Fabian; Throm, Christian; Ko?nig, Stephan; Feldman-salit, Anna; Rippe, Karsten; Petersen, Gabriele; Wade, Rebecca C.; Rybin, Vladimir; Scheffzek, Klaus; Hell, Ru?diger

    2010-01-01

    Cysteine synthesis in bacteria and plants is catalyzed by serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and O-acetylserine (thiol)-lyase (OAS-TL), which form the hetero-oligomeric cysteine synthase complex (CSC). In plants, but not in bacteria, the CSC is assumed to control cellular sulfur homeostasis by reversible association of the subunits. Application of size exclusion chromatography, analytical ultracentrifugation, and isothermal titration calorimetry revealed a hexameric structure of mitochondrial SAT...

  14. Transgenic tobacco plants as production platform for biologically active human interleukin 2 and its fusion with proteinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redkiewicz, Patrycja; Wi?syk, Aneta; Góra-Sochacka, Anna; Sirko, Agnieszka

    2012-09-01

    Transgenic plants offer a low-cost approach for the production of pharmaceutically important and commercially valuable recombinant proteins. Our studies were focused on the plant-based production of human interleukin 2 (hIL-2) and its fusion with proteinase inhibitors, either SPI2 from Galleria mellonella or CMTI from Cucurbita maxima. Finally, five plant expression cassettes were obtained. Three of them contained the single cDNA encoding CMTI?I, SPI2 and hIL-2, respectively, while two of them contained the translational fusion, SPI2::hIL-2 and CMTI::hIL-2. In all cases, the transgenes were controlled by the RbcS1 promoter and terminator and the recombinant proteins were targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum. After tobacco transformation, five groups of transgenic plants were obtained and analysed. The level of recombinant proteins was estimated either by Western blot or by ELISA. The biological activity of plant-produced hIL-2 alone or in a fusion with SPI2 or CMTI was confirmed using the mammalian cells proliferation assay. The activities of proteinase inhibitors were confirmed in proteolysis assay using azocoll as a substrate. The usefulness of using proteinase inhibitor CMTI I in a fusion with hIL-2 as a protective agent against trypsin digestion was demonstrated. PMID:22564275

  15. Formation of the covalent serpin-proteinase complex involves translocation of the proteinase by more than 70 ? and full insertion of the reactive center loop into ?-sheet A

    OpenAIRE

    Stratikos, Efstratios; Peter G.W. Gettins

    1999-01-01

    To determine the location of the proteinase in the covalent serpin-proteinase complex we prepared seven single-cysteine-containing variants of the Pittsburgh variant of the serpin ?1-proteinase inhibitor, and we labeled each cysteine with the dansyl fluorophore. The dansyl probes were used to determine proximity of the proteinase trypsin in covalent and noncovalent complexes with the serpin, both by direct perturbation and by fluorescence energy transfer from tryptophans in trypsin to dansyl...

  16. FRACTIONATION OF DIGESTIVE PROTEINASES FROM TENEBRIO MOLITOR (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE) LARVAE AND ROLE IN PROTEIN DIGESTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenebrio molitor larval digestive proteinases were purified and characterized by gel filtration chromatography combined with activity electrophoresis. Cysteine proteinases, consisting of at least six distinct activities, were found in three chromatographic peaks in anterior and posterior midgut chro...

  17. A diverse family of serine proteinase genes expressed in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis): implications for the design of pest-resistant transgenic cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Batista, João A N; Rigden, Daniel J; Fragoso, Rodrigo R; Silva, Rodrigo O; Gomes, Eliane A; Franco, Octávio L; Dias, Simoni C; Cordeiro, Célia M T; Monnerat, Rose G; Grossi-De-Sá, Maria F

    2004-09-01

    Fourteen different cDNA fragments encoding serine proteinases were isolated by reverse transcription-PCR from cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) larvae. A large diversity between the sequences was observed, with a mean pairwise identity of 22% in the amino acid sequence. The cDNAs encompassed 11 trypsin-like sequences classifiable into three families and three chymotrypsin-like sequences belonging to a single family. Using a combination of 5' and 3' RACE, the full-length sequence was obtained for five of the cDNAs, named Agser2, Agser5, Agser6, Agser10 and Agser21. The encoded proteins included amino acid sequence motifs of serine proteinase active sites, conserved cysteine residues, and both zymogen activation and signal peptides. Southern blotting analysis suggested that one or two copies of these serine proteinase genes exist in the A. grandis genome. Northern blotting analysis of Agser2 and Agser5 showed that for both genes, expression is induced upon feeding and is concentrated in the gut of larvae and adult insects. Reverse northern analysis of the 14 cDNA fragments showed that only two trypsin-like and two chymotrypsin-like were expressed at detectable levels. Under the effect of the serine proteinase inhibitors soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and black-eyed pea trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor, expression of one of the trypsin-like sequences was upregulated while expression of the two chymotrypsin-like sequences was downregulated. PMID:15350610

  18. Subclassification and biochemical analysis of plant papain-like cysteine proteases displays subfamily-specific characteristics.

    OpenAIRE

    Richau, Kh; Kaschani, F.; Verdoes, M.; Pansuriya, Tc; Niessen, S.; Stu?ber, K.; Colby, T.; Overkleeft, Hs; Bogyo, M.; Hoorn, Ra

    2012-01-01

    Papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs) are a large class of proteolytic enzymes associated with development, immunity, and senescence. Although many properties have been described for individual proteases, the distribution of these characteristics has not been studied collectively. Here, we analyzed 723 plant PLCPs and classify them into nine subfamilies that are present throughout the plant kingdom. Analysis of these subfamilies revealed previously unreported distinct subfamily-specific func...

  19. Cysteine peptidases and their inhibitors in breast and genital cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Milan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine proteinases and their inhibitors probably play the main role in carcinogenesis and metastasis. The metastasis process need external proteolytic activities that pass several barriers which are membranous structures of the connective tissue which includes, the basement membrane of blood vessels. Activities of the proteinases are regulated by endogenous inhibitors and activators. The imbalance between cysteine proteinases and cystatins seems to be associated with an increase in metastatic potential in some tumors. It has also been reported that proteinase inhibitors, specific antibodies for these enzymes and inhibition of the urokinase receptor may prevent cancer cell invasion. Some proteinase inhibitor could serve as agents for cancer treatment.

  20. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Cysteine Protease Inhibitor from Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Popovic, Milica; Andjelkovic, Uros; Grozdanovic, Milica; Aleksic, Ivana; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija

    2012-01-01

    The need for replacing traditional pesticides with alternative agents for the management of agricultural pathogens is rising worldwide. In this study, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CPI), 11 kDa in size, was purified from green kiwifruit to homogeneity. We examined the growth inhibition of three plant pathogenic Gram-negative bacterial strains by kiwi CPI and attempted to elucidate the potential mechanism of the growth inhibition. CPI influenced the growth of phytopathogenic bacteria Agroba...

  1. The effects of a plant proteinase inhibitor from Enterolobium contortisiliquum on human tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahata, Adriana Miti; Mayer, Barbara; Ries, Christian; de Paula, Cláudia Alessandra Andrade; Karow, Marisa; Neth, Peter; Sampaio, Misako U; Jochum, Marianne; Oliva, Maria Luiza V

    2011-04-01

    Supplementary to the efficient inhibition of trypsin, chymotrypsin, plasma kallikrein, and plasmin already described by the EcTI inhibitor from Enterolobium contortisiliquum, it also blocks human neutrophil elastase (K(iapp)=4.3 nM) and prevents phorbol ester (PMA)-stimulated activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 probably via interference with membrane-type 1 (MT1)-MMP. Moreover, plasminogen-induced activation of proMMP-9 and processing of active MMP-2 was also inhibited. Furthermore, the effect of EcTI on the human cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29 (colorectal), SkBr-3 and MCF-7 (breast), K562 and THP-1 (leukemia), as well as on human primary fibroblasts and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was studied. EcTI inhibited in a concentration range of 1.0-2.5 ?M rather specifically tumor cell viability without targeting primary fibroblasts and hMSCs. Taken together, our data indicate that the polyspecific proteinase inhibitor EcTI prevents proMMP activation and is cytotoxic against tumor cells without affecting normal tissue remodeling fibroblasts or regenerative hMSCs being an important tool in the studies of tumor cell development and dissemination. PMID:21781023

  2. Mercury increases water permeability of a plant aquaporin through a non-cysteine-related mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Anna; Järvå, Michael; Ekvall, Mikael; Uzdavinys, Povilas; Nyblom, Maria; Törnroth-Horsefield, Susanna

    2013-09-15

    Water transport across cellular membranes is mediated by a family of membrane proteins known as AQPs (aquaporins). AQPs were first discovered on the basis of their ability to be inhibited by mercurial compounds, an experiment which has followed the AQP field ever since. Although mercury inhibition is most common, many AQPs are mercury insensitive. In plants, regulation of AQPs is important in order to cope with environmental changes. Plant plasma membrane AQPs are known to be gated by phosphorylation, pH and Ca²?. We have previously solved the structure of the spinach AQP SoPIP2;1 (Spinacia oleracea plasma membrane intrinsic protein 2;1) in closed and open conformations and proposed a mechanism for how this gating can be achieved. To study the effect of mercury on SoPIP2;1 we solved the structure of the SoPIP2;1-mercury complex and characterized the water transport ability using proteoliposomes. The structure revealed mercury binding to three out of four cysteine residues. In contrast to what is normally seen for AQPs, mercury increased the water transport rate of SoPIP2;1, an effect which could not be attributed to any of the cysteine residues. This indicates that other factors might influence the effect of mercury on SoPIP2;1, one of which could be the properties of the lipid bilayer. PMID:23819815

  3. A trypsin-like proteinase in the midgut of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): purification, characterization, and host plant inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Mina; Zibaee, Arash; Sendi, Jalal Jalali

    2014-01-01

    A trypsin-like proteinase was purified and characterized in the midgut of Ectomyelois ceratoniae. A purification process that used Sepharyl G-100 and DEAE-cellulose fast flow chromatographies revealed a proteinase with specific activity of 66.7 ?mol/min/mg protein, recovery of 27.04 and purification fold of 23.35. Molecular weight of the purified protein was found to be 35.8 kDa. Optimal pH and temperature were obtained 9 and 20°C for the purified trypsin proteinase, respectively. The purified enzyme was significantly inhibited by PMSF, TLCK, and SBTI as specific inhibitors of trypsins in which TLCK showed the highest inhibitory effect. Trypsin proteinase inhibitors were extracted from four varieties of pomegranate including Brait, Torsh-Sabz, May-Khosh, and Shirin by ion exchange chromatography. It was found that fractions 17-20 of Brait; fractions 18 and 21-26 of Torsh-Sabz; fractions 1-7, 11-17, and 19-21 of May-Khosh and fraction 8 for Shirin showed presence of trypsin inhibitor in these host. Comparison of their inhibitory effects on the purified trypsin proteinase of E. ceratoniae demonstrated that fractions from May-khosh variety had the highest effect on the enzyme among other extracted fractions. Characterization of serine proteinases of insects mainly trypsins is one of the promising methods to decrease population and damages via extracting their inhibitors and providing resistant varieties. PMID:24338707

  4. The toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles on the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khataee, Alireza, E-mail: ar_khataee@yahoo.com [University of Tabriz, Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Movafeghi, Ali [University of Tabriz, Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nazari, Fatemeh [University of Tabriz, Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vafaei, Fatemeh [University of Tabriz, Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dadpour, Mohammad Reza [University of Tabriz, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hanifehpour, Younes; Joo, Sang Woo, E-mail: swjoo@yu.ac.kr [Yeungnam University, School of Mechanical Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Plants play an important role in the fate of nanoparticles in the environment through their uptake, bioaccumulation, and transfer to trophic chains. However, the impacts of nanoparticles on plants as essential components of all ecosystems are not well documented. In the present study, the toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles on Spirodela polyrrhiza as an aquatic higher plant species were studied. l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles were synthesized using hydrothermal method and their characteristics were determined by XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, and FT-IR techniques. The diameter of majority of synthesized nanoparticles was about 15–20 nm. Subsequently, the uptake of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles by the plant species was confirmed using epifluorescence microscopy. The activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase as antioxidant enzymes was assayed and the relative frond number was calculated in the presence of different concentrations of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles. The obtained results revealed the toxic effects of the synthesized nanoparticles on S. polyrrhiza, leading to growth reduction and significant changes in antioxidant enzymes’ activity.Graphical Abstract.

  5. The toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles on the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants play an important role in the fate of nanoparticles in the environment through their uptake, bioaccumulation, and transfer to trophic chains. However, the impacts of nanoparticles on plants as essential components of all ecosystems are not well documented. In the present study, the toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles on Spirodela polyrrhiza as an aquatic higher plant species were studied. l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles were synthesized using hydrothermal method and their characteristics were determined by XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, and FT-IR techniques. The diameter of majority of synthesized nanoparticles was about 15–20 nm. Subsequently, the uptake of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles by the plant species was confirmed using epifluorescence microscopy. The activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase as antioxidant enzymes was assayed and the relative frond number was calculated in the presence of different concentrations of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles. The obtained results revealed the toxic effects of the synthesized nanoparticles on S. polyrrhiza, leading to growth reduction and significant changes in antioxidant enzymes’ activity.Graphical Abstract

  6. Papain-like cysteine proteases: key players at molecular battlefields employed by both plants and their invaders.

    OpenAIRE

    Shindo, T.; Hoorn, Ra

    2008-01-01

    Papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs) play crucial roles in plant-pathogen/pest interactions. During these parasitic interactions, PLCPs act on non-self substrates, provoking the selection of counteracting inhibitors and other means to evade proteolysis. We review examples of PLCPs acting on molecular battlefields in the extracellular space, plant cytoplasm and herbivore gut. Examples are maize Mir1 (Maize inbred resistance 1), tomato Rcr3 (Required for Cladosporium resistance-3), Pseudomona...

  7. Proteinase activity in latex of three plants of the family Euphorbiaceae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréa Michel, Sobottka; Fabiana, Tonial; Sonja, Sytwala; Matthias, Melzig.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dentro da família Euphorbiaceae, os gêneros Euphorbia e Sapium são conhecidos por incluírem basicamente espécies produtoras de látex. No presente estudo, o látex das plantas Euphorbia selloi (Klotzsch & Garcke) Boiss., Euphorbia papillosa A.St.-Hil. e Sapium glandulosum (L.) Morong, espécies nativas [...] do Brasil, foi analisado em relação à atividade proteolítica. Todas as amostras analisadas possuem proteínas com significativa atividade, sendo que o látex da espécie E. papillosa apresenta a maior atividade específica. Com o objetivo de analisar quais os tipos de proteases responsáveis pela atividade proteolítica, realizaram-se ensaios com diferentes inibidores. Nas três plantas testadas a atividade foi inibida significativamente pelo cloridrato de 4-(fluoreto de 2-aminoetilbenzenossulfonil) (AEBSF), um inibidor de serino-proteases. Utilizando técnicas de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE), as subunidades das proteínas foram separadas de acordo com sua massa molecular e, através da zimografia, a atividade proteolítica pode ser detectada visualmente. Abstract in english In the family of Euphorbiaceae, the genera Euphorbia and Sapium are known to contain essentially latex-bearing species. In the present study, the latex of Euphorbia selloi (Klotzsch & Garcke) Boiss., Euphorbia papillosa A.St.-Hil., and Sapium glandulosum (L.) Morong, plants native from Brazil, were [...] examined concerning proteolytic activity. All studied species have proteins with significant proteolytic activity and E. papillosa has the greatest specific activity. Aiming to verify the type of protease present, an assay with different inhibitors was performed. In the three tested plants, the proteolytic activity was significantly inhibited by a serine protease inhibitor 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF). Using techniques of electrophoresis with polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE), the subunits of proteins were separated according to their molecular masses, and the protein activity was visually detected by zymography.

  8. Expression of sweet potato cysteine protease SPCP2 altered developmental characteristics and stress responses in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsien-Jung; Su, Cheng-Ting; Lin, Chia-Hung; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Lin, Yaw-Huei

    2010-07-01

    In this report a full-length cDNA, SPCP2, which encoded a putative papain-like cysteine protease was isolated from senescent leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). SPCP2 contained 1101 nucleotides (366 amino acids) in its open reading frame, and exhibited high amino acid sequence identities (ca. 68% to 83%) with plant cysteine proteases, including Actinidia deliciosa, Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica oleracea, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativa, Vicia faba, Vicia sativa and Vigna mungo. RT-PCR analysis showed that SPCP2 gene expression was enhanced significantly in natural senescent leaves and in dark-, abscisic acid- (ABA-), jasmonic acid- (JA-) and ethephon-induced senescent leaves, but was almost not detected in mature green leaves, stems, and roots. Transgenic Arabidopsis with constitutive SPCP2 expression exhibited earlier floral transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, higher percentage of incompletely developed siliques per plant, reduced average fresh weight and lower germination percentage of seed, and higher salt and drought stress tolerance compared to those of control. Based on these results we conclude that sweet potato papain-like cysteine protease, SPCP2, is a functional senescence-associated gene, and its expression causes altered developmental characteristics and stress responses in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. PMID:20129700

  9. A proteinase inhibitor from Nicotiana alata inhibits the normal development of light-brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana in transgenic apple plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaran, Gowri; Pridmore, Lucinda; Franz, Peter; Anderson, Marilyn A

    2007-06-01

    Insecticidal proteins are a potential resource to enhance resistance to insect pests in transgenic plants. Here, we describe the generation and analysis of the apple cultivar 'Royal Gala' transgenic for Nicotiana alata (N. alata) proteinase inhibitor (PI) and the impact of this PI on the growth and development of the Epiphyas postvittiana (light-brown apple moth). A cDNA clone encoding a proteinase inhibitor precursor from N. alata (Na-PI) under the control of either a double 35S promoter or a promoter from a ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small sub-unit gene (rbcS-E9 promoter) was stably incorporated into 'Royal Gala' apple using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A 40.3 kDa Na-PI precursor protein was expressed and correctly processed into 6-kDa proteinase inhibitors in the leaves of transgenic apple lines. The 6-kDa polypeptides accumulated to levels of 0.05 and 0.1% of the total soluble protein under the control of the rbc-E9 promoter and the double 35S promoter, respectively. Light-brown apple moth larvae fed with apple leaves expressing Na-PI had significantly reduced body weight after 7 days of feeding and female pupae were 19-28% smaller than controls. In addition, morphological changes such as pupal cases attached to the wing, deformed wings, deformed body shape, and pupal cases and curled wings attached to a deformed body were observed in adults that developed from larvae fed with apple leaves expressing Na-PI, when compared to larvae fed with the non-transformed apple leaves. PMID:17205336

  10. Influence of air temperature on proteinase activity and beverage quality in Coffea arabica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hellen Marília Couto de, Abreu; Paula Macedo, Nobile; Milton Massao, Shimizu; Paula Yuri, Yamamoto; Emerson Alves, Silva; Carlos Augusto, Colombo; Paulo, Mazzafera.

    Full Text Available Fruits were collected from trees of Coffea arabica cv. Obatã grown at Mococa and Adamantina in São Paulo State, Brazil, which are regions with marked differences in air temperature that produce coffee with distinct qualities. Mococa is a cooler location that produces high-quality coffee, whereas cof [...] fee from Adamantina is of lower quality. The amino acid and protein contents, amino acid profile, and proteinase activity and type in endosperm protein extracts were analysed. Proteinase genes were identified, and their expression was assayed. All results indicate that temperature plays a role in controlling proteinase activity in coffee endosperm. Proteinase activity was higher in the endosperm of immature fruits from Adamantina, which was correlated with higher amino acid content, changes in the amino acid profile, and increased gene expression. Cysteine proteinases were the main class of proteinases in the protein extracts. These data suggest that temperature plays an important role in coffee quality by altering nitrogen compound composition.

  11. Engineered resistance against proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Malgorzata; Chroboczek, Jadwiga; Zagorski-Ostoja, Wlodzimierz

    2007-01-01

    Exogenous proteinase inhibitors are valuable and economically interesting protective biotechnological tools. We examined whether small proteinase inhibitors when fused to a selected target protein can protect the target from proteolytic degradation without simultaneously affecting the function and activity of the target domain. Two proteinase inhibitors were studied: a Kazal-type silk proteinase inhibitor (SPI2) from Galleria mellonella, and the Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor I (CMTI I). Both inhibitors target serine proteinases, are small proteins with a compact structure stabilized by a network of disulfide bridges, and are expressed as free polypeptides in their natural surroundings. Four constructs were prepared: the gene for either of the inhibitors was ligated to the 5' end of the DNA encoding one or the other of two selected target proteins, the coat protein (CP) of Potato potyvirus Y or the Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase (GUS). CMTI I fused to the target proteins strongly hampered their functions. Moreover, the inhibitory activity of CMTI I was retained only when it was fused to the CP. In contrast, when fused to SPI2, specific features and functions of both target proteins were retained and the inhibitory activity of SPI2 was fully preserved. Measuring proteolysis in the presence or absence of either inhibitor, we demonstrated that proteinase inhibitors can protect target proteins used either free or as a fusion domain. Interestingly, their inhibitory efficiency was superior to that of a commercial inhibitor of serine proteinases, AEBSF. PMID:17823663

  12. Characterization of cysteine-degrading and H2S-releasing enzymes of higher plants - From the field to the test tube and back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jutta, Papenbrock; Anja, Riemenschneider

    2007-01-01

    Due to the clean air acts and subsequent reduction of emission of gaseous sulfur compounds sulfur deficiency became one of the major nutrient disorders in Northern Europe. Typical sulfur deficiency symptoms can be diagnosed. Especially plants of the Cruciferae family are more susceptible against pathogen attack. Sulfur fertilization can in part recover or even increase resistance against pathogens in comparison to sulfur-deficient plants. The term sulfur-induced resistance (SIR) was introduced, however, the molecular basis for SIR is largely unknown. There are several sulfur-containing compounds in plants which might be involved in SIR, such as high levels of thiols, glucosinolates, cysteine-rich proteins, phytoalexins, elemental sulfur, or H2S. Probably more than one strategy is used by plants. Species- or even variety-dependent differences in the development of SIR are probably used. Our research focussed mainly on the release of H2S as defence strategy. In field experiments using different Brassica napus genotypes it was shown that the genetic differ- ences among Brassica genotypes lead to differences in sulfur content and L-cysteine desulfhydrase activity. Another field ex- periment demonstrated that sulfur supply and infection with Pyrenopeziza brassica influenced L-cysteine desulfhydrase activity in Brassica napus. Cysteine-degrading enzymes such as cysteine desulfhydrases are hypothesized to be involved in H2S release. Several L- and D-cysteine-specific desulfhydrase candidates have been isolated and partially analyzed from the model plant Arabi- dopsis thaliana. However, it cannot be excluded that H2S is also released in a partial back reaction of O-acetyl-L-serine(thiol)- lyase or enzymes not yet characterized. For the exact determi- nation of the H2S concentration in the cell a H2S-specific micro- sensor was used the first time for plant cells. The transfer of the results obtained for application back on Brassica was initiated.

  13. Inibidores de proteases de hospedeiros nativos e exóticos e sua ação em intestinos de lagartas de Thyrinteina leucoceraea / Proteinase inhibitors of novel and native host plants and their action in midgut of Thyrinteina leucoceraea caterpillars

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jeanne Scardini, Marinho; Maria Goreti Almeida, Oliveira; Raul Narciso Carvalho, Guedes; Angelo, Pallini; Claudinei Lima, Oliveira.

    1125-11-01

    Full Text Available Os insetos podem causar perdas consideráveis aos seus hospedeiros, entretanto alguns deles habitam em plantas sem causar-lhes danos. Por exemplo, Thyrinteina leucoceraea, herbívoro da entomofauna brasileira, pode ser encontrado na goiabeira, hospedeiro nativo da família Myrtaceae, sem que cause dano [...] s severos a essa planta. Os Eucalyptus ssp., entretanto, são hospedeiros exóticos (também da família Myrtaceae) no Brasil, vindos da Austrália, os quais sofrem ataques das lagartas de T. leucoceraea, que se tornaram pragas severas dessas plantas. Sabe-se que as plantas podem se defender contra o ataque de herbívoros e que um dos seus mecanismos de defesa pode ser a produção de inibidores de proteases, que possuem a capacidade de diminuir o desenvolvimento dos insetos e podem levá-los à morte. Baseado no desempenho da lagarta de T. leucoceraea nesses dois hospedeiros e na possibilidade de defesa da planta, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a produção de inibidores de proteases por plantas de eucalipto e de goiaba quando atacadas por essas lagartas, bem como observar a resposta bioquímica no intestino das lagartas a esses inibidores. Notou-se que as plantas de eucalipto produzem mais inibidores de proteases que as goiabeiras. O bom desenvolvimento de T. leucoceraea em plantas de eucalipto, apesar da alta concentração de inibidores de proteases, pode ser devido ao aumento da atividade enzimática nos intestinos das lagartas quando alimentadas com essa planta. Os dados evidenciaram que T. leucoceraea desenvolveu uma adaptação aos inibidores de proteases produzidos pelo eucalipto, por meio do aumento das atividades de serino-proteases e cisteíno-proteases. Abstract in english Insects may cause considerable losses to plants, but some insects inhabit plants without causing any damages. For example, Thyrinteina leucoceraea, found in the guava plants, and a native Myrtaceae family host, does not cause any serious damage. However, Eucalyptus ssp., novel hosts (also Myrtaceae) [...] in Brazil and introduced from Australia, suffer attacks by T. leucoceraea, which became a severe pest of this plant. Plants can defend themselves against herbivores using proteinase inhibitors which reduce insect development and lead them to death. Thus, based on studies on the development of T. leucoceraea caterpillars on these two hosts and plant defense, this work aimed to verify the production of proteinase inhibitors by guava and eucalyptus plants upon T. leucoceraea attack, and to observe the biochemical response of the midgut of the caterpillars to these inhibitors. Eucalyptus plants produced more proteinase inhibitors than guava plants. The good development of T. leucoceraea in eucalyptus plants despite the high concentration of proteinase inhibitors may be due to an increase of enzyme activity in the caterpillars' midgut. Our data suggest that T. leucoceraea developed an adaptation to the proteinase inhhibitor produced by eucalyptus plants, by increasing serine-proteinase and cys-proteinase activities.

  14. Serpins in plants and green algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Hejgaard, JØrn

    2008-01-01

    Control of proteolysis is important for plant growth, development, responses to stress, and defence against insects and pathogens. Members of the serpin protein family are likely to play a critical role in this control through irreversible inhibition of endogenous and exogenous target proteinases. Serpins have been found in diverse species of the plant kingdom and represent a distinct clade among serpins in multicellular organisms. Serpins are also found in green algae, but the evolutionary relationship between these serpins and those of plants remains unknown. Plant serpins are potent inhibitors of mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family in vitro but, intriguingly, plants and green algae lack endogenous members of this proteinase family, the most common targets for animal serpins. An Arabidopsis serpin with a conserved reactive centre is now known to be capable of inhibiting an endogenous cysteine proteinase. Here, knowledge of plant serpins in terms of sequence diversity, inhibitory specificity, gene expression and function is reviewed. This was advanced through a phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of expressed plant serpins, delineation of plant serpin gene structures and prediction of inhibitory specificities based on identification of reactive centres. The review is intended to encourage elucidation of plant serpin functions.

  15. Functional Specialization and Evolution of Leader Proteinases in the Family Closteroviridae

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Chih-Wen; Peremyslov, Valera V.; Mushegian, Arcady R.; Dawson, William O.; Dolja, Valerian V

    2001-01-01

    Members of the Closteroviridae and Potyviridae families of the plant positive-strand RNA viruses encode one or two papain-like leader proteinases. In addition to a C-terminal proteolytic domain, each of these proteinases possesses a nonproteolytic N-terminal domain. We compared functions of the several leader proteinases using a gene swapping approach. The leader proteinase (L-Pro) of Beet yellows virus (BYV; a closterovirus) was replaced with L1 or L2 proteinases of Citrus tristeza virus (CT...

  16. A conserved cysteine residue is involved in disulfide bond formation between plant plasma membrane aquaporin monomers.

    OpenAIRE

    Bienert, Gerd P; Cavez, Damien; Besserer, Arnaud; Berny, Marie C; Gilis, Dimitri; Rooman, Marianne; Chaumont, François

    2012-01-01

    AQPs (aquaporins) are conserved in all kingdoms of life and facilitate the rapid diffusion of water and/or other small solutes across cell membranes. Among the different plant AQPs, PIPs (plasma membrane intrinsic proteins), which fall into two phylogenetic groups, PIP1 and PIP2, play key roles in plant water transport processes. PIPs form tetramers in which each monomer acts as a functional channel. The intermolecular interactions that stabilize PIP oligomer complexes and are responsible for...

  17. Production of Plant Proteinase from Jack Fruit (Artocarpus integrifolis as a Source of Dairy Enzyme I. Isolation, Partial Purification and Some Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Sayed Al-Tanboly

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to search for a novel plant proteinase enzyme from Jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolis as a source of dairy enzymes that would be natural products which can be easily extracted at relatively low cost and no legal barriers. This enzyme was subjected to a purification scheme composed of ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by gel filtration on G-100 Sephadex column. The enzyme was purified 2.70-fold with a total yield of 23.77% of the original activity. There were relationship between temperature and incubation time, the enzyme activity increase was observed up to 55°C for 60 min reaction time and still constant thereafter. Proteinase was active over a broad temperature range retained about 37.4 and 24.9% of temperature activity at 35 and 80°C for 5 and 60 min. An energy of activation of 9.98 KJ mole?1 for the enzyme activity was derived from the Arrhenius plot of initial velocity (Vo across a temperature ranging from 40 to 55°C. The optimum pH was pH 7.5. The rate of thermal inactivation proceeded more rapidly at pH 7.0 and 8.0, when heating at 50°C for 60 min the enzyme activity lost about 95 and 92% its activity, respectively. Michaelis-constant of (Km values of 2.0 mg ml?1 and a maximum initial velocity (Vmax of 0.75 µ moles mg?1 when casein used as a substrate. A Molecular weight (MW determination of ~22 kDa was estimated by gel filtration methods using a Sephadex G-100. Cu2+, K2+ , Fe2+ and Zn2+ strongly inhibited the enzyme. However, Ca++ slightly stimulated. EDTA, sodium azide, Sodium citrate and urea among the chemical reagents inhibited the proteinase activity.

  18. Analysis of the interaction between the helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and the plant RNA methyltransferase Hua enhancer 1 (HEN1)

    OpenAIRE

    Jamoos, Rana

    2012-01-01

    Bei der ?helper component-proteinase? (HC-Pro) handelt es sich um ein multifunktionales Protein, das bei alle Potyviren nachgewiesen wurde. Dieses Protein übernimmt verschiedene Aufgaben im Infektionszyklus der Viren. Einige dieser Funktionen konnten bestimmten Regionen des Proteins zugeordnet werden. Die subzelluläre Lokalisation zahlreicher viraler ?RNA silencing suppressor? (RSS) Proteine konnte bestimmt werden. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde gezeigt, dass die natürliche Form der ...

  19. Amino acid sequences of mammalian kazal-type proteinase inhibitors from salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstrasser, K; Wachter, E; Reisinger, P W; Greim, M; Albrecht, G J; Gebhard, W

    1993-09-01

    1. The amino acid sequences of bikazins (the double-headed Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors from submandibular glands) isolated from the snow leopard (Unica unica), the European mink (Mustela lutreola), and the European pine marten (Martes martes) were determined. 2. N-terminal domains of bikazins are characterized by a cysteine residue spacing that differs from that of C-terminal domains of bikazins and other Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor domains. 3. N-terminal sequences of bikazins seem to be specific for, and highly conserved within, each Carnivora family. PMID:8403842

  20. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles of lower attine gardens and may thus represent the ancestral type of proteinase production, whereas serine proteinase activity dominated the activity profiles of the higher attine gardens reared by Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex, suggesting that there may be trade-offs in the production of these enzyme classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent changes in enzyme production may have occurred throughout the domestication history of fungus-garden symbionts. Conclusions: Proteinase pH optima and buffering capacities of fungal symbionts appear to have evolved remarkable adaptations to living in obligate symbiosis with farming ants. Although the functional roles of serine and metalloproteinases in fungus gardens are unknown, the differential production of these classes of proteolytic enzymes suggest that substrate specificity may be important and that trade-offs may prevent the simultaneous upregulation of both classes of enzymes.

  1. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes David P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles of lower attine gardens and may thus represent the ancestral type of proteinase production, whereas serine proteinase activity dominated the activity profiles of the higher attine gardens reared by Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex, suggesting that there may be trade-offs in the production of these enzyme classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent changes in enzyme production may have occurred throughout the domestication history of fungus-garden symbionts. Conclusions Proteinase pH optima and buffering capacities of fungal symbionts appear to have evolved remarkable adaptations to living in obligate symbiosis with farming ants. Although the functional roles of serine and metalloproteinases in fungus gardens are unknown, the differential production of these classes of proteolytic enzymes suggest that substrate specificity may be important and that trade-offs may prevent the simultaneous upregulation of both classes of enzymes.

  2. Midgut proteinases of Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae): Characterization and relationship to resistance in cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midgut proteinases are vital to the insects which digest ingested food in the midgut. Insect midgut proteinases, therefore, have been considered as possible targets for the control of insect pests. Proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors are very attractive for their potential use in developing insect resistant plant varieties via genetic engineering. Sitotroga cerealella is one of the major storage pests of cereals, and no antibiotic resistance in wheat against this insect has been identified to date. A series of diagnostic inhibitors, thiol-reducing agents and a metal-ion chelator were used in the identification of proteinases in crude extracts from S. cerealella larval midguts with both protein and ester substrates. The partial inhibition of proteolytic activity in crude midgut extract toward [3H]-methemoglobin by pepstatin A suggested the presence of another proteinase which was sensitive to pepstatin A. The optimum pH range for the proteolytic activity, however, indicated that the major midgut proteinases were not carboxyl proteinases. Two proteinases were successfully purified by a combination of fractionation with ammonium sulfate, gel permeation and anion exchange chromatography. Characterization of the enzymes with the purified enzyme preparations confirmed that the two major proteinases were serine endoproteinases with trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like specificities respectively. Bioassays were conducted using the artificial seeds to test naturally og the artificial seeds to test naturally occurring proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors of potential value. Soybean trypsin inhibitor and the Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor had adverse effects on the development of the insect. A predictive model was constructed to evaluate effects of seed resistance in conjunction with other control methods on S. cerealella population dynamics

  3. Expression of the proteinase specialized in bone resorption, cathepsin K, in granulomatous inflammation.

    OpenAIRE

    Di?az, A.; Willis, A. C.; Sim, R. B.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The cysteine proteinase cathepsin K has aroused intense interest as the main effector in the digestion of extracellular matrix during bone resorption by osteoclasts. The enzyme is not a housekeeping lysosomal hydrolase, but is instead expressed with striking specificity in osteoclasts. In this work, we present evidence for the association of cathepsin K with the granulomatous reaction. Granulomas are inflammatory tissue reactions against persistent pathogens or foreign bodies. We ...

  4. Pepper pathogenesis-related protein 4c is a plasma membrane-localized cysteine protease inhibitor that is required for plant cell death and defense signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) type III effector AvrBsT triggers programmed cell death (PCD) and activates the hypersensitive response (HR) in plants. Here, we isolated and identified the plasma membrane localized pathogenesis-related (PR) protein 4c gene (CaPR4c) from pepper (Capsicum annuum) leaves undergoing AvrBsT-triggered HR cell death. CaPR4c encodes a protein with a signal peptide and a Barwin domain. Recombinant CaPR4c protein expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited cysteine protease-inhibitor activity and ribonuclease (RNase) activity. Subcellular localization analyses revealed that CaPR4c localized to the plasma membrane in plant cells. CaPR4c expression was rapidly and specifically induced by avirulent Xcv (avrBsT) infection. Transient expression of CaPR4c caused HR cell death in pepper leaves, which was accompanied by enhanced accumulation of H2 O2 and significant induction of some defense-response genes. Deletion of the signal peptide from CaPR4c abolished the induction of HR cell death, indicating a requirement for plasma membrane localization of CaPR4c for HR cell death. CaPR4c silencing in pepper disrupted both basal and AvrBsT-triggered resistance responses, and enabled Xcv proliferation in infected leaves. H2 O2 accumulation, cell-death induction, and defense-response gene expression were distinctly reduced in CaPR4c-silenced pepper. CaPR4c overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants conferred greater resistance against infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. These results collectively suggest that CaPR4c plays an important role in plant cell death and defense signaling. PMID:25335438

  5. Structural aspects of the Mucor bacilliformis proteinase, a new member of the aspartyl-proteinase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalinski, Claudia; Pirpignani, Marìa L; Marino, Cristina; Mantegazza, Adriana; de Jiménez Bonino, Mirtha Biscoglio

    2006-06-10

    Bovine chymosin is considered the best milk-clotting enzyme for cheese manufacture; however, the thermophilic Mucor pusillus proteinase is also used nowadays. We herein report structural aspects of the aspartyl proteinase from the local mesophilic Mucor bacilliformis strain. Sequence data indicate a high similarity degree to those of other family members. The protein is monomeric, not glycosylated, has two disulfide bridges, and mainly includes beta structure. A molecular model was built by using the Rhizopus chinensis proteinase structure as the template. Sequence analysis and comparison of our model with bovine chymosin and M. pusillus proteinase structures, indicate that the M. bacilliformis proteinase is at a similar evolutionary distance on a sequence level; as regards tertiary structure, the M. bacilliformis proteinase superimposes on the bovine chymosin structure in a fashion similar to that of the M. pusillus proteinase. Overall results suggest that this novel proteinase can be utilized as a good milk-clotting enzyme in the dairy industry. PMID:16524637

  6. The Cysteine Protease–Cysteine Protease Inhibitor System Explored in Soybean Nodule Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Dorcas Quain

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Almost all protease families have been associated with plant development, particularly senescence, which is the final developmental stage of every organ before cell death. Proteolysis remobilizes and recycles nitrogen from senescent organs that is required, for example, seed development. Senescence-associated expression of proteases has recently been characterized using large-scale gene expression analysis seeking to identify and characterize senescence-related genes. Increasing activities of proteolytic enzymes, particularly cysteine proteases, are observed during the senescence of legume nodules, in which a symbiotic relationship between the host plant and bacteria (Rhizobia facilitate the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. It is generally considered that cysteine proteases are compartmentalized to prevent uncontrolled proteolysis in nitrogen-fixing nodules. In addition, the activities of cysteine proteases are regulated by endogenous cysteine protease inhibitors called cystatins. These small proteins form reversible complexes with cysteine proteases, leading to inactivation. However, very little is currently known about how the cysteine protease-cysteine protease inhibitor (cystatin system is regulated during nodule development. Moreover, our current understanding of the expression and functions of proteases and protease inhibitors in nodules is fragmented. To address this issue, we have summarized the current knowledge and techniques used for studying proteases and their inhibitors including the application of “omics” tools, with a particular focus on changes in the cysteine protease-cystatin system during nodule development.

  7. Abscisic acid is involved in the wound-induced expression of the proteinase inhibitor II gene in potato and tomato

    OpenAIRE

    P?na-Cortés, Hugo; Sánchez-Serrano, José J.; Mertens, Rüdiger; Willmitzer, Lothar; Prat, Salomé

    1989-01-01

    Plants respond to wounding or pathogen attack by a variety of biochemical reactions, involving in some instances gene activation in tissues far apart from the actual site of wounding or pathogen invasion. One of the best analyzed examples for such a systemic reaction is the wound-induced expression of proteinase inhibitor genes in tomato and potato leaves. Local wounding of potato or tomato plants results in the accumulation of proteinase inhibitors I and II throughout the aerial part of the ...

  8. Serine proteinase from Cucurbita ficifolia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryja?ski, M; Otlewski, J; Wilusz, T

    1990-01-01

    A new serine proteinase was isolated from Cucurbita ficifolia seeds by the purification procedure, which includes: extraction, salting out with ammonium sulphate, chromatography on CM-cellulose. Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration and h.p.l.c. on DEAE-2SW TSK column. The enzyme was homogeneous both in native and SDS PAGE. Three independent methods showed its molecular mass to be approximately 77 kDa. The enzyme was inhibited by specific serine proteinase organic inhibitors, and was active in the presence of inhibitors specific for other proteinase classes. Surprisingly, squash proteinase exhibited a very high and broad pH optimum with a maximum at 10.7. It hydrolysed many different peptide bonds in B-chain of insulin and was able to cleave four bonds in endogenous serine proteinase inhibitor (CMTI). PMID:2087907

  9. A multifaceted study of stigma/style cysteine-rich adhesin (SCA)-like Arabidopsis lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) suggests diversified roles for these LTPs in plant growth and reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Chae, Keun; Gonong, Benedict J.; Kim, Seung-chul; Kieslich, Chris A.; Morikis, Dimitrios; Balasubramanian, Shruthi; Lord, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Lily stigma/style cysteine-rich adhesin (SCA), a plant lipid transfer protein (LTP) which is secreted into the extracellular matrix, functions in pollen tube guidance in fertilization. A gain-of-function mutant (ltp5-1) for Arabidopsis LTP5, an SCA-like molecule, was recently shown to display defects in sexual reproduction. In the current study, it is reported that ltp5-1 plants have dwarfed primary shoots, delayed hypocotyl elongation, various abnormal tissue fusions, and display multibranch...

  10. Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular characterization and transcriptional response upon immune stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaarachchi, W D Niroshana; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Wan, Qiang; Lee, Jehee

    2013-09-01

    Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors are involved in several biological and physiological processes in all multicellular organisms. Proteinase inhibitors play a key role in regulating the activity of the respective proteinases. Among serine proteinase inhibitors, kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs) are widely found in mammals, avians, and a variety of invertebrates. In this study, we describe the identification of a kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (Ab-KPI) from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, which is presumably involved in innate immunity. The full-length cDNA of Ab-KPI includes 600 bp nucleotides with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 143 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ab-KPI contains a putative 17-amino acid signal peptide and two tandem kazal domains with high similarity to other kazal-type SPIs. Each kazal domain consists of reactive site (P1) residue containing a leucine (L), and a threonine (T) located in the second amino acid position after the second conserved cysteine of each domain. Temporal expression of Ab-KPI was assessed by real time quantitative PCR in hemocytes and mantle tissue following bacterial and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) challenge, and tissue injury. At 6 h post-bacterial and -VHSV challenge, Ab-KPI expression in hemocytes was increased 14-fold and 4-fold, respectively, compared to control samples. The highest up-regulations upon tissue injury were shown at 9 h and 12 h in hemocytes and mantle, respectively. The transcriptional modulation of Ab-KPI following bacterial and viral challenges and tissue injury indicates that it might be involved in immune defense as well as wound healing process in abalone. PMID:23859879

  11. Proteinase inhibitors in Brazilian leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. M. Sampaio

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Serine proteinase inhitors, in the seeds of several Leguminosae from the Pantanal region (West Brazil, were studied using bovine trypsin, a digestive enzyme, Factor XIIa and human plasma Kallikrein, two blood clotting factors. The inhibitors were purified from Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Mr=23,000, Torresea cearensis (Mr = 13,000, Bauhinia pentandra (Mr = 20,000 and Bauhinia bauhinioides (Mr = 20,000. E. contortisiliquum inhibitor inactivates all three enzymes, whereas the T. cearensis inhibitor inactivates trypsin and Factor XSSa, but does nor affect plasma kallikrein; both Bauhinia inhibitors, on the other hand, inactivate trypsin and plasma kallikrein but only the Bpentandra inhibitor affects Factor XIIa. Ki values were calculated between 10 [raised to the power of] -7 and 10 [raised to the power of] -8 M.

  12. Modulatory effects of proteoglycans on proteinase activities

    OpenAIRE

    Georges, Steven; Heymann, Dominique; Padrines, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Proteoglycans (PGs), composed of a core protein and one or more covalently attached sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, interact with a wide range of bioactive molecules, such as growth factors and chemokines, to regulate cell behaviors in normal and pathological processes. Additionally, PGs, through their compositional diversity, play a broad variety of roles as modulators of proteinase activities. Interactions of proteinases with other molecules on the plasma membrane anchor and activa...

  13. Proteinase production by a species of Cephalosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleniacz, W S; Pisano, M A

    1968-01-01

    An unidentified Cephalosporium species produced an extracellular proteinase when grown in a variety of fermentation media under submerged culture conditions. Maximal enzyme yields were obtained in a medium containing 2% corn meal, 1% soybean meal, and 0.5% CaCO(3) in tap water. Optimal proteinase production in this medium occurred within a 72- to 96-hr growth period. High enzyme yields were also attained with media in which cottonseed meal, Fermatein, Pharmamedia, or soybean-alpha-protein was substituted for the soybean meal. The substitution of these ingredients for the corn meal resulted in significantly decreased proteinase yields. The addition of minerals or vitamins to the corn meal-soybean meal fermentation medium failed to enhance proteinase production. The enzyme was most active in an alkaline environment; maximal caseinolysis occurred at pH 7.5, whereas pH 8.5 was optimal for either hemoglobin or beta-lactoglobulin hydrolysis. Enzymatic activity was also noted with either bovine albumin fraction V or soybean-alpha-protein substrates, whereas ovalbumin was not susceptible to enzymatic attack. The enzyme was stable within the pH range of 3.0 to 9.5 at 25 C for 2 hr, and at 5 C for 24 hr. The proteinase was stable upon heating for 10 min at 35 to 45 C, but it was totally inactivated at 70 C. The proteinase was unaffected by soybean inhibitor, partially inactivated by lima bean inhibitor, and completely inactivated by ovomucoid inhibitor. PMID:5688833

  14. Structural similarity of the covalent complexes formed between the serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and the arginine-specific proteinases trypsin, LMW u-PA, HMW u-PA, and t-PA: Use of site-specific fluorescent probes of local environment

    OpenAIRE

    Backovic, Marija; Stratikos, Efstratios; Lawrence, Daniel A; Peter G.W. Gettins

    2002-01-01

    We have used two fluorescent probes, NBD and dansyl, attached site-specifically to the serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) to address the question of whether a common mechanism of proteinase translocation and full insertion of the reactive center loop is used by PAI-1 when it forms covalent SDS-stable complexes with four arginine-specific proteinases, which differ markedly in size and domain composition. Single-cysteine residues were incorporated at position 119 or 302 as sites f...

  15. Plasmodium falciparum proteinases: cloning of the putative gene coding for the merozoite proteinase for erythrocyte invasion (MPEI) and determination of hydrolysis sites of spectrin by Pf37 proteinase

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I., Florent; S., Le Bonniec; B., Carcy; P., Grellier; O., Mercereau-Puijalon; S., Bonnefoy; D., Dhermy; M., Monsigny; R., Mayer; J., Schrével.

    Full Text Available Numerous proteinase activities have been shown to be essential for the survival of Plasmodium falciparum. One approach to antimalarial chemotherapy, would be to block specifically one or several of these activities, by using compounds structurally analogous to the substrates of these proteinases. Su [...] ch a strategy requires a detailed knowledge of the active site of the proteinase, in order to identify the best substrate for the proteinase. Aiming at developing such a strategy, two proteinases previously identified in our laboratory, were chosen for further characterization of their molecular structure and properties: the merozoite proteinase for erythrocytic invasion (MPEI), involved in the erythrocyte invasion by the merozoites, and the Pf37 proteinase, which hydrolyses human spectrin in vitro.

  16. Two-dimensional analysis of proteinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppert, Brenda

    2006-06-30

    A method was developed to separate proteinases in a complex mixture in two dimensions followed by activity detection using class specific substrates. Using this method, serine proteinase activity was evaluated in gut extracts from a stored-product pest, Plodia interpunctella. With the substrate n-alpha-benzoyl-l-arginine rho-nitroanilide, three major groups of at least six trypsin-like activities were identified, consisting of proteinases with estimated molecular masses of 25-27, 40-41, and 289 kDa, and all with an acidic pI of 4.7-5.5. With the substrate, n-succinyl-ala-ala-pro-phenylalanine rho-nitroanilide, two groups of at least five chymotrypsin-like activities were detected, with estimated molecular masses of 28 and 192 kDa and pI values ranging from 6.1 to 7.3. Using the 2-DE activity blot method, information was obtained on the relative number and physical properties of serine proteinases in a mixture of insect gut proteinases without prior fractionation. PMID:16616785

  17. Characterization of a Serine Proteinase Mediating Encystation of Acanthamoeba?

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Eun-kyung; Chung, Dong-il; Hong, Yeon-chul; Kong, Hyun-hee

    2008-01-01

    Members of the genus Acanthamoeba, amphizoic protozoan parasites, are causative agents of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and amoebic keratitis. Proteinases play a role in various biologic actions in Acanthamoeba, including host tissue destruction, pathogenesis, and digestion of phagocytosed food. Interestingly, we found that encystation of Acanthamoeba was inhibited by the serine proteinase inhibitor phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride. In this study, we characterize a serine proteinase that i...

  18. Cloning eleven midgut trypsin cDNAs and evaluating the interaction of proteinase inhibitors with Cry1Ac against the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu Cheng; Guo, Zibiao; Abel, Craig

    2012-10-01

    Midgut trypsins are associated with Bt protoxin activation and toxin degradation. Proteinase inhibitors have potential insecticidal toxicity against a wide range of insect species. This study was conducted to evaluate the interaction of proteinase inhibitors with Bt toxin and to examine midgut trypsin gene profile of Heliothis virescens. A sublethal dose (15 ppb) of Cry1Ac, 0.75% soybean trypsin inhibitor, and 0.1% and 0.2% N-?-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone significantly suppressed midgut proteinase activities, and resulted in reductions in larval and pupal size and mass. The treatment with inhibitor+Bt suppressed approximately 65% more larval body mass and 21% more enzymatic activities than the inhibitor-only or Bt-only. Eleven trypsin-like cDNAs were sequenced from the midgut of H. virescens. All trypsins contained three catalytic center residues (H(73), D(153), and S(231)), substrate specificity determinant residues (D(225), G(250), and G(261)), and six cysteines for disulfide bridges. These putative trypsins were separated into three distinct groups, indicating the diverse proteinases evolved in this polyphagous insect. These results indicated that the insecticidal activity of proteinase inhibitors may be used to enhance Bt toxicity and delay resistance development. PMID:22824002

  19. Formation of cysteine-S-conjugates in the Maillard reaction of cysteine and xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, Christoph; Guntz-Dubini, Renée

    2013-11-15

    Cysteine-S-conjugates (CS-conjugates) occur in foods derived from plant sources like grape, passion fruit, onion, garlic, bell pepper and hops. During eating CS-conjugates are degraded into aroma-active thiols by ?-lyases that originate from oral microflora. The present study provides evidence for the formation of the CS-conjugates S-furfuryl-l-cysteine (FFT-S-Cys) and S-(2-methyl-3-furyl)-l-cysteine (MFT-S-Cys) in the Maillard reaction of xylose with cysteine at 100°C for 2h. The CS-conjugates were isolated using cationic exchange and reversed-phase chromatography and identified by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and LC-MS(2). Spectra and LC retention times matched those of authentic standards. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that CS-conjugates are described as Maillard reaction products. Furfuryl alcohol (FFA) is proposed as an intermediate which undergoes a nucleophilic substitution with cysteine. Both FFT-S-Cys and MFT-S-Cys are odourless but produce strong aroma when tasted in aqueous solutions, supposedly induced by ? -lyases from the oral microflora. The perceived aromas resemble those of the corresponding aroma-active thiols 2-furfurylthiol (FFT) and 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (MFT) which smell coffee-like and meaty, respectively. PMID:23790889

  20. Sequential processing of lysosomal acid phosphatase by a cytoplasmic thiol proteinase and a lysosomal aspartyl proteinase.

    OpenAIRE

    Gottschalk, S.; Waheed, A.; Schmidt, B.; Laidler, P.; Von Figura, K.

    1989-01-01

    BHK cells expressing human lysosomal acid phosphatase (LAP) transport LAP to lysosomes as an integral membrane protein. In lysosomes LAP is released from the membrane by proteolytic processing, which involves at least two cleavages at the C terminus of LAP. The first cleavage is catalysed by a thiol proteinase at the outside of the lysosomal membrane and removes the bulk of the cytoplasmic tail of LAP. The second cleavage is catalysed by an aspartyl proteinase inside the lysosomes and release...

  1. Cloning and sequence analysis of serine proteinase of Gloydius ussuriensis venom gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To construct a cDNA library by using mRNA from Gloydius ussuriensis (G. Ussuriensis) venom gland, to clone and analyze serine proteinase gene from the cDNA library. Methods: Total RNA was isolated from venom gland of G. ussuriensis, mRNA was purified by using mRNA isolation Kit. The whole length cDNA was synthesized by means of smart cDNA synthesis strategy, and amplified by long distance PCR procedure, lately cDAN was cloned into vector pBluescrip-sk. The recombinant cDNA was transformed into E. coli DH5?. The cDNA of serine proteinase gene in the venom gland of G. ussuriensis was detected and amplified using the in situ hybridization. The cDNA fragment was inserted into pGEMT vector, cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. Results: The capacity of cDNA library of venom gland was above 2.3 x 106. Its open reading frame was composed of 702 nucleotides and coded a protein pre-zymogen of 234 amino acids. It contained 12 cysteine residues. The sequence analysis indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA fragment shared high identity with the thrombin-like enzyme genes of other snakes in the GenBank. the query sequence exhibited strong amino acid sequence homology of 85% to the serine proteas of T. gramineus, thrombin-like serine proteinase I of D. acutus and serine protease catroxase II of C. atrox respectively. Based on the amino acid sequences of other thrombin-like enzymes, the catalytic residues and disulfide bridges catalytic residues and disulfide bridges of this thrombin-like enzyme were deduced as follows: catalytic residues, His41, Asp86, Ser180; and six disulfide bridges Cys7-Cys139, Cys26-Cys42, Cys74-Cys232, Cys118-Cys186, Cys150-Cys165, Cys176-Cys201. Conclusion: The capacity of cDNA library of venom gland is above 2.3 x 106, overtop the level of 105 capicity. The constructed cDNA library of G. ussuriensis venom gland would be helpful platform to detect new target genes and further gene manipulate. The cloned serine proteinase gene exhibits strong amino acid sequence homology of 85% to the serine proteas of T. gramineus, thrombin-like serine proteinase I of D. acutus and serine protease catroxase II of C. atrox respectively. (authors)

  2. Specificity of binding of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein to different conformational states of the clade E serpins plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and proteinase nexin-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Kristian; Dolmer, Klavs

    2009-01-01

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is the principal clearance receptor for serpins and serpin-proteinase complexes. The ligand binding regions of LRP consist of clusters of cysteine-rich approximately 40-residue complement-like repeats (CR), with cluster II being the principal ligand-binding region. To better understand the specificity of binding at different sites within the cluster and the ability of LRP to discriminate in vivo between uncomplexed and proteinase-complexed serpins, we have systematically examined the affinities of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and proteinase nexin-1 (PN-1) in their native, cleaved, and proteinase-complexed states to (CR)(2) and (CR)(3) fragments of LRP cluster II. A consistent blue shift of the CR domain tryptophan fluorescence suggested a common mode of serpin binding, involving lysines on the serpin engaging the acidic region around the calcium binding site of the CR domain. High affinity binding of non-proteinase-complexed PAI-1 and PN-1 occurred to all fragments containing three CR domains (3-59 nm) and most that contain only two CR domains, although binding energies to different (CR)(3) fragments differed by up to 18% for PAI-1 and 9% for PN-1. No detectable difference in affinity was seen between native and cleaved serpin. However, the presence of proteinase in complex with the serpin enhanced affinity modestly and presumably nonspecifically. This may be sufficient to give preferential binding of such complexes in vivo at the relevant physiological concentrations.

  3. Seed-specific aspartic proteinase FeAP12 from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timotijevi? Gordana S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartic proteinase gene (FeAP12 has been isolated from the cDNA library of developing buckwheat seeds. Analysis of its deduced amino acid sequence showed that it resembled the structure and shared high homology with typical plant aspartic proteinases (AP characterized by the presence of a plant-specific insert (PSI, unique among APs. It was shown that FeAP12 mRNA was not present in the leaves, roots, steam and flowers, but was seed-specifically expressed. Moreover, the highest levels of FeAP12 expression were observed in the early stages of seed development, therefore suggesting its potential role in nucellar degradation.

  4. Inhibition of serine proteinases by squash inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlewski, J; Zbyryt, T; Krokoszy?ska, I; Wilusz, T

    1990-07-01

    The squash inhibitors of serine proteinases have been discovered as proteins, which inhibit the catalytic activity of bovine trypsin. In this report we show, that three human enzymes of trypsin-like specificity - i.e. plasmin, plasma kallikrein and thrombin - are also inhibited by squash inhibitors. Moreover, rather strong inhibition was demonstrated for human cathepsin G. Lower association constants were found for Streptomyces griseus proteinase B (SGPB) and subtilisin BPN'. No association was detected for bovine chymotrypsin, even at millimolar concentrations of the inhibitors. Porcine pancreatic elastase showed extremely weak inhibition by squash inhibitors. Most of the enzymes examined did not exhibit a clear discrimination between P1 Arg and P1 Lys inhibitors. However, human plasma kallikrein and human thrombin formed much stronger complexes with CMTI I (P1-Arg) than with CPTI II (P1-Lys). PMID:2145863

  5. First generation inhibitors of the adenovirus proteinase

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, William J.; Graziano, Vito; Zabrocka, Katarzyna; Mangel, Walter F

    2013-01-01

    As there are more than 50 Adenovirus serotypes, the likelihood of developing an effective vaccine is low. Here we describe inhibitors of the adenovirus proteinase (AVP) with the ultimate objective of developing anti-adenovirus agents. Inhibitors were identified via structure-based drug design using as druggable sites the active site and a conserved cofactor pocket in the crystal structures of AVP. A lead compound was identified that had an IC50 of 18 ?M. One of eight structural derivatives o...

  6. Characterization of proteinases from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus involved in the generation of antimicrobial peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craik Charles S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemoglobin is a rich source of biologically active peptides, some of which are potent antimicrobials (hemocidins. A few hemocidins have been purified from the midgut contents of ticks. Nonetheless, how antimicrobials are generated in the tick midgut and their role in immunity is still poorly understood. Here we report, for the first time, the contribution of two midgut proteinases to the generation of hemocidins. Results An aspartic proteinase, designated BmAP, was isolated from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus using three chromatographic steps. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that BmAP is restricted to the midgut. The other enzyme is a previously characterized midgut cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase designated BmCL1. Substrate specificities of native BmAP and recombinant BmCL1 were mapped using a synthetic combinatorial peptide library and bovine hemoglobin. BmCL1 preferred substrates containing non-polar residues at P2 subsite and polar residues at P1, whereas BmAP hydrolysed substrates containing non-polar amino acids at P1 and P1'. Conclusions BmAP and BmCL1 generate hemocidins from hemoglobin alpha and beta chains in vitro. We postulate that hemocidins may be important for the control of tick pathogens and midgut flora.

  7. Differential expression of cysteine desulfurases in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heis Marta D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron-sulfur [Fe-S] clusters are prosthetic groups required to sustain fundamental life processes including electron transfer, metabolic reactions, sensing, signaling, gene regulation and stabilization of protein structures. In plants, the biogenesis of Fe-S protein is compartmentalized and adapted to specific needs of the cell. Many environmental factors affect plant development and limit productivity and geographical distribution. The impact of these limiting factors is particularly relevant for major crops, such as soybean, which has worldwide economic importance. Results Here we analyze the transcriptional profile of the soybean cysteine desulfurases NFS1, NFS2 and ISD11 genes, involved in the biogenesis of [Fe-S] clusters, by quantitative RT-PCR. NFS1, ISD11 and NFS2 encoding two mitochondrial and one plastid located proteins, respectively, are duplicated and showed distinct transcript levels considering tissue and stress response. NFS1 and ISD11 are highly expressed in roots, whereas NFS2 showed no differential expression in tissues. Cold-treated plants showed a decrease in NFS2 and ISD11 transcript levels in roots, and an increased expression of NFS1 and ISD11 genes in leaves. Plants treated with salicylic acid exhibited increased NFS1 transcript levels in roots but lower levels in leaves. In silico analysis of promoter regions indicated the presence of different cis-elements in cysteine desulfurase genes, in good agreement with differential expression of each locus. Our data also showed that increasing of transcript levels of mitochondrial genes, NFS1/ISD11, are associated with higher activities of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase, two cytosolic Fe-S proteins. Conclusions Our results suggest a relationship between gene expression pattern, biochemical effects, and transcription factor binding sites in promoter regions of cysteine desulfurase genes. Moreover, data show proportionality between NFS1 and ISD11 genes expression.

  8. Host genetic influences on the anthelmintic efficacy of papaya-derived cysteine proteinases in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoga, Wenceslaus; Mansur, Fadlul; Stepek, Gillian; Lowe, Ann; Duce, Ian R; Buttle, David J; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2015-06-01

    Eight strains of mice, of contrasting genotypes, infected with Heligmosomoides bakeri were studied to determine whether the anthelmintic efficacy of papaya latex varied between inbred mouse strains and therefore whether there is an underlying genetic influence on the effectiveness of removing the intestinal nematode. Infected mice were treated with 330 nmol of crude papaya latex or with 240 nmol of papaya latex supernatant (PLS). Wide variation of response between different mouse strains was detected. Treatment was most effective in C3H (90·5-99·3% reduction in worm counts) and least effective in CD1 and BALB/c strains (36·0 and 40·5%, respectively). Cimetidine treatment did not improve anthelmintic efficacy of PLS in a poor drug responder mouse strain. Trypsin activity, pH and PLS activity did not differ significantly along the length of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract between poor (BALB/c) and high (C3H) drug responder mouse strains. Our data indicate that there is a genetic component explaining between-mouse variation in the efficacy of a standard dose of PLS in removing worms, and therefore warrant some caution in developing this therapy for wider scale use in the livestock industry, and even in human medicine. PMID:25736575

  9. Stress inducible proteinase inhibitor diversity in Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Manasi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wound-inducible Pin-II Proteinase inhibitors (PIs are one of the important plant serine PIs which have been studied extensively for their structural and functional diversity and relevance in plant defense against insect pests. To explore the functional specialization of an array of Capsicum annuum (L. proteinase inhibitor (CanPIs genes, we studied their expression, processing and tissue-specific distribution under steady-state and induced conditions. Inductions were performed by subjecting C. annuum leaves to various treatments, namely aphid infestation or mechanical wounding followed by treatment with either oral secretion (OS of Helicoverpa armigera or water. Results The elicitation treatments regulated the accumulation of CanPIs corresponding to 4-, 3-, and 2-inhibitory repeat domains (IRDs. Fourty seven different CanPI genes composed of 28 unique IRDs were identified in total along with those reported earlier. The CanPI gene pool either from uninduced or induced leaves was dominated by 3-IRD PIs and trypsin inhibitory domains. Also a major contribution by 4-IRD CanPI genes possessing trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor domains was specifically revealed in wounded leaves treated with OS. Wounding displayed the highest number of unique CanPIs while wounding with OS treatment resulted in the high accumulation of specifically CanPI-4, -7 and ?10. Characterization of the PI protein activity through two dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed tissue and induction specific patterns. Consistent with transcript abundance, wound plus OS or water treated C. annuum leaves exhibited significantly higher PI activity and isoform diversity contributed by 3- and 4-IRD CanPIs. CanPI accumulation and activity was weakly elicited by aphid infestation yet resulted in the higher expression of CanPI-26, -41 and ?43. Conclusions Plants can differentially perceive various kinds of insect attacks and respond appropriately through activating plant defenses including regulation of PIs at transcriptional and post-translational levels. Based on the differentially elicited CanPI accumulation patterns, it is intriguing to speculate that generating sequence diversity in the form of multi-IRD PIs is a part of elaborative plant defense strategy to obtain a diverse pool of functional units to confine insect attack.

  10. Assay of cysteine dioxygenase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been proposed that rat liver contains two cysteine dioxygenase enzymes which convert cysteine to cysteinesulfinic acid, one which is stimulated by NAD+ and has a pH optimum of 6.8 and one which is not stimulated by NAD+ and has a pH optimum of 9.0. This led the authors to reinvestigate assay conditions for measuring cysteine dioxygenase activity in rat liver homogenate. An HPLC method, using an anion exchange column (Dionex Amino-Pac trademark PA1 (4x250 mm)) was used to separate the [35S]cysteinesulfinic acid produced from [35S]cysteine in the incubation mixture. They demonstrated that inclusion of hydroxylamine prevented further metabolism of cysteinesulfinic acid. which occurred rapidly in the absence of hydroxylamine

  11. Proteinase inhibitors as radioprotectors of mammalian cells cultured in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight proteinase inhibitors, suppressing specifically the activity of different types of intracellular proteinases, were screened as possible radioprotectors of gamma-irradiated mammalian cells cultured in vitro. Soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) was shown to be a very efficient radiation protecting agent both in terms of cell survival and micronuclei induction. All other inhibitors, with the exception of antipain which showed modest radioprotective effect, were completely ineffective. (author)

  12. The induction of proteinases in corn and soybean by anoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study characterized the anaerobic changes in proteinase activities in corn and soybean roots and to investigate the possibility that these changes might contribute to the differential anaerobiosis tolerance of the two species. After 24 h of anoxia, crude protein extracts from H60 corn and Keller soybean root tips (10cm) were assayed for proteinase activities at pH range from 4.5 to 9.5. Turnover of aberrant proteins was studied in seedlings labelled with 3H-leucine for 12 h under: (a) puromycin (0.64 mM) in air, (b) ethanol (1%) in air, (c) nitrogen and (d) air. After the treatment, the labelled proteins remaining in roots were determined every 2 h for 6 h. In both corn and soybean, activities of alkali proteinases increased, and activities of acid proteinases declined under anoxia. Neutral proteinases increase in anoxic corn roots, but decline in anoxic soybean roots. The protein turnover rate in corn treated with puromycin, ethanol and nitrogen was much higher than in control roots. The protein turnover rate in soybean roots treated with puromycin, ethanol was similar to the rate of the control. The results indicated that: (a) anoxic corn can degrade aberrant proteins, but anoxic soybean cannot, (b) the degradation of aberrant proteins in anoxic corn is accomplished by neutral proteinases, and (c) the accumulation of aberrant proteins in soybean might contribute to the susceptibility of this species to anoxia

  13. Immunogold localization of the citrus exocortis viroid-induced pathogenesis-related proteinase p69 in tomato leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, P; Yago, J H; Conejero, V

    1989-09-01

    Citrus exocortis viroid induces in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) synthesis and accumulation of a pathogenesis-related protein (P69) previously reported to be a proteinase (Vera P, Conejero V [1988] Plant Physiol 87: 58-63). By immunogold/transmission electron microscopy, we have studied the distribution of this protein in thin sections of parenchymatous leaf tissue. The enzyme was present intra- and extracellularly. The intracellular location was limited to the vacuole and was always associated with engulfed cell material. When extracellularly located, the enzyme was associated with a dispersed, electron-dense material in the intercellular spaces. This latter location was confirmed after analysis of intercellular washing fluids obtained by vacuum infiltration of leaves. These observations provide new data for the understanding of viroid pathogenesis and the biological role of the pathogenesis-related proteinase P69. PMID:16666981

  14. Proteinase inhibitor-inducing activity of the prohormone prosystemin resides exclusively in the C-terminal systemin domain

    OpenAIRE

    Dombrowski, James E.; Pearce, Gregory; Ryan, Clarence A.

    1999-01-01

    Prosystemin is the 200-amino acid precursor of the 18-amino acid polypeptide defense hormone, systemin. Herein, we report that prosystemin was found to be as biologically active as systemin when assayed for proteinase inhibitor induction in young tomato plants and nearly as active in the alkalinization response in Lycopersicon esculentum suspension-cultured cells. Similar to many animal prohormones that harbor multiple signals, the systemin precursor contains five imperfect repetitive domains...

  15. Analysis of the solvent accessibility of cysteine residues on maize rayado fino virus virus-like particles produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants and cross-linking of peptides to VLPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method to analyze the solvent accessibility of the thiol group of cysteine residues of Maize rayado fino virus-virus-like particles (VLPs) followed by a peptide cross-linking reaction is described. The method takes advantage of the availability of several chemical groups on the surface of the VLPs...

  16. The maize cystatin CC9 interacts with apoplastic cysteine proteases

    OpenAIRE

    Linde, Karina; Mueller, Andre? N.; Hemetsberger, Christoph; Kashani, Farnusch; Hoorn, Renier A. L.; Doehlemann, Gunther

    2012-01-01

    In a recent study we identified corn cystain9 (CC9) as a novel compatibility factor for the interaction of the biotrophic smut fungus Ustilago maydis with its host plant maize. CC9 is transcriptionally induced during the compatible interaction with U. maydis and localizes in the maize apoplast where it inhibits apoplastic papain-like cysteine proteases. The proteases are activated during incompatible interaction and salicylic acid (SA) treatment and, in turn, are sufficient to induce SA signa...

  17. Assessing the transcriptional regulation of L-cysteine desulfhydrase 1 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Laureano-Marín, Ana M.; García, Irene; Romero, Luis C; Gotor, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is an important signaling molecule that functions as a physiological gasotransmitter of comparable importance to NO and CO in mammalian systems. In plants, numerous studies have shown that sulfide increases tolerance/resistance to stress conditions and regulates essential processes. The endogenous production of hydrogen sulfide in the cytosol of Arabidopsis thaliana occurs by the enzymatic desulfuration of L-cysteine, which is catalyzed by the L-cysteine desulfhydrase enzyme ...

  18. Cysteine dioxygenase: a robust system for regulation of cellular cysteine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipanuk, M H; Ueki, I; Dominy, J E; Simmons, C R; Hirschberger, L L

    2009-05-01

    Cysteine catabolism in mammals is dependent upon cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), an enzyme that adds molecular oxygen to the sulfur of cysteine, converting the thiol to a sulfinic acid known as cysteinesulfinic acid (3-sulfinoalanine). CDO is one of the most highly regulated metabolic enzymes responding to diet that is known. It undergoes up to 45-fold changes in concentration and up to 10-fold changes in catalytic efficiency. This provides a remarkable responsiveness of the cell to changes in sulfur amino acid availability: the ability to decrease CDO activity and conserve cysteine when cysteine is scarce and to rapidly increase CDO activity and catabolize cysteine to prevent cytotoxicity when cysteine supply is abundant. CDO in both liver and adipose tissues responds to changes in dietary intakes of protein and/or sulfur amino acids over a range that encompasses the requirement level, suggesting that cysteine homeostasis is very important to the living organism. PMID:19011731

  19. Aspartic proteinase from Penicillium camemberti: purification, properties, and substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowska, J; Kolaczkowska, M; Dryja?ski, M; Stachowiak, D; Polanowski, A

    1995-08-01

    An acid proteinase from the culture filtrate of Penicillium camemberti was isolated in a two-step purification procedure by cation exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The enzyme is an aspartic proteinase inhibited by pepstatin, DAN, and EPNP, with a molecular mass determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of 33.5 kDa. The optimum activity for hydrolysis of denatured hemoglobin is around pH 3.4. The enzyme is highly specific for the aromatic and hydrophobic amino acid residue in insulin B-chain and, like pepsin, selectively splits only one Leu7-Met8 peptide bond in the squash trypsin inhibitor CMTI 1. The hydrolyzed bond can be resynthesized by P. camemberti proteinase at neutral pH. PMID:7646878

  20. Effects of leupeptin on proteinase and germination of castor beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpi, A; Beevers, H

    1981-10-01

    Leupeptin, a tripeptide inhibitor of some proteinases, was shown previously to maintain the stability of several enzymes (isocitrate lyase, fumarase, and catalase) in crude extracts of castor bean endosperm. This reagent is now shown to inhibit the breakdown of water-soluble and crystalloidstorage proteins of the protein bodies isolated from castor beans by the SH-proteinase and it also inhibits the endopeptidase from mung beans. When suitably introduced into the endosperm of dry castor beans it strongly inhibits germination and seedling development. Application of leupeptin to endosperm halves removed from the seed prevents the normal development of enzymes concerned with gluconeogenesis from fat and drastically curtails sugar production. The results suggest that the SH-proteinase is intimately involved in the mobilization of storage proteins. PMID:16662011

  1. Kallikrein-like proteinase from bushmaster snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicori, Liza F; Souza, Christiane T; Velarde, David T; Magalhaes, Arinos; Almeida, Alvair P; Figueiredo, Suely; Richardson, Michael; Diniz, Carlos R; Sanchez, Eladio F

    2003-07-01

    A kallikrein-like proteinase of Lachesis muta muta (bushmaster) venom, designated LV-Ka, was purified by gel filtration and anion exchange chromatographies. Physicochemical studies indicated that the purified enzyme is a 33 kDa monomeric glycoprotein, the Mr of which fell to 28 kDa after deglycosylation with PNGase F. Approximately 77% of the protein sequence was determined by sequencing the various fragments derived from digestions with endoproteases. The partial sequence obtained suggests that LV-Ka is of a similar size to other serine proteinases (i.e., approximately 234 amino acid residues). Sequence studies on the NH2-terminal region of the protein indicate that LV-Ka shares a high degree of sequence homology with the kallikrein-like enzymes EI and EII from Crotalus atrox, with crotalase from Crotalus adamanteus and significant homology with other serine proteinases from snake venoms and vertebrate serum enzymes. LV-Ka showed kallikrein-like activity, releasing bradikinin from kininogen as evidenced by guinea pig bioassay. In addition, intravenous injection of the proteinase (0.8 microg/g) was shown to lower blood pressure in experimental rats. In vitro, the isolated proteinase was shown to have neither fibrin(ogeno)lytic activity nor coagulant effect. LV-Ka was active upon the kallikrein substrates S-2266 and S-2302 (specific activity=13.0 and 31.5 U/mg, respectively; crude venom=0.25 and 6.0 U/mg) but had no proteolytic effect on dimethylcasein and insulin B chain. Its enzymatic activity was inhibited by NPGB and PMSF, indicating that the enzyme is a serine proteinase. Interestingly, one of the other reactions catalyzed by plasma kallikrein, the activation of plasminogen was one of the activities exhibited by LV-Ka. PMID:12821319

  2. Isolation and structural analysis of a gene coding for a novel type of aspartic proteinase from buckwheat seed (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljevi? Mira ?.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel type of aspartic proteinase gene was isolated from the cDNA library of developing buckwheat seeds. This cDNA, FeAPL1, encoded an AP-like protein lacking the plant-specific insert (PSI domain characteristic of typical plant aspartic proteinases. In addition the corresponding genomic fragment was isolated. It is demonstrated that this gene does not contain introns. Since bioinformatics analysis of the Arabidopsis genome showed that most potential AP genes are intronless and PSI-less, it appears that "atypical" is an inappropriate word for that class of AP. Isolation of this specific buckwheat gene among the small group of those isolated from other plant species provides a new perspective on the diversity of AP family members in plants. .

  3. The interaction of alpha2-macroglobulin with proteinases. Binding and inhibition of mammalian collagenases and other metal proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, Z; Burleigh, M C; Barrett, A J; Starkey, P M

    1974-05-01

    1. Experiments were performed to determine whether the specific collagenases and other metal proteinases are bound and inhibited by alpha(2)-macroglobulin, as are endopeptidases of other classes. 2. A specific collagenase from rabbit synovial cells was inhibited by human serum. The inhibition could be attributed entirely to alpha(2)-macroglobulin; alpha(1)-trypsin inhibitor was not inhibitory. alpha(2)-Macroglobulin presaturated with trypsin or cathepsin B1 did not inhibit collagenase, and pretreatment of alpha(2)-macroglobulin with collagenase prevented subsequent reaction with trypsin. The binding of collagenase by alpha(2)-macroglobulin was not reversible in gel chromatography. 3. The collagenolytic activity of several rheumatoid synovial fluids was completely inhibited by incubation of the fluids with alpha(2)-macroglobulin. 4. The collagenase of human polymorphonuclear-leucocyte granules showed time-dependent inhibition by alpha(2)-macroglobulin. 5. The collagenolytic metal proteinase of Crotalus atrox venom was inhibited by alpha(2)-macroglobulin. 6. The collagenase of Clostridium histolyticum was bound by alpha(2)-macroglobulin, and inhibited more strongly with respect to collagen than with respect to a peptide substrate. 7. Thermolysin, the metal proteinase of Bacillus thermoproteolyticus, was bound and inhibited by alpha(2)-macroglobulin. 8. It was shown by polyacrylamidegel electrophoresis of reduced alpha(2)-macroglobulin in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate that synovial-cell collagenase, clostridial collagenase and thermolysin cleave the quarter subunit of alpha(2)-macroglobulin near its mid-point, as do serine proteinases. 9. The results are discussed in relation to previous work, and it is concluded that the characteristics of interaction of the metal proteinases with alpha(2)-macroglobulin are the same as those of other proteinases. PMID:4374931

  4. Abscisic acid and jasmonic acid affect proteinase inhibitor activities in barley leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaretto, José A; Zúñiga, Gustavo E; Corcuera, Luis J

    2004-04-01

    Proteinase inhibitor (PI) accumulation has been described as a plant defense response against insects and pathogens. The induction of PIs is known to be regulated by endogenous chemical factors including phytohormones. We studied the induction of barley chymotrypsin and trypsin inhibitory activities by aphid infestation, mechanical wounding, abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA). Wounding experiments led to a minimal accumulation of PI activity (16% over controls) compared to that found in barley seedlings infested by aphids, where chymotrypsin inhibitor activity showed a two-fold increment. No systemic induction could be detected in healthy leaves of an infested or mechanically injured plant. Exogenous ABA applied on barley leaves increased the chymotrypsin inhibitory activity, while JA only increased trypsin inhibitory activity locally and systemically when applied exogenously. Our data suggest that two different mechanisms may be regulating the induction of these two types of inhibitors. PMID:15128026

  5. Getting a Knack for NAC: N-Acetyl-Cysteine

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2011-01-01

    N-acetyl-cysteine, N-acetylcysteine, N-acetyl cysteine, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine are all designations for the same compound, which is abbreviated as NAC. NAC is a precursor to the amino acid cysteine, which ultimately plays two key metabolic roles. Through its metabolic contribution to glutathione production, cysteine participates in the general antioxidant activities of the body. Through its role as a modulator of the glutamatergic system, cysteine influences the reward-reinforcement pathway....

  6. Unraveling biochemical properties of cockroach (Periplaneta americana) proteinases with a gel X-ray film contact print method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hivrale, Vandana K; Chougule, Nanasaheb P; Chhabda, Pavan J; Giri, Ashok P; Kachole, Manvendra S

    2005-07-01

    Eleven proteinase activity bands were detected in American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) gut. These were partially purified and characterized using a gel X-ray film contact print method. Cockroach gut proteinases (CGPs) show activity over a broad range of pH with maximum activity between pH 6 and 10, and optimal activity at 50-70 degrees C. CGPs were partially purified by preparative gel electrophoresis and analyzed using synthetic substrates and inhibitors. Four of the proteases exhibited chymotrypsin-like (C1 to C4) activity and seven trypsin-like (T1 to T7) activity. Accuracy of the gel X-ray film contact print method is confirmed by including bovine chymotrypsin in CGP analysis. Inhibition of CGPs with different plant proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors allowed identification of potential CGP inhibitors. Our results imply that presence of several CGP activity bands, and their stability and activity over a broad pH and temperature range might contribute to adaptation of P. americana to extreme environmental conditions and the polyphagous nature of the species. PMID:15935716

  7. Serine proteinases from barley malt may degrade beta-amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley seed proteinases are critically important to seed germination and malting in that they generate amino acids from seed N reserves, supporting embryo growth during germination and yeast fermentation during brewing. However, relatively little is known regarding the endogenous protein substrate ...

  8. DIVERSITY OF DIGESTIVE PROTEINASES IN TENEBRIO MOLITOR (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE) LARVAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spectrum of Tenebrio molitor larvae digestive proteinases was studied in the context of spatial organization of protein digestion in the midgut. The pH of midgut contents increased from 5.2–5.6 to 7.8–8.2 from the anterior to the posterior. This pH gradient was reflected in the pH optima of the ...

  9. Perspectives of digestive pest control with proteinase inhibitors that mainly affect the trypsin-like activity of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Pereira

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the main characteristics of the proteolytic activities of the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, and their sensitivity to proteinase inhibitors and activators. Midguts of last instar larvae reared on an artificial diet were homogenized in 0.15 M NaCl and centrifuged at 14,000 g for 10 min at 4ºC and the supernatants were used in enzymatic assays at 30ºC, pH 10.0. Basal total proteolytic activity (azocasein hydrolysis was 1.14 ± 0.15 absorbance variation min-1 mg protein-1, at 420 nm; basal trypsin-like activity (N-benzoyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide, BApNA, hydrolysis was 0.217 ± 0.02 mmol p-nitroaniline min-1 mg protein-1. The maximum proteolytic activities were observed at pH 10.5 using azocasein and at pH 10.0 using BApNA, this pH being identical to the midgut pH of 10.0. The maximum trypsin-like activity occurred at 50ºC, a temperature that reduces enzyme stability to 80 and 60% of the original, when pre-incubated for 5 and 30 min, respectively. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibited the proteolytic activities with an IC50 of 0.39 mM for azocasein hydrolysis and of 1.35 mM for BApNA hydrolysis. Benzamidine inhibited the hydrolysis with an IC50 of 0.69 and 0.076 mM for azocasein and BApNA, respectively. The absence of cysteine-proteinases is indicated by the fact that 2-mercaptoethanol and L-cysteine did not increase the rate of azocasein hydrolysis. These results demonstrate the presence of serine-proteinases and the predominance of trypsin-like activity in the midgut of Lepidoptera insects, now also detected in A. gemmatalis, and suggest this enzyme as a major target for pest control based on disruption of protein metabolism using proteinase inhibitors.

  10. Perspectives of digestive pest control with proteinase inhibitors that mainly affect the trypsin-like activity of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M E; Dörr, F A; Peixoto, N C; Lima-Garcia, J F; Dörr, F; Brito, G G

    2005-11-01

    The present study describes the main characteristics of the proteolytic activities of the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, and their sensitivity to proteinase inhibitors and activators. Midguts of last instar larvae reared on an artificial diet were homogenized in 0.15 M NaCl and centrifuged at 14,000 g for 10 min at 4 degrees C and the supernatants were used in enzymatic assays at 30 degrees C, pH 10.0. Basal total proteolytic activity (azocasein hydrolysis) was 1.14 +/- 0.15 absorbance variation min(-1) mg protein(-1), at 420 nm; basal trypsin-like activity (N-benzoyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide, BApNA, hydrolysis) was 0.217 +/- 0.02 mmol p-nitroaniline min(-1) mg protein(-1). The maximum proteolytic activities were observed at pH 10.5 using azocasein and at pH 10.0 using BApNA, this pH being identical to the midgut pH of 10.0. The maximum trypsin-like activity occurred at 50 degrees C, a temperature that reduces enzyme stability to 80 and 60% of the original, when pre-incubated for 5 and 30 min, respectively. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibited the proteolytic activities with an IC50 of 0.39 mM for azocasein hydrolysis and of 1.35 mM for BApNA hydrolysis. Benzamidine inhibited the hydrolysis with an IC50 of 0.69 and 0.076 mM for azocasein and BApNA, respectively. The absence of cysteine-proteinases is indicated by the fact that 2-mercaptoethanol and L-cysteine did not increase the rate of azocasein hydrolysis. These results demonstrate the presence of serine-proteinases and the predominance of trypsin-like activity in the midgut of Lepidoptera insects, now also detected in A. gemmatalis, and suggest this enzyme as a major target for pest control based on disruption of protein metabolism using proteinase inhibitors. PMID:16258632

  11. Perspectives of digestive pest control with proteinase inhibitors that mainly affect the trypsin-like activity of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.E., Pereira; F.A., Dörr; N.C., Peixoto; J.F., Lima-Garcia; F., Dörr; G.G., Brito.

    1633-16-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the main characteristics of the proteolytic activities of the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, and their sensitivity to proteinase inhibitors and activators. Midguts of last instar larvae reared on an artificial diet were homogenized in 0.15 M NaCl an [...] d centrifuged at 14,000 g for 10 min at 4ºC and the supernatants were used in enzymatic assays at 30ºC, pH 10.0. Basal total proteolytic activity (azocasein hydrolysis) was 1.14 ± 0.15 absorbance variation min-1 mg protein-1, at 420 nm; basal trypsin-like activity (N-benzoyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide, BApNA, hydrolysis) was 0.217 ± 0.02 mmol p-nitroaniline min-1 mg protein-1. The maximum proteolytic activities were observed at pH 10.5 using azocasein and at pH 10.0 using BApNA, this pH being identical to the midgut pH of 10.0. The maximum trypsin-like activity occurred at 50ºC, a temperature that reduces enzyme stability to 80 and 60% of the original, when pre-incubated for 5 and 30 min, respectively. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibited the proteolytic activities with an IC50 of 0.39 mM for azocasein hydrolysis and of 1.35 mM for BApNA hydrolysis. Benzamidine inhibited the hydrolysis with an IC50 of 0.69 and 0.076 mM for azocasein and BApNA, respectively. The absence of cysteine-proteinases is indicated by the fact that 2-mercaptoethanol and L-cysteine did not increase the rate of azocasein hydrolysis. These results demonstrate the presence of serine-proteinases and the predominance of trypsin-like activity in the midgut of Lepidoptera insects, now also detected in A. gemmatalis, and suggest this enzyme as a major target for pest control based on disruption of protein metabolism using proteinase inhibitors.

  12. "Comparison of Adult Somatic and Cysteine Proteinas Antigens of Fasciola gigantica in Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Serodiagnosis of Human Fasciolosis"

    OpenAIRE

    Mb, Rokni; Massoud, J.; Jp, Dalton

    2002-01-01

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica and F.gigantica is one of the major public health problems in the world and in Iran. Considering that stool examination for Fasciola eggs is not a sensitive method and only 25% of infected patients pass the eggs in the faeces , and immunodiagnosis methods are more applicable for this purpose, the present study was conducted to compare the somatic (S) and cysteine proteinase (CP) antigens of F.gigantica in IgG-ELISA to diagnose human fasciolosis. This ha...

  13. Separation of Crotalus atrox (western diamondback rattlesnake) alpha-proteinase from serine proteinase and hemorrhagic factor activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruzel, M; Kress, L F

    1985-12-01

    A method for obtaining Crotalus atrox alpha-proteinase (EC 3.4.24.1) in a pure form has been developed. Fractionation of the crude venom on DEAE-Sepharose, followed by gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-150 and chromatography on CM-Sepharose, yielded an alpha-proteinase preparation which showed a single band on disc and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and had an activity on casein approximately twice that previously reported. The enzyme is a nonglycosylated single-chain polypeptide with a molecular weight of 26,738 and a pI of 8.15. Proteolytic activity on casein, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, and Cl-inhibitor was abolished by treatment of alpha-proteinase with 1 mM EDTA, but full activity was retained in the presence of 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. Caseinolytic activity was increased by 33 and 55% in the presence of 10 mM Mg2+ and Ca2+, respectively. Pure alpha-proteinase is devoid of esterolytic activity on H-D-Pro-Phe-Arg-p-nitroanilide (S-2302), benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester, and benzoyl-L-tyrosine ethyl ester. The final preparation has no hemorrhagic factor activity. PMID:3913334

  14. The aspartic proteinase family of three Phytophthora species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ten Have Arjen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora species are oomycete plant pathogens with such major social and economic impact that genome sequences have been determined for Phytophthora infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum. Pepsin-like aspartic proteinases (APs are produced in a wide variety of species (from bacteria to humans and contain conserved motifs and landmark residues. APs fulfil critical roles in infectious organisms and their host cells. Annotation of Phytophthora APs would provide invaluable information for studies into their roles in the physiology of Phytophthora species and interactions with their hosts. Results Genomes of Phytophthora infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum contain 11-12 genes encoding APs. Nine of the original gene models in the P. infestans database and several in P. sojae and P. ramorum (three and four, respectively were erroneous. Gene models were corrected on the basis of EST data, consistent positioning of introns between orthologues and conservation of hallmark motifs. Phylogenetic analysis resolved the Phytophthora APs into 5 clades. Of the 12 sub-families, several contained an unconventional architecture, as they either lacked a signal peptide or a propart region. Remarkably, almost all APs are predicted to be membrane-bound. Conclusions One of the twelve Phytophthora APs is an unprecedented fusion protein with a putative G-protein coupled receptor as the C-terminal partner. The others appear to be related to well-documented enzymes from other species, including a vacuolar enzyme that is encoded in every fungal genome sequenced to date. Unexpectedly, however, the oomycetes were found to have both active and probably-inactive forms of an AP similar to vertebrate BACE, the enzyme responsible for initiating the processing cascade that generates the A? peptide central to Alzheimer's Disease. The oomycetes also encode enzymes similar to plasmepsin V, a membrane-bound AP that cleaves effector proteins of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum during their translocation into the host red blood cell. Since the translocation of Phytophthora effector proteins is currently a topic of intense research activity, the identification in Phytophthora of potential functional homologues of plasmepsin V would appear worthy of investigation. Indeed, elucidation of the physiological roles of the APs identified here offers areas for future study. The significant revision of gene models and detailed annotation presented here should significantly facilitate experimental design.

  15. Cysteine Dioxygenase: A Robust System for Regulation of Cellular Cysteine Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Stipanuk, M. H.; Ueki, I.; Dominy, J. E.; Simmons, C. R.; Hirschberger, L. L.

    2008-01-01

    Cysteine catabolism in mammals is dependent upon cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), an enzyme that adds molecular oxygen to the sulfur of cysteine, converting the thiol to a sulfinic acid known as cysteinesulfinic acid (3-sulfinoalanine). CDO is one of the most highly regulated metabolic enzymes responding to diet that is known. It undergoes up to 45-fold changes in concentration and up to 10-fold changes in catalytic efficiency. This provides a remarkable responsiveness of the cell to changes in su...

  16. Enhanced Protective Efficacy of Nonpathogenic Recombinant Leishmania tarentolae Expressing Cysteine Proteinases Combined with a Sand Fly Salivary Antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Zahedifard, Farnaz; Gholami, Elham; Taheri, Tahereh; Taslimi, Yasaman; Doustdari, Fatemeh; Seyed, Negar; Torkashvand, Fatemeh; Meneses, Claudio; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Rafati, Sima

    2014-01-01

    More than 98 countries are reported as endemic for leishmaniasis, a vector-borne disease transmitted by sand flies. Drug-resistant forms have emerged and there is an increased need to develop advanced preventive strategies. Live attenuated vaccines are the gold standard for protection against intracellular pathogens such as Leishmania and there have been new developments in this field. The lizard protozoan parasite, L. tarentolae, is nonpathogenic to humans and has been used effectively as a ...

  17. Structure-Function of Falcipains: Malarial Cysteine Proteases

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Kailash C.; Rajnikant Dixit

    2012-01-01

    Evidence indicates that cysteine proteases play essential role in malaria parasites; therefore an obvious area of investigation is the inhibition of these enzymes to treat malaria. Studies with cysteine protease inhibitors and manipulating cysteine proteases genes have suggested a role for cysteine proteases in hemoglobin hydrolysis. The best characterized Plasmodium cysteine proteases are falcipains, which are papain family enzymes. Falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 are major hemoglobinases of P. ...

  18. A structural comparison of 21 inhibitor complexes of the aspartic proteinase from Endothia parasitica.

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, D.; Cooper, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    The aspartic proteinases are an important family of enzymes associated with several pathological conditions such as hypertension (renin), gastric ulcers (pepsin), neoplastic disease (cathepsins D and E), and AIDS (HIV proteinase). Studies of inhibitor binding are therefore of great importance for design of novel inhibitors for potential therapeutic applications. Numerous X-ray analyses have shown that transition-state isostere inhibitors of aspartic proteinases bind in similar extended confor...

  19. Hormone processing and membrane-bound proteinases in yeast.

    OpenAIRE

    Achstetter, T.; Wolf, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    A search for maturating peptidases of the precursor protein of the mating hormone (pheromone) alpha-factor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was performed using short model peptides representing those sequences of the precursor protein, where cleavage is thought to occur in vivo. This search was done in a mutant lacking several of the unspecific vacuolar peptidases. The chromogenic peptide Cbz-Tyr-Lys-Arg-4-nitroanilide led to the detection of a membrane-bound enzyme called proteinase yscF. Cleavag...

  20. Functional role of aspartic proteinase cathepsin D in insect metamorphosis

    OpenAIRE

    Seo Sook; Je Yeon; Kim Iksoo; Yoon Hyung; Kang Pil; Choo Young; Wei Ya; Choi Yong; Kim Bo; Lee Kwang; Gui Zhong; Lee Sang; Guo Xijie; Sohn Hung; Jin Byung

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Metamorphosis is a complex, highly conserved and strictly regulated development process that involves the programmed cell death of obsolete larval organs. Here we show a novel functional role for the aspartic proteinase cathepsin D during insect metamorphosis. Results Cathepsin D of the silkworm Bombyx mori (BmCatD) was ecdysone-induced, differentially and spatially expressed in the larval fat body of the final instar and in the larval gut of pupal stage, and its expressio...

  1. Characterization of peptide proteinase inhibitors isolated from boar seminal plasma.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínková, Petra; Tichá, M.; Jonáková, V?ra

    2003-01-01

    Ro?. 6, - (2003), s. 35-37. ISSN 0010-0765. [Biologically Active Peptide s /8./. Praha, 23.04.2003-25.04.2003] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA303/02/0433; GA ?R GP303/02/P069; GA MZd NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : proteinase inhibitors * aggregated forms * boar seminal plasma Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.041, year: 2003

  2. Biochemical characterization of Acacia schweinfurthii serine proteinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odei-Addo, Frank; Frost, Carminita; Smith, Nanette; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Muramoto, Koji; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela; Gráf, László; Naude, Ryno

    2014-10-01

    One of the many control mechanisms of serine proteinases is their specific inhibition by protein proteinase inhibitors. An extract of Acacia schweinfurthii was screened for potential serine proteinase inhibition. It was successfully purified to homogeneity by precipitating with 80% (v/v) acetone and sequential chromatographic steps, including ion-exchange, affinity purification and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Reducing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis conditions revealed an inhibitor (ASTI) consisting of two polypeptide chains A and B of approximate molecular weights of 16 and 10?kDa, respectively, and under non-reducing conditions, 26?kDa was observed. The inhibitor was shown to inhibit bovine trypsin (Ki of 3.45?nM) at an approximate molar ratio of inhibitor:trypsin (1:1). The A- and B-chains revealed complete sequences of 140 and 40 amino acid residues, respectively. Sequence similarity (70%) was reported between ASTI A-chain and ACTI A-chain (Acacia confusa) using ClustalW. The B-chain produced a 76% sequence similarity between ASTI and Leucaena leucocephala trypsin inhibitor. PMID:24090421

  3. cDNA Cloning and Molecular Modeling of Procerain B, a Novel Cysteine Endopeptidase Isolated from Calotropis procera

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Abhay Narayan; Yadav, Prity; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Procerain B, a novel cysteine protease (endopeptidase) isolated from Calotropis procera belongs to Asclepiadaceae family. Purification of the enzyme, biochemical characterization and potential applications are already published by our group. Here, we report cDNA cloning, complete amino acid sequencing and molecular modeling of procerain B. The derived amino acid sequence showed high sequence homology with other papain like plant cysteine proteases of peptidase C1A superfamily. The three dimen...

  4. Crystal Structure of Mammalian Cysteine dioxygenase: A Novel Mononuclear Iron Center for Cysteine Thiol Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons,C.; Liu, Q.; Huang, Q.; Hao, Q.; Begley, T.; Karplus, P.; Stipanuk, M.

    2006-01-01

    Cysteine dioxygenase is a mononuclear iron-dependent enzyme responsible for the oxidation of cysteine with molecular oxygen to form cysteinesulfinate. This reaction commits cysteine to either catabolism to sulfate and pyruvate or to the taurine biosynthetic pathway. Cysteine dioxygenase is a member of the cupin superfamily of proteins. The crystal structure of recombinant rat cysteine dioxygenase has been determined to 1.5 Angstroms resolution, and these results confirm the canonical cupin {beta}-sandwich fold and the rare cysteinyl-tyrosine intramolecular crosslink (between Cys93 and Tyr157) seen in the recently reported murine cysteine dioxygenase structure. In contrast to the catalytically inactive mononuclear Ni(II) metallocenter present in the murine structure, crystallization of a catalytically competent preparation of rat cysteine dioxygenase revealed a novel tetrahedrally coordinated mononuclear iron center involving three histidines (His86, His88, and His140) and a water molecule. Attempts to acquire a structure with bound ligand using either co-crystallization or soaks with cysteine revealed the formation of a mixed disulfide involving Cys164 near the active site, which may explain previously observed substrate inhibition. This work provides a framework for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in thiol dioxygenation and sets the stage for exploring the chemistry of both the novel mononuclear iron center and the catalytic role of the cysteinyl-tyrosine linkage.

  5. Nonfouling property of zwitterionic cysteine surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peter; Ding, Ling; Lin, Chii-Wann; Gu, Frank

    2014-06-10

    Applications of implantable bioelectronics for analytical and curative purposes are currently limited by their poor long-term biofunctionality in physiological media and nonspecific interactions with biomolecules. In an attempt to prolong in vivo functionality, recent advances in surface modifications have demonstrated that zwitterionic coatings can rival the performance of conventional poly(ethylene glycol) polymers in reducing nonspecific protein fouling. Herein, we report the fabrication of a very thin layer of nonfouling zwitterionic cysteine surface capable of protecting implantable bioelectronics from nonspecific adsorption of plasma proteins. This work is the first of its kind to fabricate, through solution chemistry, a cysteine surface exhibiting zwitterionic state as high as 88% and to demonstrate antibiofouling under the exposure of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum. The fabricated surface utilized a minimal amount of gold substrate, approximately 10 nm, and an extremely thin antifouling layer at 1.14 nm verified by ellipsometry. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy assessment of the nitrogen (N1s) and carbon (C1s) spectra conclude that 87.8% of the fabricated cysteine surface is zwitterionic, 2.5% is positively charged, and 9.6% is noncharged. Antibiofouling performance of the cysteine surface is quantitatively determined by bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein assay as well as qualitatively confirmed using scanning electron spectroscopy. Cysteine surfaces demonstrated a BSA fouling of 3.9 ± 4.84% ?g/cm(2), which is 93.6% and 98.5% lower than stainless steel and gold surfaces, respectively. Surface plasmon resonance imaging analysis returned similar results and suggest that a thinner cysteine coating will enhance performance. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the results of BCA assay and suggested that the cysteine surface demonstrated a 69% reduction to serum fouling. The results reported in this paper demonstrate that it is possible to achieve a highly zwitterionic surface through solution chemistry on a macroscopic level that is capable of improving biocompatibility of long-term implantable bioelectronics. PMID:24841849

  6. Molecular cloning, sequencing, and mapping of the gene encoding protease I and characterization of proteinase and proteinase-defective Escherichia coli mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Ichihara, S.; Y. Matsubara; Kato, C.; Akasaka, K.; Mizushima, S

    1993-01-01

    Clones carrying the gene encoding a proteinase were isolated from Clarke and Carbon's collection, using a chromogenic substrate, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-phenylalanine beta-naphthyl ester. The three clones isolated, pLC6-33, pLC13-1, and pLC36-46, shared the same chromosomal DNA region. A 0.9-kb Sau3AI fragment within this region was found to be responsible for the overproduction of the proteinase, and the nucleotide sequence of the region was then determined. The proteinase was purified to homo...

  7. Effects of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Proteinase Inhibitors Saquinavir and Indinavir on In Vitro Activities of Secreted Aspartyl Proteinases of Candida albicans Isolates from HIV-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Korting, Hans C; Schaller, Martin; Eder, Gabriele; Hamm, Gerald; Böhmer, Ursula; Hube, Bernhard

    1999-01-01

    The effects of therapeutically relevant concentrations of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) proteinase inhibitors saquinavir and indinavir on the in vitro proteinase activity of Candida albicans were investigated with isolates from HIV-infected and uninfected patients with oral candidiasis. After exposure to the HIV proteinase inhibitors, proteinase activity was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These inhibitory effects, which were similar to that of pepstatin A, and the ...

  8. Nephrotoxicity of halogenated vinyl cysteine compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, A J; Nagle, R B; Soltis, J J; Plescia, F H

    1981-08-01

    S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl) cysteine (DCVC), is a potent nephrotoxin. In order to determine if other vinyl cysteine conjugates were nephrotoxic, halogenated vinyl cysteines, HVC-1 and HVC-2, were prepared from chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), a fluorocarbon monomer, or chlorotifluoroethylene, a metabolite of halothane, respectively. Three days after receiving DCVC (5-10 mg/kg), CD-1 mice developed focal renal tubular necrosis. Mice treated with HVC-1 or HVC-2 (5-10 mg/kg) also developed renal necrosis by 3 days post exposure. HVC-1 was not as potent as DCVC with the necrosis limited to the pars recta. At equivalent doses HVC-2 caused less necrosis of the pars recta than HVC-1. The degree of nephrotoxicity by all three compounds exhibited a dose-response from 1-25 mg/kg. Doses greater than 25 mg/kg were often lethal within 3 days and the mice had a complete zonal necrosis of the renal cortex and a two-fold increase in kidney weight. Structural analogues, S-(chlorethyl) or S-(hydroxyethyl) cysteine, did not cause renal necrosis in mice at doses up to 200 mg/kg. These studies indicate that the enzymes reportedly responsible for converting DCVC to a nephrotoxic intermediate will also bioactivate other halogenated vinyl cysteines. PMID:7302373

  9. Selective chromogenic and fluorogenic peptide substrates for the assay of cysteine peptidases in complex mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semashko, Tatiana A; Vorotnikova, Elena A; Sharikova, Valeriya F; Vinokurov, Konstantin S; Smirnova, Yulia A; Dunaevsky, Yakov E; Belozersky, Mikhail A; Oppert, Brenda; Elpidina, Elena N; Filippova, Irina Y

    2014-03-15

    This study describes the design, synthesis, and use of selective peptide substrates for cysteine peptidases of the C1 papain family, important in many biological processes. The structure of the newly synthesized substrates is Glp-Xaa-Ala-Y (where Glp=pyroglutamyl; Xaa=Phe or Val; and Y=pNA [p-nitroanilide], AMC [4-amino-7-methylcoumaride], or AFC [4-amino-7-trifluoromethyl-coumaride]). Substrates were synthesized enzymatically to guarantee selectivity of the reaction and optical purity of the target compounds, simplifying the scheme of synthesis and isolation of products. The hydrolysis of the synthesized substrates was evaluated by C1 cysteine peptidases from different organisms and with different functions, including plant enzymes papain, bromelain, ficin, and mammalian lysosomal cathepsins B and L. The new substrates were selective for C1 cysteine peptidases and were not hydrolyzed by serine, aspartic, or metallo peptidases. We demonstrated an application of the selectivity of the synthesized substrates during the chromatographic separation of a multicomponent set of digestive peptidases from a beetle, Tenebrio molitor. Used in combination with the cysteine peptidase inhibitor E-64, these substrates were able to differentiate cysteine peptidases from peptidases of other classes in midgut extracts from T. molitor larvae and larvae of the genus Tribolium; thus, they are useful in the analysis of complex mixtures containing peptidases from different classes. PMID:24388866

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROTEINASE ACTIVITIES OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS-RESISTANT AND -SUSCEPTIBLE OSTRINIA NUBILALIS (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteinase activities were compared in soluble and membrane fractions of gut tissues of Bacillus thuringiensis-resistant and -susceptible Ostrinia nubilalis larvae. The soluble trypsin-like proteinase activity of the resistant strain was reduced 56%, significantly lower than that of the susceptibl...

  11. Cysteine-proteases and cystatins from barley: molecular and functional characterization in housekeeping and defense processes

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Mun?oz, Manuel; Cambra Marin, Ines; Gonzalez-melendi Leon, Pablo; Santamaria, Maria E.; Diaz Rodriguez, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Plant cysteine-proteases (CysProt) represent a well-characterized type of proteolytic enzymes that fulfill tightly regulated physiological functions (senescence and seed germination among others) and defense roles. This article is focused on the group of papain-proteases C1A (family C1, clan CA) and their inhibitors, phytocystatins (PhyCys). In particular, the protease–inhibitor interaction and their mutual participation in specific pathways throughout the plant's life are reviewed. C1A Cys...

  12. Regulation of cysteine dioxygenase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase is associated with hepatic cysteine level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-In; Londono, Monica; Hirschberger, Lawrence L; Stipanuk, Martha H

    2004-02-01

    Two hepatic enzymes, cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), play important regulatory roles in the response of cysteine metabolism to changes in dietary sulfur amino acid or protein levels. To examine the time-course of changes in CDO and GCS activities, CDO and GCS-catalytic or heavy subunit protein and mRNA levels, and cysteine and glutathione levels, we adapted rats to either a low protein (LP) or high protein (HP) diet, switched them to the opposite diet, and followed these parameters over 6 days. Hepatic CDO activity and amount, but not mRNA level, increased in response to higher protein intake; the t(1/2) of change for CDO activity or protein level was 22 h for rats switched from a LP to a HP diet and 8 h for rats switched from a HP to a LP diet, suggesting that the HP diet decreased turnover of CDO. Hepatic GCS activity, catalytic subunit amount and mRNA level decreased in response to a higher protein intake. GCS catalytic subunit level changed with a similar t(1/2) for both groups, but the change in GCS activity in rats switched from a LP diet to a HP diet was faster (approximately 16h) than for rats switched from a HP to a LP diet (approximately 74h). Hepatic cysteine and glutathione levels reached new steady states within 12 h (LP to HP) or 24 h (HP to LP). CDO activity appeared to be regulated at the level of protein, probably by diminished turnover of CDO in response to higher protein intake or cysteine level, whereas GCS activity appeared to be regulated both at the level of mRNA and activity state in response to the change in cysteine or protein availability. These findings support a role of cysteine concentration as a mediator of its own metabolism, favoring catabolism when cysteine is high and glutathione synthesis when cysteine is low. PMID:14972351

  13. Tomato transgenic plants expressing hairpin construct of a nematode protease gene conferred enhanced resistance to root-knot nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Tushar K.; Papolu, Pradeep K.; Banakar, Prakash; Choudhary, Divya; Sirohi, Anil; Rao, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) cause substantial yield losses in vegetables worldwide, and are difficult to manage. Continuous withdrawal of environmentally-harmful nematicides from the global market warrants the need for novel nematode management strategies. Utility of host-delivered RNAi has been demonstrated in several plants (Arabidopsis, tobacco, and soybean) that exhibited resistance against root-knot and cyst nematodes. Herein, a M. incognita-specific protease gene, cathepsin L cysteine proteinase (Mi-cpl-1), was targeted to generate tomato transgenic lines to evaluate the genetically modified nematode resistance. In vitro knockdown of Mi-cpl-1 gene led to the reduced attraction and penetration of M. incognita in tomato, suggesting the involvement of Mi-cpl-1 in nematode parasitism. Transgenic expression of the RNAi construct of Mi-cpl-1 gene resulted in 60–80% reduction in infection and multiplication of M. incognita in tomato. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo silencing of Mi-cpl-1 was confirmed by expression analysis using quantitative PCR. Our study demonstrates that Mi-cpl-1 plays crucial role during plant-nematode interaction and plant-mediated downregulation of this gene elicits detrimental effect on M. incognita development, reinforcing the potential of RNAi technology for management of phytonematodes in crop plants. PMID:25883594

  14. Tomato transgenic plants expressing hairpin construct of a nematode protease gene conferred enhanced resistance to root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Tushar K; Papolu, Pradeep K; Banakar, Prakash; Choudhary, Divya; Sirohi, Anil; Rao, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) cause substantial yield losses in vegetables worldwide, and are difficult to manage. Continuous withdrawal of environmentally-harmful nematicides from the global market warrants the need for novel nematode management strategies. Utility of host-delivered RNAi has been demonstrated in several plants (Arabidopsis, tobacco, and soybean) that exhibited resistance against root-knot and cyst nematodes. Herein, a M. incognita-specific protease gene, cathepsin L cysteine proteinase (Mi-cpl-1), was targeted to generate tomato transgenic lines to evaluate the genetically modified nematode resistance. In vitro knockdown of Mi-cpl-1 gene led to the reduced attraction and penetration of M. incognita in tomato, suggesting the involvement of Mi-cpl-1 in nematode parasitism. Transgenic expression of the RNAi construct of Mi-cpl-1 gene resulted in 60-80% reduction in infection and multiplication of M. incognita in tomato. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo silencing of Mi-cpl-1 was confirmed by expression analysis using quantitative PCR. Our study demonstrates that Mi-cpl-1 plays crucial role during plant-nematode interaction and plant-mediated downregulation of this gene elicits detrimental effect on M. incognita development, reinforcing the potential of RNAi technology for management of phytonematodes in crop plants. PMID:25883594

  15. Determinants of substrate recognition by poliovirus 2A proteinase.

    OpenAIRE

    Hellen, C U; Lee, C K; Wimmer, E.

    1992-01-01

    Poliovirus proteinase 2A (2Apro) is autocatalytically released from the viral polyprotein by cleavage in cis of a Tyr-Gly dipeptide at its own amino terminus, resulting in separation of the P1 structural and P2-P3 nonstructural protein precursors. A second Ty-Gly dipeptide within 3D polymerase is cleaved by 2Apro in trans, but this is not essential for viral proliferation. The mechanism which limits cleavage to only 2 of the 10 Tyr-Gly dipeptides within the poliovirus polyprotein has not been...

  16. Measurement of Cysteine Dioxygenase Activity and Protein Abundance

    OpenAIRE

    Stipanuk, Martha H.; Dominy, John E.; Ueki, Iori; Hirschberger, Lawrence L.

    2008-01-01

    Cysteine dioxygenase is an iron (Fe2+)-dependent thiol dioxygenase that uses molecular oxygen to oxidize the sulfhydryl group of cysteine to generate 3-sulfinoalanine (commonly called cysteinesulfinic acid). Cysteine dioxygenase activity is routinely assayed by measuring cysteinesulfinate formation from substrate L-cysteine at pH 6.1 in the presence of ferrous ions to saturate the enzyme with metal cofactor, a copper chelator to diminish substrate oxidation, and hydroxylamine to inhibit pyrid...

  17. Enhancement of luminol chemiluminescence by cysteine and glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, R A; Sariahmeto?lu, M; Cakici, I

    2000-11-01

    Cysteine enhancement of cobalt(II)-catalysed chemiluminescence of hydrogen peroxide and luminol occurs in carbonate buffer (but not in borate buffer), whether cysteine mixes with hydrogen peroxide before it mixes with luminol-cobalt(II) or vice versa. Enhancement was measured by the ratio of the signals in the presence and absence of cysteine; standard errors were generally cobalt(II) catalyst. Luminol-peroxynitrite chemiluminescence is enhanced by cysteine and by glutathione without the presence of a catalyst. PMID:11193074

  18. Effects of soybean proteinase inhibitors on development of the soil mite Scheloribates praeincisus (Acari: Oribatida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, R A; Silva-Filho, M C; Moura, D S; Delalibera, I

    2008-03-01

    Proteinase inhibitors (PI) are present in plant tissues, especially in seeds, and act as a defense mechanism against herbivores and pathogens. Serine PI from soybean such as Bowman-Birk (BBPI) and Kunitz have been used to enhance resistance of sugarcane varieties to the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), the major pest of this crop. The use of these genetically-modified plants (GM) expressing PI requires knowledge of its sustainability and environmental safety, determining the stability of the introduced characteristic and its effects on non-target organisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate direct effects of ingestion of semi-purified and purified soybean PI and GM sugarcane plants on the soil-dwelling mite Scheloribates praeincisus (Berlese) (Acari: Oribatida). This mite is abundant in agricultural soils and participates in the process of organic matter decomposition; for this reason it will be exposed to PI by feeding on GM plant debris. Eggs of S. praeincisus were isolated and after larvae emerged, immatures were fed milled sugarcane leaves added to semi-purified or purified PI (Kunitz and BBPI) or immatures were fed GM sugarcane varieties expressing Kunitz and BBPI type PI or the untransformed near isogenic parental line variety as a control. Developmental time (larva-adult) and survival of S. praeincisus was evaluated. Neither Kunitz nor BBPI affected S. praeincisus survival. On the other hand, ingestion of semi-purified and purified Kunitz inhibitor diminished duration of S. praeincisus immature stages. Ingestion of GM senescent leaves did not have an effect on S. praeincisus immature developmental time and survival, compared to ingestion of leaves from the isogenic parental plants. These results indicate that cultivation of these transgenic sugarcane plants is safe for the non-target species S. praeincisus. PMID:18357504

  19. Septicemia caused by cysteine-dependent Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    A case of septicemia and urinary tract infection caused by cysteine-dependent Escherichia coli in a 70-year-old woman with bilateral staghorn calculi is described. This is the second report of a cysteine-dependent E. coli bacteremia. The bacterium was falsely susceptible to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole when tested on a medium without cysteine supplement.

  20. Determining cysteine oxidation status using differential alkylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Birgit; Yoo, Chris B.; Collins, Christopher J.; Gibson, Bradford W.

    2004-08-01

    Oxidative damage to proteins plays a major role in aging and in the pathology of many degenerative diseases. Under conditions of oxidative stress, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can modify key redox sensitive amino acid side chains leading to altered biological activities or structures of the targeted proteins. This in turn can affect signaling or regulatory control pathways as well as protein turnover and degradation efficiency in the proteasome. Cysteine residues are particularly susceptible to oxidation, primarily through reversible modifications (e.g., thiolation and nitrosylation), although irreversible oxidation can lead to products that cannot be repaired in vivo such as sulfonic acid. This report describes a strategy to determine the overall level of reversible cysteine oxidation using a stable isotope differential alkylation approach in combination with mass spectrometric analysis. This method employs 13C-labeled alkylating reagents, such as N-ethyl-[1,4-13C2]-maleimide, bromo-[1,2-13C2]-acetic acid and their non-labeled counterparts to quantitatively assess the level of cysteine oxidation at specific sites in oxidized proteins. The differential alkylation protocol was evaluated using standard peptides and proteins, and then applied to monitor and determine the level of oxidative damage induced by diamide, a mild oxidant. The formation and mass spectrometric analysis of irreversible cysteine acid modification will also be discussed as several such modifications have been identified in subunits of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes. This strategy will hopefully contribute to our understanding of the role that cysteine oxidation plays in such chronic diseases such as Parkinson's disease, where studies in animal and cell models have shown oxidative damage to mitochondrial Complex I to be a specific and early target.

  1. In vitro differential activity of phospholipases and acid proteinases of clinical isolates of Candida Atividade diferencial in vitro de fosfolipases e proteinases ácidas de isolados clínicos de Candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurean D'Eça Júnior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Candida yeasts are commensals; however, if the balance of normal flora is disrupted or the immune defenses are compromised, Candida species can cause disease manifestations. Several attributes contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of Candida, including the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, particularly phospholipase and proteinase. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro activity of phospholipases and acid proteinases in clinical isolates of Candida spp. METHODS: Eighty-two isolates from hospitalized patients collected from various sites of origin were analyzed. Phospholipase production was performed in egg yolk medium and the production of proteinase was verified in a medium containing bovine serum albumin. The study was performed in triplicate. RESULTS: Fifty-six (68.3% of isolates tested were phospholipase positive and 16 (44.4% were positive for proteinase activity. C. tropicalis was the species with the highest number of positive isolates for phospholipase (91.7%. Statistically significant differences were observed in relation to production of phospholipases among species (pINTRODUÇÃO: Candida são leveduras comensais, porém, se o equilíbrio da flora normal for interrompido ou as defesas imunitárias estiverem comprometidas, espécies de Candida podem causar manifestações de doença. Vários atributos contribuem na virulência e patogenicidade de Candida, inclusive a produção de enzimas extracelulares hidrolíticas, especialmente fosfolipases e proteinases. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a atividade in vitro de fosfolipases e proteinases ácidas em isolados clínicos de Candida spp. MÉTODOS: Oitenta e dois isolados provenientes de pacientes hospitalizados coletados a partir de sítios de origem diversos foram analisados. A produção de fosfolipase foi verificada em meio egg yolk e a de proteinase em meio contendo soro albumina bovina. O estudo foi feito em triplicata. RESULTADOS: Cinquenta e seis (68,3% dos isolados testados apresentaram atividade de fosfolipase positiva e 16 (44,4% foram positivos para atividade de proteinase. C. tropicalis foi a espécie que apresentou o maior número de isolados positivos para fosfolipases (91,7%. Diferenças estatisticamente significantes em relação à produção de fosfolipases entre as espécies e entre as cepas provenientes de diferentes sítios de origem foram detectadas. Quanto à produção de proteinases ácidas, os isolados de C. parapsilosis testados foram os maiores produtores (69,2%. Entre as espécies analisadas, a porcentagem de produção de proteinase entre os isolados não diferiu estatisticamente (?2=1.9 p=0.5901 (?2=1.9 p=0.5901. CONCLUSÕES: A maioria dos isolados de C. não-albicans, assim como os de C. albicans, foram grandes produtores de enzimas hidrolíticas e, consequentemente, podem ser capazes de causar infecção em condições adequadas.

  2. In vitro differential activity of phospholipases and acid proteinases of clinical isolates of Candida / Atividade diferencial in vitro de fosfolipases e proteinases ácidas de isolados clínicos de Candida

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aurean, D' Eça Júnior; Anderson França, Silva; Fernanda Costa, Rosa; Sílvio Gomes, Monteiro; Patrícia de Maria Silva, Figueiredo; Cristina de Andrade, Monteiro.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Candida são leveduras comensais, porém, se o equilíbrio da flora normal for interrompido ou as defesas imunitárias estiverem comprometidas, espécies de Candida podem causar manifestações de doença. Vários atributos contribuem na virulência e patogenicidade de Candida, inclusive a produçã [...] o de enzimas extracelulares hidrolíticas, especialmente fosfolipases e proteinases. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a atividade in vitro de fosfolipases e proteinases ácidas em isolados clínicos de Candida spp. MÉTODOS: Oitenta e dois isolados provenientes de pacientes hospitalizados coletados a partir de sítios de origem diversos foram analisados. A produção de fosfolipase foi verificada em meio egg yolk e a de proteinase em meio contendo soro albumina bovina. O estudo foi feito em triplicata. RESULTADOS: Cinquenta e seis (68,3%) dos isolados testados apresentaram atividade de fosfolipase positiva e 16 (44,4%) foram positivos para atividade de proteinase. C. tropicalis foi a espécie que apresentou o maior número de isolados positivos para fosfolipases (91,7%). Diferenças estatisticamente significantes em relação à produção de fosfolipases entre as espécies e entre as cepas provenientes de diferentes sítios de origem foram detectadas. Quanto à produção de proteinases ácidas, os isolados de C. parapsilosis testados foram os maiores produtores (69,2%). Entre as espécies analisadas, a porcentagem de produção de proteinase entre os isolados não diferiu estatisticamente (?2=1.9 p=0.5901 (?2=1.9 p=0.5901). CONCLUSÕES: A maioria dos isolados de C. não-albicans, assim como os de C. albicans, foram grandes produtores de enzimas hidrolíticas e, consequentemente, podem ser capazes de causar infecção em condições adequadas. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Candida yeasts are commensals; however, if the balance of normal flora is disrupted or the immune defenses are compromised, Candida species can cause disease manifestations. Several attributes contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of Candida, including the production of extrace [...] llular hydrolytic enzymes, particularly phospholipase and proteinase. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro activity of phospholipases and acid proteinases in clinical isolates of Candida spp. METHODS: Eighty-two isolates from hospitalized patients collected from various sites of origin were analyzed. Phospholipase production was performed in egg yolk medium and the production of proteinase was verified in a medium containing bovine serum albumin. The study was performed in triplicate. RESULTS: Fifty-six (68.3%) of isolates tested were phospholipase positive and 16 (44.4%) were positive for proteinase activity. C. tropicalis was the species with the highest number of positive isolates for phospholipase (91.7%). Statistically significant differences were observed in relation to production of phospholipases among species (p

  3. The ubiquitin-proteasome system is responsible for cysteine-responsive regulation of cysteine dioxygenase concentration in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipanuk, Martha H; Hirschberger, Lawrence L; Londono, Monica P; Cresenzi, Carrie L; Yu, Anthony F

    2004-03-01

    Hepatic cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) activity is a critical regulator of cellular cysteine concentration and availability of cysteine for anabolic processes and is markedly higher in animals fed diets containing excess sulfur amino acids compared with those fed levels at or below the requirement. Rat hepatocytes responded to a deficiency or excess of cysteine in the culture medium with a decrease or increase in CDO level but no change in CDO mRNA level. The cysteine analog, cysteamine, but not cysteine metabolites or thiol reagents, was also effective in increasing CDO. Inhibitors of the 26S proteasome blocked CDO degradation in cysteine-deficient cells but had little or no effect on CDO concentration in hepatocytes cultured with excess cysteine. High-molecular-mass CDO-ubiquitin conjugates were observed in cells cultured in cysteine-deficient medium, whether or not proteasome inhibitor was present, but these CDO-ubiquitin conjugates were not observed in cells cultured in cysteine-supplemented medium with or without proteasome inhibitor. Similar results were observed for degradation of recombinant CDO expressed in human heptocarcinoma cells cultured in cysteine-deficient or cysteine-supplemented medium. CDO is an example of a mammalian enzyme that is robustly regulated via its substrate, with the presence of substrate blocking the ubiquitination of CDO and, hence, the targeting of CDO for proteasomal degradation. This regulation occurs in primary hepatocytes in a manner that corresponds with changes observed in intact animals. PMID:14644768

  4. Characterization of Peptides from Capsicum annuum Hybrid Seeds with Inhibitory Activity Against ?-Amylase, Serine Proteinases and Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Bard, Gabriela C; Nascimento, Viviane V; Ribeiro, Suzanna F F; Rodrigues, Rosana; Perales, Jonas; Teixeira-Ferreira, André; Carvalho, André O; Fernandes, Katia Valevski S; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2015-04-01

    Over the last several years, the activity of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), isolated from plant species, against different microorganisms has been demonstrated. More recently, some of these AMPs have been described as potent inhibitors of ?-amylases and serine proteinases from insects and mammals. The aim of this work was to obtain AMPs from protein extracts of a hybrid Capsicum (Ikeda × UENF 1381) seeds and to evaluate their microbial and enzyme inhibitory activities. Initially, proteins were extracted from the Capsicum hybrid seeds in buffer (sodium phosphate pH 5.4,) and precipitated with ammonium sulfate (90 % saturated). Extract of hybrid seeds was subjected to size exclusion chromatography, and three fractions were obtained: S1, S2 and S3. The amino acid sequence, obtained by mass spectrometry, of the 6 kDa peptide from the S3 fraction, named HyPep, showed 100 % identity with PSI-1.2, a serine protease inhibitor isolated from C. annuum seeds, however the bifunctionality of this inhibitor against two enzymes is being shown for the first time in this work. The S3 fraction showed the highest antifungal activity, inhibiting all the yeast strains tested, and it also exhibited inhibitory activity against human salivary and Callosobruchus maculatus ?-amylases as well as serine proteinases. PMID:25750185

  5. Digestive proteinases of larvae of the corn earworm, Heliothis zea: characterization, distribution, and dietary relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, C J; Kang, J; Rice, W C; McIntosh, A H; Chippendale, G M; Schubert, K R

    1991-01-01

    Proteinases and peptidases from the intestinal tract of fifth-instar larvae of Heliothis (= Helicoverpa) zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) were characterized based on their substrate specificity, tissue of origin, and pH optimum. Activity corresponding to trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidases A and B, and leucine aminopeptidase was detected in regurgitated fluids, midgut contents, and midgut wall. High levels of proteinase activity were detected in whole midgut homogenates, with much lower levels being observed in foregut and salivary gland homogenates. In addition, enzyme levels were determined from midgut lumen contents, midgut wall homogenates, and regurgitated fluids. Proteinase activities were highest in the regurgitated fluids and midgut lumen contents, with the exception of leucine aminopeptidase activity, which was found primarily in the midgut wall. Larvae fed their natural diet of soybean leaves had digestive proteinase levels that were similar to those of larvae fed artificial diet. No major differences in midgut proteinase activity were detected between larvae reared under axenic or xenic conditions, indicating that the larvae are capable of digesting proteins in the absence of gut microorganisms. The effect of pH on the activity of each proteinase was studied. The pH optima for the major proteinases were determined to be pH 8.0-8.5 for trypsin, when tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester was used as the substrate; and pH 7.5-8.0 for chymotrypsin, when benzoyl-L-tyrosine ethyl ester was used as the substrate. PMID:1799675

  6. Proteinase activity in cell nuclei of rats exposed to ?-radiation and methyl nitrosourea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity of nuclear proteinases in blood and liver cells of rats exposed to whole-body ?-irradiation (10 Gy) has been comparatively studied by the capacity of splitting the caseic substrate. Proteinase activity in nuclei of irradiated rat leukocytes was shown to increase by 2.5 times and to gradually decrease after 48 h reaching 150-160% as compared to the control. Two hours following a single injection of methyl nitrosourea the alteration in the activity of proteinases in nuclei of rat hepatocytes and leukocytes was different from the alteration of this index after ?-irradiation

  7. Identification and characterization of the cysteine protease inhibitor gene MdCPI from Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X; Liu, Fengsong; Zhang, D; Tang, T; Ge, X

    2011-10-01

    Cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CPIs) are involved in many vital cellular processes such as signalling pathways, apoptosis, immune response and development; however, no CPIs have yet been reported from the housefly Musca domestica. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a housefly CPI gene designated MdCPI. The gene contains an open reading frame of 357 bp encoding a protein of 118 amino acid residues with a putative signal peptide of 17 amino acid residues. Protein alignment demonstrated a high homology to that of Sarcophaga crassipalpis (identity = 51%). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that all CPIs from dipterans, including the housefly, belong to the I25A family and may be descended from a single common ancestor. The gene was expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli. Biochemical studies showed that MdCPI exerts an inhibiting function on papain, which is a classical assay to confirm CPIs. Real-time quantitative PCR and immunolocalization analysis revealed that MdCPI is specifically expressed in haemocytes and fat bodies. It is highly down-regulated in larvae and markedly up-regulated in the pupal stage, suggesting that it may be related to development. PMID:21711401

  8. Primary hepatocytes from mice lacking cysteine dioxygenase show increased cysteine concentrations and higher rates of metabolism of cysteine to hydrogen sulfide and thiosulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowska, Halina; Roman, Heather B; Hirschberger, Lawrence L; Sasakura, Kiyoshi; Nagano, Tetsuo; Hanaoka, Kenjiro; Krijt, Jakub; Stipanuk, Martha H

    2014-05-01

    The oxidation of cysteine in mammalian cells occurs by two routes: a highly regulated direct oxidation pathway in which the first step is catalyzed by cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and by desulfhydration-oxidation pathways in which the sulfur is released in a reduced oxidation state. To assess the effect of a lack of CDO on production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and thiosulfate (an intermediate in the oxidation of H2S to sulfate) and to explore the roles of both cystathionine ?-lyase (CTH) and cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) in cysteine desulfhydration by liver, we investigated the metabolism of cysteine in hepatocytes isolated from Cdo1-null and wild-type mice. Hepatocytes from Cdo1-null mice produced more H2S and thiosulfate than did hepatocytes from wild-type mice. The greater flux of cysteine through the cysteine desulfhydration reactions catalyzed by CTH and CBS in hepatocytes from Cdo1-null mice appeared to be the consequence of their higher cysteine levels, which were due to the lack of CDO and hence lack of catabolism of cysteine by the cysteinesulfinate-dependent pathways. Both CBS and CTH appeared to contribute substantially to cysteine desulfhydration, with estimates of 56 % by CBS and 44 % by CTH in hepatocytes from wild-type mice, and 63 % by CBS and 37 % by CTH in hepatocytes from Cdo1-null mice. PMID:24609271

  9. The mitochondrial toxicity of cysteine-S-conjugates: Studies with pentachlorobutadienyl-L-cysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nephrotoxic cysteine conjugates, arising from mercapturate biosynthesis, can perturb the mitochondrial membrane potential and calcium homeostasis in renal epithelial cells. Activation of these cysteine conjugates to reactive species by mitochondrial ?-lyases results in covalent binding and mitochondrial damage. PCBC and related cysteine conjugates inhibit ADP-stimulated respiration in mitochondria respiring on alpha-ketoglutrate/malate and succinate indicating that both dehydrogenases may be targets. The respiratory inhibition is blocked by aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of the ?-lyase. Hence, metabolic activation is required implying that covalent binding of reactive intermediates may be important to the mitochondrial injury. Binding of 35S-fragments has been found for 5 conjugates with varying degrees of mitochondrial toxicity. PCBC is more lipophilic and has a higher affinity for cellular membranes than other cysteine conjugates. PCBC rapidly depolarizes the inner membrane potential resulting in an inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and calcium upon sequestration. Consequently, mitochondria and renal epithelial cells exposed to PCBC show a sudden release of calcium upon exposure to PCBC which is followed by a later increase in state 4 respiration leading to an inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation. The primary effect of other cysteine conjugates is an inhibition of the dehydrogenases, thus inhibiting state 3 respiration inhibiting state 3 respiration

  10. Proteinase and Growth Factor Alterations Revealed by Gene Microarray Analysis of Human Diabetic Corneas

    OpenAIRE

    Saghizadeh, Mehrnoosh; Kramerov, Andrei A.; Tajbakhsh, Jian; Aoki, Annette M.; Wang, Charles; Chai, Ning-Ning; Ljubimova, Julia Y.; Sasaki, Takako; Sosne, Gabriel; Carlson, Marc R. J.; Nelson, Stanley F.; Ljubimov, Alexander V

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE. To identify proteinases and growth factors abnormally expressed in human corneas of donors with diabetic retinopathy (DR), additional to previously described matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-10 and -3 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I.

  11. The reactions of nitrosyl complexes with cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncaroli, Federico; Olabe, José A

    2005-06-27

    The reaction kinetics of a set of ruthenium nitrosyl complexes, {(X)5MNO}n, containing different coligands X (polypyridines, NH3, EDTA, pz, and py) with cysteine (excess conditions), were studied by UV-vis spectrophotometry, using stopped-flow techniques, at an appropriate pH, in the range 3-10, and T = 25 degrees C. The selection of coligands afforded a redox-potential range from -0.3 to +0.5 V (vs Ag/AgCl) for the NO+/NO bound couples. Two intermediates were detected. The first one, I1, appears in the range 410-470 nm for the different complexes and is proposed to be a 1:1 adduct, with the S atom of the cysteinate nucleophile bound to the N atom of nitrosyl. The adduct formation step of I1 is an equilibrium, and the kinetic rate constants for the formation and dissociation of the corresponding adducts were determined by studying the cysteine-concentration dependence of the formation rates. The second intermediate, I2, was detected through the decay of I1, with a maximum absorbance at ca. 380 nm. From similar kinetic results and analyses, we propose that a second cysteinate adds to I1 to form I2. By plotting ln k1(RS-) and ln k2(RS-) for the first and second adduct formation steps, respectively, against the redox potentials of the NO+/NO couples, linear free energy plots are obtained, as previously observed with OH- as a nucleophile. The addition rates for both processes increase with the nitrosyl redox potentials, and this reflects a more positive charge at the electrophilic N atom. In a third step, the I2 adducts decay to form the corresponding Ru-aqua complexes, with the release of N2O and formation of cystine, implying a two-electron process for the overall nitrosyl reduction. This is in contrast with the behavior of nitroprusside ([Fe(CN)5NO]2-; NP), which always yields the one-electron reduction product, [Fe(CN)5NO]3-, either under substoichiometric or in excess-cysteine conditions. PMID:15962980

  12. Proteinases of Proteus spp.: purification, properties, and detection in urine of infected patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Loomes, L. M.; Senior, B. W.; Kerr, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    The proteinases secreted by pathogenic strains of Proteus mirabilis, P. vulgaris biotype 2, P. vulgaris biotype 3, and P. penneri were purified with almost 100% recovery by affinity chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose followed by anion-exchange chromatography. The proteinase purified from the urinary tract pathogen P. mirabilis, which we had previously shown to degrade immunoglobulins A and G, appeared as a composite of a single band and a double band (53 and 50 kDa, respectively) on sodium do...

  13. Applicability of Yeast Extracellular Proteinases in Brewing: Physiological and Biochemical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Bilinski, Carl A.; Russell, Inge; Stewart, Graham G.

    1987-01-01

    A general screening survey for expression of extracellular acid proteinase production was performed on over 100 cultures belonging to the genus Saccharomyces. Although two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed positive extracellular proteinase phenotypes in plate tests, it was not possible to demonstrate proteolytic activities in cell-free culture supernatants in assays performed at beer pH values. Of several yeasts from other genera examined, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Torulopsis m...

  14. Pulse photolysis of NADH in the presence of cysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the UV irradiation of NADH under anaerobic conditions, cysteine, which often acts as a radioprotective substance, has a sensitizing effect. With the aid of pulse photolysis, it was studied which reaction mechanisms in the presence or absence of cysteine are responsible for the damage to NADH in aqueous solution. In the absence of cysteine, the characteristic NADH absorption at 340 nm is reduced immediately after UV quanta have been absorbed by the adenine fraction of the molecules; in the presence of cysteine, a secondary reaction causes additional damage. The spectra of the intermediate products of NADH and cysteine have been recorded for different cysteine concentrations, and the reaction constants have been determined. These values suggest that the sensitizing effect is due to a reaction of NADH with radical anions produced by photolysis. (orig.)

  15. Molecular characterization, expression and function analysis of a five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dianchang; Ma, Jianjun; Jiang, Shigui

    2014-03-01

    Serine proteinase inhibitors represent an expanding superfamily of endogenous inhibitors that are regulate proteolytic events and involved in a variety of physiological and immunological processes. A five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (poKSPI) was identified and characterized from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata based on expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis. The full-length cDNA was 737 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) 660 bp encoding a 219 amino acid protein a theoretical molecular weight (Mw) of 23.3 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.40. A putative signal peptide of 19 amino acid residues and five tandem Kazal domains were identified. Four of the Kazal domains had the highly conserved motif sequences with six cysteine residues responsible for the formation of disulfide bridges. The deduced amino acid sequence of the poKSPI shared high homology with KSPIs from Hirudo medicinalis. The poKSPI mRNA could be detected in all examined tissues, the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA was the highest in mantle and gonad, while the lowest in haemocyte and intestine. After LPS challenge, the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA in digestive gland was significantly up-regulated at 4 h post-challenge and reached the peak at 12 h post-challenge, which was 4.23-fold higher than control group; the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA in gill was also significantly up-regulated at 8 and 12 h post-challenge, which were 4.48 and 2.26-fold higher than control group. After Vibrio alginolyticus challenge, the expression levels of the poKSPI mRNA in digestive gland were significantly up-regulated at 8, 12, 48 and 72 h post-challenge, which were 1.70, 1.79, 3.89 and 5.69-fold higher than control group, respectively; the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA in gill was significantly up-regulated at 24 h post-challenge, which was 5.30-fold higher than control group. The recombinant poKSPI protein could inhibit chymotrypsin and trypsin activities in dose-dependent manner, when the ratios of rpoKSPI to chymotrypsin and trypsin were 36:1 and 72:1, respectively, the proteinase activities of chymotrypsin and trypsin could be almost completely inhibited, but the rpoKSPI could not inhibit subtilisin. PMID:24378679

  16. Novel Oxidative Modifications in Redox-Active Cysteine Residues*

    OpenAIRE

    JEONG, JAEHO; Jung, Yongsik; Na, Seungjin; Jeong, Jihye; Lee, Eunsun; Kim, Mi-Sun; Choi, Sun; Shin, Dong-Hae; Paek, Eunok; Lee, Hee-Yoon; Lee, Kong-Joo

    2010-01-01

    Redox-active cysteine, a highly reactive sulfhydryl, is one of the major targets of ROS. Formation of disulfide bonds and other oxidative derivatives of cysteine including sulfenic, sulfinic, and sulfonic acids, regulates the biological function of various proteins. We identified novel low-abundant cysteine modifications in cellular GAPDH purified on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) by employing selectively excluded mass screening analysis for nano ultraperformance liquid chromatog...

  17. Structural and Functional Consequences of Cleavage of Human Secretory and Human Serum Immunoglobulin A1 by Proteinases from Proteus mirabilis and Neisseria meningitidis

    OpenAIRE

    Almogren, Adel; Senior, Bernard W.; Loomes, Lesley M.; Kerr, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    The cleavage of human serum monomeric immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) and human secretory IgA1 (S-IgA1) by IgA1 proteinase of Neisseria meningitidis and cleavage by the proteinase from Proteus mirabilis have been compared. For serum IgA1, both proteinases cleaved only the ? chain. N. meningitidis proteinase cleaved only in the hinge. P. mirabilis proteinase sequentially removed the tailpiece, the CH3 domain, and the CH2 domain. The cleavage of S-IgA1 by N. meningitidis proteinase occurred only in t...

  18. Lipases and proteinases in milk : occurrence, heat inactivation, and their importance for the keeping quality of milk products

    OpenAIRE

    Driessen, F.M.

    1983-01-01

    The occurrence and heat inactivation of native and bacterial lipases and proteinases in milk were studied.Production of these enzymes by Gram-negative psychrotrophic bacteria in milk was found to take place towards the end of exponential growth and in the stationary growth phase.Kinetics of heat inactivation in milk of milk lipoprotein lipase, alkaline milk proteinase and lipases and proteinases of some Gram-negative bacteria are given.The effects of residual lipolytic and proteolytic activit...

  19. Behaviour of cysteine and small cysteine-containing peptides at positively charged surface of mercury electrodes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dor?ák, Vlastimil; Mader, P.; Šestáková, Ivana; Veselá, V.

    2003. s. 101-103. ISBN 80-86238-29-6. [Moderní elektrochemické metody /23./. 20.05.2003-22.05.2003, Jet?ichovice] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA525/02/0301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901; CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : cystein * DME * polarography Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  20. Implication of Cysteine, Glutathione and Cysteine Synthase in Theobroma cacao L. Zygotic Embryogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Minyaka Emile; Niemenak Nicolas; N.M.S. Soupi; Sangare Abdourahamane; Omokolo Ndoumou Denis

    2007-01-01

    An investigation on sulfur metabolism during cocoa zygotic embryogenesis was carried out by analysing total amino acids, cysteine, glutathione, cysteine synthase and proteins in the endosperm and in the embryos. Cacao clones SNK10 and Sca6 were used. As the embryo was getting mature, the endosperm became progressively cellularized from the mycropilar zone. Amino acid, cysteine, glutathione and protein contents were always higher in the embryos than in the endosperm in both genotypes. In the e...

  1. Characterization by Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Stable Cysteine Sulfenic Acid in a Cysteine Switch Peptide of Matrix Metalloproteinases

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Vivekananda; Spellman, Daniel S; Neubert, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    Cysteine sulfenic acid (Cys-SOH) is an elusive intermediate in reactive oxygen species-induced oxidation reactions of many proteins such as peroxiredoxins and tyrosine phosphatases. Cys-SOH is proposed to play a vital role in catalytic and signaling functions. The formation of cysteine sulfinic acid (Cys-SO2H) and cysteine sulfonic acid (Cys-SO3H) has been implicated in the activation of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) and oxidation of thiol to cysteine sulfinic acid has been associated wi...

  2. Structural and functional characterization of proteinase inhibitors from seeds of Cajanus cajan (cv. ICP 7118).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi, Marri; Lokya, Vadthya; Swaroop, Vanka; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Kannan, Monica; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna; Padmasree, Kollipara

    2014-10-01

    Proteinase inhibitors (C11PI) from mature dry seeds of Cajanus cajan (cv. ICP 7118) were purified by chromatography which resulted in 87-fold purification and 7.9% yield. SDS-PAGE, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrum and two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis together resolved that C11PI possessed molecular mass of 8385.682 Da and existed as isoinhibitors. However, several of these isoinhibitors exhibited self association tendency to form small oligomers. All the isoinhibitors resolved in Native-PAGE and 2-D gel electrophoresis showed inhibitory activity against bovine pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin as well as Achaea janata midgut trypsin-like proteases (AjPs), a devastating pest of castor plant. Partial sequences of isoinhibitor (pI 6.0) obtained from MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis and N-terminal sequencing showed 100% homology to Bowman-Birk Inhibitors (BBIs) of leguminous plants. C11PI showed non-competitive inhibition against trypsin and chymotrypsin. A marginal loss (<15%) in C11PI activity against trypsin at 80 (°)C and basic pH (12.0) was associated with concurrent changes in its far-UV CD spectra. Further, in vitro assays demonstrated that C11PI possessed significant inhibitory potential (IC50 of 78 ng) against AjPs. On the other hand, in vivo leaf coating assays demonstrated that C11PI caused significant mortality rate with concomitant reduction in body weight of both larvae and pupae, prolonged the duration of transition from larva to pupa along with formation of abnormal larval-pupal and pupal-adult intermediates. Being smaller peptides, it is possible to express C11PI in castor to protect them against its devastating pest A. janata. PMID:25093261

  3. [Investigation of acid proteinase and phospholipase activity as virulence factors in clinical Aspergillus spp. isolates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    B?r?nci, Asuman; B?lg?n, Kemal; Tanriverd? Çayci, Yeliz

    2014-07-01

    Aspergillus spp. are widespread in nature and cause severe infections especially in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus fumigatus complex is the most common species that causes infections in humans; however Aspergillus niger complex and Aspergillus flavus complex are the emerging agents that are isolated frequently from clinical specimens more recently. Besides the host factors such as immunosuppression, hematologic malignancy and corticosteroid use, fungal virulence factors such as elastase, acid protease and phospholipase enzymes are considered among the factors that affect the development of invasive aspergillosis. The aim of this study was to detect the acid proteinase and phospholipase enzyme activities in 30 A.fumigatus complex, nine A.flavus complex and four A.niger complex strains isolated from clinical specimens. Acid proteinase and phospholipase activities of the isolates were investigated by using bovine serum albumin agar (BSA), and egg yolk agar plates, respectively. Acid proteinase and phospholipase activity was detected in 76.7% (23/30) and 93.3% (28/30) of A.fumigatus complex isolates, respectively. None of the nine A.flavus complex isolates exhibited acid proteinase or phospholipase activity. Acid proteinase activity was not detected in any of the A.niger complex isolates (n= 4), however phospholipase activity was detected in one (25%) isolate. All of the acid proteinase positive A.fumigatus complex strains (n= 23) were also positive for phospholipase activity. In conclusion, further larger scale multicenter studies supported by clinical data, are needed to enlighten the roles of acid proteinase and phospholipase in the pathogenesis of infections due to Aspergillus spp. PMID:25052116

  4. An O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase from Leucaena leucocephala is a cysteine synthase but not a mimosine synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yafuso, Jannai T; Negi, Vishal Singh; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Borthakur, Dulal

    2014-07-01

    In plants, the final step of cysteine formation is catalyzed by O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OAS-TL). The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize an OAS-TL from the tree legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena). Leucaena contains a toxic, nonprotein amino acid, mimosine, which is also formed by an OAS-TL, and characterization of this enzyme is essential for developing a mimosine-free leucaena for its use as a protein-rich fodder. The cDNA for a cytosolic leucaena OAS-TL isoform was obtained through interspecies suppression subtractive hybridization. A 40-kDa recombinant protein was purified from Escherichia coli and used in enzyme activity assays where it was found to synthesize only cysteine. The enzyme followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and the Km was calculated to be 1,850±414 ?M sulfide and the Vmax was 200.6±19.92 ?M cysteine min(-1). The N-terminal affinity His-tag was cleaved from the recombinant OAS-TL to eliminate its possible interference in binding with the substrate, 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone, for mimosine formation. The His-tag-cleaved OAS-TL was again observed to catalyze the formation of cysteine but not mimosine. Thus, the cytosolic OAS-TL from leucaena used in this study is specific for only cysteine synthesis and is different from previously reported OAS-TLs that also function as ?-substituted alanine synthases. PMID:24777760

  5. Determination of Disulfide Bond Connectivity of Cysteine-rich Peptide IpTxa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cysteine-rich peptides stabilized by intramolecular disulfide bonds have often been isolated from venoms of microbes, animals and plants. These peptides typically have much higher stability and improved biopharmaceutical properties compared to their linear counterparts. Therefore the correct disulfide bond formation of small proteins and peptides has been extensively studied for a better understanding of their folding mechanism and achieving efficient generation of the naturally occurring biologically active product. Imperatoxin A (IpTxa), a peptide toxin containing 6 cysteine residues, was isolated from the venom of scorpion Pandinus imperator, selectively binds the ryanodine receptors and activates Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). IpTxa increases the binding of ryanodine to ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and encourages reconstituted single channel to induce subconductance states

  6. Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors in the midgut of Phlebotomus papatasi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leah Theresa, Sigle; Marcelo, Ramalho-Ortigao.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are important disease vectors of parasites of the genus Leishmania, as well as bacteria and viruses. Following studies of the midgut transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi, the principal vector of Leishmania major, two non-classical Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibi [...] tors were identified (PpKzl1 and PpKzl2). Analyses of expression profiles indicated that PpKzl1 and PpKzl2 transcripts are both regulated by blood-feeding in the midgut of P. papatasi and are also expressed in males, larva and pupa. We expressed a recombinant PpKzl2 in a mammalian expression system (CHO-S free style cells) that was applied to in vitro studies to assess serine proteinase inhibition. Recombinant PpKzl2 inhibited ?-chymotrypsin to 9.4% residual activity and also inhibited ?-thrombin and trypsin to 33.5% and 63.9% residual activity, suggesting that native PpKzl2 is an active serine proteinase inhibitor and likely involved in regulating digestive enzymes in the midgut. Early stages of Leishmania are susceptible to killing by digestive proteinases in the sandfly midgut. Thus, characterising serine proteinase inhibitors may provide new targets and strategies to prevent transmission of Leishmania.

  7. Domain 15 of the serine proteinase inhibitor LEKTI blocks HIV infection in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Palesch

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor (LEKTI is a 15-domain serine proteinase inhibitor, parts of which have first been isolated from human blood filtrate. It is encoded by the gene SPINK5. In the past, different groups reported antiviral activities of certain serine proteinase inhibitors, such as mucous proteinase inhibitor and alpha1-proteinase inhibitor. The purpose of this study was to test two representative domains of the proteinase inhibitor LEKTI for anti-HIV activities.Methods: LEKTI domains 6 and 15 were recombinantly produced in E.coli. To test their inhibitory activity against HIV infection, the reporter cell line P4-R5 MAGI carrying an HIV-inducible reporter gene was infected by a CCR5-tropic HIV strain in the presence of different inhibitor concentrations. After three days, infection rates were determined by quantifying ß-galactosidase activities using the Galacto-Light Plus™ ß-Galactosidase Reporter Gene Assay.Results: In contrast to LEKTI domain 6, LEKTI domain 15 suppressed HIV-induced reporter gene activities with an IC50 value of approximately 29 µM.Conclusion: LEKTI domain 15 represents an inhibitor of HIV infection. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:131-5. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i3.580Keywords: HIV, inhibition, LEKTI, P4-R5 MAGI

  8. Invasiveness corresponds to differentiation rather than to proteinase secretion in endometrial cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillem, M; Prifti, S; Koumouridis, A; Runnebaum, B

    1999-01-01

    Local invasiveness is an important prognostic factor in endometrial carcinoma. To study the role of two groups of secreted proteinases (serine proteinases and matrix metalloproteinases) in this process, we examined three endometrial cancer cell lines (Ishikawa HEC 1A, AN3CA) for their invasiveness in vitro. Additionally, we considered the secretion of urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and 2 (PAI-1 and PAI-2), as well as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 1, 2, 3, and 9, and their inhibitors TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Compared to the highly invasive fibrosarcoma cell line HT 1080, Ishikawa displayed low and AN3CA moderate invasiveness, while HEC 1A cells were almost as invasive as HT 1080 cells. Ishikawa cells secreted the highest amounts of proteinases. Cytokine and steroid treatments upregulated MMP-1 in all cell lines while the effects were heterogeneous regarding other proteinases and inhibitors. No effect of these treatments on invasiveness could be detected. Both basal secretion and regulation of the proteinases tested in this set of experiments seem to be markers of differentiation rather than of invasiveness. PMID:10609496

  9. Determination of germ tube, phospholipase, and proteinase production by bloodstream isolates of Candida albicans

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonella Souza, Mattei; Sydney Hartz, Alves; Cecilia Bittencourt, Severo; Luciana da Silva, Guazzelli; Flavio de Mattos, Oliveira; Luiz Carlos, Severo.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Candida albicans is a commensal and opportunistic agent that causes infection in immunocompromised individuals. Several attributes contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of this yeast, including the production of germ tubes (GTs) and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, particularl [...] y phospholipase and proteinase. This study aimed to investigate GT production and phospholipase and proteinase activities in bloodstream isolates of C. albicans. Methods One hundred fifty-three C. albicans isolates were obtained from blood samples and analyzed for GT, phospholipase, and proteinase production. The assays were performed in duplicate in egg yolk medium containing bovine serum albumin and human serum. Results Detectable amounts of proteinase were produced by 97% of the isolates, and 78% of the isolates produced phospholipase. GTs were produced by 95% of the isolates. A majority of the isolates exhibited low levels of phospholipase production and high levels of proteinase production. Conclusions Bloodstream isolates of C. albicans produce virulence factors such as GT and hydrolytic enzymes that enable them to cause infection under favorable conditions.

  10. A VOLTAMMETRIC STUDY ON THE INTERACTION OF NOVOBIOCIN WITH CYSTEINE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ENDER, BÇER; PAKZE, QETNKAYA.

    Full Text Available The interaction of novobiocin (NOV), an aminocoumarin antibiotic, with cysteine was studied by square-wave voltammetry technique on the hanging mercury drop electrode in different pH values. After the addition of NOV into the cysteine solution, the peak current of mercurous cysteine thiolate decreas [...] ed and its voltammetric peak potential shifted to more positive values. Voltammetric results showed that NOV binds with cysteine forming 1:1 nonelectroactive molecular complex by means of electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding interactions. The binding constants of NOV with cysteine at pHs 5, 7 and 10 were calculated to be 3.06x10³, 1.54x10(4) and 1.06x10(5) M-1, respectively. Furthermore, apossible mechanism of such interaction was also discussed.

  11. The possible role of dermatophyte cysteine dioxygenase in keratin degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperova, Alena; Kunert, Jiri; Raska, Milan

    2013-07-01

    Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO, EC 1.13.11.20) is a key enzyme involved in the homeostatic regulation of cysteine level and in production of important oxidized metabolites of cysteine such as pyruvate, sulphite, sulphate, hypotaurine, and taurine in all eukaryotic cells. The intracellular CDO concentration is regulated at both transcriptional and posttranslational levels. In several fungi, CDO plays an important role as a virulence factor involved in morphological transition from yeast to mycelial forms. CDO is crucial for oxidation of cysteine to cysteine sulphinic acid and therefore for sulphite production and secretion. Because sulphite cleaves disulphide bridges as a first unavoidable step in keratinolysis, it is hypothesized that in dermatophytes, CDO is a virulence factor crucial for keratin degradation. PMID:23758130

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF DANSYLATED CYSTEINE, GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE, CYSTEINE AND CYSTINE BY NARROW BORE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric (RP-LC/ESI-MS) method has been developed to confirm the identity of dansylated derivatives of cysteine and glutathione, and their respective dimers. Cysteine, GSH, CSSC...

  13. Oxidizability of cysteine and short cysteine-containing peptides by molecular oxygen.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dor?ák, Vlastimil; Mader, P.; Veselá, V.; Fedurco, M.; Šestáková, Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 52, - (2007), s. 979-988. ISSN 0009-2223 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035; GA ?R(CZ) GA203/07/1195; GA ?R(CZ) GA301/07/0490 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : cysteine peptides * polarography * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.529, year: 2007

  14. The aspartic proteinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae folds its own inhibitor into a helix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, M; Phylip, L H

    2000-01-01

    Aspartic proteinase A from yeast is specifically and potently inhibited by a small protein called IA3 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although this inhibitor consists of 68 residues, we show that the inhibitory activity resides within the N-terminal half of the molecule. Structures solved at 2.2 and 1.8 A, respectively, for complexes of proteinase A with full-length IA3 and with a truncated form consisting only of residues 2-34, reveal an unprecedented mode of inhibitor-enzyme interactions. Neither form of the free inhibitor has detectable intrinsic secondary structure in solution. However, upon contact with the enzyme, residues 2-32 become ordered and adopt a near-perfect alpha-helical conformation. Thus, the proteinase acts as a folding template, stabilizing the helical conformation in the inhibitor, which results in the potent and specific blockage of the proteolytic activity.

  15. Trichoderma harzianum transformant has high extracellular alkaline proteinase expression during specific mycoparasitic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena S. Goldman

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The mycoparasite Trichoderma harzianum produces an alkaline proteinase that may be specifically involved in mycoparasitism. We have constructed transformant strains of this fungus that overexpress this alkaline proteinase. Some of the transformants were assessed for alkaline proteinase activity, and those with higher activity than the wild type were selected for further studies. One of these transformant strains produced an elevated and constitutive pbr1 mRNA level during mycoparasitic interactions with Rhizoctonia solani.O micoparasita Trichoderma harzianum produz uma protease alcalina que pode estar especificamente envolvida em micoparasitismo. Foram construídas linhagens transgênicas deste fungo que super-expressam esta protease alcalina. A atividade de protease alcalina foi verificada em alguns destes transformantes e aqueles com maior atividade do que o tipo selvagem foram selecionados para estudos posteriores. Uma destas linhagens produziu um nível elevado e constitutivo de mRNA do gene que codifica a protease alcalina, prb1, durante interações micoparasíticas com o fitopatógeno Rhizoctonia solani.

  16. Neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3 trafficking routes in myelomonocytic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellquist, Linda; Rosen, Hanna [Department of Hematology, BMC C14, Lund University, SE-221 84 Lund (Sweden); Nordenfelt, Pontus [Section for Clinical and Experimental Infection Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, SE-221 84 Lund (Sweden); Calafat, Jero; Janssen, Hans [Division of Cell Biology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 1211066, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Persson, Ann-Maj [Department of Hematology, BMC C14, Lund University, SE-221 84 Lund (Sweden); Hansson, Markus, E-mail: Markus.Hansson@med.lu.se [Department of Hematology, BMC C14, Lund University, SE-221 84 Lund (Sweden); Olsson, Inge [Department of Hematology, BMC C14, Lund University, SE-221 84 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-11-15

    Neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase 3 (PR3) differ in intracellular localization, which may reflect different trafficking mechanisms of the precursor forms when synthesized at immature stages of neutrophils. To shed further light on these mechanisms, we compared the trafficking of precursor NE (proNE) and precursor PR3 (proPR3). Like proNE [1], proPR3 interacted with CD63 upon heterologous co-expression in COS cells but endogenous interaction was not detected although cell surface proNE/proPR3/CD63 were co-endocytosed in myelomonocytic cells. Cell surface proNE/proPR3 turned over more rapidly than cell surface CD63 consistent with processing/degradation of the pro-proteases but recycling of CD63. Colocalization of proNE/proPR3/CD63 with clathrin and Rab 7 suggested trafficking through coated vesicles and late endosomes. Partial caveolar trafficking of proNE/CD63 but not proPR3 was suggested by colocalization with caveolin-1. Blocking the C-terminus of proNE/proPR3 by creating a fusion with FK506 binding protein inhibited endosomal re-uptake of proNE but not proPR3 indicating 'pro{sub C}'-peptide-dependent structural/conformational requirements for proNE but not for proPR3 endocytosis. The NE aminoacid residue Y199 of a proposed NE sorting motif that interacts with AP-3 [2] was not required for proNE processing, sorting or endocytosis in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells expressing heterologous Y199-deleted proNE; this suggests operation of another AP-3-link for proNE targeting. Our results show intracellular multi-step trafficking to be different between proNE and proPR3 consistent with their differential subcellular NE/PR3 localization in neutrophils.

  17. Neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3 trafficking routes in myelomonocytic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase 3 (PR3) differ in intracellular localization, which may reflect different trafficking mechanisms of the precursor forms when synthesized at immature stages of neutrophils. To shed further light on these mechanisms, we compared the trafficking of precursor NE (proNE) and precursor PR3 (proPR3). Like proNE [1], proPR3 interacted with CD63 upon heterologous co-expression in COS cells but endogenous interaction was not detected although cell surface proNE/proPR3/CD63 were co-endocytosed in myelomonocytic cells. Cell surface proNE/proPR3 turned over more rapidly than cell surface CD63 consistent with processing/degradation of the pro-proteases but recycling of CD63. Colocalization of proNE/proPR3/CD63 with clathrin and Rab 7 suggested trafficking through coated vesicles and late endosomes. Partial caveolar trafficking of proNE/CD63 but not proPR3 was suggested by colocalization with caveolin-1. Blocking the C-terminus of proNE/proPR3 by creating a fusion with FK506 binding protein inhibited endosomal re-uptake of proNE but not proPR3 indicating 'proC'-peptide-dependent structural/conformational requirements for proNE but not for proPR3 endocytosis. The NE aminoacid residue Y199 of a proposed NE sorting motif that interacts with AP-3 [2] was not required for proNE processing, sorting or endocytosis in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells expressing heterologous Y199-deleted proNE; this suggests operation of another AP-3-link for proNE targeting. Our results show intracellular multi-step trafficking to be different between proNE and proPR3 consistent with their differential subcellular NE/PR3 localization in neutrophils.

  18. Coronavirus 3CLpro proteinase cleavage sites: Possible relevance to SARS virus pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blom Nikolaj

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the passing of more than a year since the first outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS, efficient counter-measures are still few and many believe that reappearance of SARS, or a similar disease caused by a coronavirus, is not unlikely. For other virus families like the picornaviruses it is known that pathology is related to proteolytic cleavage of host proteins by viral proteinases. Furthermore, several studies indicate that virus proliferation can be arrested using specific proteinase inhibitors supporting the belief that proteinases are indeed important during infection. Prompted by this, we set out to analyse and predict cleavage by the coronavirus main proteinase using computational methods. Results We retrieved sequence data on seven fully sequenced coronaviruses and identified the main 3CL proteinase cleavage sites in polyproteins using alignments. A neural network was trained to recognise the cleavage sites in the genomes obtaining a sensitivity of 87.0% and a specificity of 99.0%. Several proteins known to be cleaved by other viruses were submitted to prediction as well as proteins suspected relevant in coronavirus pathology. Cleavage sites were predicted in proteins such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, transcription factors CREB-RP and OCT-1, and components of the ubiquitin pathway. Conclusions Our prediction method NetCorona predicts coronavirus cleavage sites with high specificity and several potential cleavage candidates were identified which might be important to elucidate coronavirus pathology. Furthermore, the method might assist in design of proteinase inhibitors for treatment of SARS and possible future diseases caused by coronaviruses. It is made available for public use at our website: http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetCorona/.

  19. Coronavirus 3CL(pro) proteinase cleavage sites: Possible relevance to SARS virus pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiemer, Lars; Lund, Ole

    2004-01-01

    Background: Despite the passing of more than a year since the first outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), efficient counter-measures are still few and many believe that reappearance of SARS, or a similar disease caused by a coronavirus, is not unlikely. For other virus families like the picornaviruses it is known that pathology is related to proteolytic cleavage of host proteins by viral proteinases. Furthermore, several studies indicate that virus proliferation can be arrested using specific proteinase inhibitors supporting the belief that proteinases are indeed important during infection. Prompted by this, we set out to analyse and predict cleavage by the coronavirus main proteinase using computational methods. Results: We retrieved sequence data on seven fully sequenced coronaviruses and identified the main 3CL proteinase cleavage sites in polyproteins using alignments. A neural network was trained to recognise the cleavage sites in the genomes obtaining a sensitivity of 87.0% and a specificity of 99.0%. Several proteins known to be cleaved by other viruses were submitted to prediction as well as proteins suspected relevant in coronavirus pathology. Cleavage sites were predicted in proteins such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator ( CFTR), transcription factors CREB-RP and OCT-I, and components of the ubiquitin pathway. Conclusions: Our prediction method NetCorona predicts coronavirus cleavage sites with high specificity and several potential cleavage candidates were identified which might be important to elucidate coronavirus pathology. Furthermore, the method might assist in design of proteinase inhibitors for treatment of SARS and possible future diseases caused by coronaviruses.

  20. Activity profiling of papain-like cysteine proteases in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hoorn, R. A. L.; Leeuwenburgh, M. A.; Bogyo, M.; Joosten, M. H. A. J.; Peck, S. C.

    2004-01-01

    Transcriptomic and proteomic technologies are generating a wealth of data that are frequently used by scientists to predict the function of proteins based on their expression or presence. However, activity of many proteins, such as transcription factors, kinases, and proteases, depends on posttranslational modifications that frequently are not detected by these technologies. Therefore, to monitor activity of proteases rather than their abundance, we introduce protease activity profiling in pl...

  1. Metabolism of L-cysteine in guinea pig liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosaki,Yasuhiro

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available The metabolism of L-cysteine in guinea pig liver was studied. Guinea pig liver contained 0.45 +/- 0.05 (mean +/- SD mumol of cysteine, 0.180 +/- 0.080 mumol of 3-mercaptolactate-cysteine disulfide [S-(2-hydroxy-2-carboxyethylthiocysteine, HCETC], and 8.082 +/- 0.516 mumol of reduced glutathione per g of fresh tissue. The taurine content was 0.912 +/- 0.158 mumol per g of fresh liver. Cysteine dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.20 activity was several-fold lower than cysteine aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.3 activity. Lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27 activity was about 10-fold higher than 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (EC 2.8.1.2 activity. These results indicate that the oxidative metabolism of L-cysteine in the guinea pig liver is not as active as in the rat liver and that L-cysteine, at least in part, is metabolized via the transaminative pathway, in which 3-mercaptopyruvate is partly reduced to 3-mercaptolactate and is utilized to form HCETC.

  2. Purification and characterization of cysteine aminotransferase from rat liver cytosol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akagi,Reiko

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine aminotransferase (L-cysteine: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, EC 2.6.1.3 was purified over 400-fold from the high-speed supernatant fraction of rat liver. The purified enzyme was homogeneous as judged by gel filtration, isoelectric focusing and disc electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the enzyme was about 74,000 by gel filtration and the isoelectric point was 6.2 (4 degrees C. The enzyme catalyzed transamination between L-cysteine and 2-oxoglutarate and the reverse reaction. The optimum pH was 9.7. The Km value for L-cysteine was 22.2 mM, and that for 2-oxoglutaric acid was 0.06 mM. L-Aspartate was a potent inhibitor of the cysteine aminotransferase reaction. The enzyme was very active toward L-alanine 3-sulfinic acid at pH 8.0, and was also very active toward L-aspartic acid (Km = 1.6 mM. Ratios of activities for L-aspartic acid and L-cysteine were essentially constant during the purification of the enzyme. Evidence based on substrate specificity, enzyme inhibition, and physicochemical properties indicates that cytosolic cysteine aminotransferase is identical with cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase (L-aspartate: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, EC 2.6.1.1.

  3. Tagging of plant potyvirus replication and movement by insertion of beta-glucuronidase into the viral polyprotein.

    OpenAIRE

    Dolja, V V; McBride, H J; Carrington, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Infectious RNA transcripts were generated from full-length cDNA clones of the tobacco etch potyvirus genome containing an insertion of the bacterial beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene between the polyprotein-coding sequences for the N-terminal 35-kDa proteinase and the helper component-proteinase. The recombinant virus was able to spread systemically in plants and accumulated to a level comparable with wild-type tobacco etch potyvirus. Proteolytic processing mediated by the 35-kDa proteinase and h...

  4. Prospeção de inibidores de serinoproteinases em folhas de leguminosas arbóreas da floresta Amazônica Prospecting serine proteinase inhibitors in leaves from leguminous trees of the Amazon forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Ramos Chevreuil

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os inibidores de proteinases são proteínas extensivamente investigadas nos tecidos de estocagem, mas pouco prospectadas em outros tecidos vegetais. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de inibidores de serinoproteinases em extratos foliares de quinze espécies de leguminosas arbóreas da Amazônia. As espécies estudadas foram: Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata e S. polyphylla. Folhas foram coletadas, secas a 30ºC durante 48 h, trituradas e submetidas à extração com NaCl (0,15 M, 10% p/v resultando no extrato total. Ensaios foram executados para determinar a concentração de proteínas e detectar a atividade inibitória contra a tripsina e quimotripsina bovina. Os teores de proteínas bruta e solúvel nos extratos foliares variaram de 7,9 a 31,2% e 1,3 a 14,8%, respectivamente. A atividade inibitória sobre a tripsina e quimotripsina foi observada em todos os extratos foliares. Contudo, nos extratos de E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata e S. polyphylla a inibição foi maior sobre a tripsina, enquanto o extrato de P. multijuga foi mais efetivo contra a quimotripsina. Nós concluímos que nos extratos foliares de leguminosas arbóreas têm inibidores de serinoproteinases e exibem potencial aplicações biotecnológicas.The proteinase inhibitors are proteins extensively investigated in tissue storage, but few prospected in other plant tissues. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of serine proteinase inhibitors in leaf extracts from fifteen species of leguminous trees of the Amazon forest. The species studied were Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata and S. polyphylla. Leaves were collected, dried at 30ºC for 48 h, crushed and subjected to extraction with NaCl (0.15 M, 10% w/v, resulting in the total extract. Tests were performed to determine the concentration of proteins and to detect of inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin. The content of crude and soluble protein in leaf extracts varied from 7.9 to 31.2% and 1.3 to 14.8%, respectively. The inhibitory activity on trypsin and chymotrypsin was observed in all leaf extracts. However, in extracts of E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata and S. polyphylla, the inhibition was greater on trypsin, while extract of P. multijuga was more effective against chymotrypsin. We conclude that leaf extracts of leguminous trees have serine proteinase inhibitors and show potential biotecnological applications.

  5. Prospeção de inibidores de serinoproteinases em folhas de leguminosas arbóreas da floresta Amazônica / Prospecting serine proteinase inhibitors in leaves from leguminous trees of the Amazon forest

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Larissa Ramos, Chevreuil; José Francisco de Carvalho, Gonçalves; Flávia Camila, SCHIMPL; Cristiane Santos do Carmo Ribeiro de, Souza; Luiz Augusto Gomes de, Souza; Silvana Cristina, Pando.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os inibidores de proteinases são proteínas extensivamente investigadas nos tecidos de estocagem, mas pouco prospectadas em outros tecidos vegetais. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de inibidores de serinoproteinases em extratos foliares de quinze espécies de leguminosas arbóreas da Am [...] azônia. As espécies estudadas foram: Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata e S. polyphylla. Folhas foram coletadas, secas a 30ºC durante 48 h, trituradas e submetidas à extração com NaCl (0,15 M, 10% p/v) resultando no extrato total. Ensaios foram executados para determinar a concentração de proteínas e detectar a atividade inibitória contra a tripsina e quimotripsina bovina. Os teores de proteínas bruta e solúvel nos extratos foliares variaram de 7,9 a 31,2% e 1,3 a 14,8%, respectivamente. A atividade inibitória sobre a tripsina e quimotripsina foi observada em todos os extratos foliares. Contudo, nos extratos de E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata e S. polyphylla a inibição foi maior sobre a tripsina, enquanto o extrato de P. multijuga foi mais efetivo contra a quimotripsina. Nós concluímos que nos extratos foliares de leguminosas arbóreas têm inibidores de serinoproteinases e exibem potencial aplicações biotecnológicas. Abstract in english The proteinase inhibitors are proteins extensively investigated in tissue storage, but few prospected in other plant tissues. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of serine proteinase inhibitors in leaf extracts from fifteen species of leguminous trees of the Amazon forest. The species s [...] tudied were Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata and S. polyphylla. Leaves were collected, dried at 30ºC for 48 h, crushed and subjected to extraction with NaCl (0.15 M, 10% w/v), resulting in the total extract. Tests were performed to determine the concentration of proteins and to detect of inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin. The content of crude and soluble protein in leaf extracts varied from 7.9 to 31.2% and 1.3 to 14.8%, respectively. The inhibitory activity on trypsin and chymotrypsin was observed in all leaf extracts. However, in extracts of E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata and S. polyphylla, the inhibition was greater on trypsin, while extract of P. multijuga was more effective against chymotrypsin. We conclude that leaf extracts of leguminous trees have serine proteinase inhibitors and show potential biotecnological applications.

  6. Hidden weapons of microbial destruction in plant genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Manners, John M

    2007-01-01

    Recent bioinformatic analyses of sequenced plant genomes reveal a previously unrecognized abundance of genes encoding antimicrobial cysteine-rich peptides, representing a formidable and dynamic defense arsenal against plant pests and pathogens.

  7. Cysteine proteases activity and gene expression studies in soybean nodules during development and drought stress

    OpenAIRE

    Du Plessis, Magdeleen

    2013-01-01

    Activity and transcription profiles of two classes of cysteine proteases, papain- and legumain-like cysteine proteases, as well as their potential inhibitors, cysteine protease inhibitors (cystatins), were investigated in soybean nodules during nodule development and after drought inducing premature senescence. During nodule development total protease activity increased with major activity bands detected protease zymography in older nodules. Expressed cysteine proteases during nodule developm...

  8. Expression of human ?1-proteinase inhibitor in Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punt Peter J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human ?1-proteinase inhibitor (?1-PI, also known as antitrypsin, is the most abundant serine protease inhibitor (serpin in plasma. Its deficiency is associated with development of progressive, ultimately fatal emphysema. Currently in the United States, ?1-PI is available for replacement therapy as an FDA licensed plasma-derived (pd product. However, the plasma source itself is limited; moreover, even with efficient viral inactivation steps used in manufacture of plasma products, the risk of contamination from emerging viruses may still exist. Therefore, recombinant ?1-PI (r-?1-PI could provide an attractive alternative. Although r-?1-PI has been produced in several hosts, protein stability in vitro and rapid clearance from the circulation have been major issues, primarily due to absent or altered glycosylation. Results We have explored the possibility of expressing the gene for human ?1-PI in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger (A. niger, a system reported to be capable of providing more "mammalian-like" glycosylation patterns to secretable proteins than commonly used yeast hosts. Our expression strategy was based on fusion of ?1-PI with a strongly expressed, secreted leader protein (glucoamylase G2, separated by dibasic processing site (N-V-I-S-K-R that provides in vivo cleavage. SDS-PAGE, Western blot, ELISA, and ?1-PI activity assays enabled us to select the transformant(s secreting a biologically active glycosylated r-?1-PI with yields of up to 12 mg/L. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS analysis further confirmed that molecular mass of the r-?1-PI was similar to that of the pd-?1-PI. In vitro stability of the r-?1-PI from A. niger was tested in comparison with pd-?1-PI reference and non-glycosylated human r-?1-PI from E. coli. Conclusion We examined the suitability of the filamentous fungus A. niger for the expression of the human gene for ?1-PI, a medium size glycoprotein of high therapeutic value. The heterologous expression of the human gene for ?1-PI in A. niger was successfully achieved to produce the secreted mature human r-?1-PI in A. niger as a biologically active glycosylated protein with improved stability and with yields of up to 12 mg/L in shake-flask growth.

  9. A Serendipitous Formation of a Cysteine-bridged Disaccharide

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mbulelo G., Nokwequ; Comfort M., Nkambule; David W., Gammon.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available N-acetyl-L-cysteine bearing free carboxylic acid and sulfhydryl groups was glycosylated with 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-acetyl-ß-D-glucopyranoside in the presence of SnCl4 as a promoter to give the S-glycosylated cysteine in 64 % yield. However, when excess donor was used, a previously unreported cysteine-br [...] idged disaccharide was isolated in 54 % yield. The acetamido group on cysteine, which lowers the pKa of the carboxylic acid group of the amino acid, plays no role in the formation of the bridged disaccharide since 3-mercaptopropionic acid reacts in a similar manner to give the 3-mercaptopropionic acid-bridged disaccharide in 52 % yield.

  10. Photoelectron Spectroscopic Study of Electronic Structures of l-Cysteine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Masao; Sugiyama, Harue; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Azuma, Junpei; Kitajima, Souichi; Ogawa, Koji; Sumimoto, Michinori; Hori, Kenji; Fujimoto, Hitoshi

    2010-03-01

    The valence band structure of l-cysteine films was investigated by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) in the photon energy range of 40-100 eV. Smooth thin films were produced by vacuum evaporation and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The photon energy dependence of the UPS spectra indicates that electronic states close to the valence band maximum may be attributed to sulfur, while the other states in the higher-binding-energy region may be attributed to carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Molecular orbital calculation was performed on seven possible geometries of l-cysteine. The observed UPS spectrum is in good agreement with the simulated one in terms of the C3 geometry of l-cysteine. It is concluded that the sulfur-originated electronic state is located at the valence-band maximum, indicating that cysteine is one of the useful and promising materials in future bioelectronics.

  11. Reversible targeting of noncatalytic cysteines with chemically tuned electrophiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafimova, Iana M; Pufall, Miles A

    2012-01-01

    Targeting noncatalytic cysteine residues with irreversible acrylamide-based inhibitors is a powerful approach for enhancing pharmacological potency and selectivity. Nevertheless, concerns about off-target modification motivate the development of reversible cysteine-targeting strategies. Here we show that electron-deficient olefins, including acrylamides, can be tuned to react with cysteine thiols in a rapidly reversible manner. Installation of a nitrile group increased the olefins' intrinsic reactivity, but, paradoxically, eliminated the formation of irreversible adducts. Incorporation of these electrophiles into a noncovalent kinase-recognition scaffold produced slowly dissociating, covalent inhibitors of the p90 ribosomal protein S6 kinase RSK2. A cocrystal structure revealed specific noncovalent interactions that stabilize the complex by positioning the electrophilic carbon near the targeted cysteine. Disruption of these interactions by protein unfolding or proteolysis promoted instantaneous cleavage of the covalent bond. Our results establish a chemistry-based framework for engineering sustained covalent inhibition without accumulating permanently modified proteins and peptides.

  12. Characterization of the Proteinase that Initiates the Degradation of the Trypsin Inhibitor in Germinating Mung Beans (Vigna radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K A; Tan-Wilson, A L

    1987-05-01

    The proteinase (proteinase F) responsible for the initial proteolysis of the mung bean (Vigna radiata) trypsin inhibitor (MBTI) during germination has been purified 1400-fold from dry beans. The enzyme acts as an endopeptidase, cleaving the native inhibitor, MBTI-F, to produce the first modified inhibitor form, MBTI-E. The cleavage of the Asp76-Lys77 peptide bond of MBTI-F occurs at a pH optimum of 4.5, with the tetrapeptide Lys-Asp-Asp-Asp being released. Proteinase F exhibited no activity against the modified inhibitor forms MBTI-E and MBTI-C. Vicilin, the major storage protein of the mung bean, does not serve as a substrate for proteinase F between pH 4 and 7. Proteinase F is inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, chymostatin, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, and p-chlorophenylsulfonate, but not by iodoacetate and CuCl(2). It is not activated by dithiothreitol, and is stable for extended periods of time (10 months, 4 degrees C, pH 4.0) in the absence of reducing agents. An apparent molecular weight of 65,000 was found for proteinase F by gel filtration. Subcellular fractionation in glycerol suggests that greater than 85% of the proteinase F activity is found in the protein bodies of the ungerminated mung bean. The same studies indicate that at least 56% of the MBTI of the seed is also localized in the protein bodies. PMID:16665413

  13. Correlation of phospholipase and proteinase production of Candida with in vivo pathogenicity in Galleria mellonella

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodnei Dennis, Rossoni; Júnia Oliveira, Barbosa; Simone Furgeri Godinho, Vilela; Jéssica Diane dos, Santos; Antonio Olavo Cardoso, Jorge; Juliana Campos, Junqueira.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An essential factor to the virulence of the genus Candida is the ability to produce enzymes and this may be crucial in the establishment of fungal infections. AIM:This study investigated in vitro enzymatic activities of Candida species and their virulence in an in vivo Galleria mellonella experiment [...] al model. METHODS: Twenty-four clinical strains of Candida spp. isolated from the human oral cavity were evaluated, including the following species: C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. norvegensis, C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii. All Candida strains were tested in vitro for production of proteinase and phospholipase. The Candida strains were also injected into Galleria mellonella larvae to induce experimental candidiasis, and after 24 hours, the survival rate was assessed. RESULTS: Phospholipase and proteinase activity were observed in 100% of the C. albicans strains. In the non-albicans species, proteinase and phospholipase activity were observed in 25 and 43% of the studied strains, respectively. The most pathogenic Candida species in G. mellonella were C. albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. lusitaniae, whereas C. glabrata was the least virulent species. Furthermore, a positive significant correlation was found between both enzymatic activities with virulence in G. mellonella. CONCLUSIONS: The virulence of Candida strains in G. mellonella is related to the quantity of proteinases and phospholipases production of each strain.

  14. Successful treatment of murine muscular dystrophy with the proteinase inhibitor leupeptin.

    OpenAIRE

    Sher, J H; Stracher, A; Shafiq, S.A.; Hardy-Stashin, J

    1981-01-01

    Mice with genetic muscular dystrophy were treated with intraperitoneal injections of the proteinase inhibitor leupeptin, beginning before the onset of weakness. A significant number of the treated animals failed to develop histological evidence of dystrophy, compared with controls. Leupeptin treatment prevented (or delayed) the onset of muscular dystrophy in this experiment.

  15. Proteinases release 35S-labeled macromolecules from cultured airway epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether proteinases release radiolabeled macromolecules from airway cells devoid of secretory granules, they studied canine cultured tracheal epithelial cells grown to confluency. At this time the cells are bound by tight junctions, maintain anion transport, have a well developed glycocalyx, but contain no secretory granules. They labeled the cells with 35SO4 (50?ci/ml/24h) then changed the medium every 20 min and measured nondialyzable 35S released into the medium. Two h later, the rate of spontaneous release of 35S-labeled-macromolecules was 5700 +/- 1600 CPM/20 min (mean +/- SD). At this time trypsin, thermolysin, pseudomonas elastase and alkaline proteinase, each released 35S-labeled-macromolecules, whereas aspergillus acid proteinase did not. In more detailed studies, trypsin released 35S in a concentration dependent fashion, with a threshold below 10 units/ml and a response to 1000 units/ml of 1092 +/- 173% (mean +/- SD; n=5 cultures) above pre-trypsin baseline. Sepharose CL4B chromatography of the radiolabeled materials released by trypsin showed a void volume fraction (MW ? 106), and a second, included fraction (MW 2-3 x 105). These results indicate that cultured airway epithelial cells synthesize macromolecules and release them into the medium, and that proteinases increase the rate of macromolecule release markedly

  16. Fasciola gigantica cathepsin L proteinase-based synthetic peptide for immunodiagnosis and prevention of sheep fasciolosis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Jan; El Ridi, R.; Salah, M.; Wagih, A.; Aziz, H. W.; Tallima, H.; El Shafie, M. H.; Khalek, T. A.; Ammou, F. F. A.; Strongylis, C.; Moussis, V.; Tsikaris, V.

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 90, ?. 3 (2008), s. 349-357. ISSN 0006-3525 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cathepsin L proteinase * peptides * sequential oligopeptide carriers * synthetic peptide vaccine * Fasciiola gigantica Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.823, year: 2008

  17. Temporal dependence of cysteine protease activation following excitotoxic hippocampal injury

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Jennifer N.; Sharrett-Field, Lynda; Butler, Tracy R.; Prendergast, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Excitotoxic insults can lead to intracellular signaling cascades that contribute to cell death, in part by activation of proteases, phospholipases, and endonucleases. Cysteine proteases, such as calpains, are calcium-activated enzymes which degrade cytoskeletal proteins, including microtubule-associated proteins, tubulin, and spectrin, among others. The current study used the organotypic hippocampal slice culture model to examine whether pharmacologic inhibition of cysteine protease activity ...

  18. Cathodic Behaviour of Cysteine at a Platinum Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    M. Fátima Barroso; Teresa Santos; Sales, M. Goreti F.; Cristina Delerue-Matos; Vaz, M. Carmo V. F.

    2007-01-01

    The electroreduction behaviour of cysteine was investigated using cyclic, square wave and differencial pulse voltammetric techniques at a platinum working electrode. The reduction of cysteine occurs at a potential of -0.36 V independent of pH. It is a reversible process, controlled mainly by diffusion and in the mechanism of reduction 1 electron per molecule is involved. Using the voltammetric techniques: Cyclic Voltammetry, Square Wave Voltammetry and Differencial Pulse Voltammetry, differen...

  19. Methods for converting cysteine to dehydroalanine on peptides and proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Chalker, JM; Gunnoo, SB; Boutureira, O; Gerstberger, SC; Fernandez-Gonzalez, M; Bernardes, GJL; Griffin, L.; Hailu, H; Schofield, Cj; Davis, BG

    2011-01-01

    Dehydroalanine is a synthetic precursor to a wide array of protein modifications. We describe multiple methods for the chemical conversion of cysteine to dehydroalanine on peptides and proteins. The scope and limitations of these methods were investigated with attention paid to side reactions, scale, and aqueous- and bio-compatibility. The most general method investigated - a bis-alkylation-elimination of cysteine to dehydroalanine - was applied successfully to multiple proteins and enabled t...

  20. Reexamination of the cysteine residues in glucocerebrosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moharram, Ramy; Maynard, Dawn; Wang, Eric S; Makusky, Anthony; Murray, Gary J; Martin, Brian M

    2006-06-12

    Glucocerebrosidase, the deficient enzyme in Gaucher disease, catalyzes the cleavage of the beta-glycosidic linkage of glucosylceramide. A previous study on the enzyme identified three disulfide bridges and a single sulfhydryl [Lee, Y., Kinoshita, H., Radke, G., Weiler, S., Barranger, J.A. and Tomich, J.M. (1995) Position of the sulfhydryl group and the disulfide bonds of human glucocerebrosidase. J. Protein Chem. 14(3), 127-137] but recent publication of the X-ray structure identifies only two disulfide bridges with three free sulfhydryls [Dvir, H., Harel, M., McCarthy, A.A., Toker, L., Silman, I., Futerman, A.H. and Sussman, J.L. (2003) X-ray structure of human acid-beta-glucosidase, the defective enzyme in Gaucher disease. EMBO. 4(7), 704-709]. Using chemical modifications, acid cleavage and enzymatic digestion methods, we report that three free sulfhydryls exist and that the remaining four cysteines form two disulfide bonds located within the first 25 amino-terminal residues, supporting the X-ray structure. PMID:16712845

  1. Measurement of Cysteine Dioxygenase Activity and Protein Abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipanuk, Martha H; Dominy, John E; Ueki, Iori; Hirschberger, Lawrence L

    2008-11-01

    Cysteine dioxygenase is an iron (Fe(2+))-dependent thiol dioxygenase that uses molecular oxygen to oxidize the sulfhydryl group of cysteine to generate 3-sulfinoalanine (commonly called cysteinesulfinic acid). Cysteine dioxygenase activity is routinely assayed by measuring cysteinesulfinate formation from substrate L-cysteine at pH 6.1 in the presence of ferrous ions to saturate the enzyme with metal cofactor, a copper chelator to diminish substrate oxidation, and hydroxylamine to inhibit pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent degradation of product. The amount of cysteine dioxygenase may be measured by immunoblotting. Upon SDS-PAGE, cysteine dioxygenase can be separated into two major bands, with the upper band representing the 23-kDa protein and the lower band representing the mature enzyme that has undergone formation of an internal thioether cross link in the active site. Formation of this cross link is dependent upon the catalytic turnover of substrate and produces an enzyme with a higher catalytic efficiency and catalytic half-life. PMID:19885389

  2. Cysteine inhibits mercury methylation by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hui [ORNL; Lu, Xia [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine enhances Hg uptake and methylation by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA wild type (WT) strain in short-term assays. The prevalence of this enhancement in other strains remains poorly understood. We examined the influence of cysteine concentration on time-dependent Hg(II) reduction, sorption and methylation by PCA-WT and its c-type cytochrome-deficient mutant ( omcBESTZ) in phosphate buffered saline. Without cysteine, the mutant methylated twice as much Hg(II) as the PCA-WT, whereas addition of cysteine inhibited Hg methylation, regardless of the reaction time. PCA-WT, however, exhibited both time-dependent and cysteine concentration-dependent methylation. In 144 hour assay, nearly complete sorption of the Hg(II) by PCA-WT occurred in the presence of 1 mM cysteine, resulting in our highest observed methylmercury production. The chemical speciation modeling and experimental data suggest that uncharged Hg(II) species are more readily taken up, and that this uptake is kinetic limiting, thereby affecting Hg methylation by both mutant and WT.

  3. Partial Purification and Characterization of a Cysteine Protease Inhibitor from the Plerocercoid of Spirometra erinacei

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Young-bae; Yang, Hyun-jong

    2008-01-01

    Helminthic cysteine proteases are well known to play critical roles in tissue invasion, nutrient uptake, and immune evasion of the parasites. In the same manner, the sparganum, the plerocercoid of Spirometra mansoni, is also known to secrete a large amount of cysteine proteases. However, cysteine protease inhibitors regulating the proteolytic activities of the cysteine protease are poorly illustrated. In this regard, we partially purified an endogenous cysteine protease inhibitor from spargan...

  4. Induction of a heparin-stimulated serine proteinase in sex accessory gland tumors of the Lobund-Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael J; Lind, Jeremy; Sinha, Akhouri A

    2015-08-01

    Induction of new proteinase activities that may process growth factors, modify cell surface receptors, cleave extracellular matrix proteins, etc. is considered fundamental in carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to characterize a novel proteinase activity induced in sex accessory gland cancers (about 70% in seminal vesicles) of adult male Lobund-Wistar rats by a single injection of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU; 25mg/kg) followed by implanted testosterone propionate (45mg in silastic tubing every 2months) treatment for 10-14months. A 28kDa proteinase activity was detected in tumor extracts using SDS-gelatin gel zymography with incubations done without CaCl2. Its activity was stimulated 15 fold by heparin (optimal activity 1.5-3.0?g/lane) added to the tissue extract-SDS sample buffer prior to electrophoresis. No 28kDa heparin-stimulated proteinase (H-SP) was found in the dorsal, lateral and anterior (coagulating gland) prostate lobes or seminal vesicles of untreated adult rats, but there was a 26-30kDa Ca(2+)-independent proteinase activity in the ventral prostate that showed limited heparin stimulation. The 28kDa H-SP was completely inhibited by 1.0mM 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonylfluoride (AESBF) indicating that it was a serine-type proteinase. Other types of proteinase inhibitors were without effect, including serine proteinase inhibitors benzamidine, tranexamic acid and ?-aminocaproic acid. Proteinase activities of about 28kDa were found with casein, fibrinogen or carboxymethylated transferrin as substrate, however, these activities were not stimulated by heparin. Similar levels of activities of the 28kDa H-SP were found in primary tumors and their metastases, but little/no activity was detected in serum, even from rats with large tumor volume and metastases. These data demonstrate overexpression of a heparin-stimulated 28kDa serine proteinase in the primary tumors of sex accessory gland cancers and their metastases. This proteinase either does not leak into or is inactivated in the blood. The role of this proteinase remains to be determined, but its possible interaction with extracellular glycosaminoglycans could focus its proteolytic activity in the tumor microenvironment and affect tumor growth. PMID:25913327

  5. Irreversible Oxidation of the Active-site Cysteine of Peroxiredoxin to Cysteine Sulfonic Acid for Enhanced Molecular Chaperone Activity*

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Jung Chae; Choi, Hoon-In; Park, Yu sun; Nam, Hyung Wook; Woo, Hyun Ae; Kwon, Ki-Sun; Kim, Yu Sam; Rhee, Sue Goo; Kim, Kanghwa; Chae, Ho Zoon

    2008-01-01

    The thiol (–SH) of the active cysteine residue in peroxiredoxin (Prx) is known to be reversibly hyperoxidized to cysteine sulfinic acid (–SO2H), which can be reduced back to thiol by sulfiredoxin/sestrin. However, hyperoxidized Prx of an irreversible nature has not been reported yet. Using an antibody developed against the sulfonylated (–SO3H) yeast Prx (Tsa1p) active-site peptide (AFTFVCPTEI), we observed an increase in the immunoblot intensity in proportion to ...

  6. Nitric oxide negatively modulates wound signaling in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L; Ryan, Clarence A

    2002-09-01

    Synthesis of proteinase inhibitor I protein in response to wounding in leaves of excised tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants was inhibited by NO donors sodium nitroprusside and S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine. The inhibition was reversed by supplying the plants with the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxiphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide. NO also blocked the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production and proteinase inhibitor synthesis that was induced by systemin, oligouronides, and jasmonic acid (JA). However, H(2)O(2) generated by glucose oxidase and glucose was not blocked by NO, nor was H(2)O(2)-induced proteinase inhibitor synthesis. Although the expression of proteinase inhibitor genes in response to JA was inhibited by NO, the expression of wound signaling-associated genes was not. The inhibition of wound-inducible H(2)O(2) generation and proteinase inhibitor gene expression by NO was not due to an increase in salicylic acid, which is known to inhibit the octadecanoid pathway. Instead, NO appears to be interacting directly with the signaling pathway downstream from JA synthesis, upstream of H(2)O(2) synthesis. The results suggest that NO may have a role in down-regulating the expression of wound-inducible defense genes during pathogenesis. PMID:12226527

  7. Salt stress activation of wound-related genes in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, James E

    2003-08-01

    Plants respond to various stresses by expressing distinct sets of genes. The effects of multiple stresses on plants and their interactions are not well understood. We have discovered that salt stress causes the accumulation of proteinase inhibitors and the activation of other wound-related genes in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants. Salt stress was also found to enhance the plant's response to wounding locally and systemically. The tomato mutant (def-1), which has an impairment in the octadecanoid pathway, displayed a severe reduction in the accumulation of proteinase inhibitors under salt stress, indicating that salt stress-induced accumulation of proteinase inhibitors was jasmonic acid dependent. The analysis of salt stress in another tomato mutant, spr-1, which carries a mutation in a systemin-specific signaling component, and transgenic tomato plants that express an antisense-prosystemin cDNA, showed that prosystemin activity was not required for the salt-induced accumulation of proteinase inhibitors, but was necessary to achieve maximal levels. These results suggest that a prosystemin independent- but jasmonic acid-dependent pathway is utilized for proteinase inhibitor accumulation in response to salt stress. PMID:12913164

  8. "Purification and evaluation of somatic, excretory-secretory and Cysteine proteinase antigens of Fasciola Hepatica using IgG-ELISA in diagnosing Fascioliasis "

    OpenAIRE

    Mb, Rokni; Massoud J; Pezeshki M; Jalali M

    2001-01-01

    Fasciolosis, or liver fluke disease, caused by parasites of the genus Fasciola is emerging as an important disease in man and animals, in the world and Iran, particularly in nortern parts. The economical losses in domestic animals are considerable. In the recent decade there were two major outbreaks of human fasciolosis in the Caspian region, northern part of Iran with 7000-10000 infected cases. Sicne it is impossible to diagnose fasciolosis in acute phase using coprological methods and even ...

  9. Detection of cruzipain, the major cysteine proteinase from Trypanosoma cruzi and its C-terminal extension in biological fluids during experimental infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, G; Sunnemark, D; Orn, A; Grönvik, K O

    1996-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) specific for unique epitopes of the catalytic domain of cruzipain (Crz) were used to develop a two-site sandwich ELISA specific for native Crz. In addition, the authors developed a sandwich ELISA that allowed the detection of the protease C-terminal domain (CT) using a combination of a MoAb specific for the CT and rabbit anti-Crz IgGs. Both assays were sensitive with detection limits of 2 ng/ml and 0.7 ng/ml, respectively. The assays were assessed for applicability in detection of antigens in serum and urine from experimentally infected BALB/c mice. The antigens were already detectable in serum by the third week after infection, reached their peak by week four, and decreased during the chronic phase of the infection. Throughout the infection the relative amount of CT detected was several-fold higher than that of native Crz, and the data demonstrate that the cT exposes highly immunogenic epitopes that are absent in native Crz. Since these observations have a potential application in diagnosis, the authors analysed the degree of cross-reactivity with antigens from T. rangeli, T. brucei, Leishmania mexicana and L. panamensis, and determined that the assays were highly specific. Measurable amounts of the CT were also recorded in urine samples. PMID:8711424

  10. Degradation of the S. frugiperda peritrophic matrix by an inducible maize cysteine protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, S; Ma, P W K; Pechan, T; Bassford, E R; Williams, W P; Luthe, D S

    2006-01-01

    A unique 33-kDa cysteine protease (Mir1-CP) rapidly accumulates at the feeding site in the whorls of maize (Zea mays L.) lines that are resistant to herbivory by Spodoptera frugiperda and other lepidopteran species. When larvae were reared on resistant plants, larval growth was reduced due to impaired nutrient utilization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the peritrophic matrix (PM) was damaged when larvae fed on resistant plants or transgenic maize callus expressing Mir1-CP. To directly determine the effects of Mir1-CP on the PM in vitro, dissected PMs were treated with purified, recombinant Mir1-CP and the movement of Blue Dextran 2000 across the PM was measured. Mir1-CP completely permeabilized the PM and the time required to reach full permeability was inversely proportional to the concentration of Mir1-CP. Inclusion of E64, a specific cysteine protease inhibitor prevented the damage. The lumen side of the PM was more vulnerable to Mir1-CP attack than the epithelial side. Mir1-CP damaged the PM at pH values as high as 8.5 and more actively permeabilized the PM than equivalent concentrations of the cysteine proteases papain, bromelain and ficin. The effect of Mir1-CP on the PMs of Helicoverpa zea, Danaus plexippus, Ostrinia nubilalis, Periplaneta americana and Tenebrio molitor also was tested, but the greatest effect was on the S. frugiperda PM. These results demonstrate that the insect-inducible Mir1-CP directly damages the PM in vitro and is critical to insect defense in maize. PMID:16243350

  11. Secreted aspartic proteinases of .I.Candida parapsilosis./I..I.: activation and specificity of different Sap isoenzymes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Ji?í; Merkerová, Michaela; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga; Pichová, Iva

    Oxford : The Biochemical Society, 2003. s. 9. [Harden Conference Proteinase Structure and Function /57./. 09.09.2003-13.09.2003, Oxford] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : secreted aspartic proteases Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  12. The Contribution of Proteinase-Activated Receptors to Intracellular Signaling, Transcellular Transport and Autophagy in Alzheimer´s Disease.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mat?j, R.; Rohan, Z.; Holada, K.; Olejár, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 12, ?. 1 (2015), s. 2-12. ISSN 1567-2050 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Alzheimer ´s Disease * autophagy * proteinase-activated receptors Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 3.796, year: 2013

  13. Inhibitory Properties of Cysteine Protease Pro-Peptides from Barley Confer Resistance to Spider Mite Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Martinez, Manuel; Diaz, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    C1A plant cysteine proteases are synthesized as pre-pro-enzymes that need to be processed to become active by the pro-peptide claves off from its cognate enzyme. These pro-sequences play multifunctional roles including the capacity to specifically inhibit their own as well as other C1A protease activities from diverse origin. In this study, it is analysed the potential role of C1A pro-regions from barley as regulators of cysteine proteases in target phytophagous arthropods (coleopteran and acari). The in vitro inhibitory action of these pro-sequences, purified as recombinant proteins, is demonstrated. Moreover, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing different fragments of HvPap-1 barley gene containing the pro-peptide sequence were generated and the acaricide function was confirmed by bioassays conducted with the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Feeding trials resulted in a significant reduction of leaf damage in the transgenic lines expressing the pro-peptide in comparison to non-transformed control and strongly correlated with an increase in mite mortality. Additionally, the analysis of the expression levels of a selection of potential mite targets (proteases and protease inhibitors) revealed a mite strategy to counteract the inhibitory activity produced by the C1A barley pro-prodomain. These findings demonstrate that pro-peptides can control mite pests and could be applied as defence proteins in biotechnological systems. PMID:26039069

  14. Identification of a Serine Proteinase Homolog (Sp-SPH) Involved in Immune Defense in the Mud Crab Scylla paramamosain

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qiu-xia; Liu, Hai-Peng; Chen, Rong-yuan; Shen, Kai-li; Wang, Ke-jian

    2013-01-01

    Clip domain serine proteinase homologs are involved in many biological processes including immune response. To identify the immune function of a serine proteinase homolog (Sp-SPH), originally isolated from hemocytes of the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain, the Sp-SPH was expressed recombinantly and purified for further studies. It was found that the Sp-SPH protein could bind to a number of bacteria (including Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio...

  15. Binding properties of the regulatory domains in Manduca sexta hemolymph proteinase-14, an initiation enzyme of the prophenoloxidase activation system

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yang; Jiang, Haobo

    2009-01-01

    Pathogen recognition and rapid initiation of defense responses are essential for the survival of host insects. In Manduca sexta, hemolymph proteinase-14 precursor (proHP14) senses non-self presence and triggers a branched serine proteinase pathway which leads to prophenoloxidase activation and melanin formation around the invading organisms. To understand functions of individual domains in HP14, we have produced a series of HP14 domains and truncation mutants and studied their interactions wi...

  16. Evidence for the presence of proteolytically active secreted aspartic proteinase 1 of Candida parapsilosis in the cell wall

    OpenAIRE

    Vinterová, Zuzana; Šanda, Miloslav; Dostál, Ji?í; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga; Pichová, Iva

    2011-01-01

    Pathogenic yeasts of the genus Candida produce secreted aspartic proteinases, which are known to enhance virulence. We focused on Sapp1p proteinase secreted by Candida parapsilosis and studied the final stage of its passage through the cell wall and release into the extracellular environment. We found that Sapp1p displays enzyme activity prior to secretion, and therefore, it is probably fully folded within the upper layer of the cell wall. The positioning of cell surface-associated Sapp1p was...

  17. Kinetic modelling of enzyme inactivation Kinetics of heat inactivation of the extracellular proteinase from Pseudomonas fluorescens 22F.

    OpenAIRE

    Schokker, E.P.

    1997-01-01

    The kinetics of heat inactivation of the extracellular proteinase from Pseudomonas fluorescens 22F was studied. It was established, by making use of kinetic modelling, that heat inactivation in the temperature range 35 - 70 °C was most likely caused by intermolecular autoproteolysis, where unfolded proteinase molecules are attacked by still active species. Kinetic modelling also showed that sodium caseinate acted as a competitive inhibitor against autoproteolysis. Autoproteolysis experiments ...

  18. Induction of protective immunity in cattle against infection with Fasciola hepatica by vaccination with cathepsin L proteinases and with hemoglobin.

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, J. P.; McGonigle, S; Rolph, T P; S. J. Andrews

    1996-01-01

    Two cathepsin L proteinases, cathepsin L1 and cathepsin L2, secreted by liver flukes may be involved in tissue penetration, nutrition, and protection from immune attack. To ascertain the immunoprophylactic potential of these proteinases, and of another molecule, liver fluke hemoglobin (Hb), we performed vaccine trials in cattle. In the first vaccine trial various doses of cathepsin L1 were tested. The mean protection level obtained was 53.7%. In a second vaccine trial cathepsin L1 and Hb elic...

  19. Vaccination with Cathepsin L Proteinases and with Leucine Aminopeptidase Induces High Levels of Protection against Fascioliasis in Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Piacenza, Lucía; Acosta, Daniel; Basmadjian, Isabel; Dalton, John P.; Carmona, Carlos

    1999-01-01

    The potential of different parasite proteinases for use as vaccine candidates against fascioliasis in sheep was studied by vaccinating animals with the cathepsin L proteinases CL1 and CL2 and with leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) purified from adult flukes. In the first trial, sheep were immunized with CL1 or CL2 and the mean protection levels obtained were 33 and 34%, respectively. Furthermore, a significant reduction in egg output was observed in sheep vaccinated either with CL1 (71%) or with C...

  20. Identification of parasite-responsive cysteine proteases in Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbielle, Céline; Moreau, Sébastien; Veillard, Florian; Voldoire, Emilien; Bézier, Annie; Mannucci, Marie-Anne; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Drezen, Jean-Michel; Lalmanach, Gilles; Huguet, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Parasites have evolved different virulence strategies to manipulate host physiological functions. The parasitoid wasp Cotesia congregata induces developmental arrest and immune suppression of its Lepidopteran host Manduca sexta. In this interaction, a symbiotic virus (C. congregata Bracovirus, CcBV) associated with the wasp is essential for parasitism success. The virus is injected into the host with wasp eggs and virus genes are expressed in host tissues. Among potential CcBV virulence genes, cystatins, which are tight binding inhibitors of C1A cysteine proteases, are suspected to play an important role in the interaction owing to their high level of expression. So far, however, potential in vivo targets in M. sexta are unknown. Here, we characterized for the first time four M. sexta C1A cysteine proteases corresponding to cathepsin L and cathepsin B and two different '26-29 kDa' cysteine proteases (MsCath1 and MsCath2). Our analyses revealed that MsCath1 and MsCath2 are transcriptionally downregulated in the course of parasitism. Moreover, viral Cystatin1 and MsCath1 co-localize in the plasma following parasitism, strongly suggesting that they interact. We also show that parasitism induces a general increase of cysteine protease activity which is later controlled. The potential involvement of cysteine proteases in defense against parasitoids is discussed. PMID:19361282

  1. Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease heterologous expressed in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe

    During germination of barley seeds, the mobilization of protein is essential and Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins [1]. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme until activated through reduction of the active site cysteines and via removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. One of the key cysteine proteases in Barley, (Hordeum vulgare) endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned with and without the 5 amino acid C-terminal sequence into the Pichia pastoris expression vector pPICZ A? and electrotransformed into Pichia pastoris strain SDM1163. Heterologous protein production was induced with 2% MeOH and the protein expression were monitered during induction by collecting 1 ml samples every hr for 24 hrs. After 4 days, the supernatant were harvested and analyzed by SDS-PAGE, activity assay and Western blot. A significant amount of functional, heterologous protein was produced and the protein production was highest after 4 days and the expression in the C-terminal mutant was slightly higher than for the full length protease.

  2. The potency and specificity of the interaction between the IA3 inhibitor and its target aspartic proteinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phylip, L H; Lees, W E

    2001-01-01

    The yeast IA3 polypeptide consists of only 68 residues, and the free inhibitor has little intrinsic secondary structure. IA3 showed subnanomolar potency toward its target, proteinase A from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and did not inhibit any of a large number of aspartic proteinases with similar sequences/structures from a wide variety of other species. Systematic truncation and mutagenesis of the IA3 polypeptide revealed that the inhibitory activity is located in the N-terminal half of the sequence. Crystal structures of different forms of IA3 complexed with proteinase A showed that residues in the N-terminal half of the IA3 sequence became ordered and formed an almost perfect alpha-helix in the active site of the enzyme. This potent, specific interaction was directed primarily by hydrophobic interactions made by three key features in the inhibitory sequence. Whereas IA3 was cut as a substrate by the nontarget aspartic proteinases, it was not cleaved by proteinase A. The random coil IA3 polypeptide escapes cleavage by being stabilized in a helical conformation upon interaction with the active site of proteinase A. This results, paradoxically, in potent selective inhibition of the target enzyme.

  3. Cathodic Behaviour of Cysteine at a Platinum Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fátima Barroso

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The electroreduction behaviour of cysteine was investigated using cyclic, square wave and differencial pulse voltammetric techniques at a platinum working electrode. The reduction of cysteine occurs at a potential of -0.36 V independent of pH. It is a reversible process, controlled mainly by diffusion and in the mechanism of reduction 1 electron per molecule is involved. Using the voltammetric techniques: Cyclic Voltammetry, Square Wave Voltammetry and Differencial Pulse Voltammetry, different parameters (pH, frequency, step potential, pulse amplitude, scan rate were optimized in order to develop an electrochemical procedure for determination of cysteine in pharmaceutical products. The repeatability, reproducibility, precision and accuracy of the methods were studied. No electroactive interferences from the excipient were found in the pharmaceutical compounds.

  4. Enhanced Response of a Proteinase K-Based Conductometric Biosensor Using Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouira, Wided; Maaref, Abderrazak; Elaissari, Abdelhamid; Vocanson, Francis; Siadat, Maryam; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Proteinases are involved in a multitude of important physiological processes, such as protein metabolism. For this reason, a conductometric enzyme biosensor based on proteinase K was developed using two types of nanoparticles (gold and magnetic). The enzyme was directly adsorbed on negatively charged nanoparticles and then deposited and cross-linked on a planar interdigitated electrode (IDE). The biosensor was characterized with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a standard protein. Higher sensitivity was obtained using gold nanoparticles. The linear range for BSA determination was then from 0.5 to 10 mg/L with a maximum response of 154 ?s. These results are greater than that found without any nanoparticles (maximum response of 10 ?s). The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.3 mg/L. An inter-sensor reproducibility of 3.5% was obtained. PMID:25057139

  5. Characterization of a glutenin-specific serine proteinase of Sunn bug Eurygaster integricepts Put.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konarev, Alexander V; Beaudoin, Frédéric; Marsh, Justin; Vilkova, Nina A; Nefedova, Ludmila I; Sivri, Dilek; Köksel, Hamit; Shewry, Peter R; Lovegrove, Alison

    2011-03-23

    Glutenin hydrolyzing proteinases (GHPs) have been purified, by affinity chromatography, from wheat seeds damaged by the Sunn bug Eurygaster integriceps (Hemiptera, Scutelleridae). A 28 kDa protein was partially sequenced by mass spectrometry and Edman degradation which showed homology to serine proteases from various insects. Three full length clones were obtained from cDNA isolated from Sunn bug salivary glands using degenerate PCR based on the sequences obtained. The cleavage site of the protease was determined using recombinant and synthetic peptides and shown to be between the consensus hexapeptide and nonapeptide repeat motifs present in the high molecular weight subunits of wheat glutenin (PGQGQQ?GYYPTSLQQ). Homology models were generated for the three proteinases identified in this study using the high resolution X-ray structure of a crayfish (Pontastacus leptodactylus) trypsin complexed with a peptide inhibitor as template (PDB accession 2F91). The novel specificity of this protease may find applications in both fundamental and applied studies. PMID:21323348

  6. Inhibition of batroxobin, a serine proteinase from Bothrops snake venom, by derivatives of benzamidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürzebecher, J; Stürzebecher, U; Markwardt, F

    1986-01-01

    Benzamidine derivatives which are competitive inhibitors of trypsin-like serine proteinases also inhibited the enzymatic activity of batroxobin, a thrombin-like snake venom proteinase. Structure-activity relationships showed that primary amides of 4-amidinophenyl-alpha-aminobutyric acid have pronounced, relatively selective antibatroxobin activity. Identical effects were found on batroxobin isolated from the venoms of Bothrops atrox or Bothrops moojeni. Esters containing a benzamidine moiety acylated the active centre serine hydroxyl of either batroxobin, however, the inhibition was temporary. Such compounds, especially 4-amidinophenyl esters of substituted benzoic acids, are a particularly useful tool for designing acyl-batroxobin intermediates with different deacylation rates. With 4-nitrophenyl 4'-guanidinobenzoate, the acyl enzyme was formed so rapidly that titration of the active site of batroxobin was possible. Irreversible inhibition of batroxobin was caused only by the selective thrombin inhibitor D-Phe-Pro-ArgCH2Cl. PMID:3529503

  7. Structure of an inhibitor complex of the proteinase from feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodawer, A; Gustchina, A; Reshetnikova, L; Lubkowski, J; Zdanov, A; Hui, K Y; Angleton, E L; Farmerie, W G; Goodenow, M M; Bhatt, D

    1995-06-01

    The crystal structure of a recombinant form of the proteinase encoded by the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV PR) has been solved at 2 A resolution and refined to an R-factor of 0.148. The refined structure includes a peptidomimetic, statine-based inhibitor, LP-149, which is an even more potent inhibitor of HIV PR. Kinetic parameters were obtained for the cleavage of five substrates by FIV PR, and inhibition constants were measured for four inhibitors. The structure of FIV PR resembles other related retroviral enzymes although few inhibitors of HIV PR are capable of inhibiting FIV PR. The structure of FIV PR will enhance our knowledge of this class of enzymes, and will direct testing of new proteinase inhibitors in a feline animal model. PMID:7664111

  8. Interaction of ?-1,3-Glucan with Its Recognition Protein Activates Hemolymph Proteinase 14, an Initiation Enzyme of the Prophenoloxidase Activation System in Manduca sexta*

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yang; Jiang, Haobo

    2006-01-01

    A serine proteinase pathway in insect hemolymph leads to prophenoloxidase activation, an innate immune response against pathogen infection. In the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, recombinant hemolymph proteinase 14 precursor (pro-HP14) interacts with peptidoglycan, autoactivates, and initiates the proteinase cascade (Ji, C., Wang, Y., Guo, X., Hartson, S., and Jiang, H. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 34101–34106). Here, we report the purification and characterization of pro-HP14 from the hemoly...

  9. Capillary plasma elastase alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor in infected and non-infected neonates.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodwell, R. L.; Taylor, K. M.; Tudehope, D. I.; Gray, P. H.

    1992-01-01

    Capillary heel prick plasma elastase alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (E alpha 1-PI) measured by an immunoassay (using commercially available reagents) was examined as an early indicator of neonatal sepsis. Fifty five infants were studied within 24 hours of birth; 60 (including 10 studied on the first day of life) were examined between two and 30 days after birth. Reference ranges for the neonatal period were developed. Raised E alpha 1-PI concentrations (range 440-2600 micrograms/l) were found a...

  10. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte mediated oxidative inactivation of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor: Modulation by nitric oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Mir, Mohammad Muzaffar; Khan, Abdul Rashid; Dar, Nazir Ahmad; Salahuddin, Mohammad

    2005-01-01

    Alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor activity was studied in presence of resting and activated polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Four different agonists; phorbol myristic acetate, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, opsonised zymosan and arachidonic acid decreased the inhibitor activity by 23.3%, 20%, 12% and 16.6^ respectively. The inhibitor activity was protected by using various free radical scavengers. Catalase and superoxide dismutase both restored activity by about 18%, mannitol by 13% and sod...

  11. Antiviral activity of caspase inhibitors: effect on picornaviral 2A proteinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deszcz, Luiza; Seipelt, Joachim; Vassilieva, Elena; Roetzer, Andreas; Kuechler, Ernst

    2004-02-27

    Peptide-based fluoromethyl ketones have been considered for many years to be highly specific caspase inhibitors distinctly blocking the progress of apoptosis in a variety of systems. Here we demonstrate that these compounds can significantly reduce rhinovirus multiplication in cell culture. In their methylated forms they block eIF4GI cleavage in vivo and in vitro and inhibit the activity of picornaviral 2A proteinases. PMID:14987997

  12. Assessing the transcriptional regulation of L-cysteine desulfhydrase 1 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano-Marín, Ana M.; García, Irene; Romero, Luis C.; Gotor, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is an important signaling molecule that functions as a physiological gasotransmitter of comparable importance to NO and CO in mammalian systems. In plants, numerous studies have shown that sulfide increases tolerance/resistance to stress conditions and regulates essential processes. The endogenous production of hydrogen sulfide in the cytosol of Arabidopsis thaliana occurs by the enzymatic desulfuration of L-cysteine, which is catalyzed by the L-cysteine desulfhydrase enzyme DES1. To define the functional role of DES1 and the role that the sulfide molecule may play in the regulation of physiological processes in plants, we studied the localization of the expression of this gene at the tissue level. Transcriptional data reveal that DES1 is expressed at all developmental stages and is more abundant at the seedling stage and in mature plants. At the tissue level, we analyzed the expression of a GFP reporter gene fused to promoter of DES1. The GFP fluorescent signal was detected in the cytosol of both epidermal and mesophyll cells, including the guard cells. GFP fluorescence was highly abundant around the hydathode pores and inside the trichomes. In mature plants, fluorescence was detected in floral tissues; a strong GFP signal was detected in sepals, petals, and pistils. When siliques were examined, the highest GFP fluorescence was observed at the bases of the siliques and the seeds. The location of GFP expression, together with the identification of regulatory elements within the DES1 promoter, suggests that DES1 is hormonally regulated. An increase in DES1 expression in response to ABA was recently demonstrated; in the present work, we observe that in vitro auxin treatment significantly repressed the expression of DES1. PMID:25538717

  13. Assessing the transcriptional regulation of L-cysteine desulfhydrase 1 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano-Marín, Ana M; García, Irene; Romero, Luis C; Gotor, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is an important signaling molecule that functions as a physiological gasotransmitter of comparable importance to NO and CO in mammalian systems. In plants, numerous studies have shown that sulfide increases tolerance/resistance to stress conditions and regulates essential processes. The endogenous production of hydrogen sulfide in the cytosol of Arabidopsis thaliana occurs by the enzymatic desulfuration of L-cysteine, which is catalyzed by the L-cysteine desulfhydrase enzyme DES1. To define the functional role of DES1 and the role that the sulfide molecule may play in the regulation of physiological processes in plants, we studied the localization of the expression of this gene at the tissue level. Transcriptional data reveal that DES1 is expressed at all developmental stages and is more abundant at the seedling stage and in mature plants. At the tissue level, we analyzed the expression of a GFP reporter gene fused to promoter of DES1. The GFP fluorescent signal was detected in the cytosol of both epidermal and mesophyll cells, including the guard cells. GFP fluorescence was highly abundant around the hydathode pores and inside the trichomes. In mature plants, fluorescence was detected in floral tissues; a strong GFP signal was detected in sepals, petals, and pistils. When siliques were examined, the highest GFP fluorescence was observed at the bases of the siliques and the seeds. The location of GFP expression, together with the identification of regulatory elements within the DES1 promoter, suggests that DES1 is hormonally regulated. An increase in DES1 expression in response to ABA was recently demonstrated; in the present work, we observe that in vitro auxin treatment significantly repressed the expression of DES1. PMID:25538717

  14. Epithelial effects of proteinase-activated receptors in the gastrointestinal tract

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wallace K, MacNaughton.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium plays a crucial role in providing a barrier between the external environment and the internal milieu of the body. A compromised mucosal barrier is characteristic of mucosal inflammation and is a key determinant of the development of intestinal diseases such as Crohn's disea [...] se and ulcerative colitis. The intestinal epithelium is regularly exposed to serine proteinases and this exposure is enhanced in numerous disease states. Thus, it is important to understand how proteinase-activated receptors (PARs), which are activated by serine proteinases, can affect intestinal epithelial function. This review surveys the data which demonstrate the wide distribution of PARs, particularly PAR-1 and PAR-2, in the gastrointestinal tract and accessory organs, focusing on the epithelium and those cells which communicate with the epithelium to affect its function. PARs have a role in regulating secretion by epithelia of the salivary glands, stomach, pancreas and intestine. In addition, PARs located on subepithelial nerves, fibroblasts and mast cells have important implications for epithelial function. Recent data outline the importance of the cellular site of PAR expression, as PARs expressed on epithelia may have effects that are countered by PARs expressed on other cell types. Finally, PARs and their ability to promote epithelial cell proliferation are discussed in terms of colon cancer.

  15. Inhibition of serine proteinases from human blood clotting system by squash inhibitor mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesiak, A; Buczek, O; Petry, I; Szewczuk, Z; Otlewski, J

    2000-05-23

    A series of six CMTI I variants mutated in the P(2)-P(4)' region of the canonical binding loop were used to probe the role of single amino acid substitutions on binding to the following human proteinases involved in blood clotting: plasmin, plasma kallikrein, factors X(a) and XII(a). The mutants were expressed as fusion proteins with the LE1413 hydrophobic polypeptide in Escherichia coli, purified from inclusion bodies, followed by cyanobromide cleavage and refolding. The mutants inhibited the proteinases with the association constants in the range 10(3)-10(9) M(-1). Inhibition of plasma kallikrein and factors X(a) and XII(a) could be improved up to 30-fold by single mutations. In contrast, neither of the introduced mutations increased inhibitory properties of CMTI I against plasmin. Additionally, using two inhibitors of natural origin, CMTI I (P(1) Arg) and CPTI II (P(1) Lys), we determined the effect of Lys-->Arg on binding to four proteinases. With the exception of plasmin (no effect), P(1) Arg resulted in up to 30-fold stronger binding than P(1) Lys. PMID:10825543

  16. Purification and partial characterization of a thiol proteinase activating prokallikrein from the rat kidney cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishii, M; Takaoka, M; Nakamura, M; Takenobu, Y; Morimoto, S

    1989-02-24

    The rat kidney cortex contains at least three kinds of prokallikrein-activating proteinase, and among these the one with the highest molecular weight was purified by a procedure including chromatography on CM-cellulose, concanavalin A-Sepharose, organomercurial-Sepharose 4B and Sephadex G-100. The resulting preparation was apparently homogeneous, as assessed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight was estimated to be 57,000. The optimal pH for the activation of prokallikrein by the preparation, termed activator I, was around 4.5. Activator I was inhibited by E-64, iodoacetate and leupeptin, but not by PMSF and phosphoramidon. In immunodiffusion analysis, the antiserum to activator I formed an immunoprecipitin arc with the extract from the kidney cortex or submandibular gland, but not with that from the pancreas. These results indicate that activator I is a thiol proteinase with a molecular weight of 57,000. A proteinase immunologically identical with activator I appears to be present in the submandibular gland. PMID:2492829

  17. [Characteristics of proteinase digestive function in invertebrates--inhabitants of cold seas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhin, V A; Smirnova, E B; Novikov, V Iu

    2007-01-01

    Digestive proteinases of various taxa of invertebrates of the Northern seas have been studied: crustaceans Paralithodes camtchaticus, Pandalus borealis; molluscs Chlamys islandicus, Buccinum undatum, Serripes groenlandicus, and echinoderms Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, Cucumaria frondosa, Asterias rubens, and Grossaster papposus. The presence of two proteolytic activity peaks in the acid (pH 2.5-3.5) and low alkaline zones (pH 7.5-8.5) and a similar proteinase spectrum have been revealed in digestive organs of the studied animals. The proteolytic activity in digestive organs of the Barents Sea invertebrates exceeds significantly that of terrestrial homoiothermal animals, which seems to be an extensive compensation for poor differentiation of the digestive system and for low substrate specificity of the enzymes as well as for cold conditions of the habitat. The principal qualitative difference between vertebrates and invertebrates consists in that the latter have no pepsin activity, but do have the cathepsin activity that is absent in vertebrate digestive organs. Contribution to the acid proteolysis is made by lysosomal cathepsins, rather than by pepsins. Activity in the alkaline and neutral pH zones is provided by serine proteinases. In digestive cavities of invertebrates, hydrolysis of proteins and mechanical processing of food occur only in the low alkaline zone, whereas acid proteolysis has intracellular lysosomal localization. PMID:18038635

  18. Non enzymatic glycosylation of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor of human plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phadke M

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Human plasma contains inhibitors, which control the activity of proteolytic enzymes. Alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor and alpha-2-macroglobulin are two of them present in high concentration in human plasma, which inhibit action of trypsin among other proteinases. The trypsin inhibitory capacity (TIC of human plasma is observed to be decreased in pathological conditions like diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms of decrease in TIC was due to nonenzymatic glycosylation of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (A1PI. A1PI was partially purified from normal human plasma by steps involving ammonium sulphate precipitation, DEAE Sepharose CL6B chromatography, Concanavalin A Sepharose Chromatography and Sephadex G-100 Gel filtration. Purified inhibitor was glycosylated in vitro by incubating it with varying glucose concentrations, under nitrogen for different periods of time in reducing conditions. After glycosylation, the molecular weight of inhibitor increased from 52 kDa to 57 KDa because of binding with glucose molecules. The percent free amino groups in the protein decreased with increasing glucose concentration and days of incubation. The TIC of such modified inhibitor decreased significantly. Decrease in TIC was dependent on the glucose concentration and period of incubation used during in-vitro glycosylation of native inhibitor.

  19. Implantation Serine Proteinases heterodimerize and are critical in hatching and implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Guoliang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently reported the expression of murine Implantation Serine Proteinase genes in pre-implantation embryos (ISP1 and uterus (ISP1 and ISP2. These proteinases belong to the S1 proteinase family and are similar to mast cell tryptases, which function as multimers. Results Here, we report the purification and initial characterization of ISP1 and 2 with respect to their physico-chemical properties and physiological function. In addition to being co-expressed in uterus, we show that ISP1 and ISP2 are also co-expressed in the pre-implantation embryo. Together, they form a heterodimer with an approximate molecular weight of 63 kD. This complex is the active form of the enzyme, which we have further characterized as being trypsin-like, based on substrate and inhibitor specificities. In addition to having a role in embryo hatching and outgrowth, we demonstrate that ISP enzyme is localized to the site of embryo invasion during implantation and that its activity is important for successful implantation in vivo. Conclusion On the basis of similarities in structural, chemical, and functional properties, we suggest that this ISP enzyme complex represents the classical hatching enzyme, strypsin. Our results demonstrate a critical role for ISP in embryo hatching and implantation.

  20. Characterization of the mature cell surface proteinase of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Josefina M; Brown, Lucía; Savoy de Giori, Graciela; Hebert, Elvira M

    2015-05-01

    The cell envelope-associated proteinase (CEP) of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581 (PrtL) has an essential role in bacterial growth, contributes to the flavor and texture development of fermented products, and can release bioactive health-beneficial peptides during milk fermentation. The genome of L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581 possesses only one gene that encodes PrtL, which consists of 1924 amino acids and is a multidomain protein anchored to the cell via its W domain. PrtL was extracted from the cell under high ionic strength conditions using NaCl, suggesting an electrostatic interaction between the proteinase and the cell envelope. The released PrtL was purified and biochemically characterized; its activity was maximal at temperatures between 37 and 40 °C and at pH between 7 and 8. Under optimal conditions, PrtL exhibited higher affinity for succinyl-alanyl-alanyl-prolyl-phenylalanine-p-nitroanilide than for succinyl-alanyl-glutamyl-prolyl-phenylalanine-p-nitroanilide, while methoxy-succinyl-arginyl-prolyl-tyrosyl-p-nitroanilide was not degraded. A similar ?- and ?-casein degradation pattern was observed with the purified and the cell envelope-bound proteinase. Finally, on the basis of its specificity towards caseins and the unique combination of amino acids at residues thought to be involved in substrate specificity, PrtL can be classified as a representative of a new group of CEP. PMID:25487890

  1. Cloning and characterization of an Eimeria acervulina sporozoite gene homologous to aspartyl proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, F; Bourdieu, C; Kaga, M; Chilmonczyk, S; Zgrzebski, G; Yvoré, P; Péry, P

    1993-12-01

    A lambda ZapII cDNA library was constructed using mRNA from Eimeria acervulina sporulated oocysts and screened with monoclonal antibodies raised against Eimeria tenella sporulated oocytes. Monoclonal antibody N3C8B12 identified a clone (6S2) potentially encoding an aspartyl proteinase since significant homology with cathepsin D, pepsin and renin proteinases was revealed by sequence comparisons. The 1500-bp cDNA fragment containing the coccidial gene was subcloned into pGEX-FA expression vector, leading to the production of an 80-kDa fusion protein (FA6S2) which was used to immunize rabbits. The anti-FA6S2 rabbit sera revealed a single 43-kDa protein present in Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria falciformis sporulated oocyst antigens. Indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy with mAb N3C8B12 localized the putative aspartyl proteinase in the refractile bodies of Eimeria tenella sporozoites. PMID:8139622

  2. Proteinase inhibitor 6 cannot be secreted, which suggests it is a new type of cellular serpin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, F L; Coughlin, P B; Bird, C; Cerruti, L; Hayman, J A; Bird, P

    1996-01-19

    We have recently described a new serine proteinase inhibitor, proteinase inhibitor 6 (PI-6). This serpin has features that suggest it may function intracellularly, but its close resemblance to ovalbumin serpins like plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI-2) raises the possibility that it is secreted to regulate an extracellular proteinase. To determine whether PI-6 is secreted, we have examined its cellular distribution by immunohistochemistry and have attempted to induce its release from platelets and from cultured cells. We find that PI-6 is present in endothelial and epithelial cells, but it is apparently cytoplasmic and it is not released from cells in response to phorbol ester, dibutyryl cAMP or tumor necrosis factor alpha treatment. It is also not released from activated platelets. The addition of a conventional signal peptide to the amino terminus of PI-6 directed its translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), resulting in glycosylation but not secretion of the molecule. By contrast, the addition of the same signal peptide to PAI-2 markedly enhanced its translocation and secretion. Glycosylated PI-6 was sequestered in the ER and was incapable of interacting with thrombin. The failure of PI-6 to move along the secretory pathway, and the loss of inhibitory function of ER-localized PI-6, demonstrates that unlike PAI-2, PI-6 is not naturally secreted. Taken together, these results suggest that PI-6 has evolved to fulfil an intracellular role and that it represents a new type of cellular serpin. PMID:8576159

  3. Regulation of cysteine dioxygenase degradation is mediated by intracellular cysteine levels and the ubiquitin-26 S proteasome system in the living rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominy, John E; Hirschberger, Lawrence L; Coloso, Relicardo M; Stipanuk, Martha H

    2006-02-15

    Mammalian metabolism of ingested cysteine is conducted principally within the liver. The liver tightly regulates its intracellular cysteine pool to keep levels high enough to meet the many catabolic and anabolic pathways for which cysteine is needed, but low enough to prevent toxicity. One of the enzymes the liver uses to regulate cysteine levels is CDO (cysteine dioxygenase). Catalysing the irreversible oxidation of cysteine, CDO protein is up-regulated in the liver in response to the dietary intake of cysteine. In the present study, we have evaluated the contribution of the ubiquitin-26 S proteasome pathway to the diet-induced changes in CDO half-life. In the living rat, inhibition of the proteasome with PS1 (proteasome inhibitor 1) dramatically stabilized CDO in the liver under dietary conditions that normally favour its degradation. Ubiquitinated CDO intermediates were also seen to accumulate in the liver. Metabolic analyses showed that PS1 had a significant effect on sulphoxidation flux secondary to the stabilization of CDO but no significant effect on the intracellular cysteine pool. Finally, by a combination of in vitro hepatocyte culture and in vivo whole animal studies, we were able to attribute the changes in CDO stability specifically to cysteine rather than the metabolite 2-mercaptoethylamine (cysteamine). The present study represents the first demonstration of regulated ubiquitination and degradation of a protein in a living mammal, inhibition of which had dramatic effects on cysteine catabolism. PMID:16262602

  4. Regulation of cysteine dioxygenase degradation is mediated by intracellular cysteine levels and the ubiquitin–26 S proteasome system in the living rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominy, John E.; Hirschberger, Lawrence L.; Coloso, Relicardo M.; Stipanuk, Martha H.

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian metabolism of ingested cysteine is conducted principally within the liver. The liver tightly regulates its intracellular cysteine pool to keep levels high enough to meet the many catabolic and anabolic pathways for which cysteine is needed, but low enough to prevent toxicity. One of the enzymes the liver uses to regulate cysteine levels is CDO (cysteine dioxygenase). Catalysing the irreversible oxidation of cysteine, CDO protein is up-regulated in the liver in response to the dietary intake of cysteine. In the present study, we have evaluated the contribution of the ubiquitin–26 S proteasome pathway to the diet-induced changes in CDO half-life. In the living rat, inhibition of the proteasome with PS1 (proteasome inhibitor 1) dramatically stabilized CDO in the liver under dietary conditions that normally favour its degradation. Ubiquitinated CDO intermediates were also seen to accumulate in the liver. Metabolic analyses showed that PS1 had a significant effect on sulphoxidation flux secondary to the stabilization of CDO but no significant effect on the intracellular cysteine pool. Finally, by a combination of in vitro hepatocyte culture and in vivo whole animal studies, we were able to attribute the changes in CDO stability specifically to cysteine rather than the metabolite 2-mercaptoethylamine (cysteamine). The present study represents the first demonstration of regulated ubiquitination and degradation of a protein in a living mammal, inhibition of which had dramatic effects on cysteine catabolism. PMID:16262602

  5. Restoration of Proper Trafficking to the Cell Surface for Membrane Proteins Harboring Cysteine Mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Angelica; Holmgren, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    A common phenotype for many genetic diseases is that the cell is unable to deliver full-length membrane proteins to the cell surface. For some forms of autism, hereditary spherocytosis and color blindness, the culprits are single point mutations to cysteine. We have studied two inheritable cysteine mutants of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels that produce achromatopsia, a common form of severe color blindness. By taking advantage of the reactivity of cysteine’s sulfhydryl group, we modified th...

  6. Desulfurization of Cysteine-Containing Peptides Resulting from Sample Preparation for Protein Characterization by MS

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhouxi; Rejtar, Tomas; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Karger, Barry L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we have examined two cysteine modifications resulting from sample preparation for protein characterization by MS: (1) a previously observed conversion of cysteine to dehydroalanine, now found in the case of disulfide mapping and (2) a novel modification corresponding to conversion of cysteine to alanine. Using model peptides, the conversion of cysteine to dehydroalanine via ?-elimination of a disulfide bond was seen to result from the conditions of typical tryptic digestion (3...

  7. Electrochemical behaviour of dopamine at covalent modified glassy carbon electrode with l-cysteine: preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Martínez-Huitle; Monica Cerro-Lopez; Marco Antonio Quiroz

    2009-01-01

    The surface of glassy carbon (GC) electrode has been modified by oxidation of L-cysteine. The covalent modified GC electrode with L-Cysteine has been studied, according the supporting electrolyte used. Favourable interactions between the L-cysteine film and DA enhance the current response compared to that at the Nafion GC and bare GC electrodes, achieving better performances than those other electrodes. This behaviour was as result of the adsorption of the cysteine layer film, compact and uni...

  8. Isolation of recombinant cysteine dioxygenase protein from Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašperová, A.; Kunert, J.; Horynová, M.; Weigl, E.; Sebela, M.; Lenobel, René; Raška, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 54, ?. 5 (2011), E456-E462. ISSN 0933-7407 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Cysteine dioxygenase * dermatophytes * recombinant protein * keratinolytic fungi * cDNA Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.247, year: 2011

  9. Cysteine racemization on IgG heavy and light chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingchun; Flynn, Gregory C

    2013-11-29

    Under basic pH conditions, the heavy chain 220-light chain 214 (H220-L214) disulfide bond, found in the flexible hinge region of an IgG1, can convert to a thioether. Similar conditions also result in racemization of the H220 cysteine. Here, we report that racemization occurs on both H220 and L214 on an IgG1 with a ? light chain (IgG1?) but almost entirely on H220 of an IgGl with a ? light chain (IgG1?) under similar conditions. Likewise, racemization was detected at significant levels on H220 and L214 on endogenous human IgG1? but only at the H220 position on IgG1?. Low but measurable levels of D-cysteines were found on IgG2 cysteines in the hinge region, both with monoclonal antibodies incubated under basic pH conditions and on antibodies isolated from human serum. A simplified reaction mechanism involving reversible ?-elimination on the cysteine is presented that accounts for both base-catalyzed racemization and thioether formation at the hinge disulfide. PMID:24142697

  10. Cysteine Protease Inhibitors as Chemotherapy: Lessons from a Parasite Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzer, Paul M.; Pingel, Sabine; Hsieh, Ivy; Ugele, Bernhard; Chan, Victor J.; Engel, Juan C.; Bogyo, Matthew; Russell, David G.; Sakanari, Judy A.; McKerrow, James H.

    1999-09-01

    Papain family cysteine proteases are key factors in the pathogenesis of cancer invasion, arthritis, osteoporosis, and microbial infections. Targeting this enzyme family is therefore one strategy in the development of new chemotherapy for a number of diseases. Little is known, however, about the efficacy, selectivity, and safety of cysteine protease inhibitors in cell culture or in vivo. We now report that specific cysteine protease inhibitors kill Leishmania parasites in vitro, at concentrations that do not overtly affect mammalian host cells. Inhibition of Leishmania cysteine protease activity was accompanied by defects in the parasite's lysosome/endosome compartment resembling those seen in lysosomal storage diseases. Colocalization of anti-protease antibodies with biotinylated surface proteins and accumulation of undigested debris and protease in the flagellar pocket of treated parasites were consistent with a pathway of protease trafficking from flagellar pocket to the lysosome/endosome compartment. The inhibitors were sufficiently absorbed and stable in vivo to ameliorate the pathology associated with a mouse model of Leishmania infection.

  11. Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRowley

    2006-04-28

    Children will learn a variety of themes that will teach children about spring and how to grow plants while incorporating core related material. Flowers, The children will learn about different qualities of flowers while learning shapes, counting, and colors. Flowers Gardens, The children will learn how to plant and take care of a garden. Gardens Rain, The children will learn that gardens need rain to grow. Students will also learn about evaporation. Rain Making Rain Story Time Flower Story ...

  12. Structure of soybean serine acetyltransferase and formation of the cysteine regulatory complex as a molecular chaperone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hankuil; Dey, Sanghamitra; Kumaran, Sangaralingam; Lee, Soon Goo; Krishnan, Hari B; Jez, Joseph M

    2013-12-20

    Serine acetyltransferase (SAT) catalyzes the limiting reaction in plant and microbial biosynthesis of cysteine. In addition to its enzymatic function, SAT forms a macromolecular complex with O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase. Formation of the cysteine regulatory complex (CRC) is a critical biochemical control feature in plant sulfur metabolism. Here we present the 1.75-3.0 ? resolution x-ray crystal structures of soybean (Glycine max) SAT (GmSAT) in apoenzyme, serine-bound, and CoA-bound forms. The GmSAT-serine and GmSAT-CoA structures provide new details on substrate interactions in the active site. The crystal structures and analysis of site-directed mutants suggest that His(169) and Asp(154) form a catalytic dyad for general base catalysis and that His(189) may stabilize the oxyanion reaction intermediate. Glu(177) helps to position Arg(203) and His(204) and the ?1c-?2c loop for serine binding. A similar role for ionic interactions formed by Lys(230) is required for CoA binding. The GmSAT structures also identify Arg(253) as important for the enhanced catalytic efficiency of SAT in the CRC and suggest that movement of the residue may stabilize CoA binding in the macromolecular complex. Differences in the effect of cold on GmSAT activity in the isolated enzyme versus the enzyme in the CRC were also observed. A role for CRC formation as a molecular chaperone to maintain SAT activity in response to an environmental stress is proposed for this multienzyme complex in plants. PMID:24225955

  13. Structure and mechanism leading to formation of the cysteine sulfinate product complex of a biomimetic cysteine dioxygenase model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallmann, Madleen; Kumar, Suresh; Chernev, Petko; Nehrkorn, Joscha; Schnegg, Alexander; Kumar, Devesh; Dau, Holger; Limberg, Christian; de Visser, Sam P

    2015-05-11

    Cysteine dioxygenase is a unique nonheme iron enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of cysteine in the body. It contains an iron active site with an unusual 3-His ligation to the protein, which contrasts with the structural features of common nonheme iron dioxygenases. Recently, some of us reported a truly biomimetic model for this enzyme, namely a trispyrazolylborato iron(II) cysteinato complex, which not only has a structure very similar to the enzyme-substrate complex but also represents a functional model: Treatment of the model with dioxygen leads to cysteine dioxygenation, as shown by isolating the cysteine part of the product in the course of the work-up. However, little is known on the conversion mechanism and, so far, not even the structure of the actual product complex had been characterised, which is also unknown in case of the enzyme. In a multidisciplinary approach including density functional theory calculations and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we have now determined the structure of the actual sulfinato complex for the first time. The Cys-SO2 (-) functional group was found to be bound in an ?(2) -O,O-coordination mode, which, based on the excellent resemblance between model and enzyme, also provides the first support for a corresponding binding mode within the enzymatic product complex. Indeed, this is again confirmed by theory, which had predicted a ?(2) -O,O-binding mode for synthetic as well as the natural enzyme. PMID:25823421

  14. Ratcheting of the substrate from the zymogen to proteinase conformations directs the sequential cleavage of prothrombin by prothrombinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Elsa P; Orcutt, Steven J; Panizzi, Peter; Bock, Paul E; Krishnaswamy, Sriram

    2005-07-19

    Prothrombinase catalyzes thrombin formation by the ordered cleavage of two peptide bonds in prothrombin. Although these bonds are likely approximately 36 A apart, sequential cleavage of prothrombin at Arg-320 to produce meizothrombin, followed by its cleavage at Arg-271, are both accomplished by equivalent exosite interactions that tether each substrate to the enzyme and facilitate presentation of the scissile bond to the active site of the catalyst. We show that impairing the conformational transition from zymogen to active proteinase that accompanies the formation of meizothrombin has no effect on initial cleavage at Arg-320 but inhibits subsequent cleavage at Arg-271. Full thermodynamic rescue of this defective mutant was achieved by stabilizing the proteinase-like conformation of the intermediate with a reversible, active site-specific inhibitor. Irreversible stabilization of intact prothrombin in a proteinase-like state, even without prior cleavage at Arg-320, also enhanced cleavage at Arg-271. Our results indicate that the sequential presentation and cleavage of the two scissile bonds in prothrombin activation is accomplished by substrate bound either in the zymogen or proteinase conformations. The ordered cleavage of prothrombin by prothrombinase is driven by ratcheting of the substrate from the zymogen to the proteinase-like states. PMID:16006504

  15. Knockout of the murine cysteine dioxygenase gene results in severe impairment in ability to synthesize taurine and an increased catabolism of cysteine to hydrogen sulfide

    OpenAIRE

    Ueki, Iori; Roman, Heather B.; Valli, Alessandro; Fieselmann, Krista; Lam, Jimmy; Peters, Rachel; Hirschberger, Lawrence L.; Stipanuk, Martha H.

    2011-01-01

    Cysteine homeostasis is dependent on the regulation of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) in response to changes in sulfur amino acid intake. CDO oxidizes cysteine to cysteinesulfinate, which is further metabolized to either taurine or to pyruvate plus sulfate. To gain insight into the physiological function of CDO and the consequence of a loss of CDO activity, mice carrying a null CDO allele (CDO+/? mice) were crossed to generate CDO?/?, CDO+/?, and CDO+/+ mice. CDO?/? mice exhibited pos...

  16. The Cysteine Dioxgenase Knockout Mouse: Altered Cysteine Metabolism in Nonhepatic Tissues Leads to Excess H2S/HS? Production and Evidence of Pancreatic and Lung Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, Heather B.; Hirschberger, Lawrence L.; Krijt, Jakub; Valli, Alessandro; Koz?ich, Viktor; Stipanuk, Martha H.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To define the consequences of loss of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) on cysteine metabolism at the tissue level, we determined levels of relevant metabolites and enzymes and evidence of H2S/HS? (gaseous hydrogen sulfide and its conjugate base) toxicity in liver, pancreas, kidney, and lung of CDO?/? mice that were fed either a taurine-free or taurine-supplemented diet. Results: CDO?/? mice had low tissue and serum taurine and hypotaurine levels and high tissue levels of cysteine, c...

  17. Mesotrypsin, a brain trypsin, activates selectively proteinase-activated receptor-1, but not proteinase-activated receptor-2, in rat astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingfei; Luo, Weibo; Wartmann, Thomas; Halangk, Walter; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Reiser, Georg

    2006-11-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs), a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors, which are activated by serine proteases, such as trypsin, play pivotal roles in the CNS. Mesotrypsin (trypsin IV) has been identified as a brain-specific trypsin isoform. However, its potential physiological role concerning PAR activation in the brain is largely unknown. Here, we show for the first time that mesotrypsin, encoded by the PRSS3 (proteinase, serine) gene, evokes a transient and pronounced Ca(2+) mobilization in both primary rat astrocytes and retinal ganglion RGC-5 cells, suggesting a physiological role of mesotrypsin in brain cells. Mesotrypsin mediates Ca(2+) responses in rat astrocytes in a concentration-dependent manner, with a 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) value of 25 nm. The maximal effect of mesotrypsin on Ca(2+) mobilization in rat astrocytes is much higher than that observed in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells, indicating that the activity of mesotrypsin is species-specific. The pre-treatment of cells with thrombin or the PAR-1-specific peptide TRag (Ala-pFluoro-Phe-Arg-Cha-HomoArg-Tyr-NH(2), synthetic thrombin receptor agonist peptide), but not the PAR-2-specific peptide, reduces significantly the mesotrypsin-induced Ca(2+) response. Treatment with the PAR-1 antagonist SCH79797 confirms that mesotrypsin selectively activates PAR-1 in rat astrocytes. Unlike mesotrypsin, the two other trypsin isoforms, cationic and anionic trypsin, activate multiple PARs in rat astrocytes. Therefore, our data suggest that brain-specific mesotrypsin, via the regulation of PAR-1, is likely to be involved in multiple physiological/pathological processes in the brain. PMID:16903872

  18. The effects of a plant proteinase inhibitor from Enterolobium contortisiliquum on human tumor cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Nakahata, Adriana Miti; Mayer, Barbara; Ries, Christian; Andrade Paula, Claudia Alessandra; Karow, Marisa; Neth, Peter; Sampaio, Misako U.; Jochum, Marianne; Oliva, Maria Luiza V.

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary to the efficient inhibition of trypsin, chymotrypsin, plasma kallikrein, and plasmin already described by the EcTI inhibitor from Enterolobium contortisiliquum, it also blocks human neutrophil elastase (K(iapp)=4.3 nM) and prevents phorbol ester (PMA)-stimulated activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 probably via interference with membrane-type 1 (MT1)-MMP. Moreover, plasminogen-induced activation of proMMP-9 and processing of active MMP-2 was also inhibited. Furthermore...

  19. Activated human CD4 T cells express transporters for both cysteine and cystine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levring, Trine BØegh; Hansen, Ann Kathrine

    2012-01-01

    Because naïve T cells are unable to import cystine due to the absence of cystine transporters, it has been suggested that T cell activation is dependent on cysteine generated by antigen presenting cells. The aim of this study was to determine at which phases during T cell activation exogenous cystine/cysteine is required and how T cells meet this requirement. We found that early activation of T cells is independent of exogenous cystine/cysteine, whereas T cell proliferation is strictly dependent of uptake of exogenous cystine/cysteine. Naïve T cells express no or very low levels of both cystine and cysteine transporters. However, we found that these transporters become strongly up-regulated during T cell activation and provide activated T cells with the required amount of cystine/cysteine needed for T cell proliferation. Thus, T cells are equipped with mechanisms that allow T cell activation and proliferation independently of cysteine generated by antigen presenting cells.

  20. Purification and characterization of a collagenolytic serine proteinase from the skeletal muscle of red sea bream (Pagrus major).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guo-Ping; Chen, Su-Hua; Liu, Guang-Ming; Yoshida, Asami; Zhang, Ling-Jing; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2010-03-01

    A collagenolytic serine proteinase (CSP) was purified from red sea bream (Pagrus major) skeletal muscle to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate fractionation and chromatographies including DEAE-Sephacel, Phenyl Sepharose and Hydroxyapatite. The molecular mass of CSP was approximately 85 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. Optimum temperature and pH of CSP were 40 degrees C and 8.0, respectively. CSP was specifically inhibited by serine proteinase inhibitors, while inhibitors to other type proteinases did not show much inhibitory effects. The K(m) and k(cat) values of CSP for Boc-Leu-Lys-Arg-MCA were 3.58 microM and 0.13 s(-1) at 37 degrees C, respectively. Furthermore, CSP hydrolyzed gelatin and native type I collagen effectively though its degradation on myosin heavy chain (MHC) was not significant, suggesting its involvement in the texture tenderization of fish muscle during the post-mortem stage. PMID:19945542

  1. Purification, inhibitory properties and amino acid sequence of a new serine proteinase inhibitor from white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegatti, E; Tedeschi, G; Ronchi, S; Bortolotti, F; Ascenzi, P; Thomas, R M; Bolognesi, M; Palmieri, S

    1992-04-13

    A new serine proteinase inhibitor, mustard trypsin inhibitor 2 (MTI-2), has been isolated from white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seed by affinity chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. The protein inhibits the catalytic activity of bovine beta-trypsin and bovine alpha-chymotrypsin, with dissociation constants (Kd) of 1.6 x 10(-10) M and 5.0 x 10(-7) M, respectively, at pH 8.0 and 21 degrees C, the stoichiometry of both proteinase-inhibitor complexes being 1:1. The amino acid sequence of MTI-2, which was determined following S-pyridylethylation, is comprised of 63 residues, corresponding to a molecular weight of about 7 kDa, and shows only extremely limited homology to other serine proteinase inhibitors. PMID:1451776

  2. The helper component proteinase cistron of Potato virus Y induces hypersensitivity and resistance in Potato genotypes carrying dominant resistance genes on chromosome IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moury, Benoît; Caromel, Bernard; Johansen, Elisabeth; Simon, Vincent; Chauvin, Laura; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Kerlan, Camille; Lefebvre, Véronique

    2011-07-01

    The Nc(tbr) and Ny(tbr) genes in Solanum tuberosum determine hypersensitive reactions, characterized by necrotic reactions and restriction of the virus systemic movement, toward isolates belonging to clade C and clade O of Potato virus Y (PVY), respectively. We describe a new resistance from S. sparsipilum which possesses the same phenotype and specificity as Nc(tbr) and is controlled by a dominant gene designated Nc(spl). Nc(spl) maps on potato chromosome IV close or allelic to Ny(tbr). The helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) cistron of PVY was shown to control necrotic reactions and resistance elicitation in plants carrying Nc(spl), Nc(tbr), and Ny(tbr). However, inductions of necrosis and of resistance to the systemic virus movement in plants carrying Nc(spl) reside in different regions of the HC-Pro cistron. Also, genomic determinants outside the HC-Pro cistron are involved in the systemic movement of PVY after induction of necroses on inoculated leaves of plants carrying Ny(tbr). These results suggest that the Ny(tbr) resistance may have been involved in the recent emergence of PVY isolates with a recombination breakpoint near the junction of HC-Pro and P3 cistrons in potato crops. Therefore, this emergence could constitute one of the rare examples of resistance breakdown by a virus which was caused by recombination instead of by successive accumulation of nucleotide substitutions. PMID:21405985

  3. Kinetics of thermal inactivation of the extracellular proteinase from Pseudomonas fluorescens 22F: influence of pH, calcium, and protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schokker, E P; van Boekel, M A

    1999-04-01

    The influence of pH, calcium ion activity, protein, and enzyme purification on the kinetics of heat inactivation of the extracellular proteinase from Pseudomonas fluorescens 22F was studied in the temperature range 80-120 degrees C. At pH 5.5-8.6 the rate of inactivation increased slightly with increasing pH values. The pH dependence of inactivation suggests that the inactivation mechanism is mainly through deamidation. Calcium ion activity had no influence on the kinetics of heat inactivation of the proteinase. Addition of 1.8% sodium caseinate to the enzyme solution slightly decreased the heat stability of the proteinase, possibly because part of the inactivation of the proteinase is caused by aggregation to casein. Purification of the proteinase did not change the rate of thermal inactivation. PMID:10564038

  4. Five atomic resolution structures of endothiapepsin inhibitor complexes: implications for the aspartic proteinase mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, L; Erskine, P T; Crump, M P; Wood, S P; Cooper, J B

    2002-05-17

    Endothiapepsin is derived from the fungus Endothia parasitica and is a member of the aspartic proteinase class of enzymes. This class of enzyme is comprised of two structurally similar lobes, each lobe contributing an aspartic acid residue to form a catalytic dyad that acts to cleave the substrate peptide bond. The three-dimensional structures of endothiapepsin bound to five transition state analogue inhibitors (H189, H256, CP-80,794, PD-129,541 and PD-130,328) have been solved at atomic resolution allowing full anisotropic modelling of each complex. The active sites of the five structures have been studied with a view to studying the catalytic mechanism of the aspartic proteinases by locating the active site protons by carboxyl bond length differences and electron density analysis. In the CP-80,794 structure there is excellent electron density for the hydrogen on the inhibitory statine hydroxyl group which forms a hydrogen bond with the inner oxygen of Asp32. The location of this proton has implications for the catalytic mechanism of the aspartic proteinases as it is consistent with the proposed mechanism in which Asp32 is the negatively charged aspartate. A number of short hydrogen bonds (approximately 2.6 A) with ESD values of around 0.01 A that may have a role in catalysis have been identified within the active site of each structure; the lengths of these bonds have been confirmed using NMR techniques. The possibility and implications of low barrier hydrogen bonds in the active site are considered. PMID:12083527

  5. The proteolytic system of Lactobacillus sanfrancisco CB1: purification and characterization of a proteinase, a dipeptidase, and an aminopeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbetti, M; Smacchi, E; Corsetti, A

    1996-01-01

    A cell envelope 57-kDa proteinase, a cytoplasmic 65-kDa dipeptidase, and a 75-kDa aminopeptidase were purified from Lactobacillus sanfrancisco CB1 sourdough lactic acid bacterium by sequential fast protein liquid chromatography steps. All of the enzymes are monomers. The proteinase was most active at pH 7.0 and 40 degrees C, while aminopeptidase and dipeptidase had optima at pH 7.5 and 30 to 35 degrees C. Relatively high activities were observed at the pH and temperature of the sourdough fermentation. The proteinase is a serine enzyme. Urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of digest of alpha s1- and beta-caseins showed differences in the pattern of peptides released by the purified proteinase and those produced by crude preparations of the cell envelope proteinases of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus B397 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis SK11. Reversed-phase fast protein liquid chromatography of gliadin digests showed a more-complex peptide pattern produced by the proteinase of Lactobacillus sanfrancisco CB1. The dipeptidase is a metalloenzyme with high affinity for dipeptides containing hydrophobic amino acids but had no activity on tripeptides or larger peptides. The aminopeptidase was also inhibited by metal-chelating agents, and showed a broad N-terminal hydrolytic activity including di- and tripeptides. Km values of 0.70 and 0.44 mM were determined for the dipeptidase on Leu-Leu and the aminopeptidase on Leu-p-nitroanilide, respectively. PMID:8795211

  6. Two distinct phases of apoptosis in mammary gland involution: proteinase-independent and -dependent pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Leif R; Romer, John; Thomasset, Nicole; Solberg, Helene; Pyke, Charles; Bissell, Mina J; Dano, Keld; Werb, Zena

    1996-01-01

    Postlactational involution of the mammary gland is characterized by two distinct physiological events: apoptosis of the secretory, epithelial cells undergoing programmed cell death, and proteolytic degradation of the mammary gland basement membrane. We examined the spatial and temporal patterns of apoptotic cells in relation to those of proteinases during involution of the BALB/c mouse mammary gland. Apoptosis was almost absent during lactation but became evident at day 2 of involution, when {beta}-casein gene expression was still high. Apoptotic cells were then seen at least up to day 8 of involution, when {beta}-casein gene expression was being extinguished. Expression of sulfated glycoprotein-2 (SGP-2), interleukin-1{beta} converting enzyme (ICE) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 was upregulated at day 2, when apoptotic cells were seen initially. Expression of the matrix metalloproteinases gelatinase A and stromelysin-1 and the serine proteinase urokinase-type plasminogen activator, which was low during lactation, was strongly upregulated in parallel starting at day 4 after weaning, coinciding with start of the collapse of the lobulo-alveolar structures and the intensive tissue remodeling in involution. The major sites of mRNA synthesis for these proteinases were fibroblast-like cells in the periductal stroma and stromal cells surrounding the collapsed alveoli, suggesting that the degradative phase of involution is due to a specialized mesenchymal-epithelial interaction. To elucidate the functional role of these proteinases during involution, at the onset of weaning we treated mice systemically with the glucocorticoid hydrocortisone, which is known to inhibit mammary gland involution. Although the initial wave of apoptotic cells appeared in the lumina of the gland, the dramatic regression and tissue remodeling usually evident by day 5 was substantially inhibited by systemic treatment with hydrocortisone. mRNA and protein for gelatinase A, stromelysin-1 and uPA were weakly induced, if at all, in hydrocortisonetreated mice. Furthermore, mRNA for membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase decreased after hydrocortisone treatment and paralleled the almost complete inhibition of activation of latent gelatinase A. Concomitantly, the gland filled with an overabundance of milk. Our data support the hypothesis that there are at least two distinct phases of involution: an initial phase, characterized by induction of the apoptosis-associated genes SGP-2 and ICE and apoptosis of fully differentiated mammary epithelial cells without visible degradation of the extracellular matrix, and a second phase, characterized by extracellular matrix remodeling and altered mesenchymal-epithelial interactions, followed by apoptosis of cells that are losing differentiated functions.

  7. Biochemical characterization of fibrinogenolytic serine proteinases from Vipera lebetina snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samel, Mari; Subbi, Juhan; Siigur, Jüri; Siigur, Ene

    2002-01-01

    Two glycosylated serine fibrinogenases isolated from Vipera lebetina venom have homologous N-terminal sequences and antigenic determinants but can be clearly differentiated according to substrate specificity, glycosylation levels, molecular mass and fibrinogen degradation. alpha-Fibrinogenase has no homolog among known serine proteinases. It has N-terminal similarity with snake venom arginine esterases but does not hydrolyze the esters of arginine, lysine and tyrosine. The enzyme has strong proteolytic activity and degrades alpha-chain of fibrinogen altering its clottability by thrombin. beta-Fibrinogenase is a typical arginine esterase which hydrolyzes esters and amides of arginine and attacks the beta-chain of fibrinogen. PMID:11602278

  8. Role of Candida albicans-Secreted Aspartyl Proteinases (Saps) in Severe Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Wenqing Li; Dongsheng Yu; Shuo Gao; Jiacheng Lin; Zhuoyu Chen; Wei Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is strongly associated with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC). However, the roles of secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps), an important virulence factor of C. albicans, in the progress of S-ECC are not clear. In our study, the Saps activities were evaluated by the yeast nitrogen base–bovine serum albumi (YNB–BSA) agar plate method and by the MTT method with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the substrate. Genotypes of C. albicans and gene expression of Sap1–5 were eval...

  9. Consequences of manganese replacement of copper for prion protein function and proteinase resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, David R.; Hafiz, Farida; Glasssmith, Leslie L.; Wong, Boon-seng; Jones, Ian M.; Clive, Christine; Haswell, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    The prion protein (PrP) binds copper and has antioxidant activity enhancing the survival of neurones in culture. The ability of the PrP to bind other cations was tested and it was found that only manganese could substitute for copper. Although initially manganese-loaded PrP exhibited similar structure and activity to copper-loaded PrP, after aging, manganese-loaded PrP became proteinase resistant and lost function. It was also found that manganese could be incorporated into PrP expressed by a...

  10. In vitro response of human chondrocytes to a combination of growth factors and a proteinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifer, Matthew A; Kibuule, Leonard K; Maerz, Tristan; Studzinski, Diane M; Baker, Kevin C; Herkowitz, Harry N

    2012-01-01

    Degenerative disk disease is an accelerating cascade of tissue degeneration in the intervertebral disk. A harsh catabolic environment perpetuates the degeneration of the intervertebral disk. Tissue engineering-based techniques offer effective treatment to slow the progression of degenerative disk disease and regenerate intervertebral disk tissue. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a regenerative therapy for degenerative disk disease by treating human chondrocytes with anabolic growth factors and a proteinase inhibitor. The use of both proved effective in upregulating important extracellular matrix markers of human chondrocytes. These successful in vitro results have implications for the regeneration of the intervertebral disk. PMID:22229919

  11. Inhibitors of blood plasma proteinases at early stages of acute radiation sickness of monkeys (Macacus nemestrinus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of the postirradiation kinetics of blood antiproteinase activity in monkeys (Macacus nemestrinus). Whole-body uniform ?-irradiation (LD100/45) was shown to induce a significant decrease in the activity of ?2-macroglobulin during the first 24 h following irradiation: the decreased activity level was retained throughout the entire latent period of radiation sickness. At the height of radiation sickness (the 7th-10th day) up to the animals' death, a sharp increase was registered in the activity of ?1-inhibitor of blood plasma proteinases. The authors discuss a pathogenetic role of the diminution of the inhibitory potential of blood in the course of radiation sickness

  12. Characterization of a keratinolytic serine proteinase from Streptomyces pactum DSM 40530.

    OpenAIRE

    Bo?ckle, B.; Galunsky, B.; Mu?ller, R.

    1995-01-01

    A serine protease from the keratin-degrading Streptomyces pactum DSM 40530 was purified by casein agarose affinity chromatography. The enzyme had a molecular weight of 30,000 and an isoelectric point of 8.5. The proteinase was optimally active in the pH range from 7 to 10 and at temperatures from 40 to 75 degrees C. The enzyme was specific for arginine and lysine at the P1 site and for phenylalanine and arginine at the P1' site. It showed a high stereoselectivity and secondary specificity wit...

  13. Purification and Characterization of a Keratinolytic Serine Proteinase from Streptomyces albidoflavus

    OpenAIRE

    Bressollier, Philippe; Letourneau, Franc?ois; Urdaci, Maria; Verneuil, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Streptomyces strain K1-02, which was identified as a strain of Streptomyces albidoflavus, secreted at least six extracellular proteases when it was cultured on feather meal-based medium. The major keratinolytic serine proteinase was purified to homogeneity by a two-step procedure. This enzyme had a molecular weight of 18,000 and was optimally active at pH values ranging from 6 to 9.5 and at temperatures ranging from 40 to 70°C. Its sensitivity to protease inhibitors, its specificity on synth...

  14. Direct observation by X-ray analysis of the tetrahedral "intermediate" of aspartic proteinases.

    OpenAIRE

    Veerapandian, B.; Cooper, J. B.; Sali, A.; Blundell, T. L.; Rosati, R. L.; Dominy, B. W.; Damon, D. B.; Hoover, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    We report the X-ray analysis at 2.0 A resolution for crystals of the aspartic proteinase endothiapepsin (EC 3.4.23.6) complexed with a potent difluorostatone-containing tripeptide renin inhibitor (CP-81,282). The scissile bond surrogate, an electrophilic ketone, is hydrated in the complex. The pro-(R) (statine-like) hydroxyl of the tetrahedral carbonyl hydrate is hydrogen-bonded to both active-site aspartates 32 and 215 in the position occupied by a water in the native enzyme. The second hydr...

  15. Foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase: Structural insights into the mechanism of intermolecular cleavage

    OpenAIRE

    Steinberger, Jutta; Grishkovskaya, Irina; Cencic, Regina; Juliano, Luiz; Juliano, Maria A; Skern, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA initiates at one of two start codons leading to the synthesis of two forms of leader proteinase Lpro (Labpro and Lbpro). These forms free themselves from the viral polyprotein by intra- and intermolecular self-processing and subsequently cleave the cellular eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G. During infection, Lbpro removes six residues from its own C-terminus, generating sLbpro. We present the structure of sLbpro bound to the inhibitor E64-R...

  16. Heterologous expression of Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe

    Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins during germination. Several Cysteine proteases have been identified in barley. One of the key enzymes, Hordeum vulgare endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned with and without the 5 amino acid C-terminal sequence into the Pichia pastoris expression vector pPICZ A? and electrotransformed into Pichia pastoris strain SDM1163. Heterologous protein production was induced with 2% MeOH. To monitor the protein expression during induction, 1 ml samples was collected every hr for 24 hrs. After 4 days, the supernatant were harvested and analyzed by SDS-PAGE, activity assay and Western blot. A significant amount of heterologous protein was produced and the protein production was highest after 4 days and the expression in the C-terminal mutant was slightly higher than for the full length protease.

  17. The proteolytic system of Lactobacillus sanfrancisco CB1: purification and characterization of a proteinase, a dipeptidase, and an aminopeptidase.

    OpenAIRE

    Gobbetti, M.; Smacchi, E.; Corsetti, A.

    1996-01-01

    A cell envelope 57-kDa proteinase, a cytoplasmic 65-kDa dipeptidase, and a 75-kDa aminopeptidase were purified from Lactobacillus sanfrancisco CB1 sourdough lactic acid bacterium by sequential fast protein liquid chromatography steps. All of the enzymes are monomers. The proteinase was most active at pH 7.0 and 40 degrees C, while aminopeptidase and dipeptidase had optima at pH 7.5 and 30 to 35 degrees C. Relatively high activities were observed at the pH and temperature of the sourdough ferm...

  18. Frequency and enzymatic activity (proteinase and phospholipase of Candida albicans from edentulous patients, with and without denture stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PENHA Sibele Sarti

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The so called erithematous stomatitis is frequently observed in denture wearers, being local factors, mainly related to the presence of yeasts, considered important for its development. Having these aspects in mind, we evaluated edentulous patients with and without denture stomatitis (DS, identifying the yeasts obtained from the palate, and determining the relative level of the proteinase and phospholipase exo-enzymes produced by C. albicans. The results suggested that C. albicans was the most frequent species observed, being more prevalent in patients presenting DS, isolated or in association with other yeasts, with high expression of proteinase.

  19. Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor as alternative culture medium substrates for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis AMT-3

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo Pires do, Nascimento; Nelson, Alves Junior; Rosalie Reed Rodrigues, Coelho.

    1384-13-01

    Full Text Available Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor or yeast extract were used as the sole organic forms for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis in submerged fermentation. The influence of the C and N concentrations, as well as the incubation periods, were assessed. Eight proteolytic bands wer [...] e detected through gelatin-gel-electrophoresis in the various extracts obtained from the different media and after different incubation periods, with apparent molecular masses of 20, 35, 43, 50, 70, 100, 116 and 212 kDa. The results obtained suggest an opportunity for exploring this alternative strategy for proteinases production by actinomycetes, using BSG and CSL as economically feasible substrates.

  20. Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor as alternative culture medium substrates for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis AMT-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pires do Nascimento

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor or yeast extract were used as the sole organic forms for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis in submerged fermentation. The influence of the C and N concentrations, as well as the incubation periods, were assessed. Eight proteolytic bands were detected through gelatin-gel-electrophoresis in the various extracts obtained from the different media and after different incubation periods, with apparent molecular masses of 20, 35, 43, 50, 70, 100, 116 and 212 kDa. The results obtained suggest an opportunity for exploring this alternative strategy for proteinases production by actinomycetes, using BSG and CSL as economically feasible substrates.

  1. Family C1 cysteine proteases: Biological diversity or redundancy?

    OpenAIRE

    Na?gler, D. K.; Me?nard, R.

    2003-01-01

    Recent progress in the identification and partial characterization of novel genes encoding cysteine proteases of the papain family has considerably increased our knowledge of this family of enzymes. Kinetic data available to date for this large family indicate relatively broad, overlapping specificities for most enzymes, thus inspiring a growing conviction that they may exhibit functional redundancy. This is also supported in part by phenotypes of cathepsin knockout mice and suggests that sev...

  2. Cysteine cathepsins as digestive enzymes in the spider Nephilengys cruentata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzita, Felipe J; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Verhaert, Peter D E M; Lopes, Adriana R

    2015-05-01

    Cysteine cathepsins are widely spread on living organisms associated to protein degradation in lysosomes, but some groups of Arthropoda (Heteroptera, Coleoptera, Crustacea and Acari) present these enzymes related to digestion of the meal proteins. Although spiders combine a mechanism of extra-oral with intracellular digestion, the sporadic studies on this subject were mainly concerned with the digestive fluid (DF) analysis. Thus, a more complete scenario of the digestive process in spiders is still lacking in the literature. In this paper we describe the identification and characterization of cysteine cathepsins in the midgut diverticula (MD) and DF of the spider Nephilengys cruentata by using enzymological assays. Furthermore, qualitative and quantitative data from transcriptomic followed by proteomic experiments were used together with biochemical assays for results interpretation. Five cathepsins L, one cathepsin F and one cathepsin B were identified by mass spectrometry, with cathepsins L1 (NcCTSL1) and 2 (NcCTSL2) as the most abundant enzymes. The native cysteine cathepsins presented acidic characteristics such as pH optima of 5.5, pH stability in acidic range and zymogen conversion to the mature form after in vitro acidification. NcCTSL1 seems to be a lysosomal enzyme with its recombinant form displaying acidic characteristics as the native ones and being inhibited by pepstatin. Evolutionarily, arachnid cathepsin L may have acquired different roles but its use for digestion is a common feature to studied taxa. Now a more elucidative picture of the digestive process in spiders can be depicted, with trypsins and astacins acting extra-orally under alkaline conditions whereas cysteine cathepsins will act in an acidic environment, likely in the digestive vacuoles or lysosome-like vesicles. PMID:25818482

  3. Identification and preliminary characterization of protein-cysteine farnesyltransferase.

    OpenAIRE

    Manne, V.; Roberts, D.; Tobin, A.; O Rourke, E.; Virgilio, M.; Meyers, C.; Ahmed, N.; Kurz, B.; Resh, M.; Kung, H. F.

    1990-01-01

    Ras proteins must be isoprenylated at a conserved cysteine residue near the carboxyl terminus (Cys-186 in mammalian Ras p21 proteins) in order to exert their biological activity. Previous studies indicate that an intermediate in the mevalonate pathway, most likely farnesyl pyrophosphate, is the donor of this isoprenyl group. Inhibition of mevalonate synthesis reverts the abnormal phenotypes induced by the mutant RAS2Val-19 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and blocks the maturation of Xenopus ...

  4. Cysteine Activated Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Hua; Xian, Ming

    2010-01-01

    H2S, the newly discovered gasotransmitter, plays important roles in biological systems. However, the research on H2S has been hindered by lacking controllable H2S donors which could mimic the slow and continuous H2S generation process in vivo. Herein we report a series of cysteine-activated H2S donors. Structural modifications on these molecules can regulate the rates of H2S generation. These compounds can be useful tools in H2S research.

  5. Post-transcriptional regulation of cysteine dioxygenase in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, D L; Kwon, Y H; Hirschberger, L L; Stipanuk, M H

    2000-01-01

    Changes in hepatic cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) activity in response to diet play a dominant role in regulation of cysteine catabolism and taurine synthesis. We have conducted several studies of the molecular regulation of CDO activity in rat liver and rat hepatocytes. Compared to levels observed in liver of rats fed a basal 10% casein diet, up to 180-fold higher levels of CDO activity and protein were observed in liver of rats fed diets that contained additional protein, complete amino acid mixture, methionine, or cystine. Neither CDO activity nor CDO protein was induced by excess non-sulfur amino acids alone. Excess sulfur amino acids or protein did not significantly increase the concentration of hepatic CDO mRNA. Preliminary studies indicate that the polysome profile for association of CDO mRNA with polysomes is not altered by an increase in dietary protein level, suggesting that regulation may be posttranslational and possibly involve a decrease in the rate of CDO degradation. In primary cultures of rat hepatocytes, CDO mRNA, protein, and activity all virtually disappeared by 12 to 24 h of culture in standard medium whereas CDO protein, but not CDO mRNA, accumulated markedly between 12 and 24 h in hepatocytes cultured in medium with excess methionine or cyst(e)ine. These observations are also consistent with a limited role of transcriptional or translational regulation of CDO in response to diet. PMID:11787651

  6. The effect of cysteine on electrodeposition of gold nanoparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolati, A., E-mail: Dolati@sharif.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Imanieh, I.; Salehi, F.; Farahani, M. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-25

    Highlights: > Cysteine was found as an appropriate additive for electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles. > The deposition mechanism of gold nanoparticle was determined as instantaneous nucleation. > Oxygen reduction on the gold nanoparticle surface was eight times greater than that on the conventional gold deposits. - Abstract: The most applications of gold nanoparticles are in the photo-electronical accessories and bio-chemical sensors. Chloride solution with cysteine additive was used as electrolyte in gold nanoparticles electrodeposition. The nucleation and growing mechanism were studied by electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, in order to obtain a suitable nano structure. The deposition mechanism was determined as instantaneous nucleation and the dimension of particles was controlled in nanometric particle size range. Atomic Force Microscope was used to evaluate the effect of cysteine on the morphology and topography of gold nanoparticles. Finally the catalytic property of gold nanoparticle electrodeposited was studied in KOH solution, where oxygen reduction on the gold nanoparticle surface was eight times greater than that on the conventional gold deposits.

  7. Signal transduction in the wound response of tomato plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowles, D

    1998-01-01

    The wound response of tomato plants has been extensively studied, and provides a useful model to understand signal transduction events leading from injury to marker gene expression. The principal markers that have been used in these studies are genes encoding proteinase inhibitor (pin) proteins. Activation of pin genes occurs in the wounded leaf and in distant unwounded leaves of the plant. This paper reviews current understanding of signalling pathways in the wounded leaf, and in the systemi...

  8. The Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) V2 protein interacts with the host papain-like cysteine protease CYP1

    OpenAIRE

    Bar-ziv, Amalia; Levy, Yael; Hak, Hagit; Mett, Anahit; Belausov, Eduard; Citovsky, Vitaly; Gafni, Yedidya

    2012-01-01

    The V2 protein of Tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus (TYLCV) is an RNA-silencing suppressor that counteracts the innate immune response of the host plant. However, this anti-host defense function of V2 may include targeting of other defensive mechanisms of the plant. Specifically, we show that V2 recognizes and directly binds the tomato CYP1 protein, a member of the family of papain-like cysteine proteases which are involved in plant defense against diverse pathogens. This binding occurred b...

  9. Cysteine and serine protease-mediated proteolysis in body homogenate of a zooplankter, Moina macrocopa, is inhibited by the toxic cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Manish Kumar; Bagchi, Divya; Bagchi, Suvendra Nath

    2005-05-01

    The paper describes the characterization of proteases in the whole body homogenate of Moina macrocopa, which can possibly be inhibited by the extracts of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806. With the use of oligopeptide substrates and specific inhibitors, we detected the activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase and cysteine protease. Cysteine protease, the predominant enzyme behind proteolysis of a natural substrate, casein, was partially purified by gel filtration. The substrate SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of body homogenate revealed the presence of nine bands of proteases (17-72 kDa). The apparent molecular mass of an exclusive cysteine protease was 60 kDa, whereas of trypsin, it was 17-24 kDa. An extract of M. aeruginosa PCC7806 significantly inhibited the activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin and cysteine protease in M. macrocopa body homogenate at estimated IC(50) of 6- to 79-microg dry mass mL(-1). Upon fractionation by C-18 solid-phase extraction, 60% methanolic elute contained all the protease inhibitors, and these metabolites could be further separated by reverse-phase liquid chromatography. The metabolites inhibitory to M. macrocopa proteases also inhibited the corresponding class of proteases of mammalian/plant origin. The study suggests that protease inhibition may contribute to chemical interaction of cyanobacteria and crustacean zooplankton. PMID:15820132

  10. Facile conversion of cysteine and alkyl cysteines to dehydroalanine on protein surfaces: versatile and switchable access to functionalized proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardes, GJ; Chalker, JM; Errey, JC; Davis, BG

    2008-01-01

    An efficient and robust oxidative elimination of cysteine to dehydroalanine has been discovered. The reaction is induced by O-mesitylenesulfonylhydroxylamine (MSH) and is compatible with methionine. The key elimination has been executed on protein surfaces and allows ready access to different post-translationally modified proteins through conjugate addition of sulfur nucleophiles to dehydroalanine. Treatment of the resulting thioether with MSH results in regeneration of dehydroalanine, allowi...

  11. Skin-healing activity and toxicological evaluation of a proteinase fraction from Carica candamarcensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Fernanda O; Ferreira, Lucas A M; Cardoso, Valbert N; Cassali, Geovanni D; Salas, Carlos E; Lopes, Miriam T P

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that proteinases from latex of C. candamarcensis act as mitogens on fibroblast and epithelial cells and a subsequent report showed their protective, angiogenic and wound healing effects on gastric ulcers. In this study, we present evidence of skin healing activity by the group of proteinases known as P1G10. By using a hairless mouse model, we compared the healing effect following topical application of various concentrations of P1G10. The data confirm that healing actions take place between 0.1 and 1%, without adverse local irritation or systemic toxicological action after a prolonged period of use. The wound healing effect is unaltered when P1G10 is previously inhibited with iodoacetamide. The low permeation of the hydrosoluble formulation Polawax(®) supports the maintenance of the drug at the site of application. These results extend the healing properties of these groups of enzymes in situations of dermatological trauma and open the way to future clinical applications. PMID:21737376

  12. Morphological confocal microscopy in arthropods and the enhancement of autofluorescence after proteinase K extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdecasas, Antonio G; Abad, Angela

    2011-02-01

    Procedures to study the molecular and morphological characteristics of microscopic organisms are often incompatible with each other. Therein, the realization of alternatives that make the characterization of these features compatible and simultaneously permit the deposition of the original material as a voucher sample into a reference collection is one of the foremost goals of biodiversity studies. In this study, we show that genomic extraction does not necessarily compromise the detailed study of the external morphology of microscopic organisms, and to do so, we used a group of aquatic mites (Acari, Hydrachnidia) as a test group. Hydrachnidia morphology is difficult to study when specimens have been stored in pure ethanol; however, proteinase K extraction leaves them flexible and easy to dissect, while, at the same time, maintaining all of their diagnostic features intact. Furthermore, autofluorescence is significantly enhanced after proteinase extraction. Our study was conducted with aquatic mites that were stored in absolute ethanol in the field and processed for DNA extraction using a Qiagen QIAamp minikit. Before and after molecular extraction, a laser scanning confocal microscopy morphological examination was carried out. PMID:21126384

  13. The contribution of residues 192 and 193 to the specificity of snake venom serine proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braud, S; Parry, M A; Maroun, R; Bon, C; Wisner, A

    2000-01-21

    Snake venom serine proteinases, which belong to the subfamily of trypsin-like serine proteinases, exhibit a high degree of sequence identity (60-66%). Their stringent macromolecular substrate specificity contrasts with that of the less specific enzyme trypsin. One of them, the plasminogen activator from Trimeresurus stejnegeri venom (TSV-PA), which shares 63% sequence identity with batroxobin, a fibrinogen clotting enzyme from Bothrops atrox venom, specifically activates plasminogen to plasmin like tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), even though it exhibits only 23% sequence identity with t-PA. This study shows that TSV-PA, t-PA, and batroxobin are quite different in their specificity toward small chromogenic substrates, TSV-PA being less selective than t-PA, and batroxobin not being efficient at all. The specificity of TSV-PA, with respect to t-PA and batroxobin, was investigated further by site-directed mutagenesis in the 189-195 segment, which forms the basement of the S(1) pocket of TSV-PA and presents a His at position 192 and a unique Phe at position 193. This study demonstrates that Phe(193) plays a more significant role than His(192) in determining substrate specificity and inhibition resistance. Interestingly, the TSV-PA variant F193G possesses a 8-9-fold increased activity for plasminogen and becomes sensitive to bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. PMID:10636881

  14. Intracellular localization of Treponema denticola chymotrypsin-like proteinase in chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Marttila

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Treponema denticola is an important periodontal pathogen capable of tissue invasion. Its chymotrypsin-like proteinase (CTLP can degrade a number of basement membrane components in vitro, thus suggesting a contribution to tissue invasion by the spirochete. The aim of this study was to analyze the localization of CTLP in chronic periodontitis tissues ex vivo. A polyclonal antibody specific to T. denticola cell-bound CTLP was used to detect the spirochetes in the gingival tissues of patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis (n=25 by immunohistochemistry and periodic acid-Schiff staining (PAS. The presence of T. denticola in the periodontal tissue samples was analyzed by PCR. Periodontal tissue samples of 12 of the 25 patients were found to be positive for T. denticola by PCR. Moreover, CTLP could be detected in the periodontal tissues of all these patients by immunohistochemistry. In the epithelium, the CTLP was mostly intracellular. Typically, the positive staining could be seen throughout the whole depth of the epithelium. When detected extracellularly, CTLP was localized mainly as granular deposits. The connective tissue stained diffusely positive in four cases. The positive staining co-localized with the PAS stain in nine cases. T. denticola and its CTLP could be detected in diseased human periodontium both intra- and extracellularly. The granular staining pattern was suggestive of the presence of T. denticola bacteria, whereas the more diffused staining pattern was indicative of the recent presence of the bacterium and shedding of the cell-bound proteinase.

  15. Overexpression of serine acetlytransferase produced large increases in O-acetylserine and free cysteine in developing seeds of a grain legume

    OpenAIRE

    Tabe, Linda; Wirtz, Markus; Molvig, Lisa; Droux, Michel; Hell, Ruediger

    2009-01-01

    There have been many attempts to increase concentrations of the nutritionally essential sulphur amino acids by modifying their biosynthetic pathway in leaves of transgenic plants. This report describes the first modification of cysteine biosyntheis in developing seeds; those of the grain legume, narrow leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius, L.). Expression in developing lupin embryos of a serine acetyltransferase (SAT) from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtSAT1 or AtSerat 2;1) was associated with increase...

  16. Frequency and enzymatic activity (proteinase and phospholipase) of Candida albicans from edentulous patients, with and without denture stomatitis / Freqüência e atividade enzimática (proteinase e fosfolipase) de Candida albicans de pacientes desdentados totais, com e sem estomatite protética

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sibele Sarti, PENHA; Esther Goldenberg, BIRMAN; Fernando Ricardo Xavier da, SILVEIRA; Claudete Rodrigues de, PAULA.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A Estomatite Protética (EP) é freqüentemente observada em pacientes portadores de prótese total, sendo a presença de fungos considerada um importante fator para o seu aparecimento. Baseado neste fato, avaliamos pacientes edêntulos com e sem estomatite protética, identificando os fungos presentes, e [...] os níveis de proteinase e fosfolipase produzidos por Candida albicans. Os resultados mostraram que C. albicans foi a espécie mais freqüente, prevalecendo em pacientes com EP. Todas as cepas de C. albicans isoladas foram fortemente positivas para proteinase, diferentemente da atividade de fosfolipase. Abstract in english The so called erithematous stomatitis is frequently observed in denture wearers, being local factors, mainly related to the presence of yeasts, considered important for its development. Having these aspects in mind, we evaluated edentulous patients with and without denture stomatitis (DS), identifyi [...] ng the yeasts obtained from the palate, and determining the relative level of the proteinase and phospholipase exo-enzymes produced by C. albicans. The results suggested that C. albicans was the most frequent species observed, being more prevalent in patients presenting DS, isolated or in association with other yeasts, with high expression of proteinase.

  17. A novel potentiometric biosensor for selective L-cysteine determination using L-cysteine-desulfhydrase producing Trichosporon jirovecii yeast cells coupled with sulfide electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichosporon jirovecii yeast cells are used for the first time as a source of L-cysteine desulfhydrase enzyme (EC 4.4.1.1) and incorporated in a biosensor for determining L-cysteine. The cells are grown under cadmium stress conditions to increase the expression level of the enzyme. The intact cells are immobilized on the membrane of a solid-state Ag2S electrode to provide a simple L-cysteine responsive biosensor. Upon immersion of the sensor in L-cysteine containing solutions, L-cysteine undergoes enzymatic hydrolysis into pyruvate, ammonia and sulfide ion. The rate of sulfide ion formation is potentiometrically measured as a function of L-cysteine concentration. Under optimized conditions (phosphate buffer pH 7, temperature 37 ± 1 deg. C and actual weight of immobilized yeast cells 100 mg), a linear relationship between L-cysteine concentration and the initial rate of sulfide liberation (dE/dt) is obtained. The sensor response covers the concentration range of 0.2-150 mg L-1 (1.7-1250 ?mol L-1) L-cysteine. Validation of the assay method according to the quality control/quality assurance standards (precision, accuracy, between-day variability, within-day reproducibility, range of measurements and lower limit of detection) reveals remarkable performance characteristics of the proposed biosensor. The sensor is satisfactorily utilized for determination of L-cysteine in some pharmaceutical formulations. The lower limit of detection is ions. The lower limit of detection is ?1 ?mol L-1 and the accuracy and precision of the method are 97.5% and ±1.1%, respectively. Structurally similar sulfur containing compounds such as glutathione, cystine, methionine, and D-cysteine do no interfere

  18. A novel potentiometric biosensor for selective L-cysteine determination using L-cysteine-desulfhydrase producing Trichosporon jirovecii yeast cells coupled with sulfide electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Saad S.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: saadsmhassan@yahoo.com; El-Baz, Ashraf F. [Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Menofia University (Egypt); Abd-Rabboh, Hisham S.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-10-17

    Trichosporon jirovecii yeast cells are used for the first time as a source of L-cysteine desulfhydrase enzyme (EC 4.4.1.1) and incorporated in a biosensor for determining L-cysteine. The cells are grown under cadmium stress conditions to increase the expression level of the enzyme. The intact cells are immobilized on the membrane of a solid-state Ag{sub 2}S electrode to provide a simple L-cysteine responsive biosensor. Upon immersion of the sensor in L-cysteine containing solutions, L-cysteine undergoes enzymatic hydrolysis into pyruvate, ammonia and sulfide ion. The rate of sulfide ion formation is potentiometrically measured as a function of L-cysteine concentration. Under optimized conditions (phosphate buffer pH 7, temperature 37 {+-} 1 deg. C and actual weight of immobilized yeast cells 100 mg), a linear relationship between L-cysteine concentration and the initial rate of sulfide liberation (dE/dt) is obtained. The sensor response covers the concentration range of 0.2-150 mg L{sup -1} (1.7-1250 {mu}mol L{sup -1}) L-cysteine. Validation of the assay method according to the quality control/quality assurance standards (precision, accuracy, between-day variability, within-day reproducibility, range of measurements and lower limit of detection) reveals remarkable performance characteristics of the proposed biosensor. The sensor is satisfactorily utilized for determination of L-cysteine in some pharmaceutical formulations. The lower limit of detection is {approx}1 {mu}mol L{sup -1} and the accuracy and precision of the method are 97.5% and {+-}1.1%, respectively. Structurally similar sulfur containing compounds such as glutathione, cystine, methionine, and D-cysteine do no interfere.

  19. Serine proteinase from Cucurbita ficifolia seed; purification, properties, substrate specificity and action on native squash trypsin inhibitor (CMTI I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryjanski, M; Otlewski, J; Polanowski, A; Wilusz, T

    1990-09-01

    A proteinase was purified from resting seeds of Cucurbita ficifolia by ammonium sulfate fractionation and successive chromatography on CM-cellulose, Sephacryl S-300 and TSK DEAE-2SW (HPLC) columns. Inhibition by DFP and PMSF suggests that the enzyme is a serine proteinase. The apparent molecular mass of this enzyme is ca. 77 kDa. The optimum activity for hydrolysis of casein and Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA is around pH 10.5. The following peptide bonds in the oxidized insulin B-chain were hydrolysed by the proteinase: Phe1-Val2, Asn3-Gln4, Gln4-His5, Cya7-Gly8, Glu13-Ala14, Ala14-Leu15, Cya19-Gly20, Pro28-Lys29 and Lys29-Ala30. The proteinase is more selective towards the native squash seed trypsin inhibitor (CMTI I) and primarily cuts off only its N-terminal arginine. The inhibitor devoided of the N-terminal arginine residue is still active against trypsin. PMID:2291813

  20. Evidence for the presence of proteolytically active secreted aspartic proteinase 1 of Candida parapsilosis in the cell wall.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinterová, Zuzana; Šanda, Miloslav; Dostál, Ji?í; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga; Pichová, Iva

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 20, ?. 12 (2011), s. 2004-2012. ISSN 0961-8368 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531; GA ?R GA310/09/1945 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Candida parapsilosis * secreted aspartic proteinases * Sapp1p * cell wall * biotin * proteolytic activity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.798, year: 2011

  1. The epidermal growth factor precursor in the rat kidney seems to be processed by an aprotinin sensitive proteinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NexØ, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1992-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is synthesized as a membrane bound precursor in the rat kidney. The precursor seems to be processed by an aprotinin sensitive proteinase. Intravenous infusion of aprotinin reduces the urinary excretion of EGF by 85% and increases the amount of renal EGF. Kidney membranes incubated at 37 degrees C release EGF and this release is inhibited by aprotinin.

  2. MANGANESE UPREGULATES CELLULAR PRION PROTEINS AND INHIBITS THE RATE OF PROTEINASE-K DEPENDENT LIMITED PROTEOLYSIS IN NEURONAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The key event in the pathogenesis of prion diseases is the conversion of normal cellular prion proteins (PrP**c) to the proteinase K (PK) resistant, abnormal form (PrP**sc); however, the cellular mechanisms underlying the conversion remain enigmatic. Binding of divalent cations such as copper to th...

  3. Characterization of extracellular polymeric matrix, and treatment of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilms with DNase I and proteinase K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Mansoor Ali Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biofilms are organized communities of microorganisms embedded in a self-produced extracellular polymeric matrix (EPM, often with great phylogenetic variety. Bacteria in the subgingival biofilm are key factors that cause periodontal diseases; among these are the Gram-negative bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The objectives of this study were to characterize the major components of the EPM and to test the effect of deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I and proteinase K. Methods: F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis bacterial cells were grown in dynamic and static biofilm models. The effects of DNase I and proteinase K enzymes on the major components of the EPM were tested during biofilm formation and on mature biofilm. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used in observing biofilm structure. Results: Proteins and carbohydrates were the major components of the biofilm matrix, and extracellular DNA (eDNA was also present. DNase I and proteinase K enzymes had little effect on biofilms in the conditions used. In the flow cell, F. nucleatum was able to grow in partially oxygenated conditions while P. gingivalis failed to form biofilm alone in similar conditions. F. nucleatum supported the growth of P. gingivalis when they were grown together as dual species biofilm. Conclusion: DNase I and proteinase K had little effect on the biofilm matrix in the conditions used. F. nucleatum formed biofilm easily and supported the growth of P. gingivalis, which preferred anaerobic conditions.

  4. Enzymological characterization of secreted proteinases from .I.Candida parapsilosis./I. and .I.Candida lusitaniae./I..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga; Dostál, Ji?í; Hamal, P.; Pazlarová, J.; Ruml, T.; Pichová, Iva

    2001-01-01

    Ro?. 66, ?. 11 (2001), s. 1707-1719. ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA303/98/1612; GA ?R GA303/98/P252; GA ?R GA303/01/0831 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : aspartic proteinase Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.778, year: 2001

  5. Cysteine-?-cyclodextrin enhanced phytoremediation of soil co-contaminated with phenanthrene and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghui; Wang, Yin; Hu, Suhang; Deng, Nansheng; Wu, Feng

    2015-07-01

    It is necessary to find an effective soil remediation technology for the simultaneous removal of hydrophobic organic contaminants and heavy metals from contaminated soils. In this work, a novel cysteine-?-cyclodextrin (CCD) was synthesized by the reaction of ?-cyclodextrin with cysteine, and the structure of CCD was confirmed by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Pot-culture experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of CCD on the phytoremediation of soil co-contaminated with phenanthrene and lead. The results showed that CCD can enhance the phytoremediation of soil co-contaminated with phenanthrene and lead. When CCD was added to the co-contaminated soil, the concentrations of phenanthrene and Pb in roots and shoots of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) significantly increased, the presence of CCD is beneficial to the accumulation of phenanthrene and Pb in ryegrass, and the residual concentrations of phenanthrene and Pb in soils significantly decreased. Under the co-contamination of 500 mg Pb kg(-1) and 50 mg PHE kg(-1), the bioconcentration factor of phenanthrene and Pb in the presence of CCD was increased by 1.43-fold and 4.47-fold, respectively. After CCD was added to the contaminated soils, the residual concentration of phenanthrene and Pb in unplanted soil was decreased by 18 and 25 %, respectively. However, for the planted soil, the residual concentration of phenanthrene and Pb was decreased by 48 and 56 %, respectively. CCD may improve the bioavailability of phenanthrene and Pb in co-contaminated soil; CCD enhanced phytoremediation technology may be a good alternative for the removal of hydrophobic organic contaminants and heavy metals from contaminated soils. PMID:25687612

  6. Quantitative Mapping of Reversible Mitochondrial Complex I Cysteine Oxidation in a Parkinson Disease Mouse Model*

    OpenAIRE

    Danielson, Steven R.; Held, Jason M.; Oo, May; Riley, Rebeccah; Gibson, Bradford W.; Andersen, Julie K.

    2011-01-01

    Differential cysteine oxidation within mitochondrial Complex I has been quantified in an in vivo oxidative stress model of Parkinson disease. We developed a strategy that incorporates rapid and efficient immunoaffinity purification of Complex I followed by differential alkylation and quantitative detection using sensitive mass spectrometry techniques. This method allowed us to quantify the reversible cysteine oxidation status of 34 distinct cysteine residues out of a total 130 present in muri...

  7. CMD: A Database to Store the Bonding States of Cysteine Motifs with Secondary Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed Bostan; Naomie Salim; Zeti Azura Hussein; Peter Klappa; Mohd Shahir Shamsir

    2012-01-01

    Computational approaches to the disulphide bonding state and its connectivity pattern prediction are based on various descriptors. One descriptor is the amino acid sequence motifs flanking the cysteine residue motifs. Despite the existence of disulphide bonding information in many databases and applications, there is no complete reference and motif query available at the moment. Cysteine motif database (CMD) is the first online resource that stores all cysteine residues, their flanking motifs...

  8. Identification of semicarbazones, thiosemicarbazones and triazine nitriles as inhibitors of leishmania mexicana cysteine protease CPB

    OpenAIRE

    Schroder, J.; Noack, S.; Marhofer, R. J.; Mottram, J. C.; Coombs, G. H.; Selzer, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Cysteine proteases of the papain superfamily are present in nearly all eukaryotes. They play pivotal roles in the biology of parasites and inhibition of cysteine proteases is emerging as an important strategy to combat parasitic diseases such as sleeping sickness, Chagas’ disease and leishmaniasis. Homology modeling of the mature Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease CPB2.8 suggested that it differs significantly from bovine cathepsin B and thus could be a good drug target. High throughput ...

  9. Peptidyl cyclopropenones: Reversible inhibitors, irreversible inhibitors, or substrates of cysteine proteases?

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Meital; Bretler, Uriel; Albeck, Amnon

    2013-01-01

    Peptidyl cyclopropenones were previously introduced as selective cysteine protease reversible inhibitors. In the present study we synthesized one such peptidyl cyclopropenone and investigated its interaction with papain, a prototype cysteine protease. A set of kinetics, biochemical, HPLC, MS, and 13C-NMR experiments revealed that the peptidyl cyclopropenone was an irreversible inhibitor of the enzyme, alkylating the catalytic cysteine. In parallel, this cyclopropenone also behaved as an alter...

  10. Excretory bladder: the source of cysteine proteases in Paragonimus westermani metacercariae

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hyun-jong; Chung, Young-bae; Kang, Shin-yong; Kong, Yoon; Cho, Seung-yull

    2002-01-01

    The cysteine proteases of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae are involved in metacercarial excystment, host immune modulation, and possibly in tissue penetration. In order to clarify the origin of the enzymes, 28 and 27 kDa cysteine proteases in metacercarial excretory-secretory products were purified through the FPLC system using Mono Q column chromatography. The polyclonal antibodies to the enzymes were produced in BALB/c mice. Immunolocalization studies revealed that both cysteine protea...

  11. Quantification of free cysteines in membrane and soluble proteins using a fluorescent dye and thermal unfolding

    OpenAIRE

    Branigan, Emma; Pliotas, Christos; Hagelueken, Gregor; Naismith, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Cysteine is an extremely useful site for selective attachment of labels to proteins for many applications, including the study of protein structure in solution by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), fluorescence spectroscopy and medical imaging. The demand for quantitative data for these applications means that it is important to determine the extent of the cysteine labeling. The efficiency of labeling is sensitive to the 3D context of cysteine within the protein. Where the label or modifi...

  12. Emission of hydrogen sulfide by leaf tissue in response to L-cysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaf discs and detached leaves exposed to L-cysteine emitted a volatile sulfur compound which was proven by gas chromatography to be H2S. This phenomenon was demonstrated in all nine species tested (Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita pepo, Nicotiana tabacum, Coleus blumei, Beta vulgaris, Phaseolus vulgaris, Medicago sativa, Hordeum vulgare, and Gossypium hirsutum). The emission of volatile sulfur by cucumber leaves occurred in the dark at a similar rate to that in the light. The emission of leaf discs reached the maximal rate, more than 40 picomoles per minute per square centimeter, 2 to 4 hours after starting exposure to L-cysteine; then it decreased. In the case of detached leaves, the maximum occurred 5 to 10 h after starting exposure. The average emission rate of H2S during the first 4 hours from leaf discs of cucurbits in response to 10 millimolar L-cysteine, was usually more than 40 picomoles per minute per square centimeter, i.e. 0.24 micromoles per hour per square decimeter. Leaf discs exposed to 1 millimolar L-cysteine emitted only 2% as much as did the discs exposed to 10 millimolar L-cysteine. The emission from leaf discs and from detached leaves lasted for at least 5 and 15 hours, respectively. However, several hours after the maximal emission, injury of the leaves, manifested as chlorosis, was evident. H2S emission was a specific consequence of exposure to L-cysteine; neither D-cysteine nor L-cysteine elicited H2S emissr L-cysteine elicited H2S emission. Aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of pyridoxal phosphate dependent enzymes, inhibited the emission. In a cell free system from cucumber leaves, H2S formation and its release occurred in response to L-cysteine. Feeding experiments with [35S]t-cysteine showed that most of the sulfur in H2S was derived from sulfur in the L-cysteine supplied

  13. Fasting, but Not Aging, Dramatically Alters the Redox Status of Cysteine Residues on Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja E. Menger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Altering the redox state of cysteine residues on protein surfaces is an important response to environmental challenges. Although aging and fasting alter many redox processes, the role of cysteine residues is uncertain. To address this, we used a redox proteomic technique, oxidative isotope-coded affinity tags (OxICAT, to assess cysteine-residue redox changes in Drosophila melanogaster during aging and fasting. This approach enabled us to simultaneously identify and quantify the redox state of several hundred cysteine residues in vivo. Cysteine residues within young flies had a bimodal distribution with peaks at ?10% and ?85% reversibly oxidized. Surprisingly, these cysteine residues did not become more oxidized with age. In contrast, 24 hr of fasting dramatically oxidized cysteine residues that were reduced under fed conditions while also reducing cysteine residues that were initially oxidized. We conclude that fasting, but not aging, dramatically alters cysteine-residue redox status in D. melanogaster.

  14. Anti-collagenase, anti-elastase and anti-oxidant activities of extracts from 21 plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hili Pauline; Thring Tamsyn SA; Naughton Declan P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Owing to their roles in tissue remodelling in health and disease, several studies have reported investigations on plant extracts as inhibitors of proteinases and as anti-oxidants. Methods The anti-ageing and anti-oxidant properties of 23 plant extracts (from 21 plant species) were assessed as anti-elastase and anti-collagenase activities and in selected anti-oxidant assays along with phenolic content. Results Anti-elastase activities were observed for nine of the extracts ...

  15. Flow injection spectrofluorimetric determination of cystine and cysteine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ali A., Ensafi; B., Rezaei; S., Nouroozi.

    Full Text Available Um procedimento relativamente simples e sensível com detecção espectrofluorimétrica foi desenvolvido para a determinação de cistina e cisteína por sistema de injeção em fluxo com determinação seqüencial. Esse método é fundamentado na redução de Tl(III) com cisteína em meio ácido, produzindo o reagen [...] te fluorescente TlCl3(2-) (?ex = 227 nm, ?em = 419 nm). Antes da injeção, a solução da amostra foi dividida em dois fluxos. O primeiro fluxo foi tratado com coluna de redução de Cd e então refluxado com a solução do carregador para reagir em pH 5,0 com Tl(III), passado através de uma cela de reação de 100 cm e posteriormente para a cela fluxo do espectrofluorímetro, onde a intensidade de fluorescência foi medida (?ex = 227 nm, ?em = 419 nm). Esse sinal está relacionado às concentrações de cistina e cisteína. O segundo fluxo da solução de amostra foi injetado diretamente no fluxo carregador para reagir e, então, pela cela de reação e detector para medida da intensidade de fluorescência. O sinal nessa etapa é relacionado apenas à cisteína. Assim, o conteúdo de cistina foi determinado diretamente da diferença entre os dois sinais. Cistina e cisteína podem ser determinadas no intervalo de 0,10 a 5,50 µmol L-1 e 0,20 a 8,0 µmol L-1, respectivamente, em uma razão de 20 amostras por hora. O limite de detecção (3s/k) foi 0,10 µmol L-1 para os dois analitos. Os desvios padrões relativos para a determinação de dez replicatas de 4,0 e 3,5 µmol L-1 de cistina ou cisteína foram 1,1% e 1,8%, respectivamente. A influência de substâncias interferentes foi estudada. O método proposto foi aplicado com sucesso na determinação seqüencial de ambos analitos em amostras farmacêuticas. Abstract in english A relatively simple and sensitive procedure with spectrofluorimetric detection was developed for the determination of cystine and cysteine by flow injection system with sequential determination. This method is based on the reduction of Tl(III) with cysteine in acidic media, producing a fluorescence [...] reagent, TlCl3(2-) (?ex = 227 nm, ?em = 419 nm). Before injection, the sample solution was divided into two streams. The first stream was treated with Cd reduction column and then joined with the carrier to react with Tl(III) at pH 5.0 and then passed through a 100 cm reaction coil to the flow cell of the spectrofluorimeter, where the fluorescence intensity was measured (?ex = 227 nm, ?em = 419 nm). This signal is related to cystine and cysteine concentrations. The second stream of sample solution was injected directly into the carrier stream to react with the reagents and then passed through the reaction coil and detector for measuring the fluorescence intensity. The signal in this step is related only to cysteine. Thus, the cystine content was determined directly from difference of the two signals. Cystine and cysteine can be determined in the range of 0.10 to 5.50 µmol L-1 and 0.20 to 8.0 µmol L-1, respectively, at a rate of 20 samples per hour. The limit of detection (3s/k) was 0.10 µmol L-1 for both analytes. The relative standard deviations for ten replicates determination of 4.0 and 3.5 µmol L-1 cystine or cysteine were 1.1% and 1.8%, respectively. The influence of potential interfering substances was studied. The proposed method was successfully applied to the sequential determination of both analytes in pharmaceutical samples.

  16. Knockout of the murine cysteine dioxygenase gene results in severe impairment in ability to synthesize taurine and an increased catabolism of cysteine to hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Iori; Roman, Heather B; Valli, Alessandro; Fieselmann, Krista; Lam, Jimmy; Peters, Rachel; Hirschberger, Lawrence L; Stipanuk, Martha H

    2011-10-01

    Cysteine homeostasis is dependent on the regulation of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) in response to changes in sulfur amino acid intake. CDO oxidizes cysteine to cysteinesulfinate, which is further metabolized to either taurine or to pyruvate plus sulfate. To gain insight into the physiological function of CDO and the consequence of a loss of CDO activity, mice carrying a null CDO allele (CDO(+/-) mice) were crossed to generate CDO(-/-), CDO(+/-), and CDO(+/+) mice. CDO(-/-) mice exhibited postnatal mortality, growth deficit, and connective tissue pathology. CDO(-/-) mice had extremely low taurine levels and somewhat elevated cysteine levels, consistent with the lack of flux through CDO-dependent catabolic pathways. However, plasma sulfate levels were slightly higher in CDO(-/-) mice than in CDO(+/-) or CDO(+/+) mice, and tissue levels of acid-labile sulfide were elevated, indicating an increase in cysteine catabolism by cysteine desulfhydration pathways. Null mice had lower hepatic cytochrome c oxidase levels, suggesting impaired electron transport capacity. Supplementation of mice with taurine improved survival of male pups but otherwise had little effect on the phenotype of the CDO(-/-) mice. H(2)S has been identified as an important gaseous signaling molecule as well as a toxicant, and pathology may be due to dysregulation of H(2)S production. Control of cysteine levels by regulation of CDO may be necessary to maintain low H(2)S/sulfane sulfur levels and facilitate the use of H(2)S as a signaling molecule. PMID:21693692

  17. Enhancement of cysteine catabolism into taurine impacts glutathione homeostasis in rats challenged with ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chul Won; Kwon, Do Young; Jun, Doo Sung; Lee, Yoo Min; Kim, Young Chul

    2015-06-01

    We determined the alterations in metabolic conversion of cysteine into glutathione and taurine in liver of rats treated with ethanol acutely. Ethanol treatment reduced cysteine as well as glutathione levels in liver for 24 h. However, cysteine dioxygenase was up-regulated rapidly, and hypotaurine/taurine levels were significantly higher than those found in the saline-treated rats. It is therefore suggested that enhancement of cysteine catabolism into taurine contributes to the depletion of hepatic glutathione, which could exacerbate the ethanol-induced oxidative liver injury. PMID:25833720

  18. Chemistry of the Cysteine Sensors in Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Ryan; Fishbein, James C.

    2010-01-01

    The protein Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) is a cysteine-rich regulatory and scaffold protein. Human Keap1 contains 27 cysteines. Some of these cysteines are believed to mediate derepression of the transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), which subsequently upregulates phase 2 enzymes, in response to electrophilic/oxidative assault. Some current models depict a highly select group of two and possibly a few more cysteine residues as key sensors. The...

  19. Influence of cysteine doping on photoluminescence intensity from semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnosov, N. V.; Leontiev, V. S.; Linnik, A. S.; Karachevtsev, V. A.

    2015-03-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) from semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes can be applied for detection of cysteine. It is shown that cysteine doping (from 10-8 to 10-3 M) into aqueous suspension of nanotubes with adsorbed DNA leads to increase of PL intensity. The PL intensity was enhanced by 27% at 10-3 M cysteine concentration in suspension. Most likely, the PL intensity increases due to the passivation of p-defects on the nanotube by the cysteine containing reactive thiol group. The effect of doping with other amino acids without this group (methionine, serine, aspartic acid, lysine, proline) on the PL intensity is essentially weaker.

  20. Functional analysis of cysteine residues of ECP elicitor proteins of the fungal tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum

    OpenAIRE

    Luderer, R.; Kock, M.J.D., de; Dees, R.H.L.; Wit, P.J.G.M. de; Joosten, M.H.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    A striking feature of all elicitor proteins of Cladosporium fulvum that are specifically recognized by tomato is that they contain an even number of cysteine residues. These cysteine residues are thought to be involved in disulphide bridges. In this study, a mutational analysis of the cysteine residues of ECP1, ECP2 and ECP5 was performed, to examine their role in stability and hypersensitive response-inducing activity of the proteins. We show that not all cysteine residues of the ECPs are cr...

  1. Acetaminophen-cysteine adducts during therapeutic dosing and following overdose

    OpenAIRE

    Judge Bryan S; James Laura P; Green Jody L; Heard Kennon J; Zolot Liza; Rhyee Sean; Dart Richard C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Acetaminophen-cysteine adducts (APAP-CYS) are a specific biomarker of acetaminophen exposure. APAP-CYS concentrations have been described in the setting of acute overdose, and a concentration >1.1 nmol/ml has been suggested as a marker of hepatic injury from acetaminophen overdose in patients with an ALT >1000 IU/L. However, the concentrations of APAP-CYS during therapeutic dosing, in cases of acetaminophen toxicity from repeated dosing and in cases of hepatic injury from ...

  2. Redox interactions between Fe and cysteine: Spectroscopic studies and multiplet calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Amrita; Stavitski, Eli; Dvorak, Joseph; Martínez, Carmen Enid

    2013-12-01

    The biogeochemical cycle of Fe is intricately linked with that of organic matter. Cysteine represents an organic molecule with functionalities (O, S, N functional groups) and a C backbone that may mimic the functional groups present in organic matter from terrestrial and aquatic environments. In the present study we explore the redox speciation and coordination environment of Fe and the roles of the various ligand atoms of cysteine (C, N, S) in iron-organic redox coupling and transformations. The changes in oxidation state of Fe, C, N, and S in laboratory-synthesized Fe(II)-cysteine (synthesized from ferrous sulfate) and Fe(III)-cysteine (synthesized from ferric nitrate) complexes are monitored as a function of time using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (Fe L2,3-edge XANES; C, N and S K-edge XANES; Fe K-edge EXAFS) and theoretical multiplet calculations using the program CTM4XAS (Charge Transfer Multiplet for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy). CTM4XAS calculations show that 80% of the total Fe in both the Fe(II)-cysteine and the Fe(III)-cysteine complexes is present as Fe2+ initially (t = 0), thus indicating preservation of Fe(II) in Fe(II)-cysteine and reduction of Fe(III) in Fe(III)-cysteine at initial conditions, the latter caused by an internal electron transfer reaction from S of -SH on the cysteine molecule. After 12 months, however, ?60% of the total Fe is present as Fe3+ in the Fe(II)-cysteine complex whereas ?67% of the total Fe is present as Fe2+ in the Fe(III)-cysteine complex. The fact that a larger proportion of the Fe in the Fe(III)-cysteine complex remained reduced after 12 months than that in the Fe(II)-cysteine complex suggests that the reduced Fe in Fe(III)-cysteine after 12 months is further stabilized via preferential binding with the donor atoms of cysteine. Stabilization via preferential binding is supported by a coordination environment that changed from tetrahedral Fe2+ binding to S at a distance of 2.3 Å at t = 0 for both Fe(II,III)-cysteine complexes, to Fe3+ in an octahedral coordination with O/N atoms at a distance of 2.05 Å (most prevalent in Fe(II)-cysteine) and Fe2+ in tetrahedral coordination with S/O/N atoms at an average distance of 2.15 Å (most prevalent in Fe(III)-cysteine) at t = 12 months. Redox changes in the -NH2 and -SH groups of cysteine accompanied the Fe redox changes thus reflecting the true potential of cysteine as a redox ligand. Our studies of the Fe(II,III)-cysteine complexes add valuable information to the existing literature on the redox chemistry of Fe-cysteine systems by shedding light on the electron exchange pathways that may occur within the complexes and by providing a detailed depiction of the iron-ligand structure and coordination. The presence and persistence of Fe(II) or Fe(III) in complexes with soluble organics have implications for Fe biological availability and Fe mobility and transport in terrestrial as well as in aquatic environments.

  3. Emission of hydrogen sulfide by leaf tissue in response to L-cysteine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiya, J.; Schmidt, A.; Wilson, L.G.; Filner, P.

    1982-08-01

    Leaf discs and detached leaves exposed to L-cysteine emitted a volatile sulfur compound which was proven by gas chromatography to be H/sub 2/S. This phenomenon was demonstrated in all nine species tested (Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita pepo, Nicotiana tabacum, Coleus blumei, Beta vulgaris, Phaseolus vulgaris, Medicago sativa, Hordeum vulgare, and Gossypium hirsutum). The emission of volatile sulfur by cucumber leaves occurred in the dark at a similar rate to that in the light. The emission of leaf discs reached the maximal rate, more than 40 picomoles per minute per square centimeter, 2 to 4 hours after starting exposure to L-cysteine; then it decreased. In the case of detached leaves, the maximum occurred 5 to 10 h after starting exposure. The average emission rate of H/sub 2/S during the first 4 hours from leaf discs of cucurbits in response to 10 millimolar L-cysteine, was usually more than 40 picomoles per minute per square centimeter, i.e. 0.24 micromoles per hour per square decimeter. Leaf discs exposed to 1 millimolar L-cysteine emitted only 2% as much as did the discs exposed to 10 millimolar L-cysteine. The emission from leaf discs and from detached leaves lasted for at least 5 and 15 hours, respectively. However, several hours after the maximal emission, injury of the leaves, manifested as chlorosis, was evident. H/sub 2/S emission was a specific consequence of exposure to L-cysteine; neither D-cysteine nor L-cysteine elicited H/sub 2/S emission. Aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of pyridoxal phosphate dependent enzymes, inhibited the emission. In a cell free system from cucumber leaves, H/sub 2/S formation and its release occurred in response to L-cysteine. Feeding experiments with (/sup 35/S)t-cysteine showed that most of the sulfur in H/sub 2/S was derived from sulfur in the L-cysteine supplied.

  4. Proteinases involved in the degradation of trypsin inhibitor in germinating mung beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K A; Tan-Wilson, A L

    1983-01-01

    The mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) trypsin inhibitor (MBTI) is rapidly modified by limited proteolysis during the early stages of seedling growth. Using an electrophoretic assay that separates the unmodified inhibitor (MBTI-F) and the first two modified species (MBTI-E and -C), a pH optimum of approximately 4 was found for the modification reaction. The inhibitor modifying activity is initially low in ungerminated seeds, with the reaction F leads to E being the primary reaction catalyzed. Activity catalyzing the production of MBTI-C appears on the first day of germination. This activity (F leads to E leads to C) increases up to 6 days after inhibition, at which time the cotyledons begin to abscise. The activity converting MBTI-F and -E to MBTI-C was strongly inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (3.3 mM) but only weakly by iodoacetate (9 mM) and not at all by pepstatin A (9 microM), leupeptin (18 microM), or EDTA (5 mM). These results suggest the involvement of proteinases other than the major endopeptidase of the germinating seed, vicilin peptidohydrolase. This conclusion is further supported by gel filtration of the extracts of cotyledons on Sephacryl S-200. At least three proteinases are present in germinated cotyledons capable of modifying MBTI-F to MBTI-C and/or -E. All are distinguishable from vicilin peptidohydrolase on the basis of their molecular weight and inhibition by low molecular weight organic reagents. PMID:6346766

  5. Role of Candida albicans-Secreted Aspartyl Proteinases (Saps in Severe Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is strongly associated with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC. However, the roles of secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps, an important virulence factor of C. albicans, in the progress of S-ECC are not clear. In our study, the Saps activities were evaluated by the yeast nitrogen base–bovine serum albumi (YNB–BSA agar plate method and by the MTT method with bovine serum albumin (BSA as the substrate. Genotypes of C. albicans and gene expression of Sap1–5 were evaluated. The relationships of Saps activities and genotypes with S-ECC were analyzed. The results showed that enzyme activities of Saps in the S-ECC group were significantly higher than those in the caries free (CF group (p < 0.05. Genotypes A, B and C were detected in the S-ECC group, and genotypes A and C were detected in the CF group. In the genotype A group, Saps activity in the S-ECC group was significantly different from that in the CF group (p < 0.05. The gene expression level of Sap1 in the S-ECC group was significantly higher than that in the CF group (p = 0.001, while Sap4 expression was significantly lower than that in the CF group (p = 0.029. It can be concluded that Sap1–5 are the predominant proteinase genes expressed in C. albicans from dental biofilm and Sap1 may play an important role in the development of S-ECC.

  6. Copper oxide assisted cysteine hierarchical structures for immunosensor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Chandra Mouli [Biomedical Instrumentation Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Sumana, Gajjala, E-mail: sumanagajjala@gmail.com [Biomedical Instrumentation Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Tiwari, Ida [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2014-09-08

    The present work describes the promising electrochemical immunosensing strategy based on copper (II) assisted hierarchical cysteine structures (CuCys) varying from star to flower like morphology. The CuCys having average size of 10??m have been synthesised using L-Cysteine as initial precursor in presence of copper oxide under environmentally friendly conditions in aqueous medium. To delineate the synthesis mechanism, detailed structural investigations have been carried out using characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The electrochemical behaviour of self-assembled CuCys on gold electrode shows surface controlled electrode reaction with an apparent electron transfer rate constant of 3.38?×?10{sup ?4?}cm s{sup ?1}. This innovative platform has been utilized to fabricate an immunosensor by covalently immobilizing monoclonal antibodies specific for Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli). Under the optimal conditions, the fabricated immunosensor is found to be sensitive and specific for the detection of E. coli with a detection limit of 10?cfu/ml.

  7. Cysteine string protein (CSP) and its role in preventing neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, Robert D.; Morgan, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine string protein (CSP) is a member of the DnaJ/Hsp40 family of co-chaperones that localises to neuronal synaptic vesicles. Its name derives from the possession of a string of 12–15 cysteine residues, palmitoylation of which is required for targeting to post-Golgi membranes. The DnaJ domain of CSP enables it to bind client proteins and recruit Hsc70 chaperones, thereby contributing to the maintenance of protein folding in the presynaptic compartment. Mutation of CSP in flies, worms and mice reduces lifespan and causes synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Furthermore, recent studies have revealed that the neurodegenerative disease, adult onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, is caused by mutations in the human CSP?-encoding DNAJC5 gene. Accumulating evidence suggests that the major mechanism by which CSP prevents neurodegeneration is by maintaining the conformation of SNAP-25, thereby facilitating its entry into the membrane-fusing SNARE complex. In this review, we focus on the role of CSP in preventing neurodegeneration and discuss how recent studies of this universal neuroprotective chaperone are being translated into potential novel therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25800794

  8. Assignment of the vibrational spectrum of L-cysteine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Stewart F., E-mail: stewart.parker@stfc.ac.uk

    2013-10-16

    Highlights: • Periodic density functional theory of the polymorphic forms of L-cysteine. • A weak dihydrogen bond in the gauche conformer of the monoclinic form was found. • Comparison of observed and calculated neutron spectra shows good agreement. - Abstract: Ab initio calculations of the complete unit cell of L-cysteine for both the orthorhombic and monoclinic polymorphs have been carried out. The results suggest the presence of a previously unrecognised, weak dihydrogen bond of a novel type: S–H···N–H in the gauche conformer of the monoclinic polymorph. Comparison of the calculated transition energies to those observed in the infrared, Raman and inelastic neutron scattering spectra of the orthorhombic form shows excellent agreement, as does the simulated INS spectra to that experimentally measured. The assignments are in general agreement with those in the literature but differ in detail. The strong intermolecular interactions present make the use of periodic-DFT essential in order to correctly assign the spectra. The need for, and the complementarity of, all three types of vibrational spectra: infrared, Raman and INS is clearly demonstrated.

  9. Enzyme structure captures four cysteines aligned for disulfide relay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gat, Yair; Vardi-Kilshtain, Alexandra; Grossman, Iris; Major, Dan Thomas; Fass, Deborah

    2014-08-01

    Thioredoxin superfamily proteins introduce disulfide bonds into substrates, catalyze the removal of disulfides, and operate in electron relays. These functions rely on one or more dithiol/disulfide exchange reactions. The flavoenzyme quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase (QSOX), a catalyst of disulfide bond formation with an interdomain electron transfer step in its catalytic cycle, provides a unique opportunity for exploring the structural environment of enzymatic dithiol/disulfide exchange. Wild-type Rattus norvegicus QSOX1 (RnQSOX1) was crystallized in a conformation that juxtaposes the two redox-active di-cysteine motifs in the enzyme, presenting the entire electron-transfer pathway and proton-transfer participants in their native configurations. As such a state cannot generally be enriched and stabilized for analysis, RnQSOX1 gives unprecedented insight into the functional group environments of the four cysteines involved in dithiol/disulfide exchange and provides the framework for analysis of the energetics of electron transfer in the presence of the bound flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor. Hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) free energy simulations based on the X-ray crystal structure suggest that formation of the interdomain disulfide intermediate is highly favorable and secures the flexible enzyme in a state from which further electron transfer via the flavin can occur. PMID:24888638

  10. Copper oxide assisted cysteine hierarchical structures for immunosensor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work describes the promising electrochemical immunosensing strategy based on copper (II) assisted hierarchical cysteine structures (CuCys) varying from star to flower like morphology. The CuCys having average size of 10??m have been synthesised using L-Cysteine as initial precursor in presence of copper oxide under environmentally friendly conditions in aqueous medium. To delineate the synthesis mechanism, detailed structural investigations have been carried out using characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The electrochemical behaviour of self-assembled CuCys on gold electrode shows surface controlled electrode reaction with an apparent electron transfer rate constant of 3.38?×?10?4?cm s?1. This innovative platform has been utilized to fabricate an immunosensor by covalently immobilizing monoclonal antibodies specific for Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli). Under the optimal conditions, the fabricated immunosensor is found to be sensitive and specific for the detection of E. coli with a detection limit of 10?cfu/ml.

  11. Radiolytic oxidation of cysteine in aerated and oxygen saturated solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G(RSSR) = 22.4 and G(H2O2) = 13.2 in aerated 5 x 10-2 M cysteine in 1 N HClO4 solutions are very high and demonstrate that HO2 radicals react with cysteine in acid solutions. It is observed that G-values are higher at 1 N as compared to 0.1 N HClO4 solutions. G-values have been found to be higher at pH 0.5 and 6.0 as compared to at pH 3.0. The low values have been explained as due to much higher rate constant ratios at pH 3 to 4 as compared to at pH 0.5 and 6.0. In the presence of high formate ion concentration, even though the total HO2 radicals have increased in the system, G(RSSR) and G(H2O2) are lower than those in its absence. The lowering in G-values could be due to lowering in RS radical yields. This and some more results demonstrate that RS radical is more important than HO2 radical in propagating the chain reaction in this system. (Author)

  12. Elimination of hydrogen sulphide and ? substitution in cystein, catalyzed by the cysteine-lyase of hens yolk-sac and yolk (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yolk of incubated hen's eggs contains a pyridoxal phosphate activated enzyme, free of iron, copper, magnesium and calcium. This enzyme activates the ?-carbon atom of cysteine. Its reactivity is demonstrated by the ease with which this ?-carbon fixes various sulfur containing substances in which the sulfur has reducing properties: inorganic sulfide, sulfide or cysteine itself. In the absence of substances able to react with the ?-carbon atom, the active complex, consisting of the enzyme and the aminated tri-carbon chain, is hydrolysed to pyruvic acid and ammonia. The liberation of hydrogen sulfide thus appears to be the consequence either of the substitution of the ?-carbon atom of cysteine or of the decomposition of the complex which this aminoacid forms with the enzyme studied. The latter seems therefore to possess an activity which differs from the activity of the desulfhydrases as yet known. We suggest to call this enzyme cystein-lyase. (authors)

  13. Binding of Procollagen C-Proteinase Enhancer-1 (PCPE-1) to Heparin/Heparan Sulfate: PROPERTIES AND ROLE IN PCPE-1 INTERACTION WITH CELLS*

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Tali; Ricard-blum, Sylvie; Moschcovich, Laura; Wineman, Eitan; Mesilaty, Shlomit; Kessler, Efrat

    2010-01-01

    Procollagen C-proteinase enhancer-1 (PCPE-1) is an extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoprotein that can stimulate procollagen processing by procollagen C-proteinases (PCPs) such as bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP-1). The PCPs can process additional extracellular protein precursors and play fundamental roles in developmental processes and assembly of the ECM. The stimulatory activity of PCPE-1 is restricted to the processing of fibrillar procollagens, suggesting PCPE-1 is a specific regulator of...

  14. Characterization of Amylase, Cellulase and Proteinase Enzyme in Stomach and Intestine of the Mekong Giant Catfish Fed with Various Diets Consisting of Spirulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudaporn Tongsiri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The amylase, cellulase and proteinase enzyme from the stomach and intestine of the Mekong GiantCatfish that had been fed with various diets consisting of Spirulina, were studied at pH 2-12 and at temperaturesbetween 25-80ºC. This study found that; amylase activities of the stomach were alkaline amylase and theoptimal temperatures to be 25 and 50ºC. Amylase activities of the intestine were neutral amylase as well asalkaline amylase and the optimal temperature range was at 25-30ºC. The cellulase activities were acidiccellulase and alkaline cellulase in both the stomach and the intestine. In the stomach, the acidic cellulaseshowed the optimal temperatures to be at 30, 40 and 50ºC, however alkaline cellulase were 30 and 50ºC. In theintestine, acidic cellulase showed the optimal temperatures to be at 25, 60 and 70ºC and the alkaline cellulaseto be 80ºC. For proteinase activity, the stomach was acidic proteinase and alkaline proteinase, but the intestinewas alkaline proteinase. The acidic proteinase activities of the stomach showed the optimal temperatures to beat 40, 50 and 60ºC and the alkaline proteinase activity proved to be at 40, 60 and 70ºC. The optimal conditionsfor amylase enzymes showed the higher specific activity in the intestine than in the stomach including theproteinase enzyme. At room temperature (25-30ºC, amylase and proteinase specific acitivity dominated in theintestine, while cellulase specific activity dominated in the stomach.

  15. Selective electrochemical determination of cysteine with a cyclotricatechylene modified carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Patricia T; Thomson, James E; Karina, Athanasia; Salter, Chris; Johnston, Colin; Davies, Stephen G; Compton, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    We report the selective electrochemical detection of cysteine in the presence of homocysteine and glutathione with the use of an electrode modified with cyclotricatechylene (CTC). A carbon electrode was first modified with cyclotriveratrylene (CTV) and then electrochemically converted into CTC. Using cyclic voltammetry, the redox activity of CTC was investigated along with its electrochemical response to cysteine and the closely related compounds, glutathione and homocysteine which are commonly found in biological media alongside cysteine. The selective detection of cysteine was achieved with the use of the electrocatalytic oxidation reaction and exploiting the different rates of reaction of each thiol with the oxidized CTC via variable scan rate studies. The analytical parameters consisting of sensitivity, range of linear detection, and limit of detection were determined for selective cysteine detection in phosphate buffer solution and tissue culture media where the sensitivity of the system is ca. 0.023 ?A ?M(-1) and ca. 0.031 ?A ?M(-1) with a limit of detection of ca. 0.6 ?M and ca. 0.9 ?M for buffer solution and tissue culture media respectively. Practical assessment of this analytical method was carried out in mixed solutions containing a combination of cysteine, homocysteine and glutathione in both media. The determined results agree well with the added cysteine content. This work presents a novel way of utilizing CTC into detecting cysteine, and is well-suited for bio-marker sensing. PMID:25407642

  16. Bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles: a novel colorimetric probe for cysteine detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borase, Hemant P; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Kim, Beom S; Bapat, Vishwas A; Patil, Satish V

    2015-04-01

    Chemical interactions between nanoparticles and biomolecules are vital for applying nanoparticles in medicine and life science. Development of sensitive, rapid, low-cost, and eco-friendly sensors for the detection of molecules acting as disease indicator is need of an hour. In the present investigation, a green trend for silver nanoparticle synthesis was followed using leaf extract of Calotropis procera. Silver nanoparticles exhibited surface plasmon absorption peak at 421 nm, spherical shape with average size of 10 nm, and zeta potential of -22.4 mV. The as-synthesized silver nanoparticles were used for selective and sensitive detection of cysteine. Cysteine induces aggregation in stable silver nanoparticles owing to selective and strong interaction of -SH group of cysteine with silver nanoparticle surface. Cysteine-induced silver nanoparticle aggregation can be observed visually by change in color of silver nanoparticles from yellow to pink. Cysteine concentration was estimated colorimetrically by measuring absorption at surface plasmon wavelength. Limit of detection for cysteine using silver nanoparticles is ultralow, i.e., 100 nM. The mechanistic insight into cysteine detection by silver nanoparticles was investigated using FT-IR, TEM, DLS, and TLC analysis. Proposed method can be applied for the detection of cysteine in blood plasma and may give rise to a new insight into development of eco-friendly fabricated nanodiagnostic device in future. PMID:25637511

  17. Cysteine transport and sulfite reductase activity in a germination-defective mutant of Histoplasma capsulatum.

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, D. H.; Dabrowa, N; Otto, V; Rhodes, J.

    1980-01-01

    A mutant of the dimorphic, zoopathogenic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, defective in the ability of its blastospores to germinate, was used to show that the nutritional requirement for cysteine and the expression of sulfite reductase activity are temperature dependent and not related to the growth form the fungus, whereas the kinetics of cysteine transport depend on both temperature and the form of the fungus.

  18. Cysteine metabolism in periportal and perivenous hepatocytes: perivenous cells have greater capacity for glutathione production and taurine synthesis but not for cysteine catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, D L; Hirschberger, L L; Kwon, Y H; Stipanuk, M H

    2002-01-01

    Hepatocyte preparations highly enriched in cells from either the periportal or the perivenous zone of the liver acinus were prepared using a digitonin/collagenase perfusion method. Five enzymes of cysteine metabolism were assayed in both periportal and perivenous preparations. The ratios of periportal to perivenous activity were 0.76, 0.60, 0.81, 1.62, and 1.01 for cysteine dioxygenase, cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase, gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, cystathionase, and asparate (cysteinesulfinate) aminotransferase, respectively. Only cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity was significantly different between periportal and perivenous cells. In incubations with 2 mmol/L [(35)S]cysteine, total cysteine catabolism ([(35)S]taurine plus [(35)S]sulfate) between periportal and perivenous cells was not different, which is consistent with the observation of similar cysteine dioxygenase activity across the hepatic acinus. Consistent with the lower cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity in periportal cells, 16% of the total catabolism of [(35)S]cysteine in periportal cells resulted in taurine synthesis compared to 28% in perivenous cells. A lower rate of [(35)S]glutathione synthesis was observed in periportal cells compared to perivenous cells, but gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase activity was not significantly different between perivenous and periportal cells. Cysteinesulfnate decarboxylase can be added to the list of enzymes whose activities are markedly enriched in perivenous cells. PMID:12436215

  19. Replication of murine coronavirus requires multiple cysteines in the endodomain of spike protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jinhua; Lv, Jun; Wang, Yuyan; Gao, Shuang; Yao, Qianqian; Qu, Di; Ye, Rong, E-mail: yerong24@fudan.edu.cn

    2012-06-05

    A conserved cysteine-rich motif located between the transmembrane domain and the endodomain is essential for membrane fusion and assembly of coronavirus spike (S) protein. Here, we proved that three cysteines within the motif, but not dependent on position, are minimally required for the survival of the recombinant mouse hepatitis virus. When the carboxy termini with these mutated motifs of S proteins were respectively introduced into a heterogeneous protein, both incorporation into lipid rafts and S-palmitoylation of these recombinant proteins showed a similar quantity requirement to cysteine residues. Meanwhile, the redistribution of these proteins on cellular surface indicated that the absence of the positively charged rather than cysteine residues in the motif might lead the dramatic reduction in syncytial formation of some mutants with the deleted motifs. These results suggest that multiple cysteine as well as charged residues concurrently improves the membrane-associated functions of S protein in viral replication and cytopathogenesis.

  20. Utilização da fração semipurificada da proteinase do Trypanosoma cruzi no imunodiagnóstico da doença de Chagas The use of a semipurified fraction of Trypanosoma cruzi proteinase in immunodiagnosis of Chagas' disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ajax Mercês Atta; Angela Maria de Carvalho Pontes; Maria Luiza de Souza; Daria Repka; Rangel, Humberto A.

    1984-01-01

    Foram sensibilizadas hemácias humanas 0 Rh negativo com a fração semipurificada (Fp) da proteinase do Trypanosoma cruzi, e testadas quanto a antigenicidade com soros de pacientes portadores de tripanossomíase americana crônica e de outras doenças parasitárias não relacionadas. Reações de hemaglutinação positivas foram observadas com os soros de pacientes chagásicos e com alguns soros de indivíduos portadores de leishmaniose cutaneo-mucosa. Não foram observadas reações cruzadas com os soros de...

  1. In vitro digestibility of globulins from sapucaia (Lecythis pisonis Camb.) nuts by mammalian digestive proteinases / Digestibilidade in vitro de globulinas das amêndoas de sapucaia (Lecythis pisonis Camb.) por proteinases digestivas de mamíferos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra Maria Silveira, Denadai; Priscila Aiko, Hiane; Sergio, Marangoni; Paulo Aparecido, Baldasso; Ana Maria Rauen de Oliveira, Miguel; Maria Lígia Rodrigues, Macedo.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Amêndoas cruas de Sapucaia (Lecythis pisonis Camb.) colhidas no Brasil foram analisadas para se determinar a composição centesimal, o perfil de aminoácidos de suas proteínas, a digestibilidade protéica in vitro e a presença de fatores antinutricionais, para avaliar o seu potencial como complemento a [...] limentar protéico. As amêndoas apresentaram quantidades adequadas de aminoácidos essenciais, ácidos graxos e minerais; no entanto, baixo teor de fibra foi observado. No presente estudo, a presença de lectinas ou inibidores de proteinases, quando detectada, apresentou baixos níveis. A digestibilidade in vitro de globulinas, in natura ou aquecidas, por proteinases digestivas de mamíferos foi realizada utilizando-se tripsina + quimotripsina + peptidase, obtendo-se valores aproximados de 71,5 e 73,5%, respectivamente. Estes resultados sugerem que as amêndoas de sapucaia podem ser utilizadas como complemento alimentar de proteínas, sendo um potencial agente nutricional. Abstract in english Sapucaia (Lecythis pisonis Camb.) raw nuts collected from Brazil were analyzed to determine the proximate composition, amino acid profile of protein fractions, in vitro protein digestibility and antinutritional factors in order to evaluate their potential as a protein alimentary complement. The nuts [...] contained adequate amounts of essential amino acids, fatty acids and minerals. In the present study, no hemagglutinating or inhibitory activities were observed in any of the samples investigated, indicating low or non-detectable levels of proteinase inhibitors or lectins in the samples. In vitro digestibility of in natura and heated nut globulins by mammalian digestive proteinases was carried out using trypsin + chymotrypsin + peptidase, with resulting mean values of approximately 70.30 and 71.35%, respectively. Taken together, the results suggest that sapucaia nuts may provide a new source of protein to use as a potential nutritional agent.

  2. In vitro digestibility of globulins from sapucaia (Lecythis pisonis Camb. nuts by mammalian digestive proteinases Digestibilidade in vitro de globulinas das amêndoas de sapucaia (Lecythis pisonis Camb. por proteinases digestivas de mamíferos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Silveira Denadai

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Sapucaia (Lecythis pisonis Camb. raw nuts collected from Brazil were analyzed to determine the proximate composition, amino acid profile of protein fractions, in vitro protein digestibility and antinutritional factors in order to evaluate their potential as a protein alimentary complement. The nuts contained adequate amounts of essential amino acids, fatty acids and minerals. In the present study, no hemagglutinating or inhibitory activities were observed in any of the samples investigated, indicating low or non-detectable levels of proteinase inhibitors or lectins in the samples. In vitro digestibility of in natura and heated nut globulins by mammalian digestive proteinases was carried out using trypsin + chymotrypsin + peptidase, with resulting mean values of approximately 70.30 and 71.35%, respectively. Taken together, the results suggest that sapucaia nuts may provide a new source of protein to use as a potential nutritional agent.Amêndoas cruas de Sapucaia (Lecythis pisonis Camb. colhidas no Brasil foram analisadas para se determinar a composição centesimal, o perfil de aminoácidos de suas proteínas, a digestibilidade protéica in vitro e a presença de fatores antinutricionais, para avaliar o seu potencial como complemento alimentar protéico. As amêndoas apresentaram quantidades adequadas de aminoácidos essenciais, ácidos graxos e minerais; no entanto, baixo teor de fibra foi observado. No presente estudo, a presença de lectinas ou inibidores de proteinases, quando detectada, apresentou baixos níveis. A digestibilidade in vitro de globulinas, in natura ou aquecidas, por proteinases digestivas de mamíferos foi realizada utilizando-se tripsina + quimotripsina + peptidase, obtendo-se valores aproximados de 71,5 e 73,5%, respectivamente. Estes resultados sugerem que as amêndoas de sapucaia podem ser utilizadas como complemento alimentar de proteínas, sendo um potencial agente nutricional.

  3. Extrahepatic tissues compensate for loss of hepatic taurine synthesis in mice with liver-specific knockout of cysteine dioxygenase

    OpenAIRE

    Ueki, Iori; Roman, Heather B.; Hirschberger, Lawrence L.; Junior, Carolyn; Stipanuk, Martha H.

    2012-01-01

    Because hepatic cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) appears to play the major role in controlling cysteine catabolism in the intact rat, we characterized the effect of a lack of hepatic CDO on the regulation of cysteine and its metabolites at the whole body level. In mice with liver-specific deletion of CDO expression, hepatic and plasma cysteine levels increased. In addition, in mice with liver-specific deletion of CDO expression, the abundance of CDO and the proportion of CDO existing as the mature,...

  4. Cysteine fluxes across the portal-drained viscera of enterally fed minipigs: effect of an acute intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémond, Didier; Buffière, Caroline; Pouyet, Corine; Papet, Isabelle; Dardevet, Dominique; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Williamson, Gary; Faure, Magali; Breuillé, Denis

    2011-02-01

    Cysteine is considered as a conditionally indispensable amino acid. Its dietary supply should thus be increased when endogenous synthesis cannot meet metabolic need, such as during inflammatory diseases. However, studies in animal models suggest a high first-pass extraction of dietary cysteine by the intestine, limiting the interest for an oral supplementation. We investigated here unidirectional fluxes of cysteine across the portal-drained viscera (PDV) of multi-catheterized minipigs, using simultaneous intragastric L-[(15)N] cysteine and intravenous L-[3,3D2] cysteine continuous infusions. We showed that in minipigs fed with an elemental enteral solution, cysteine first-pass extraction by the intestine is about 60% of the dietary supply, and that the PDV does not capture arterial cysteine. Beside dietary cysteine, the PDV release non-dietary cysteine (20% of the total cysteine release), which originates either from tissue metabolism or from reabsorption of endogenous secretion, such as glutathione (GSH) biliary excretion. Experimental ileitis induced by local administration of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid, increased liver and ileal GSH fractional synthesis rate during the acute phase of inflammation, and increased whole body flux of cysteine. However, cysteine uptake and release by the PDV were not affected by ileitis, suggesting an adaptation of the intestinal sulfur amino acid metabolism in order to cover the additional requirement of cysteine linked to the increased GSH synthesis. We conclude that the small intestine sequesters large amounts of dietary cysteine during absorption, limiting its release into the bloodstream, and that the other tissues of the PDV (colon, stomach, pancreas, spleen) preferentially use circulating methionine or cysteine-containing peptides to cover their cysteine requirement. PMID:20593296

  5. Complex of digestive proteinases of Galleria mellonella Caterpillars: composition, properties, and limited proteolysis of Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulushova, N V; Elpidina, E N; Zhuzhikov, D P; Lyutikova, L I; Ortego, F; Kirillova, N E; Zalunin, I A; Chestukhina, G G

    2011-05-01

    The complex of digestive proteinases in caterpillars of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella was studied. Using chromogenic substrates and inhibitor analysis, it was found that serine proteinases play a key role in this complex. Three anionic and two cationic forms of trypsin and one anionic and one cationic form of chymotrypsin were identified by zymography in the midgut extract of G. mellonella. The most active trypsin was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity, and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was shown to be identical to that of mature trypsin from Plodia interpunctella. Midgut extract from G. mellonella was capable of processing Cry-proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. galleriae. Enzymes with tryptic and chymotryptic activities participate in this process, and activation of protoxin Cry9A is not the rate-limiting stage in the toxic action of this protein on the greater wax moth. PMID:21639838

  6. Production of proteinase A by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a cell-recycling fermentation system: Experiments and computer simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GrØn, S.; Biedermann, K.

    1996-01-01

    Overproduction of proteinase A by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated by cultivations in a cell-recycling bioreactor. Membrane filtration was used to separate cells from the broth. Recycling ratios and dilution rates were varied and the effect on enzyme production was studied both experimentally and by computer simulations. Experiments and simulations showed that cell mass and product concentration were enhanced by high ratios of recycling. Additional simulations showed that the proteinase A concentration decreased drastically at high dilution rates and the optimal volumetric productivities were at high dilution rates just below washout and at high ratios of recycling. Cell-recycling fermentation gave much higher volumetric productivities and stable product concentrations in contrast to simple continuous fermentation.

  7. Proteinases from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum moench seeds: Purification and properties of the 47 kDa enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timotijevi? Gordana S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartic proteinases from buckwheat seeds are analyzed. Three forms of 47 kDa, 40 kDa and 28 kDa, were purified from mature buckwheat seeds, while two forms of 47 kDa and 28 kDa were detected in developing buckwheat seeds using pepstatin A affinity chromatography. A form of 47 kDa was selectively precipitated from other forms by ammonium sulfate precipitation. This enzyme resembles the chymosin-like pattern of proteolytic activity, as it was shown using BSA and k-casein as substrates, clarifying its ability for milk-clotting. The 47 kDa aspartic proteinase form is localized in the membrane fraction. .

  8. A viral suppressor of gene silencing in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Anandalakshmi, Radhamani; Pruss, Gail J.; Ge, Xin; Marathe, Rajendra; Mallory, Allison C.; Smith, Trenton H.; Vance, Vicki B.

    1998-01-01

    Gene silencing is an important but little understood regulatory mechanism in plants. Here we report that a viral sequence, initially identified as a mediator of synergistic viral disease, acts to suppress the establishment of both transgene-induced and virus-induced posttranscriptional gene silencing. The viral suppressor of silencing comprises the 5?-proximal region of the tobacco etch potyviral genomic RNA encoding P1, helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) and a small part of P3, and is te...

  9. The role of lysosomal cysteine proteases in crustacean immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FL Garcia-Carreño

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the long course of evolution and under the selective pressure exerted by pathogens and parasites, animals have selectively fixed a number of defense mechanisms against the constant attack of intruders. The immune response represents a key component to optimize the biological fitness of individuals. Two decades ago, prevention and control of diseases in crustacean aquaculture systems were considered priorities in most shrimp-producing countries, but knowledge was scarce and various pathogens have severely affected aquaculture development around the world. Scientific contributions have improved our understanding of the crustacean immune response. Several studies confirm the central role played by proteases in the immune response of animals, and the cooperative interaction of these enzymes in a wide variety of organisms is well known. This review summarizes the current information regarding the role of cysteine proteases in the immune system of Crustacea and points to aspects that are needed to provide a better integration of our knowledge.

  10. Effective immunization against cutaneous leishmaniasis with recombinant bacille Calmette-Guérin expressing the Leishmania surface proteinase gp63.

    OpenAIRE

    Connell, N D; Medina-Acosta, E; McMaster, W R; Bloom, B R; Russell, D G

    1993-01-01

    Leishmania parasites cause a spectrum of diseases that afflict the populations of 86 countries in the world. The parasites can survive within the lysosomal compartments of the host's macrophages, unless those macrophages are appropriately activated. Despite the fact that protective immunity can be induced by vaccination with crude parasite preparations, little progress has been made toward a defined vaccine for humans. In this study the gene encoding the Leishmania surface proteinase gp63 was...

  11. Conformational flexibility in the active sites of aspartyl proteinases revealed by a pepstatin fragment binding to penicillopepsin.

    OpenAIRE

    James, M. N.; Sielecki, A.; Salituro, F.; Rich, D. H.; Hofmann, T.

    1982-01-01

    Crystals of the molecular complex between the esterified tripeptide fragment of pepstatin and the aspartyl proteinase penicillopepsin are isomorphous with crystals of native penicillopepsin. The difference electron-density map at 1.8-A resolution, computed by using the amplitude differences and refined phases of reflections from the crystal of native penicillopepsin, unambiguously showed the binding mode of isovaleryl-Val-Val-StaOEt, where StaOEt is the ethyl ester of statine [(4S,3S)-4-amino...

  12. Saccharomyces cerevisiae can secrete Sapp1p proteinase of Candida parapsilosis but cannot use it for efficient nitrogen acquisition.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinterová, Zuzana; Bauerová, Václava; Dostál, Ji?í; Sychrová, Hana; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga; Pichová, Iva

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 51, ?. 3 (2013), s. 336-344. ISSN 1225-8873 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA310/09/1945; GA ?R GAP302/12/1151 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : Candida parapsilosis * Saccharomyces cerevisiae * secreted aspartic proteinase * SAPP1 * nitrogen metabolism Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; EE - Microbiology, Virology (FGU-C) Impact factor: 1.529, year: 2013

  13. Transcriptomic screening for cyclotides and other cysteine-rich proteins in the metallophyte Viola baoshanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Jintian; Huang, Zebo; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Xiaojie; Li, Dehua; Craik, David J; Baker, Alan J M; Shu, Wensheng; Liao, Bin

    2015-04-15

    Cysteine (Cys)-rich proteins (CRPs) are frequently associated with plant defense and stress resistance. Viola baoshanensis is a cadmium (Cd) hyper-accumulating plant whose CRPs-based defense systems are so far poorly understood. Next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques and a specialist searching tool, CrpExcel, were employed for identifying CRPs in V. baoshanensis. The transcriptome sequences of V. baoshanensis were assembled primarily from 454FLX/Hiseq2000 reads of plant cDNA sequencing libraries. CrpExcel was then used to search the ORFs and 9687 CRPs were identified, and included zinc finger (ZF) proteins, lipid transfer proteins, thaumatins and cyclotide precursors. Real-time PCR results showed that all CRP genes tested are constitutively expressed, but the genes of defensive peptides showed greater up-regulated expression than those of ZF-proteins in Cd- and/or wounding (Wd) treatments of V. baoshanensis seedlings. The NGS-derived sequences of cyclotide precursor genes were verified by RT-PCR and ABI3730 sequencing studies, and 32 novel cyclotides were identified in V. baoshanensis. In general, the metal-binding sites of ZF-containing CRPs also represented the potential vulnerable targets of toxic metals. This study provides broad insights into CRPs-based defense systems and stress-vulnerable targets in V. baoshanensis. It now brings the number of cyclotide sequences in V. baoshanensis to 53 and based on projections from this work, the number of cyclotides in the Violaceae is now conservatively estimated to be >30000. PMID:25756919

  14. Cysteine modified polyaniline films improve biocompatibility for two cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yslas, Edith I; Cavallo, Pablo; Acevedo, Diego F; Barbero, César A; Rivarola, Viviana A

    2015-06-01

    This work focuses on one of the most exciting application areas of conjugated conducting polymers, which is cell culture and tissue engineering. To improve the biocompatibility of conducting polymers we present an easy method that involves the modification of the polymer backbone using l-cysteine. In this publication, we show the synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) films supported onto Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films, and modified using cysteine (PANI-Cys) in order to generate a biocompatible substrate for cell culture. The PANI-Cys films are characterized by Fourier Transform infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy. The changes in the hydrophilicity of the polymer films after and before the modification were tested using contact angle measurements. After modification the contact angle changes from 86°±1 to 90°±1, suggesting a more hydrophylic surface. The adhesion properties of LM2 and HaCaT cell lines on the surface of PANI-Cys films in comparison with tissue culture plastic (TCP) are studied. The PANI-Cys film shows better biocompatibility than PANI film for both cell lines. The cell morphologies on the TCP and PANI-Cys film were examined by florescence and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microscopic observations show normal cellular behavior when PANI-Cys is used as a substrate of both cell lines (HaCaT and LM2) as when they are cultured on TCP. The ability of these PANI-Cys films to support cell attachment and growth indicates their potential use as biocompatible surfaces and in tissue engineering. PMID:25842107

  15. "Comparison of Adult Somatic and Cysteine Proteinas Antigens of Fasciola gigantica in Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Serodiagnosis of Human Fasciolosis"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MB Rokni

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica and F.gigantica is one of the major public health problems in the world and in Iran. Considering that stool examination for Fasciola eggs is not a sensitive method and only 25% of infected patients pass the eggs in the faeces , and immunodiagnosis methods are more applicable for this purpose, the present study was conducted to compare the somatic (S and cysteine proteinase (CP antigens of F.gigantica in IgG-ELISA to diagnose human fasciolosis. This has been the first report on this case so far in Iran. Serum samples obtained from 178 individuals collected during the fasciolosis outbreak in 1999 in the Gilan province, northern Iran, that were coprologically positive for fasciolosis, were analyzed by IgG-ELISA for total antibody responses against (S and CP antigens from Fasciola gigantica. The cut-off points for (S and CP were 0.38 and 0.33, respectively. All cases that showed clinical manifestations of fasciolosis, were also seropositive using both (S and CP antigens whereas all 25 non-infected controls were seronegative. Therefore, the sensitivity of the test was 100% for both antigens. On the other hand the specificity of (S and CP antigens were calculated as 96.4% and 98.1%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of the test regarding (S antigen were 97.8% and 100%, whereas these values as for CP antigen were 98.9% and 100% correspondingly. Two individuals with hydatidosis and two with toxocariasis had antibodies against (S antigen whereas concerning CP antigen, one individual with hydatidosis and another with toxocariasis showed cross reactivity against it. We have demonstrated that altogether CP antigen provide a more conclusive diagnosis as possessing lower cut-off and enabling better to discriminate between seronegative and seropositive subpopulations.This study may be useful to implement a reliable test to diagnose human fasciolosis and for seroepidmiological objectives.

  16. Evidence for the presence of proteolytically active secreted aspartic proteinase 1 of Candida parapsilosis in the cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinterová, Zuzana; Sanda, Miloslav; Dostál, Ji?í; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga; Pichová, Iva

    2011-12-01

    Pathogenic yeasts of the genus Candida produce secreted aspartic proteinases, which are known to enhance virulence. We focused on Sapp1p proteinase secreted by Candida parapsilosis and studied the final stage of its passage through the cell wall and release into the extracellular environment. We found that Sapp1p displays enzyme activity prior to secretion, and therefore, it is probably fully folded within the upper layer of the cell wall. The positioning of cell surface-associated Sapp1p was detected by cell wall protein labeling using biotinylation agents, extraction of cell wall proteins by ?-mercaptoethanol, immunochemical detection, and mass spectrometry analysis. All lysine residues present in the structure of soluble, purified Sapp1p were labeled with biotin. In contrast, the accessibility of individual lysines in cell wall-associated Sapp1p varied with the exception of four lysine residues that were biotinylated in all experiments performed, suggesting that Sapp1p has a preferred orientation in the cell wall. As the molecular weight of this partially labeled Sapp1p did not differ among the experiments, we can assume that the retaining of Sapp1p in the cell wall is not a totally random process and that pathogenic yeasts might use this cell-associated proteinase activity to enhance degradation of appropriate substrates. PMID:21953587

  17. Extracellular serine-proteinases isolated from Streptomyces alboniger: Partial characterization and effect of aprotinin on cellular structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Andréa

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces alboniger ATCC 12461 grown in brain heart infusion (BHI medium produced two extracellular serine-proteinases, denoted SP I and SP II, which were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and aprotinin-agarose affinity chromatography. SP I was purified 88,9-fold and SP II 66,7- fold, with 33.4% and 10.4% yield, respectively. The optimum pH for the proteinases activity, using a-N-p-tosyl-L-arginine-methyl ester (TAME as substrate, was 9-10 and the optimum temperature was 37ºC. The proteolytic activity of SP I and SP II was inhibited by aprotinin and SP I was partially inhibited by leupeptin, both serine-proteinase inhibitors. S. alboniger growth in BHI-liquid medium decreased when 5 mg/ml, 10 mg/ml of aprotinin was used, being completely inhibited with 20 mg/ml and 40 mg/ml. At the ultrastructural level, aprotinin-treated S. alboniger cells showed swelling of the bacterial body and condensation of the genetic material, probably related to the inhibition of its growth.

  18. Extracellular serine-proteinases isolated from Streptomyces alboniger: Partial characterization and effect of aprotinin on cellular structure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréa, Lopes; Rosalie RR, Coelho; Maria Nazareth L, Meirelles; Marta Helena, Branquinha; Alane Beatriz, Vermelho.

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces alboniger ATCC 12461 grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium produced two extracellular serine-proteinases, denoted SP I and SP II, which were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and aprotinin-agarose affinity chromatography. SP I was purified 88,9-fold and SP II 66,7- fold, w [...] ith 33.4% and 10.4% yield, respectively. The optimum pH for the proteinases activity, using a-N-p-tosyl-L-arginine-methyl ester (TAME) as substrate, was 9-10 and the optimum temperature was 37ºC. The proteolytic activity of SP I and SP II was inhibited by aprotinin and SP I was partially inhibited by leupeptin, both serine-proteinase inhibitors. S. alboniger growth in BHI-liquid medium decreased when 5 mg/ml, 10 mg/ml of aprotinin was used, being completely inhibited with 20 mg/ml and 40 mg/ml. At the ultrastructural level, aprotinin-treated S. alboniger cells showed swelling of the bacterial body and condensation of the genetic material, probably related to the inhibition of its growth.

  19. Cleavage targets and the D-arginine-based inhibitors of the West Nile virus NS3 processing proteinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiryaev, Sergey A.; Ratnikov, Boris I.; Chekanov, Alexei V.; Sikora, Sergey; Rozanov, Dmitri V.; Godzik, Adam; Wang, Jun; Smith, Jeffrey W.; Huang, Ziwei; Lindberg, Iris; Samuel, Melanie A.; Diamond, Michael S.; Strongin, Alex Y.

    2005-01-01

    Mosquito-borne WNV (West Nile virus) is an emerging global threat. The NS3 proteinase, which is essential for the proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein precursor, is a promising drug target. We have isolated and biochemically characterized the recombinant, highly active NS3 proteinase. We have determined that the NS3 proteinase functions in a manner that is distantly similar to furin in cleaving the peptide and protein substrates. We determined that aprotinin and D-arginine-based 9–12-mer peptides are potent inhibitors of WNV NS3 with Ki values of 26 nM and 1 nM respectively. Consistent with the essential role of NS3 activity in the life cycle of WNV and with the sensitivity of NS3 activity to the D-arginine-based peptides, we showed that nona-D-Arg-NH2 reduced WNV infection in primary neurons. We have also shown that myelin basic protein, a deficiency of which is linked to neurological abnormalities of the brain, is sensitive to NS3 proteolysis in vitro and therefore this protein represents a convenient test substrate for the studies of NS3. A three-dimensional model of WNV NS3 that we created may provide a structural guidance and a rationale for the subsequent design of fine-tuned inhibitors. Overall, our findings represent a foundation for in-depth mechanistic and structural studies as well as for the design of novel and efficient inhibitors of WNV NS3. PMID:16229682

  20. The Cysteine Dioxgenase Knockout Mouse: Altered Cysteine Metabolism in Nonhepatic Tissues Leads to Excess H2S/HS? Production and Evidence of Pancreatic and Lung Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Heather B.; Hirschberger, Lawrence L.; Krijt, Jakub; Valli, Alessandro; Kožich, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: To define the consequences of loss of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) on cysteine metabolism at the tissue level, we determined levels of relevant metabolites and enzymes and evidence of H2S/HS? (gaseous hydrogen sulfide and its conjugate base) toxicity in liver, pancreas, kidney, and lung of CDO?/? mice that were fed either a taurine-free or taurine-supplemented diet. Results: CDO?/? mice had low tissue and serum taurine and hypotaurine levels and high tissue levels of cysteine, consistent with the loss of CDO. CDO?/? mice had elevated urinary excretion of thiosulfate, high tissue and serum cystathionine and lanthionine levels, and evidence of inhibition and destabilization of cytochrome c oxidase, which is consistent with excess production of H2S/HS?. Accumulation of cystathionine and lanthionine appeared to result from cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS)-mediated cysteine desulfhydration. Very high levels of hypotaurine in pancreas of wild-type mice and very high levels of cystathionine and lanthionine in pancreas of CDO?/? mice were observed, suggesting a unique cysteine metabolism in the pancreas. Innovation: The CDO?/? mouse model provides new insights into tissue-specific cysteine metabolism, particularly the role of pancreas in metabolism of excess cysteine by CBS-catalyzed reactions, and will be a useful model for studying the effects of excess endogenous production of H2S/HS?. Conclusion: The CDO?/? mouse clearly demonstrates that H2S/HS? production in tissues can exceed the capacity of the animal to oxidize sulfide to sulfate and demonstrates that pancreas and lung are more susceptible to toxicity from endogenous H2S/HS?production than are liver and kidney. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1321–1336. PMID:23350603

  1. Oligogalacturonides and chitosan activate plant defensive genes through the octadecanoid pathway.

    OpenAIRE

    Doares, S H; Syrovets, T; Weiler, E W; Ryan, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Jasmonic acid, synthesized from linolenic acid (the octadecanoid pathway), has been proposed to be part of a signal transduction pathway that mediates the induction of defensive genes in plants in response to oligouronide and polypeptide signals generated by insect and pathogen attacks. We report here that the induction of proteinase inhibitor accumulation in tomato leaves by plant-derived oligogalacturonides and fungal-derived chitosan oligosaccharides is severely reduced by two inhibitors (...

  2. Proteinase-activated receptor 4 stimulation-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in alveolar epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araki Hiromasa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs; PAR1–4 that can be activated by serine proteinases such as thrombin and neutrophil catepsin G are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of various pulmonary diseases including fibrosis. Among these PARs, especially PAR4, a newly identified subtype, is highly expressed in the lung. Here, we examined whether PAR4 stimulation plays a role in the formation of fibrotic response in the lung, through alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT which contributes to the increase in myofibroblast population. Methods EMT was assessed by measuring the changes in each specific cell markers, E-cadherin for epithelial cell, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA for myofibroblast, using primary cultured mouse alveolar epithelial cells and human lung carcinoma-derived alveolar epithelial cell line (A549 cells. Results Stimulation of PAR with thrombin (1 U/ml or a synthetic PAR4 agonist peptide (AYPGKF-NH2, 100 ?M for 72 h induced morphological changes from cobblestone-like structure to elongated shape in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells and A549 cells. In immunocytochemical analyses of these cells, such PAR4 stimulation decreased E-cadherin-like immunoreactivity and increased ?-SMA-like immunoreactivity, as observed with a typical EMT-inducer, tumor growth factor-? (TGF-?. Western blot analyses of PAR4-stimulated A549 cells also showed similar changes in expression of these EMT-related marker proteins. Such PAR4-mediated changes were attenuated by inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR kinase and Src. PAR4-mediated morphological changes in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells were reduced in the presence of these inhibitors. PAR4 stimulation increased tyrosine phosphorylated EGFR or tyrosine phosphorylated Src level in A549 cells, and the former response being inhibited by Src inhibitor. Conclusion PAR4 stimulation of alveolar epithelial cells induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT as monitored by cell shapes, and epithelial or myofibroblast marker at least partly through EGFR transactivation via receptor-linked Src activation.

  3. Proteinase-activated receptor-2: two potential inflammatory mediators of the gastrointestinal tract in Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valen Elin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2, activated by trypsin and other serine proteinases, is a key initiator of inflammatory responses in the intestine of mammals. Atlantic salmon fed diets with standard qualities of soybean meal (SBM show enteritis of the distal intestine as well as increased activity of trypsin in both luminal contents and wall tissue. Luminal trypsin activity may possibly be involved in immune related disorders of the intestine also in Atlantic salmon via activation of PAR 2. In the present study our aim was to investigate if PAR-2 play a role in SBM induced enteritis. We performed multiple alignments based on nucleic acid sequences of PAR-2 from various animals available from public databases, and designed primers for use in cloning of the Atlantic salmon PAR-2 transcript. We further cloned and characterized the full length sequence of Atlantic salmon PAR-2 and investigated the expression in both early and chronic stages of SBM induced enteropathy. Two full length versions of PAR-2 cDNA were identified and termed PAR-2a and PAR-2b. Expression of the two PAR-2 transcripts was detected in all 18 tissues examined, but most extensively in the intestine and gills. A significant up-regulation in the distal intestine was observed for the PAR-2a transcript after 1 day feeding diets containing SBM. After 3 weeks of feeding, PAR-2a was down-regulated compared to the fish fed control diets. These findings may indicate that PAR-2a participates in inflammatory responses in both the early and later stages of the SBM enteropathy. In the chronic stages of the enteropathy, down-regulation of PAR-2a may indicate a possible desensitization of the PAR-2a receptor. Expression of PAR-2b was not altered in the first 7 days of SBM feeding, but a significant up regulation was observed after 3 weeks, suggesting a putative role in chronic stages of SBM induced enteritis. The expression differences of the two PAR-2 transcripts in the feed trials may indicate that they have different roles in the SBM induced enteritis.

  4. Hierarchical effect behind the supramolecular chirality of silver(I)-cysteine coordination polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, Rosalba; Di Mauro, Alessandro; D'Urso, Alessandro; Messina, Gabriele C; Compagnini, Giuseppe; Villari, Valentina; Micali, Norberto; Purrello, Roberto; Fragalà, Maria Elena

    2015-04-01

    Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that easily coordinates to soft metal ions and grafts to noble metal surfaces. Recently, chiroptical activity of Ag(+)/cysteine coordination polymers has been widely studied, while, on the other hand, the appearance of a plasmon-enhanced circular dichroic signal (PECD) at the plasmonic spectral region (? > 400 nm) has been observed for AgNPs capped with chiral sulfur-containing amino acids. These two events are both potentially exploited for sensing applications. However, the presence of Ag(+) ions in AgNP colloidal solution deals with the competition of cysteine grafting at the metal NP surface and/or metal ion coordination. Herein we demonstrate that the chiroptical activity observed by adding cysteine to AgNP colloids prepared by pulsed laser ablation in liquids (PLAL) is mainly related to the formation of CD-active Ag(+)/cysteine supramolecular polymers. The strict correlation between supramolecular chirality and hierarchical effects, driven by different chemical environments experienced by cysteine when different titration modalities are used, is pivotal to validate cysteine as a fast and reliable probe to characterize the surface oxidation of AgNPs prepared by pulsed laser ablation in liquids by varying the laser wavelengths. PMID:25781213

  5. Aggregation mechanism of Pd nanoparticles in L-cysteine aqueous solution studied by NEXAFS and AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlight: ? We focus on the biocompatibility of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) for L-cysteine under water environment. ? The Pd NPs have been fabricated and deposited on Si wafer by gas evaporation method. ? When the Pd NPs/Si has been dipped into L-cysteine aqueous solution, the L-cysteine has selectively adsorbed on Pd NPs surface and existed as the L-cysteine thiolate, atomic S and L-cystine. ? Moreover, the aggregation of Pd NPs occurs by the migration of Pd NPs on Si and the cross-linked reaction between L-cysteine thiolate molecules adsorbed on Pd NPs. - Abstract: We focus on the biocompatibility of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) from the point of microscopic view. Thus, as the basic research for the biocompatibility, we have investigated the adsorbates on the Pd NPs surface and the aggregation mechanism for the Pd NPs on Si substrate after dipping into L-cysteine aqueous solution by means of NEXAFS measurement and AFM observation. The Pd NPs have been fabricated and deposited on the Si wafer by the gas evaporation method. Judging from the results of NEXAFS measurement, it is clear that the L-cysteine thiolate and atomic S exist on the Pd NPs surface. The results of AFM observation show that the Pd NPs aggregate. It is thought that the aggregation of the Pd NPs occurs by both the migration of the Pd NPs on Si wafer and the cross-linked reaction.

  6. Keratin degradation by dermatophytes relies on cysteine dioxygenase and a sulfite efflux pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumbt, Maria; Monod, Michel; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Hertweck, Christian; Kunert, Jiri; Staib, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Millions of people suffer from superficial infections caused by dermatophytes. Intriguingly, these filamentous fungi exclusively infect keratin-rich host structures such as hair, nails, and skin. Keratin is a hard, compact protein, and its utilization by dermatophytes for growth has long been discussed as a major virulence attribute. Here, we provide strong support for the hypothesis that keratin degradation is facilitated by the secretion of the reducing agent sulfite, which can cleave keratin-stabilizing cystine bonds. We discovered that sulfite is produced by dermatophytes from environmental cysteine, which at elevated concentrations is toxic for microbes and humans. We found that sulfite formation from cysteine relies on the key enzyme cysteine dioxygenase Cdo1. Sulfite secretion is supported by the sulfite efflux pump Ssu1. Targeted mutagenesis proved that dermatophyte mutants in either Cdo1 or Ssu1 were highly growth-sensitive to cysteine, and mutants in Ssu1 were specifically sensitive to sulfite. Most notably, dermatophyte mutants in Cdo1 and Ssu1 were specifically growth-defective on hair and nails. As keratin is rich in cysteine, our identified mechanism of cysteine conversion and sulfite efflux supports both cysteine and sulfite tolerance per se and progression of keratin degradation. These in vitro findings have implications for dermatophyte infection pathogenesis. PMID:23353986

  7. Development of cysteine-free fluorescent proteins for the oxidative environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takahisa; Arai, Seisuke; Takeuchi, Mayumi; Sakurai, Chiye; Ebana, Hideaki; Higashi, Tsunehito; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Hatsuzawa, Kiyotaka; Wada, Ikuo

    2012-01-01

    Molecular imaging employing fluorescent proteins has been widely used to highlight specific reactions or processes in various fields of the life sciences. Despite extensive improvements of the fluorescent tag, this technology is still limited in the study of molecular events in the extracellular milieu. This is partly due to the presence of cysteine in the fluorescent proteins. These proteins almost cotranslationally form disulfide bonded oligomers when expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Although single molecule photobleaching analysis showed that these oligomers were not fluorescent, the fluorescent monomer form often showed aberrant behavior in folding and motion, particularly when fused to cysteine-containing cargo. Therefore we investigated whether it was possible to eliminate the cysteine without losing the brightness. By site-saturated mutagenesis, we found that the cysteine residues in fluorescent proteins could be replaced with specific alternatives while still retaining their brightness. cf(cysteine-free)SGFP2 showed significantly reduced restriction of free diffusion in the ER and marked improvement of maturation when fused to the prion protein. We further applied this approach to TagRFP family proteins and found a set of mutations that obtains the same level of brightness as the cysteine-containing proteins. The approach used in this study to generate new cysteine-free fluorescent tags should expand the application of molecular imaging to the extracellular milieu and facilitate its usage in medicine and biotechnology. PMID:22649538

  8. The mechanism of cysteine detection in biological media by means of vanadium oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, A. G. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Departamento Academico de Fisica (Brazil); Barison, A. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Quimica (Brazil); Oliveira, V. S. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Fisica (Brazil); Foti, L.; Krieger, M. A. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Instituto de Biologia Molecular do Parana (Brazil); Dhalia, R.; Viana, I. F. T. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhaes (Brazil); Schreiner, W. H., E-mail: wido@fisica.ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Fisica (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    We report on the interaction of vanadate nanoparticles, produced using the laser ablation in liquids synthesis, with cysteine in biological molecules. Cysteine is a very important amino acid present in most proteins, but also because cysteine and the tripeptide glutathione are the main antioxidant molecules in our body system. Detailed UV-Vis absorption spectra and dynamic light scattering measurements were done to investigate the detection of cysteine in large biological molecules. The intervalence band of the optical absorption spectra shows capability for quantitative cysteine sensing in the {mu}M range in biological macromolecules. Tests included cytoplasmic repetitive antigen and flagellar repetitive antigen proteins of the Trypanosoma cruzi protozoa, as well as the capsid p24 proteins from Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 and type 2. Detailed NMR measurements for hydrogen, carbon, and vanadium nuclei show that cysteine in contact with the vanadate looses hydrogen of the sulphydryl side chain, while the vanadate is reduced. The subsequent detachment of two deprotonated molecules to form cystine and the slow return to the vanadate complete the oxidation-reduction cycle. Therefore, the vanadate acts as a charge exchanging catalyst on cysteine to form cystine. The NMR results also indicate that the nanoparticles are not formed by the common orthorhombic V{sub 2}O{sub 5} form.

  9. The mechanism of cysteine detection in biological media by means of vanadium oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the interaction of vanadate nanoparticles, produced using the laser ablation in liquids synthesis, with cysteine in biological molecules. Cysteine is a very important amino acid present in most proteins, but also because cysteine and the tripeptide glutathione are the main antioxidant molecules in our body system. Detailed UV–Vis absorption spectra and dynamic light scattering measurements were done to investigate the detection of cysteine in large biological molecules. The intervalence band of the optical absorption spectra shows capability for quantitative cysteine sensing in the ?M range in biological macromolecules. Tests included cytoplasmic repetitive antigen and flagellar repetitive antigen proteins of the Trypanosoma cruzi protozoa, as well as the capsid p24 proteins from Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 and type 2. Detailed NMR measurements for hydrogen, carbon, and vanadium nuclei show that cysteine in contact with the vanadate looses hydrogen of the sulphydryl side chain, while the vanadate is reduced. The subsequent detachment of two deprotonated molecules to form cystine and the slow return to the vanadate complete the oxidation–reduction cycle. Therefore, the vanadate acts as a charge exchanging catalyst on cysteine to form cystine. The NMR results also indicate that the nanoparticles are not formed by the common orthorhombic V2O5 form.

  10. Cysteine detection in water using an organic field-effect transistor with a gold extended-gate electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Tsuyoshi; Minamiki, Tsukuru; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Kumaki, Daisuke; Tokito, Shizuo

    2015-04-01

    We report on the detection of cysteine in water using an extended-gate-type organic field-effect transistor (OFET). The fabricated OFET device can be operated below 3 V. The portion of the designed device used for cysteine detection is the extended-gate electrode prepared by vacuum deposition of a gold (Au) layer. Cysteine can bind to the Au electrode surface through chemisorption. By this technique, we have successfully observed a shift in the threshold voltage of the OFET upon the addition of cysteine in an aqueous solution, whereby the detection limit for cysteine was found to be 39 ppb.

  11. Synthesis of N-acetyl-S-(3-coumarinyl)-cysteine methyl ester and HPLC analysis of urinary coumarin metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Otteneder, Michael; Tang, Weici

    2003-08-28

    N-Acetyl-S-(3-coumarinyl)cysteine, a metabolite of coumarin in rodents, has been synthesized as methyl ester. A new synthetic route to prepare N-acetyl-S-(3-coumarinyl)-D,L-cysteine methyl ester comprises reaction of 3-mercaptocoumarin with N-acetyl-3-chloro-D,L-alanine methyl ester. N-acetyl-S-(4-coumarinyl)-L-cysteine was obtained by reaction of 3-bromocoumarin and N-acetyl-L-cysteine. A method for the determination of N-acetyl-S-(3-coumarinyl)cysteine as its methyl ester in urine by HPLC has been developed. PMID:12927379

  12. Role of host-derived proteinases in dentine caries and erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Charone, Senda; Tjäderhane, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Demineralization in dentinal caries and erosion exposes dentine organic matrix. This exposed matrix, containing type I collagen and non-collagenous proteins, is then degraded by host collagenolytic enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins. The knowledge of the identities and function of these enzymes in dentine has accumulated only within the last 15 years, but has already formed a field of research called 'dentine degradomics'. This research has demonstrated the role of endogenous collagenolytic enzymes in caries and erosion development. In demineralized dentine, the enzymes degrade triple-helical collagen molecules, leading to the gradual loss of collagen matrix. Even before that, they can cleave off the terminal non-helical ends of collagen molecules called telopeptides, leading to the structural changes at the intramolecular gap areas, which may affect or even prevent intrafibrillar remineralization, which is considered essential in restoring the dentine's mechanical properties. They may also cause the loss of non-collagenous proteins that could serve as nucleation sites for remineralization. Here we review the findings demonstrating that inhibition of salivary or dentine endogenous MMPs and cysteine cathepsins may provide preventive means against the progression of caries or erosion. Furthermore, we also suggest the future directions for the new experimental preventive research to gain more knowledge of the enzymes and their function during and after dentine demineralization, and the pathways to find the clinically acceptable means to prevent the functional activity of these enzymes. PMID:25871416

  13. Cysteine 96 of Ntcp is responsible for NO-mediated inhibition of taurocholate uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasamy, Umadevi; Anwer, M. Sawkat; Schonhoff, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    The Na+ taurocholate (TC) cotransporting polypeptide Ntcp/NTCP mediates TC uptake across the sinusoidal membrane of hepatocytes. Previously, we demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) inhibits TC uptake through S-nitrosylation of a cysteine residue. Our current aim was to determine which of the eight cysteine residues of Ntcp is responsible for NO-mediated S-nitrosylation and inhibition of TC uptake. Thus, we tested the effect of NO on TC uptake in HuH-7 cells transiently transfected with cystein...

  14. A simple and effective coumarin-based fluorescent probe for cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xi; Wu, Qing-Hua; Wang, Peng-Chong; Tian, Jie; Xu, Yu; Wang, Sheng-Qing; Miao, Jun-Ying; Zhao, Bao-Xiang

    2014-09-15

    Acrylic acid 3-acetyl-2-oxo-2 H-chromen-7-yl ester (ACA) was rationally designed and synthesized as a simple and effective fluorescent probe for sensing cysteine with high selectivity and naked-eye detection. The probe can detect cysteine by fluorescence spectrometry with a detection limit of 0.657 ?M and can be used with calf serum and in live cell imaging. The conjugate addition/cyclization sequence mechanism of the reaction between ACA and cysteine was con?rmed by ESI-MS and fluorescence spectra. PMID:24690559

  15. Effects of S-Propargyl-Cysteine (SPRC) in Caerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sidhapuriwala, Jenab N.; Hegde, Akhil; Ang, Abel D.; Zhu, Yi Zhun; Bhatia, Madhav

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel gaseous messenger, is synthesized endogenously from L-cysteine by two pyridoxal-5?-phosphate-dependent enzymes, cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE). S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC) is a slow H2S releasing drug that provides cysteine, a substrate of CSE. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of SPRC in an in vivo model of acute pancreatitis (AP) in mice. AP was induced in mice by hourly caerulein injections (50 µg/kg)...

  16. SENSORY ANALYSIS OF A MODEL SYSTEM USING 5'-IMP AND CYSTEINE AT DIFFERENT pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADRUGA Marta Suely

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory analysis was used to get an overall flavour description of a reaction mixtures containing 5'-IMP and Cysteine. Ribose/cysteine systems were used as reference systems. Results from triangle and aroma profiling show a clear correlation between the terms used and the volatile analysis described in literature for these model systems. For instance reactions at pH 3.0 and 4.5 for 5'-IMP/cysteine systems, which were described as "meaty" and "boiled meat" by panellists, presented, in the literature, the higher number of "meaty" compounds in volatile analysis (1, 7, 8, 20 .

  17. Synthesis of cysteine-containing dipeptides by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases.

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubowski, H

    1995-01-01

    Arginyl-tRNA synthetase (ArgRS) catalyses AMP- and PPi-independent deacylation of Arg-tRNAArg in the presence of cysteine. A dipeptide, Arg-Cys, is a product of this deacylation reaction. Similar reaction with homocysteine yields Arg-Hcy. Arginine is a noncompetitive inhibitor of the cysteine-dependent deacylation which indicates that cysteine binds to the enzyme-Arg-tRNAArg complex at a site separate from the arginine binding site. In the presence of arginine, [14C]Arg-tRNAArg is deacylated ...

  18. Preparation, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis to 1.5 Å resolution of rat cysteine dioxygenase, a mononuclear iron enzyme responsible for cysteine thiol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recombinant rat cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) has been expressed, purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 1.5 Å resolution. Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO; EC 1.13.11.20) is an ?23 kDa non-heme iron metalloenzyme that is responsible for the oxidation of cysteine by O2, yielding cysteinesulfinate. CDO catalyzes the first step in the conversion of cysteine to taurine, as well as the first step in the catabolism of cysteine to pyruvate plus sulfate. Recombinant rat CDO was heterologously expressed, purified and crystallized. The protein was expressed as a fusion protein bearing a polyhistidine tag to facilitate purification, a thioredoxin tag to improve solubility and a factor Xa cleavage site to permit removal of the entire N-terminus, leaving only the 200 amino acids inherent to the native protein. A multi-step purification scheme was used to achieve >95% purity of CDO. The optimal CDO crystals diffracted to 1.5 Å resolution and belonged to space group P43212 or P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 57.55, c = 123.06 Å, ? = ? = ? = 90°. CDO shows little homology to any other proteins; therefore, the structure of the enzyme will be determined by ab initio phasing using a selenomethionyl derivative

  19. Mechanism of action of aspartic proteinases: application of transition-state analogue theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O?dziej, S; Ciarkowski, J

    1996-12-01

    Applying the semiempirical MO methods AM1 and PM3 as well as the density functional theory to the model of the catalytic site composed of ca. 160-190 atoms, we have carried out studies aimed at the explanation of three aspects of the mechanism of action of aspartic proteinases: the site of dissociation within the catalytic diad COOH/COO- (i) in the free enzyme and (ii) in the Michaelis complex, and (iii) the energy changes associated with the catalytic paths. We have found that the state of dissociation within the catalytic diad is ligand-sensitive. In the free enzyme and in the intermediate complexes, Asp33 prefers to be dissociated with the outer oxygen of Asp213 protonated, while in the Michaelis and product complexes the opposite holds true. This is in agreement with recent mechanistic hypotheses and with some experimental results by FTIR and NMR. The energy diagram for the catalysis indicates that electronic effects are responsible most of all for the relative reduction of energy of the intermediates and possibly transition states on the catalytic reaction path. The shape of the diagram qualitatively agrees with the transition-state analogue theory for the enzymatic reactions. PMID:9007691

  20. Inhibition of human beta-factor XIIa by squash family serine proteinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, R; Laskowski, M

    1990-02-14

    Many inhibitors of trypsin and human beta-factor XIIa have been isolated from squash and related seeds and sequenced (Wieczorek et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. (1985) 126, 646-652). The association equilibrium constants (Ka) of several of these inhibitors have now been determined with human beta-factor XIIa using a modification of the method of Green and Work (Park et al., Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. (1984) 43, 1962). The Ka's range from 7.8 x 10(4) M-1 to 3.3 x 10(8) M-1. Two isoinhibitors from Cucurbita maxima seeds, CMTI-I and CMTI-III, differ in only a single glutamate to lysine change in the P'4 position. This results in a factor of 62 increase in the Ka of the lysine inhibitor, CMTI-III (Ka = 3.3 x 10(8) M-1). To our knowledge, this is the largest effect ever seen for a residue substitution at the P'4 position of a serine proteinase inhibitor. The result is even more surprising because beta-factor XIIa's natural substrate, Factor XI, contains Gly in the P'4 position. PMID:2306254

  1. Proteinase 3 carries small unusual carbohydrates and associates with ?lpha-defensins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoega, Morten; Ravnsborg, Tina

    2012-01-01

    The neutrophil granulocyte is an important first line of defense against intruding pathogens and it contains a range of granules armed with antibacterial peptides and proteins. Proteinase 3 (PR3) is one among several serine proteases of the azurophilic granules in neutrophil granulocytes. Here, we characterize the glycosylation of PR3 and its association with antimicrobial human neutrophil peptides (HNPs, ?-defensins) and the effect of these on the mechanism of inhibition of the major plasma inhibitor of PR3, ?1-antitrypsin. The glycosylation of purified, mature PR3 showed some heterogeneity with carbohydrates at Asn 102 and 147 carrying unusual small moieties indicating heavy processing. Mass spectrometric analysis and immuno blotting revealed strong association of highly purified PR3 with ?-defensins and oligomers hereof. Irreversible inhibition of PR3 by ?1-antitrypsin did not affect its association with defensins. Other proteins from neutrophil granules were also found to be associated with defensins, whereas purified plasma proteins did not carry defensins. These results point to a role of defensins in controlling and targeting the activity of neutrophil granule proteins.

  2. Selective radioprotection of normal tissues by bowman-birk proteinase inhibitor (BBI) in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittmann, K.; Toulany, M.; Peter Rodemann, H. [Div. of Radiobiology and Environmental Research, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Classen, J.; Heinrich, V. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Milas, L. [Dept. of Experimental Radiation Oncology, The Univ. of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Background and purpose: the efficacy of radiotherapy is limited by the response of normal tissues within the radiation field. The application of normal-tissue-specific radioprotectors may improve the therapeutic benefit of radiotherapy. The purpose of the present study was to explore the in vivo normal-tissue radioprotective potential of Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor (BBI), which acts as a normal-cell-specific radioprotector in vitro. Material and methods: the leg contracture assay in mice, a model system assessing radiation-induced fibrotic processes, was used. To determine whether BBI acts also as a radioprotector of tumors (i.e., FSA and FSAII), the tumor growth delay assay was used. Results: radiation induced leg contracture in mice with a maximum of about 8 mm at day 150 after irradiation. Treatment of mice with 100 mg/kg BBI before irradiation reduced leg contracture by > 4 mm, by about 50% (p < 0.05, t-test). Doses < 100 mg/kg were ineffective, and doses > 100 mg/kg did not further increase the degree of radioprotection. By contrast, BBI did not induce radioprotection of either TP53-mutated FSA or TP53-normal FSAII tumor xenografts in mice, which argues for normal-tissue-specific effect. Conclusion: BBI acts as a potent selective normal-tissue radioprotector in vitro and in vivo, apparently without protecting tumors, and thus has the potential to improve clinical radiotherapy. (orig.)

  3. Susceptibility of Agrotis segetum (noctuidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis and analysis of midgut proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hamadou-Charfi, Dorra; Sauer, Annette Juliane; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Tounsi, Slim; Jaoua, Samir; Stephan, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Seventy-eight Bacillus thuringiensis isolates were selected for a screening against the Lepidoptera species Agrotis segetum to search the higher insecticidal activity. In a preliminary bioassay, the spore-crystal mixture of 78 B. thuringiensis isolates was tested against L1 larvae of A. segetum. Fifty-two isolates had more than 60% corrected mortality after 3 days. Seven isolates caused a corrected mortality of 100% on A. segetum. Twelve isolates were selected for a second bioassay investigating the effect of the vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip) against third-instar larvae. After 7 days, the weight gain and the larval stage of each larva were recorded. This bioassay showed an aberration in larval growth increases, morphology, and weight gain. After plasmid pattern analysis, the most active strains are most likely B. thuringiensis kurstaki strains expressing the Vip3A toxin. The absence of two proteinase activities observed in the case of Cry1Ac would be the consequence of the difference in susceptibility of A. segetum to the toxins used. PMID:24839868

  4. Differentially regulated GPVI ectodomain shedding by multiple platelet-expressed proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Markus; Hofmann, Sebastian; Stegner, David; Chalaris, Athena; Bösl, Michael; Braun, Attila; Scheller, Jürgen; Rose-John, Stefan; Nieswandt, Bernhard

    2010-10-28

    Glycoprotein VI (GPVI) mediates platelet activation on exposed subendothelial collagens at sites of vascular injury and thereby contributes to normal hemostasis, but also to the occlusion of diseased vessels in the setting of myocardial infarction or stroke. GPVI is an attractive target for antithrombotic therapy, particularly because previous studies have shown that anti-GPVI antibodies induce irreversible down-regulation of the receptor in circulating platelets by internalization and/or ectodomain shedding. Metalloproteinases of the a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) family have been proposed to mediate this ectodomain shedding, but direct evidence for this is lacking. Here, we studied GPVI shedding in vitro and in vivo in newly generated mice with a megakaryocyte-specific ADAM10 deficiency and in Adam17(ex/ex) mice, which lack functional ADAM17. We demonstrate that GPVI cleavage in vitro can occur independently through either ADAM10 or ADAM17 in response to distinct stimuli. In contrast, antibody (JAQ1)-induced GPVI shedding in vivo occurred in mice lacking both ADAM10/ADAM17 in their platelets, suggesting the existence of a third GPVI cleaving platelet enzyme. This was supported by in vitro studies on ADAM10/ADAM17 double-deficient platelets. These results reveal that ectodomain shedding of GPVI can be mediated through multiple differentially regulated platelet-expressed proteinases with obvious therapeutic implications. PMID:20644114

  5. Foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase: Structural insights into the mechanism of intermolecular cleavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, Jutta; Grishkovskaya, Irina; Cencic, Regina; Juliano, Luiz; Juliano, Maria A.; Skern, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA initiates at one of two start codons leading to the synthesis of two forms of leader proteinase Lpro (Labpro and Lbpro). These forms free themselves from the viral polyprotein by intra- and intermolecular self-processing and subsequently cleave the cellular eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G. During infection, Lbpro removes six residues from its own C-terminus, generating sLbpro. We present the structure of sLbpro bound to the inhibitor E64-R-P-NH2, illustrating how sLbpro can cleave between Lys/Gly and Gly/Arg pairs. In intermolecular cleavage on polyprotein substrates, Lbpro was unaffected by P1 or P1? substitutions and processed a substrate containing nine eIF4GI cleavage site residues whereas sLbpro failed to cleave the eIF4GI containing substrate and cleaved appreciably more slowly on mutated substrates. Introduction of 70 eIF4GI residues bearing the Lbpro binding site restored cleavage. These data imply that Lbpro and sLbpro may have different functions in infected cells. PMID:25240326

  6. Soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV 19K protein belongs to a class of cysteine rich proteins that suppress RNA silencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Amanda

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amino acid sequence analyses indicate that the Soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV 19K protein is a cysteine-rich protein (CRP and shares sequence homology with CRPs derived from furo-, hordei-, peclu- and tobraviruses. Since the hordei- and pecluvirus CRPs were shown to be pathogenesis factors and/or suppressors of RNA silencing, experiments were conducted to determine if the SBWMV 19K CRP has similar activities. The SBWMV 19K CRP was introduced into the Potato virus X (PVX viral vector and inoculated to tobacco plants. The SBWMV 19K CRP aggravated PVX-induced symptoms and restored green fluorescent protein (GFP expression to GFP silenced tissues. These observations indicate that the SBWMV 19K CRP is a pathogenicity determinant and a suppressor of RNA silencing.

  7. The Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) V2 protein inhibits enzymatic activity of the host papain-like cysteine protease CYP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Ziv, Amalia; Levy, Yael; Citovsky, Vitaly; Gafni, Yedidya

    2015-05-01

    The viral V2 protein is one of the key factors that Tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus (TYLCV), a major tomato pathogen worldwide, utilizes to combat the host defense. Besides suppressing the plant RNA silencing defense by targeting the host SGS3 component of the silencing machinery, V2 also interacts with the host CYP1 protein, a papain-like cysteine protease likely involved in hypersensitive response reactions. The biological effects of the V2-CYP1 interaction, however, remain unknown. We addressed this question by demonstrating that V2 inhibits the enzymatic activity of CYP1, but does not interfere with post-translational maturation of this protein. PMID:25797621

  8. Sequence analysis of cDNA coding for a major house dust mite allergen, Der p 1. Homology with cysteine proteases

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    A cDNA clone coding for Der p 1, a major allergen from the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, has been sequenced. It codes for a 222 residue mature protein with a derived molecular weight of 25,371 and contains 1 potential N-glycosylation site. In addition, the cDNA appears to code for a 13 residue proregion, and an incomplete signal peptide. The deduced sequence shows a high degree of homology with animal and plant cysteine proteases, particularly in the region of the contact re...

  9. YfiK from Escherichia coli Promotes Export of O-Acetylserine and Cysteine

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Isabel; Resch, Armin; Daßler, Tobias; Maier, Thomas; Bo?ck, August

    2003-01-01

    yfiK was discovered as a gene augmenting cysteine production when it was overexpressed in an industrial Escherichia coli production strain. The gene product is an integral membrane protein with about six predicted transmembrane helices; it belongs to the RhtB family of export proteins. YfiK overproduction from a plasmid leads to drastic and parallel secretion of O-acetylserine and cysteine into the medium but only when the organism possesses a serine transacetylase that is feedback insensitiv...

  10. Cysteine Protease Inhibitor (AcStefin) Is Required for Complete Cyst Formation of Acanthamoeba

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jung-yub; Song, Su-min; Moon, Eun-kyung; Lee, Yu-ran; Jha, Bijay Kumar; Danne, Dinzouna-boutamba Sylvatrie; Cha, Hee-jae; Yu, Hak Sun; Kong, Hyun-hee; Chung, Dong-il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2013-01-01

    The encystation of Acanthamoeba leads to the formation of resilient cysts from vegetative trophozoites. This process is essential for parasite survival under unfavorable conditions, such as those associated with starvation, low temperatures, and biocides. Furthermore, cysteine proteases have been implicated in the massive turnover of intracellular components required for encystation. Thus, strict modulation of the activities of cysteine proteases is required to protect Acanthamoeba from intra...

  11. N-Acetyl cysteine blunts proteotoxicity in a heat shock protein-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Rumble, J L; Gleixner, A M; Unnithan, A S; Pulugulla, S H; Posimo, J M; Choi, H J H; Crum, T S; Pant, D B; Leak, R K

    2013-01-01

    N-Acetyl cysteine, a glutathione precursor, has been shown to benefit patients with Alzheimer's disease and reduce the symptoms of traumatic brain injury in soldiers. Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease are both characterized by stress from protein misfolding, or proteotoxicity. We have developed a high-throughput model of proteotoxicity by treating neuroblastoma N2a cells with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 and performing three independent assays for viability. Our previous study showed that N-acetyl cysteine protects N2a cells against two sequential treatments of MG132 and raises glutathione levels in a two-hit model of synergistic neurodegeneration. In the present study, however, N-acetyl cysteine was found to reduce the toxicity of a single hit of MG132 independent of its effect on glutathione. All three viability assays confirmed this protection. We measured heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) levels because Hsp70 is a protective chaperone that helps refold proteins or guides ubiquitinated proteins toward degradation by the proteasome. Hsp70 levels were higher in MG132-treated cells when N-acetyl cysteine was applied. No parallel change in heat shock cognate 70 (Hsc70) was elicited. Inhibition of Hsp70/Hsc70 activity with VER 155008 attenuated the protection afforded by N-acetyl cysteine in a dose-responsive manner. MG132 induced a large rise in ubiquitinated proteins and N-acetyl cysteine reduced this effect. Consistent with the chaperone functions of Hsp70, VER 155008 also prevented the reduction in ubiquitin-conjugated proteins by N-acetyl cysteine. These data reveal a new role for N-acetyl cysteine: this compound may reduce misfolded protein levels and ameliorate proteotoxicity through heat shock proteins. These findings broaden the potential mechanisms of action for this dietary supplement in neurodegenerative proteinopathies. PMID:24096134

  12. Removal of palladium ions from aqueous systems by chemically modified cysteine carbon powder

    OpenAIRE

    Abiman, P; Wildgoose, GG; A. Crossley; Compton, RG

    2008-01-01

    l-Cysteine methyl ester modified graphite powder (Cyscarbon) was used as a material to remove palladium ions from aqueous media. Cheap graphite powders (2-20 ?m in diameter) were surface functionalised with l-cysteine methyl ester. The removal of Pd(ii) ions was studied as a function of concentration of Pd(ii) ions, contact time with modified carbon and amount of modified carbon used. Determination of palladium ions was performed by adsorptive stripping voltammetry using a mercury nanodroplet...

  13. Comparative study of abiogenesis of cysteine and other amino acids catalyzed by various metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, K; Sen, P

    1975-01-01

    The present work pertains to the study of the influence of nickel, cobalt, thorium, vanadium, molybdate, ferrous ions on the formation of cysteine which is synthesized abiogenically together with other amino acids in sterilized aqueous mixtures of ammonium thiocyanate, formaldehyde, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, calcium acetate, and biological minerals after irradiating by artificial light. The effect of these catalysts on cysteine formation was of the order: Fe++ greater than Mo++ greater than Th++++ greater than V++ greater than Co++ greater than Ni. PMID:1189468

  14. A Parasite Cysteine Protease Is Key to Host Protein Degradation and Iron Acquisition*S?

    OpenAIRE

    O Brien, Theresa C.; Mackey, Zachary B.; Fetter, Richard D.; Choe, Youngchool; O Donoghue, Anthony J.; Zhou, Min; Craik, Charles S.; Caffrey, Conor R.; Mckerrow, James H.

    2008-01-01

    Cysteine proteases of the Clan CA (papain) family are the predominant protease group in primitive invertebrates. Cysteine protease inhibitors arrest infection by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei. RNA interference studies implicated a cathepsin B-like protease, tbcatB, as a key inhibitor target. Utilizing parasites in which one of the two alleles of tbcatb has been deleted, the key role of this protease in degradation of endocytosed host proteins is delineated...

  15. A malarial cysteine protease is necessary for Plasmodium sporozoite egress from oocysts

    OpenAIRE

    Aly, Ahmed S. I.; Matuschewski, Kai

    2005-01-01

    The Plasmodium life cycle is a sequence of alternating invasive and replicative stages within the vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. How malarial parasites exit their host cells after completion of reproduction remains largely unsolved. Inhibitor studies indicated a role of Plasmodium cysteine proteases in merozoite release from host erythrocytes. To validate a vital function of malarial cysteine proteases in active parasite egress, we searched for target genes that can be analyzed functional...

  16. Anharmonic transitions in nearly dry l-cysteine I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, T. A.; Sato, E. T.; Martins, E. T.; Homem-de-Mello, P.; Lago, A. F.; Coutinho-Neto, M. D.; Ferreira, F. F.; Giles, C.; Pires, M. O. C.; Martinho, H.

    2012-05-01

    Two special dynamical transitions of universal character have recently been observed in macromolecules (lysozyme, myoglobin, bacteriorhodopsin, DNA and RNA) at T* ˜ 100-150 K and TD ˜ 180-220 K. The underlying mechanisms governing these transitions have been the subject of debate. In the present work, a survey is reported on the temperature dependence of structural, vibrational and thermodynamical properties of a nearly anhydrous amino acid (orthorhombic polymorph of the amino acid l-cysteine at a hydration level of 3.5%). The temperature dependence of x-ray powder diffraction patterns, Raman spectra and specific heat revealed these two transitions at T* = 70 K and TD = 230 K for this sample. The data were analyzed considering amino acid-amino acid, amino acid-water, water-water phonon-phonon interactions and molecular rotor activation. Our results indicated that the two referred temperatures define the triggering of very simple and particular events that govern all the interactions of the biomolecular: activation of CH2 rigid rotors (T TD).

  17. Identification and preliminary characterization of protein-cysteine farnesyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ras proteins must be isoprenylated at a conserved cysteine residue near the carboxyl terminus in order to exert their biological activity. Previous studies indicate that an intermediate in the mevalonate pathway, most likely farnesyl pyrophosphate, is the donor of this isoprenyl group. Inhibition of mevalonate synthesis reverts the abnormal phenotypes induced by the mutant RAS2Valendash19 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and blocks the maturation of Xenopus oocytes induced by an onocogenic Ras p21 protein of human origin. These results have raised the possibility of using inhibitors of the mevalonate pathway to block the transforming properties of ras oncogenes. Unfortunately, mevalonate is a precursor of various end products essential to mammalian cells, such as dolichols, ubiquinones, heme A, and cholesterol. In this study, the authors describe an enzymatic activity(ies) capable of catalyzing the farnesylation of unprocessed Ras p21 proteins in vitro at the correct (Cys-186) residue. Gel filtration analysis of a partially purified preparation of protein farnesyltransferase revealed two peaks of activity at 250-350 kDa and 80-130 kDa. Availability of an in vitro protein farnesyltransferase assay should be useful in screening for potential inhibitors of ras oncogene function that will not interfere with other aspects of the mevalonate pathway

  18. Cysteine protease activation and apoptosis in Murine norovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettayebi Khalil

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses are the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis. Because a suitable in vitro culture system for the human virus has yet to be developed, many basic details of the infection process are unknown. Murine norovirus (MNV serves as a model system for the study of norovirus infection. Recently it was shown that infection of RAW 264.7 cells involved a novel apoptotic pathway involving survivin. Results Using a different set of approaches, the up-regulation of caspases, DNA condensation/fragmentation, and membrane blebbing, all of which are markers of apoptosis, were confirmed. Live cell imaging and activity-based protein profiling showed that activation of caspase-like proteases occurred within two hours of infection, followed by morphological changes to the cells. MNV infection in the presence of caspase inhibitors proceeded via a distinct pathway of rapid cellular necrosis and reduced viral production. Affinity purification of activity-based protein profiling targets and identification by peptide mass fingerprinting showed that the cysteine protease cathepsin B was activated early in infection, establishing this protein as an upstream activator of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Conclusion This work adds cathepsin B to the noncanonical programmed cell death induced by MNV, and provides data suggesting that the virus may induce apoptosis to expand the window of time for viral replication. This work also highlights the significant power of activity-based protein profiling in the study of viral pathogenesis.

  19. Investigating the Oligomerization of Bak and Bax during Apoptosis by Cysteine Linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewson, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Following conformation change, Bak and Bax self-associate to form the putative apoptotic pore in the mitochondrial outer membrane. The nature of this pore and whether it is purely proteinaceous or lipidic are still unresolved. Induction of disulfide linkage with oxidants such as copper (II)(1,10-phenanthroline)3 (CuPhe) and chemical cross-linking with cell-permeable homobifunctional maleimide reagents are convenient ways to investigate Bak and Bax oligomerization in cells or isolated mitochondria. A limitation of these methods is they are based on the linkage of cysteines, and their success is reliant on the positions of the endogenous cysteines in Bak and Bax. Consequently, the protocols are more efficient and informative for human Bak than that for its murine counterpart. An additional benefit when investigating human Bak is that cysteine-based linkage assays provide information on the conformation change that precedes Bak oligomerization: Endogenous cysteines in the inactive form are in close proximity, and intramolecular linkage after treatment causes inactive Bak to migrate faster during SDS-PAGE. This intramolecular linkage is lost on activation, as the cysteines are distanced by conformation change. During apoptosis, Bak oligomerization induces the proximity of cysteines that favor intermolecular linkage. Trapped Bak oligomers can be detected with nonreducing (following oxidation with CuPhe) or reducing (following chemical cross-linking with homobifunctional maleimide reagents) SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, as described here. PMID:25934939

  20. YfiK from Escherichia coli promotes export of O-acetylserine and cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Isabel; Resch, Armin; Dassler, Tobias; Maier, Thomas; Böck, August

    2003-02-01

    yfiK was discovered as a gene augmenting cysteine production when it was overexpressed in an industrial Escherichia coli production strain. The gene product is an integral membrane protein with about six predicted transmembrane helices; it belongs to the RhtB family of export proteins. YfiK overproduction from a plasmid leads to drastic and parallel secretion of O-acetylserine and cysteine into the medium but only when the organism possesses a serine transacetylase that is feedback insensitive to cysteine. Externally provided O-acetylserine obviated this requirement for cysteine secretion both in the yfiK-carrying transformant and in the wild type. A DeltayfiK mutant did not show any phenotype, and it exported O-acetylserine and cysteine when transformed with a plasmid carrying ydeD, a previously characterized, alternate O-acetylserine/cysteine exporter. Since a ydeD-yfiK double mutant showed the same pattern, it appears that YfiK and YdeD act independently. The necessity for the cell to regulate the size of the internal pool of O-acetylserine via synthesis of exporter proteins could be connected to the fact that this compound (when supplied externally) inhibits growth. Overexpression of either ydeD or yfiK leads to alleviation of this inhibition paralled by increased resistance to azaserine, which is an analog of O-acetylserine. PMID:12562784

  1. Electrochemical behaviour of dopamine at covalent modified glassy carbon electrode with l-cysteine: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Martínez-Huitle

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface of glassy carbon (GC electrode has been modified by oxidation of L-cysteine. The covalent modified GC electrode with L-Cysteine has been studied, according the supporting electrolyte used. Favourable interactions between the L-cysteine film and DA enhance the current response compared to that at the Nafion GC and bare GC electrodes, achieving better performances than those other electrodes. This behaviour was as result of the adsorption of the cysteine layer film, compact and uniform formation; depending on L-cysteine solution (phosphate buffer or chloridric acid supporting electrolyte used for modifying GC surface. In cyclic voltammetric measurements, modified electrodes can successfully separate the oxidation/reduction DA peaks in different buffer solutions, but an evident dependence in the response was obtained as function of pH and modified electrode. The modified electrode prepared with L-cysteine/HCl solution was used to obtain the calibration curve and it exhibited a stable and sensitive response to DA. The results are described and discussed in the light of the existing literature.

  2. Electrochemical behaviour of dopamine at covalent modified glassy carbon electrode with l-cysteine: preliminary results

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Alberto, Martínez-Huitle; Monica, Cerro-Lopez; Marco Antonio, Quiroz.

    Full Text Available The surface of glassy carbon (GC) electrode has been modified by oxidation of L-cysteine. The covalent modified GC electrode with L-Cysteine has been studied, according the supporting electrolyte used. Favourable interactions between the L-cysteine film and DA enhance the current response compared t [...] o that at the Nafion GC and bare GC electrodes, achieving better performances than those other electrodes. This behaviour was as result of the adsorption of the cysteine layer film, compact and uniform formation; depending on L-cysteine solution (phosphate buffer or chloridric acid supporting electrolyte) used for modifying GC surface. In cyclic voltammetric measurements, modified electrodes can successfully separate the oxidation/reduction DA peaks in different buffer solutions, but an evident dependence in the response was obtained as function of pH and modified electrode. The modified electrode prepared with L-cysteine/HCl solution was used to obtain the calibration curve and it exhibited a stable and sensitive response to DA. The results are described and discussed in the light of the existing literature.

  3. Reaction of acetaldehyde with cysteine and its potential significance in alcoholic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cysteine is important as a precursor for the synthesis of glutathione and in regeneration of glutathione during the ?-glutamyl cycle. The reaction of ?-aminothiols like cysteine with aldehydes to form thiazolidines is well known. Cysteine reacts rapidly with acetaldehyde, the first oxidation product of ingested ethanol, in PBS at 37deg C, pH 7.4 to form 2-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TC) (k2 = 5.8 M-1 sec-1), TC is stable under the same conditions: kobs = 4.6 x 10-2 h-1 (t1/2 = 15 hours) for ring opening. These rate constants suggest that appreciable amounts of TC may form in liver during ethanol metabolism, potentially decreasing the available concentration of cysteine for glutathione synthesis. Using [2-13C] ethanol, NAD+ and an NAD+ regenerating system, alcohol dehydrogenase and cysteine, TC labelled with 13C in the methyl carbon can be produced quantitatively. Use of a polarization transfer sequence allows observation of only the methyl protons by proton NMR. The effect of rat liver homogenate on the formation and stability of TC will be described. Similarly the effect of replacement of cysteine by its ?,? -dimethyl analog, penicillamine, will be discussed

  4. Neutral thiol as a proximal ligand to ferrous heme iron: Implications for heme proteins that lose cysteine thiolate ligation on reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, Roshan; Sono, Masanori; Sigman, Jeffrey A.; Pfister, Thomas D.; Lu, Yi; Dawson, John H.

    2003-01-01

    Cysteine plays a key role as a metal ligand in metalloproteins. In all well-recognized cases, however, it is the anionic cysteinate that coordinates. Several cysteinate-ligated heme proteins are known, but some fail to retain thiolate ligation in the ferrous state, possibly following protonation to form neutral cysteine. Ligation by cysteine thiol in ferrous heme proteins has not been documented. To establish spectroscopic signatures for such systems, we have prepared five-coordinate adducts ...

  5. The inhibition of Candida albicans secreted aspartyl proteinase by triangular gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Haji Esmaeil Hajjar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The aim of this study was to synthesize triangular gold nanoparticles, and then to evaluate their capability for inhibition of Candida albicans secreted aspartyl proteinase 2(Sap2. Materials and Methods: To synthesize the nanoparticles, hydrogen tetrachloroaurate and hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide were incubated in presence of Sn(IV meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl porphine tetratosylate chloride, and then characterized. Next, thirty clinical isolates of Candida albicans were obtained from patients suffering from vaginal candidiasis. Each Candida albicans isolate was first cultured in YCB-BSA medium, incubated for 24 h at 35 ºC. Then, 100 µL of triangular gold nanoparticles at three concentrations (16, 32, and 64 µg/mL were added to Candida suspension, and incubated for 24 and 48 h at 35 ºC. To evaluate Sap activity, 0.1 mL of medium and 0.4 mL of 0.1 M sodium citrate buffer (pH 3.2 containing BSA 1% w/v were added, and incubated 15 minutes at 37 ºC. Then, the optical density of each tube was read at 280 nm. Enzyme activity was expressed as the amount (µM of tyrosine equivalents released per min per ml of culture supernatant. Results: This study showed that the size of the nanoparticles was 70±50 nm. Sap activity evaluation demonstrated triangular gold nanoparticles could inhibit the enzyme, and the higher incubation time and concentration led to more decrease of Sap activity. Conclusion:For the first time, we demonstrated triangular gold nanoparticles as a novel inhibitor of Sap enzyme which may be useful for treatment of candidiasis.  

  6. Mandatory role of proteinase-activated receptor 1 in experimental bladder inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Carole A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general, inflammation plays a role in most bladder pathologies and represents a defense reaction to injury that often times is two edged. In particular, bladder neurogenic inflammation involves the participation of mast cells and sensory nerves. Increased mast cell numbers and tryptase release represent one of the prevalent etiologic theories for interstitial cystitis and other urinary bladder inflammatory conditions. The activity of mast cell-derived tryptase as well as thrombin is significantly increased during inflammation. Those enzymes activate specific G-protein coupled proteinase-activated receptors (PARs. Four PARs have been cloned so far, and not only are all four receptors highly expressed in different cell types of the mouse urinary bladder, but their expression is altered during experimental bladder inflammation. We hypothesize that PARs may link mast cell-derived proteases to bladder inflammation and, therefore, play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of cystitis. Results Here, we demonstrate that in addition to the mouse urinary bladder, all four PA receptors are also expressed in the J82 human urothelial cell line. Intravesical administration of PAR-activating peptides in mice leads to an inflammatory reaction characterized by edema and granulocyte infiltration. Moreover, the inflammatory response to intravesical instillation of known pro-inflammatory stimuli such as E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, substance P, and antigen was strongly attenuated by PAR1-, and to a lesser extent, by PAR2-deficiency. Conclusion Our results reveal an overriding participation of PAR1 in bladder inflammation, provide a working model for the involvement of downstream signaling, and evoke testable hypotheses regarding the role of PARs in bladder inflammation. It remains to be determined whether or not mechanisms targeting PAR1 gene silencing or PAR1 blockade will ameliorate the clinical manifestations of cystitis.

  7. Regulation of Neutrophilic Inflammation by Proteinase-Activated Receptor 1 during Bacterial Pulmonary Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, Ricardo J; Williams, Andrew E; Mercer, Paul F; Sulikowski, Michal G; Brown, Jeremy S; Chambers, Rachel C

    2015-06-15

    Neutrophils are key effector cells of the innate immune response to pathogenic bacteria, but excessive neutrophilic inflammation can be associated with bystander tissue damage. The mechanisms responsible for neutrophil recruitment to the lungs during bacterial pneumonia are poorly defined. In this study, we focus on the potential role of the major high-affinity thrombin receptor, proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1), during the development of pneumonia to the common lung pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Our studies demonstrate that neutrophils were indispensable for controlling S. pneumoniae outgrowth but contributed to alveolar barrier disruption. We further report that intra-alveolar coagulation (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid thrombin-antithrombin complex levels) and PAR-1 immunostaining were increased in this model of bacterial lung infection. Functional studies using the most clinically advanced PAR-1 antagonist, SCH530348, revealed a key contribution for PAR-1 signaling in influencing neutrophil recruitment to lung airspaces in response to both an invasive and noninvasive strain of S. pneumoniae (D39 and EF3030) but that PAR-1 antagonism did not impair the ability of the host to control bacterial outgrowth. PAR-1 antagonist treatment significantly decreased pulmonary levels of IL-1?, CXCL1, CCL2, and CCL7 and attenuated alveolar leak. Ab neutralization studies further demonstrated a nonredundant role for IL-1?, CXCL1, and CCL7 in mediating neutrophil recruitment in response to S. pneumoniae infection. Taken together, these data demonstrate a key role for PAR-1 during S. pneumoniae lung infection that is mediated, at least in part, by influencing multiple downstream inflammatory mediators. PMID:25948816

  8. Role of Tomato Lipoxygenase D in Wound-Induced Jasmonate Biosynthesis and Plant Immunity to Insect Herbivores

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Liuhua; Zhai, Qingzhe; Wei, Jianing; Li, Shuyu; Wang, Bao; Huang, Tingting; Du, Minmin; Sun, Jiaqiang; Kang, Le; Li, Chang-Bao; Li, Chuanyou

    2013-01-01

    In response to insect attack and mechanical wounding, plants activate the expression of genes involved in various defense-related processes. A fascinating feature of these inducible defenses is their occurrence both locally at the wounding site and systemically in undamaged leaves throughout the plant. Wound-inducible proteinase inhibitors (PIs) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) provide an attractive model to understand the signal transduction events leading from localized injury to the system...

  9. Transgenic plants expressing HC-Pro show enhanced virus sensitivity while silencing of the transgene results in resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Mlotshwa, S.; Verver, J.; Sithole-niang, I.; Prins, M.; Kammen, A.; Wellink, J.

    2002-01-01

    Nicotiana benthamiana plants were engineered to express sequences of the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyvirus (CABMV). The sensitivity of the transgenic plants to infection with parental and heterologous viruses was studied. The lines expressing HC-Pro showed enhanced symptoms after infection with the parental CABMV isolate and also after infection with a heterologous potyvirus, Potato virus Y (PVY) and a comovirus, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). On the oth...

  10. Activation of progelatinase A (MMP-2) by neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G, and proteinase-3: a role for inflammatory cells in tumor invasion and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamamian, P; Schwartz, J D; Pocock, B J; Monea, S; Whiting, D; Marcus, S G; Mignatti, P

    2001-11-01

    Gelatinase A (MMP-2), a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) involved in tumor invasion and angiogenesis, is secreted as an inactive zymogen (proMMP-2) and activated by proteolytic cleavage. Here we report that polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN)-derived elastase, cathepsin G, and proteinase-3 activate proMMP-2 through a mechanism that requires membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) expression. Immunoprecipitation of human PMN-conditioned medium with a mixture of antibodies to elastase, cathepsin G, and proteinase-3 abolished proMMP-2 activation, whereas individual antibodies were ineffective. Incubation of HT1080 cells with either purified PMN elastase or cathepsin G or proteinase-3 resulted in dose-and time-dependent proMMP-2 activation. Addition of PMN-conditioned medium to MT1-MMP expressing cells resulted in increased proMMP-2 activation and in vitro invasion of extracellular matrix (ECM), but had no effect with cells that express no MT1-MMP. MMP-2 activation by PMN-conditioned medium or purified elastase was blocked by the elastase inhibitor alpha(1)-antitrypsin but not by Batimastat, an MMP inhibitor, showing that elastase activation of MMP-2 is not mediated by MMP activities. The PMN-conditioned medium-induced increase in cell invasion was blocked by Batimastat as well as by alpha(1)-antitrypsin, showing that PMN serine proteinases trigger a proteinase cascade that entails proMMP-2 activation: this gelatinase is the downstream effector of the proinvasive activity of PMN proteinases. These findings indicate a novel role for PMN-mediated inflammation in a variety of tissue remodeling processes including tumor invasion and angiogenesis. PMID:11598905

  11. Neutrophil elastase reduces secretion of secretory leukoproteinase inhibitor (SLPI by lung epithelial cells: role of charge of the proteinase-inhibitor complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiemstra Pieter S

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secretory leukoproteinase inhibitor (SLPI is an important inhibitor of neutrophil elastase (NE, a proteinase implicated in the pathogenesis of lung diseases such as COPD. SLPI also has antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, but the concentration of SLPI in lung secretions in COPD varies inversely with infection and the concentration of NE. A fall in SLPI concentration is also seen in culture supernatants of respiratory cells exposed to NE, for unknown reasons. We investigated the hypothesis that SLPI complexed with NE associates with cell membranes in vitro. Methods Respiratory epithelial cells were cultured in the presence of SLPI, varying doses of proteinases over time, and in different experimental conditions. The likely predicted charge of the complex between SLPI and proteinases was assessed by theoretical molecular modelling. Results We observed a rapid, linear decrease in SLPI concentration in culture supernatants with increasing concentration of NE and cathepsin G, but not with other serine proteinases. The effect of NE was inhibited fully by a synthetic NE inhibitor only when added at the same time as NE. Direct contact between NE and SLPI was required for a fall in SLPI concentration. Passive binding to cell culture plate materials was able to remove a substantial amount of SLPI both with and without NE. Theoretical molecular modelling of the structure of SLPI in complex with various proteinases showed a greater positive charge for the complex with NE and cathepsin G than for other proteinases, such as trypsin and mast cell tryptase, that also bind SLPI but without reducing its concentration. Conclusion These data suggest that NE-mediated decrease in SLPI is a passive, charge-dependent phenomenon in vitro, which may correlate with changes observed in vivo.

  12. Poliovirus proteinase 3C: large-scale expression, purification, and specific cleavage activity on natural and synthetic substrates in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicklin, M J; Harris, K. S.; Pallai, P V; Wimmer, E.

    1988-01-01

    Proteinase 3C of poliovirus type 2 (Sabin) was expressed at 4% total protein in Escherichia coli. The protein was soluble and could be purified by a simple scheme. It was weakly active on the capsid precursor P1 (expressed in vitro), which contains two cleavage sites. The products of processing P1 were 1ABC and 1D (VP1). The activity was insensitive to Triton X-100. Crude extracts of cells infected with poliovirus type 1 (Mahoney) gave strong processing and yielded 1AB (VP0), 1C (VP3), and 1D...

  13. Effects of proteinase inhibitor from Adenanthera pavonina seeds on short- and long term larval development of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Daniele Yumi; Jacobowski, Ana Cristina; de Souza, Antônio Pancrácio; Cardoso, Marlon Henrique; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2015-05-01

    Currently, one of the major global public health concerns is related to the transmission of dengue/yellow fever virus by the vector Aedes aegypti. The most abundant digestive enzymes in Ae. aegypti midgut larvae are trypsin and chymotrypsin. Since protease inhibitors have the capacity to bind to and inhibit the action of insect digestive proteinases, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of Adenanthera pavonina seed proteinase inhibitor (ApTI) on Ae. aegypti larvae, as well as a possible mechanism of adaptation. ApTI had a significant effect on Ae. aegypti larvae exposed to a non-lethal concentration of ApTI during short- and long-duration assays, decreasing survival, weight and proteinase activities of midgut extracts of larvae. The zymographic profile of ApTI demonstrated seven bands; three bands apparently have trypsin-like activity. Moreover, the peritrophic membrane was not disrupted. The enzymes of ApTI-fed larvae were found to be sensitive to ApTI and to have a normal feedback mechanism; also, the larval digestive enzymes were not able to degrade the inhibitor. In addition, ApTI delayed larval development time. Histological studies demonstrated a degeneration of the microvilli of the posterior midgut region epithelium cells, hypertrophy of the gastric caeca cells and an augmented ectoperitrophic space in larvae. Moreover, Ae. aegypti larvae were incapable of overcoming the negative effects of ApTI, indicating that this inhibitor might be used as a promising agent against Ae. aegypti. In addition, molecular modeling and molecular docking studies were also performed in order to construct three-dimensional theoretical models for ApTI, trypsin and chymotrypsin from Ae. aegypti, as well as to predict the possible interactions and affinity values for the complexes ApTI/trypsin and ApTI/chymotrypsin. In this context, this study broadens the base of our understanding about the modes of action of proteinase inhibitors in insects, as well as the way insects adapt to them. PMID:25796215

  14. Isolation and characterization of a serine proteinase with thrombin-like activity from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper

    OpenAIRE

    A.V Pérez; A Rucavado; Sanz, L; Calvete, J. J.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    A serine proteinase with thrombin-like activity was isolated from the venom of the Central American pit viper Bothrops asper. Isolation was performed by a combination of affinity chromatography on aminobenzamidine-Sepharose and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose. The enzyme accounts for approximately 0.13% of the venom dry weight and has a molecular mass of 32 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE, and of 27 kDa as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Its partial amino acid sequence ...

  15. Differences in proteinase K resistance and neuronal deposition of abnormal prion proteins characterize bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and scrapie strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuczius, T.; Groschup, M H

    1999-01-01

    Prion diseases are associated with the accumulation of an abnormal isoform of host-encoded prion protein (PrP(Sc)). A number of prion strains can be distinguished by "glycotyping" analysis of the respective deposited PrP(Sc) compound. In this study, the long-term proteinase K resistance, the molecular mass, and the localization of PrP(Sc) deposits derived from conventional and transgenic mice inoculated with 11 different BSE and scrapie strains or isolates were examined. Differences were foun...

  16. Changes during fasting in the activity of a specific lysosomal proteinase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase converting enzyme.

    OpenAIRE

    Melloni, E.; Pontremoli, S.; Salamino, F.; Sparatore, B.; Michetti, M.; Horecker, B. L.

    1981-01-01

    Three lysosomal proteinases capable of catalyzing a limited modification of the gluconeogenic enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate 1-phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.11) have been purified from extracts of rabbit liver lysosomes. These have been designated "converting enzymes I, II, and III," respectively, based on the order of their elution from Ultrogel AcA34. The predominant form in lysosomes from livers of fed rabbits is converting enzyme III which has been identified...

  17. SDZ PRI 053, an orally bioavailable human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteinase inhibitor containing the 2-aminobenzylstatine moiety.

    OpenAIRE

    Billich, A.; Fricker, G.; Mu?ller, I.; Donatsch, P.; Ettmayer, P.; Gstach, H.; Lehr, P.; Peichl, P.; Scholz, D.; Rosenwirth, B.

    1995-01-01

    A series of inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proteinase containing the 2-aralkyl-amino-substituted statine moiety as a novel transition-state analog was synthesized, with the aim to obtain compounds which combine anti-HIV potency with oral bioavailability. The reduced-size 2-aminobenzylstatine derivative SDZ PRI 053, which contains 2-(S)-amino-3-(R)-hydroxyindane in place of an amino acid amide, is a potent and orally bioavailable inhibitor of HIV-1 replication. The a...

  18. Testisin, a new human serine proteinase expressed by premeiotic testicular germ cells and lost in testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, J D; Nicol, D L; Dickinson, J L; Eyre, H J; Scarman, A L; Normyle, J F; Stuttgen, M A; Douglas, M L; Loveland, K A; Sutherland, G R; Antalis, T M

    1999-07-01

    We have cloned and characterized a cDNA encoding a new human serine proteinase, testisin, that is abundantly expressed only in the testis and is lost in testicular tumors. The testisin cDNA was identified by homology cloning using degenerate primers directed at conserved sequence motifs within the catalytic regions of serine proteinases. It is 1073 nucleotides long, including 942 nucleotides of open reading frame and a 113-nucleotide 3' untranslated sequence. Northern and dot blot analyses of RNA from a range of normal human tissues revealed a 1.4-kb mRNA species that was present only in testis, which was not detected in eight of eight testicular tumors. Testisin cDNA is predicted to encode a protein of 314 amino acids, which consists of a 19-amino acid (aa) signal peptide, a 22-aa proregion, and a 273-aa catalytic domain, including a unique 17-aa COOH-terminal hydrophobic extension that is predicted to function as a membrane anchor. The deduced amino acid sequence of testisin shows 44% identity to prostasin and contains features that are typical of serine proteinases with trypsin-like substrate specificity. Antipeptide antibodies directed against the testisin polypeptide detected an immunoreactive testisin protein of Mr 35,000-39,000 in cell lysates from COS-7 cells that were transiently transfected with testisin cDNA. Immunostaining of normal testicular tissue showed that testisin was expressed in the cytoplasm and on the plasma membrane of premeiotic germ cells. No staining was detected in eight of eight germ cell-derived testicular tumors. In addition, the testisin gene was localized by fluorescence in situ hybridization to the short arm of human chromosome 16 (16p13.3), a region that has been associated with allellic imbalance and loss of heterozygosity in sporadic testicular tumors. These findings demonstrate a new cell surface serine proteinase, loss of which may have a direct or indirect role in the progression of testicular tumors of germ cell origin. PMID:10397266

  19. Global regulation of gene expression in response to cysteine availability in Clostridium perfringens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Gaelle

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cysteine has a crucial role in cellular physiology and its synthesis is tightly controlled due to its reactivity. However, little is known about the sulfur metabolism and its regulation in clostridia compared with other firmicutes. In Clostridium perfringens, the two-component system, VirR/VirS, controls the expression of the ubiG operon involved in methionine to cysteine conversion in addition to the expression of several toxin genes. The existence of links between the C. perfringens virulence regulon and sulfur metabolism prompted us to analyze this metabolism in more detail. Results We first performed a tentative reconstruction of sulfur metabolism in C. perfringens and correlated these data with the growth of strain 13 in the presence of various sulfur sources. Surprisingly, C. perfringens can convert cysteine to methionine by an atypical still uncharacterized pathway. We further compared the expression profiles of strain 13 after growth in the presence of cystine or homocysteine that corresponds to conditions of cysteine depletion. Among the 177 genes differentially expressed, we found genes involved in sulfur metabolism and controlled by premature termination of transcription via a cysteine specific T-box system (cysK-cysE, cysP1 and cysP2 or an S-box riboswitch (metK and metT. We also showed that the ubiG operon was submitted to a triple regulation by cysteine availability via a T-box system, by the VirR/VirS system via the VR-RNA and by the VirX regulatory RNA. In addition, we found that expression of pfoA (theta-toxin, nagL (one of the five genes encoding hyaluronidases and genes involved in the maintenance of cell redox status was differentially expressed in response to cysteine availability. Finally, we showed that the expression of genes involved in [Fe-S] clusters biogenesis and of the ldh gene encoding the lactate dehydrogenase was induced during cysteine limitation. Conclusion Several key functions for the cellular physiology of this anaerobic bacterium were controlled in response to cysteine availability. While most of the genes involved in sulfur metabolism are regulated by premature termination of transcription, other still uncharacterized mechanisms of regulation participated in the induction of gene expression during cysteine starvation.

  20. Cysteine dioxygenase and cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase genes of the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus septemdierum: possible involvement in hypotaurine synthesis and adaptation to hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaki, Toshihiro; Hongo, Yuki; Koito, Tomoko; Nakamura-Kusakabe, Ikumi; Shimamura, Shigeru; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Takao; Maruyama, Tadashi; Inoue, Koji

    2015-03-01

    It has been suggested that invertebrates inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vent areas use the sulfinic acid hypotaurine, a precursor of taurine, to protect against the toxicity of hydrogen sulfide contained in the seawater from the vent. In this protective system, hypotaurine is accumulated in the gill, the primary site of sulfide exposure. However, the pathway for hypotaurine synthesis in mollusks has not been identified. In this study, we screened for the mRNAs of enzymes involved in hypotaurine synthesis in the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus septemdierum and cloned cDNAs encoding cysteine dioxygenase and cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase. As mRNAs encoding cysteamine dioxygenase and cysteine lyase were not detected, the cysteine sulfinate pathway is suggested to be the major pathway of hypotaurine and taurine synthesis. The two genes were found to be expressed in all the tissues examined, but the gill exhibited the highest expression. The mRNA level in the gill was not significantly changed by exposure to sulfides or thiosulfate. These results suggests that the gill of B. septemdierum maintains high levels of expression of the two genes regardless of ambient sulfide level and accumulates hypotaurine continuously to protect against sudden exposure to high level of sulfide. PMID:25501502

  1. Preparation, Crystallization and X-ray Diffraction Analysis to 1.5 A Resolution of Rat Cysteine Dioxygenase, a Mononuclear Iron Enzyme Responsible for Cysteine Thiol Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons,C.; Hao, Q.; Stipanuk, M.

    2005-01-01

    Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO; EC 1.13.11.20) is an {approx}23 kDa non-heme iron metalloenzyme that is responsible for the oxidation of cysteine by O2, yielding cysteinesulfinate. CDO catalyzes the first step in the conversion of cysteine to taurine, as well as the first step in the catabolism of cysteine to pyruvate plus sulfate. Recombinant rat CDO was heterologously expressed, purified and crystallized. The protein was expressed as a fusion protein bearing a polyhistidine tag to facilitate purification, a thioredoxin tag to improve solubility and a factor Xa cleavage site to permit removal of the entire N-terminus, leaving only the 200 amino acids inherent to the native protein. A multi-step purification scheme was used to achieve >95% purity of CDO. The optimal CDO crystals diffracted to 1.5 Angstroms resolution and belonged to space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 57.55, c = 123.06 Angstrom, {alpha} = {beta} = {gamma} = 90. CDO shows little homology to any other proteins; therefore, the structure of the enzyme will be determined by ab initio phasing using a selenomethionyl derivative.

  2. Clitocypin, a fungal cysteine protease inhibitor, exerts its insecticidal effect on Colorado potato beetle larvae by inhibiting their digestive cysteine proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmid, Ida; Rotter, Ana; Gruden, Kristina; Brzin, Jože; Buh Gašpari?, Meti; Kos, Janko; Žel, Jana; Saboti?, Jerica

    2015-07-01

    Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, CPB) is a major potato pest that adapts readily to insecticides. Several types of protease inhibitors have previously been investigated as potential control agents, but with limited success. Recently, cysteine protease inhibitors from parasol mushroom, the macrocypins, were reported to inhibit growth of CPB larvae. To further investigate the insecticidal potential and mode of action of cysteine protease inhibitors of fungal origin, clitocypin, a cysteine protease inhibitor from clouded agaric (Clitocybe nebularis), was evaluated for its lethal effects on CPB larvae. Clitocypin isolated from fruiting bodies and recombinant clitocypin produced in Escherichia coli slowed growth and reduced survival of CPB larvae in a concentration dependent manner. Clitocypin was also expressed by transgenic potato, but only at low levels. Nevertheless, it reduced larval weight gain and delayed development. We have additionally shown that younger larvae are more susceptible to the action of clitocypin. The inhibition of digestive cysteine proteases, intestains, by clitocypin was shown to be the underlying mode of action. Protease inhibitors from mushrooms are confirmed as promising candidates for biopesticides. PMID:26071808

  3. Metabolism of cysteine and cysteinesulfinate in rat kidney tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In studies with rat hepatocytes, hypotaurine plus taurine production accounted for less than 5% of the total amount of cysteine (CYS) catabolized, whereas more than 90% of the metabolized cysteinesulfinate (CSA) was converted to taurine plus hypotaurine. Similar studies have been carried out with kidney tubules isolated from fed rats and incubated with 2 mM [1-14C]CYS or 25 mM [1-14C]CSA at 370C for up to 40 min. The production of 14CO2 from CSA (3.1 +/- 1.3 nmol/sup ./ min-1/sup ./ mg dry wt-1) was equivalent to the accumulation of N in NH4+ plus glutamate. Substantial oxidation of CYS was observed (16 +/- 11 nmol CO2 x min-1 x mg dry wt-1), but only 12% of the expected amount of N was recovered as NH4+ plus glutamate. Accumulation of hypotaurine plus taurine was equivalent to 20% of the observed rate of 14CO2 production from CSA but accounted for only 2% of the observed rate of 14CO2 production from CYS. Addition of unlabeled CSA to incubations with varying levels of CYS had no effect on production of 14CO2. Addition of 2 mM ?-ketoglutarate to the incubation mixtures resulted in an increased in 14CO2 production from CSA to 290% of the control level but had no effect on CYS oxidation. In agreement with the authors findings for rat hepatocytes, these data suggest that most metabolism of CYS by the rat kidney tubule occurs by a CSA-independent pathway. However, in contrast to the metabolism of CSA almost entirely to taurine in the hepatocyte, kidney tubules appeared to metabolize CSA primarily by the transamination pathway

  4. Utilização da fração semipurificada da proteinase do Trypanosoma cruzi no imunodiagnóstico da doença de Chagas The use of a semipurified fraction of Trypanosoma cruzi proteinase in immunodiagnosis of Chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajax Mercês Atta

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram sensibilizadas hemácias humanas 0 Rh negativo com a fração semipurificada (Fp da proteinase do Trypanosoma cruzi, e testadas quanto a antigenicidade com soros de pacientes portadores de tripanossomíase americana crônica e de outras doenças parasitárias não relacionadas. Reações de hemaglutinação positivas foram observadas com os soros de pacientes chagásicos e com alguns soros de indivíduos portadores de leishmaniose cutaneo-mucosa. Não foram observadas reações cruzadas com os soros de pacientes portadores de leishmaniose visceral, malária, toxoplasmose, sífilis, esquistossomose e mononucleose. Os resultados obtidos são favoráveis ao emprego desta fração antigênica em testes de imunodiagnóstico da tripanossomíase americana.Group 0 Rh negative human erytrocytes were coated with the semipurified fraction of T. cruzi proteinase and tested with sera both from patients with chagas' disease and from others with unrelated parasitic diseases. Positive haemagglutination reactions were only observed with the sera from the former and with that from two patients with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. No crossed reactions were observed with visceral leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis syphilis, schistosomiasis or mononucleosis sera. Results suggest that this purified fraction can be used in immunodiagnosis of American Trypanosomiasis.

  5. Expression, purification, and kinetic characterization of recombinant rat cysteine dioxygenase, a non-heme metalloenzyme necessary for regulation of cellular cysteine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Chad R; Hirschberger, Lawrence L; Machi, Mari S; Stipanuk, Martha H

    2006-05-01

    Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO, EC 1.13.11.20) is a non-heme mononuclear iron enzyme that oxidizes cysteine to cysteinesulfinate. CDO catalyzes the first step in the pathway of taurine synthesis from cysteine as well as the first step in the catabolism of cysteine to pyruvate and sulfate. Previous attempts to purify CDO have been associated with partial or total inactivation of CDO. In an effort to obtain highly purified and active CDO, recombinant rat CDO was heterologously expressed and purified, and its activity profile was characterized. The protein was expressed as a fusion protein bearing a polyhistidine tag to facilitate purification, a thioredoxin tag to improve solubility, and a factor Xa cleavage site to permit removal of the entire N-terminus, leaving only the 200 amino acids inherent to the native protein. A multi-step purification scheme was used to achieve >95% purity of CDO. The approximately 40.3 kDa full-length fusion protein was purified to homogeneity using a three-column scheme, the fusion tag was then removed by digestion with factor Xa, and a final column step was used to purify homogeneous approximately 23 kDa CDO. The purified CDO had high specific activity and kinetic parameters that were similar to those for non-purified rat liver homogenate, including a Vmax of approximately 1880 nmol min-1 mg-1 CDO (kcat=43 min-1) and a Km of 0.45 mM for L-cysteine. The expression and purification of CDO in a stable, highly active form has yielded significant insight into the kinetic properties of this unique thiol dioxygenase. PMID:16325423

  6. 2,2?-Dithiobis(5-nitropyridine) (DTNP) as an Effective and Gentle Deprotectant for Common Cysteine Protecting Groups†

    OpenAIRE

    Schroll, Alayne L.; Hondal, Robert J.; Flemer, Stevenson

    2011-01-01

    Of all the commercially-available amino acid derivatives for solid phase peptide synthesis, none has a greater abundance of sidechain protection diversity than cysteine. The high reactivity of the cysteine thiol necessitates its attenuation during peptide construction. Moreover, the propensity of cysteine residues within a peptide or protein sequence to form disulfide connectivity allows the opportunity for the peptide chemist to install these disulfides iteratively as a post-synthetic manipu...

  7. Isolation and characterization of a serine proteinase with thrombin-like activity from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.V, Pérez; A, Rucavado; L, Sanz; J.J, Calvete; J.M, Gutiérrez.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A serine proteinase with thrombin-like activity was isolated from the venom of the Central American pit viper Bothrops asper. Isolation was performed by a combination of affinity chromatography on aminobenzamidine-Sepharose and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose. The enzyme accounts for a [...] pproximately 0.13% of the venom dry weight and has a molecular mass of 32 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE, and of 27 kDa as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Its partial amino acid sequence shows high identity with snake venom serine proteinases and a complete identity with a cDNA clone previously sequenced from this species. The N-terminal sequence of the enzyme is VIGGDECNINEHRSLVVLFXSSGFL CAGTLVQDEWVLTAANCDSKNFQ. The enzyme induces clotting of plasma (minimum coagulant dose = 4.1 µg) and fibrinogen (minimum coagulant dose = 4.2 µg) in vitro, and promotes defibrin(ogen)ation in vivo (minimum defibrin(ogen)ating dose = 1.0 µg). In addition, when injected intravenously in mice at doses of 5 and 10 µg, it induces a series of behavioral changes, i.e., loss of the righting reflex, opisthotonus, and intermittent rotations over the long axis of the body, which closely resemble the `gyroxin-like' effect induced by other thrombin-like enzymes from snake venoms.

  8. Isolation and characterization of a serine proteinase with thrombin-like activity from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A serine proteinase with thrombin-like activity was isolated from the venom of the Central American pit viper Bothrops asper. Isolation was performed by a combination of affinity chromatography on aminobenzamidine-Sepharose and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose. The enzyme accounts for approximately 0.13% of the venom dry weight and has a molecular mass of 32 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE, and of 27 kDa as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Its partial amino acid sequence shows high identity with snake venom serine proteinases and a complete identity with a cDNA clone previously sequenced from this species. The N-terminal sequence of the enzyme is VIGGDECNINEHRSLVVLFXSSGFL CAGTLVQDEWVLTAANCDSKNFQ. The enzyme induces clotting of plasma (minimum coagulant dose = 4.1 µg and fibrinogen (minimum coagulant dose = 4.2 µg in vitro, and promotes defibrin(ogenation in vivo (minimum defibrin(ogenating dose = 1.0 µg. In addition, when injected intravenously in mice at doses of 5 and 10 µg, it induces a series of behavioral changes, i.e., loss of the righting reflex, opisthotonus, and intermittent rotations over the long axis of the body, which closely resemble the `gyroxin-like' effect induced by other thrombin-like enzymes from snake venoms.

  9. Endothelium-dependent relaxant effect of thrombocytin, a serine proteinase from Bothrops atrox snake venom, on isolated pig coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glusa, E; Brauns, H; Stocker, K

    1991-01-01

    Since thrombin causes an endothelium-dependent relaxation of precontracted pig coronary arteries, the ability of thrombocytin, a serine proteinase from the venom of the common lancehead, Bothrops atrox, to induce endothelium-dependent changes in the vascular tone was investigated. Relaxation of pig coronary rings did not appear in vessels denuded of the endothelium. Thrombocytin (0.1-2.0 micrograms/ml) caused an endothelium-dependent, reversible, transient relaxation of PGF2 alpha-precontracted arteries which could be blocked by heparin and relatively high concentrations of alpha-NAPAP, a synthetic competitive thrombin inhibitor. Indomethacin and hirudin did not influence the relaxant effect. Both the thrombocytin- and bradykinin-induced relaxation were diminished by the guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue and by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine. The thrombocytin-induced relaxation was absent in de-endothelialized vessels. Thrombocytin was able to induce aggregation of human blood platelets in Tyrode's solution at the same concentration range as used for the relaxation. Batroxobin neither relaxed precontracted arteries nor aggregated human blood platelets in vitro. The present studies show that the serine proteinase thrombocytin is not only able to aggregate platelets but may also release endothelium-derived relaxing factor from the vascular endothelium. PMID:1926173

  10. Assessing Proteinase K Resistance of Fish Prion Proteins in a Scrapie-Infected Mouse Neuroblastoma Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Salta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The key event in prion pathogenesis is the structural conversion of the normal cellular protein, PrPC, into an aberrant and partially proteinase K resistant isoform, PrPSc. Since the minimum requirement for a prion disease phenotype is the expression of endogenous PrP in the host, species carrying orthologue prion genes, such as fish, could in theory support prion pathogenesis. Our previous work has demonstrated the development of abnormal protein deposition in sea bream brain, following oral challenge of the fish with natural prion infectious material. In this study, we used a prion-infected mouse neuroblastoma cell line for the expression of three different mature fish PrP proteins and the evaluation of the resistance of the exogenously expressed proteins to proteinase K treatment (PK, as an indicator of a possible prion conversion. No evidence of resistance to PK was detected for any of the studied recombinant proteins. Although not indicative of an absolute inability of the fish PrPs to structurally convert to pathogenic isoforms, the absence of PK-resistance may be due to supramolecular and conformational differences between the mammalian and piscine PrPs.

  11. The effect of cysteine on the corrosion of 304L stainless steel in sulphuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of cysteine on the corrosion of 304L stainless steel in 1 mol l-1 H2SO4 was studied using open-circuit potential measurements, anodic polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the electrochemical measurements obtained in the presence of low cysteine concentration (10-6-10-5 mol l-1) presented the same behaviour as those obtained in the absence of cysteine, a passivated steel surface. However, for higher cysteine concentrations (10-4-10-2 mol l-1), a different behaviour was observed: the corrosion potential stabilized at a more negative value; an active region was observed in the anodic polarization curves and the electrochemical impedance diagrams showed an inductive loop at lower frequencies and a much lower polarization resistance. These results show that the presence of cysteine at high concentration turns the surface of 304L stainless steel electrochemically active, probably dissolving the passivation layer and promoting the stainless steel anodic dissolution. SEM experiments performed after immersion experiments at corrosion potential were in good agreement with the electrochemical results

  12. Spectroscopic characterization of cysteine and methionine using density functional theory method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganathappa, Mahadevappa; Chaudhari, Ajay

    2015-05-01

    The present study reports theoretical infrared and electronic absorption spectra of neutral cysteine and methionine molecules in gas phase, their ions and in water ice. We also report infrared and electronic absorption spectra of nitrogen-substituted (in place of sulfur atom) cysteine and methionine. The geometrical parameters, dipole moments, rotational and centrifugal distortional constants for these molecules are reported at B3LYP/6-311++g(d,p) level of theory. A large change in vibrational and electronic absorption spectra has been observed upon ionization of cysteine and methionine. Calculated vibrational frequencies are compared with the available experimental frequencies for the neutral cysteine and methionine in gas phase. An influence of water ice on vibrational frequencies of neutral cysteine and methionine is studied using integral equation formalism polarizable continuum model (IEFPCM) at the same level of theory. Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) approach has been adapted to calculate the electronic absorption spectra of these molecules. The intense lines are suggested in order to detect these molecules in space.

  13. Sulfate and taurine excretion in rats after L-cysteine administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida,Shigeko

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Excretion of sulfate and taurine, two major metabolites of sulfur, was examined in rats to study the nutritional status of sulfur metabolism in the mammals. Rats maintained on a conventional laboratory diet excreted 1.83 +/- 0.14 mmol of free sulfate and 229.0 +/- 75.3 mumol of taurine/kg of body weight per day. When the diet was changed to a synthetic 25% casein diet, the taurine excretion decreased to 15% of the previous daily excretion, but sulfate excretion decreased only slightly. These decreased levels returned to the original levels when 5 mmol of L-cysteine/kg of body weight was administered into the stomach through a catheter. One week after the first L-cysteine administration, when sulfate and taurine excretion had returned to the original levels, 5 mmol of L-cysteine/kg of body weight was administered likewise. The rats excreted sulfur corresponding to about 95% of L-cysteine administered in the form of free sulfate and taurine within a few days following L-cysteine administration, and sulfate excretion was 3.5 times more than taurine excretion. These results seem to suggest that, in rats, sulfur metabolism is in a state of equilibrium and that sulfate is formed preferentially to taurine.

  14. Mechanism of Thiosulfate Oxidation in the SoxA Family of Cysteine-ligated Cytochromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabarczyk, Daniel B; Chappell, Paul E; Eisel, Bianca; Johnson, Steven; Lea, Susan M; Berks, Ben C

    2015-04-01

    Thiosulfate dehydrogenase (TsdA) catalyzes the oxidation of two thiosulfate molecules to form tetrathionate and is predicted to use an unusual cysteine-ligated heme as the catalytic cofactor. We have determined the structure of Allochromatium vinosum TsdA to a resolution of 1.3 Å. This structure confirms the active site heme ligation, identifies a thiosulfate binding site within the active site cavity, and reveals an electron transfer route from the catalytic heme, through a second heme group to the external electron acceptor. We provide multiple lines of evidence that the catalytic reaction proceeds through the intermediate formation of a S-thiosulfonate derivative of the heme cysteine ligand: the cysteine is reactive and is accessible to electrophilic attack; cysteine S-thiosulfonate is formed by the addition of thiosulfate or following the reverse reaction with tetrathionate; the S-thiosulfonate modification is removed through catalysis; and alkylating the cysteine blocks activity. Active site amino acid residues required for catalysis were identified by mutagenesis and are inferred to also play a role in stabilizing the S-thiosulfonate intermediate. The enzyme SoxAX, which catalyzes the first step in the bacterial Sox thiosulfate oxidation pathway, is homologous to TsdA and can be inferred to use a related catalytic mechanism. PMID:25673696

  15. Effect of cysteine on the inactivation of cystathionine gamma-lyase by D,L-propargylglycine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awata,Shiro

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available In vivo inactivation of cystathionine gamma-lyase by D,L-propargylglycine, a suicide inhibitor, was found to be less profound in rat kidney than in the liver. We investigated the cause of this difference using rat tissues. We fractionated kidney extract to characterize the substance which protected enzyme, and found that cysteine exhibits protecting action. Addition of 0.3 mM L-cysteine to the incubation mixture containing dialyzed kidney supernatant and 0.5 mM D,L-propargylglycine resulted in the protection of cystathionine gamma-lyase from the inactivation by the inhibitor. The content of cysteine in the kidney was six-fold higher than that in the liver. Thus, we have concluded that one of the reasons why the in vivo inactivation of cystathionine gamma-lyase in rat kidney was less than that in the liver is the presence of a higher concentration of cysteine in the kidney. S-Carboxymethylcysteine, a cysteine derivative, exhibited a similar, but weaker, protective effect.

  16. The formation and biotransformation of cysteine conjugates of halogenated ethylenes by rabbit renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassall, C D; Gandolfi, A J; Duhamel, R C; Brendel, K

    1984-05-01

    The nephrotoxicity of chlorotrifluoroethylene ( CTFE ) was examined using isolated rabbit renal tubules suspensions. Exposure of the tubules to CTFE resulted in consumption of CTFE , formation of a glutathione conjugate and inhibition of active organic acid transport. Synthetic cysteine, N-acetylcysteine or glutathione conjugates of CTFE inhibited transport indicating S-conjugation as a possible toxic pathway. 1,2-dichlorovinyl glutathione ( DCVG ), a model synthetic glutathione conjugate, was used to examine the degradation and toxicity of these conjugates. DCVG inhibited rabbit renal tubule transport in vivo and in vitro. The DCVG was found to be degraded with the evolution of glutamine and glycine to produce the ultimate nephro-toxicant, dichlorovinyl cysteine. Dichlorovinyl cysteine is then bioactivated with the release of ammonia. This sequential degradation explains the latency of DCVG -induced renal transport inhibition relative to dichlorovinyl cysteine. It is now evident that certain halogenated ethylenes are capable of being biotransformed to glutathione conjugates in the kidney with their subsequent hydrolysis to nephrotoxic cysteine conjugates. PMID:6547077

  17. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine proteases: heterologous expression, purification and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    During germination of barley seeds, mobilization of protein is essential and cysteine proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme and is activated through reduction of the active site cysteines and by removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. A cDNA clone of the barley key cysteine endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was ligated into the Pichia pastoris expression vector pPICZ A? and electrotransformed into Pichia pastoris strain KM71H. Heterologous protein production was induced with 2% MeOH and maximum yield were obtained after 4 days where the supernatant was harvested. Purification of HvEPB2 from the supernatant were performed by Ni2+-affininty chromatography. The purified fractions were analyzed via SDS-PAGE, western blotting for confirming the presence of HvEPB2 and via activity assaying. Incubation of purified HvEPB2 with Osborne fractionated barley seed storage proteins for 12 hrs revealed after SDS-PAGE a significant degradation of the storage proteins.

  18. Selective involvement of proteasomes and cysteine proteases in MHC class I antigen presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, D; Del Val, M

    1997-12-15

    CTL recognize peptides derived from protein Ags bound to MHC-class I molecules. Proteasomes probably participate in the generation of these peptide epitopes. We investigated the role of proteasomes in the presentation of endogenously synthesized short viral proteins. To this end, we employed proteasome and cysteine protease inhibitors and two closely related recombinant vaccinia viruses that code for 17- and 19-amino acid-long products encompassing murine CMV 9pp89 epitope. Presentation of both minigene products required processing to shorter peptides and was independent of ubiquitination. Proteasomes were necessary for processing the 17-mer product, and cysteine proteases were not required. In contrast, the 19-mer product could be processed in parallel either by proteasomes or by cysteine proteases independently. These results highlight the diversity of alternative processing pathways even for short peptidic Ags, provide evidence for the involvement of cysteine proteases in MHC class I presentation, and show that cleavage by cysteine proteases is governed by sequences flanking the epitope. PMID:9550370

  19. Acetaminophen-cysteine adducts during therapeutic dosing and following overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judge Bryan S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetaminophen-cysteine adducts (APAP-CYS are a specific biomarker of acetaminophen exposure. APAP-CYS concentrations have been described in the setting of acute overdose, and a concentration >1.1 nmol/ml has been suggested as a marker of hepatic injury from acetaminophen overdose in patients with an ALT >1000 IU/L. However, the concentrations of APAP-CYS during therapeutic dosing, in cases of acetaminophen toxicity from repeated dosing and in cases of hepatic injury from non-acetaminophen hepatotoxins have not been well characterized. The objective of this study is to describe APAP-CYS concentrations in these clinical settings as well as to further characterize the concentrations observed following acetaminophen overdose. Methods Samples were collected during three clinical trials in which subjects received 4 g/day of acetaminophen and during an observational study of acetaminophen overdose patients. Trial 1 consisted of non-drinkers who received APAP for 10 days, Trial 2 consisted of moderate drinkers dosed for 10 days and Trial 3 included subjects who chronically abuse alcohol dosed for 5 days. Patients in the observational study were categorized by type of acetaminophen exposure (single or repeated. Serum APAP-CYS was measured using high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Results Trial 1 included 144 samples from 24 subjects; Trial 2 included 182 samples from 91 subjects and Trial 3 included 200 samples from 40 subjects. In addition, we collected samples from 19 subjects with acute acetaminophen ingestion, 7 subjects with repeated acetaminophen exposure and 4 subjects who ingested another hepatotoxin. The mean (SD peak APAP-CYS concentrations for the Trials were: Trial 1- 0.4 (0.20 nmol/ml, Trial 2- 0.1 (0.09 nmol/ml and Trial 3- 0.3 (0.12 nmol/ml. APAP-CYS concentrations varied substantially among the patients with acetaminophen toxicity (0.10 to 27.3 nmol/ml. No subject had detectable APAP-CYS following exposure to a non-acetaminophen hepatotoxin. Conclusions Lower concentrations of APAP-CYS are detectable after exposure to therapeutic doses of acetaminophen and higher concentrations are detected after acute acetaminophen overdose and in patients with acetaminophen toxicity following repeated exposure.

  20. Allosteric modulation of proteinase 3 activity by anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkofer, Lisa C; Hummel, Amber M; Stone, John H; Hoffman, Gary S; Merkel, Peter A; Spiera, E Robert F; St Clair, William; McCune, Joseph W; Davis, John C; Specks, Ulrich; Jenne, Dieter E

    2015-05-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) with proteinase 3 (PR3) specificity are a useful laboratory biomarker for the diagnosis of Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA) and are believed to be implicated in the pathogenesis. It has been repeatedly suggested that disease activity of GPA is more closely related to the appearance and rise of PR3-inhibiting ANCA than to an increase of total ANCA. Previous studies on a limited number of patient samples, however, have yielded inconclusive results. To overcome the previous methodological limitations, we established a new ultrasensitive method to quantify the inhibitory capacity of PR3-ANCA using small volumes of plasma from patients with GPA. A large collection of longitudinally-collected samples from the Wegener Granulomatosis Etanercept Trial (WGET) became available to us to determine the functional effects of ANCA on PR3 in comparison to clinical disease manifestations. In these patient samples we not only detected PR3-ANCA with inhibitory capacity, but also PR3-ANCA with enhancing effects on PR3 activity. However no correlation of these activity-modulating PR3-ANCA with disease activity at either the time of enrollment or over the course of disease was found. Only patients with pulmonary involvement, especially patients with nodule formation in the respiratory tract, showed a slight, but not significant, decrease of inhibitory capacity. Epitope mapping of the activity-modulating PR3-ANCA revealed a binding on the active site surface of PR3. Yet these ANCA were able to bind to PR3 with an occupied active site cleft, indicating an allosteric mechanism of inhibition. The recently described signal ratio between the MCPR3-3 and MCPR3-2 capture ELISA was consistent with the binding of activity-modulating ANCA to the active site surface. Evidence for a shared epitope between activity-modulating PR3-ANCA and MCPR3-7, however, was very limited, suggesting that a majority of PR3-ANCA species do not inhibit PR3 by the same mechanism as previously reported for MCPR3-7. PMID:25744251

  1. RALFs: peptide regulators of plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, Patricia A; Pearce, Gregory; Covey, Paul A

    2010-11-01

    Peptide signaling regulates a variety of developmental processes and environmental responses in plants. For example, the peptide systemin induces the systemic defense response in tomato and defensins are small cysteine-rich proteins that are involved in the innate immune system of plants. The CLAVATA3 peptide regulates meristem size and the SCR peptide is the pollen self-incompatibility recognition factor in the Brassicaceae. LURE peptides produced by synergid cells attract pollen tubes to the embryo sac. RALFs are a recently discovered family of plant peptides that play a role in plant cell growth. PMID:21045555

  2. Regulation of Defense-related Gene Expression during Plant-Pathogen Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, C. L.; Weissenborn, D.; Cottingham, C. K.; Denbow, C. J.; Eisenback, J. D.; Radin, D. N.; Yu, X.

    1993-01-01

    Plants have evolved a broad array of defense mechanisms involved in disease resistance. These include synthesis of phytoalexin antibiotics and proteinase inhibitors, deposition of cell wall materials, and accumulation of hydrolytic enzymes such as chitinases. Resistance appears to depend on the ability of the host to recognize the pathogen rapidly and induce these defense responses in order to limit pathogen spread. Application of molecular technologies has yielded significant new information...

  3. Comparative study of action of cell wall proteinases from various strains of Streptococcus cremoris on bovine ?/sub s1-/, ?-, and kappa-casein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments are described in which partially purified cell wall proteinases of eight strains of S. cremoris, including strain HP, were compared in their action on ?/sub s1-/, ?-, and kappa-casein, as visualized by starch gel electrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and TLC, and also in their action on methyl-14C-labeled ?-casein

  4. A Conserved Domain in the Leader Proteinase of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus is Required for Proper Subcellular Localization and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leader proteinase (Lpro) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is involved in antagonizing the innate immune response by blocking the expression of interferon (IFN) protein and by reducing the immediate-early induction of IFNß mRNA and IFN stimulated genes. Recently we have shown that expressio...

  5. The preparation of suitable methods for study of the secretion pathway of proteinase Sapp1p of the pathogenic yeast Candida parapsilosis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinterová, Zuzana; Dostál, Ji?í; Flegelová, Hana; Pichová, Iva; Sychrová, Hana; Hrušková, Olga

    Praha, 2006. s. 52-52. [Small Meeting on Yeast Transport and Energetics /24./. 31.08.2006-03.09.2006, Prague] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Keywords : proteinase * secretion * Candida parapsilosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  6. Usefulness of scintigraphy with 99mTc-L-cysteine for the detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the usefulness of scintigraphic studies with 99mTc-L-cysteine in the detection of breast cancer, 100 female patients were studied by ultrasound, mammography and scintigraphy. The scintigraphic images were acquired at 15 minutes and one hour after injection of the radiopharmaceutical. Histopathologic results were the confirmation test: 64 patients were completed as having breast carcinoma and 36 benign lesions. The scintigraphic studies obtained value of sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of: 98.4%, 94.4% and 97% respectively. The positive predictive value was 96.9% and the negative predictive value was 97.1%. There was infiltration of axillary lymph nodes in 20 of the patients studied, 70% were detected by 99mTc-L-cysteine. Conclusion: 99mTc-L-cysteine was useful for the detection of breast cancer

  7. Influence of cysteine and selenodicysteine on the uptake of zinc by Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of zinc labelled with radioactive 65Zn in the presence of cysteine and selenodicysteine by Chlorella vulgaris was examined. The concentration of zinc ions in the medium was 20 mg per 1. The uptake yield was found to be enhanced by selenodicysteine. At concentration of 10-7-10-6 M the growth rate of Chlorella vulgaris was accelerated by the latter, provided that the specific activity of 65Zn was 3.7 MBq/1. At this specific zinc activity cysteine increased the uptake yield during the initial 50 h of the incubation process. At specific 65Zn-activity of 55.5 MBq/1 selenodicysteine and cysteine only slightly influenced the zinc uptake by Chlorella vulgaris. No increment in the biomass was observed at this specific zinc radioactivity. (author)

  8. Adsorption Dynamics and Self-Assembled L-cysteine on Au(100)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrekt, Christian; Nazmutdinov, Renat R.

    As the only amino acid with a functional thiol group, L - cysteine offers a strong perspective both for binding to gold and other metals, and for gentle immobilization of biomolecules. Binding to single - crystal, atomically planar surfaces offers the additional perspective that bound L - cysteine can be structurally mapped at the single - molecule level . In this work, we have followed the adsorption of L - cysteine on single - crystal Au(100) by measuring the electrode potential dynamics during the adsorption process. In situ STM revealed the structure of the self - assembled ordered layers. The molecular assemblies were studied through simulated STM image contrast based on density functional theory (DFT) including solvation effects. The adsorption kinetics showed clearly a complex pattern with at least one intermediate state. The modelling disclosed details of the interaction of all functional groups with the Au(100) - substrate.

  9. Structure of nodules induced by auxotrophic and ineffective mutants of Rhizobium meliloti strain L5-30 requiring cysteine, arginine+uracil and histidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma?ek, W; Kowalski, M

    1977-01-01

    Nodules produced by ineffective mutants of R. meliloti strain L5-30 requiring arginine+uracil (arg-55) and cysteine requiring mutants (cys-243, cys-244, cys-246) studied under light microscopy were found to be occupied by bacteria. This indicates on defect in transformation of these mutants into N2 fixing bacteroids. These defects were not associated with auxotrophy. In the nodules induced by histidine requiring mutant (his-240) only few host plant cells were occupied by bacteria. This indicate that his-240 mutant is defective in liberation from the infection thread and its multiplication since supplementation of the plant growth medium with 50 microgram/ml of L-histidine enabled establishment of fully effective association. Prototrophic transductants and revertants were fully effective. PMID:75663

  10. Cysteine accessibility during As3+ metalation of the ?- and ?-domains of recombinant human MT1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Gordon W; Summers, Kelly L; Stillman, Martin J

    2013-04-19

    Metallothionein is a ubiquitous metal binding protein that plays an important role in metal ion homeostasis and redox chemistry within cells. Mammalian metallothioneins bind a wide variety of metals including the metalloid As3+ in two domains (? and ?) connected by a short linker sequence. Three As3+ bind in each domain for a total of 6 As3+ per protein. In recombinant human metallothionein (rh-MT1a) each As3+ binds three cysteine residues to form As3Cys9(CysSH)2-?-rhMT1a in the 11 Cys ?-domain and As3Cys9-?-rhMT1a in the 9 Cys ?-domain. This means that there should be 2 free cysteines in the ?-domain but no free cysteines in the ?-domain. By using benzoquinone, the number and relative accessibility of the free cysteinyl thiols during the metalation reactions were determined. The electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) data confirmed that each As3+ binds using exactly 3 cysteine thiols and showed that there was a significant difference in the reactivity of the free cysteines during the metalation reaction. After a reaction with two molar equivalents of As3+ to form As2Cys6(CysSH)3-??-rhMT1a, the remaining 3 Cys in the 9 Cys ?-domain were far less reactive than those in the ?-domain. Molecular dynamics calculations for the metalation reactions with As3+ measured by ESI-MS allowed an interpretation of the mass spectral data in terms of the relative location of the cysteine thiols that were not involved in As3+ coordination. Together, these data provide insight into the selection of a specific cysteinyl thiol by the incoming metals during the stepwise metalation of metallothioneins. PMID:23523794

  11. Sample Multiplexing with Cysteine-Selective Approaches: cysDML and cPILOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liqing; Evans, Adam R.; Robinson, Renã A. S.

    2015-04-01

    Cysteine-selective proteomics approaches simplify complex protein mixtures and improve the chance of detecting low abundant proteins. It is possible that cysteinyl-peptide/protein enrichment methods could be coupled to isotopic labeling and isobaric tagging methods for quantitative proteomics analyses in as few as two or up to 10 samples, respectively. Here we present two novel cysteine-selective proteomics approaches: cysteine-selective dimethyl labeling (cysDML) and cysteine-selective combined precursor isotopic labeling and isobaric tagging (cPILOT). CysDML is a duplex precursor quantification technique that couples cysteinyl-peptide enrichment with on-resin stable-isotope dimethyl labeling. Cysteine-selective cPILOT is a novel 12-plex workflow based on cysteinyl-peptide enrichment, on-resin stable-isotope dimethyl labeling, and iodoTMT tagging on cysteine residues. To demonstrate the broad applicability of the approaches, we applied cysDML and cPILOT methods to liver tissues from an Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model and wild-type (WT) controls. From the cysDML experiments, an average of 850 proteins were identified and 594 were quantified, whereas from the cPILOT experiment, 330 and 151 proteins were identified and quantified, respectively. Overall, 2259 unique total proteins were detected from both cysDML and cPILOT experiments. There is tremendous overlap in the proteins identified and quantified between both experiments, and many proteins have AD/WT fold-change values that are within ~20% error. A total of 65 statistically significant proteins are differentially expressed in the liver proteome of AD mice relative to WT. The performance of cysDML and cPILOT are demonstrated and advantages and limitations of using multiple duplex experiments versus a single 12-plex experiment are highlighted.

  12. Cysteine-associated distribution of aromatic residues in disulfide-stabilized extracellular protein families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tina Guraya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine-dependent protein sequences were downloaded from annotated database resources to generate comprehensive EGF, Sushi, Laminin and Immu- noglobulin (IgC motif-specific sequence files. Each dataset was vertically registered and the cumulative distribution of amino acid functional group chemistry determined relative to the respective complement of cysteine residues providing critical disulfide stabilization of these four well-known modular motif families. The cysteine-aligned amino acid distribution data revealed limited ionic, polar, hydrophobic or other side chain preferences, unique to each protein scaffold. In contrast, all four cysteine-dependent protein families exhibited strong positional preference for the aromatic residues phenylalanine (Phe and tyrosine (Tyr, relative to analogous cysteine landmarks. More than eighty percent of the members in each protein family were found to possesses the same conserved -Cys- (Xxx3-4-(Phe/Tyr- arrangement, placing an aromatic amino acid at analogous EGF-C5+4, Sushi-C2+4, Laminin-C7+4 and IgC-C1+5. Over seventy percent of EGF, Sushi and IgC sequences exhibited a second obvious Cys-associated aromatic site -(Phe/Tyr-Xxx- Cysat EGF-C4-2, Sushi-C2-2 and IgC-C2-2. The cysteine-associated placement of aromatic amino acid chemistry in four major disulfide-dependent protein families likely represents conservation of a molecular determinant of global importance in the structure- function of this large and diverse subset of extracellular proteins.

  13. Sample multiplexing with cysteine-selective approaches: cysDML and cPILOT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liqing; Evans, Adam R; Robinson, Renã A S

    2015-04-01

    Cysteine-selective proteomics approaches simplify complex protein mixtures and improve the chance of detecting low abundant proteins. It is possible that cysteinyl-peptide/protein enrichment methods could be coupled to isotopic labeling and isobaric tagging methods for quantitative proteomics analyses in as few as two or up to 10 samples, respectively. Here we present two novel cysteine-selective proteomics approaches: cysteine-selective dimethyl labeling (cysDML) and cysteine-selective combined precursor isotopic labeling and isobaric tagging (cPILOT). CysDML is a duplex precursor quantification technique that couples cysteinyl-peptide enrichment with on-resin stable-isotope dimethyl labeling. Cysteine-selective cPILOT is a novel 12-plex workflow based on cysteinyl-peptide enrichment, on-resin stable-isotope dimethyl labeling, and iodoTMT tagging on cysteine residues. To demonstrate the broad applicability of the approaches, we applied cysDML and cPILOT methods to liver tissues from an Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model and wild-type (WT) controls. From the cysDML experiments, an average of 850 proteins were identified and 594 were quantified, whereas from the cPILOT experiment, 330 and 151 proteins were identified and quantified, respectively. Overall, 2259 unique total proteins were detected from both cysDML and cPILOT experiments. There is tremendous overlap in the proteins identified and quantified between both experiments, and many proteins have AD/WT fold-change values that are within ~20% error. A total of 65 statistically significant proteins are differentially expressed in the liver proteome of AD mice relative to WT. The performance of cysDML and cPILOT are demonstrated and advantages and limitations of using multiple duplex experiments versus a single 12-plex experiment are highlighted. PMID:25588721

  14. Proteomic profiling of L-cysteine induced selenite resistance in Enterobacter sp. YSU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konda Venkataramana

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterobacter sp. YSU is resistant to several different heavy metal salts, including selenite. A previous study using M-9 minimal medium showed that when the selenite concentration was 100,000 times higher than the sulfate concentration, selenite entered Escherichia coli cells using two pathways: a specific and a non-specific pathway. In the specific pathway, selenite entered the cells through a yet to be characterized channel dedicated for selenite. In the non-specific pathway, selenite entered the cells through a sulfate permease channel. Addition of L-cystine, an L-cysteine dimer, appeared to indirectly decrease selenite import into the cell through the non-specific pathway. However, it did not affect the level of selenite transport into the cell through the specific pathway. Results Growth curves using M-9 minimal medium containing 40 mM selenite and 1 mM sulfate showed that Enterobacter sp. YSU grew when L-cysteine was present but died when it was absent. Differential protein expression analysis by two dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that CysK was present in cultures containing selenite and lacking L-cysteine but absent in cultures containing both selenite and L-cysteine. Additional RT-PCR studies demonstrated that transcripts for the sulfate permease genes, cysA, cysT and cysW, were down-regulated in the presence of L-cysteine. Conclusion L-cysteine appeared to confer selenite resistance upon Enterobacter sp. YSU by decreasing the level of selenite transport into the cell through the non-specific pathway.

  15. Diabetes-induced alterations in tissue collagen and carboxymethyllysine in rat kidneys: Association with increased collagen-degrading proteinases and amelioration by Cu(II)-selective chelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brings, Sebastian; Zhang, Shaoping; Choong, Yee S; Hogl, Sebastian; Middleditch, Martin; Kamalov, Meder; Brimble, Margaret A; Gong, Deming; Cooper, Garth J S

    2015-08-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) comprise a group of non-enzymatic post-translational modifications of proteins and are elevated in diabetic tissues. AGE-modification impairs the digestibility of collagen in vitro but little is known about its relation to collagen-degrading proteinases in vivo. N(?)-carboxymethyllysine (CML) is a stable AGE that forms on lysyl side-chains in the presence of glucose, probably via a transition metal-catalysed mechanism. Here, rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and non-diabetic controls were treated for 8weeks with placebo or the Cu(II)-selective chelator, triethylenetetramine (TETA), commencing 8weeks after disease induction. Actions of diabetes and drug treatment were measured on collagen and collagen-degrading proteinases in kidney tissue. The digestibility and CML content of collagen, and corresponding levels of mRNAs and collagen, were related to changes in collagen-degrading-proteinases. Collagen-degrading proteinases, cathepsin L (CTSL) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were increased in diabetic rats. CTSL-levels correlated strongly and positively with increased collagen-CML levels and inversely with decreased collagen digestibility in diabetes. The collagen-rich mesangium displayed a strong increase of CTSL in diabetes. TETA treatment normalised kidney collagen content and partially normalised levels of CML and CTSL. These data provide evidence for an adaptive proteinase response in diabetic kidneys, affected by excessive collagen-CML formation and decreased collagen digestibility. The normalisation of collagen and partial normalisation of CML- and CTSL-levels by TETA treatment supports the involvement of Cu(II) in CML formation and altered collagen metabolism in diabetic kidneys. Cu(II)-chelation by TETA may represent a treatment option to rectify collagen metabolism in diabetes independent of alterations in blood glucose levels. PMID:25900786

  16. Control of proteinase expression by phorbol-ester- and Fos-dependent pathways in human non-small-cell lung-cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuermann, M; Jäger, R; Salge, U; Risse-Hackl, G; Havemann, K; Heidtmann, H H

    1997-04-10

    Activation of protein kinase C- (PKC) and Fos/Jun-dependent signal transduction pathways are thought to be major effects of oncogene action in different tumor systems including human non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We have previously shown that the phorbol ester analogue phorbol-myristate-acetate (PMA), which is a potent activator of PKC, can induce squamous-type cellular differentiation and the expression of proteinases, such as plasminogen activators and pro-cathepsin L, in several NSCLC cell lines. To investigate the PMA-dependent effect on proteinase secretion in more detail, we have now analysed the role of a downstream transmitter of PKC activity in this process, namely Fos, which is part of the AP-1 transcription factor in the nucleus. We transfected a cell line derived from an undifferentiated squamous-cell lung carcinoma with different chimeric fos-estrogen receptor constructs (fos-ER) which makes selective activation of this transcription factor possible. The resulting clones were treated either with PMA as activator of PKC, or with diethylstilbestrol (DES), an estrogen analogue binding to and thereby activating preformed Fos-ER molecules. We show that cells treated with either substance undergo similar phenotypic changes (change from cuboidal to spindle-cell type) and decrease their doubling rates and cloning efficiencies. This is paralleled by the induction of several proteinase genes such as t-PA, urokinase, and pro-cathepsins B and L. Contrary to activated PKC, Fos in this system seems to be unable to initiate terminal squamous-cell differentiation, as assessed by the production of cornified envelopes. It is, however, efficient in the stimulation of neutral or lysosomal proteinase secretion as determined by Western-blot analysis and zymography. This Fos-ER expressing system thus seems to be a valuable tool in the molecular dissection of pathways that lead to the activation and secretion of proteinases in NSCLC cells. PMID:9139854

  17. Proteolytic activity of gut bacteria isolated from the velvet bean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilon, F M; Visôtto, L E; Guedes, R N C; Oliveira, M G A

    2013-08-01

    The development of proteinase inhibitors as potential insect control agents has been constrained by insect adaptation to these compounds. The velvet bean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis) is a key soybean pest species that is well-adapted to proteinase inhibitors, particularly serine-proteinase inhibitors, which are abundant in the caterpillar host. The expression of diverse proteolytic enzymes by gut symbionts may allow the velvet bean caterpillar to circumvent proteinase inhibitors produced by the host plant. In this study, we characterized the proteolytic activity of the four nonpathogenic species of gut bacteria isolated from the velvet bean caterpillar-Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus mundtii and Staphylococcus xylosus. Two proteinase substrates, N-?-benzoyl-L-Arg-p-nitroanilide (L-BApNA) and N-?-p-tosyl-L-Arg methyl ester (L-TAME) and five proteinase inhibitors [aprotinin, E-64, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), pepstatin and N-?-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK)] as well as CaCl2, pH and temperature profiles were used to characterize the expressed proteolytic activity of these bacterial strains in vitro. Kinetic parameters for proteolytic activity were also estimated. The results of these experiments indicated that serine- and cysteine-proteinase activities were expressed by all four gut bacteria symbionts of the velvet bean caterpillar. The cysteine- and serine-proteinase activities of these gut symbionts were distinct and different from that of gut proteinases of the caterpillar itself. This finding provides support for the potential involvement of gut symbionts in the mitigation of the negative effects of serine-proteinase inhibitors in the velvet bean caterpillar. PMID:23392900

  18. Extracellular HIV Tat and Tat cysteine rich peptide increase CCR5 expression in monocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Lin; Yang, Yi-da; Lu, Guo-Cai; Maria S. Salvato

    2005-01-01

    In our previous work we reported that HIV Tat and 6 cysteine rich peptides of Tat induce tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-induced ligand (TRAIL) in human monocytes (Yang et al., 2003). Here our results showed that HIV Tat and Tat cysteine rich peptide increase CCR5 expression in human monocytes, and this activity is inhibited by rabbit anti-Tat. Boiled Tat does not increase CCR5 expression in monocytes. These results provide insight into a new mechanism by which HIV Tat plays a key rol...

  19. Potentiation by L-cysteine of the bactericidal effect of hydrogen peroxide in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Berglin, E. H.; Edlund, M. B.; Nyberg, G. K.; Carlsson, J.

    1982-01-01

    Under anaerobic conditions an exponentially growing culture of Escherichia coli K-12 was exposed to hydrogen peroxide in the presence of various compounds. Hydrogen peroxide (0.1 mM) together with 0.1 mM L-cysteine or L-cystine killed the organisms more rapidly than 10 mM hydrogen peroxide alone. The exposure of E. coli to hydrogen peroxide in the presence of L-cysteine inhibited some of the catalase. This inhibition, however, could not fully explain the 100-fold increase in hydrogen peroxide...

  20. Do cysteine residues regulate transient receptor potential canonical type 6 (TRPC6) channel protein expression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Liu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of calcium influx through transient receptor potential canonical type 6 channel is mandatory for the activity of human monocytes. We submit the first evidence that cysteine residues of homocysteine or acetylcysteine affect TRPC6 expression in human monocytes. We observed that patients with chronic renal failure had significantly elevated homocysteine levels and TRPC6 mRNA expression levels in monocytes compared to control subjects. We further observed that administration of homocysteine or acetylcysteine significantly increased TRPC6 channel protein expression compared to control conditions. We therefore hypothesize that cysteine residues increase TRPC6 channel protein expression in humans.

  1. A fragment-based method to discover irreversible covalent inhibitors of cysteine proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathman, Stefan G; Xu, Ziyang; Statsyuk, Alexander V

    2014-06-12

    A novel fragment-based drug discovery approach is reported which irreversibly tethers drug-like fragments to catalytic cysteines. We attached an electrophile to 100 fragments without significant alterations in the reactivity of the electrophile. A mass spectrometry assay discovered three nonpeptidic inhibitors of the cysteine protease papain. The identified compounds display the characteristics of irreversible inhibitors. The irreversible tethering system also displays specificity: the three identified papain inhibitors did not covalently react with UbcH7, USP08, or GST-tagged human rhinovirus 3C protease. PMID:24870364

  2. DiGeorge Critical Region 8 (DGCR8) Is a Double-cysteine-ligated Heme Protein*

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, Ian; Smith, Aaron T.; Senturia, Rachel; Chen, Yanqiu; Scheidemantle, Brooke D.; Burstyn, Judith N.; Guo, Feng

    2011-01-01

    All known heme-thiolate proteins ligate the heme iron using one cysteine side chain. We previously found that DiGeorge Critical Region 8 (DGCR8), an essential microRNA processing factor, associates with heme of unknown redox state when overexpressed in Escherichia coli. On the basis of the similarity of the 450-nm Soret absorption peak of the DGCR8-heme complex to that of cytochrome P450 containing ferrous heme with CO bound, we identified cysteine 352 as a probable axial ligand in DGCR8. Her...

  3. Do cysteine residues regulate transient receptor potential canonical type 6 channel protein expression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilo, Florian; Liu, Ying; Krueger, Katharina; Förste, Nora; Wittstock, Antje; Scholze, Alexandra; Tepel, Martin

    2012-03-01

    The regulation of calcium influx through transient receptor potential canonical type 6 (TRPC6) channel is mandatory for the activity of human monocytes. We submit the first evidence that cysteine residues of homocysteine (HC) or acetylcysteine (ACC) affect TRPC6 expression in human monocytes. We observed that patients with chronic renal failure had significantly elevated HC levels and TRPC6 mRNA expression levels in monocytes compared with control subjects. We further observed that administration of HC or ACC significantly increased TRPC6 channel protein expression compared with control conditions. We, therefore, hypothesize that cysteine residues increase TRPC6 channel protein expression in humans. PMID:22004559

  4. 'Click' glycosylation of peptides through cysteine propargylation and CuAAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamandé-Langle, Sandrine; Collet, Charlotte; Hensienne, Raphaël; Vala, Christine; Chrétien, Françoise; Chapleur, Yves; Mohamadi, Amel; Lacolley, Patrick; Regnault, Véronique

    2014-12-01

    'Click' glycosylation of cysteine-containing peptides were carried out in good yield by Copper(I)-catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition (CuAAC). For that peptides were functionalized though direct propargylation of the cysteine residue allowing their use in CuAAC with suitable free or protected azido sugars of gluco, manno and galacto configuration. Among these free and protected glycopeptides a series of 'glycoRGD' peptides were obtained and submitted to in vitro platelet aggregation tests, showing that the pseudoglycosylation of the adhesion sequence lowers the IC50 value and thus could improve the in vivo pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:25457125

  5. Hg(2+) mediated quinazoline ensemble for highly selective recognition of Cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Thangaraj; Sivaraman, Gandhi; Chellappa, Duraisamy

    2014-04-01

    A fluorimetric sensor for Hg(2+) ion and Cysteine based on quinazoline platform was designed and synthesized by one step reaction and characterized by using common spectroscopic methods. Time Dependent Density Functional Theory calculations shows that probe behaves as "ON-OFF" fluorescent quenching sensor via electron transfer/heavy atom effect. Receptor was found to exhibit selective fluorescence quenching behavior over the other competitive metal ions, and also the receptor-Hg(2+) ensemble act as an efficient "OFF-ON" sensor for Cysteine. Moreover this sensor has also been successfully applied to detection of Hg(2+) in natural water samples with good recovery. PMID:24384358

  6. Pollen recognition during the self-incompatibility response in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hiscock, Simon J.

    2002-01-01

    Recent work has identified the elusive male (pollen) determinant that underlies self-incompatibility in Brassica (cabbage). The key pollen factor, recognized by the stigma of an incompatible plant, is a small cysteine-rich protein that interacts directly with the receptor domain of a stigma receptor serine-threonine kinase to initiate haplotype-specific pollen recognition and rejection.

  7. A barley cystatin stably expressed in rice exhibits strong in vitro inhibitory activity against gut proteinases of rice water weevil / La expresión en arroz de una cistatina de cebada inhibe significativamente la actividad proteinasa digestiva del picudo acuático del arroz in vitro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raúl, Armas; Carlos, Hernández; Daymi, Abreu; Maylin, Pérez; Yeosvany, Cabrera; Merardo, Pujol; Julio, Alfonso-Rubi.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El picudo acuático del arroz, Lissorhoptrus brevirostris Suffrian (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), es una de las principales plagas del cultivo en Cuba. En este trabajo describimos la obtención de plantas transgénicas de arroz que expresan la cistatina de cebada HvCPI-1 (gene Icy1) como un modelo para e [...] xplorar la potencialidad de esta proteína en el control del picudo acuático. Se transformó arroz (Oryza sativa L. cv IACuba-28) vía Agrobacterium tumefaciens conteniendo un plásmido que porta el gen Icy1 fusionado al promotor 35S del CaMV y al primer exón/intrón/exón del gen Act-1 de arroz. De 65 líneas transgénicas independientes, 62 resultaron positivas al análisis por PCR-Southern blot. El transgen se expresó correctamente según se pudo apreciar por western y dot blot con un nivel de expresión superior al 2% de las proteínas totales extraídas en plantas Texón/intrón/exón del gen Act-1 de arroz. De 65 líneas transgénicas independientes, 62 resultaron positivas al análisis por PCR-Southern blot. El transgen se expresó correctamente según se pudo apreciar por western y dot blot con un nivel de expresión superior al 2% de las proteínas totales extraídas en plantas Texón/intrón/exón del gen Act-1 de arroz. De 65 líneas transgénicas independientes, 62 resultaron positivas al análisis por PCR-Southern blot. El transgen se expresó correctamente según se pudo apreciar por western y dot blot con un nivel de expresión superior al 2% de las proteínas totales extraídas en plantas Texón/intrón/exón del gen Act-1 de arroz. De 65 líneas transgénicas independientes, 62 resultaron positivas al análisis por PCR-Southern blot. El transgen se expresó correctamente según se pudo apreciar por western y dot blot con un nivel de expresión superior al 2% de las proteínas totales extraídas en plantas Texón/intrón/exón del gen Act-1 de arroz. De 65 líneas transgénicas independientes, 62 resultaron positivas al análisis por PCR-Southern blot. El transgen se expresó correctamente según se pudo apreciar por western y dot blot con un nivel de expresión superior al 2% de las proteínas totales extraídas en plantas T1. La integridad funcional fue confirmada por la reducción hasta un 90% de la actividad cisteino proteinasa en el extracto digestivo de larvas del picudo acuático por extractos de hojas de arroz. Además, extractos de raices de plantas transgénicas de generación T2 produjeron una inhibición significativa, 70% a pH 4.5 y 45% a pH 6.0, de la actividad tipo catepsina B en extractos del intestino de larvas de L. brevirostris. Estos resultados demuestran el potencial de la cistatina de cebada como un efectivo componente para ser usado en combinación con otras estrategias para el control de esta plaga como una alternativa contra el desarrollo de insecto resistencia Abstract in english Rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus brevirostris Suffrian (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is one of the most important rice pests in Cuba. Here, we describe the production of transgenic rice plants expressing barley cystatin HvCPI-1 (Icy1 gene) to explore the potential of this protein for the control of r [...] ice water weevil. Rice plants (Oryza sativa L. cv IACuba-28) were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens with a plasmid carrying the Icy1 gene fused to the 35S promoter and the first exon/intron/exon from rice actin-1 gene. From 65 independent transgenic lines, 62 were positive in the PCR-Southern blot analyses. The transgene was correctly translated as indicated by western- and dot-blot assays with level of expression in T¹ plants of up to 2% of the total extracted protein. The functional integrity of the protein was confirmed in vitro by a reduction of up to 90% of the cysteine-proteinase activity in the gut of rice water weevils exposed to rice leaf extracts. Moreover, proteins extracted from T² transgenic rice roots showed a significant inhibition of up to 70% at pH 4.5 and 45% at pH 6.0 of the cathepsin B-like activity in the L. brevirostris larvae gut. These results

  8. Lifespan extension and increased resistance to environmental stressors by N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Seung-Il, Oh; Jin-Kook, Park; Sang-Kyu, Park.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to determine the effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a modified sulfur-containing amino acid that acts as a strong cellular antioxidant, on the response to environmental stressors and on aging in C. elegans. METHOD: The survival of worms under oxidative stress conditi [...] ons induced by paraquat was evaluated with and without in vivo N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment. The effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on the response to other environmental stressors, including heat stress and ultraviolet irradiation (UV), was also monitored. To investigate the effect on aging, we examined changes in lifespan, fertility, and expression of age-related biomarkers in C. elegans after N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment. RESULTS: Dietary N-acetyl-L-cysteine supplementation significantly increased resistance to oxidative stress, heat stress, and UV irradiation in C. elegans. In addition, N-acetyl-L-cysteine supplementation significantly extended both the mean and maximum lifespan of C. elegans. The mean lifespan was extended by up to 30.5% with 5 mM N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment, and the maximum lifespan was increased by 8 days. N-acetyl-L-cysteine supplementation also increased the total number of progeny produced and extended the gravid period of C. elegans. The green fluorescent protein reporter assay revealed that expression of the stress-responsive genes, sod-3 and hsp-16.2, increased significantly following N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment. CONCLUSION: N-acetyl-L-cysteine supplementation confers a longevity phenotype in C. elegans, possibly through increased resistance to environmental stressors.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of the leader proteinase (Lpro) region of Indian foot and mouth disease serotype O isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Yuvaraj; Muthukrishnan, Madhanmohan; Singanallur, Nagendrakumar Balasubramanian; Villuppanoor, Srinivasan Alwar

    2015-03-31

    In this study, the nucleotide sequences of the complete leader proteinase (Lpro) region of 21 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O collected during various outbreaks in India were sequenced and compared with vaccine strains. The phylogenetic analysis of these Lpro sequences showed a difference in the clustering of the isolates based on the VP1 capsid coding region sequences. The comparison of amino acid sequences at the N terminus end of the Lpro region showed very high variability, although 2 conserved start codons (AUG) at 1st and 29th sites. Furthermore, all the amino acid residues that formed the active cleft site of the Lpro sequences of this study were conserved. These results suggest that Lpro sequences could also be used for phylogenetic comparison of FMDV isolates. PMID:25842211

  10. Domain 2 of a Kazal serine proteinase inhibitor SPIPm2 from Penaeus monodon possesses antiviral activity against WSSV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visetnan, Suwattana; Donpudsa, Suchao; Supungul, Premruethai; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien

    2014-12-01

    A 5-domain Kazal type serine proteinase inhibitor SPIPm2 from Penaeus monodon is involved in innate immune defense against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). To test which domains were involved, the 5 domains of SPIPm2 were over-expressed and tested against WSSV infection. By using hemocyte primary cell culture treated with each recombinant SPIPm2 domain along with WSSV, the expression of WSSV early genes ie1, WSV477 and late gene VP28 were substantially reduced as compared to other domains when the recombinant domain 2, rSPIPm2D2, was used. Injecting the WSSV along with rSPIPm2D2 but not with other domains caused delay in mortality rate of the infected shrimp. The results indicate that the SPIPm2D2 possesses strong antiviral activity and, hence, contributes predominantly to the antiviral activity of SPIPm2. PMID:25301720

  11. The contribution of proteinase-activated receptors to intracellular signaling, transcellular transport and autophagy in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat?j, Radoslav; Rohan, Zden?k; Holada, Karel; Olejár, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    The etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer´s disease is characterized by beta amyloid A?(1-42) toxic fragment aggregation and its association with impaired autophagy. In mitochondria, chronic damage due to transport and enzymatic processes together with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are followed by the subsequent accumulation of A? in the form of senile plaques and the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein in intracellular deposits called tangles. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs), members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, facilitate and modulate the transcellular transport and distribution of a variety of subcellular molecular components to the lysosomal system and, thus, influence their degradation. A review of the data shows that the activation or inhibition of PARs leads to changes in the process of autophagy, which may influence ROS production and A? (1-42) degradation in lysosomes and result in AD pathogenesis. PMID:25523429

  12. Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor (BBI) modulates radiosensitivity and radiation-induced differentiation of human fibroblasts in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiosensitivity and differentiation pattern of cultured normal human fibroblasts was analysed as a function of treatment of the cells with the Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor (BBI). Upon irradiation with doses from 0 to 8 Gy normal human fibroblasts are induced to a premature terminal differentiation within 14-21 days of postirradiation incubation. Treatment of the cells with 10 ?M BBI for 2 h prior to the irradiation procedure resulted in a significant shift of the radiation survival curve, increased SF2 values 0.63 vs. 0.84 and the cell type composition of the test fibroblast cultures. Upon pretreatment with BBI the radiation-induced premature terminal differentiation of progenitor fibroblasts to postmitotic fibrocytes could significantly be inhibited. Based on this data, it can be postulated that BBI may serve as a radioprotector of normal fibroblasts which are involved in radiation-induced tissue injuries like radiation fibrosis

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid protein is a substrate of the retroviral proteinase while integrase is resistant toward proteolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capsid protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 was observed to undergo proteolytic cleavage in vitro when viral lysate was incubated in the presence of dithiothreitol at acidic pH. Purified HIV-1 capsid protein was also found to be a substrate of the viral proteinase in a pH-dependent manner; acidic pH (<7) was necessary for cleavage, and decreasing the pH toward 4 increased the degree of processing. Based on N-terminal sequencing of the cleavage products, the capsid protein was found to be cleaved at two sites, between residues 77 and 78 as well as between residues 189 and 190. Oligopeptides representing these cleavage sites were also cleaved at the expected peptide bonds. The presence of cyclophilin A decreased the degree of capsid protein processing. Unlike the capsid protein, integrase was found to be resistant toward proteolysis in good agreement with its presence in the preintegration complex

  14. Synthesis of Amino Acid Cofactor in Cysteine Dioxygenase Is Regulated by Substrate and Represents a Novel Post-translational Regulation of Activity*S?

    OpenAIRE

    Dominy, John E.; Hwang, Jesse; Guo, Stephanie; Hirschberger, Lawrence L.; Zhang, Sheng; Stipanuk, Martha H.

    2008-01-01

    Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) catalyzes the conversion of cysteine to cysteinesulfinic acid and is important in the regulation of intracellular cysteine levels in mammals and in the provision of oxidized cysteine metabolites such as sulfate and taurine. Several crystal structure studies of mammalian CDO have shown that there is a cross-linked cofactor present in the active site of the enzyme. The cofactor consists of a thioether bond between the ?-sulfur of residue cyste...

  15. Flexibility of cold- and heat-adapted subtilisin-like serine proteinases evaluated with fluorescence quenching and molecular dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigtryggsdóttir, Asta Rós; Papaleo, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The subtilisin-like serine proteinases, VPR, from a psychrotrophic Vibrio species and aqualysin I (AQUI) from the thermophile Thermus aquaticus, are structural homologues, but differ significantly with respect to stability and catalytic properties. It has been postulated that the higher catalytic activity of cold adapted enzymes when compared to homologues from thermophiles, reflects their higher molecular flexibility. To assess a potential difference in molecular flexibility between the two homologous proteinases, we have measured their Trp fluorescence quenching by acrylamide at different temperatures. We also investigated protein dynamics of VPR and AQUI at an atomic level by molecular dynamics simulations. VPR contains four Trp residues, three of which are at corresponding sites in the structure of AQUI. To aid in the comparison, a Tyr at the fourth corresponding site in AQUI was mutated to Trp (Y191W). A lower quenching effect of acrylamide on the intrinsic fluorescence of the thermophilic AQUI_Y191W wasobserved at all temperatures measured (10-55°C), suggesting that it possesses a more rigid structure than VPR. The MD analysis (C? rmsf profiles) showed that even though VPR and AQUI have similar flexibility profiles, the cold adapted VPR displays higher flexibility in most regions of the protein structure. Some of these regions contain or are in proximity to some of the Trp residues (Trp6, Trp114 and Trp208) in the proteins. Thus, we observe an overall agreement between the fluorescence quenching data and the flexibility profiles obtained from the MD simulations to different flexibilities of specific regions in the proteins.

  16. Negative regulation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) activation by a clip-domain serine proteinase homolog (SPH) from endoparasitoid venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangmei; Lu, Zhi-Qiang; Jiang, Haobo; Asgari, Sassan

    2004-05-01

    Most parasitic wasps inject maternal factors into the host hemocoel to suppress the host immune system and ensure successful development of their progeny. Melanization is one of the insect defence mechanisms against intruding pathogens or parasites. We previously isolated from the venom of Cotesia rubecula a 50 kDa protein that blocked melanization in the hemolymph of its host, Pieris rapae [Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 33 (2003) 1017]. This protein, designated Vn50, is a serine proteinase homolog (SPH) containing an amino-terminal clip domain. In this work, we demonstrated that recombinant Vn50 bound P. rapae hemolymph components that were recognized by antisera to Tenebrio molitor prophenoloxidase (proPO) and Manduca sexta proPO-activating proteinase (PAP). Vn50 is stable in the host hemolymph-it remained intact for at least 72 h after parasitization. Using M. sexta as a model system, we found that Vn50 efficiently down-regulated proPO activation mediated by M. sexta PAP-1, SPH-1, and SPH-2. Vn50 did not inhibit active phenoloxidase (PO) or PAP-1, but it significantly reduced the proteolysis of proPO. If recombinant Vn50 binds P. rapae proPO and PAP (as suggested by the antibody reactions), it is likely that the molecular interactions among M. sexta proPO, PAP-1, and SPHs were impaired by this venom protein. A similar strategy might be employed by C. rubecula to negatively impact the proPO activation reaction in its natural host. PMID:15110869

  17. The assignment of the reactive sites of the double-headed arrowhead proteinase inhibitor A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiong; Ruan, Kang-Cheng; Chi, Cheng-Wu

    2002-09-01

    The arrowhead proteinase inhibitor A and B (APIA and APIB) are double-headed and multifunctional. Both their primary structure and cDNA sequence have been elucidated. To locate the possible reactive site residues Lys(44), Arg(76) and Arg(87) of APIB predicted according to the sequence comparison with other proteinase inhibitors, the above residues were substituted with Pro by site-directed mutagenesis respectively, and the mutated genes were expressed in the yeast secretion system. The mutant K(44)P-APIB displayed the same inhibitory activity as APIB does, while the mutants R(76)P-APIB and R(87)P-APIB could only inhibit one molecule, instead of two molecules of trypsin, indicating that Arg(76) and Arg87 but not Lys(44) are the two reactive sites of APIB. In order to further confirm this result, more mutants of APIB (K(44)P-R(76)P-APIB, K(44)P-R(87)P-APIB, R(76)P-R(87)P-APIB) were designed, in each mutant only one of the three possible reactive sites remained unchanged. Both the mutants K(44)P-R(76)P-APIB and K(44)P-R(87)P-APIB could only inhibit one molecule of trypsin, while R(76)P-R(87)P-APIB could no longer inhibit trypsin intensively, thus the residues Arg(76) and Arg(87) are definitely the reactive sites of APIB. Their K(i) were measured to be 0.39 nmol/L and 0.47 nmol/L, respectively. The mutant R(87)L-APIB lost about half activity towards trypsin but could inhibit one molecule of chymotrypsin as the wide type APIA did, indicating that Leu(87) was the reactive site towards trypsin but could inhibit one molecule of APIA for inhibiting chymotrypsin. PMID:12198573

  18. SDZ PRI 053, an orally bioavailable human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteinase inhibitor containing the 2-aminobenzylstatine moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billich, A; Fricker, G; Müller, I; Donatsch, P; Ettmayer, P; Gstach, H; Lehr, P; Peichl, P; Scholz, D; Rosenwirth, B

    1995-07-01

    A series of inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proteinase containing the 2-aralkyl-amino-substituted statine moiety as a novel transition-state analog was synthesized, with the aim to obtain compounds which combine anti-HIV potency with oral bioavailability. The reduced-size 2-aminobenzylstatine derivative SDZ PRI 053, which contains 2-(S)-amino-3-(R)-hydroxyindane in place of an amino acid amide, is a potent and orally bioavailable inhibitor of HIV-1 replication. The antiviral activity of SDZ PRI 053 was demonstrated in various cell lines, in primary lymphocytes, and in primary monocytes, against laboratory strains as well as clinical HIV-1 isolates (50% effective dose = 0.028 to 0.15 microM). Cell proliferation was impaired only at 100- to 300-fold-higher concentrations. The mechanism of antiviral action of the proteinase inhibitor SDZ PRI 0.53 was demonstrated to be inhibition of gag precursor protein processing. The finding that the inhibitory potency of SDZ PRI 053 in chronic virus infection, determined by p24 release, was considerably lower than that in de novo infection may be explained by the fact that the virus particles produced in the presence of SDZ PRI 053 are about 50-fold less infectious than those from untreated cultures. Upon intravenous administration, half-lives in blood of 100 and 32 min in mice and rats, respectively, were measured. Oral bioavailability of SDZ PRI 053 in rodents was 20 to 60%, depending on the dose. In mice, rats, and dogs, the inhibitor levels after oral administration remained far above the concentrations needed to efficiently block HIV replication in vitro for a prolonged period. This compound is thus a promising candidate for clinical use in HIV disease. PMID:7492076

  19. Mechanisms involved in the regulation of key enzymes of cysteine metabolism in rat liver in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, D L; Hirschberger, L L; Hosokawa, Y; Stipanuk, M H

    1999-02-01

    Little is known about mechanisms of regulation of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), and cysteine-sulfinate decarboxylase (CSDC) in response to diet. Enzyme activity and Western and Northern or dot blot analyses were conducted on liver samples from rats fed a basal low-protein diet or diets with graded levels of protein or methionine for 2 wk. Higher levels of CDO activity and CDO protein but not of CDO mRNA were observed in liver of rats fed methionine or protein-supplemented diets, indicating that CDO activity is regulated by changes in enzyme concentration. Lower concentrations of the heavy or catalytic subunit of GCS (GCS-HS) mRNA and protein, as well as a lower activity state of GCS-HS in rats fed methionine- or protein-supplemented diets, indicated that dietary regulation of GCS occurs by both pretranslational and posttranslational mechanisms. Lower CSDC activity, CSDC protein concentration, and CSDC mRNA concentration were found in rats fed the highest level of protein, and regulation appeared to involve changes in mRNA concentration. Regulation of key enzymes of cysteine metabolism in response to diet determines the use of cysteine for synthesis of its essential metabolites. PMID:9950793

  20. Formation of elemental sulfur by Chlorella fusca during growth on L-cysteine ethylester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During growth on L-cysteine ethylester, Chlorella fusca (211-8b) accumulated a substance which contained bound sulfide, which could be liberated by reduction with dithioerythritol (DTE) as inorganic sulfide. This substance was extracted with hot methanol and purified by thin layer chromatography. This substance liberated free sulfide when incubated with mono- and dithiols, and thiocyanate was formed after heating with KCN. The isolated substance cochromatographed with authentic sulfur flower using different solvent systems for thin layer chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, and the identical spectrum with a relative ?max at 263 nm was found. The chemical structure was confirmed by mass spectrometry showing a molecular weight of 256 m/e for the S8 configuration. No labeled elemental sulfur was detected when the cells were grown on [35S]sulfate and L-cysteine ethylester. C. fusca seems to have enzymes for the metabolism of elemental sulfur, since it disappeared after prolonged growth into the stationary phase. Cysteine was formed from O-acetyl-L-serine and elemental sulfur in the presence of thiol groups and purified cysteine synthase from spinach or Chlorella