WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant cysteine proteinases

  1. Cysteine proteinases and cystatins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeliana S. Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describeds the definition, localization, functions and examples of cysteine proteinases and their protein inhibitors in vertebrate, non-vertebrate animals and plants. These inhibitors are related with defense mechanisms of plant against pests. It also describes the factors involved in the specific cysteine proteinase-cystatin interaction and high degree of affinity and large specificity in this interaction which are not only represented by the compatibility between amino acid residues of the active site involved in catalysis, but also of all amino acid residues that participante in the enzyme-inhibitor interaction.Nesta revisão foram descritas definições, localizações, funções e exemplos de proteinases cisteínicas e suas proteinas inibidoras em animais vertebrados e invertebrados e plantas. Tratamos principalmente com aqueles inibidores que são relatados com o mecanismo de defesa da planta contra pestes. Em adição, comentamos sobre recentes trabalhos que contribuíram para uma melhor compreenção dos fatores envolvidos na interação específica proteinase cisteínica-cistatina. Por outro lado, chamamos atenção para o alto grau de afinidade e grande especificidade na interação que não são apenas representadas pela compatibilidade entre os residuos de aminoácidos do sítio ativo envolvidos na catalise, mas também de todos os resíduos de aminoácidos que participam da interação enzima-inibidor.

  2. Assessment of the anthelmintic effect of natural plant cysteine proteinases against the gastrointestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepek, G; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Lowe, A; Behnke, J M

    2005-02-01

    We examined the mechanism of action and compared the anthelmintic efficacy of cysteine proteinases from papaya, pineapple, fig, kiwi fruit and Egyptian milkweed in vitro using the rodent gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Within a 2 h incubation period, all the cysteine proteinases, with the exception of the kiwi fruit extract, caused marked damage to the cuticle of H. polygyrus adult male and female worms, reflected in the loss of surface cuticular layers. Efficacy was comparable for both sexes of worms, was dependent on the presence of cysteine and was completely inhibited by the cysteine proteinase inhibitor, E-64. LD50 values indicated that the purified proteinases were more efficacious than the proteinases in the crude latex, with purified ficin, papain, chymopapain, Egyptian milkweed latex extract and pineapple fruit extract containing fruit bromelain, having the most potent effect. The mechanism of action of these plant enzymes (i.e. an attack on the protective cuticle of the worm) suggests that resistance would be slow to develop in the field. The efficacy and mode of action make plant cysteine proteinases potential candidates for a novel class of anthelmintics urgently required for the treatment of humans and domestic livestock. PMID:15727070

  3. Investigations into the effects of plant derived cysteine proteinases on tapeworms (cestoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Mansur, Fadlul Azim Fauzi Bin

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) helminths pose a significant threat to the livestock industry and are a recognized cause of global morbidity in humans. Control relies principally on chemotherapy but in the case of nematodes is rapidly losing efficacy through widespread development and spread of resistance to conventional anthelmintics and hence the urgent need for novel classes of anthelmintics. Cysteine proteinases (CPs) from papaya latex have been shown to be effective against three murine nematodes ...

  4. The relative anthelmintic efficacy of plant-derived cysteine proteinases on intestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoga, W; Mansur, F; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Garnett, M C; Lowe, A; Behnke, J M

    2015-03-01

    We examined the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of plant cysteine proteinases (CPs) derived from pineapple (Ananas comosus) and kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa), and compared their efficacy as anthelmintics to the known effects of CPs from the latex of papaya (Carica papaya) against the rodent intestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides bakeri. Both fruit bromelain and stem bromelain had significant in vitro detrimental effects on H. bakeri but in comparison, actinidain from kiwi fruit had very little effect. However, in vivo trials indicated far less efficacy of stem bromelain and fruit bromelain than that expected from the in vitro experiments (24.5% and 22.4% reduction in worm burdens, respectively) against H. bakeri. Scanning electron microscopy revealed signs of cuticular damage on worms incubated in fruit bromelain, stem bromelain and actinidain, but this was far less extensive than on those incubated in papaya latex supernatant. We conclude that, on the basis of presently available data, CPs derived from pineapples and kiwi fruits are not suitable for development as novel anthelmintics for intestinal nematode infections. PMID:24176056

  5. A barley cysteine-proteinase inhibitor reduces the performance of two aphid species in artificial diets and transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Laura; Martinez, Manuel; Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Castañera, Pedro; Smagghe, Guy; Diaz, Isabel; Ortego, Félix

    2011-04-01

    Cystatins from plants have been implicated in plant defense towards insects, based on their role as inhibitors of heterologous cysteine-proteinases. We have previously characterized thirteen genes encoding cystatins (HvCPI-1 to HvCPI-13) from barley (Hordeum vulgare), but only HvCPI-1 C68 ? G, a variant generated by direct-mutagenesis, has been tested against insects. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the whole gene family members of barley cystatins against two aphids, Myzus persicae and Acyrthosiphon pisum. All the cystatins, except HvCPI-7, HvCPI-10 and HvCPI-12, inhibited in vitro the activity of cathepsin L- and/or B-like proteinases, with HvCPI-6 being the most effective inhibitor for both aphid species. When administered in artificial diets, HvCPI-6 was toxic to A. pisum nymphs (LC(50) = 150 ?g/ml), whereas no significant mortality was observed on M. persicae nymphs up to 1000 ?g/ml. The effects of HvCPI-6 ingestion on A. pisum were correlated with a decrease of cathepsin B- and L-like proteinase activities. In the case of M. persicae, there was an increase of these proteolytic activities, but also of the aminopeptidase-like activity, suggesting that this species is regulating both target and insensitive enzymes to overcome the effects of the cystatin. To further analyze the potential of barley cystatins as insecticidal proteins against aphids, Arabidopsis plants expressing HvCPI-6 were tested against M. persicae. For A. pisum, which does not feed on Arabidopsis, a combined diet-Vicia faba plant bioassay was performed. A significant delay in the development time to reach the adult stage was observed in both species. The present study demonstrates the potential of barley cystatins to interfere with the performance of two aphid species. PMID:20567901

  6. Structural characterization of the papaya cysteine proteinases at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Joëlle; Looze, Yvan; Bartik, Kristin; Raussens, Vincent; Wintjens, René; Boussard, Paule

    2006-03-10

    Current control of gastrointestinal nematodes relies primarily on the use of synthetic drugs and encounters serious problems of resistance. Oral administration of plant cysteine proteinases, known to be capable of damaging nematode cuticles, has recently been recommended to overcome these problems. This prompted us to examine if plant cysteine proteinases like the four papaya proteinases papain, caricain, chymopapain, and glycine endopeptidase that have been investigated here can survive acidic pH conditions and pepsin degradation. The four papaya proteinases have been found to undergo, at low pH, a conformational transition that instantaneously converts their native forms into molten globules that are quite unstable and rapidly degraded by pepsin. As shown by activity measurements, the denatured state of these proteinases which finally results from acid treatment is completely irreversible. It is concluded that cysteine proteinases from plant origin may require to be protected against both acid denaturation and proteolysis to be effective in the gut after oral administration. PMID:16434027

  7. The anthelmintic efficacy of natural plant cysteine proteinases against two rodent cestodes Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis microstoma in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, F; Luoga, W; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Lowe, Ann; Behnke, J M

    2014-03-17

    Little is known about the efficacy of cysteine proteinases (CP) as anthelmintics for cestode infections. We examined the effects of CPs on two rodent cestodes, Hymenolepis diminuta and H. microstoma in vitro. Our data showed that naturally occurring mixtures of CPs, such as those found in papaya latex, and relatively pure preparations of fruit bromelain, papain and stem bromelain, were active in vitro against both juvenile, artificially excysted scoleces, as well as against adult worms of both rodent cestodes. Significant dose-dependent reduction in motility, ultimately leading to death of the worms, was observed with both species, and against both freshly excysted scoleces and 14-day old pre-adult worms. The most effective was fruit bromelain (after 30 min of incubation of juvenile H. diminuta and H. microstoma IC50=63 and 74 ?M, respectively, and for pre-adult worms=199 and 260 ?M, respectively). The least effective was stem bromelain (after 30 min of incubation of juvenile H. diminuta and H. microstoma IC50=2855 and 2772 ?M, respectively, and for pre-adult worms=1374 and 1332 ?M, respectively) and the efficacies of papaya latex supernatant and papain were between these extremes. In all cases these values are higher than those reported previously for efficacy of CPs against intestinal nematodes, and in contrast to nematodes, all CPs were effective against cestodes in the absence of exogenous cysteine in incubation media. The CPs appeared to attack the tegument resulting in generalised erosion mainly on the strobila. The scolex was more resistant to CP attack but nevertheless some damage to the tegument on the scolex was detected. PMID:24462509

  8. A cysteine proteinase inhibitor purified from apple fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, S N; Laing, W A; McManus, M T

    1998-10-01

    A cysteine proteinase inhibitor has been purified from immature fruit of Malus domestica (var. Royal Gala). The M(r) of this apple cystatin is estimated to be 10,700 by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, 11 300 by SDS-PAGE and 11,000 by gel filtration. It is a relatively strong inhibitor of papain with a Ki value of 0.21 nM and also inhibits ficin and bromelain but not cathepsin B. An amino acid sequence was obtained from a peptide produced by trypsin digestion of the inhibitor. Comparison with other plant sequences shows a high degree of homology with other phytocystatins. As the single cysteine proteinase inhibitor detectable in immature apple fruit (5-8 mm diameter), levels of 83.3 pmol/g FW were determined. In larger fruit (up to 16 mm diameter) significantly less inhibitor was present (6.9 pmol/g FW). Given these low levels, it is postulated that this inhibitor has an endogenous role in apple fruit development rather than one of protection against pest or microbial attack. PMID:9788144

  9. Identification, classification and expression pattern analysis of sugarcane cysteine proteinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Coelho Correa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine proteases are peptidyl hydrolyses dependent on a cysteine residue at the active center. The physical and chemical properties of cysteine proteases have been extensively characterized, but their precise biological functions have not yet been completely understood, although it is known that they are involved in a number of events such as protein turnover, cancer, germination, programmed cell death and senescence. Protein sequences from different cysteine proteinases, classified as members of the E.C.3.4.22 sub-sub-class, were used to perform a T-BLAST-n search on the Brazilian Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tags project (SUCEST data bank. Sequence homology was found with 76 cluster sequences that corresponded to possible cysteine proteinases. The alignments of these SUCEST clusters with the sequence of cysteine proteinases of known origins provided important information about the classification and possible function of these sugarcane enzymes. Inferences about the expression pattern of each gene were made by direct correlation with the SUCEST cDNA libraries from which each cluster was derived. Since no previous reports of sugarcane cysteine proteinases genes exists, this study represents a first step in the study of new biochemical, physiological and biotechnological aspects of sugarcane cysteine proteases.Proteinases cisteínicas são peptidil-hidrolases dependentes de um resíduo de cisteína em seu sítio ativo. As propriedades físico-químicas destas proteinases têm sido amplamente caracterizadas, entretanto suas funções biológicas ainda não foram completamente elucidadas. Elas estão envolvidas em um grande número de eventos, tais como: processamento e degradação protéica, câncer, germinação, morte celular programada e processos de senescência. Diferentes proteinases cisteínicas, classificadas pelo Comitê de Nomenclatura da União Internacional de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular (IUBMB como pertencentes à sub-sub-classe E.C.3.4.22, foram usadas na busca de clusters no banco de dados do SUCEST (SUgarCane EST project, utilizando-s o programa T-BLAST-n. Homologia de seqüências foram encontradas com 76 clusters que correspondem a prováveis proteinases cisteínicas. O alinhamento destas seqüências com a de outras proteases cisteínicas, de diversas origens, forneceu informação quanto à classificação e possível função das proteinases de cana-de-açúcar. Além disso, o padrão de expressão de cada gene foi postulado a partir da correlação direta com as bibliotecas de cDNA do SUCEST dos quais os clusters foram derivados. Uma vez que nenhum gene de protease cisteínica foi anteriormente evidenciado em cana-de-açúcar, este estudo representa uma etapa inicial para o estudo de novos aspectos bioquímicos, fisiológicos e biotecnológicos destas enzimas.

  10. A triticale water-deficit-inducible phytocystatin inhibits endogenous cysteine proteinases in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacka, Magdalena; Szewińska, Joanna; Mielecki, Marcin; Nykiel, Małgorzata; Imai, Ryozo; Bielawski, Wiesław; Orzechowski, Sławomir

    2015-02-01

    Water-deficit is accompanied by an increase in proteolysis. Phytocystatins are plant inhibitors of cysteine proteinases that belong to the papain and legumain family. A cDNA encoding the protein inhibitor TrcC-8 was identified in the vegetative organs of triticale. In response to water-deficit, increases in the mRNA levels of TrcC-8 were observed in leaf and root tissues. Immunoblot analysis indicated that accumulation of the TrcC-8 protein occurred after 72h of water-deficit in the seedlings. Using recombinant protein, inhibitory activity of TrcC-8 against cysteine proteases from triticale and wheat tissues was analyzed. Under water-deficit conditions, there are increases in cysteine proteinase activities in both plant tissues. The cysteine proteinase activities were inhibited by addition of the recombinant TrcC-8 protein. These results suggest a potential role for the triticale phytocystatin in modulating cysteine proteinase activities during water-deficit conditions. PMID:25462979

  11. Structural and functional aspects of papain-like cysteine proteinases and their protein inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, B; Turk, V; Turk, D

    1997-01-01

    Cysteine proteinases are widely distributed among living organisms. According to the most recent classifications (Rawlings and Barrett, 1993, 1994), they can be subdivided on the basis of sequence homology into 14 or even 20 different families, the most important being the papain and the calpain families. The papain-like cysteine proteinases are the most abundant among the cysteine proteinases. The family consists of papain and related plant proteinases such as chymopapain, caricain, bromelain, actinidin, ficin, and aleurain, and the lysosomal cathepsins B, H, L, S, C and K. Most of these enzymes are relatively small proteins with Mr values in the range 20000-35000 (reviewed in Brocklehurst et al., 1987; Polgar, 1989; Rawlings and Barrett, 1994; Berti and Storer, 1995), with the exception of cathepsin C, which is an oligomeric enzyme with Mr approximately 200000 (Metrione et al., 1970; Dolenc et al., 1995). A number of cysteine proteinases are located within lysosomes. Four of them, cathepsins B, C, H and L, are ubiquitous in lysosomes of animals, whereas cathepsin S has a more restricted localisation (Barrett and Kirschke, 1981; Kirschke and Wiederanders, 1994). The enzymes, except cathepsin C, are endopeptidases (reviewed in Kirschke et al., 1995), although cathepsin B was found also to be a dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase (Aronson and Barrett, 1978) and cathepsin H also an aminopeptidase (Koga et al., 1992). Cathepsin C is a dipeptidyl aminopeptidase, but at higher pH it exhibits also dipeptidyl transferase activity (reviewed in Kirschke et al., 1995). Among the lysosomal cysteine proteinases, cathepsin L was found to be the most active in degradation of protein substrates, such as collagen, elastin and azocasein (Barrett and Kirschke, 1981; Maciewicz et al., 1987; Mason et al., 1989), arid cathepsin B the most abundant (Kirschke and Barrett, 1981). All the enzymes are optimally active at slightly acidic pH, although their pH optima for degradation of synthetic substrates vary from 5.5 for cathepsin L to 6.8 for cathepsin H (reviewed in Kirschke et al., 1995). Several other lysosomal cysteine proteinases, such as cathepsins N, T and K, are known, although their properties are less well characterised (reviewed in Kirschke et al., 1995). In particular cathepsin K has attracted recent interest (Bromme et al., 1996; Shi et al., 1995; Bossard et al., 1996; Drake et al., 1996) and was found to be expressed specifically in osteoclasts (Drake et al., 1996) with properties similar to cathepsin L (Bossard et al., 1996). PMID:9165064

  12. Primary structure of a cysteine proteinase inhibitor from the fruit of avocado (Persea americana Mill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, M; Ikeda, T; Fukumoto, D; Yamasaki, N; Yonekura, M

    1995-12-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of a proteinaceous cysteine proteinase inhibitor from the fruit of avocado (avocado cystatin) is presented. The protein consists of 100 amino acid residues and has a molecular mass of 11,300 Da. Comparison of this sequence with sequences of plant cysteine proteinase inhibitors (phytocystatins), including oryzacystatins I and II from rice seeds, cowpea cystatin, and corn cystatin, showed that the avocado cystatin molecule has 60% and 54% residues identical with the two forms of the rice seed proteins, oryzacystatins I and II, respectively, and 64% and 63% with the cowpea and corn proteins, respectively. The totally conserved sequence, Gln-Val-Val-Ala-Gly, among several of the animal cystatins as well as phytocystatins, is at positions 47-51 in the avocado cystatin molecule. PMID:8611758

  13. The reactive site loop of the serpin SCCA1 is essential for cysteine proteinase inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Schick, Charles; Brömme, Dieter; Bartuski, Allison J.; Uemura, Yoshiki; Schechter, Norman M.; Silverman, Gary A.

    1998-01-01

    The high-molecular-weight serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) are restricted, generally, to inhibiting proteinases of the serine mechanistic class. However, the viral serpin, cytokine response modifier A, and the human serpins, antichymotrypsin and squamous cell carcinoma antigen 1 (SCCA1), inhibit different members of the cysteine proteinase class. Although serpins employ a mobile reactive site loop (RSL) to bait and trap their target serine proteinases, the mechanism by which they inacti...

  14. Differential gene expression in an actinorhizal symbiosis: evidence for a nodule-specific cysteine proteinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetting-Minesky, M P; Mullin, B C

    1994-10-11

    Nodules formed on the roots of actinorhizal plants as a consequence of nitrogen-fixing symbioses with the actinomycete Frankia appear to result from modification of the developmental pathway that leads to lateral root formation. Presently no information exists about factors that control this developmental switch or, until now, about genes that are differentially expressed as a result of an altered developmental pathway. Differential screening of an Alnus glutinosa nodule cDNA library revealed altered levels of gene expression in nodules as compared with roots and allowed isolation of host plant nodule-specific cDNA sequences. The deduced amino acid sequence of one full-length cDNA, AgNOD-CP1, represents a nodule-specific cysteine proteinase similar to cysteine proteinases of the papain superfamily. Residues critical to catalysis, active site, and disulfide bridges are conserved. Suggested roles for this enzyme are as a defense response to Frankia invasion, as a component of tissue remodeling in root and nodule tissues, as a cell cycle component, or as an element of protein turnover. Complexity of hybridization patterns revealed by Southern blot analysis suggests that the gene for AgNOD-CP1 is a member of a multigene family. Northern hybridization results indicate that this gene may have been recruited for a role specific to this symbiosis, a phenomenon observed in the Rhizobium-legume symbioses, perhaps common to many microbe-plant interactions. PMID:7937912

  15. Coffee cysteine proteinases and related inhibitors with high expression during grain maturation and germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepelley Maud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cysteine proteinases perform multiple functions in seeds, including participation in remodelling polypeptides and recycling amino acids during maturation and germination. Currently, few details exist concerning these genes and proteins in coffee. Furthermore, there is limited information on the cysteine proteinase inhibitors which influence the activities of these proteinases. Results Two cysteine proteinase (CP and four cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CPI gene sequences have been identified in coffee with significant expression during the maturation and germination of coffee grain. Detailed expression analysis of the cysteine proteinase genes CcCP1 and CcCP4 in Robusta using quantitative RT-PCR showed that these transcripts accumulate primarily during grain maturation and germination/post germination. The corresponding proteins were expressed in E. coli and purified, but only one, CcCP4, which has a KDDL/KDEL C-terminal sequence, was found to be active after a short acid treatment. QRT-PCR expression analysis of the four cysteine proteinase inhibitor genes in Robusta showed that CcCPI-1 is primarily expressed in developing and germinating grain and CcCPI-4 is very highly expressed during the late post germination period, as well as in mature, but not immature leaves. Transcripts corresponding to CcCPI-2 and CcCPI-3 were detected in most tissues examined at relatively similar, but generally low levels. Conclusions Several cysteine proteinase and cysteine proteinase inhibitor genes with strong, relatively specific expression during coffee grain maturation and germination are presented. The temporal expression of the CcCP1 gene suggests it is involved in modifying proteins during late grain maturation and germination. The expression pattern of CcCP4, and its close identity with KDEL containing CP proteins, implies this proteinase may play a role in protein and/or cell remodelling during late grain germination, and that it is likely to play a strong role in the programmed cell death associated with post-germination of the coffee grain. Expression analysis of the cysteine proteinase inhibitor genes suggests that CcCPI-1 could primarily be involved in modulating the activity of grain CP activity; while CcCPI-4 may play roles modulating grain CP activity and in the protection of the young coffee seedlings from insects and pathogens. CcCPI-2 and CcCPI-3, having lower and more widespread expression, could be more general "house-keeping" CPI genes.

  16. Effects of a potato cysteine proteinase inhibitor on midgut proteolytic enzyme activity and growth of the southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrick, J; Behnke, C; Czapla, T; Bala, K; Rao, A G; Kramer, K J; Reeck, G R

    2002-04-01

    The major proteinase activity in extracts of larval midguts from the southern corn rootworm (SCR), Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi, was identified as a cysteine proteinase that prefers substrates containing an arginine residue in the P1 position. Gelatin-zymogram analysis of the midgut proteinases indicated that the artificial diet-fed SCR, corn root-fed SCR, and root-fed western corn rootworms (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) possess a single major proteinase with an apparent molecular mass of 25kDa and several minor proteinases. Similar proteinase activity pH profiles were exhibited by root-fed and diet-fed rootworms with the optimal activity being slightly acidic. Rootworm larvae reared on corn roots exhibited significantly less caseinolytic activity than those reared on the artificial diet. Midgut proteolytic activity from SCR was most sensitive to inhibition by inhibitors of cysteine proteinases. Furthermore, rootworm proteinase activity was particularly sensitive to inhibition by a commercial protein preparation from potato tubers (PIN-II). One of the proteins, potato cysteine proteinase inhibitor-10', PCPI-10', obtained from PIN-II by ion-exchange chromatography, was the major source of inhibitory activity against rootworm proteinase activity. PCPI-10' and E-64 were of comparable potency as inhibitors of southern corn rootworm proteinase activity (IC(50) =31 and 35nM, respectively) and substantially more effective than chicken egg white cystatin (IC(50) =121nM). Incorporation of PCPI-10' into the diet of SCR larvae in feeding trials resulted in a significant increase in mortality and growth inhibition. We suggest that expression of inhibitors such as PCPI-10' by transgenic corn plants in the field is a potentially attractive method of host plant resistance to these Diabrotica species. PMID:11886775

  17. Cysteine proteinase inhibitor in cultured human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barka, T; van der Noen, H; Patil, S

    1992-06-01

    The TT cell line of human medullary thyroid carcinoma, that retains some of the differentiated functions of thyroid C cells including the synthesis and secretion of calcitonin, was found to contain and release into the culture medium cysteine proteinase inhibitor(s), cystatin(s). The major inhibitor, which is similar to, if not identical with, cystatin C, is constitutively released, or secreted, by TT cells. The rate of secretion of cystatin, quantified by titration of inhibition of papain, was stimulated by dibutyryladenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate, forskolin, the calcium ionophore A 23187, and by the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Neither forskolin nor TPA had, however, an effect on the level of the inhibitor in TT cells. Treatment with n-butyrate strongly inhibited the proliferation of TT cells, and led, in 4 to 7 days, to a doubling of the intracellular concentration of cystatins. Northern blot hybridizations to a 32P-labeled riboprobe complementary to human cystatin C cDNA indicated that cAMP, forskolin, and TPA had no effect on the steady-state levels of cystatin C mRNA. These data indicate that release of cystatin(s) from TT cells is regulated by cAMP-calcium-protein kinase C mechanisms that appear to be similar to those that regulate the secretion of calcitonin from these cells. However, in contrast to the calcitonin gene, the expression of the cystatin C gene in these cells is not regulated by cAMP or TPA. By a combination of acetone fractionation, affinity chromatography on Cm-papain-Sepharose, and gel exclusion chromatography a protein of approximately 14 kilodaltons was isolated from TT cells that reacted with antibodies against human cystatin C, and strongly inhibited papain. Cystain secreted by TT cells also had a molecular weight of 14 kilodaltons, and reacted with anti-human cystatin C antibodies. The physiologic and pathologic roles of cystatins in different cell types remain to be established. The TT cells provide a suitable cell type to study the regulation of the expression of the cystatin gene and the mechanism of cystatin release. PMID:1602739

  18. Effects of E-64, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, on cowpea weevil growth, development, and fecundity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdock, L.L.; Shade, R.E.; Pomeroy, M.A.

    1988-06-01

    E-64, a specific inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, was incorporated into artificial seeds at low levels (0.01-0.25% by weight). It prolonged developmental time and increased mortality of the larval cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), in direct proportion to its concentration in the artificial seeds. The fecundity of females emerging from the artificial seeds was significantly decreased by E-64 concentrations of 0.06% and higher. These observations are compatible with the hypothesis that the midgut cysteine proteinase in C. maculatus is essential for normal growth and development.

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of CMS1MS2: a cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CMS1MS2, a cysteine proteinase from C. candamarcensis, displays high amidase activity against the substrate BAPNA. The enzyme was purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop method and preliminary diffraction data were collected to 1.8 Å resolution. Cysteine proteinases from the latex of plants of the family Caricaceae are widely used industrially as well as in pharmaceutical preparations. In the present work, a 23 kDa cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis latex (designated CMS1MS2) was purified for crystallization using three chromatography steps. The enzyme shows about fourfold higher activity than papain with BAPNA as substrate. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction experiments were obtained by the hanging-drop method in the presence of PEG and ammonium sulfate as precipitants. The crystals are monoclinic (space group P21), with unit-cell parameters a = 53.26, b = 75.71, c = 53.23 Å, ? = 96.81°, and diffract X-rays to 1.8 Å resolution

  20. Crystal structure of viral serpin crmA provides insights into its mechanism of cysteine proteinase inhibition.

    OpenAIRE

    Simonovic, M; Gettins PGW; Volz, K

    2000-01-01

    CrmA is an unusual viral serpin that inhibits both cysteine and serine proteinases involved in the regulation of host inflammatory and apoptosis processes. It differs from other members of the serpin superfamily by having a reactive center loop that is one residue shorter, and by its apparent inability to form SDS-stable covalent complexes with cysteine proteinases. To obtain insight into the inhibitory mechanism of crmA, we determined the crystal structure of reactive center loop-cleaved crm...

  1. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) skin contains a novel kininogen and another cysteine proteinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylönen, A; Rinne, A; Herttuainen, J; Bogwald, J; Järvinen, M; Kalkkinen, N

    1999-12-01

    We describe the purification and characterization of two novel cysteine proteinase inhibitors found in Atlantic salmon skin. One of these, salmon kininogen, has a molecular mass of 52 kDa as determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS, is multiply charged with pI values of 4.0, 4.2 and 4.6 and shows homology to kininogens including the bradykinin motif. The other, salarin, has a molecular weight of 43 kDa, a pI of 5.1 and shows weak homology to cysteine proteinases. Both proteins are N- and O-glycosylated and inhibit papain and ficin but not trypsin. PMID:10583403

  2. Effect of vinyl sulfone inhibitors of cysteine proteinases on Tritrichomonas foetus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Cobo, Eduardo R.; Reed, Sharon L; Corbeil, Lynette B.

    2011-01-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus is a sexually transmitted protozoon that causes genital inflammation and adverse pregnancy outcomes in cattle. Cysteine proteinases (CPs) released by T. foetus degrade immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, complement component 3 and matrix proteins as well as inducing apoptosis of bovine genital epithelial cells. In this study, the efficacies of the vinyl sulfone CP inhibitors K11777 and WRR-483 were tested against CPs of T. foetus. The activity of secreted T. foetus CPs in...

  3. Inhibition of Trypsin-Like Cysteine Proteinases (Gingipains) from Porphyromonas gingivalis by Tetracycline and Its Analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Imamura, Takahisa; MATSUSHITA, Kenji; Travis, James; Potempa, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Extracellular cysteine proteinases, referred to as gingipains, are considered important virulence factors for Porphyromonas gingivalis, a bacterium recognized as a major etiologic agent of chronic periodontitis. We investigated the effect of tetracycline and its analogues, doxycycline and minocycline, on the enzymatic activities of gingipains. Tetracyclines at 100 μM totally inhibited the amidolytic activity of arginine-specific gingipains (HRgpA and RgpB). In contrast, inhibition of Kgp was ...

  4. Trichomonas vaginalis Cysteine Proteinases: Iron Response in Gene Expression and Proteolytic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Rossana Arroyo; Rosa Elena Cárdenas-Guerra; Elisa Elvira Figueroa-Angulo; Jonathan Puente-Rivera; Olga Zamudio-Prieto; Jaime Ortega-López

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the iron response of Trichomonas vaginalis to gene family products such as the cysteine proteinases (CPs) involved in virulence properties. In particular, we examined the effect of iron on the gene expression regulation and function of cathepsin L-like and asparaginyl endopeptidase-like CPs as virulence factors. We addressed some important aspects about CPs genomic organization and we offer possible explanations to the fact that only few members of this large gene family are expre...

  5. [Molecular cloning of two Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides haemaphysaloides cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling-Zhi; Zhou, Jin-Lin; Zhou, Yong-Zhi; Gong, Hai-Yan; Li, Pei-Ying

    2004-03-01

    Ticks are obligate ectoparasites and vectors of arboviruses, vickettsiate, spirochetes and parasitil protozoa of humans and domestic animals. Immunological protection of mammalian hosts against tick infestation has been proposed as the most sustainable alternative tick control method to the current use of acaricides. The success of this method is dependent on the identification of key molecules for use as tick vaccine antigens. Proteolytic enzymes are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, thus they can be considered as good target antigens for a tick vaccine. In the present study, we used rapid amplification of cDNA ends protocol and primers that were designed based on the consensus amino acid motifs flanking present in all papain-like cysteine proteinases, to amplify, sequence and characterize two Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides haemaphysaloides cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinases, named as cysA and cysB. The full length of cysA is 1168bp, encoding a 332 amino acid residue polypeptide with 36.33kD predicted molecular mass; the full length of cysB is 1153bp, encoding a 335 amino acid residue polypeptide with 37.56kD predicted molecular mass. The consensus amino acid motifs flanking presence in both deduced amino acid sequences. And both genes show high sequence homology to other tick cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase, so they were identified as members of the cysteine proteinase gene family. Expression analysis by RT-PCR revealed that cysA and cysB were expressed differently in different periods of tick development. PMID:15969109

  6. Functional Properties of a Cysteine Proteinase from Pineapple Fruit with Improved Resistance to Fungal Pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In plant cells, many cysteine proteinases (CPs are synthesized as precursors in the endoplasmic reticulum, and then are subject to post-translational modifications to form the active mature proteinases. They participate in various cellular and physiological functions. Here, AcCP2, a CP from pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus L. belonging to the C1A subfamily is analyzed based on the molecular modeling and homology alignment. Transcripts of AcCP2 can be detected in the different parts of fruits (particularly outer sarcocarps, and gradually increased during fruit development until maturity. To analyze the substrate specificity of AcCP2, the recombinant protein was overexpressed and purified from Pichia pastoris. The precursor of purified AcCP2 can be processed to a 25 kDa active form after acid treatment (pH 4.3. Its optimum proteolytic activity to Bz-Phe-Val-Arg-NH-Mec is at neutral pH. In addition, the overexpression of AcCP2 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana can improve the resistance to fungal pathogen of Botrytis cinerea. These data indicate that AcCP2 is a multifunctional proteinase, and its expression could cause fruit developmental characteristics of pineapple and resistance responses in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

  7. A chestnut seed cystatin differentially effective against cysteine proteinases from closely related pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernas, M; Sánchez-Monge, R; Gómez, L; Salcedo, G

    1998-12-01

    Cystatin CsC, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor from chestnut (Castanea sativa) seeds, has been purified and characterized. Its full-length cDNA clone was isolated from an immature chestnut cotyledon library. The inhibitor was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from bacterial extracts. Identity of both seed and recombinant cystatin was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis, two-dimensional electrophoresis and N-terminal sequencing. CsC has a molecular mass of 11,275 Da and pI of 6.9. Its amino acid sequence includes all three motifs that are thought to be essential for inhibitory activity, and shows significant identity to other phytocystatins, especially that of cowpea (70%). Recombinant CsC inhibited papain (Ki 29 nM), ficin (Ki 65 nM), chymopapain (Ki 366 nM), and cathepsin B (Ki 473 nM). By contrast with most cystatins, it was also effective towards trypsin (Ki 3489 nM). CsC is active against digestive proteinases from the insect Tribolium castaneum and the mite Dermatophagoides farinae, two important agricultural pests. Its effects on the cysteine proteinase activity of two closely related mite species revealed the high specificity of the chestnut cystatin. PMID:9869428

  8. Rapid kinetic studies and structural determination of a cysteine proteinase mutant imply that residue 158 in caricain has a major effect upon the ability of the active site histidine to protonate a dipyridyl probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerelos, N A; Goodenough, P W

    1996-11-26

    Cysteine proteinases are endopeptidases whose catalytic activity depends upon the nucleophilicity of the active site cysteine thiol group. An ion pair forms with an active site histidine. The presence in some cysteine proteinases of an aspartic acid close to the ion pair has been used as evidence of a "catalytic triad" as found in the serine proteinases. In these enzymes, the correct alignment of serine, histidine, and aspartate residues controls catalysis. However, the absence of the homologous aspartate residue in the mammalian cysteine proteinases cathepsins B and H argues against this pivotal role for aspartic acid. Instead, an Asn, physically close to the histidine in cysteine proteinases, has been proposed as a member of the catalytic triad. Protein engineering is being used to investigate these questions. In this study, the Asp158Glu mutant of the plant cysteine proteinase caricain was analyzed by stopped-flow rapid kinetics. The probe that was used was 2,2'-dipyridyl disulfide (2 PDS), and the profile of k versus pH gave results more closely allied to a small molecule active site model than the normal profile with cysteine proteinases. Multiple pKa's identified in the profile are as follows: pK1 = 3.4 (Cys 25), pK2 = 3.6, pK3 = 7.0, and pK4 = 8.6 (His 158). The structure of the enzyme with the bound inhibitor E64 was solved (R factor of 19.3%). Although the distance between the imadazolium and the surrounding charged amino acids is only slightly changed in the mutant, the reduced steady state activity and narrower pH range can be related to changes in the hydrogen-bonding capacity of the imadazolium. PMID:8942638

  9. A distinct subfamily of papain-like cystein proteinases regulated by senescence and stresses in Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-García, Belén; Garrido-Cárdenas, José Antonio; Alonso, Diego López; García-Maroto, Federico

    2010-09-01

    GMCP3 encodes a cystein proteinase of Glycine max belonging to the papain-like family (C1A in MEROPS database) that was previously found to be involved in the mobilization of protein reserves during seed germination. Here, we report that GMCP3 is induced by senescence and diverse stresses in non-seed tissues, thus indicating a more general function in plants. Cladistic analysis of papain-like proteins of plants indicated that GMCP3, along with related proteases of other species, belongs to a distinct new group within the C1A family, which can also be distinguished by the four-exon structure of the gene. We also describe the genomic organization of GMCP3 revealing the presence of two closely related copies that are transcriptionally regulated in a similar way, although only one appears to be functional. PMID:20462657

  10. Structure of the Autocatalytic Cysteine Protease Domain of Potyvirus Helper-component Proteinase*

    OpenAIRE

    Guo?, Bihong, ??; Lin?, Jinzhong, ??; Ye?, Keqiong, ??

    2011-01-01

    The helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) of potyvirus is involved in polyprotein processing, aphid transmission, and suppression of antiviral RNA silencing. There is no high resolution structure reported for any part of HC-Pro, hindering mechanistic understanding of its multiple functions. We have determined the crystal structure of the cysteine protease domain of HC-Pro from turnip mosaic virus at 2.0 Å resolution. As a protease, HC-Pro only cleaves a Gly-Gly dipeptide at its own C terminus....

  11. Cathepsin L cysteine proteinase in the diagnosis of bovine Fasciola gigantica infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriveny, D; Raina, O K; Yadav, S C; Chandra, D; Jayraw, A K; Singh, M; Velusamy, R; Singh, B P

    2006-01-15

    Cathepsin L cysteine proteinase from Fasciola gigantica was evaluated for its potential in the early prepatent detection of this helminth infection in bovine calves. Five cross-bred bovine calves were experimentally infected with 400 metacercariae/calf and evaluated for anti-cathepsin L antibody response. F. gigantica infection in these calves could be detected 4 weeks post-infection using an ELISA, dipstick ELISA and Western blotting with 100% sensitivity. The antigen was also used to detect F. gigantica field infection in cattle, by screening 256 sera of these animals by an ELISA, which demonstrated an overall infection rate of 26.95%. Preliminary studies showed that F. gigantica cathepsin L cysteine proteinase does not cross-react with Paramphistomum epiclitum, Gigantocotyle explanatum and hydatid cyst antigens. However, extensive studies on the cross-reactivity of this antigen with related helminth parasites of cattle and buffaloes are required, before this antigen can be considered suitable for immuno-diagnosis of fasciolosis in these ruminants. PMID:16300897

  12. Vaccination of BALB/c mice with Leishmania major amastigote-specific cysteine proteinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati, S; Baba, A A; Bakhshayesh, M; Vafa, M

    2000-04-01

    Cellular immune mechanisms resulting in interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production are essential for protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Antigens of the intracellular amastigote form of the parasite, found in mammalian hosts, are likely to be good candidates for the induction of T cell response and protection from development of leishmaniasis. We purified a stage-specific antigen from amastigote soluble antigen (A-SLA) of Leishmania major by immunoaffinity chromatography. The purified protein was characterized as a cysteine proteinase with enzymatic activity which is inhibited by E-64, and it was named the amastigote cysteine proteinase (ACP). BALB/c mice were immunized by two intraperitoneal injections, at a month interval, of 5 microg of ACP or A-SLA in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). Animals were challenged 4 weeks later with 106 L. major promastigotes and examined 4 months after the last injection. The immunized animals developed significantly smaller or no lesions compared with controls. Spleen cells from immunized mice showed a significant proliferative response and produced a high level of IFN-gamma in response to ACP, suggesting the induction of Th1 cells after immunization. These results make 24-kD ACP a possible component for an eventual cocktail vaccine against L. major infection. PMID:10759774

  13. Influence of immunoprotection on genetic variability of cysteine proteinases from Haemonchus contortus adult worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, S; Molina, J M; Hernández, Y I; Ferrer, O; Muñoz, Ma C; López, A; Ortega, L; Ruiz, A

    2015-11-01

    The limitations associated with the use of anthelmintic drugs in the control of gastrotintestinal nematodosis, such as the emergence of anthelmintic resistance, have stimulated the study of the immunological control of many parasites. In the case of Haemonchus contortus, several vaccination trials using native and recombinant antigens have been conducted. A group of antigens with demonstrated immunoprotective value are cathepsin B - like proteolytic enzymes of the cysteine proteinase type. These enzymes, which have been observed in both excretory-secretory products and somatic extracts of H. contortus, may vary among different geographic isolates and on strains isolated from different hosts, or even from the same host, as has been demonstrated in some comparative studies of genetic variability. In the present study, we evaluated the genetic variability of the worms that fully developed their endogenous cycle in immunised sheep and goat in order to identify the alleles of most immunoprotective value. To address these objectives, groups of sheep and goats were immunised with PBS soluble fractions enriched for cysteine proteinases from adult worms of H. contortus from either a strain of H. contortus isolated from goats of Gran Canaria Island (SP) or a strain isolated from sheep of North America (NA). The results confirmed the immunoprophylactic value of this type of enzyme against haemonchosis in both sheep and goats in association with increased levels of specific IgG. The genetic analysis demonstrated that the immunisation had a genetic selection on proteinase-encoding genes. In all the immunised animals, allelic frequencies were statistically different from those observed in non-immunised control animals in the four analysed genes. The reduction in the allelic frequencies suggests that parasites expressing these proteases are selectively targeted by the vaccine, and hence they should be considered in any subunit vaccine approach to control haemonchosis in small ruminants. PMID:26241655

  14. Immunoprotective effect of cysteine proteinase fractions from two Haemonchus contortus strains adapted to sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, J M; Martín, S; Hernández, Y I; González, J F; Ferrer, O; Ruiz, A

    2012-08-13

    A preliminary analysis of the significance of genetic diversity in cysteine proteinase genes has been performed simultaneously in sheep and goats, with regard to the immunological control using these enzymes against haemonchosis. For this purpose, we have studied the cross-immunoprotective effect of cysteine protease-enriched protein fractions (CPFs) in adult worms of two Haemonchus contortus strains from North America and Spain that are adapted to sheep and goats, respectively. Previous genetic analysis of cysteine proteinase genes in both strains has shown that some of loci are polymorphic and these differences are translated into changes in the amino acid sequences. However, our results show that CPFs from H. contortus adult worms have a protective effect against the parasite in both sheep and goats. These results are similar regardless of whether they were obtained from sheep or goat-adapted H. contortus strains, which could be very important in case H. contortus CPFs were commercially used in different countries, as vaccines to prevent the negative effects of this parasite. Interestingly, this experimental inoculation of both species with a heterologous strain of H. contortus contributes to the idea shown in previous studies about how difficult is the interpretation and the comparison of vaccination where strains not adapted to a specific host are used. Therefore, the challenger of using heterologous strains could provide similar results to those observed in immunised animals. This study suggests the possibility of exploring the mechanisms involved in natural protection against non-adapted strains, in order to develop strategies to control haemonchosis. PMID:22487211

  15. Invasion of ras-transformed breast epithelial cells depends on the proteolytic activity of cysteine and aspartic proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premzl, A; Puizdar, V; Zavasnik-Bergant, V; Kopitar-Jerala, N; Lah, T T; Katunuma, N; Sloane, B F; Turk, V; Kos, J

    2001-05-01

    It has been suggested that the lysosomal proteinases cathepsin B, L and D participate in tumour invasion and metastasis. Whereas for cathepsins B and L the role of active enzyme in invasion processes has been confirmed, cathepsin D was suggested to support tumour progression via its pro-peptide, rather than by its proteolytic activity. In this study we have compared the presence of active cathepsins B, L and D in ras-transformed human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A neoT) with their ability to invade matrigel. In this cell line high expression of all three cathepsins was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. The effect of proteolytic activity on cell invasion was studied by adding various natural and synthetic cysteine and aspartic proteinase inhibitors. The most effective compound was chicken cystatin, a general natural inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, (82.8+/-1.6% inhibition of cell invasion), followed by the synthetic inhibitor trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido-(4-guanidino) butane (E-64). CLIK-148, a specific inhibitor of cathepsin L, showed a lower effect than chicken cystatin and E-64. Pepstatin A weakly inhibited invasion, whereas the same molar concentrations of squash aspartic proteinase (SQAPI)-like inhibitor, isolated from squash Cucurbita pepo, showed significant inhibition (65.7+/-1.8%). We conclude that both cysteine and aspartic proteinase activities are needed for invasion by MCF-10A neoT cells in vitro. PMID:11517941

  16. Evaluation of the efficacy of a recombinant Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteinase gene (EhCP5) antigen in Minipig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guang-Zhi; Deng, Shu-Xuan; Tian, Wei-Yi; Feng, Yong

    2012-03-01

    Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteinase gene 5(EhCP5) is one of the major proteinase genes of all EhCP-transcripts. The amebiasis cysteine proteinase gene encoding an antigen from E. histolytica, as well as the recombinant EhCP5, obtained by cloning and expression of the EhCP5 gene in heterologous host Escherichia coli BL-21 (DE3), were used to evaluate their ability to induce immune protective responses in Minipig against challenge infection in a minipig-E. histolytica model. There was a 52.27% reduction (Pchallenged E. histolytica compared with that in the control group. Specific anti-EhCP5 antibodies from immune protected minipig had significantly higher levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) (P<0.0001). Our data will help to know the mechanism of vaccinal protection of E. histolytica. PMID:22202181

  17. Cloning and sequencing of cDNA encoding a rat salivary cysteine proteinase inhibitor inducible by beta-adrenergic agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, P A; Cox, J L; Barka, T; Naito, Y

    1988-12-01

    The beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol induces a unique secretory protein (LM) in the salivary glands of developing and adult rats. In order to study the regulation of growth and gene expression by catecholamines, we have isolated and sequenced several cDNA clones encoding the LM protein. Each of the LM cDNA clones described identifies, by Northern blot analyses, a single mRNA species of approximately 900 bases in size. The mRNA encoding this secreted protein was not detected in submandibular glands or brains of untreated adult rats. Sequence analyses of the LM cDNA clones revealed a striking similarity to the family 2 of cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Furthermore, when purified LM protein was used to assay for inhibition of cysteine proteinases, the data demonstrated that it is indeed a type of cysteine proteinase inhibitor. This inhibitor, termed rat cystatin S, provides the first example of cysteine proteinase inhibitors that can be induced by beta-adrenergic agonists. PMID:3263967

  18. Trichomonas vaginalis Cysteine Proteinases: Iron Response in Gene Expression and Proteolytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Guerra, Rosa Elena; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa Elvira; Puente-Rivera, Jonathan; Zamudio-Prieto, Olga; Ortega-López, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the iron response of Trichomonas vaginalis to gene family products such as the cysteine proteinases (CPs) involved in virulence properties. In particular, we examined the effect of iron on the gene expression regulation and function of cathepsin L-like and asparaginyl endopeptidase-like CPs as virulence factors. We addressed some important aspects about CPs genomic organization and we offer possible explanations to the fact that only few members of this large gene family are expressed at the RNA and protein levels and the way to control their proteolytic activity. We also summarized all known iron regulations of CPs at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels along with new insights into the possible epigenetic and miRNA processes. PMID:26090464

  19. A cysteine proteinase in the penetration glands of the cercariae of Cotylurus cornutus (Trematoda, Strigeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczo?, Tadeusz

    2011-03-01

    A cysteine proteinase from the penetration glands of Cotylurus cornutus cercariae was examined with histochemical and biochemical methods. The enzyme hydrolyzed gelatin, azocoll, azocasein, azoalbumin, N-blocked-L-arginine-4-methoxy-2-naphthylamide, and N-blocked-p-nitroanilide, but did not degrade elastin. The metal ion complexane ethylenediamine tetraacetate and the thiol-reducing compound dithioerythritol enhanced the proteinase activity, whereas the thiol-blocking compounds p-hydroxymercuribenzoate and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) inhibited it. The enzyme was also sensitive to leupeptin but insensitive to soybean trypsin inhibitor. An electrophoretic separation of extract proteins from the cercariae under acidic, non-denaturing conditions and in the presence of 0.1% gelatin in a polyacrylamide gel revealed the presence of two distinct and three weak transparent bands in the gel resulting from a gelatinolytic activity at pH 6.8. The distinct bands apparently resulted from the activity of the glandular enzyme and lysosomal cathepsin B, whereas the weak ones presumably indicated these enzymes partially degraded in the course of the preparative procedure. No gelatinolysis occurred following treatment of an extract sample with 0.1 mM NEM. PMID:20981445

  20. Cysteine proteinases of Trypanosoma cruzi: from digestive enzymes to programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Kosec

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite causing Chagas disease, contains a number of proteolytic enzymes. The recent completion of the genome sequence of the T. cruzi CL Brener clone suggests the presence of 70 cysteine peptidases, 40 serine peptidases (none of them from the chymotrypsin family, about 250 metallopeptidases (most leishmanolysin homologues, 25 threonine peptidases, and only two aspartyl peptidases, none of them from the pepsin family. The cysteine peptidases belong to 7 families of Clan CA, 3 families of Clan CD, and one each of Clans CE and CF. In Clan CA, the C1 family is represented by cruzipains 1 and 2, biochemically well characterized, as well as cathepsin B and two other cathepsins. There are a number of homologues to calpains (family C2, probably non-functional, lacking the Ca-binding domain. Family C54 includes the Atg4 proteinases (autophagins, which seem to be involved in the autophagic process. Clan CD includes family C14, the metacaspases. We have expressed the metacaspases TcMCA3 and TcMCA5, and obtained indirect evidence of their participation in programmed cell death induced by fresh human serum in the parasite. More experiments are required to better define their role in apoptosis.

  1. Beta-adrenergic induction of a cysteine-proteinase-inhibitor mRNA in rat salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, P A; Barka, T

    1989-02-01

    Transcripts encoding the cysteine-proteinase inhibitor rat cystatin S are induced in submandibular and parotid glands by the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (isoprenaline). High levels of cystatin S mRNA persist in glands of chronically treated animals for 6 days after discontinuation of the catecholamine, indicating a long half-life of the mRNA. Post-transcriptionally the size of the mRNA decreases, owing to a shortening of the poly(A) tail. PMID:2930478

  2. Effect of vinyl sulfone inhibitors of cysteine proteinases on Tritrichomonas foetus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Eduardo R; Reed, Sharon L; Corbeil, Lynette B

    2012-03-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus is a sexually transmitted protozoon that causes genital inflammation and adverse pregnancy outcomes in cattle. Cysteine proteinases (CPs) released by T. foetus degrade immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, complement component 3 and matrix proteins as well as inducing apoptosis of bovine genital epithelial cells. In this study, the efficacies of the vinyl sulfone CP inhibitors K11777 and WRR-483 were tested against CPs of T. foetus. The activity of secreted T. foetus CPs in culture supernatants was decreased in the presence of vinyl sulfone inhibitors. Inhibitor K11777 reduced the in vitro cytopathogenic effects of T. foetus in bovine foetal trophoblast cells, which are relevant target cells since this pathogen interferes with pregnancy. Pre-treatment of T. foetus prior to intravaginal inoculation diminished genital infection in a murine model. Therefore, vinyl sulfone CP inhibitors reduce several effects of T. foetus-secreted CPs, including cytotoxicity on relevant target host cells and genital infection in a murine model. These inhibitors have potential as chemotherapeutic agents against bovine trichomoniasis. Generalisation to human trichomoniasis requires further study. PMID:22104282

  3. An unequivocal example of cysteine proteinase activity affected by multiple electrostatic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M A; Baker, K C; Connerton, I F; Cummings, N J; Harris, G W; Henderson, I M; Jones, S T; Pickersgill, R W; Sumner, I G; Warwicker, J

    1994-10-01

    The role of electrostatic interactions between the ionizable Asp158 and the active site thiolate-imidazolium ion pair of some cysteine proteinases has been the subject of controversy for some time. This study reports the expression of wild type procaricain and Asp158Glu, Asp158Asn and Asp158Ala mutants from Escherichia coli. Purification of autocatalytically matured enzymes yielded sufficient fully active material for pH (kcat/Km) profiles to be obtained. Use of both uncharged and charged substrates allowed the effects of different reactive enzyme species to be separated from the complications of electrostatic effects between enzyme and substrate. At least three ionizations are detectable in the acid limb of wild type caricain and the Glu and Asn mutants. Only two pKa values, however, are detectable in the acid limb using the Ala mutant. Comparison of pH activity profiles shows that whilst an ionizable residue at position 158 is not essential for the formation of the thiolate-imidazolium ion pair, it does form a substantial part of the electrostatic field responsible for increased catalytic competence. Changing the position of this ionizable group in any way reduces activity. Complete removal of the charged group reduces catalytic competence even further. This work indicates that hydronations distant to the active site are contributing to the electrostatic effects leading to multiple active ionization states of the enzyme. PMID:7855143

  4. A Novel Trypsin Inhibitor-Like Cysteine-Rich Peptide from the Frog Lepidobatrachus laevis Containing Proteinase-Inhibiting Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Wei; Tan, Ji-Min; Du, Can-Wei; Luan, Ning; Yan, Xiu-Wen; Lai, Ren; Lu, Qiu-Min

    2015-08-01

    Various bio-active substances in amphibian skins play important roles in survival of the amphibians. Many protease inhibitor peptides have been identified from amphibian skins, which are supposed to negatively modulate the activity of proteases to avoid premature degradation or release of skin peptides, or to inhibit extracellular proteases produced by invading bacteria. However, there is no information on the proteinase inhibitors from the frog Lepidobatrachus laevis which is unique in South America. In this work, a cDNA encoding a novel trypsin inhibitor-like (TIL) cysteine-rich peptide was identified from the skin cDNA library of L. laevis. The 240-bp coding region encodes an 80-amino acid residue precursor protein containing 10 half-cysteines. By sequence comparison and signal peptide prediction, the precursor was predicted to release a 55-amino acid mature peptide with amino acid sequence, IRCPKDKIYKFCGSPCPPSCKDLTPNCIAVCKKGCFCRDGTVDNNHGKCVKKENC. The mature peptide was named LL-TIL. LL-TIL shares significant domain similarity with the peptides from the TIL supper family. Antimicrobial and trypsin-inhibitory abilities of recombinant LL-TIL were tested. Recombinant LL-TIL showed no antimicrobial activity, while it had trypsin-inhibiting activity with a Ki of 16.5178 ?M. These results suggested there was TIL peptide with proteinase-inhibiting activity in the skin of frog L. laevis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of TIL peptide from frog skin. PMID:26329591

  5. Molecular karyotype and chromosomal localization of genes encoding ß-tubulin, cysteine proteinase, hsp 70 and actin in Trypanosoma rangeli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CB Toaldo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular karyotype of nine Trypanosoma rangeli strains was analyzed by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis, followed by the chromosomal localization of ß-tubulin, cysteine proteinase, 70 kDa heat shock protein (hsp 70 and actin genes. The T. rangeli strains were isolated from either insects or mammals from El Salvador, Honduras, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama and southern Brazil. Also, T. cruzi CL-Brener clone was included for comparison. Despite the great similarity observed among strains from Brazil, the molecular karyotype of all T. rangeli strains analyzed revealed extensive chromosome polymorphism. In addition, it was possible to distinguish T. rangeli from T. cruzi by the chromosomal DNA electrophoresis pattern. The localization of ß-tubulin genes revealed differences among T. rangeli strains and confirmed the similarity between the isolates from Brazil. Hybridization assays using probes directed to the cysteine proteinase, hsp 70 and actin genes discriminated T. rangeli from T. cruzi, proving that these genes are useful molecular markers for the differential diagnosis between these two species. Numerical analysis based on the molecular karyotype data revealed a high degree of polymorphism among T. rangeli strains isolated from southern Brazil and strains isolated from Central and the northern South America. The T. cruzi reference strain was not clustered with any T. rangeli strain.

  6. X-ray crystal structure of CMS1MS2: a high proteolytic activity cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marco T R; Teixeira, Raphael D; Lopes, Míriam T P; Nagem, Ronaldo A P; Salas, Carlos E

    2012-12-01

    CMS1MS2 (CC-Ib) from Carica candamarcensis (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis) is a cysteine proteinase found as a single polypeptide containing 213 residues of 22,991 Da. The enzyme was purified by three chromatographic steps, two of them involving cationic exchange. Crystals of CMS1MS2 complexed with E-64 were obtained by the hanging drop vapor-diffusion method at 291 K using ammonium sulfate and polyethylene glycol 4000/8000 as precipitant. The complex CMS1MS2-E-64 crystallized in the tetragonal space group P4(1)2(1)2 with unit-cell parameters; a = b = 73.64, c = 118.79 Å. The structure was determined by Molecular Replacement and refined at 1.87 Å resolution to a final R factor of 16.2 % (R (free) = 19.3 %). Based on the model, the structure of CMS1MS2 (PDB 3IOQ) ranks as one of the least basic cysteine isoforms from C. candamarcensis, is structurally closer to papain, caricain, chymopapain and mexicain than to the other cysteine proteinases, while its activity is twice the activity of papain towards BAPNA substrate. Two differences, one in the S2 subsite and another in the S3 subsite of CMS1MS2 may contribute to the enhanced activity relative to papain. In addition, the model provides a structural basis for the sensitivity of CMS1MS2 to inhibition by cystatin, not shown by other enzymes of the group, e.g., glycyl endopeptidase and CMS2MS2. PMID:22610687

  7. Molecular interactions between an insect predator and its herbivore prey on transgenic potato expressing a cysteine proteinase inhibitor from rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Edith; Michaud, Dominique; Cloutier, Conrad

    2003-09-01

    Transgenic plants expressing resistance to herbivorous insects may represent a safe and sustainable pest control alternative if they do not interfere with the natural enemies of target pests. Here we examined interactions between oryzacystatin I (OCI), a proteinase inhibitor from rice genetically engineered into potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Kennebec, line K52) to increase resistance to insect herbivory, and the insect predator Perillus bioculatus. This stinkbug is a relatively specialized predator of caterpillars and leaf-beetle larvae, and may also include plant sap in its predominantly carnivorous diet. One of its preferred prey is Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), a major target of insect resistance development for potato field crops. Gelatin/sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) confirmed that a major fraction of proteinase (gelatinase) activity in P. bioculatus extracts is OCI-sensitive. Among five gelatinolytic bands detected, the slowest-moving one (proteinase I) was inhibited strongly by purified OCI expressed in Escherichia coli or by OCI-transgenic potato extracts, while three other proteinases were partly sensitive to these treatments. There was also evidence of slight inhibition of proteinase I by untransformed potato foliage, suggesting the presence of a natural inhibitor related to OCI at low level in potato foliage. Interestingly, only about 50% of the maximum potential activity of proteinase I was recovered in extracts of P. bioculatus feeding on L. decemlineata larval prey on a diet of OCI-potato foliage, indicating that the predator was sensitive to OCI in the midgut of its prey. However, P. bioculatus on OCI-prey survived, grew and developed normally, indicating ability to compensate prey-mediated exposure to the OCI inhibitor. Confinement of P. bioculatus to potato foliage provided no evidence that potato plant-derived nutrition is a viable alternative to predation, restriction to potato foliage in fact being inferior to free water for short-term survival of nonfeeding first-instar larvae. These results support the view that OCI, an effective inhibitor of a substantial fraction of digestive enzymatic potential in P. bioculatus, should not interfere with its predation potential when expressed in potato plants fed to its prey at a maximum level of approximately 0.8% of total soluble proteins in mature foliage. PMID:12919480

  8. Evaluation of the efficacy of a recombinant Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteinase (EhCP112) antigen in minipig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guang-Zhi; Deng, Shu-Xuan; An, Chuan-Wei

    2012-06-01

    Cysteine proteinases 112 (EhCP112) of Entamoeba histolytica are considered important for ameba pathogenicity. The recombinant gene was obtained by cloning and expression of the EhCP112 gene in heterologous host Escherichia coli BL-21 (DE3), were used to evaluate their ability to induce immune protective responses in minipig against challenge infection in a minipig-E. histolytica model. There was a 46.29% reduction (Pchallenged E. histolytica compared with that in the control group. Specific anti-EhCP112 antibodies from immune protected minipig had significantly higher levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) (Pminipig model of E. histolytica, and there is significant protection. This study may help to understand the EhCP112 for human in the future. PMID:22521909

  9. Analysis of human immunoglobulin-degrading cysteine proteinases of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Provenzano, D; Alderete, J F

    1995-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite that causes a widely distributed sexually transmitted disease (STD). Since immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to specific trichomonad immunogens are found in serum and vaginal washes (VWs) from patients with trichomoniasis, a potential mechanism of immune evasion by this parasite might be the ability of T. vaginalis proteinases to degrade human immunoglobulins (Igs). Incubation of human IgG with lysates of T. vaginalis organisms resulted in time- a...

  10. Porphyrin-Mediated Binding to Hemoglobin by the HA2 Domain of Cysteine Proteinases (Gingipains) and Hemagglutinins from the Periodontal Pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis

    OpenAIRE

    DeCarlo, Arthur A.; Paramaesvaran, Mayuri; Yun, Peter L. W.; Collyer, Charles; Hunter, Neil

    1999-01-01

    Heme binding and uptake are considered fundamental to the growth and virulence of the gram-negative periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. We therefore examined the potential role of the dominant P. gingivalis cysteine proteinases (gingipains) in the acquisition of heme from the environment. A recombinant hemoglobin-binding domain that is conserved between two predominant gingipains (domain HA2) demonstrated tight binding to hemin (Kd = 16 nM), and binding was ...

  11. Bmcystatin, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor characterized from the tick Boophilus microplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a blood-sucking animal, which is responsible for Babesia spp and Anaplasma marginale transmission for cattle. From a B. microplus fat body cDNA library, 465 selected clones were sequenced randomly and resulted in 60 Contigs. An open reading frame (ORF) contains 98 amino acids named Bmcystatin, due to 70% amino acid identity to a classical type 1 cystatin from Ixodes scapularis tick (GenBank Accession No. DQ066227). The Bmcystatin amino acid sequence analysis showed two cysteine residues, theoretical pI of 5.92 and Mr of 11kDa. Bmcystatin gene was cloned in pET 26b vector and the protein expressed using bacteria Escherichia coli BL21 SI. Recombinant Bmcystatin (rBmcystatin) purified by affinity chromatography on Ni-NTA-agarose column and ionic exchange chromatography on HiTrap Q column presented molecular mass of 11kDa, by SDS-PAGE and the N-terminal amino acid sequenced revealed unprocessed N-terminal containing part of pelB signal sequence. Purified rBmcystatin showed to be a C1 cysteine peptidase inhibitor with Ki value of 0.1 and 0.6nM for human cathepsin L and VTDCE (vitellin degrading cysteine endopeptidase), respectively. The rBmcystatin expression analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the amplification of a specific DNA sequence (294bp) in the fat body and ovary cDNA preparation. On the other hand, a protein band was detected in the fat body, ovary, and the salivary gland extracts using anti-Bmcystatin antibody by Western blot. The present results suggest a possible role of Bmcystatin in the ovary, even though the gene was cloned from the fat body, which could be another site of this protein synthesis

  12. Expressions of the genes for cysteine proteinase inhibitors cystatin C and cystatin S in rat submandibular salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barka, T; van der Noen, H

    1994-04-01

    Rat cystatin S and rat cystatin C are members of family 2 (cystatin) of the cystatin superfamily. All members of the cystatin family inhibit cysteine proteinases to varying degree. The expression of these two inhibitors, which have a 48% similarity at the nucleotide level, was studied in the submandibular gland using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Northern blot hybridization and in situ hybridization with digoxigenin-labelled DNA probes. Both inhibitors were expressed in the serous acinar cells of the submandibular gland. In accord with previous findings, cystatin S mRNA was induced by the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. The level of cystatin S mRNA, which was very low in the glands of untreated rats and was demonstrable by RT-PCR but not by Northern blot hybridization, was not altered by acute inflammation produced by turpentine. Neither the administration of isoproterenol nor acute inflammation had any effect on the level of cystatin C mRNA, indicating beta-adrenoreceptors are not involved in the regulation of the cystatin C gene(s) in the submandibular gland. The data indicate that these two closely related genes, expressed in the same cells, are differently regulated. The consequence of this difference in gene regulation on the physiological and pathological roles of these inhibitors remains to be established. PMID:8024495

  13. Cysteine Proteinase-1 and Cut Protein Isoform Control Dendritic Innervation of Two Distinct Sensory Fields by a Single Neuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray R. Lyons

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dendrites often exhibit structural changes in response to local inputs. Although mechanisms that pattern and maintain dendritic arbors are becoming clearer, processes regulating regrowth, during context-dependent plasticity or after injury, remain poorly understood. We found that a class of Drosophila sensory neurons, through complete pruning and regeneration, can elaborate two distinct dendritic trees, innervating independent sensory fields. An expression screen identified Cysteine proteinase-1 (Cp1 as a critical regulator of this process. Unlike known ecdysone effectors, Cp1-mutant ddaC neurons pruned larval dendrites normally but failed to regrow adult dendrites. Cp1 expression was upregulated/concentrated in the nucleus during metamorphosis, controlling production of a truncated Cut homeodomain transcription factor. This truncated Cut, but not the full-length protein, allowed Cp1-mutant ddaC neurons to regenerate higher-order adult dendrites. These results identify a molecular pathway needed for dendrite regrowth after pruning, which allows the same neuron to innervate distinct sensory fields.

  14. Three-dimensional solution structure of oryzacystatin-I, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor of the rice, Oryza sativa L. japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, K; Kudo, N; Abe, K; Arai, S; Tanokura, M

    2000-12-01

    The three-dimensional structure of oryzacystatin-I, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor of the rice, Oryza sativa L. japonica, has been determined in solution at pH 6.8 and 25 degrees C by (1)H and (15)N NMR spectroscopy. The main body (Glu13-Asp97) of oryzacystatin-I is well-defined and consists of an alpha-helix and a five-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet, while the N- and C-terminal regions (Ser2-Val12 and Ala98-Ala102) are less defined. The helix-sheet architechture of oryzacystatin-I is stabilized by a hydrophobic cluster formed between the alpha-helix and the beta-sheet and is considerably similar to that of monellin, a sweet-tasting protein from an African berry, as well as those of the animal cystatins studied, e.g., chicken egg white cystatin and human stefins A and B (also referred to as human cystatins A and B). Detailed structural comparison indicates that oryzacystatin-I is more similar to chicken cystatin, which belongs to the type-2 animal cystatins, than to human stefins A and B, which belong to the type-1 animal cystatins, despite different loop length. PMID:11101290

  15. Differential gene expression in an actinorhizal symbiosis: evidence for a nodule-specific cysteine proteinase.

    OpenAIRE

    Goetting-Minesky, M P; Mullin, B C

    1994-01-01

    Nodules formed on the roots of actinorhizal plants as a consequence of nitrogen-fixing symbioses with the actinomycete Frankia appear to result from modification of the developmental pathway that leads to lateral root formation. Presently no information exists about factors that control this developmental switch or, until now, about genes that are differentially expressed as a result of an altered developmental pathway. Differential screening of an Alnus glutinosa nodule cDNA library revealed...

  16. "Purification and evaluation of somatic, excretory-secretory and Cysteine proteinase antigens of Fasciola Hepatica using IgG-ELISA in diagnosing Fascioliasis "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Rokni MB

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis, or liver fluke disease, caused by parasites of the genus Fasciola is emerging as an important disease in man and animals, in the world and Iran, particularly in nortern parts. The economical losses in domestic animals are considerable. In the recent decade there were two major outbreaks of human fasciolosis in the Caspian region, northern part of Iran with 7000-10000 infected cases. Sicne it is impossible to diagnose fasciolosis in acute phase using coprological methods and even in chronic phases its sensitivity is low, evaluating and establishing a reliable and cost-effetive test is indispensable and notewortly.In the present survey, we produced and examined the sensitivity and specificity of liver fluke homogenate (LFH , excretory-secetory (ES and cysteine proteinase (CP antigens of F. hepatica using IgG-ELISA test. A 25-27 kilo Dalton coomassie blue-stained band was observed and using of specific inhibitors indicated that this antigen belongs to the class of cysteine proteinase. The sensitivity of LFH, ES and CP antigen in IgG-ELISa was 100% for each, while their specificity was 97.8%, 98.8% and 98.8% respectively. There was a significant difference in mean OD values between cases of proven fasciolosis and other true negative cases, including healthy control individuals and patients with other parasitic diseases.This present report is the first to demonstrate the purification and evaluation of F. hepatica cysteine proteinase antigen by IgG-ELISA test for the diagnosis of fasciolosis in Iran. In conclusion, the IgG-ELISa using ES and CP show high sensitivity and specificity and would be a valuable tool to diagnose human fasciolosis in Iran, particularly in endemic areas.

  17. A barley cysteine-protease inhibitor reduces teh performance of two aphid species in artificial diets and transgenic arabidopsis plants

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo Gil, Laura; Martinez Muñoz, Manuel; Alvarez Alfageme, Fernando; Castañera, Pedro; Smagghe, Guy; Diaz Rodriguez, Isabel; Ortego, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Cystatins from plants have been implicated in plant defense towards insects, based on their role as inhibitors of heterologous cysteine-proteinases. We have previously characterized thirteen genes encoding cystatins (HvCPI-1 to HvCPI-13) from barley (Hordeum vulgare), but only HvCPI-1 C68 ? G, a variant generated by direct-mutagenesis, has been tested against insects. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the whole gene family members of barley cystatins against two aphids, Myzu...

  18. Protein digestion in cereal aphids (Sitobion avenae) as a target for plant defence by endogenous proteinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyati, Prashant; Bandani, Ali R; Fitches, Elaine; Gatehouse, John A

    2011-07-01

    Gut extracts from cereal aphids (Sitobion avenae) showed significant levels of proteolytic activity, which was inhibited by reagents specific for cysteine proteases and chymotrypsin-like proteases. Gut tissue contained cDNAs encoding cathepsin B-like cysteine proteinases, similar to those identified in the closely related pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). Analysis of honeydew (liquid excreta) from cereal aphids fed on diet containing ovalbumin showed that digestion of ingested proteins occurred in vivo. Protein could partially substitute for free amino acids in diet, although it could not support complete development. Recombinant wheat proteinase inhibitors (PIs) fed in diet were antimetabolic to cereal aphids, even when normal levels of free amino acids were present. PIs inhibited proteolysis by aphid gut extracts in vitro, and digestion of protein fed to aphids in vivo. Wheat subtilisin/chymotrypsin inhibitor, which was found to inhibit serine and cysteine proteinases, was more effective in both inhibitory and antimetabolic activity than wheat cystatin, which inhibited cysteine proteases only. Digestion of ingested protein is unlikely to contribute significantly to nutritional requirements when aphids are feeding on phloem, and the antimetabolic activity of dietary proteinase inhibitors is suggested to result from effects on proteinases involved in degradation of endogenous proteins. PMID:21477592

  19. Global proteome changes in larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae:Bruchinae) following ingestion of a cysteine proteinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Silva, Carlos P; Alexandre, Daniel; Samuels, Richard I; Soares, Emanoella L; Aragão, Francisco J L; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Domont, Gilberto B; Roepstorff, Peter; Campos, Francisco A P

    2012-08-01

    The seed-feeding beetle Callosobruchus maculatus is an important cowpea pest (Vigna unguiculata) as well as an interesting model to study insect digestive physiology. The larvae of C. maculatus rely on cysteine and aspartic peptidases to digest proteins in their diet. In this work, the global proteomic changes induced in the intestinal tract of larval C. maculatus challenged by the ingestion of cystatin, a cysteine peptidase inhibitor, was investigated by a nanoLC-MS/MS approach. The ingestion of cystatin caused a delay in the development of the larvae, but the mortality was not high, indicating that C. maculatus is able to adapt to this inhibitor. This proteomic strategy resulted in the identification of 752 and 550 protein groups in the midgut epithelia and midgut contents, respectively, and quantitative analyses allowed us to establish relative differences of the identified proteins. Ingestion of cystatin led to significant changes in the proteome of both the midgut epithelia and midgut contents. We have observed that proteins related to plant cell wall degradation, particularly the key glycoside hydrolases of the families GH5 (endo-?-1,4-mannanase) and GH 28 (polygalacturonase) were overexpressed. Conversely, ?-amylases were downexpressed, indicating that an increase in hemicelluloses digestion helps the larvae to cope with the challenge of cystatin ingestion. Furthermore, a number of proteins associated with transcription/translation and antistress reactions were among the cystatin-responsive proteins, implying that a substantial rearrangement in the proteome occurred in C. maculatus exposed to the inhibitor. PMID:22833537

  20. Global proteome changes in larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae:Bruchinae) following ingestion of a cysteine proteinase inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Silva, Carlos P

    2012-01-01

    The seed-feeding beetle Callosobruchus maculatus is an important cowpea pest (Vigna unguiculata) as well as an interesting model to study insect digestive physiology. The larvae of C. maculatus rely on cysteine and aspartic peptidases to digest proteins in their diet. In this work, the global proteomic changes induced in the intestinal tract of larval C. maculatus challenged by the ingestion of cystatin, a cysteine peptidase inhibitor, was investigated by a nanoLC-MS/MS approach. The ingestion of cystatin caused a delay in the development of the larvae, but the mortality was not high, indicating that C. maculatus is able to adapt to this inhibitor. This proteomic strategy resulted in the identification of 752 and 550 protein groups in the midgut epithelia and midgut contents, respectively, and quantitative analyses allowed us to establish relative differences of the identified proteins. Ingestion of cystatin led to significant changes in the proteome of both the midgut epithelia and midgut contents. We have observed that proteins related to plant cell wall degradation, particularly the key glycoside hydrolases of the families GH5 (endo-?-1,4-mannanase) and GH 28 (polygalacturonase) were overexpressed. Conversely, ?-amylases were downexpressed, indicating that an increase in hemicelluloses digestion helps the larvae to cope with the challenge of cystatin ingestion. Furthermore, a number of proteins associated with transcription/translation and antistress reactions were among the cystatin-responsive proteins, implying that a substantial rearrangement in the proteome occurred in C. maculatus exposed to the inhibitor.

  1. Porphyrin-Mediated Binding to Hemoglobin by the HA2 Domain of Cysteine Proteinases (Gingipains) and Hemagglutinins from the Periodontal Pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, Arthur A.; Paramaesvaran, Mayuri; Yun, Peter L. W.; Collyer, Charles; Hunter, Neil

    1999-01-01

    Heme binding and uptake are considered fundamental to the growth and virulence of the gram-negative periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. We therefore examined the potential role of the dominant P. gingivalis cysteine proteinases (gingipains) in the acquisition of heme from the environment. A recombinant hemoglobin-binding domain that is conserved between two predominant gingipains (domain HA2) demonstrated tight binding to hemin (Kd = 16 nM), and binding was inhibited by iron-free protoporphyrin IX (Ki = 2.5 ?M). Hemoglobin binding to the gingipains and the recombinant HA2 (rHA2) domain (Kd = 2.1 nM) was also inhibited by protoporphyrin IX (Ki = 10 ?M), demonstrating an essential interaction between the HA2 domain and the heme moiety in hemoglobin binding. Binding of rHA2 with either hemin, protoporphyrin IX, or hematoporphyrin was abolished by establishing covalent linkage of the protoporphyrin propionic acid side chains to fixed amines, demonstrating specific and directed binding of rHA2 to these protoporphyrins. A monoclonal antibody which recognizes a peptide epitope within the HA2 domain was employed to demonstrate that HA2-associated hemoglobin-binding activity was expressed and released by P. gingivalis cells in a batch culture, in parallel with proteinase activity. Cysteine proteinases from P. gingivalis appear to be multidomain proteins with functions for hemagglutination, erythrocyte lysis, proteolysis, and heme binding, as demonstrated here. Detailed understanding of the biochemical pathways for heme acquisition in P. gingivalis may allow precise targeting of this critical metabolic aspect for periodontal disease prevention. PMID:10368154

  2. Interplant communication: airborne methyl jasmonate induces synthesis of proteinase inhibitors in plant leaves.

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, E.E.; Ryan, C. A.

    1990-01-01

    Inducible defensive responses in plants are known to be activated locally and systemically by signaling molecules that are produced at sites of pathogen or insect attacks, but only one chemical signal, ethylene, is known to travel through the atmosphere to activate plant defensive genes. Methyl jasmonate, a common plant secondary compound, when applied to surfaces of tomato plants, induces the synthesis of defensive proteinase inhibitor proteins in the treated plants and in nearby plants as w...

  3. Molecular insights into mechanisms of lepidopteran serine proteinase resistance to natural plant defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Fábio K; Terra, Walter R

    2015-11-27

    Plants have a wide range of chemical defenses against predation, including substances that target digestive serine proteinases of herbivorous. Previous works demonstrated that lepidopteran insects have digestive serine proteinases resistant to plant proteinase inhibitors (PPIs) and ketone modifications, while coleopteran ones are sensitive to those plant defenses. This paper focuses on molecular aspects that lead lepidopteran serine proteinases to PPI and ketone modification resistance. Using biochemical experiments and computer 3D modeling we demonstrated that lepidopteran trypsins are more hydrophobic than coleopteran ones, a feature associated to trypsin oligomerization and decreased inhibition by PPI. Moreover, the determination of pKa values of chymotrypsin catalytic residues obtained by TPCK modification indicates that the environment around the active site of ketone-resistant and -sensitive chymotrypsins are different. Structural analysis using resistant and sensitive chymotrypsins data allowed us to point 2 hotspot regions around the active site that could explain the observed differences. Our set of results highlights features of serine proteinases important for understanding the resistance of insects to plant chemical defenses. PMID:26474705

  4. Human T cell responses against the major cysteine proteinase (cruzipain) of Trypanosoma cruzi: role of the multifunctional alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor in antigen presentation by monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrot, A; Strickland, D K; Higuchi, M de L; Reis, M; Pedrosa, R; Scharfstein, J

    1997-06-01

    Chagas' disease patients (CDP) develop both humoral and cellular immune responses against the major cysteine proteinase (cruzipain) from Trypanosoma cruzi. Here we demonstrate that complexes formed by cruzipain and alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) are efficiently internalized by human monocytes, and that this process results in enhanced presentation of cruzipain peptides to CD4+ T cells from CDP. Purified or serum alpha 2M binds to polymorphic cruzipains, but only a fraction of the proteinases become covalently linked. Once bound to alpha 2M, fluorescein-labeled cruzipain (FITC-cruzipain) or [125I]cruzipain were more efficiently internalized by normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or monocytes; this effect was abolished by (I) pre-treating the cells with receptor-associated protein (rRAP), a known antagonist the of alpha 2M receptor (alpha 2MR/LRP), and (II) inactivating [125I]cruzipain's active site prior to the reaction with alpha 2M, indicating that the exposure of receptor binding sites on alpha 2M complexes required bait region cleavage. We then sought to determine if the alpha 2MR/LRP-dependent uptake of alpha 2M:cruzipain by monocytes resulted in increased CD4+ T cell responses of PBMC-CDP (n = 13). These effects were only revealed after depletion of CD19+ B lymphocytes from PBMC-CDP; the threshold of T cell stimulation was far lower in cultures stimulated with alpha 2M:cruzipain, as compared to antigen alone. Myocardial specimens from CDP with chronic myocardiopathy (three necropsies) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry with mAb anti-cruzipain or anti-alpha 2MR/LRP (CD81+). Extracellular depots of cruzipain were localized amidst inflammatory mononuclear infiltrates, part of which contained CD91+ macrophage-like cells. Ongoing studies should clarify if T. cruzi cysteinyl proteinases play a role in the pathogenesis of Chagas' heart disease. PMID:9199965

  5. Cloning, expression and evaluation of the efficacy of a recombinant Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteinase (EhCP4) antigen in minipig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guang-Zhi; Feng, Yong; Deng, Shu-Xuan; An, Chuan-Wei

    2012-04-01

    Cysteine proteinases 4 (EhCP4) of Entamoeba histolytica are considered important for ameba pathogenicity. The recombinant gene was obtained by cloning and expression of the EhCP4 gene in heterologous host Escherichia coli BL-21 (DE3), were used to evaluate their ability to induce immune protective responses in minipig against challenge infection in a minipig-E. histolytica model. There was a 53.16% reduction (Pchallenged E. histolytica compared with that in the control group. Specific anti-EhCP4 antibodies from immune protected minipig had significantly higher levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) (Pminipig model of E. histolytica, and there is significant protection. This study may help to understand the EhCP4 for human in the future. PMID:22326593

  6. Entamoeba histolytica: cloning, expression and evaluation of the efficacy of a recombinant amebiasis cysteine proteinase gene (ACP1) antigen in minipig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guang-Zhi

    2012-02-01

    The amebiasis cysteine proteinase gene (ACP1) encoding an antigen from Entamoeba histolytica, as well as the recombinant ACP1, obtained by cloning and expression of the ACP1 gene in heterologous host Escherichia coli BL-21 (DE3), were used to evaluate their ability to induce immune protective responses in minipig against challenge infection in a minipig -E. histolytica model. There was a 64.52% reduction (Pchallenged E. histolytica compared with that in the control group. Specific anti-ACP1 antibodies from immune protected minipig had significantly higher levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) (P<0.001). Our data indicate recombinant ACP1 may be a potential target as a vaccine antigen. PMID:22154977

  7. The enhancing of a cysteine proteinase activity at acidic pH by protein engineering, the role of glutamic 50 in the enzyme mechanism of caricain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeuchi, Y; Katerelos, N A; Goodenough, P W

    1998-10-16

    Carica papaya produces four cysteine proteinases. Calculations show that the Cys25, His159 essential ion pair is fully ionised at pH 2.99, where activity cannot be detected, but apparently an additional ionisation with a pKa of 4 is essential for activity (an electrostatic switch). Caricain (EC 3.4.22.30) wt and D158E genetic backgrounds were used to study the contribution of E50A to activity. E50 or E135 are candidates for the switch, E50A would be expected to reduce activity. However, activity increased at pH 5.0 in both backgrounds and at the pH optimum in D158E E50A but decreased slightly in the wt background. This challenges the hypothesis of an electrostatic switch. PMID:9804178

  8. Characterization by rapid-kinetic and equilibrium methods of the interaction between N-terminally truncated forms of chicken cystatin and the cysteine proteinases papain and actinidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, P; Nycander, M; Ylinenjärvi, K; Pol, E; Björk, I

    1992-08-15

    The interaction between five N-terminally truncated forms of chicken cystatin (starting at Leu-7, Leu-8, Gly-9, Ala-10 and Asp-15) and the cysteine proteinases papain and actinidin was studied by spectroscopic, kinetic and equilibrium methods. The u.v. absorption, near-u.v. c.d. and fluorescence emission difference spectra for the interactions with papain were all similar to the corresponding spectra for intact cystatin. The second-order association rate constants at 25 degrees C, pH 7.4, I 0.15, for the binding of the truncated forms to papain varied about 2-fold, from 6 x 10(6) to 1.5 x 10(7) M-1.s-1, and were comparable to the value of 9.9 x 10(6) M-1.s-1 for intact cystatin. In contrast, the rate constants for the dissociation of the complexes with papain increased markedly with increasing extent of truncation, from 7.5 x 10(-6)s-1 for Leu7 cystatin (a truncated form of cystatin having Leu-7 as its N-terminal amino acid) to 1.6s-1 for Ala10-cystatin, whereas the dissociation rate constants for the latter form and Asp15-cystatin were similar. Consequently, the binding affinities between the truncated cystatins and papain decreased in an analogous manner, as was also shown for the interaction with actinidin by equilibrium measurements. Studies of the binding of the truncated cystatins to inactivated papains indicated that small substituents on the active-site cysteine of the enzyme can be accommodated in the complex without any loss of affinity when the N-terminal segment of the inhibitor is removed. Taken together, the results suggest that in the N-terminal region of chicken cystatin only residues preceding Ala-10 participate in the interaction with proteinases. Of these residues, Leu-7 and Leu-8 together account for about two-thirds of the unitary free energy of binding contributed by the N-terminal region, the relative importance of the two residues being dependent on the target proteinase. Both Gly-9 and residues N-terminal of Leu-7 further stabilize the interaction but contribute substantially smaller binding energies than do the two leucine residues. PMID:1520264

  9. A group-specific inhibitor of lysosomal cysteine proteinases selectively inhibits both proteolytic degradation and presentation of the antigen dinitrophenyl-poly-L-lysine by guinea pig accessory cells to T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1986-01-01

    inhibitor. Another inhibitor, pepstatin A, which selectively blocks aspartic proteinases, did not block the presentation of dinitrophenyl-poly-L-lysine. The results identify cysteine proteinases, probably lysosomal, as one of the groups of enzymes involved in antigen processing.......A limited intralysosomal proteolytic degradation is probably a key event in the accessory cell processing of large protein antigens before their presentation to T cells. With the aid of highly specific inhibitors of proteinases, we have examined the role of proteolysis in the presentation of...... antigen-presenting cells causes a profound inhibition of both the proteolytic degradation and the presentation of the synthetic antigen dinitrophenyl-poly-L-lysine. In contrast, the presentation of another synthetic antigen, the copolymer of L-glutamic acid and L-alanine, was enhanced by the same...

  10. EndoS from Streptococcus pyogenes is hydrolyzed by the cysteine proteinase SpeB and requires glutamic acid 235 and tryptophans for IgG glycan-hydrolyzing activity

    OpenAIRE

    Olsén Arne; Allhorn Maria; Collin Mattias

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The endoglycosidase EndoS and the cysteine proteinase SpeB from the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes are functionally related in that they both hydrolyze IgG leading to impairment of opsonizing antibodies and thus enhance bacterial survival in human blood. In this study, we further investigated the relationship between EndoS and SpeB by examining their in vitro temporal production and stability and activity of EndoS. Furthermore, theoretical structure modeling of Endo...

  11. Hydrolysis of Interleukin-12 by Porphyromonas gingivalis Major Cysteine Proteinases May Affect Local Gamma Interferon Accumulation and the Th1 or Th2 T-Cell Phenotype in Periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Peter L. W.; DeCarlo, Arthur A.; Collyer, Charles; Hunter, Neil

    2001-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis cysteine proteinases (gingipains) have been associated with virulence in destructive periodontitis, a disease process variously considered to represent an unregulated stimulation of either T helper type 1 (Th1)- or Th2-type cells. Critical in maintaining Th1 activity is the response of T lymphocytes to environmental interleukin 12 (IL-12) in the form of up-regulation of gamma interferon (IFN-?) production. Here we demonstrate that in the presence or absence of serum, ...

  12. Antitumor Effects In Vitro and In Vivo and Mechanisms of Protection against Melanoma B16F10-Nex2 Cells By Fastuosain, a Cysteine Proteinase from Bromelia fastuosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla A. Guimarães-Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the antitumor effect of fastuosain, a cysteine proteinase from Bromelia fastuosa, was investigated. In the intravenous model of lung colonization in C57BI/6 mice, fastuosain and bromelain injected intraperitoneally were protective, very few nodules of B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells were detected. Tumor cells treated with fastuosain showed reduced expression of CD44 and decreased invasion through Matrigel, lost their cytoplasmic extensions and substrate adherence, became round and detached, forming strongly bound cell clusters in suspension. Peritoneal cells recruited and activated by fastuosain treatment (mainly monocytic cells and lymphocytes migrated to the lung, where pulmonary melanoma metastases grew. Adoptive transference of peritoneal cells recruited by fastuosain had no protective effect against lung metastases in recipient mice. Treatment of green fluorescent protein -chimeric animals with fastuosain did not change the number of cells that migrated to the lung, compared to PBSinjected control mice, but the number of positive major histocompatibility complex class II cells increased with fastuosain treatment. Murine antibodies against fastuosain, bromelain, cathepsins B and L crossreacted in ELISA and recognized surface and cytoplasmic components expressed on B16F10-Nex2 cells. Anti-fastuosain antibodies were cytotoxic/lytic to B16F10-Nex2 cells. Antitumor effects of fastuosain involve mainly the direct effect of the enzyme and elicitation of protective antibodies.

  13. EndoS from Streptococcus pyogenes is hydrolyzed by the cysteine proteinase SpeB and requires glutamic acid 235 and tryptophans for IgG glycan-hydrolyzing activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsén Arne

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endoglycosidase EndoS and the cysteine proteinase SpeB from the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes are functionally related in that they both hydrolyze IgG leading to impairment of opsonizing antibodies and thus enhance bacterial survival in human blood. In this study, we further investigated the relationship between EndoS and SpeB by examining their in vitro temporal production and stability and activity of EndoS. Furthermore, theoretical structure modeling of EndoS combined with site-directed mutagenesis and chemical blocking of amino acids was used to identify amino acids required for the IgG glycan-hydrolyzing activity of EndoS. Results We could show that during growth in vitro S. pyogenes secretes the IgG glycan-hydrolyzing endoglycosidase EndoS prior to the cysteine proteinase SpeB. Upon maturation SpeB hydrolyzes EndoS that then loses its IgG glycan-hydrolyzing activity. Sequence analysis and structural homology modeling of EndoS provided a basis for further analysis of the prerequisites for IgG glycan-hydrolysis. Site-directed mutagenesis and chemical modification of amino acids revealed that glutamic acid 235 is an essential catalytic residue, and that tryptophan residues, but not the abundant lysine or the single cysteine residues, are important for EndoS activity. Conclusion We present novel information about the amino acid requirements for IgG glycan-hydrolyzing activity of the immunomodulating enzyme EndoS. Furthermore, we show that the cysteine proteinase SpeB processes/degrades EndoS and thus emphasize the importance of the SpeB as a degrading/processing enzyme of proteins from the bacterium itself.

  14. Variation in aspects of cysteine proteinase catalytic mechanism deduced by spectroscopic observation of dithioester intermediates, kinetic analysis and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J D; Hussain, S; Sreedharan, S K; Bailey, T S; Pinitglang, S; Thomas, E W; Verma, C S; Brocklehurst, K

    2001-07-15

    The possibility of a slow post-acylation conformational change during catalysis by cysteine proteinases was investigated by using a new chromogenic substrate, N-acetyl-Phe-Gly methyl thionoester, four natural variants (papain, caricain, actinidin and ficin), and stopped-flow spectral analysis to monitor the pre-steady state formation of the dithioacylenzyme intermediates and their steady state hydrolysis. The predicted reversibility of acylation was demonstrated kinetically for actinidin and ficin, but not for papain or caricain. This difference between actinidin and papain was investigated by modelling using QUANTA and CHARMM. The weaker binding of hydrophobic substrates, including the new thionoester, by actinidin than by papain may not be due to the well-known difference in their S2-subsites, whereby that of actinidin in the free enzyme is shorter due to the presence of Met211. Molecular dynamics simulation suggests that during substrate binding the sidechain of Met211 moves to allow full access of a Phe sidechain to the S2-subsite. The highly anionic surface of actinidin may contribute to the specificity difference between papain and actinidin. During subsequent molecular dynamics simulations the P1 product, methanol, diffuses rapidly (over<8 ps) out of papain and caricain but 'lingers' around the active centre of actinidin. Uniquely in actinidin, an Asp142-Lys145 salt bridge allows formation of a cavity which appears to constrain diffusion of the methanol away from the catalytic site. The cavity then undergoes large scale movements (over 4.8 A) in a highly correlated manner, thus controlling the motions of the methanol molecule. The changes in this cavity that release the methanol might be those deduced kinetically. PMID:11439083

  15. Plant proteinaceous inhibitors of proteinases and alpha-amylases

    OpenAIRE

    García Olmedo, Francisco; Salcedo Duran, Gabriel; Sánchez-Monge Laguna de Rins, Rosa; Gómez, Luis; Royo, Joaquin; Carbonero Zalduegui, Pilar

    1987-01-01

    Plant proteins which are inhibitory towards various types of enzymes from a wide range of organisms have been extensively studied for many y e a r s . P r o t e i n a s e inhibitors have received particular a t t e n t i o n and accordingly a number of reviews concerning their s t r u c t u r e , a c t i v i t y , evolution, possible physiological roles and n u t r i t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s have appeared regularly in the l i t e r a t u re (Ryan, 1973, 1981, 1984; Laskowski and Kato, ...

  16. Signaling in the plant cytosol: cysteine or sulfide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotor, Cecilia; Laureano-Marín, Ana M; Moreno, Inmaculada; Aroca, Ángeles; García, Irene; Romero, Luis C

    2015-10-01

    Cysteine (Cys) is the first organic compound containing reduced sulfur that is synthesized in the last stage of plant photosynthetic assimilation of sulfate. It is a very important metabolite not only because it is crucial for the structure, function and regulation of proteins but also because it is the precursor molecule of an enormous number of sulfur-containing metabolites essential for plant health and development. The biosynthesis of Cys is accomplished by the sequential reaction of serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and O-acetylserine(thiol)synthase (OASTL). In Arabidopsis thaliana, the analysis of specific mutants of members of the SAT and OASTL families has demonstrated that the cytosol is the compartment where the bulk of Cys synthesis takes place and that the cytosolic OASTL enzyme OAS-A1 is the responsible enzyme. Another member of the OASTL family is DES1, a novel L-cysteine desulfhydrase that catalyzes the desulfuration of Cys to produce sulfide, thus acting in a manner opposite to that of OAS-A1. Detailed studies of the oas-a1 and des1 null mutants have revealed the involvement of the DES1 and OAS-A1 proteins in coordinate regulation of Cys homeostasis and the generation of sulfide in the cytosol for signaling purposes. Thus, the levels of Cys in the cytosol strongly affect plant responses to both abiotic and biotic stress conditions, while sulfide specifically generated from the degradation of Cys negatively regulates autophagy induced in different situations. In conclusion, modulation of the levels of Cys and sulfide is likely critical for plant performance. PMID:24990521

  17. Characterization of cysteine proteases in Malian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah, Sékou; Paulsen, Berit S; Diallo, Drissa; Johansen, Harald T

    2006-09-19

    Extracts form 10 different Malian medicinal plants with a traditional use against schistosomiasis were investigated for their possible content of proteolytic activity. The proteolytic activity was studied by measuring the hydrolysis of two synthetic peptide substrates Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec and Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec. Legumain- and papain-like activities were found in all tested crude extracts except those from Entada africana, with the papain-like activity being the strongest. Cissus quadrangularis, Securidaca longepedunculata and Stylosanthes erecta extracts showed high proteolytic activities towards both substrates. After gel filtration the proteolytic activity towards the substrate Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec in root extract of Securidaca longepedunculata appeared to have Mr of 30 and 97kDa, while the activity in extracts from Cissus quadrangularis was at 39kDa. Enzymatic activity cleaving the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec showed apparent Mr of 97 and 26kDa in extracts from roots and leaves of Securidaca longepedunculata, while in Cissus quadrangularis extracts the activity eluted at 39 and 20kDa, with the highest activity in the latter. All Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec activities were inhibited by E-64 but unaffected by PMSF. The legumain activity was unaffected by E-64 and PMSF. The SDS-PAGE analysis exhibited five distinct gelatinolytic bands for Cissus quadrangularis extracts (115, 59, 31, 22 and 20kDa), while two bands (59 and 30kDa) were detected in Securidaca longepedunculata extracts. The inhibition profile of the gelatinolytic bands and that of the hydrolysis of the synthetic substrates indicate the cysteine protease class of the proteolytic activities. Several cysteine protease activities with different molecular weights along with a strong variability of these activities between species as well as between plant parts from the same species were observed. PMID:16621376

  18. Targeted expression of cystatin restores fertility in cysteine protease induced male sterile tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Pawan; Subhashini, Mranu; Singh, Naveen Kumar; Ahmed, Israr; Trishla, Shalibhadra; Kirti, P B

    2016-05-01

    Fertility restoration in male sterile plants is an essential requirement for their utilization in hybrid seed production. In an earlier investigation, we have demonstrated that the targeted expression of a cysteine protease in tapetal cell layer resulted in complete male sterility in tobacco transgenic plants. In the present investigation, we have used a cystatin gene, which encodes for a cysteine protease inhibitor, from a wild peanut, Arachis diogoi and developed a plant gene based restoration system for cysteine protease induced male sterile transgenic tobacco plants. We confirmed the interaction between the cysteine protease and a cystatin of the wild peanut, A. diogoi through in silico modeling and yeast two-hybrid assay. Pollen from primary transgenic tobacco plants expressing cystatin gene under the tapetum specific promoter- TA29 restored fertility on cysteine protease induced male sterile tobacco plants developed earlier. This has confirmed the in vivo interaction of cysteine protease and cystatin in the tapetal cells, and the inactivation of cysteine protease and modulation of its negative effects on pollen fertility. Both the cysteine protease and cystatin genes are of plant origin in contrast to the analogous barnase-barstar system that deploys genes of prokaryotic origin. Because of the deployment of genes of plant origin, this system might not face biosafety problems in developing hybrids in food crops. PMID:26993235

  19. In vivo inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera gut pro-proteinase activation by non-host plant protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parde, Vinod D; Sharma, Hari C; Kachole, Manvendra S

    2010-09-01

    We evaluated 22 different host and non-host plant protease inhibitors (PIs) for in vivo inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera gut pro- and proteinases, and their biological activity against the pod borer, H. armigera, the most important pest of agriculture and horticultural crops worldwide. In vitro activation of H. armigera gut pro-proteinases (HaGPPs) in larvae fed on non-host plant PIs showed significant in vivo inhibition of HaGPPs activation in solution as well as in gel assays. The larvae fed on diet incorporated with Datura alba ness PIs showed highest inhibition of HaGPPs, followed by Psophocarpus tetragonolobus. Non-host plant PIs from Pongamia pinnata, Mucuna pruriens, Capsicum annuum, and Nigela sativa showed maximum inhibitory potential towards HaGPs in vivo, and also exhibited moderate level of inhibition of pro-proteinases. However, some of non-host plant PIs, such as those from Penganum harmala and Solanum nigrum, and the principal host plant PIs, viz., Cicer arietinum and Cajanus cajan did not inhibit HaGPP activity. Pro-proteinase level increased with the growth of the larvae, and maximum HaGPP activity was observed in the fifth-instars. Larvae fed on diets with D. alba ness PIs showed greater inhibition of HaGPPs as compared to the larvae fed on diets with P. tetragonolobus. Low concentrations of partially purified HaGPs treated with gut extract of larvae fed on D. alba ness showed that out of 10 proteinase isoforms, HaGPs 5 and 9 were activators of pro-proteinases. Larval growth and development were significantly reduced in the larvae fed on the non-host plant PIs, of which D. alba ness resulted in highest stunted growth of H. armigera larvae. The in vivo studies indicated that non-host plant PIs were good candidates as inhibitors of the HaGPs as well as HaGPPs. The PIs from the non-host plants can be expressed in genetically engineered plants to confer resistance to H. armigera. PMID:20416317

  20. In vitro synthesis of pre-proteins of vacuolar compartmented proteinase inhibitors that accumulate in leaves of wounded tomato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Christopher E.; Ryan, Clarence A.

    1980-01-01

    Two proteinase inhibitor proteins that are compartmented in leaf vacuoles (lysosomes) were synthesized in vitro. mRNA was isolated from 17-day-old expanding tomato leaves by extraction with chaotropic buffers followed by chromatography on oligo(dT)-cellulose and was translated with a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. Preparations of mRNA from leaves of both wounded plants and unwounded plants directed the incorporation of equivalent amounts of label into trichloroacetic acid-precipitable pro...

  1. A novel plant cysteine-rich peptide family conferring cadmium tolerance to yeast and plants

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, Taiki; Kuramata, Masato; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Kitagawa, Etsuko; Youssefian, Shohab; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2009-01-01

    We have identified a novel cDNA clone, termed DcCDT1, from Digitaria ciliaris, that confers cadmium (Cd)-tolerance to yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The gene encodes a predicted peptide of 55 amino acid residues of which 15 (27.3%) are cysteine residues. We found that monocotyledonous plants possess multiple DcCDT1 homologues, for example rice contains five DcCDT1 homologues (designated OsCDT1?5), whereas dicotyledonous plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica rapa, poplar (Populus...

  2. FRACTIONATION OF DIGESTIVE PROTEINASES FROM TENEBRIO MOLITOR (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE) LARVAE AND ROLE IN PROTEIN DIGESTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenebrio molitor larval digestive proteinases were purified and characterized by gel filtration chromatography combined with activity electrophoresis. Cysteine proteinases, consisting of at least six distinct activities, were found in three chromatographic peaks in anterior and posterior midgut chro...

  3. Plant cysteine oxidases control the oxygen-dependent branch of the N-end-rule pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weits, Daan A; Giuntoli, Beatrice; Kosmacz, Monika; Parlanti, Sandro; Hubberten, Hans-Michael; Riegler, Heike; Hoefgen, Rainer; Perata, Pierdomenico; van Dongen, Joost T; Licausi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    In plant and animal cells, amino-terminal cysteine oxidation controls selective proteolysis via an oxygen-dependent branch of the N-end rule pathway. It remains unknown how the N-terminal cysteine is specifically oxidized. Here we identify plant cysteine oxidase (PCO) enzymes that oxidize the penultimate cysteine of ERF-VII transcription factors by using oxygen as a co-substrate, thereby controlling the lifetime of these proteins. Consequently, ERF-VII proteins are stabilized under hypoxia and activate the molecular response to low oxygen while the expression of anaerobic genes is repressed in air. Members of the PCO family are themselves targets of ERF-VII transcription factors, generating a feedback loop that adapts the stress response according to the extent of the hypoxic condition. Our results reveal that PCOs act as sensor proteins for oxygen in plants and provide an example of how proactive regulation of the N-end rule pathway balances stress response to optimal growth and development in plants. PMID:24599061

  4. Multiple insect resistance in transgenic tomato plants over-expressing two families of plant proteinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeen, Ashraf; Virgós, Ariadna; Olivella, Elisenda; Villanueva, Josep; Avilés, Xavier; Gabarra, Rosa; Prat, Salomé

    2005-01-01

    Protease inhibitors have been proposed as potential defense molecules for increased insect resistance in crop plants. Compensatory over-production of insensitive proteases in the insect, however, has limited suitability of these proteins in plant protection, with very high levels of inhibitor required for increased plant resistance. In this study we have examined whether combined used of two inhibitors is effective to prevent this compensatory response. We show that leaf-specific over-expression of the potato PI-II and carboxypeptidase inhibitors (PCI) results in increased resistance to Heliothis obsoleta and Liriomyza trifolii larvae in homozygote tomato lines expressing high levels (>1% the total soluble proteins) of the transgenes. Leaf damage in hemizygous lines for these transformants was, however, more severe than in the controls, thus evidencing a compensation response of the larvae to the lower PI concentrations in these plants. Development of comparable adaptive responses in both insects suggests that insect adaptation does not entail specific recognition of the transgene, but rather represents a general adaptive mechanism triggered in response to the nutritional stress imposed by sub-lethal concentrations of the inhibitors. Combined expression of defense genes with different mechanisms of action rather than combinations of inhibitors may then offer a better strategy in pest management as it should be more effective in overcoming this general adaptive response in the insect. PMID:15821877

  5. Expression of the cysteine proteinase inhibitor cystatin C gene in rat heart: use of digoxigenin-labeled probes generated by polymerase chain reaction directly for in situ and northern blot hybridizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barka, T; van der Noen, H

    1993-12-01

    Cystatins represent a widely distributed superfamily of cysteine proteinase inhibitory proteins. We investigated the expression of the cystatin C gene, belonging to the family 2 of cystatins, in the hearts of female rats. Using a highly sensitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) we have detected cystatin C mRNA in the ventricule and atrium, as well as in liver and submandibular gland. A digoxigenin-labeled cystatin C probe, generated by PCR, hybridized to a single mRNA species of about 700 nucleotides on Northern blots. Northern blot hybridizations established that neither an acute inflammation produced by injection of turpentine nor administration of the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol had an effect on the level of cystatin C mRNA in the heart. In situ hybridizations with digoxigenin-labeled probe localized the expression of the cystatin C gene to cardiac muscle fibers but not to other cardiac cellular elements. Cystatin C may be released by cardiac muscle fibers under physiological and pathological conditions and may modify inflammatory and necrobiotic processes. PMID:8245434

  6. The N-terminal part of recombinant human tear lipocalin/von Ebner's gland protein confers cysteine proteinase inhibition depending on the presence of the entire cystatin-like sequence motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnar, P; van't Hof, W; Merschak, P; Lechner, M; Redl, B

    2001-10-01

    Human Tear Lipocalin/von Ebner's gland protein (TL) is a member of the lipocalin superfamily. The protein is secreted by a number of serous glands and tissues and is overproduced under conditions of stress, infection and inflammation. In addition to its typical affinity for lipophilic ligands it was recently found to be able to inhibit cysteine proteinases [van't Hof et al., J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997), 1837-1841], probably due to the presence of amino acid motifs resembling the papain binding domains of family 2 cystatins. In this work we have used a recombinant protein to confirm the results obtained with native TL. The inhibitory activity of the recombinant protein against papain was dependent on the ratio of papain and TL. At higher papain concentrations, the N-terminal sequence of TL was cleaved off by the protease, indicating that it can act in an inhibitor- or a substrate-like mode. This behaviour resembles that observed with certain chicken cystatin mutants. Using a recombinant TL mutant we found that the two Leu residues (Leu4-Leu5) contained within the first cystatin-like motif are absolutely essential for the inhibitory activity. These results were supported by experiments using a recombinant form of the corresponding pig von Ebner's gland protein (VEGp). This protein, which does not possess a fully conserved first cystatin-like motif, is unable to inhibit papain. PMID:11727836

  7. Hydrolysis of Interleukin-12 by Porphyromonas gingivalis Major Cysteine Proteinases May Affect Local Gamma Interferon Accumulation and the Th1 or Th2 T-Cell Phenotype in Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Peter L. W.; Decarlo, Arthur A.; Collyer, Charles; Hunter, Neil

    2001-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis cysteine proteinases (gingipains) have been associated with virulence in destructive periodontitis, a disease process variously considered to represent an unregulated stimulation of either T helper type 1 (Th1)- or Th2-type cells. Critical in maintaining Th1 activity is the response of T lymphocytes to environmental interleukin 12 (IL-12) in the form of up-regulation of gamma interferon (IFN-?) production. Here we demonstrate that in the presence or absence of serum, gingipains were able to hydrolyze IL-12 and reduce the IL-12-induced IFN-? production from CD4+ T cells. However, the induction of IL-12 receptors on T cells by gingipains did not correlate with the enhancement of IFN-? production. The gingipains cleaved IL-12 within the COOH-terminal region of the p40 and p35 subunit chains, which leads to IL-12 inactivity, whereas IL-2 in these assays was not affected. Inactivation of IL-12 by the gingipains could disrupt the cytokine balance or favor Th2 activities in the progression of periodontitis. PMID:11500441

  8. Modulation of an Interleukin-12 and Gamma Interferon Synergistic Feedback Regulatory Cycle of T-Cell and Monocyte Cocultures by Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide in the Absence or Presence of Cysteine Proteinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Peter L. W.; DeCarlo, Arthur A.; Collyer, Charles; Hunter, Neil

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is an efficient inducer and enhancer of gamma interferon (IFN-?) production by both resting and activated T cells. There is evidence that human monocytes exposed to IFN-? have enhanced ability to produce IL-12 when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In this study, it was demonstrated that LPS from the oral periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis stimulated monocytes primed with IFN-? to release IL-12, thereby enhancing IFN-? accumulation in T-cell populations. P. gingivalis LPS was shown to enhance IL-12 induction of IFN-? in T cells in a manner independent from TNF-? contribution. The levels of T-cell IL-12 receptors were not affected by P. gingivalis LPS and played only a minor role in the magnitude of the IFN-? response. These data suggest that LPS from P. gingivalis establishes an activation loop with IL-12 and IFN-? with potential to augment the production of inflammatory cytokines in relation to the immunopathology of periodontitis. We previously reported that the major cysteine proteinases (gingipains) copurifying with LPS in this organism were responsible for reduced IFN-? accumulation in the presence of IL-12. However, the addition of the gingipains in the presence of LPS resulted in partial restoration of the IFN-? levels. In the destructive periodontitis lesion, release of gingipains from the outer membrane (OM) of P. gingivalis could lead to the downregulation of Th1 responses, while gingipain associated with LPS in the OM or in OM vesicles released from the organism could have net stimulatory effects. PMID:12228299

  9. Plant cysteine-rich peptides that inhibit pathogen growth and control rhizobial differentiation in legume nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maróti, Gergely; Downie, J Allan; Kondorosi, Éva

    2015-08-01

    Plants must co-exist with both pathogenic and beneficial microbes. Antimicrobial peptides with broad antimicrobial activities represent one of the first lines of defense against pathogens. Many plant cysteine-rich peptides with potential antimicrobial properties have been predicted. Amongst them, defensins and defensin-like peptides are the most abundant and plants can express several hundreds of them. In some rhizobial-legume symbioses special defensin-like peptides, the nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides have evolved in those legumes whose symbiotic partner terminally differentiates. In Medicago truncatula, >700 NCRs exist and collectively act as plant effectors inducing irreversible differentiation of rhizobia to nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. Cationic NCR peptides have a broad range of potent antimicrobial activities but do not kill the endosymbionts. PMID:26116977

  10. A cysteine endopeptidase ("dionain") is involved in the digestive fluid of Dionaea muscipula (Venus's fly-trap).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenji; Suzuki, Takehiro; Nishii, Wataru; Kubota, Keiko; Shibata, Chiaki; Isobe, Toshiaki; Dohmae, Naoshi

    2011-01-01

    The carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula (Venus's flytrap) secretes proteinases into the digestive fluid to digest prey proteins. In this study, we obtained evidence that the digestive fluid contains a cysteine endopeptidase, presumably belonging to the papain family, through inhibitor studies and partial amino acid sequencing of the major SDS-PAGE band protein. The name "dionain" is proposed for the enzyme. PMID:21307583

  11. Role for different cell proteinases in cancer invasion and cytolysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Zucker, S.; Beck, G.; DiStefano, J. F.; Lysik, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    The crucial role of non-plasminogen dependent serine proteinases is tissue invasive and cytolytic functions of Walker 256 cancer cells has been documented using a rat urinary bladder invasion and a 125I-labelled fibroblast cytolysis assay. The invasive capacity of these cancer cells was abrogated by non toxic concentrations of the serine proteinase inhibitors, diisopropylfluorophosphate and phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, but not by metallo or cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Although tumour cel...

  12. A bacterial cysteine protease effector protein interferes with photosynthesis to suppress plant innate immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Herva, Jose Juan; Gonzalez-Melendi de Leon, Pablo; Cuartas-Lanza, Raquel; Antúnez-Lamas, María; Río-Álvarez, Isabel; Li, Ziduo; López-Torrejón, Gema; Diaz Rodriguez, Isabel; Pozo, Juan C. del; Chakravarthy, Suma; Collmer, Alan; Rodriguez Palenzuela, Pablo; Lopez Solanilla, Emilia

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 suppresses plant innate immunity with effector proteins injected by a type III secretion system (T3SS). The cysteine protease effector HopN1, which reduces the ability of DC3000 to elicit programmed cell death in non-host tobacco, was found to also suppress the production of defence-associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and callose when delivered by Pseudomonas fluorescens heterologously expressing a P. syringae T3SS. Purified Hi...

  13. A comparative study of the expression of serine proteinases in quiescent seeds and in developing Canavalia ensiformis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demartini, Diogo Ribeiro; Wlodawer, Alexander; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2007-01-01

    An alkaline proteinase activity is present in quiescent seeds and up to the 24th day of development of Canavalia ensiformis DC (L.) plants. By a simple protocol consisting of cation exchange chromatography, followed by an anion exchange column, a serine proteinase (Q-SP) was purified to homogeneity from quiescent seeds. Q-SP consists of a 33 kDa chain with an optimum pH between 8.0 and 9.0. Arginine residues at P1 and P2 subsites favour binding to the substrate, as shown by the KM assay with N-alpha-benzoyl-DL-arginine-4-nitroanilide-hydrochloride and N-benzoylcarboxyl-L-arginyl-L-arginine-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin. The same protocol was used for partial purification of benzamidine-sensitive enzymes from the developing plant. On the 7th day, a new benzamidine-sensitive enzyme is synthesized in the seedling, seen as the second active peak appearing in anion exchange chromatography. A benzamidine-sensitive enzyme purified from cotyledons presented a similar gel filtration profile as Q-SP, although it was eluted at different salt concentrations in the anion exchange chromatography. None of the enzymes was inhibited by PMSF, APMSF, or SBTI, but they were inactivated by benzamidine, TLCK, and leupeptin. Q-SP did not cleave in vitro C. ensiformis urease, concanavalin A, or its main storage protein, canavalin. In conclusion, a ubiquitous benzamidine-sensitive proteolytic activity was found in C. ensiformis from quiescent seeds up to 24 d of growth, which apparently is not involved in the hydrolysis of storage proteins and might participate in an as yet unidentified limited proteolysis event. PMID:17158110

  14. Tumor cell proteinase visualization and quantification using a fluorescent transition-state analog probe.

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlowski, K A; Wezeman, F. H.; Schultz, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    The fluorescent proteinase transition-state analog inhibitor, dansyl-L-argininal (DnsArgH), may be a selective probe of cysteine and serine-type proteinases in a fibrosarcoma tumor cell line (HSDM1C1). DnsArgH binds with high affinity to proteinases because of its transition-state analog properties, and on association it gives a dramatically increased fluorescent yield. The DnsArgH binding is inhibited by the serine proteinase inhibitor diisopropyl fluorophosphate and by the cysteine proteina...

  15. Degradation of collagen types I, III, IV and V by extracellular proteinases of an oral flagellate Trichomonas tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bózner, P; Demes, P

    1991-01-01

    Proteinases secreted by an axenic strain of Trichomonas tenax were active against native types I, III, IV and V collagens when evaluated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Degradation of all four collagen types was temperature dependent. Basement membrane type IV collagen was digested most effectively. An inhibition of all collagenolytic activities by a specific inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, E-64, and activation by a reducing agent, dithiothreitol, indicated the involvement of cysteine proteinases of the oral flagellate in the cleavage of collagen. PMID:1747075

  16. The toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles on the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khataee, Alireza, E-mail: ar_khataee@yahoo.com [University of Tabriz, Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Movafeghi, Ali [University of Tabriz, Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nazari, Fatemeh [University of Tabriz, Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vafaei, Fatemeh [University of Tabriz, Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dadpour, Mohammad Reza [University of Tabriz, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hanifehpour, Younes; Joo, Sang Woo, E-mail: swjoo@yu.ac.kr [Yeungnam University, School of Mechanical Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Plants play an important role in the fate of nanoparticles in the environment through their uptake, bioaccumulation, and transfer to trophic chains. However, the impacts of nanoparticles on plants as essential components of all ecosystems are not well documented. In the present study, the toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles on Spirodela polyrrhiza as an aquatic higher plant species were studied. l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles were synthesized using hydrothermal method and their characteristics were determined by XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, and FT-IR techniques. The diameter of majority of synthesized nanoparticles was about 15–20 nm. Subsequently, the uptake of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles by the plant species was confirmed using epifluorescence microscopy. The activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase as antioxidant enzymes was assayed and the relative frond number was calculated in the presence of different concentrations of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles. The obtained results revealed the toxic effects of the synthesized nanoparticles on S. polyrrhiza, leading to growth reduction and significant changes in antioxidant enzymes’ activity.Graphical Abstract.

  17. The toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles on the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants play an important role in the fate of nanoparticles in the environment through their uptake, bioaccumulation, and transfer to trophic chains. However, the impacts of nanoparticles on plants as essential components of all ecosystems are not well documented. In the present study, the toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles on Spirodela polyrrhiza as an aquatic higher plant species were studied. l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles were synthesized using hydrothermal method and their characteristics were determined by XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, and FT-IR techniques. The diameter of majority of synthesized nanoparticles was about 15–20 nm. Subsequently, the uptake of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles by the plant species was confirmed using epifluorescence microscopy. The activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase as antioxidant enzymes was assayed and the relative frond number was calculated in the presence of different concentrations of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles. The obtained results revealed the toxic effects of the synthesized nanoparticles on S. polyrrhiza, leading to growth reduction and significant changes in antioxidant enzymes’ activity.Graphical Abstract

  18. Proteinase activity in latex of three plants of the family Euphorbiaceae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréa Michel, Sobottka; Fabiana, Tonial; Sonja, Sytwala; Matthias, Melzig.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dentro da família Euphorbiaceae, os gêneros Euphorbia e Sapium são conhecidos por incluírem basicamente espécies produtoras de látex. No presente estudo, o látex das plantas Euphorbia selloi (Klotzsch & Garcke) Boiss., Euphorbia papillosa A.St.-Hil. e Sapium glandulosum (L.) Morong, espécies nativas [...] do Brasil, foi analisado em relação à atividade proteolítica. Todas as amostras analisadas possuem proteínas com significativa atividade, sendo que o látex da espécie E. papillosa apresenta a maior atividade específica. Com o objetivo de analisar quais os tipos de proteases responsáveis pela atividade proteolítica, realizaram-se ensaios com diferentes inibidores. Nas três plantas testadas a atividade foi inibida significativamente pelo cloridrato de 4-(fluoreto de 2-aminoetilbenzenossulfonil) (AEBSF), um inibidor de serino-proteases. Utilizando técnicas de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE), as subunidades das proteínas foram separadas de acordo com sua massa molecular e, através da zimografia, a atividade proteolítica pode ser detectada visualmente. Abstract in english In the family of Euphorbiaceae, the genera Euphorbia and Sapium are known to contain essentially latex-bearing species. In the present study, the latex of Euphorbia selloi (Klotzsch & Garcke) Boiss., Euphorbia papillosa A.St.-Hil., and Sapium glandulosum (L.) Morong, plants native from Brazil, were [...] examined concerning proteolytic activity. All studied species have proteins with significant proteolytic activity and E. papillosa has the greatest specific activity. Aiming to verify the type of protease present, an assay with different inhibitors was performed. In the three tested plants, the proteolytic activity was significantly inhibited by a serine protease inhibitor 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF). Using techniques of electrophoresis with polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE), the subunits of proteins were separated according to their molecular masses, and the protein activity was visually detected by zymography.

  19. Plant serine proteinase inhibitors. Structure and biochemical applications on plasma kallikrein and related enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, C A; Oliva, M L; Sampaio, M U; Batista, I F; Bueno, N R; Tanaka, A S; Auerswald, E A; Fritz, H

    1996-05-01

    The action of two Bowman-Birk and several plant Kunitz-type inhibitors were studied on trypsin, chymotrypsin, plasma kallikrein and factor XII. The primary structure of some of them was completely defined. The results showed that the Bowman-Birk type inhibitors, although potent inhibitors for trypsin (Ki in the range of 1-2 nM), are not able to inhibit plasma kallikrein. Factor XII (Ki = 1.4 microM) and chymotrypsin (Ki = 5.0 nM) are inhibited by Torresea cearensis trypsin inhibitor (TcTI) but not by Dioclea glabra trypsin inhibitor (DgTI). Both inhibitors reactive site regions are highly homologous, and the amino acid residues in P1 position are the same, Lys and His; major differences are in the charge of the C-terminal portion of the molecules. The studied Kunitz-type inhibitors were all able to inhibit plasma kallikrein (Ki between 4 and 80 nM), with the exception of Schizolobium parahyba chymotrypsin inhibitor (SpCI), that is specific for chymotrypsin. All Kunitz-type inhibitors inactivate chymotrypsin, but with a dissociation constant in the range of 0.1 to 0.6 microM. Factor XIIf is inhibited with Ki in the range of 0.1 microM. Bauhinia bauhinioides trypsin inhibitor (BbTI) did not promote factor XIIf inhibition. The Kunitz-type inhibitors are a highly homologous, sharing 60% identity in the N-terminal portion of the loop containing the reactive site, and 28.6% identity in the C-terminal portion of the same loop. PMID:8796268

  20. PAPAIN, A PLANT ENZYME OF BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ezekiel Amri; Florence Mamboya

    2012-01-01

    Papain is a plant proteolytic enzyme for the cysteine proteinase family cysteine protease enzyme in which enormous progress has been made to understand its functions. Papain is found naturally in papaya (Carica papaya L.) manufactured from the latex of raw papaya fruits. The enzyme is able to break down organic molecules made of amino acids, known as polypeptides and thus plays a crucial role in diverse biological processes in physiological and pathological states, drug designs, industrial us...

  1. Proteinase activity regulation by glycosaminoglycans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tersariol I.L.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few reports concerning the biological role and the mechanisms of interaction between proteinases and carbohydrates other than those involved in clotting. It has been shown that the interplay of enzymes and glycosaminoglycans is able to modulate the activity of different proteases and also to affect their structures. From the large number of proteases belonging to the well-known protease families and also the variety of carbohydrates described as widely distributed, only few events have been analyzed more deeply. The term "family" is used to describe a group of proteases in which every member shows an evolutionary relationship to at least one other protease. This relationship may be evident throughout the entire sequence, or at least in that part of the sequence responsible for catalytic activity. The majority of proteases belong to the serine, cysteine, aspartic or metalloprotease families. By considering the existing limited proteolysis process, in addition to the initial idea that the proteinases participate only in digestive processes, it is possible to conclude that the function of the enzymes is strictly limited to the cleavage of intended substrates since the destruction of functional proteins would result in normal tissue damage. In addition, the location as well as the eventual regulation of protease activity promoted by glycosaminoglycans can play an essential role in the development of several physiopathological conditions.

  2. Characterization of the cathepsin B-like proteinases of Trichomonas tenax ATCC 30207.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, A; Asaga, E; Nagao, E; Igarashi, T; Goto, N

    2000-12-01

    An oral parasite Trichomonas tenax ATCC 30207 synthesizes and secretes various proteinases. By gelatin-SDS-PAGE, we found five proteinases bands (30, 37, 46, 51 and 60 kDa) in cell lysate and four bands (37, 45, 52 and 60 kDa) in culture filtrate. The proteinases hydrolyzed acid soluble type I collagen as well as gelatin. The enzymes were suggested to possess typical characteristics of cysteine proteinases based on the patterns of inhibition and activation by various factors. Based on relative efficiencies of synthetic substrates, most of them were most likely cathepsin B-like enzymes. PMID:11154432

  3. Influence of air temperature on proteinase activity and beverage quality in Coffea arabica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hellen Marília Couto de, Abreu; Paula Macedo, Nobile; Milton Massao, Shimizu; Paula Yuri, Yamamoto; Emerson Alves, Silva; Carlos Augusto, Colombo; Paulo, Mazzafera.

    Full Text Available Fruits were collected from trees of Coffea arabica cv. Obatã grown at Mococa and Adamantina in São Paulo State, Brazil, which are regions with marked differences in air temperature that produce coffee with distinct qualities. Mococa is a cooler location that produces high-quality coffee, whereas cof [...] fee from Adamantina is of lower quality. The amino acid and protein contents, amino acid profile, and proteinase activity and type in endosperm protein extracts were analysed. Proteinase genes were identified, and their expression was assayed. All results indicate that temperature plays a role in controlling proteinase activity in coffee endosperm. Proteinase activity was higher in the endosperm of immature fruits from Adamantina, which was correlated with higher amino acid content, changes in the amino acid profile, and increased gene expression. Cysteine proteinases were the main class of proteinases in the protein extracts. These data suggest that temperature plays an important role in coffee quality by altering nitrogen compound composition.

  4. Effects of pH on the association between the inhibitor cystatin and the proteinase chymopapain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Espinosa, Francisco; Arroyo-Reyna, Alfonso; Garcia-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Serratos, Iris N; Zubillaga, Rafael A

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine proteinases are involved in many aspects of physiological regulation. In humans, some cathepsins have shown another function in addition to their role as lysosomal proteases in intracellular protein degradation; they have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several heart and blood vessel diseases and in cancer development. In this work, we present a fluorometric and computational study of the binding of one representative plant cysteine proteinase, chymopapain, to one of the most studied inhibitors of these proteinases: chicken cystatin. The binding equilibrium constant, Kb, was determined in the pH range between 3.5 and 10.0, revealing a maximum in the affinity at pH 9.0. We constructed an atomic model for the chymopapain-cystatin dimer by docking the individual 3D protein structures; subsequently, the model was refined using a 100 ns NPT molecular dynamics simulation in explicit water. Upon scrutiny of this model, we identified 14 ionizing residues at the interface of the complex using a cutoff distance of 5.0 Å. Using the pKa values predicted with PROPKA and a modified proton-linkage model, we performed a regression analysis on our data to obtain the composite pKavalues for three isoacidic residues. We also calculated the electrostatic component of the binding energy (?Gb,elec) at different pH values using an implicit solvent model and APBS software. The pH profile of this calculated energy compares well with the experimentally obtained binding energy, ?Gb. We propose that the residues that form an interchain ionic pair, Lys139A from chymopapain and Glu19B from cystatin, as well as Tyr61A and Tyr67A from chymopapain are the main residues responsible for the observed pH dependence in the chymopapain- cystatin affinity. PMID:25426863

  5. Poliovirus 3C proteinase inhibition by organotelluranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvea, Iuri E; Santos, Jorge A N; Burlandy, Fernanda M; Tersariol, Ivarne L S; da Silva, Edson E; Juliano, Maria A; Juliano, Luiz; Cunha, Rodrigo L O R

    2011-04-01

    The 3C proteinase, essential for human poliovirus (PV) replication, has unique characteristics as its three-dimensional structure resembles chymotrypsin, but its catalytic nucleophile is a cysteine SH group rather than the OH group of serine. Here, we describe the use of tellurium compounds as inhibitors of PV3C proteinase. A rapid, stoichiometric and covalent inactivation of PV3C was observed with both a chloro-telluroxetane and a bis-vinylic organotellurane. These compounds also inhibit human cathepsins B, L, S, and K with second order rate constants higher than those obtained for PV3C. Chloro-telluroxetane inhibits replication of PV in human embryonic rhabdomyosarcoma cells in the low micromolar range and below the toxic level for the host cells. Bis-vinylic organotellurane is more effective as antiviral agent but reduces the cell viability by 20% at 10 ?m, a concentration almost completely inhibiting virus growth. This is the first description of inhibition of viral 3C proteinase with antiviral property by this class of compounds. PMID:21521074

  6. Functional Specialization and Evolution of Leader Proteinases in the Family Closteroviridae

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Chih-Wen; Peremyslov, Valera V.; Mushegian, Arcady R; Dawson, William O.; Dolja, Valerian V

    2001-01-01

    Members of the Closteroviridae and Potyviridae families of the plant positive-strand RNA viruses encode one or two papain-like leader proteinases. In addition to a C-terminal proteolytic domain, each of these proteinases possesses a nonproteolytic N-terminal domain. We compared functions of the several leader proteinases using a gene swapping approach. The leader proteinase (L-Pro) of Beet yellows virus (BYV; a closterovirus) was replaced with L1 or L2 proteinases of Citrus tristeza virus (CT...

  7. Purification and characterization of an alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitor from the mollusc Octopus vulgaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, I B; Salvesen, G; Brucato, F H; Pizzo, S V; Enghild, J J

    The cell-free haemolymph of the mollusc Octopus vulgaris inhibited the proteolytic activity of the thermolysin against the high-molecular-mass substrate hide powder azure. The purified inhibitor was a glycoprotein composed of two identical 180 kDa disulphide-linked subunits. In addition to the...... inhibition of the metalloproteinase thermolysin, the protein inhibited the serine proteinases human neutrophil elastase, pig pancreatic elastase, bovine chymotrypsin, bovine trypsin and the cysteine proteinase papain. A fraction of the proteinase-inhibitor complex resisted dissociation after denaturation...... indicating that some of the proteinase molecules became covalently bound. The nucleophile beta-aminopropionitrile decreased the covalent binding of proteinases to the Octopus vulgaris protein, suggesting that this interaction is mediated by an internal thiol ester; the reactivity and the amino acid sequence...

  8. Compartmentalization of proteinases and amylases in Nauphoeta cinerea midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elpidina, E N; Vinokurov, K S; Gromenko, V A; Rudenskaya, Y A; Dunaevsky, Y E; Zhuzhikov, D P

    2001-12-01

    Compartmentalization of proteinases, amylases, and pH in the midgut of Nauphoeta cinerea Oliv. (Blattoptera:Blaberidae) was studied in order to understand the organization of protein and starch digestion. Total proteolytic activity measured with azocasein was maximal at pH 11.5 both in anterior (AM) and posterior (PM) halves of the midgut, but the bulk of activity (67%) was found in PM. Total AM and PM preparations were fractionated on a Sephadex G-50 column and further analysed by means of activity electrophoresis and specific inhibitors and activators. The major activity in PM was classified as an unusual SH-dependent proteinase with M(r) 24,000 and pH optimum with synthetic substrate BApNA at 10.0. The enzyme was 43-fold activated in the presence of 1 mM DTT, insensitive to synthetic inhibitors of serine (PMSF, TLCK, TPCK) and cysteine (IAA, E-64) proteinases, strongly inhibited by STI, and displayed four active bands on zymograms. In PM, activities of trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like, subtilisin-like, and cysteine proteinases were observed. Aspartic and metalloproteinases were not detected. In AM, activity of unusual SH-dependent proteinase also dominated and activity of chymotrypsin-like proteinase was observed, but their levels were much lower than in PM. Distribution of amylase activity, exhibiting an optimum at pH 6.0, was quite the opposite. The major part of it (67%) was located in AM. Treatment of amylase preparation with proteinases from AM and PM reduced amylase activity twofold. pH of the midgut contents was 6.0-7.2 in AM, 6.4-7.6 in the first and 8.8-9.3 in the second halves of PM. Thus, pH in AM is in good agreement with the optimal pH of amylase, located in this compartment, but the activity of proteinases, including the ability to degrade amylase, in such an environment is low. Active proteolysis takes place in the second half of PM, where pH of the gut is close to the optimal pH of proteinases. PMID:11746565

  9. Serine and cysteine protease-like genes in the genome of a gall midge and their interactions with host plant genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hang; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Whitworth, R Jeff; Reese, John C; Chen, Ming-Shun

    2013-08-01

    Proteases play important roles in a wide range of physiological processes in organisms. For plant-feeding insects, digestive proteases are targets for engineering protease inhibitors for pest control. In this study, we identified 105 putative serine- and cysteine-protease genes from the genome of the gall midge Mayetiola destructor (commonly known as Hessian fly), a destructive pest of wheat. Among the genes, 31 encode putative trypsins, 18 encode putative chymotrypsins, seven encode putative cysteine proteases, and the remaining may encode either other proteases or protease homologues. Developmental stage- and tissue-specific expression profiles of the genes encoding putative trypsins, chymotrypsins, and cysteine proteases were determined by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Comparative analyses of stage- and tissue-specific expression patterns suggested that several genes are likely to encode digestive proteases in the M. destructor larval gut, including genes encoding putative trypsins MDP3, MDP5, MDP9, MDP24, MDP48, MDP51, MDP57, MDP61, MDP71, and MDP90; genes encoding putative chymotrypsins MDP1, MDP7, MDP8, MDP18, MDP19, and MDP20; and genes encoding putative cysteine proteases MDP95 and MDP104. The expression of some protease genes was affected by plant genotypes. Genes encoding trypsins MDP3, MDP9, and MPD23, chymotrypsins MDP20 and MDP21, and cysteine proteases MDP99 and MDP104 were upregulated in M. destructor larvae feeding in resistant plants, whereas genes encoding trypsins MDP12, MDP24, and MDP33, and chymotrypsins mdp8, mdp15, and mdp16 were downregulated in M. destructor larvae feeding in resistant plants. This study provides a foundation for further comparative studies on proteases in different insects, and further characterization of M. destructor digestive proteases and their interactions with host plants, as well as potential targets for transgenic wheat plants. PMID:23727407

  10. Serine and cysteine protease-like genes in the genome of a gall midge and their interactions with host plant genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    For plant-feeding insects, digestive proteases are targets for engineering protease inhibitors for pest control. In this study, we identified 105 putative serine- and cysteine-protease genes from Hessian fly genome. Among the genes, 31 encode putative trypsins, 18 encode putative chymotrypsins, se...

  11. Serpins in plants and green algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Hejgaard, JØrn

    2008-01-01

    Control of proteolysis is important for plant growth, development, responses to stress, and defence against insects and pathogens. Members of the serpin protein family are likely to play a critical role in this control through irreversible inhibition of endogenous and exogenous target proteinases. Serpins have been found in diverse species of the plant kingdom and represent a distinct clade among serpins in multicellular organisms. Serpins are also found in green algae, but the evolutionary relationship between these serpins and those of plants remains unknown. Plant serpins are potent inhibitors of mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family in vitro but, intriguingly, plants and green algae lack endogenous members of this proteinase family, the most common targets for animal serpins. An Arabidopsis serpin with a conserved reactive centre is now known to be capable of inhibiting an endogenous cysteine proteinase. Here, knowledge of plant serpins in terms of sequence diversity, inhibitory specificity, gene expression and function is reviewed. This was advanced through a phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of expressed plant serpins, delineation of plant serpin gene structures and prediction of inhibitory specificities based on identification of reactive centres. The review is intended to encourage elucidation of plant serpin functions.

  12. Production of Plant Proteinase from Jack Fruit (Artocarpus integrifolis as a Source of Dairy Enzyme I. Isolation, Partial Purification and Some Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Sayed Al-Tanboly

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to search for a novel plant proteinase enzyme from Jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolis as a source of dairy enzymes that would be natural products which can be easily extracted at relatively low cost and no legal barriers. This enzyme was subjected to a purification scheme composed of ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by gel filtration on G-100 Sephadex column. The enzyme was purified 2.70-fold with a total yield of 23.77% of the original activity. There were relationship between temperature and incubation time, the enzyme activity increase was observed up to 55°C for 60 min reaction time and still constant thereafter. Proteinase was active over a broad temperature range retained about 37.4 and 24.9% of temperature activity at 35 and 80°C for 5 and 60 min. An energy of activation of 9.98 KJ mole?1 for the enzyme activity was derived from the Arrhenius plot of initial velocity (Vo across a temperature ranging from 40 to 55°C. The optimum pH was pH 7.5. The rate of thermal inactivation proceeded more rapidly at pH 7.0 and 8.0, when heating at 50°C for 60 min the enzyme activity lost about 95 and 92% its activity, respectively. Michaelis-constant of (Km values of 2.0 mg ml?1 and a maximum initial velocity (Vmax of 0.75 µ moles mg?1 when casein used as a substrate. A Molecular weight (MW determination of ~22 kDa was estimated by gel filtration methods using a Sephadex G-100. Cu2+, K2+ , Fe2+ and Zn2+ strongly inhibited the enzyme. However, Ca++ slightly stimulated. EDTA, sodium azide, Sodium citrate and urea among the chemical reagents inhibited the proteinase activity.

  13. Plasmin: indigenous milk proteinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Kalit

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important characteristic of plasmin, as significant indigenous milk proteinase, its concentration, concentration measuring procedure and activity of plasmin are described. The most important factors, which have an influence on concentration and plasmin activity in milk, are stage of lactation and mastitis (high somatic cell count – SCC. In high SCC milk indigenous proteinase activity increased, especially in plasmin and plasminogen system.Specific hydrolytic activity of plasmin during primary proteolysis of some casein fractions is described. ß-CN is most susceptible fraction, but ?s1-CN and ?s2-Cn are less susceptible to degradation by plasmin. Almost all fractions of ?-CN are resistant to degradation by plasmin. Activation of plasminogen to plasmin is very complex biochemical process influenced by activators and inhibitors in milk, and can be increased in high SCC milk. There are many various types of inhibitors in milk serum and ßlactoglobulin is the most important after its thermal denaturation. Addition of aprotinin and soybean tripsin inhibitors in milk inhibits plasmin activity. Most important characteristic of plasmin is its thermostability onpasteurisation and even sterilisation. Mechanism of thermal inactivation of plasmin with developing covalent disulphide interaction between molecule of plasmin and serum proteins (mostly ß-laktoglobulin is described. Thermosensitive inhibitors of plasminogen activators and inhibitors of plasmin are inactivated by short pasteurisation and therefore increase plasmin activity,while higher temperature and longer treatment time inactivate plasmin activity.

  14. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes David P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles of lower attine gardens and may thus represent the ancestral type of proteinase production, whereas serine proteinase activity dominated the activity profiles of the higher attine gardens reared by Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex, suggesting that there may be trade-offs in the production of these enzyme classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent changes in enzyme production may have occurred throughout the domestication history of fungus-garden symbionts. Conclusions Proteinase pH optima and buffering capacities of fungal symbionts appear to have evolved remarkable adaptations to living in obligate symbiosis with farming ants. Although the functional roles of serine and metalloproteinases in fungus gardens are unknown, the differential production of these classes of proteolytic enzymes suggest that substrate specificity may be important and that trade-offs may prevent the simultaneous upregulation of both classes of enzymes.

  15. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles of lower attine gardens and may thus represent the ancestral type of proteinase production, whereas serine proteinase activity dominated the activity profiles of the higher attine gardens reared by Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex, suggesting that there may be trade-offs in the production of these enzyme classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent changes in enzyme production may have occurred throughout the domestication history of fungus-garden symbionts. Conclusions: Proteinase pH optima and buffering capacities of fungal symbionts appear to have evolved remarkable adaptations to living in obligate symbiosis with farming ants. Although the functional roles of serine and metalloproteinases in fungus gardens are unknown, the differential production of these classes of proteolytic enzymes suggest that substrate specificity may be important and that trade-offs may prevent the simultaneous upregulation of both classes of enzymes.

  16. A Naturally Occurring Plant Cysteine Protease Possesses Remarkable Toxicity against Insect Pests and Synergizes Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, Srinidi; Ma, Peter W. K.; Williams, W Paul; Luthe, Dawn S

    2008-01-01

    When caterpillars feed on maize (Zea maize L.) lines with native resistance to several Lepidopteran pests, a defensive cysteine protease, Mir1-CP, rapidly accumulates at the wound site. Mir1-CP has been shown to inhibit caterpillar growth in vivo by attacking and permeabilizing the insect's peritrophic matrix (PM), a structure that surrounds the food bolus, assists in digestion and protects the midgut from microbes and toxins. PM permeabilization weakens the caterpillar defenses by facilitati...

  17. Midgut proteinases of Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae): Characterization and relationship to resistance in cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midgut proteinases are vital to the insects which digest ingested food in the midgut. Insect midgut proteinases, therefore, have been considered as possible targets for the control of insect pests. Proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors are very attractive for their potential use in developing insect resistant plant varieties via genetic engineering. Sitotroga cerealella is one of the major storage pests of cereals, and no antibiotic resistance in wheat against this insect has been identified to date. A series of diagnostic inhibitors, thiol-reducing agents and a metal-ion chelator were used in the identification of proteinases in crude extracts from S. cerealella larval midguts with both protein and ester substrates. The partial inhibition of proteolytic activity in crude midgut extract toward [3H]-methemoglobin by pepstatin A suggested the presence of another proteinase which was sensitive to pepstatin A. The optimum pH range for the proteolytic activity, however, indicated that the major midgut proteinases were not carboxyl proteinases. Two proteinases were successfully purified by a combination of fractionation with ammonium sulfate, gel permeation and anion exchange chromatography. Characterization of the enzymes with the purified enzyme preparations confirmed that the two major proteinases were serine endoproteinases with trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like specificities respectively. Bioassays were conducted using the artificial seeds to test naturally occurring proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors of potential value. Soybean trypsin inhibitor and the Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor had adverse effects on the development of the insect. A predictive model was constructed to evaluate effects of seed resistance in conjunction with other control methods on S. cerealella population dynamics

  18. Midgut proteinases of Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae): Characterization and relationship to resistance in cereals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Lan.

    1989-01-01

    Midgut proteinases are vital to the insects which digest ingested food in the midgut. Insect midgut proteinases, therefore, have been considered as possible targets for the control of insect pests. Proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors are very attractive for their potential use in developing insect resistant plant varieties via genetic engineering. Sitotroga cerealella is one of the major storage pests of cereals, and no antibiotic resistance in wheat against this insect has been identified to date. A series of diagnostic inhibitors, thiol-reducing agents and a metal-ion chelator were used in the identification of proteinases in crude extracts from S. cerealella larval midguts with both protein and ester substrates. The partial inhibition of proteolytic activity in crude midgut extract toward ({sup 3}H)-methemoglobin by pepstatin A suggested the presence of another proteinase which was sensitive to pepstatin A. The optimum pH range for the proteolytic activity, however, indicated that the major midgut proteinases were not carboxyl proteinases. Two proteinases were successfully purified by a combination of fractionation with ammonium sulfate, gel permeation and anion exchange chromatography. Characterization of the enzymes with the purified enzyme preparations confirmed that the two major proteinases were serine endoproteinases with trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like specificities respectively. Bioassays were conducted using the artificial seeds to test naturally occurring proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors of potential value. Soybean trypsin inhibitor and the Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor had adverse effects on the development of the insect. A predictive model was constructed to evaluate effects of seed resistance in conjunction with other control methods on S. cerealella population dynamics.

  19. Extracellular proteinase activity of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, L C; Blank, E S; A. Casadevall

    1996-01-01

    Extracellular proteinase activity was studied for eight strains of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans and two strains of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. Proteinase activity was measured by protein agar clearance, azoalbumin hydrolysis, gelatin liquefaction, and protein substrate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. All strains of C. neoformans produced extracellular proteolytic activity. Maximal extracellular proteinase activity in supernatants of C. neoformans cultures was associate...

  20. Purification of a cysteine protease inhibitor from larval hemolymph of the Tobacco Hornworm (Manduca sexta) and functional expression of the recombinant protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) with an apparent molecular mass of 11.5 kDa was purified from larval hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) by gel filtration of Sephadex G-50 followed by hydrophobic and ion-exchange column chromatographies. The purified cysteine proteinase inhibitor, ...

  1. Characterization of cysteine-degrading and H2S-releasing enzymes of higher plants - From the field to the test tube and back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jutta, Papenbrock; Anja, Riemenschneider; Kamp, Anja; Schulz-Vogt, Heide N.; Schmidt, A.

    2007-01-01

    research focussed mainly on the release of H2S as defence strategy. In field experiments using different Brassica napus genotypes it was shown that the genetic differ- ences among Brassica genotypes lead to differences in sulfur content and L-cysteine desulfhydrase activity. Another field ex- periment...... demonstrated that sulfur supply and infection with Pyrenopeziza brassica influenced L-cysteine desulfhydrase activity in Brassica napus. Cysteine-degrading enzymes such as cysteine desulfhydrases are hypothesized to be involved in H2S release. Several L- and D-cysteine-specific desulfhydrase candidates have...

  2. [Aspergillus ochraceus myxomycetes produce extracellular proteinases--protein C activators of blood plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    OsmolovskiÄ­, A A; KreÄ­er, V G; Kurakov, A V; Baranova, N A; Egorov, N S

    2012-01-01

    Natural isolates of Aspergillus ochraceus myxomycetes from soil and plant remains from various regions have been screened. The isolated strains were characterized by similar cultural and morphological features and an identical nucleotide sequence in the ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. The ability of the extracellular proteinases of A. ochraceus myxomycetes to activate protein C of blood plasma has been established. Differences are revealed in the accumulation of proteinases activating protein C and proteinases with thrombin- and plasmin-like activities in the growth dynamics of producers. PMID:23101392

  3. Growth kinetics, antigen profiling, and proteinase activity of Egyptian Trichomonas tenax isolates derived from patients having oral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sibaei, Mahmoud M; Abdel-Fattah, Nashwa S; Ahmed, Sabah A; Abou-Seri, Hanan M

    2012-04-01

    The role of Trichomonas tenax as a pathogen had been clearly implicated in various pathological processes that arise outside the boundaries of the mouth. Although a relationship between the increased occurrence of this protozoan and progression of periodontal disease has been demonstrated, the ability of T. tenax in causing oral infections and the precise mechanism of tissue damage is not well known. The present study aimed to investigate different isolates of T.tenax from individuals having oral infections. Plaques and/or calculi samples were collected from 70 individuals who were diagnosed as having periodontitis and/or gingivitis, then subjected to parasitological examination and culture on modified trypticase, yeast and iron medium (TYI-S-33). Isolates successfully maintained in culture were further subjected to analysis of protein profile of lysates by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and analysis of proteinases by non-denaturing gelatin-SDS-PAGE. Comparison of growth kinetics of seven T. tenax isolates showed a wide variability in the growth characteristics. Protein profiles of the seven isolates revealed a total 53 bands ranged in molecular weight (MW) from 5 to 95kDa using 12% resolution gel. Also, T. tenax isolates were found to possess 19 proteinase bands ranged in MW from 14 to 66kDa. The proteolytic bands were intensified by a cysteine proteinase activator and totally disappeared by treatment with a cysteine proteinase inhibitor suggesting that the proteinases were of cysteine proteinases type. The high frequency of T. tenax detected (28.6%) along with the variability in protein profiling and proteolytic activity of the isolates supports the possible pathogenicity of T. tenax and clarifies a conclusion that different strains with possibility of variable pathogenic potential may exist. PMID:22348932

  4. Digestive proteinase activity of the Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveh, V Hosseini; Bandani, A R; Azmayeshfard, P; Hosseinkhani, S

    2005-01-01

    The khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium, is one of the most important stored product pests worldwide. A study of digestive proteinases in T. granarium was performed to identify potential targets for proteinaceous biopesticides, such as proteinase inhibitors. The pH of guts was determined by addition of pH indicator solutions to broken open gut regions. The last instar larvae were dissected in cold distilled water and the whole guts were cleaned from adhering unwanted tissues. The pooled gut homogenates were centrifuged and the supernatants were used in the subsequent enzyme assay. Total proteinases activity of the gut homogenates was determined using the protein substrate azocasein. Optimal azocasein hydrolysis by luminal proteinases of the larvae of T. granarium was highly alkaline in pH 10-10.5, although the pH of luminal contents was slightly acidic (pH 6.5). The extract showed the highest activity at 55 degrees C (pH 6.5), 45 degrees C (pH 8) and 30 degrees C (pH 10). The proteolytic activity was strongly inhibited in the presence of phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride (82.33+/-4.37% inhibition). This inhibition was decreased with increasing of the pH of assay incubating medium. N-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (51.6+/-3.3% inhibition) and N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (27.23+/-4.37 % inhibition) showed inhibitory effect on proteolysis. Addition of thiol activators dithiothreitol and L-cysteine had not enhanced azocaseinolytic activity. The data suggest that protein digestion in the larvae of T. granarium is primarily dependent on serine proteinases; trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteinases. PMID:16628932

  5. Tailoring the specificity of a plant cystatin toward herbivorous insect digestive cysteine proteases by single mutations at positively selected amino acid sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Marie-Claire; Dallaire, Cindy; Vaillancourt, Louis-Philippe; Khalf, Moustafa; Badri, Amine M; Preradov, Andreja; Duceppe, Marc-Olivier; Goulet, Charles; Cloutier, Conrad; Michaud, Dominique

    2008-03-01

    Plant cystatins, similar to other defense proteins, include hypervariable, positively selected amino acid sites presumably impacting their biological activity. Using 29 single mutants of the eighth domain of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) multicystatin, SlCYS8, we assessed here the potential of site-directed mutagenesis at positively selected amino acid sites to generate cystatin variants with improved inhibitory potency and specificity toward herbivorous insect digestive cysteine (Cys) proteases. Compared to SlCYS8, several mutants (22 out of 29) exhibited either improved or lowered potency against different model Cys proteases, strongly suggesting the potential of positively selected amino acids as target sites to modulate the inhibitory specificity of the cystatin toward Cys proteases of agronomic significance. Accordingly, mutations at positively selected sites strongly influenced the inhibitory potency of SlCYS8 against digestive Cys proteases of the insect herbivore Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata). In particular, several variants exhibited improved potency against both cystatin-sensitive and cystatin-insensitive digestive Cys proteases of this insect. Of these, some variants also showed weaker activity against leaf Cys proteases of the host plant (potato [Solanum tuberosum]) and against a major digestive Cys protease of the two-spotted stinkbug Perillus bioculatus, an insect predator of Colorado potato beetle showing potential for biological control. Overall, these observations suggest the usefulness of site-directed mutagenesis at positively selected amino acid sites for the engineering of recombinant cystatins with both improved inhibitory potency toward the digestive proteases of target herbivores and weaker potency against nontarget Cys proteases in the host plant or the environment. PMID:18192440

  6. The Cysteine Protease–Cysteine Protease Inhibitor System Explored in Soybean Nodule Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Dorcas Quain

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Almost all protease families have been associated with plant development, particularly senescence, which is the final developmental stage of every organ before cell death. Proteolysis remobilizes and recycles nitrogen from senescent organs that is required, for example, seed development. Senescence-associated expression of proteases has recently been characterized using large-scale gene expression analysis seeking to identify and characterize senescence-related genes. Increasing activities of proteolytic enzymes, particularly cysteine proteases, are observed during the senescence of legume nodules, in which a symbiotic relationship between the host plant and bacteria (Rhizobia facilitate the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. It is generally considered that cysteine proteases are compartmentalized to prevent uncontrolled proteolysis in nitrogen-fixing nodules. In addition, the activities of cysteine proteases are regulated by endogenous cysteine protease inhibitors called cystatins. These small proteins form reversible complexes with cysteine proteases, leading to inactivation. However, very little is currently known about how the cysteine protease-cysteine protease inhibitor (cystatin system is regulated during nodule development. Moreover, our current understanding of the expression and functions of proteases and protease inhibitors in nodules is fragmented. To address this issue, we have summarized the current knowledge and techniques used for studying proteases and their inhibitors including the application of “omics” tools, with a particular focus on changes in the cysteine protease-cystatin system during nodule development.

  7. Specificity of Binding of the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein to Different Conformational States of the Clade E Serpins Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 and Proteinase Nexin-1*

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Jan K.; Dolmer, Klavs; Gettins, Peter G.W.

    2009-01-01

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is the principal clearance receptor for serpins and serpin-proteinase complexes. The ligand binding regions of LRP consist of clusters of cysteine-rich ?40-residue complement-like repeats (CR), with cluster II being the principal ligand-binding region. To better understand the specificity of binding at different sites within the cluster and the ability of LRP to discriminate in vivo between uncomplexed and proteinase-complexed serpins...

  8. Monoclonal antibodies to the two most basic papaya proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, P W; Kilshaw, P J; McEwan, F; Owen, A J

    1986-08-01

    The proteinases from Carica papaya include papain, isoenzymes of chymopapain and two proteinases A and B distinguished by their unusually high pI. The identity of one of the most basic proteinases has been questioned. The present report describes the preparation and characterisation of two monoclonal antibodies that react specifically with papaya proteinases A and B respectively and a third that identifies a common structural feature found in papain and proteinase A. PMID:3545314

  9. Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular characterization and transcriptional response upon immune stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaarachchi, W D Niroshana; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Wan, Qiang; Lee, Jehee

    2013-09-01

    Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors are involved in several biological and physiological processes in all multicellular organisms. Proteinase inhibitors play a key role in regulating the activity of the respective proteinases. Among serine proteinase inhibitors, kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs) are widely found in mammals, avians, and a variety of invertebrates. In this study, we describe the identification of a kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (Ab-KPI) from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, which is presumably involved in innate immunity. The full-length cDNA of Ab-KPI includes 600 bp nucleotides with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 143 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ab-KPI contains a putative 17-amino acid signal peptide and two tandem kazal domains with high similarity to other kazal-type SPIs. Each kazal domain consists of reactive site (P1) residue containing a leucine (L), and a threonine (T) located in the second amino acid position after the second conserved cysteine of each domain. Temporal expression of Ab-KPI was assessed by real time quantitative PCR in hemocytes and mantle tissue following bacterial and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) challenge, and tissue injury. At 6 h post-bacterial and -VHSV challenge, Ab-KPI expression in hemocytes was increased 14-fold and 4-fold, respectively, compared to control samples. The highest up-regulations upon tissue injury were shown at 9 h and 12 h in hemocytes and mantle, respectively. The transcriptional modulation of Ab-KPI following bacterial and viral challenges and tissue injury indicates that it might be involved in immune defense as well as wound healing process in abalone. PMID:23859879

  10. A multifaceted study of stigma/style cysteine-rich adhesin (SCA)-like Arabidopsis lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) suggests diversified roles for these LTPs in plant growth and reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Chae, Keun; Gonong, Benedict J.; Kim, Seung-Chul; Kieslich, Chris A; Morikis, Dimitrios; Balasubramanian, Shruthi; Lord, Elizabeth M

    2010-01-01

    Lily stigma/style cysteine-rich adhesin (SCA), a plant lipid transfer protein (LTP) which is secreted into the extracellular matrix, functions in pollen tube guidance in fertilization. A gain-of-function mutant (ltp5-1) for Arabidopsis LTP5, an SCA-like molecule, was recently shown to display defects in sexual reproduction. In the current study, it is reported that ltp5-1 plants have dwarfed primary shoots, delayed hypocotyl elongation, various abnormal tissue fusions, and display multibranch...

  11. Proteinase inhibitors in Nauphoeta cinerea midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elpidina, E N; Vinokurov, K S; Rudenskaya, Y A; Dunaevsky, Y E; Zhuzhikov, D P

    2001-12-01

    Proteinase inhibitors were studied in the midgut of Nauphoeta cinerea Oliv. (Blattoptera: Blaberidae) in experimental conditions, excluding their nutritional origin. One trypsin inhibitor (TI) with M(r) 8,000 and two subtilisin inhibitors (SI1 and SI2) with M(r) 13,000 and 8,000 were detected after fractionation of total protein preparation on Sephadex G-50. Ninety-four percent of both types of inhibitors was located in anterior midgut (AM). TI was 120-fold purified by FPLC-chromatography on Mono Q. Its isoelectric point was 4.3. TI lost a large part of activity in acidic and especially in alkaline medium. TI, SI1, and SI2 effectively inhibited activities of endogenous proteinases from posterior midgut (PM) of the cockroach. A search for inhibitor of endogenous unusual SH-dependent proteinase from AM revealed in AM a new inhibitor with M(r) 18,000. It was also inactivated in alkaline medium and was effective against proteinases from PM along with unusual SH-dependent proteinase from AM. A mechanism of regulation of activity of midgut proteinases is proposed based on pH-stability of inhibitors. PMID:11746566

  12. Differential gene expression for suicide-substrate serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) in vegetative and grain tissues of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, T.H.; Marttila, S.; Rasmussen, S.K.; Hejgaard, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    Proteins of the serpin superfamily (similar to43 kDa) from mature cereal grains are in vitro suicide-substrate inhibitors of specific mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family. However, unlike the 'standard-mechanism' serine proteinase inhibitors (<25 kDa), the biological functions of plant serpins are unknown. Expression studies of genes encoding members of three subfamilies of serpins (BSZx, BSZ4 and BSZ7) in developing grain and vegetative tissues of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) ...

  13. PAPAIN, A PLANT ENZYME OF BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel Amri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Papain is a plant proteolytic enzyme for the cysteine proteinase family cysteine protease enzyme in which enormous progress has been made to understand its functions. Papain is found naturally in papaya (Carica papaya L. manufactured from the latex of raw papaya fruits. The enzyme is able to break down organic molecules made of amino acids, known as polypeptides and thus plays a crucial role in diverse biological processes in physiological and pathological states, drug designs, industrial uses such as meat tenderizers and pharmaceutical preparations. The unique structure of papain gives it the functionality that helps elucidate how proteolytic enzymes work and also makes it valuable for a variety of purposes. In the present review, its biological importance, properties and structural features that are important to an understanding of their biological function are presented. Its potential for production and market opportunities are also discussed.

  14. Revisiting the enzymes stored in the laticifers of Carica papaya in the context of their possible participation in the plant defence mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Moussaoui, A; Nijs, M; Paul, C; Wintjens, R; Vincentelli, J; Azarkan, M; Looze, Y

    2001-04-01

    In the tropical species Carica papaya, the articulated and anastomosing laticifers form a dense network of vessels displayed in all aerial parts of the plant. Damaging the papaya tree inevitably severs its laticifers, eliciting an abrupt release of latex. Besides the well-known cysteine proteinases, papain, chymopapain, caricain and glycyl endopeptidase, papaya latex is also a rich source of other enzymes. Together, these enzymes could provide an important contribution to plant defence mechanisms by sanitising and sealing the wounded areas on the tree. PMID:11361091

  15. Plasmodium falciparum proteinases: cloning of the putative gene coding for the merozoite proteinase for erythrocyte invasion (MPEI) and determination of hydrolysis sites of spectrin by Pf37 proteinase

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I., Florent; S., Le Bonniec; B., Carcy; P., Grellier; O., Mercereau-Puijalon; S., Bonnefoy; D., Dhermy; M., Monsigny; R., Mayer; J., Schrével.

    Full Text Available Numerous proteinase activities have been shown to be essential for the survival of Plasmodium falciparum. One approach to antimalarial chemotherapy, would be to block specifically one or several of these activities, by using compounds structurally analogous to the substrates of these proteinases. Su [...] ch a strategy requires a detailed knowledge of the active site of the proteinase, in order to identify the best substrate for the proteinase. Aiming at developing such a strategy, two proteinases previously identified in our laboratory, were chosen for further characterization of their molecular structure and properties: the merozoite proteinase for erythrocytic invasion (MPEI), involved in the erythrocyte invasion by the merozoites, and the Pf37 proteinase, which hydrolyses human spectrin in vitro.

  16. Improved methods for high-throughput extraction of green barley malt and assay of endoproteinase activity allow examination of the properties and putative functions of the proteinases in barley populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report efficient sample extraction and assay methods allowing determinations of activities from two mechanistic classes (cysteine and serine) of barley malt proteinase, and use the improved methods to assay > 2200 developmental lines of malting barley. The distributions of the resulting activitie...

  17. Multiple pathways for vacuolar sorting of yeast proteinase A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westphal, V; Marcusson, E G

    1996-01-01

    The sorting of the yeast proteases proteinase A and carboxypeptidase Y to the vacuole is a saturable, receptor-mediated process. Information sufficient for vacuolar sorting of the normally secreted protein invertase has in fusion constructs previously been found to reside in the propeptide of proteinase A. We found that sorting of such a hybrid protein is dependent on the vacuolar protein-sorting receptor Vps10p. This was unexpected, as strains disrupted for VPS10 sort more than 85% of the proteinase A to the vacuole. Consistent with a role for Vps10p in sorting of proteinase A, we found that 1) overproduction of Vps10p suppressed the missorting phenotype associated with overproduction of proteinase A, 2) overproduction of proteinase A induced missorting of carboxypeptidase Y, 3) vacuolar sorting of proteinase A in a deltavps10 strain was readily saturated by modest overproduction of proteinase A, and 4) Vps10p and proteinase A interact directly and specifically as shown by chemical cross-linking. Interestingly, overexpression of two telomere-linked VPS10 homologues, VTH1 and VTH2 suppressed the missorting phenotypes of a deltavps10 strain. However, disruption of the VTH1 and VTH2 genes did not affect the sorting of proteinase A. We conclude that proteinase A utilizes at least two mechanisms for sorting, a Vps10p-dependent path and a Vth1p/Vth2p/Vps10p-independent path.

  18. Squash inhibitor family of serine proteinases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squash inhibitors of serine proteinases form an uniform family of small proteins. They are built of 27-33 amino-acid residues and cross-linked with three disulfide bridges. The reactive site peptide bond (P1-P1') is between residue 5 (Lys, Arg or Leu) and 6 (always Ile). High resolution X-ray structures are available for two squash inhibitors complexed with trypsin. NMR solution structures have also been determined for free inhibitors. The major structural motif is a distorted, triple-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet. A similar folding motif has been recently found in a number of proteins, including: conotoxins from fish-hunting snails, carboxypeptidase inhibitor from potato, kalata B1 polypeptide, and in some growth factors (e.g. nerve growth factor, transforming growth factor ?2, platelet-derived growth factor). Squash inhibitors are highly stable and rigid proteins. They inhibit a number of serine proteinases: trypsin, plasmin, kallikrein, blood clotting factors: Xa and XIIa, cathepsin G. The inhibition spectrum can be much broadened if specific amino-acid substitutions are introduced, especially at residues which contact proteinase. Squash inhibitors inhibit proteinases via the standard mechanism. According to the mechanism, inhibitors are substrates which exhibit at neutral pH a high kcat/Km index for hydrolysis and resynthesis of the reactive site, and a low value of the hydrolysis constant. (author)

  19. Squash inhibitor family of serine proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlewski, J; Krowarsch, D

    1996-01-01

    Squash inhibitors of serine proteinases form an uniform family of small proteins. They are built of 27-33 amino-acid residues and cross-linked with three disulfide bridges. The reactive site peptide bond (P1-P1') is between residue 5 (Lys, Arg or Leu) and 6 (always Ile). High resolution X-ray structures are available for two squash inhibitors complexed with trypsin. NMR solution structures have also been determined for free inhibitors. The major structural motif is a distorted, triple-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet. A similar folding motif has been recently found in a number of proteins, including: conotoxins from fish-hunting snails, carboxypeptidase inhibitor from potato, kalata B1 polypeptide, and in some growth factors (e.g. nerve growth factor, transforming growth factor beta 2, platelet-derived growth factor). Squash inhibitors are highly stable and rigid proteins. They inhibit a number of serine proteinases: trypsin, plasmin, kallikrein, blood clotting factors: Xa and XIIa, cathepsin G. The inhibition spectrum can be much broadened if specific amino-acid substitutions are introduced, especially at residues which contact proteinase. Squash inhibitors inhibit proteinases via the standard mechanism. According to the mechanism, inhibitors are substrates which exibit at neutral pH a high kcat/K(m) index for hydrolysis and resynthesis of the reactive site, and a low value of the hydrolysis constant. PMID:8922025

  20. Autoactivation of proteinase A initiates activation of yeast vacuolar zymogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten

    1992-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae PEP4 gene encodes proteinase A, an aspartyl protease. pep4 mutants are defective in the activation of many vacuolar hydrolases, including proteinase B. We have expressed a pep4 mutation which directs the accumulation of pro-proteinase A with a defective active site. Co-expression with PEP4 leads to normal processing, i.e. the mutant zymogen is functional as a substrate for the maturation reaction in trans. We conclude that wild-type pro-proteinase A has the ability to mediate its own activation. Elimination of the co-expressed PEP4 gene did not effectively stop the processing of the mutant zymogen, owing to a strong, proteinase-B-dependent, phenotypic lag. In a proteinase-B-negative strain, processing of pro-proteinase A led to an active form of a higher molecular mass than the normal mature form.

  1. Cloning and sequence analysis of serine proteinase of Gloydius ussuriensis venom gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To construct a cDNA library by using mRNA from Gloydius ussuriensis (G. Ussuriensis) venom gland, to clone and analyze serine proteinase gene from the cDNA library. Methods: Total RNA was isolated from venom gland of G. ussuriensis, mRNA was purified by using mRNA isolation Kit. The whole length cDNA was synthesized by means of smart cDNA synthesis strategy, and amplified by long distance PCR procedure, lately cDAN was cloned into vector pBluescrip-sk. The recombinant cDNA was transformed into E. coli DH5α. The cDNA of serine proteinase gene in the venom gland of G. ussuriensis was detected and amplified using the in situ hybridization. The cDNA fragment was inserted into pGEMT vector, cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. Results: The capacity of cDNA library of venom gland was above 2.3 x 106. Its open reading frame was composed of 702 nucleotides and coded a protein pre-zymogen of 234 amino acids. It contained 12 cysteine residues. The sequence analysis indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA fragment shared high identity with the thrombin-like enzyme genes of other snakes in the GenBank. the query sequence exhibited strong amino acid sequence homology of 85% to the serine proteas of T. gramineus, thrombin-like serine proteinase I of D. acutus and serine protease catroxase II of C. atrox respectively. Based on the amino acid sequences of other thrombin-like enzymes, the catalytic residues and disulfide bridges of this thrombin-like enzyme were deduced as follows: catalytic residues, His41, Asp86, Ser180; and six disulfide bridges Cys7-Cys139, Cys26-Cys42, Cys74-Cys232, Cys118-Cys186, Cys150-Cys165, Cys176-Cys201. Conclusion: The capacity of cDNA library of venom gland is above 2.3 x 106, overtop the level of 105 capicity. The constructed cDNA library of G. ussuriensis venom gland would be helpful platform to detect new target genes and further gene manipulate. The cloned serine proteinase gene exhibits strong amino acid sequence homology of 85% to the serine proteas of T. gramineus, thrombin-like serine proteinase I of D. acutus and serine protease catroxase II of C. atrox respectively. (authors)

  2. Keratinolytic proteinase from Bacillus thuringiensis AD-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegeckas, Audrius; Gudiukait?, Renata; Citavicius, Donaldas

    2014-08-01

    A new isolated strain noted to produce a novel detergent-stable serine keratinolytic proteinase and identified as Bacillus thuringiensis AD-12. Native keratinolytic proteinase from B. thuringiensis (BtKER) was purified and characterized. The purified BtKER enzyme is a monomer with a molecular mass of 39kDa. Biochemical characterization assays revealed that the BtKER attained optimal activity at pH 7 and 30°C. Residual activity after 1h incubation at 50°C was higher than 80%. The enzyme was activated and stabilized by Mn(2+) and Li(+) metal ions but inactivated by organic solvents. Purified BtKER showed the highest substrate specificity toward keratin from wool>sodium caseinate>collagen>BSA>gelatin in descending order. BtKER is the first reported keratinolytic proteinase from B. thuringiensis and obtained results suggested that new characterized enzyme can be a powerful biocatalyst in peptide production associated to hydrolysis of keratinous and/or keratin-like waste. PMID:24857878

  3. Purification and characterization of an extracellular proteinase from Hendersonula toruloidea.

    OpenAIRE

    Rojanavanich, V; Yoshiike, T; Tsuboi, R; Takamori, K; Ogawa, H.

    1990-01-01

    An extracellular proteinase from a fast-growing strain of Hendersonula toruloidea was demonstrated when it was cultivated in liquid medium containing bovine serum albumin as the sole nitrogen source. Purification to homogeneity of the proteinase was performed by carboxymethyl cellulose, CM Sephadex G-50, and Sephacryl S-200 column chromatographies. The purified enzyme was a chymotrypsinlike serine proteinase, as indicated by the strong inhibitory activities of diisopropyl fluorophosphate, phe...

  4. Oryzacystatin I expressed in transgenic potato induces digestive compensation in an insect natural predator via its herbivorous prey feeding on the plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Edith; Cloutier, Conrad; Michaud, Dominique

    2003-09-01

    We observed recently that the rice cysteine proteinase inhibitor, oryzacystatin I (OCI) expressed in transgenic potato does not affect growth and development of the two-spotted stinkbug predator (Perillus bioculatus) via its herbivorous prey feeding on the plant. Here we monitored the inhibitory activity of recombinant OCI along this potato --> herbivore --> predator continuum, to determine if the absence of effect was associated with a digestive compensatory response of the predator following inhibition of its proteinases by the recombinant cystatin. After confirming that OCI is present in the plant, and ingested in an active form by potato beetle larvae, quantitative and electrophoretic assays allowed us to determine that the recombinant cystatin (representing about 0.8% of total soluble proteins in leaves) was entirely bound to a approximately 30-kDa target proteinase in the prey's midgut, forming a sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-stable complex detected on immunoblots with an anti-OCI polyclonal antibody. Despite the apparent absence of free, residual OCI in the beetle's midgut, digestive protease activity in the predator, known to include OCI-sensitive activity, was altered negatively when the prey was fed the modified plant. This inhibitory process at the third trophic level was accompanied by a compensatory response in the predator, by which serine-type proteinases were synthesized de novo. Overall, our data suggest that the affinity between OCI and the predator's OCI-sensitive proteinases is: (i) as strong as (or stronger than) the affinity between OCI and the potato beetle 30-kDa-sensitive proteinase; and (ii) stronger than the affinity between these enzymes and the plant endogenous homologue of OCI, potato multicystatin, induced in the plant by potato beetle feeding. Our results also show that predatory organisms can adapt their digestive metabolism to the presence of plant antidigestive proteins ingested by their herbivorous preys. In a broader context, this study stresses the need to monitor the inhibitory effects of PI-expressing plants not only on the herbivorous insects targeted, but also on the organisms likely to consume these pests in the environment. PMID:12919481

  5. Specificity of binding of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein to different conformational states of the clade E serpins plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and proteinase nexin-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Kristian; Dolmer, Klavs

    2009-01-01

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is the principal clearance receptor for serpins and serpin-proteinase complexes. The ligand binding regions of LRP consist of clusters of cysteine-rich approximately 40-residue complement-like repeats (CR), with cluster II being the principal ligand-binding region. To better understand the specificity of binding at different sites within the cluster and the ability of LRP to discriminate in vivo between uncomplexed and proteinase-complexed serpins, we have systematically examined the affinities of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and proteinase nexin-1 (PN-1) in their native, cleaved, and proteinase-complexed states to (CR)(2) and (CR)(3) fragments of LRP cluster II. A consistent blue shift of the CR domain tryptophan fluorescence suggested a common mode of serpin binding, involving lysines on the serpin engaging the acidic region around the calcium binding site of the CR domain. High affinity binding of non-proteinase-complexed PAI-1 and PN-1 occurred to all fragments containing three CR domains (3-59 nm) and most that contain only two CR domains, although binding energies to different (CR)(3) fragments differed by up to 18% for PAI-1 and 9% for PN-1. No detectable difference in affinity was seen between native and cleaved serpin. However, the presence of proteinase in complex with the serpin enhanced affinity modestly and presumably nonspecifically. This may be sufficient to give preferential binding of such complexes in vivo at the relevant physiological concentrations.

  6. Use of fluorogenic proteinase assays to examine protein mobilization in barley varieties and across populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved methods for efficient sample extraction and proteinase assay have simplified estimation of malt proteinase activity, making feasible examination of larger sample sets than was previously possible. The ability to characterize various proteinase activities across > 1000 lines enables use of ...

  7. Binding energetics of the inhibitor cystatin to the cysteine proteinase actinidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neria-Ríos, Maricela; Padilla-Zúñiga, Jaqueline; Garcia-Hernández, Enrique; Tello-Solís, Salvador R; Zubillaga, Rafael A

    2003-04-01

    The binding energetics of actinidin to chicken cystatin was determined from fluorometric titrations at different temperatures. It is shown that the association of actinidin with cystatin is both enthalpically and entropically driven, with a negative change in the heat capacity. The molecular basis of these contributions are analyzed within the framework of surface-area models, using a 3D model of the actinidin-cystatin complex, which was obtained using the x-ray structure of the homologous complex papain-stefin B as template. PMID:12678811

  8. Seed-specific aspartic proteinase FeAP12 from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timotijevi? Gordana S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartic proteinase gene (FeAP12 has been isolated from the cDNA library of developing buckwheat seeds. Analysis of its deduced amino acid sequence showed that it resembled the structure and shared high homology with typical plant aspartic proteinases (AP characterized by the presence of a plant-specific insert (PSI, unique among APs. It was shown that FeAP12 mRNA was not present in the leaves, roots, steam and flowers, but was seed-specifically expressed. Moreover, the highest levels of FeAP12 expression were observed in the early stages of seed development, therefore suggesting its potential role in nucellar degradation.

  9. Characterization of proteinases from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus involved in the generation of antimicrobial peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craik Charles S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemoglobin is a rich source of biologically active peptides, some of which are potent antimicrobials (hemocidins. A few hemocidins have been purified from the midgut contents of ticks. Nonetheless, how antimicrobials are generated in the tick midgut and their role in immunity is still poorly understood. Here we report, for the first time, the contribution of two midgut proteinases to the generation of hemocidins. Results An aspartic proteinase, designated BmAP, was isolated from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus using three chromatographic steps. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that BmAP is restricted to the midgut. The other enzyme is a previously characterized midgut cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase designated BmCL1. Substrate specificities of native BmAP and recombinant BmCL1 were mapped using a synthetic combinatorial peptide library and bovine hemoglobin. BmCL1 preferred substrates containing non-polar residues at P2 subsite and polar residues at P1, whereas BmAP hydrolysed substrates containing non-polar amino acids at P1 and P1'. Conclusions BmAP and BmCL1 generate hemocidins from hemoglobin alpha and beta chains in vitro. We postulate that hemocidins may be important for the control of tick pathogens and midgut flora.

  10. Stress inducible proteinase inhibitor diversity in Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Manasi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wound-inducible Pin-II Proteinase inhibitors (PIs are one of the important plant serine PIs which have been studied extensively for their structural and functional diversity and relevance in plant defense against insect pests. To explore the functional specialization of an array of Capsicum annuum (L. proteinase inhibitor (CanPIs genes, we studied their expression, processing and tissue-specific distribution under steady-state and induced conditions. Inductions were performed by subjecting C. annuum leaves to various treatments, namely aphid infestation or mechanical wounding followed by treatment with either oral secretion (OS of Helicoverpa armigera or water. Results The elicitation treatments regulated the accumulation of CanPIs corresponding to 4-, 3-, and 2-inhibitory repeat domains (IRDs. Fourty seven different CanPI genes composed of 28 unique IRDs were identified in total along with those reported earlier. The CanPI gene pool either from uninduced or induced leaves was dominated by 3-IRD PIs and trypsin inhibitory domains. Also a major contribution by 4-IRD CanPI genes possessing trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor domains was specifically revealed in wounded leaves treated with OS. Wounding displayed the highest number of unique CanPIs while wounding with OS treatment resulted in the high accumulation of specifically CanPI-4, -7 and ?10. Characterization of the PI protein activity through two dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed tissue and induction specific patterns. Consistent with transcript abundance, wound plus OS or water treated C. annuum leaves exhibited significantly higher PI activity and isoform diversity contributed by 3- and 4-IRD CanPIs. CanPI accumulation and activity was weakly elicited by aphid infestation yet resulted in the higher expression of CanPI-26, -41 and ?43. Conclusions Plants can differentially perceive various kinds of insect attacks and respond appropriately through activating plant defenses including regulation of PIs at transcriptional and post-translational levels. Based on the differentially elicited CanPI accumulation patterns, it is intriguing to speculate that generating sequence diversity in the form of multi-IRD PIs is a part of elaborative plant defense strategy to obtain a diverse pool of functional units to confine insect attack.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of ginkbilobin-2 from Ginkgo biloba seeds: a novel antifungal protein with homology to the extracellular domain of plant cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purification and crystallization of ginkbilobin-2 and its selenomethionine derivative allowed the collection of complete data to 2.38 Å resolution and multiwavelength anomalous diffraction data sets, respectively. The antifungal protein ginkbilobin-2 (Gnk2) from Ginkgo biloba seeds does not show homology to other pathogenesis-related proteins, but does show homology to the extracellular domain of plant cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases. Native Gnk2 purified from ginkgo nuts and the selenomethionine derivative of recombinant Gnk2 (SeMet-rGnk2) were crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using different precipitants. X-ray diffraction data were collected from Gnk2 at 2.38 Å resolution and from SeMet-rGnk2 at 2.79 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals of both proteins belonged to the primitive cubic space group P213, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 143.2 Å

  12. Mechanism and ion-dependence of in vitro autoactivation of yeast proteinase A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Hazel, H; Wolff, A M; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1997-01-01

    Yeast proteinase A is synthesized as a zymogen which transits through the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi complex and the endosome to the vacuole. On arrival in the vacuole, activation takes place. It has previously been found that proteinase A can activate autocatalytically; however, the propeptide of proteinase A shows essentially no similarity to other known aspartic proteinase propeptides. To understand why proteinase A activation occurs rapidly in the vacuole but not at all in earlier comp...

  13. Serine proteinase inhibitors in the Compositae: distribution, polymorphism and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konarev, Alexander V; Anisimova, Irina N; Gavrilova, V A; Vachrusheva, T E; Konechnaya, G Yu; Lewis, Mervyn; Shewry, Peter R

    2002-02-01

    Multiple molecular forms of inhibitors of trypsin (TI) and chymotrypsin (CI), which are typical digestive enzymes of insects, mammals and micro-organisms, and subtilisin (SI), a proteinase of many bacteria and phytopathogenic fungi, were identified in seeds and vegetative organs of the majority of 128 wild and cultivated species representing 65 genera of three of the subfamilies of the Compositae. Inhibitors with M(r) ranging from 7450 to 7800 and combining activities towards subtilisin and trypsin and/or chymotrypsin (T/C/SI) had the widest distribution and may be involved in plant defense mechanisms. They were found in many species of the subfamilies Carduoideae (genera Carthamus, Centaurea, Cirsium), Cichorioideae (Lactuca, Taraxacum) and Asteroideae (Helianthus, Cosmos, Bidens). Partial amino acid sequencing showed that the safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) T/C/SI and Cosmos bipinnatus T/C/SI, T/SI and C/SI belonged to the potato I inhibitor family. The most active, variable and heterogeneous inhibitors were found in species of the tribe Heliantheae, which is placed in the evolutionary advanced subfamily Asteroideae. Seeds of Helianthus species, Eclipta prostrata, Gailardia aristata, Zinnia elegans and Silphium perfoliatum contained various TI with M(r) ranging from 1500 to 14,750, with some also containing SI. H. annuus seeds contain a unique cyclic TI of M(r) 1514 and similar TI were also present in other Helianthus spp. and the related species Tithonia diversifolia. Zinnia elegans contained a TI with M(r) 11,350 which appeared to represent a novel type of inhibitor distantly related to the cereal subgroup of Bowman-Birk inhibitors. TI and T/SI varied widely in H. annuus lines and wild Helianthus species in their presence or absence and composition. Similar T/SI components were found in the cultivated diploid H. annuus and annual diploid species with the B genome but not in perennials with the A genome. Some T/SI, SI and TI were detected in vegetative organs of sunflower and other Compositae. Studies of the polymorphism and distribution of proteinase inhibitors are relevant to the evolution of protective protein systems and the mechanisms of resistance to pathogenic organisms in the Compositae and other plants. PMID:11830136

  14. Analysis of the solvent accessibility of cysteine residues on Maize rayado fino virus virus-like particles produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants and cross-linking of peptides to VLPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natilla, Angela; Hammond, Rosemarie W

    2013-01-01

    Mimicking and exploiting virus properties and physicochemical and physical characteristics holds promise to provide solutions to some of the world's most pressing challenges. The sheer range and types of viruses coupled with their intriguing properties potentially give endless opportunities for applications in virus-based technologies. Viruses have the ability to self- assemble into particles with discrete shape and size, specificity of symmetry, polyvalence, and stable properties under a wide range of temperature and pH conditions. Not surprisingly, with such a remarkable range of properties, viruses are proposed for use in biomaterials, vaccines, electronic materials, chemical tools, and molecular electronic containers. In order to utilize viruses in nanotechnology, they must be modified from their natural forms to impart new functions. This challenging process can be performed through several mechanisms including genetic modification of the viral genome and chemically attaching foreign or desired molecules to the virus particle reactive groups. The ability to modify a virus primarily depends upon the physiochemical and physical properties of the virus. In addition, the genetic or physiochemical modifications need to be performed without adversely affecting the virus native structure and virus function. Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) coat proteins self-assemble in Escherichia coli producing stable and empty VLPs that are stabilized by protein-protein interactions and that can be used in virus-based technologies applications. VLPs produced in tobacco plants were examined as a scaffold on which a variety of peptides can be covalently displayed. Here, we describe the steps to 1) determine which of the solvent-accessible cysteines in a virus capsid are available for modification, and 2) bioconjugate peptides to the modified capsids. By using native or mutationally-inserted amino acid residues and standard coupling technologies, a wide variety of materials have been displayed on the surface of plant viruses such as, Brome mosaic virus, Carnation mottle virus, Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus, Tobacco mosaic virus, Turnip yellow mosaic virus, and MRFV. PMID:23439009

  15. Characterization and transcriptional analyses of cDNAs encoding three trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteinases in Cry1Ab-susceptible and Cry1Ab-resistant strains of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunlong; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Ottea, James; Husseneder, Claudia; Leonard, B Rogers; Abel, Craig; Luttrell, Randall; Huang, Fangneng

    2013-08-01

    Diatraea saccharalis is a major corn borer pest. Midgut serine proteinases are essential for insect growth and development. Alteration of midgut proteinases is responsible for Bt resistance development in some species. To clone midgut trypsin and chymotrypsin cDNAs and to test if the Cry1Ab resistance in D. saccharalis is associated with changes in midgut proteinases, total midgut tryptic and chymotryptic activities, cDNA sequences, and gene expressions of three trypsin and three chymotrypsin genes were comparatively examined between Cry1Ab-susceptible (Cry1Ab-SS) and Cry1Ab-resistant (Cry1Ab-RR) strains. Full-length cDNAs encoding three trypsin- and three chymotrypsin-like proteinases were sequenced from Cry1Ab-SS and Cry1Ab-RR larvae. These cDNAs code for active forms of midgut serine proteinases with all functional motifs, including signal peptide, conserved His-Asp-Ser for the catalytic triad, three pairs of cysteines for disulfide bridge configurations, and conserved substrate specificity determination residues. In general, cDNA and putative protein sequences are highly similar between Cry1Ab-SS and Cry1Ab-RR strains, except for a few nucleotide and predicted amino acid substitutions, whose function need to be further clarified. Total trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were also similar between Cry1Ab-SS and Cry1Ab-RR strains. Transcriptional levels of the trypsin and chymotrypsin genes had numerical difference between Cry1Ab-SS and Cry1Ab-RR strains, but the difference was not statistically significant. Data suggest that the development of Cry1Ab resistance in D. saccharalis was not significantly associated with these trypsins and chymotrypsins. Results clarified the role of six midgut proteinases and provided a foundation for continuing examination of potential involvement of other midgut proteinases in Bt resistance development and other important biochemical processes. PMID:23955944

  16. ?-Clamp-mediated cysteine conjugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Welborn, Matthew; Zhu, Tianyu; Yang, Nicole J.; Santos, Michael S.; van Voorhis, Troy; Pentelute, Bradley L.

    2016-02-01

    Site-selective functionalization of complex molecules is one of the most significant challenges in chemistry. Typically, protecting groups or catalysts must be used to enable the selective modification of one site among many that are similarly reactive, and general strategies that selectively tune the local chemical environment around a target site are rare. Here, we show a four-amino-acid sequence (Phe-Cys-Pro-Phe), which we call the ‘?-clamp’, that tunes the reactivity of its cysteine thiol for site-selective conjugation with perfluoroaromatic reagents. We use the ?-clamp to selectively modify one cysteine site in proteins containing multiple endogenous cysteine residues. These examples include antibodies and cysteine-based enzymes that would be difficult to modify selectively using standard cysteine-based methods. Antibodies modified using the ?-clamp retained binding affinity to their targets, enabling the synthesis of site-specific antibody–drug conjugates for selective killing of HER2-positive breast cancer cells. The ?-clamp is an unexpected approach to mediate site-selective chemistry and provides new avenues to modify biomolecules for research and therapeutics.

  17. Overexpression of a Weed (Solanum americanum) Proteinase Inhibitor in Transgenic Tobacco Results in Increased Glandular Trichome Density and Enhanced Resistance to Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng-Fu Xu; Yinpeng Cai; Kuai-Fei Xia; Huapeng Li; Ming Luo; Zhaoyu Wang

    2009-01-01

    In this study we produced transgenic tobacco plants by overexpressing a serine proteinase inhibitor gene, SaPIN2a, from the American black nightshade Solanum americanum under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. SaPIN2a was properly transcribed and translated as indicated by Northern blot and Western blot analyses. Functional integrity of SaPIN2a in transgenic plants was confirmed by proteinase inhibitory activity assay. Bioassays for i...

  18. The Roles of ADAMs Family Proteinases in Skin Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Masakazu Kawaguchi; Hearing, Vincent J

    2011-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are members of a new gene family of transmembrane and secreted proteins, which belong to the zinc proteinase superfamily. These molecules are involved in various biological events such as cell adhesion, cell fusion, cell migration, membrane protein shedding, and proteolysis. Growing evidence now attests to the potential involvement of ADAMs proteinases in diverse processes such as skin wound healing, inflammation, pigmentation, tumor development, c...

  19. Three distinct secreted aspartyl proteinases in Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    White, T. C.; Miyasaki, S H; Agabian, N.

    1993-01-01

    The secreted aspartyl proteinases of Candida albicans (products of the SAP genes) are thought to contribute to virulence through their effects on Candida adherence, invasion, and pathogenicity. From a single strain of C. albicans (WO-1) which expresses a phenotypic switching system, three secreted aspartyl proteinases have been identified as determined by molecular weight and N-terminal sequence. Each of the three identified proteins represents the mature form of one of three distinct protein...

  20. In praise of impurity: 30S ribosomal S15 protein-assisted crystallization of turnip yellow mosaic virus proteinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffraction-quality crystals of the turnip yellow mosaic virus proteinase/ubiquitin hydrolase could only be obtained from a protein preparation that was heavily contaminated with E. coli 30S ribosomal S15 protein. Crystal packing reveals the basis of this observation. Turnip yellow mosaic virus is an excellent model for eukaryotic positive-stranded RNA virus replication. Correct processing of the replication polyprotein is dependent on the virally encoded cysteine proteinase (PRO) domain. Crystalline needles obtained from highly pure preparations of the recombinant 17.6 kDa PRO did not diffract. In contrast, small hexagonal prisms that were obtained together with the needles under the same conditions but from a poorly purified preparation diffracted to 2 Å resolution and allowed structure determination by MIRAS. It turned out that the hexagonal crystals contained stoichiometric amounts of PRO and Escherichia coli 30S ribosomal S15, a 10.1 kDa protein commonly co-purified by immobilized metal-affinity chromatography. The solvent content is nearly 70%, with S15 bridging parallel infinite helices of PRO across large solvent channels. With hindsight, this spurious interaction not only yielded diffraction-quality crystals but would also have allowed structure determination by molecular replacement using S15 as a search model and subsequent automatic rebuilding of the asymmetric unit

  1. Recombinant pro-regions from papain and papaya proteinase IV-are selective high affinity inhibitors of the mature papaya enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M A; Baker, K C; Briggs, G S; Connerton, I F; Cummings, N J; Pratt, K A; Revell, D F; Freedman, R B; Goodenough, P W

    1995-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes require the presence of their pro-regions for correct folding. Of the four proteolytic enzymes from Carica papaya, papain and papaya proteinase IV (PPIV) have 68% sequence identity. We find that their pro-regions are even more similar, exhibiting 73.6% identity. cDNAs encoding the pro-regions of these two proteinases have been expressed in Escherichia coli independently from their mature enzymes. The recombinant pro-regions of papain and PPIV have been shown to be high affinity inhibitors of all four of the mature native papaya cysteine proteinases. Their inhibition constants are in the range 10(-6) - 10(-9) M. PPIV was inhibited two to three orders of magnitude less effectively than papain, chymopapain and caricain. The pro-region of PPIV, however, inhibited its own mature enzyme more effectively than did the pro-region of papain. Alignment of the sequences of the four papaya enzymes shows that there is a highly variable section towards the C-terminal of the pro-region. This region may therefore confer selectivity to the pro-regions for the individual proteolytic enzymes. PMID:7770454

  2. Differential gene expression for suicide-substrate serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) in vegetative and grain tissues of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, T.H.; Marttila, S.

    2003-01-01

    Proteins of the serpin superfamily (similar to43 kDa) from mature cereal grains are in vitro suicide-substrate inhibitors of specific mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family. However, unlike the 'standard-mechanism' serine proteinase inhibitors (<25 kDa), the biological functions of plant serpins are unknown. Expression studies of genes encoding members of three subfamilies of serpins (BSZx, BSZ4 and BSZ7) in developing grain and vegetative tissues of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) showed that transcripts encoding BSZx, which inhibits distinct proteinases at overlapping reactive centres in vitro, were ubiquitous at low levels, but the protein could not be detected. EST analysis showed that expression of genes for serpins with BSZx-type reactive centres in vegetative tissues is widespread in the plant kingdom, suggesting a common regulatory function. For BSZ4 and BSZ7, expression at the protein level was highest in the maturing grain (greater than or equal to15 d post-anthesis), where these serpins were localized by immunomicroscopy to the central and peripheral starchy endosperm, subaleurone, and (at lower levels) to the aleurone. Serpins were also localized to the meristem and vascular tissues of roots, and to the phloem of coleoptiles and leaves. The identification of BSZ4 in vegetative tissues by western blotting was confirmed for the roots by purification and amino acid sequencing, and for the leaves by in vitro reactive-centre loop cleavage studies. Plant serpins are likely to use their irreversible inhibitory mechanism in the inhibition of exogenous proteinases capable of breaking down seed storage proteins, and in the defence of specific cell types in vegetative tissues.

  3. Overexpression of a Weed (Solanum americanum) Proteinase Inhibitor in Transgenic Tobacco Results in Increased Glandular Trichome Density and Enhanced Resistance to Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Wang, Zhaoyu; Li, Huapeng; Xia, Kuai-Fei; Cai, Yinpeng; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2009-01-01

    In this study we produced transgenic tobacco plants by overexpressing a serine proteinase inhibitor gene, SaPIN2a, from the American black nightshade Solanum americanum under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. SaPIN2a was properly transcribed and translated as indicated by Northern blot and Western blot analyses. Functional integrity of SaPIN2a in transgenic plants was confirmed by proteinase inhibitory activity assay. Bioassays for insect resistance showed that SaPIN2a-overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants were more resistant to cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and tobacco cutworm (Spodoptera litura) larvae, two devastating pests of important crop plants, than the control plants. Interestingly, overexpression of SaPIN2a in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in a significant increase in glandular trichome density and a promotion of trichome branching, which could also provide an additional resistance mechanism in transgenic plants against insect pests. Therefore, SaPIN2a could be used as an alternative proteinase inhibitor for the production of insect-resistant transgenic plants. PMID:19468345

  4. The global cysteine peptidase landscape in parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Holly J; Babbitt, Patricia C; Sajid, Mohammed

    2009-12-01

    The accumulation of sequenced genomes has expanded the already sizeable population of cysteine peptidases from parasites. Characterization of a few of these enzymes has ascribed key roles to peptidases in parasite life cycles and has also shed light on mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here we discuss recent observations on the physiological activities of cysteine peptidases of parasitic organisms, paired with a global view of all cysteine peptidases from the MEROPS database grouped by similarity. This snapshot of the landscape of parasite cysteine peptidases is complex and highly populated, suggesting that expansion of research beyond the few 'model' parasite peptidases is now timely. PMID:19854678

  5. Isolation and structural analysis of a gene coding for a novel type of aspartic proteinase from buckwheat seed (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljevi? Mira ?.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel type of aspartic proteinase gene was isolated from the cDNA library of developing buckwheat seeds. This cDNA, FeAPL1, encoded an AP-like protein lacking the plant-specific insert (PSI domain characteristic of typical plant aspartic proteinases. In addition the corresponding genomic fragment was isolated. It is demonstrated that this gene does not contain introns. Since bioinformatics analysis of the Arabidopsis genome showed that most potential AP genes are intronless and PSI-less, it appears that "atypical" is an inappropriate word for that class of AP. Isolation of this specific buckwheat gene among the small group of those isolated from other plant species provides a new perspective on the diversity of AP family members in plants. .

  6. Serine proteinases from barley malt may degrade beta-amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley seed proteinases are critically important to seed germination and malting in that they generate amino acids from seed N reserves, supporting embryo growth during germination and yeast fermentation during brewing. However, relatively little is known regarding the endogenous protein substrate ...

  7. Autoactivation of proteinase A initiates activation of yeast vacuolar zymogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1992-01-01

    -expression with PEP4 leads to normal processing, i.e. the mutant zymogen is functional as a substrate for the maturation reaction in trans. We conclude that wild-type pro-proteinase A has the ability to mediate its own activation. Elimination of the co-expressed PEP4 gene did not effectively stop the processing...

  8. Papain protects papaya trees from herbivorous insects: role of cysteine proteases in latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Kotaro; Hirayama, Chikara; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Tateishi, Ken; Tamura, Yasumori; Hattori, Makoto; Kohno, Katsuyuki

    2004-02-01

    Many plants contain latex that exudes when leaves are damaged, and a number of proteins and enzymes have been found in it. The roles of those latex proteins and enzymes are as yet poorly understood. We found that papain, a cysteine protease in latex of the Papaya tree (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), is a crucial factor in the defense of the papaya tree against lepidopteran larvae such as oligophagous Samia ricini (Saturniidae) and two notorious polyphagous pests, Mamestra brassicae (Noctuidae) and Spodoptera litura (Noctuidae). Leaves of a number of laticiferous plants, including papaya and a wild fig, Ficus virgata (Moraceae), showed strong toxicity and growth inhibition against lepidopteran larvae, though no apparent toxic factors from these species have been reported. When the latex was washed off, the leaves of these lactiferous plants lost toxicity. Latexes of both papaya and the wild fig were rich in cysteine-protease activity. E-64, a cysteine protease-specific inhibitor, completely deprived the leaves of toxicity when painted on the surface of papaya and fig leaves. Cysteine proteases, such as papain, ficin, and bromelain, all showed toxicity. The results suggest that plant latex and the proteins in it, cysteine proteases in particular, provide plants with a general defense mechanism against herbivorous insects. PMID:14731257

  9. Perspectives of digestive pest control with proteinase inhibitors that mainly affect the trypsin-like activity of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Pereira

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the main characteristics of the proteolytic activities of the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, and their sensitivity to proteinase inhibitors and activators. Midguts of last instar larvae reared on an artificial diet were homogenized in 0.15 M NaCl and centrifuged at 14,000 g for 10 min at 4ºC and the supernatants were used in enzymatic assays at 30ºC, pH 10.0. Basal total proteolytic activity (azocasein hydrolysis was 1.14 ± 0.15 absorbance variation min-1 mg protein-1, at 420 nm; basal trypsin-like activity (N-benzoyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide, BApNA, hydrolysis was 0.217 ± 0.02 mmol p-nitroaniline min-1 mg protein-1. The maximum proteolytic activities were observed at pH 10.5 using azocasein and at pH 10.0 using BApNA, this pH being identical to the midgut pH of 10.0. The maximum trypsin-like activity occurred at 50ºC, a temperature that reduces enzyme stability to 80 and 60% of the original, when pre-incubated for 5 and 30 min, respectively. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibited the proteolytic activities with an IC50 of 0.39 mM for azocasein hydrolysis and of 1.35 mM for BApNA hydrolysis. Benzamidine inhibited the hydrolysis with an IC50 of 0.69 and 0.076 mM for azocasein and BApNA, respectively. The absence of cysteine-proteinases is indicated by the fact that 2-mercaptoethanol and L-cysteine did not increase the rate of azocasein hydrolysis. These results demonstrate the presence of serine-proteinases and the predominance of trypsin-like activity in the midgut of Lepidoptera insects, now also detected in A. gemmatalis, and suggest this enzyme as a major target for pest control based on disruption of protein metabolism using proteinase inhibitors.

  10. Roles for proteinases in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline A Owen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Caroline A OwenDivision of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Since the early 1960s, a compelling body of evidence has accumulated to show that proteinases play critical roles in airspace enlargement in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, until recently the causative enzymes and their exact roles in pathologic processes in COPD have not been clear. Recent studies of gene-targeted mice in murine models of COPD have confirmed roles for proteinases not only in airspace enlargement, but also in airway pathologies in COPD. These studies have also shed light on the specific proteinases involved in COPD pathogenesis, and the mechanisms by which these proteinases injure the lung. They have also identified important interactions between different classes of proteinases, and between proteinases and other molecules that amplify lung inflammation and injury. This review will discuss the biology of proteinases and the mechanisms by which they contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD. In addition, I will discuss the potential of proteinase inhibitors and anti-inflammatory drugs as new treatment strategies for COPD patients.Keywords: proteinase, proteinase inhibitor, proteolysis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammation, mucus hypersecretion

  11. Characterization of peptide proteinase inhibitors isolated from boar seminal plasma.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínková, Petra; Tichá, M.; Jonáková, V?ra

    Praha : UOCHB AV ?R, 2003 - (Slaninová, J.; Collinsová, M.; Klasová, L.), s. 1-57 [Biologicky aktivní peptidy /8./. Praha (CZ), 23.04.2003-25.04.2003] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA303/99/0357; GA ?R GP303/02/P069; GA MZd NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 113100001 Keywords : boar seminal plasma proteins * proteinase inhibitors Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  12. Proteinase inhibitors in aggregated forms of boar seminal plasma proteins.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínková, Petra; Ma?ásková, Pavla; Tichá, M.; Jonáková, V?ra

    2003-01-01

    Ro?. 32, - (2003), s. 99-107. ISSN 0141-8130 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA303/02/0433; GA ?R GP303/02/P069; GA MZd NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915; CEZ:MSM 113100001 Keywords : proteinase inhibitors, aggregated forms, boar seminal plasma proteins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.427, year: 2003

  13. Characterization of peptide proteinase inhibitors isolated from boar seminal plasma.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínková, Petra; Tichá, M.; Jonáková, V?ra

    2003-01-01

    Ro?. 6, - (2003), s. 35-37. ISSN 0010-0765. [Biologically Active Peptides /8./. Praha, 23.04.2003-25.04.2003] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA303/02/0433; GA ?R GP303/02/P069; GA MZd NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : proteinase inhibitors * aggregated forms * boar seminal plasma Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.041, year: 2003

  14. Proteinase K processing of rabbit muscle creatine kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leydier, C; Andersen, Jens S.; Couthon, F; Forest, E; Marcillat, O; Denoroy, L; Vial, C; Clottes, E

    1997-01-01

    Proteinase K cleaves selectively both cytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms of creatine kinase leading to the appearance of two fragments, a large N-terminal one (K1) and a small C-terminal peptide (K2) which remain associated together. The loss of enzymatic activity correlates with the extent of monomer cleavage. N-terminal sequencing of the K2 fragments from rabbit cytosolic and pig mitochondrial creatine kinase shows that these peptides begin with A328 and A324, respectively. Electrospray ioni...

  15. Structure and mechanism of mouse cysteine dioxygenase

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, Jason G.; Bailey, Lucas J.; Bitto, Eduard; Bingman, Craig A.; Aceti, David J.; Fox, Brian G.; Phillips, George N

    2006-01-01

    Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) catalyzes the oxidation of l-cysteine to cysteine sulfinic acid. Deficiencies in this enzyme have been linked to autoimmune diseases and neurological disorders. The x-ray crystal structure of CDO from Mus musculus was solved to a nominal resolution of 1.75 Å. The sequence is 91% identical to that of a human homolog. The structure reveals that CDO adopts the typical ?-barrel fold of the cupin superfamily. The NE2 atoms of His-86, -88, and -140 provide the metal bindi...

  16. Biochemical characterization of Acacia schweinfurthii serine proteinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odei-Addo, Frank; Frost, Carminita; Smith, Nanette; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Muramoto, Koji; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela; Gráf, László; Naude, Ryno

    2014-10-01

    One of the many control mechanisms of serine proteinases is their specific inhibition by protein proteinase inhibitors. An extract of Acacia schweinfurthii was screened for potential serine proteinase inhibition. It was successfully purified to homogeneity by precipitating with 80% (v/v) acetone and sequential chromatographic steps, including ion-exchange, affinity purification and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Reducing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis conditions revealed an inhibitor (ASTI) consisting of two polypeptide chains A and B of approximate molecular weights of 16 and 10?kDa, respectively, and under non-reducing conditions, 26?kDa was observed. The inhibitor was shown to inhibit bovine trypsin (Ki of 3.45?nM) at an approximate molar ratio of inhibitor:trypsin (1:1). The A- and B-chains revealed complete sequences of 140 and 40 amino acid residues, respectively. Sequence similarity (70%) was reported between ASTI A-chain and ACTI A-chain (Acacia confusa) using ClustalW. The B-chain produced a 76% sequence similarity between ASTI and Leucaena leucocephala trypsin inhibitor. PMID:24090421

  17. Trichoderma harzianum transformant has high extracellular alkaline proteinase expression during specific mycoparasitic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Maria Helena S.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycoparasite Trichoderma harzianum produces an alkaline proteinase that may be specifically involved in mycoparasitism. We have constructed transformant strains of this fungus that overexpress this alkaline proteinase. Some of the transformants were assessed for alkaline proteinase activity, and those with higher activity than the wild type were selected for further studies. One of these transformant strains produced an elevated and constitutive pbr1 mRNA level during mycoparasitic interactions with Rhizoctonia solani.

  18. A structural comparison of 21 inhibitor complexes of the aspartic proteinase from Endothia parasitica.

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, D.; Cooper, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    The aspartic proteinases are an important family of enzymes associated with several pathological conditions such as hypertension (renin), gastric ulcers (pepsin), neoplastic disease (cathepsins D and E), and AIDS (HIV proteinase). Studies of inhibitor binding are therefore of great importance for design of novel inhibitors for potential therapeutic applications. Numerous X-ray analyses have shown that transition-state isostere inhibitors of aspartic proteinases bind in similar extended confor...

  19. The structure of chagasin in complex with a cysteine protease clarifies the binding mode and evolution of an inhibitor family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Stephanie X; Pandey, Kailash C; Scharfstein, Julio; Whisstock, James; Huang, Rick K; Jacobelli, Jordan; Fletterick, Robert J; Rosenthal, Philip J; Abrahamson, Magnus; Brinen, Linda S; Rossi, Andrea; Sali, Andrej; McKerrow, James H

    2007-05-01

    Protein inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes regulate proteolysis and prevent the pathological effects of excess endogenous or exogenous proteases. Cysteine proteases are a large family of enzymes found throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Disturbance of the equilibrium between cysteine proteases and natural inhibitors is a key event in the pathogenesis of cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, and emphysema. A family (I42) of cysteine protease inhibitors (http://merops.sanger.ac.uk) was discovered in protozoan parasites and recently found widely distributed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We report the 2.2 A crystal structure of the signature member of the I42 family, chagasin, in complex with a cysteine protease. Chagasin has a unique variant of the immunoglobulin fold with homology to human CD8alpha. Interactions of chagasin with a target protease are reminiscent of the cystatin family inhibitors. Protein inhibitors of cysteine proteases may have evolved more than once on nonhomologous scaffolds. PMID:17502099

  20. Lipopolysaccharide modulates the expression of alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor and other serine proteinase inhibitors in human monocytes and macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    alpha 1 Proteinase inhibitor (PI) is the principle inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, an enzyme that degrades many components of the extracellular matrix. Expression and regulation of alpha 1 PI, therefore, affects the delicate balance of elastase and antielastase, which is critical to turnover of connective tissue during homeostasis, tissue injury, and repair. In this study we show that expression of alpha 1 PI in human monocytes and macrophages is regulated during activation by LPS. LPS medi...

  1. Combinatorial Cysteine Mutagenesis Reveals a Critical Intramonomer Role for Cysteines in Prestin Voltage Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Jun-Ping; Surguchev, Alexei; Bian, Shumin; SONG, LEI; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph; Navaratnam, Dhasakumar

    2010-01-01

    Prestin is a member of the SLC26 family of anion transporters and is responsible for electromotility in outer hair cells, the basis of cochlear amplification in mammals. It is an anion transporting transmembrane protein, possessing nine cysteine residues, which generates voltage-dependent charge movement. We determine the role these cysteine residues play in the voltage sensing capabilities of prestin. Mutations of any single cysteine residue had little or no effect on charge movement. Howeve...

  2. Astrocytes and the regulation of cerebral cysteine/cystine redox potential: implications for cysteine neurotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    McBean, Gethin J.

    2012-01-01

    The sulfur amino acid, cysteine plays an essential role in maintaining cellular redox potential and is a key constituent of the antioxidant, glutathione. Cysteine is highly reactive and readily oxidises to the disulfide form, cystine, producing oxygen radicals as a by-product. Extracellular oxidising conditions favour cystine, whereas cysteine is the dominant intracellular form of the amino acid. In the brain, astrocytes control the extracellular thiol redox potential by actively taking u...

  3. Mechanism of Excretion of a Bacterial Proteinase: Factors Controlling Accumulation of the Extracellular Proteinase of a Sarcina Strain (Coccus P)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BISSELL, MINA J.; TOSI, ROBERTO; GORINI, LUIGI

    1970-06-29

    It has been known that the extracellular proteinase of Coccus P is found only in cultures grown in the presence of Ca{sup 2+}. It is now shown that this cation is required neither for synthesis, excretion, or activation of a zymogen nor as a prosthetic factor necessary for enzymatic activity. The only function of Ca{sup 2+} is to stabilize the active structure of the enzyme molecule, presumably by substituting for absence of S-S bridges. In the absence of Ca{sup 2+} , the excreted proteinase undergoes rapid autodigestion and, instead of the active protein, its hydrolytic products are accumulated in the culture fluid. In minimal medium and under conditions of enzyme stability [presence of Ca{sup 2+} and Ficoll (Pharmacia)], Coccus P accumulates the proteinase at a gradually reduced speed although the rate of cultural growth remains constant. It is shown that this decline in rate of accumulation is caused by the excreted proteinase itself, possibly acting on its own precursor emerging from the cell in a form susceptible to proteolytic attack and not amenable to Ca{sup 2+} protection. A proteinase precursor is actually demonstrable in a calciumless culture at the onset of the enzyme accumulation which follows Ca{sup 2+} addition. It is suggested that excreted proteins require an unfolded (or incompletely folded) structure to cross the cell envelope. The proteinase excreted by a Sarcina strain (Coccus P) is found only in cultures containing Ca{sup 2+} ions (1), a feature common to proteinases of other bacteria (4, 12, 18) and to other excreted enzymes (14). Among the nontoxic divalent cations, Ca{sup 2+} is rather specific in this effect. Other ions such as Mn{sup 2+} or Mg{sup 2+}, the latter being present in all media as an indispensible growth factor, are ineffective. Addition of Ca{sup 2+} to the proteolytically inactive supernatant fluid of a calcium- free culture does not result in the appearance of the missing enzyme activity. The early assumption that Ca{sup 2+} was needed for enzyme synthesis or excretion (1) was challenged when the observation was made (5) that Ca{sup 2+} and not Mn{sup 2}, Mg{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, or Ba{sup 2+} was needed for preventing irreversible loss of activity of several bacterial proteinases. In particular, in the case of the excreted proteinase of Coccus P, it was shown (17) that this irreversible inactivation is due to autodigestion occurring in the absence of Ca2 . An antiwetting agent, Ficoll, delays this autodigestion, suggesting that the function of Ca{sup 2+} is to stabilize an already active form of the enzyme molecule rather than to act as a constituent of the prosthetic group required for activity. It has also been observed that, when Coccus P is grown in a complex proteose peptone medium, the proteinase appears abruptly late in the growth of the culture. The sudden burst of activity was explained by demonstrating the presence of a zymogen which is activated autocatalytically (8). The late appearance of activity was accounted for when it was discovered that in minimal medium containing Ca{sup 2+}, Coccus P excreted the proteinase immediately at the onset of growth (9), but that addition of Casamino Acid hydrolysate delayed enzyme production for a length of time roughly proportional to the amount added (H. Ennis and L. Gorini, 1959, unpublished data). A similar amino acid effect was observed for other proteolytic bacteria (3, 13). It was assumed, therefore, that in the absence of amino acids an unrestricted proteinase production could be found. However, another deviation, from a constant relationship between amount of enzyme and amount of cells producing it, became evident by using minimal medium. The rate of accumulation of enzyme decreased gradually, long before exponential growth had slowed down (T. Heyman and L. Gorini, 1955, unpublished data). As yet, no explanation for this decline has been provided. In this paper, in addition to studying the role of Ca{sup 2+} in enzyme production, we also analyze the kinetics of enzyme appearance and accumulation in minimal medium. It is fou

  4. A new crystal form of proteinase A, a non-pepsin-type acid proteinase from Aspergillus niger var. macrosporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanokura, M; Sasaki, H; Muramatsu, T; Iwata, S; Hamaya, T; Takizawa, T; Takahashi, K

    1993-10-01

    Proteinase A from Aspergillus niger var. macrosporus is a non-pepsin-type acid proteinase, whose catalytic residues and mechanism remain to be elucidated. A new form of proteinase A crystals more suitable for crystallography than that obtained previously was prepared from an ammonium sulfate solution at pH 3.5 by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. The space group of the crystals was P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit cell dimensions of a = 69.75 +/- 0.06 A, b = 87.55 +/- 0.05 A, and c = 60.83 +/- 0.04 A. On the assumption of two enzyme molecules per asymmetric unit, the calculated volume to unit protein mass ratio (Vm) was 2.08 A3/Da. By assuming the specific volume to be 0.74 cm3/g, the solvent content (Vso1) was estimated to be 41%, i.e., much larger than that of the crystal form obtained previously at pH 2.0 (Vso1 = 26%). Diffraction data were collected up to a resolution higher than 1.6 A, using the Weissenberg camera for macromolecular crystallography with synchrotron radiation. PMID:8276753

  5. Synthesis of macrocyclic trypanosomal cysteine protease inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yen Ting; Lira, Ricardo; Hansell, Elizabeth; McKerrow, James H; ROUSH, WILLIAM R.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of cysteine proteases in parasites, compounded with the lack of redundancy compared to their mammalian hosts makes proteases attractive targets for the development of new therapeutic agents. The binding mode of K11002 to cruzain, the major cysteine protease of Trypanosoma cruzi was used in the design of conformationally constrained inhibitors. Vinyl sulfone-containing macrocycles were synthesized via olefin ring-closing metathesis and evaluated against cruzain and the closely r...

  6. Stage-specific gut proteinases of the cotton stainer bug Dysdercus peruvianus: role in the release of entomotoxic peptides from Canavalia ensiformis urease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Angela R; Stanisçuaski, Fernanda; Marco-Salvadori, Juliana; Real-Guerra, Rafael; Defferrari, Marina S; Carlini, Célia R

    2008-11-01

    Canavalia ensiformis ureases are toxic to insects of different orders. The entomotoxicity of urease is due to a 10 kDa internal peptide released by proteinases in the insect digestive tract. We previously observed that, given orally, urease is toxic to nymphs of Dysdercus peruvianus, but does not affect adults. Here we characterized the major proteolytic activities of D. peruvianus midgut homogenates and investigated their in vitro-catalyzed release of the 10 kDa entomotoxic peptide from urease. Cysteine, aspartic and metalloproteinases are present in both homogenates. Variations in optimal pH and susceptibility to inhibitors indicated differences in the enzyme profiles in the two developmental stages. Only nymph homogenates released approximately 10 kDa fragment(s) from urease, recognized by antibodies against the entomotoxic peptide. Fluorogenic substrates containing urease partial sequences flanking the N-terminal or the C-terminal portion of the entomotoxic peptide were efficiently cleaved by homogenates from nymphs, but much more slowly by the adult homogenate. Different classes of enzymes in the homogenates cleaved both substrates suggesting that in vivo the release of the entomotoxic peptide results from the concerted action of at least two different proteinases. Our findings support the view that a differential processing of ingested urease by the insects explains at least in part the lack of toxicity in adults. PMID:18952169

  7. Multifunctional amaranth cystatin inhibits endogenous and digestive insect cysteine endopeptidases: A potential tool to prevent proteolysis and for the control of insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Rodríguez, Silvia; Galván-Ramírez, Juan Pablo; Guerrero-Rangel, Armando; Cedro-Tanda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, the amaranth cystatin was characterized. This cystatin is believed to provide protection from abiotic stress because its transcription is induced in response to heat, drought, and salinity. It has also been shown that recombinant amaranth cystatin inhibits bromelain, ficin, and cysteine endopeptidases from fungal sources and also inhibits the growth of phytopathogenic fungi. In the present study, evidence is presented regarding the potential function of amaranth cystatin as a regulator of endogenous proteinases and insect digestive proteinases. During amaranth germination and seedling growth, different proteolytic profiles were observed at different pH levels in gelatin-containing SDS-PAGE. Most of the proteolytic enzymes detected at pH 4.5 were mainly inhibited by trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucyl amido(4-guanidino)butane (E-64) and the purified recombinant amaranth cystatin. Furthermore, the recombinant amaranth cystatin was active against insect proteinases. In particular, the E-64-sensitive proteolytic digestive enzymes from Callosobruchus maculatus, Zabrotes subfasciatus, and Acanthoscelides obtectus were inhibited by the amaranth cystatin. Taken together, these results suggest multiple roles for cystatin in amaranth, specifically during germination and seedling growth and in the protection of A. hypochondriacus against insect predation. Amaranth cystatin represents a promising tool for diverse applications in the control of insect pest and for preventing undesirable proteolytic activity. PMID:25345487

  8. Crystal Structure of Mammalian Cysteine dioxygenase: A Novel Mononuclear Iron Center for Cysteine Thiol Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons,C.; Liu, Q.; Huang, Q.; Hao, Q.; Begley, T.; Karplus, P.; Stipanuk, M.

    2006-01-01

    Cysteine dioxygenase is a mononuclear iron-dependent enzyme responsible for the oxidation of cysteine with molecular oxygen to form cysteinesulfinate. This reaction commits cysteine to either catabolism to sulfate and pyruvate or to the taurine biosynthetic pathway. Cysteine dioxygenase is a member of the cupin superfamily of proteins. The crystal structure of recombinant rat cysteine dioxygenase has been determined to 1.5 Angstroms resolution, and these results confirm the canonical cupin {beta}-sandwich fold and the rare cysteinyl-tyrosine intramolecular crosslink (between Cys93 and Tyr157) seen in the recently reported murine cysteine dioxygenase structure. In contrast to the catalytically inactive mononuclear Ni(II) metallocenter present in the murine structure, crystallization of a catalytically competent preparation of rat cysteine dioxygenase revealed a novel tetrahedrally coordinated mononuclear iron center involving three histidines (His86, His88, and His140) and a water molecule. Attempts to acquire a structure with bound ligand using either co-crystallization or soaks with cysteine revealed the formation of a mixed disulfide involving Cys164 near the active site, which may explain previously observed substrate inhibition. This work provides a framework for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in thiol dioxygenation and sets the stage for exploring the chemistry of both the novel mononuclear iron center and the catalytic role of the cysteinyl-tyrosine linkage.

  9. Collagenase inhibition in colonic mucosa by proteinase inhibitors.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewin, M. R.; Chowcat, N. L.; Jayaraj, A P; Boulos, P. B.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of proteinase inhibitors on collagenase activity in rabbit colonic mucosa, both in vitro and in vivo, has been measured by a tissue culture method. Aprotinin, when applied to colonic explants at doses of 20 and 40 KIU, significantly reduced the lytic activity by 97.3% and 99.1% respectively (P less than 0.001). At doses of 100, 200 and 400 KIUs, lysis was completely abolished. Rectal biopsies taken from rabbits at 4, 24, 48 and 72 h following either intramuscular, oral or rectal ad...

  10. An emerging role of degrading proteinases in hypertension and the metabolic syndrome: autodigestion and receptor cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2012-02-01

    One of the major challenges for hypertension research is to identify the mechanisms that cause the comorbidities encountered in many hypertensive patients, as seen in the metabolic syndrome. An emerging body of evidence suggests that human and experimental hypertensives may exhibit uncontrolled activity of proteinases, including the family of matrix metalloproteinases, recognized for their ability to restructure the extracellular matrix proteins and to play a role in hypertrophy. We propose a new hypothesis that provides a molecular framework for the comorbidities of hypertension, diabetes, capillary rarefaction, immune suppression, and other cell and organ dysfunctions due to early and uncontrolled extracellular receptor cleavage by active proteinases. The proteinase and signaling activity in hypertensives requires further detailed analysis of the proteinase expression, the mechanisms causing proenzyme activation, and identification of the proteinase substrate. This work may open the opportunity for reassessment of old interventions and development of new interventions to manage hypertension and its comorbidities. PMID:22081429

  11. Ion beam transformation with corn DNA alters proteinase expression in rice seedling roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W C; Ji, S D; Wang, X C; Li, Z K; Zhang, H C; Tian, C Z; Liu, Y L; Duan, C X

    2015-01-01

    Corn DNA was introduced into dry seeds of rice (cv. 'YuJing-6') by ion beam irradiation. Proteinase activities in rice seedling roots were subsequently analyzed by renaturation electrophoresis at pH 4.5, 7.0, and 8.5. Proteinase activity was more pronounced on gels at higher pH. Irradiation of rice seedling roots caused the loss of some proteinase bands at all pH conditions although a novel 50-kDa band was found at both pH 7.0 and 8.5. No new proteinase activity was detected at pH 4.5. However, novel bands and bands showing stronger activity were observed at pH 7.0 and 8.5. The data indicate that the expression of proteinases in rice seedling roots was altered following low energy ion beam mediated transformation with corn DNA. PMID:26125936

  12. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate labeling of sperm-associated proteinases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteinase inhibitors have been shown to be capable of preventing various aspects of fertilization. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) is an irreversible inhibitor of trypsin-like enzymes that is commercially available in a radiolabeled form. The experiments described herein were designed to determine if DFP would prevent sperm function in live, motile sperm and to identify the sperm proteins bound with DFP. DFP at 5 mM concentrations had no observable effect on sperm motility, but inhibited the penetration of zona-free hamster ova by human sperm (5.5%) compared to controls (33.5%). Acid extracts of motile sperm that had been incubated with radiolabeled DFP and collected by the swim-up procedure demonstrated the presence of radiolabeled DFP, and the autoradiography of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels of these extracts localized the uptake of radiolabeled DFP to proteins in the molecular weight region of the proacrosin-acrosin system. Acid-extracted proteinases from semen samples incubated with DFP demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibition of both esterolytic hydrolysis of benzoyl-arginine ethyl ester on spectrophotometric analysis and proteolytic activity on gelatin SDS-PAGE zymography. DFP-labeled proteins were precipitated by highly specific antibodies to proacrosin. These results demonstrated that DFP is capable of inhibiting sperm function, and that it associates with the proacrosin-acrosin system in live motile sperm

  13. Effects of soybean proteinase inhibitors on development of the soil mite Scheloribates praeincisus (Acari: Oribatida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, R A; Silva-Filho, M C; Moura, D S; Delalibera, I

    2008-03-01

    Proteinase inhibitors (PI) are present in plant tissues, especially in seeds, and act as a defense mechanism against herbivores and pathogens. Serine PI from soybean such as Bowman-Birk (BBPI) and Kunitz have been used to enhance resistance of sugarcane varieties to the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), the major pest of this crop. The use of these genetically-modified plants (GM) expressing PI requires knowledge of its sustainability and environmental safety, determining the stability of the introduced characteristic and its effects on non-target organisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate direct effects of ingestion of semi-purified and purified soybean PI and GM sugarcane plants on the soil-dwelling mite Scheloribates praeincisus (Berlese) (Acari: Oribatida). This mite is abundant in agricultural soils and participates in the process of organic matter decomposition; for this reason it will be exposed to PI by feeding on GM plant debris. Eggs of S. praeincisus were isolated and after larvae emerged, immatures were fed milled sugarcane leaves added to semi-purified or purified PI (Kunitz and BBPI) or immatures were fed GM sugarcane varieties expressing Kunitz and BBPI type PI or the untransformed near isogenic parental line variety as a control. Developmental time (larva-adult) and survival of S. praeincisus was evaluated. Neither Kunitz nor BBPI affected S. praeincisus survival. On the other hand, ingestion of semi-purified and purified Kunitz inhibitor diminished duration of S. praeincisus immature stages. Ingestion of GM senescent leaves did not have an effect on S. praeincisus immature developmental time and survival, compared to ingestion of leaves from the isogenic parental plants. These results indicate that cultivation of these transgenic sugarcane plants is safe for the non-target species S. praeincisus. PMID:18357504

  14. Serpins in plants and green algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Hejgaard, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    . Serpins have been found in diverse species of the plant kingdom and represent a distinct clade among serpins in multicellular organisms. Serpins are also found in green algae, but the evolutionary relationship between these serpins and those of plants remains unknown. Plant serpins are potent inhibitors...... of mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family in vitro but, intriguingly, plants and green algae lack endogenous members of this proteinase family, the most common targets for animal serpins. An Arabidopsis serpin with a conserved reactive centre is now known to be capable of inhibiting...

  15. Effects of cysteine protease inhibitors on oviposition rate of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annadana, S; Peters, J; Gruden, K; Schipper, A; Outchkourov, N S; Beekwilder, M J.; Udayakumar, M; Jongsma, M A.

    2002-07-01

    Proteolytic activity in whole insect extracts of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, was found to belong predominantly to the class of cysteine proteases. The pH optimum of the general proteolytic activity was determined to be 3.5, which is low when compared to other insects using cysteine proteases for protein digestion. The proteinaceous cysteine protease inhibitors chicken cystatin, potato cystatin and sea anemone equistatin inhibited in vitro more than 90% of the protease activity. To test in vivo the biological effect of such inhibitors on the oviposition rate of western flower thrips, recombinant potato cystatin and equistatin were fed to adult females. A gradual reduction in oviposition rate to about 45% of control was observed when reared on these PIs for a period of 5 days, with no increase in mortality. These results are discussed in the light of the application of protease inhibitors in transgenic plants to control this insect pest. PMID:12770064

  16. Characterization of an aphid-specific, cysteine-rich protein enriched in salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Wang, Wei; Luo, Lan; Chen, Jun; Guo, Ya; Cui, Feng

    2014-05-01

    Aphids secrete saliva into the phloem during their infestation of plants. Previous studies have identified numerous saliva proteins, but little is known about the characteristics (physical and chemical) and functions of these proteins in aphid-plant interactions. This study characterized an unknown protein (ACYPI39568) that was predicted to be enriched in the salivary glands of pea aphid. This protein belongs to an aphid-specific, cysteine-rich protein family that contains 14 conserved cysteines. ACYPI39568 is a monomeric globular protein with a high beta strand extent. The binding stoichiometric ratios for Zn(2+) and ACYPI39568 were approximately 3:1 and 1:1 at two binding sites. ACYPI39568 was predominantly expressed in the first instar stage and in the salivary glands. Aphids required more ACYPI39568 when feeding on plants than when feeding on an artificial diet. However, the interference of ACYPI39568 expression did not affect the survival rate of aphids on plants. PMID:24731868

  17. Selective chromogenic and fluorogenic peptide substrates for the assay of cysteine peptidases in complex mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semashko, Tatiana A; Vorotnikova, Elena A; Sharikova, Valeriya F; Vinokurov, Konstantin S; Smirnova, Yulia A; Dunaevsky, Yakov E; Belozersky, Mikhail A; Oppert, Brenda; Elpidina, Elena N; Filippova, Irina Y

    2014-03-15

    This study describes the design, synthesis, and use of selective peptide substrates for cysteine peptidases of the C1 papain family, important in many biological processes. The structure of the newly synthesized substrates is Glp-Xaa-Ala-Y (where Glp=pyroglutamyl; Xaa=Phe or Val; and Y=pNA [p-nitroanilide], AMC [4-amino-7-methylcoumaride], or AFC [4-amino-7-trifluoromethyl-coumaride]). Substrates were synthesized enzymatically to guarantee selectivity of the reaction and optical purity of the target compounds, simplifying the scheme of synthesis and isolation of products. The hydrolysis of the synthesized substrates was evaluated by C1 cysteine peptidases from different organisms and with different functions, including plant enzymes papain, bromelain, ficin, and mammalian lysosomal cathepsins B and L. The new substrates were selective for C1 cysteine peptidases and were not hydrolyzed by serine, aspartic, or metallo peptidases. We demonstrated an application of the selectivity of the synthesized substrates during the chromatographic separation of a multicomponent set of digestive peptidases from a beetle, Tenebrio molitor. Used in combination with the cysteine peptidase inhibitor E-64, these substrates were able to differentiate cysteine peptidases from peptidases of other classes in midgut extracts from T. molitor larvae and larvae of the genus Tribolium; thus, they are useful in the analysis of complex mixtures containing peptidases from different classes. PMID:24388866

  18. In vivo and in vitro effect of Acacia nilotica seed proteinase inhibitors on Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) larvae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ramesh Babu; B Subrahmanyam; Srinivasan; I M Santha

    2012-06-01

    Acacia nilotica proteinase inhibitor (AnPI) was isolated by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-25 and resulted in a purification of 10.68-fold with a 19.5% yield. Electrophoretic analysis of purified AnPI protein resolved into a single band with molecular weight of approximately 18.6+1.00 kDa. AnPI had high stability at different pH values (2.0 to 10.0) except at pH 5.0 and are thermolabile beyond 80°C for 10 min. AnPI exhibited effective against total proteolytic activity and trypsin-like activity, but did not show any inhibitory effect on chymotrypsin activity of midgut of Helicoverpa armigera. The inhibition kinetics studies against H. armigera gut trypsin are of non-competitive type. AnPI had low affinity for H. armigera gut trypsin when compared to SBTI. The partially purified and purified PI proteins-incorporated test diets showed significant reduction in mean larval and pupal weight of H. armigera. The results provide important clues in designing strategies by using the proteinase inhibitors (PIs) from the A. nilotica that can be expressed in genetically engineered plants to confer resistance to H. armigera.

  19. Characterization of Peptides from Capsicum annuum Hybrid Seeds with Inhibitory Activity Against ?-Amylase, Serine Proteinases and Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Bard, Gabriela C; Nascimento, Viviane V; Ribeiro, Suzanna F F; Rodrigues, Rosana; Perales, Jonas; Teixeira-Ferreira, André; Carvalho, André O; Fernandes, Katia Valevski S; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2015-04-01

    Over the last several years, the activity of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), isolated from plant species, against different microorganisms has been demonstrated. More recently, some of these AMPs have been described as potent inhibitors of ?-amylases and serine proteinases from insects and mammals. The aim of this work was to obtain AMPs from protein extracts of a hybrid Capsicum (Ikeda × UENF 1381) seeds and to evaluate their microbial and enzyme inhibitory activities. Initially, proteins were extracted from the Capsicum hybrid seeds in buffer (sodium phosphate pH 5.4,) and precipitated with ammonium sulfate (90% saturated). Extract of hybrid seeds was subjected to size exclusion chromatography, and three fractions were obtained: S1, S2 and S3. The amino acid sequence, obtained by mass spectrometry, of the 6 kDa peptide from the S3 fraction, named HyPep, showed 100% identity with PSI-1.2, a serine protease inhibitor isolated from C. annuum seeds, however the bifunctionality of this inhibitor against two enzymes is being shown for the first time in this work. The S3 fraction showed the highest antifungal activity, inhibiting all the yeast strains tested, and it also exhibited inhibitory activity against human salivary and Callosobruchus maculatus ?-amylases as well as serine proteinases. PMID:25750185

  20. Quantitative reactivity profiling predicts functional cysteines in proteomes

    OpenAIRE

    Weerapana, Eranthie; Wang, Chu; Simon, Gabriel M.; RICHTER, FLORIAN; Khare, Sagar; Dillon, Myles B.D.; Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Mowen, Kerri; Baker, David; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2010-01-01

    Cysteine is the most intrinsically nucleophilic amino acid in proteins, where its reactivity is tuned to perform diverse biochemical functions. The absence of a consensus sequence that defines functional cysteines in proteins has hindered their discovery and characterization. Here, we describe a proteomics method to quantitatively profile the intrinsic reactivity of cysteine residues en masse directly in native biological systems. Hyperreactivity was a rare feature among cysteines and found t...

  1. Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease heterologous expressed in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    During germination of barley seeds, the mobilization of protein is essential and Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins [1]. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme until activated through reduction of the active site cysteines and via removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and effici...

  2. Septicemia Caused by Cysteine-Dependent Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    A case of septicemia and urinary tract infection caused by cysteine-dependent Escherichia coli in a 70-year-old woman with bilateral staghorn calculi is described. This is the second report of a cysteine-dependent E. coli bacteremia. The bacterium was falsely susceptible to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole when tested on a medium without cysteine supplement.

  3. Homology models of main proteinase from coronavirus associated with SARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Lin, Jin-Chung; Ho, Yih; Chen, Chin-Wen

    2005-01-01

    In this study, two homology models of the main proteinase (M pro) from the novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) were constructed. These models reveal three distinct functional domains, in which an intervening loop connecting domains II and III as well as a catalytic cleft containing the substrate binding subsites S1 and S2 between domains I and II are observed. S2 exhibits structural variations more significantly than S1 during the 200 ps molecular dynamics simulations because it is located at the open mouth of the catalytic cleft and the amino acid residues lining up this subsite are least conserved. In addition, the higher structural variation of S2 makes it flexible enough to accommodate a bulky hydrophobic residue from the substrate.

  4. Salicylic acid and cysteine contribute to arbutin-induced alleviation of angular leaf spot disease development in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku?niak, El?bieta; Wielanek, Marzena; Chwatko, Gra?yna; G?owacki, Rafa?; Libik-Konieczny, Marta; Pi?tek, Milena; Gajewska, Ewa; Sk?odowska, Maria

    2015-06-01

    Arbutin induced suppression of angular leaf spot disease in cucumber resulting from lower populations of Pseudomonas syringae pv lachrymans in the infected tissues. This study provides insight into mechanisms that may potentially account for this effect. In the absence of the pathogen, exogenous arbutin-induced expression of PR1, the marker of salicylic acid signaling, increased the content of salicylic acid and modulated the cysteine pool. This suggested that arbutin promoted cucumber plants to a "primed" state. When challenged with the pathogen, the arbutin-treated plants showed strongly reduced infection symptoms 7 days after inoculation. At this time point, they were characterized by higher contents of free and protein-bound cysteine due to higher cysteine biosynthetic capacity related to increased activities of serine acetyltransferase and cysteine synthase when compared with plants infected without arbutin treatment. Moreover, in the arbutin-treated and infected plants the contents of free salicylic acid and its conjugates were also increased, partly owing to its biosynthesis via the phenylpropanoid pathway. We suggest that arbutin-induced abrogation of angular leaf spot disease in cucumber could be mediated by salicylic acid and cysteine-based signaling. PMID:25955697

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray investigation of proteinase A, a non-pepsin-type acid proteinase from Aspergillus niger var. macrosporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanokura, M; Matsuzaki, H; Iwata, S; Nakagawa, A; Hamaya, T; Takizawa, T; Takahashi, K

    1992-01-01

    Proteinase A from Aspergillus niger var. macrosporus is a non-pepsin-type acid proteinase distinctly different in various properties from the family of pepsin-type aspartic proteinases, and so far it remains unknown which residues participate in the catalysis of the enzyme and how the mechanism operates. The acid proteinase A was crystallized from an ammonium sulfate solution by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. The space group of the crystals was P2(1)2(1)2(1) with unit cell dimensions of a = 54.7 A, b = 70.4 A and c = 38.0 A. On the assumption that there is one enzyme molecule in the asymmetric unit, the calculated ratio of volume to unit protein mass (Vm) was 1.64 A3 per dalton. Diffraction data were collected up to a resolution higher than 1.5 A, using the Weissenberg camera for macromolecular crystallography with synchrotron radiation. The crystal of proteinase A is, therefore, suitable for the structural analysis with a high resolution. PMID:1731082

  6. Altered Expression of Brain Proteinase-Activated Receptor-2, Trypsin-2 and Serpin Proteinase Inhibitors in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Michael J; Durrenberger, Pascal F; Gentleman, Steve M; Walls, Andrew F; Dexter, David T

    2015-09-01

    Neuroinflammation is thought to contribute to cell death in neurodegenerative disorders, but the factors involved in the inflammatory process are not completely understood. Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) expression in brain is increased in Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis, but the status of PAR2 in Parkinson's disease is unknown. This study examined expression of PAR2 and endogenous proteinase activators (trypsin-2, mast cell tryptase) and proteinase inhibitors (serpin-A5, serpin-A13) in areas vulnerable and resistant to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease at different Braak ?-synuclein stages of the disease in post-mortem brain. In normal aged brain, expression of PAR-2, trypsin-2, and serpin-A5 and serpin-A13 was found in neurons and microglia, and alterations in the amount of immunoreactivity for these proteins were found in some brain regions. Namely, there was a decrease in neurons positive for serpin-A5 in the dorsal motor nucleus, and serpin-A13 expression was reduced in the locus coeruleus and primary motor cortex, while expression of PAR2, trypsin-2 and both serpins was reduced in neurons within the substantia nigra. There was an increased number of microglia that expressed serpin-A5 in the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus and elevated numbers of microglia that expressed serpin-A13 in the substantia nigra of late Parkinson's disease cases. The number of microglia that expressed trypsin-2 increased in primary motor cortex of incidental Lewy body disease cases. Analysis of Parkinson's disease cases alone indicated that serpin-A5 and serpin-A13, and trypsin-2 expression in midbrain and cerebral cortex was different in cases with a high incidence of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia and psychosis compared to those with low levels of these treatment-induced side effects. This study showed that there was altered expression in brain of PAR2 and some proteins that can control its function in Parkinson's disease. Given the role of PAR2 in neuroinflammation, drugs that mitigate these changes may be neuroprotective when administered to patients with Parkinson's disease. PMID:25982926

  7. Isolation and sequencing of a genomic clone encoding aspartic proteinase of Rhizopus niveus.

    OpenAIRE

    Horiuchi, H.; Yanai, K; Okazaki, T; Takagi, M.; Yano, K.

    1988-01-01

    A gene encoding Rhizopus niveus aspartic proteinase was isolated from an R. niveus genomic library by using oligonucleotides probes corresponding to its partial amino acid sequence, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. By comparing its deduced amino acid sequence with the amino acid sequence of rhizopuspepsin (5, 26), we concluded that the R. niveus aspartic proteinase gene has an intron within its coding region and that it has a preproenzyme sequence of 66 amino acids upstream of the ...

  8. An unusual specificity in the activation of neutrophil serine proteinase zymogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvesen, G; Enghild, J J

    1990-01-01

    The majority of proteinases exist as zymogens whose activation usually results from a single proteolytic event. Two notable exceptions to this generalization are the serine proteinases neutrophil elastase (HNE) and cathepsin G (cat G), proteolytic enzymes of human neutrophils that are apparently fully active in their storage granules. On the basis of amino acid sequences inferred from the gene and cDNAs encoding these enzymes, it is likely that both are synthesized as precursors containing unusu...

  9. Applicability of Yeast Extracellular Proteinases in Brewing: Physiological and Biochemical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Bilinski, Carl A.; Russell, Inge; Stewart, Graham G.

    1987-01-01

    A general screening survey for expression of extracellular acid proteinase production was performed on over 100 cultures belonging to the genus Saccharomyces. Although two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed positive extracellular proteinase phenotypes in plate tests, it was not possible to demonstrate proteolytic activities in cell-free culture supernatants in assays performed at beer pH values. Of several yeasts from other genera examined, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Torulopsis m...

  10. Oxidative regulation of neutrophil elastase-alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor interactions.

    OpenAIRE

    Ossanna, P J; Test, S T; Matheson, N R; Regiani, S; Weiss, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    Triggered human neutrophils were able to maintain released elastase in an active form in the presence of purified alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha-1-PI), serum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL). The accumulation of free elastase activity was associated with a decrease in the ability of the alpha-1-PI to inhibit porcine pancreatic elastase, an increase in proteinase activity associated with alpha-2-macroglobulin, and the oxidation of alpha-1-PI to a molecule containing four methionine s...

  11. In Vivo Analysis of Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase Expression in Human Oral Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Naglik, Julian R.; Newport, George; White, Theodore C.; Fernandes-Naglik, Lynette L.; Greenspan, John S.; Greenspan, Deborah; Sweet, Simon P.; Challacombe, Stephen J.; Agabian, Nina

    1999-01-01

    Secreted aspartyl proteinases are putative virulence factors in Candida infections. Candida albicans possesses at least nine members of a SAP gene family, all of which have been sequenced. Although the expression of the SAP genes has been extensively characterized under laboratory growth conditions, no studies have analyzed in detail the in vivo expression of these proteinases in human oral colonization and infection. We have developed a reliable and sensitive procedure to detect C. albicans ...

  12. Profile of Candida albicans-Secreted Aspartic Proteinase Elicited during Vaginal Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Brad N.; Staib, Peter; Binder, Ayfer; Biesemeier, Antje; Sehnal, Miriam; Röllinghoff, Martin; Morschhäuser, Joachim; Schröppel, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    Vaginal infections caused by the opportunistic yeast Candida albicans are a significant problem in women of child-bearing age. Several factors are recognized as playing a crucial role in the pathogenesis of superficial candidiasis; these factors include hyphal formation, phenotypic switching, and the expression of virulence factors, including a 10-member family of secreted aspartic proteinases. In the present investigation, we analyzed the secreted aspartic proteinase gene (SAP) expression pr...

  13. Binding modes of a new epoxysuccinyl-peptide inhibitor of cysteine proteases. Where and how do cysteine proteases express their selectivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplewski, C; Grzonka, Z; Jaskólski, M; Kasprzykowski, F; Kozak, M; Politowska, E; Ciarkowski, J

    1999-05-18

    Papain from Carica papaya, an easily available cysteine protease, is the best-studied representative of this family of enzymes. The three dimensional structure of papain is very similar to that of other cysteine proteases of either plant (actinidin, caricain, papaya protease IV) or animal (cathepsins B, K, L, H) origin. As abnormalities in the activities of mammalian cysteine proteases accompany a variety of diseases, there has been a long-lasting interest in the development of potent and selective inhibitors for these enzymes. A covalent inhibitor of cysteine proteases, designed as a combination of epoxysuccinyl and peptide moieties, has been modeled in the catalytic pocket of papain. A number of its configurations have been generated and relaxed by constrained simulated annealing-molecular dynamics in water. A clear conformational variability of this inhibitor is discussed in the context of a conspicuous conformational diversity observed earlier in several solid-state structures of other complexes between cysteine proteases and covalent inhibitors. The catalytic pockets S2 and even more so S3, as defined by the pioneering studies on the papain-ZPACK, papain-E64c and papain-leupeptin complexes, appear elusive in view of the evident flexibility of the present inhibitor and in confrontation with the obvious conformational scatter seen in other examples. This predicts limited chances for the development of selective structure-based inhibitors of thiol proteases, designed to exploit the minute differences in the catalytic pockets of various members of this family. A simultaneous comparison of the three published proenzyme structures suggests the enzyme's prosegment binding loop-prosegment interface as a new potential target for selective inhibitors of papain-related thiol proteases. PMID:10350606

  14. The mitochondrial toxicity of cysteine-S-conjugates: Studies with pentachlorobutadienyl-L-cysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nephrotoxic cysteine conjugates, arising from mercapturate biosynthesis, can perturb the mitochondrial membrane potential and calcium homeostasis in renal epithelial cells. Activation of these cysteine conjugates to reactive species by mitochondrial ?-lyases results in covalent binding and mitochondrial damage. PCBC and related cysteine conjugates inhibit ADP-stimulated respiration in mitochondria respiring on alpha-ketoglutrate/malate and succinate indicating that both dehydrogenases may be targets. The respiratory inhibition is blocked by aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of the ?-lyase. Hence, metabolic activation is required implying that covalent binding of reactive intermediates may be important to the mitochondrial injury. Binding of 35S-fragments has been found for 5 conjugates with varying degrees of mitochondrial toxicity. PCBC is more lipophilic and has a higher affinity for cellular membranes than other cysteine conjugates. PCBC rapidly depolarizes the inner membrane potential resulting in an inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and calcium upon sequestration. Consequently, mitochondria and renal epithelial cells exposed to PCBC show a sudden release of calcium upon exposure to PCBC which is followed by a later increase in state 4 respiration leading to an inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation. The primary effect of other cysteine conjugates is an inhibition of the dehydrogenases, thus inhibiting state 3 respiration

  15. Gamma irradiation or hydrocortisone treatment of rats increases the proteinase activity associated with histones of thymus nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increase in the activity of histone-associated rat thymus nucleus proteinases specific for histones H2A, H2B and H1 was shown after ? irradiation or hydrocortisone treatment of animals. Histone H1-specific proteinase activity is dependent on DNA and increases in the presence of denatured DNA, whereas proteinases specific for core histones are inhibited in the presence of denatured DNA. The increase in the activity of histone-associated proteinases depends on the radiation dose and the time after irradiation or hydrocortisone injection. In the presence of dithiothreitol and sodium dodecyl sulfate, these proteinases dissociate from histones. It was found by gel electrophoresis that several proteinases of various molecular masses are closely associated with histones obtained from thymus nuclei of irradiated or hydrocortisone-treated rats. 43 refs., 7 figs

  16. Functional analysis of a novel cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide from the salivary glands of the tick Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Houshuang; Yang, Siqi; Gong, Haiyan; Cao, Jie; Zhou, Yongzhi; Zhou, Jinlin

    2015-10-01

    Ticks encounter various microbes while sucking blood from an infected host and carrying these pathogens in themselves. Ticks can then transmit these pathogens to vertebrate hosts. The immune system of ticks can be stimulated to produce many bioactive molecules during feeding and pathogen invasion. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are key effector molecules of a tick's immune response, as they can kill invading pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, we identified a novel cysteine-rich AMP, designated Rhamp1, in the salivary glands of unfed and fed female ticks (Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides). Rhamp1 is encoded by a gene with an open reading frame of 333 bp, which in turn encodes a peptide of 12 kDa with a 22 amino acid residue signal peptide. The Rhamp1 protein had a pI of 8.6 and contained six conserved cysteine residues at the C-terminus. Rhamp1 shared 43% amino acid identity with a secreted cysteine-rich protein of another tick species, Ixodes scapularis. We cloned the Rhamp1 gene and attempted to express a recombinant protein using prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems, to determine its biological significance. Recombinant Rhamp1 was successfully expressed in both systems, yielding a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged protein (36 kDa) from the prokaryotic system, and a polyhistidine-tagged Rhamp1 protein (14 kDa) from the eukaryotic system. Rhamp1 inhibited the activities of chymotrypsin (16%) and elastase (22%) and exerted low hemolytic activity. It also inhibited the growth of Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (49%), Salmonella typhimurium (50%), and Escherichia coli (52%). Our findings suggest that Rhamp1 is a novel AMP in R. haemaphysaloides with the ability to inhibit proteinase activity. PMID:26152423

  17. Lipases and proteinases in milk : occurrence, heat inactivation, and their importance for the keeping quality of milk products

    OpenAIRE

    Driessen, F.M.

    1983-01-01

    The occurrence and heat inactivation of native and bacterial lipases and proteinases in milk were studied.Production of these enzymes by Gram-negative psychrotrophic bacteria in milk was found to take place towards the end of exponential growth and in the stationary growth phase.Kinetics of heat inactivation in milk of milk lipoprotein lipase, alkaline milk proteinase and lipases and proteinases of some Gram-negative bacteria are given.The effects of residual lipolytic and proteolytic activit...

  18. pH-dependent processing of yeast procarboxypeptidase Y by proteinase A in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, S O; van den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1994-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase Y is a vacuolar enzyme from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It enters the vacuole as a zymogen, procarboxypeptidase Y, which is immediately processed in a reaction involving two endoproteases, proteinase A and proteinase B. We have investigated the in vitro activation of purified procarboxypeptidase Y by purified proteinase A. This has identified two different processing intermediates; one active and one inactive. The intermediates define a 33 amino acid segment of the 91 amino acid p...

  19. Quantitative studies of heat-stable proteinase from Pseudomonas fluorescens P1 by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    OpenAIRE

    Birkeland, S E; Stepaniak, L; Sørhaug, T.

    1985-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens P1 is a psychrotrophic bacterium isolated from milk. Proteinase P1, the main extracellular heat-stable proteinase fraction of P. fluorescens P1, has been purified to homogeneity. A procedure with a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, using microplates and alkaline phosphatase conjugate was shown to detect 0.25 ng of proteinase P1 in 1 ml of reconstituted skim milk or defatted cream. The method offers the combination of sensitivity and specificity for the detect...

  20. Molecular characterization, expression and function analysis of a five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dianchang; Ma, Jianjun; Jiang, Shigui

    2014-03-01

    Serine proteinase inhibitors represent an expanding superfamily of endogenous inhibitors that are regulate proteolytic events and involved in a variety of physiological and immunological processes. A five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (poKSPI) was identified and characterized from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata based on expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis. The full-length cDNA was 737 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) 660 bp encoding a 219 amino acid protein a theoretical molecular weight (Mw) of 23.3 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.40. A putative signal peptide of 19 amino acid residues and five tandem Kazal domains were identified. Four of the Kazal domains had the highly conserved motif sequences with six cysteine residues responsible for the formation of disulfide bridges. The deduced amino acid sequence of the poKSPI shared high homology with KSPIs from Hirudo medicinalis. The poKSPI mRNA could be detected in all examined tissues, the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA was the highest in mantle and gonad, while the lowest in haemocyte and intestine. After LPS challenge, the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA in digestive gland was significantly up-regulated at 4 h post-challenge and reached the peak at 12 h post-challenge, which was 4.23-fold higher than control group; the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA in gill was also significantly up-regulated at 8 and 12 h post-challenge, which were 4.48 and 2.26-fold higher than control group. After Vibrio alginolyticus challenge, the expression levels of the poKSPI mRNA in digestive gland were significantly up-regulated at 8, 12, 48 and 72 h post-challenge, which were 1.70, 1.79, 3.89 and 5.69-fold higher than control group, respectively; the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA in gill was significantly up-regulated at 24 h post-challenge, which was 5.30-fold higher than control group. The recombinant poKSPI protein could inhibit chymotrypsin and trypsin activities in dose-dependent manner, when the ratios of rpoKSPI to chymotrypsin and trypsin were 36:1 and 72:1, respectively, the proteinase activities of chymotrypsin and trypsin could be almost completely inhibited, but the rpoKSPI could not inhibit subtilisin. PMID:24378679

  1. Inhibitory selectivity of canecystatin: a recombinant cysteine peptidase inhibitor from sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cDNA of a cystein peptidase inhibitor was isolated from sugarcane and expressed in Escherichia coli. The protein, named canecystatin, has previously been shown to exert antifungal activity on the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Herein, the inhibitory specificity of canecystatin was further characterized. It inhibits the cysteine peptidases from plant source papain (Ki=3.3 nM) and baupain (Ki=2.1x10-8 M), but no inhibitory effect was observed on ficin or bromelain. Canecystatin also inhibits lysosomal cysteine peptidases such as human cathepsin B (Ki=125 nM), cathepsin K (Ki=0.76 nM), cathepsin L (Ki=0.6 nM), and cathepsin V (Ki=1.0 nM), but not the aspartyl peptidase cathepsin D. The activity of serine peptidases such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, pancreatic, and neutrophil elastases, and human plasma kallikrein is not affected by the inhibitor, nor is the activity of the metallopeptidases angiotensin converting enzyme and neutral endopeptidase. This is the first report of inhibitory activity of a sugarcane cystatin on cysteine peptidases

  2. Inhibitory selectivity of canecystatin: a recombinant cysteine peptidase inhibitor from sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela; Carmona, Adriana K; Andrade, Sheila S; Cotrin, Simone S; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

    2004-08-01

    The cDNA of a cystein peptidase inhibitor was isolated from sugarcane and expressed in Escherichia coli. The protein, named canecystatin, has previously been shown to exert antifungal activity on the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Herein, the inhibitory specificity of canecystatin was further characterized. It inhibits the cysteine peptidases from plant source papain (Ki =3.3nM) and baupain (Ki=2.1x10(-8)M), but no inhibitory effect was observed on ficin or bromelain. Canecystatin also inhibits lysosomal cysteine peptidases such as human cathepsin B (Ki=125nM), cathepsin K (Ki=0.76nM), cathepsin L (Ki=0.6nM), and cathepsin V (Ki=1.0nM), but not the aspartyl peptidase cathepsin D. The activity of serine peptidases such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, pancreatic, and neutrophil elastases, and human plasma kallikrein is not affected by the inhibitor, nor is the activity of the metallopeptidases angiotensin converting enzyme and neutral endopeptidase. This is the first report of inhibitory activity of a sugarcane cystatin on cysteine peptidases. PMID:15249200

  3. Cysteine-mediated redox signalling in the mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, D W; Weerapana, E

    2015-03-01

    The mitochondria are critical mediators of cellular redox homeostasis due to their role in the generation and dissipation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Modulations in ROS/RNS levels in the mitochondria are often reflected through oxidation/nitrosation of highly redox-sensitive cysteine residues within this organelle. Oxidation/nitrosation of functional cysteines on mitochondrial proteins serves to modulate protein activity, localization, and complexation in response to cellular stress, thereby controlling critical processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, apoptosis, and redox signalling. In this review, we describe mitochondrial sources of ROS/RNS, cysteine modifications that are triggered by increased mitochondrial ROS/RNS, and examples of key mitochondrial proteins that are regulated through cysteine-mediated redox signalling. We highlight recent advancements in proteomic methods to study cysteine posttranslational modifications. These tools will further aid in illuminating the important role of cysteine in maintaining and transducing redox signals in the mitochondria. PMID:25519845

  4. Cysteine-containing peptides having antioxidant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicki, John K. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2009-10-13

    Cysteine containing amphipathic alpha helices of the exchangeable apolipoproteins, as exemplified by apolipoprotein (apo) A-I.sub.Milano (R173C) and apoA-I.sub.Paris, (R151C) were found to exhibit potent antioxidant activity on phospholipid surfaces. The addition of a free thiol, at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface of an amphipathic alpha helix of synthetic peptides that mimic HDL-related proteins, imparts a unique antioxidant activity to these peptides which inhibits lipid peroxidation and protects phospholipids from water-soluble free radical initiators. These peptides can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, ischemia, bone disease and other inflammatory related diseases.

  5. Redundancy between Cysteine Cathepsins in Murine Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Euan Ramsay Orr; Yates, Robin Michael

    2015-01-01

    The cysteine cathepsins B, S, and L are functionally linked to antigen processing, and hence to autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Stemming from several studies that demonstrate that mice can be protected from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) through the pharmacologic inhibition of cysteine cathepsins, it has been suggested that targeting these enzymes in multiple sclerosis may be of therapeutic benefit. Utilizing mice deficient in cysteine cathepsins both individ...

  6. Unfolding the fold of cyclic cysteine-rich peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Shehu, Amarda; Kavraki, Lydia E.; Clementi, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    We propose a method to extensively characterize the native state ensemble of cyclic cysteine-rich peptides. The method uses minimal information, namely, amino acid sequence and cyclization, as a topological feature that characterizes the native state. The method does not assume a specific disulfide bond pairing for cysteines and allows the possibility of unpaired cysteines. A detailed view of the conformational space relevant for the native state is obtained through a hierarchic multi-resolut...

  7. ?-Ketoheterocycles as inhibitors of Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease CPB

    OpenAIRE

    Steert, Koen; Berg, Maya; Mottram, Jeremy C.; Westrop, Gareth D; Coombs, Graham H.; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis; Joossens, Jurgen; Van der Veken, Pieter; Haemers, Achiel; Augustyns, Koen

    2010-01-01

    Cysteine proteases of the papain superfamily are present in nearly all eukaryotes and also play pivotal roles in the biology of parasites. Inhibition of cysteine proteases is emerging as an important strategy to combat parasitic diseases such as sleeping sickness, Chagas’ disease and leishmaniasis. Inspired by the in vivo antiparasitic activity of the vinyl sulfone based cysteine protease inhibitors (CPIs), a series of ?-ketoheterocycles 1-15 has been developed as reversible inhibitors of a r...

  8. TcCYPR04, a Cacao Papain-Like Cysteine-Protease Detected in Senescent and Necrotic Tissues Interacts with a Cystatin TcCYS4

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Thyago Hermylly Santana; Freitas, Ana Camila Oliveira; Andrade, Bruno Silva; de Sousa, Aurizangela Oliveira; Santiago, André da Silva; Koop, Daniela Martins; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Micheli, Fabienne; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    The interaction amongst papain-like cysteine-proteases (PLCP) and their substrates and inhibitors, such as cystatins, can be perceived as part of the molecular battlefield in plant-pathogen interaction. In cacao, four cystatins were identified and characterized by our group. We identified 448 proteases in cacao genome, whereof 134 were cysteine-proteases. We expressed in Escherichia coli a PLCP from cacao, named TcCYSPR04. Immunoblottings with anti-TcCYSPR04 exhibited protein increases during...

  9. Domain 15 of the serine proteinase inhibitor LEKTI blocks HIV infection in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Palesch

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor (LEKTI is a 15-domain serine proteinase inhibitor, parts of which have first been isolated from human blood filtrate. It is encoded by the gene SPINK5. In the past, different groups reported antiviral activities of certain serine proteinase inhibitors, such as mucous proteinase inhibitor and alpha1-proteinase inhibitor. The purpose of this study was to test two representative domains of the proteinase inhibitor LEKTI for anti-HIV activities.Methods: LEKTI domains 6 and 15 were recombinantly produced in E.coli. To test their inhibitory activity against HIV infection, the reporter cell line P4-R5 MAGI carrying an HIV-inducible reporter gene was infected by a CCR5-tropic HIV strain in the presence of different inhibitor concentrations. After three days, infection rates were determined by quantifying ß-galactosidase activities using the Galacto-Light Plus™ ß-Galactosidase Reporter Gene Assay.Results: In contrast to LEKTI domain 6, LEKTI domain 15 suppressed HIV-induced reporter gene activities with an IC50 value of approximately 29 µM.Conclusion: LEKTI domain 15 represents an inhibitor of HIV infection. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:131-5. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i3.580Keywords: HIV, inhibition, LEKTI, P4-R5 MAGI

  10. Determination of germ tube, phospholipase, and proteinase production by bloodstream isolates of Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Souza Mattei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Candida albicans is a commensal and opportunistic agent that causes infection in immunocompromised individuals. Several attributes contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of this yeast, including the production of germ tubes (GTs and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, particularly phospholipase and proteinase. This study aimed to investigate GT production and phospholipase and proteinase activities in bloodstream isolates of C. albicans. Methods One hundred fifty-three C. albicans isolates were obtained from blood samples and analyzed for GT, phospholipase, and proteinase production. The assays were performed in duplicate in egg yolk medium containing bovine serum albumin and human serum. Results Detectable amounts of proteinase were produced by 97% of the isolates, and 78% of the isolates produced phospholipase. GTs were produced by 95% of the isolates. A majority of the isolates exhibited low levels of phospholipase production and high levels of proteinase production. Conclusions Bloodstream isolates of C. albicans produce virulence factors such as GT and hydrolytic enzymes that enable them to cause infection under favorable conditions.

  11. Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors in the midgut of Phlebotomus papatasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Theresa Sigle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae are important disease vectors of parasites of the genus Leishmania, as well as bacteria and viruses. Following studies of the midgut transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi, the principal vector of Leishmania major, two non-classical Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors were identified (PpKzl1 and PpKzl2. Analyses of expression profiles indicated that PpKzl1 and PpKzl2 transcripts are both regulated by blood-feeding in the midgut of P. papatasi and are also expressed in males, larva and pupa. We expressed a recombinant PpKzl2 in a mammalian expression system (CHO-S free style cells that was applied to in vitro studies to assess serine proteinase inhibition. Recombinant PpKzl2 inhibited ?-chymotrypsin to 9.4% residual activity and also inhibited ?-thrombin and trypsin to 33.5% and 63.9% residual activity, suggesting that native PpKzl2 is an active serine proteinase inhibitor and likely involved in regulating digestive enzymes in the midgut. Early stages of Leishmania are susceptible to killing by digestive proteinases in the sandfly midgut. Thus, characterising serine proteinase inhibitors may provide new targets and strategies to prevent transmission of Leishmania.

  12. Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors in the midgut of Phlebotomus papatasi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leah Theresa, Sigle; Marcelo, Ramalho-Ortigao.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are important disease vectors of parasites of the genus Leishmania, as well as bacteria and viruses. Following studies of the midgut transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi, the principal vector of Leishmania major, two non-classical Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibi [...] tors were identified (PpKzl1 and PpKzl2). Analyses of expression profiles indicated that PpKzl1 and PpKzl2 transcripts are both regulated by blood-feeding in the midgut of P. papatasi and are also expressed in males, larva and pupa. We expressed a recombinant PpKzl2 in a mammalian expression system (CHO-S free style cells) that was applied to in vitro studies to assess serine proteinase inhibition. Recombinant PpKzl2 inhibited ?-chymotrypsin to 9.4% residual activity and also inhibited ?-thrombin and trypsin to 33.5% and 63.9% residual activity, suggesting that native PpKzl2 is an active serine proteinase inhibitor and likely involved in regulating digestive enzymes in the midgut. Early stages of Leishmania are susceptible to killing by digestive proteinases in the sandfly midgut. Thus, characterising serine proteinase inhibitors may provide new targets and strategies to prevent transmission of Leishmania.

  13. Effect of pH on the production of alkaline proteinase by alkalophilic Bacillus sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the pH of the medium on the microbial growth and alkaline proteinase production, and on the uptake of various substances by alkalophilic Bacillus sp. No.8-1 were studied to investigate the physiological properties of alkalophilic bacteria. Both the microbial growth and alkaline proteinase production by replacement culture were maximum between pH 9 and 10. The alkaline proteinase production sources were also effective for the production. The uptake of various substances such as glucose, acetate, amino acids, and uracil, necessary for proteinase production by this strain, was maximum between pH 9 and 10. The uptake of ?-aminoisobutyric acid, a nonmetabolizable amino acid analogue, was also maximum at pH 10. The pH-dependence of these substance was not due to their ionic forms being affected by extracellular pH. It was concluded from above results that good production of alkaline proteinase in alkaline media was due to the active uptake of various nutrients in this culture condition. (auth.)

  14. Implication of Cysteine, Glutathione and Cysteine Synthase in Theobroma cacao L. Zygotic Embryogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Minyaka Emile; Niemenak Nicolas; N.M.S. Soupi; Sangare Abdourahamane; Omokolo Ndoumou Denis

    2007-01-01

    An investigation on sulfur metabolism during cocoa zygotic embryogenesis was carried out by analysing total amino acids, cysteine, glutathione, cysteine synthase and proteins in the endosperm and in the embryos. Cacao clones SNK10 and Sca6 were used. As the embryo was getting mature, the endosperm became progressively cellularized from the mycropilar zone. Amino acid, cysteine, glutathione and protein contents were always higher in the embryos than in the endosperm in both genotypes. In the e...

  15. Role of cysteine-58 and cysteine-95 residues in the thiol di-sulfide oxidoreductase activity of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor-2 of Wuchereria bancrofti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Nikhil; Hoti, S L

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) is the first human cytokine reported and was thought to have a central role in the regulation of inflammatory responses. Homologs of this molecule have been reported in bacteria, invertebrates and plants. Apart from cytokine activity, it also has two catalytic activities viz., tautomerase and di-sulfide oxidoreductase, which appear to be involved in immunological functions. The CXXC catalytic site is responsible for di-sulfide oxidoreductase activity of MIF. We have recently reported thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase activity of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor-2 of Wuchereria bancrofti (Wba-MIF-2), although it lacks the CXXC motif. We hypothesized that three conserved cysteine residues might be involved in the formation of di-sulfide oxidoreductase catalytic site. Homology modeling of Wba-MIF-2 showed that among the three cysteine residues, Cys58 and Cys95 residues came in close proximity (3.23Å) in the tertiary structure with pKa value 9, indicating that these residues might play a role in the di-sulfide oxidoreductase catalytic activity. We carried out site directed mutagenesis of these residues (Cys58Ser & Cys95Ser) and expressed mutant proteins in Escherichia coli. The mutant proteins did not show any oxidoreductase activity in the insulin reduction assay, thus indicating that these two cysteine residues are vital for the catalytic activity of Wba-MIF-2. PMID:26432350

  16. Neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3 trafficking routes in myelomonocytic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase 3 (PR3) differ in intracellular localization, which may reflect different trafficking mechanisms of the precursor forms when synthesized at immature stages of neutrophils. To shed further light on these mechanisms, we compared the trafficking of precursor NE (proNE) and precursor PR3 (proPR3). Like proNE [1], proPR3 interacted with CD63 upon heterologous co-expression in COS cells but endogenous interaction was not detected although cell surface proNE/proPR3/CD63 were co-endocytosed in myelomonocytic cells. Cell surface proNE/proPR3 turned over more rapidly than cell surface CD63 consistent with processing/degradation of the pro-proteases but recycling of CD63. Colocalization of proNE/proPR3/CD63 with clathrin and Rab 7 suggested trafficking through coated vesicles and late endosomes. Partial caveolar trafficking of proNE/CD63 but not proPR3 was suggested by colocalization with caveolin-1. Blocking the C-terminus of proNE/proPR3 by creating a fusion with FK506 binding protein inhibited endosomal re-uptake of proNE but not proPR3 indicating 'proC'-peptide-dependent structural/conformational requirements for proNE but not for proPR3 endocytosis. The NE aminoacid residue Y199 of a proposed NE sorting motif that interacts with AP-3 [2] was not required for proNE processing, sorting or endocytosis in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells expressing heterologous Y199-deleted proNE; this suggests operation of another AP-3-link for proNE targeting. Our results show intracellular multi-step trafficking to be different between proNE and proPR3 consistent with their differential subcellular NE/PR3 localization in neutrophils.

  17. Mechanism and ion-dependence of in vitro autoactivation of yeast proteinase A : possible implications for compartmentalized activation in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Hazel, H; Wolff, A M

    1997-01-01

    Yeast proteinase A is synthesized as a zymogen which transits through the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi complex and the endosome to the vacuole. On arrival in the vacuole, activation takes place. It has previously been found that proteinase A can activate autocatalytically; however, the propeptide of proteinase A shows essentially no similarity to other known aspartic proteinase propeptides. To understand why proteinase A activation occurs rapidly in the vacuole but not at all in earlier compartments, we have purified the zymogen and investigated the conditions that trigger autoactivation and the mechanism of autoactivation. Autoactivation was triggered by acidic pH and its rate increased with increasing ionic strength. Kinetic evidence indicates that autoactivation mainly occurs via a bimolecular product-catalysed mechanism in which an active proteinase A molecule activates a zymogen molecule. Both the pH- and ionic-strength-dependence and the predominance of a product-catalysed mechanism are well adapted to the situation in vivo, since slow activation in the absence of active proteinase A helps to prevent activation in prevacuolar compartments, whereas, on delivery to the vacuole, lower pH, higher ionic strength and the presence of already active proteinases ensure rapid activation. Product-catalysed autoactivation may be a general mechanism by which cells ensure autoactivation of intracellular enzymes to be both rapid and compartmentalized.

  18. Purification and Characterization of an Extracellular Proteinase from Brevibacterium-Linens ATCC-9174

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattray, F P; Bockelmann, W; Fox, P F

    1995-01-01

    An extracellular serine proteinase from Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 was purified to homogeneity. pH and temperature optima were 8,5 and 50 degrees C, respectively. The results for the molecular mass of the proteinase were 56 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and...... 126 kDa by gel filtration, indicating that the native enzyme exists as a dimer. Mg2+ and Ca2+ activated the proteinase, as did NaCl; however, Hg2+ Fe2+, and Zn2+ caused strong inhibition. The sequence of the first 20 N-terminal amino acids was NH2-Ala-Lys- Asn-Asp-Ala-Val-Gly-Gly-Met...

  19. BINDING OF CHLOROFORM TO THE CYSTEINE OF HEMOGLOBIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The products of the covalent binding of chloroform to rat hemoglobin during microsomal metabolism were isolated and identified by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectroscopy (MS). After isolation by Proteinase K hydrolysis, amino acid analysis and cellulose thin-layer chromatog...

  20. Coronavirus 3CLpro proteinase cleavage sites: Possible relevance to SARS virus pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blom Nikolaj

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the passing of more than a year since the first outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS, efficient counter-measures are still few and many believe that reappearance of SARS, or a similar disease caused by a coronavirus, is not unlikely. For other virus families like the picornaviruses it is known that pathology is related to proteolytic cleavage of host proteins by viral proteinases. Furthermore, several studies indicate that virus proliferation can be arrested using specific proteinase inhibitors supporting the belief that proteinases are indeed important during infection. Prompted by this, we set out to analyse and predict cleavage by the coronavirus main proteinase using computational methods. Results We retrieved sequence data on seven fully sequenced coronaviruses and identified the main 3CL proteinase cleavage sites in polyproteins using alignments. A neural network was trained to recognise the cleavage sites in the genomes obtaining a sensitivity of 87.0% and a specificity of 99.0%. Several proteins known to be cleaved by other viruses were submitted to prediction as well as proteins suspected relevant in coronavirus pathology. Cleavage sites were predicted in proteins such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, transcription factors CREB-RP and OCT-1, and components of the ubiquitin pathway. Conclusions Our prediction method NetCorona predicts coronavirus cleavage sites with high specificity and several potential cleavage candidates were identified which might be important to elucidate coronavirus pathology. Furthermore, the method might assist in design of proteinase inhibitors for treatment of SARS and possible future diseases caused by coronaviruses. It is made available for public use at our website: http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetCorona/.

  1. Specificity of proteinase K at P2 to P3' sub-sites and its comparison to other serine proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, Mohammad A

    2014-01-01

    Specificity of the commercially important serine protease, proteinase K, has been investigated by measuring free energies of association of proteinase K with turkey ovomucoid third domain inhibitor variants at contact positions P2, P1, P1', P2', and P3'. Correlations of these values were run with similar values that have been obtained for six other serine proteases. Among the six proteases, subtilisin Carlsberg shows a near perfect correlation (Pearson Product correlation coefficient = 0.93 to 0.99) with proteinase K at all of these positions. Proteinase K has only 35% sequence identity with subtilisin Carlsberg, yet, the two enzymes are nearly identical in their specificity at P2 to P3' positions. With other serine proteases such as bovine chymotrypsin, human leukocyte elastase, porcine pancreatic elastase, Streptomyces griseus protease A and B, proteinase K showed relatively poor or no correlation. PMID:24050203

  2. The aspartic proteinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae folds its own inhibitor into a helix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, M; Phylip, L H; Lees, W E; Winther, Jakob R.; Dunn, B M; Wlodawer, A; Kay, J; Gustchina, A

    2000-01-01

    Aspartic proteinase A from yeast is specifically and potently inhibited by a small protein called IA3 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although this inhibitor consists of 68 residues, we show that the inhibitory activity resides within the N-terminal half of the molecule. Structures solved at 2.2 and 1.8 A, respectively, for complexes of proteinase A with full-length IA3 and with a truncated form consisting only of residues 2-34, reveal an unprecedented mode of inhibitor-enzyme interactions. Neith...

  3. The cell envelope subtilisin-like proteinase is a virulence determinant for Streptococcus suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gottschalk Marcelo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen and zoonotic agent that mainly causes septicemia, meningitis, and endocarditis. It has recently been suggested that proteinases produced by S. suis (serotype 2 are potential virulence determinants. In the present study, we screened a S. suis mutant library created by the insertion of Tn917 transposon in order to isolate a mutant deficient in a cell surface proteinase. We characterized the gene and assessed the proteinase for its potential as a virulence factor. Results Two mutants (G6G and M3G possessing a single Tn917 insertion were isolated. The affected gene coded for a protein (SSU0757 that shared a high degree of identity with Streptococccus thermophilus PrtS (95.9% and, to a lesser extent, with Streptococcus agalactiae CspA (49.5%, which are cell surface serine proteinases. The SSU0757 protein had a calculated molecular mass of 169.6 kDa and contained the catalytic triad characteristic of subtilisin family proteinases: motif I (Asp200, motif II (His239, and motif III (Ser568. SSU0757 also had the Gram-positive cell wall anchoring motif (Leu-Pro-X-Thr-Gly at the carboxy-terminus, which was followed by a hydrophobic domain. All the S. suis isolates tested, which belonged to different serotypes, possessed the gene encoding the SSU0757 protein. The two mutants devoid of subtilisin-like proteinase activity had longer generation times and were more susceptible to killing by whole blood than the wild-type parent strain P1/7. The virulence of the G6G and M3G mutants was compared to the wild-type strain in the CD1 mouse model. Significant differences in mortality rates were noted between the P1/7 group and the M3G and G6G groups (p Conclusion In summary, we identified a gene coding for a cell surface subtilisin-like serine proteinase that is widely distributed in S. suis. Evidences were brought for the involvement of this proteinase in S. suis virulence.

  4. An O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase from Leucaena leucocephala is a cysteine synthase but not a mimosine synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yafuso, Jannai T; Negi, Vishal Singh; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Borthakur, Dulal

    2014-07-01

    In plants, the final step of cysteine formation is catalyzed by O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OAS-TL). The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize an OAS-TL from the tree legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena). Leucaena contains a toxic, nonprotein amino acid, mimosine, which is also formed by an OAS-TL, and characterization of this enzyme is essential for developing a mimosine-free leucaena for its use as a protein-rich fodder. The cDNA for a cytosolic leucaena OAS-TL isoform was obtained through interspecies suppression subtractive hybridization. A 40-kDa recombinant protein was purified from Escherichia coli and used in enzyme activity assays where it was found to synthesize only cysteine. The enzyme followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and the Km was calculated to be 1,850±414 ?M sulfide and the Vmax was 200.6±19.92 ?M cysteine min(-1). The N-terminal affinity His-tag was cleaved from the recombinant OAS-TL to eliminate its possible interference in binding with the substrate, 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone, for mimosine formation. The His-tag-cleaved OAS-TL was again observed to catalyze the formation of cysteine but not mimosine. Thus, the cytosolic OAS-TL from leucaena used in this study is specific for only cysteine synthesis and is different from previously reported OAS-TLs that also function as ?-substituted alanine synthases. PMID:24777760

  5. A VOLTAMMETRIC STUDY ON THE INTERACTION OF NOVOBIOCIN WITH CYSTEINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENDER BÇER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of novobiocin (NOV, an aminocoumarin antibiotic, with cysteine was studied by square-wave voltammetry technique on the hanging mercury drop electrode in different pH values. After the addition of NOV into the cysteine solution, the peak current of mercurous cysteine thiolate decreased and its voltammetric peak potential shifted to more positive values. Voltammetric results showed that NOV binds with cysteine forming 1:1 nonelectroactive molecular complex by means of electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding interactions. The binding constants of NOV with cysteine at pHs 5, 7 and 10 were calculated to be 3.06x10³, 1.54x10(4 and 1.06x10(5 M-1, respectively. Furthermore, apossible mechanism of such interaction was also discussed.

  6. A VOLTAMMETRIC STUDY ON THE INTERACTION OF NOVOBIOCIN WITH CYSTEINE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ENDER, BÇER; PAKZE, QETNKAYA.

    Full Text Available The interaction of novobiocin (NOV), an aminocoumarin antibiotic, with cysteine was studied by square-wave voltammetry technique on the hanging mercury drop electrode in different pH values. After the addition of NOV into the cysteine solution, the peak current of mercurous cysteine thiolate decreas [...] ed and its voltammetric peak potential shifted to more positive values. Voltammetric results showed that NOV binds with cysteine forming 1:1 nonelectroactive molecular complex by means of electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding interactions. The binding constants of NOV with cysteine at pHs 5, 7 and 10 were calculated to be 3.06x10³, 1.54x10(4) and 1.06x10(5) M-1, respectively. Furthermore, apossible mechanism of such interaction was also discussed.

  7. ?-Ketoheterocycles as inhibitors of Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease CPB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steert, Koen; Berg, Maya; Mottram, Jeremy C.; Westrop, Gareth D.; Coombs, Graham H.; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis; Joossens, Jurgen; Van der Veken, Pieter; Haemers, Achiel; Augustyns, Koen

    2011-01-01

    Cysteine proteases of the papain superfamily are present in nearly all eukaryotes and also play pivotal roles in the biology of parasites. Inhibition of cysteine proteases is emerging as an important strategy to combat parasitic diseases such as sleeping sickness, Chagas’ disease and leishmaniasis. Inspired by the in vivo antiparasitic activity of the vinyl sulfone based cysteine protease inhibitors (CPIs), a series of ?-ketoheterocycles 1-15 has been developed as reversible inhibitors of a recombinant L. mexicana cysteine protease CPB2.8. The isoxazoles 1-3 and especially the oxadiazole 15 are potent reversible inhibitors of CPB2.8, however, in vitro whole-organism screening against a panel of protozoan parasites did not fully correlate with the observed inhibition of the cysteine protease. PMID:20799311

  8. Reaction mechanism of -acylhydroxamate with cysteine proteases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Shankar; P Kolandaivel

    2007-09-01

    The gas-phase reaction mechanism of -acylhydroxamate with cysteine proteases has been investigated using ab initio and density functional theory. On the irreversible process, after breakdown of tetrahedral intermediate (INT1), small 1-2 anionotropic has been formed and rearranged to give stable by-products sulfenamide (P1) and thiocarbamate (P2) with considerable energy loss. While, on the reversible part of this reaction mechanism, intermediate (INT2) breaks down on oxidation, to form a stable product (P3). Topological and AIM analyses have been performed for hydrogen bonded complex in this reaction profile. Intrinsic reaction coordinates [IRC, minimum-energy path (MEP)] calculation connects the transition state between R-INT1, INT1-P1 and INT1-P2. The products P1, P2 and P3 are energetically more stable than the reactant and hence the reaction enthalpy is found to be exothermic.

  9. Discovery of novel antimicrobial peptides with unusual cysteine motifs in dandelion Taraxacum officinale Wigg. flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafieva, A A; Rogozhin, E A; Odintsova, T I; Khadeeva, N V; Grishin, E V; Egorov, Ts A

    2012-08-01

    Three novel antimicrobial peptides designated ToAMP1, ToAMP2 and ToAMP3 were purified from Taraxacum officinale flowers. Their amino acid sequences were determined. The peptides are cationic and cysteine-rich and consist of 38, 44 and 42 amino acid residues for ToAMP1, ToAMP2 and ToAMP3, respectively. Importantly, according to cysteine motifs, the peptides are representatives of two novel previously unknown families of plant antimicrobial peptides. ToAMP1 and ToAMP2 share high sequence identity and belong to 6-Cys-containing antimicrobial peptides, while ToAMP3 is a member of a distinct 8-Cys family. The peptides were shown to display high antimicrobial activity both against fungal and bacterial pathogens, and therefore represent new promising molecules for biotechnological and medicinal applications. PMID:22640720

  10. Determination of Disulfide Bond Connectivity of Cysteine-rich Peptide IpTxa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cysteine-rich peptides stabilized by intramolecular disulfide bonds have often been isolated from venoms of microbes, animals and plants. These peptides typically have much higher stability and improved biopharmaceutical properties compared to their linear counterparts. Therefore the correct disulfide bond formation of small proteins and peptides has been extensively studied for a better understanding of their folding mechanism and achieving efficient generation of the naturally occurring biologically active product. Imperatoxin A (IpTxa), a peptide toxin containing 6 cysteine residues, was isolated from the venom of scorpion Pandinus imperator, selectively binds the ryanodine receptors and activates Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). IpTxa increases the binding of ryanodine to ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and encourages reconstituted single channel to induce subconductance states

  11. Determination of Disulfide Bond Connectivity of Cysteine-rich Peptide IpTx{sub a}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Won; Kim, Jim Il [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Sato, Kazuki [Fukuoka Women' s Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    Cysteine-rich peptides stabilized by intramolecular disulfide bonds have often been isolated from venoms of microbes, animals and plants. These peptides typically have much higher stability and improved biopharmaceutical properties compared to their linear counterparts. Therefore the correct disulfide bond formation of small proteins and peptides has been extensively studied for a better understanding of their folding mechanism and achieving efficient generation of the naturally occurring biologically active product. Imperatoxin A (IpTx{sub a}), a peptide toxin containing 6 cysteine residues, was isolated from the venom of scorpion Pandinus imperator, selectively binds the ryanodine receptors and activates Ca{sup 2+} release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). IpTx{sub a} increases the binding of ryanodine to ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and encourages reconstituted single channel to induce subconductance states.

  12. Modifications of chronic hepatotoxicity of pyrrolizidine (Senecio) alkaloids by butylated hydroxyanisole and cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, C L; Buhler, D R; Ramsdell, H S; Cheeke, P R; Schmitz, J A

    1982-02-01

    The chronic hepatotoxic effects of mixed pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from the poisonous plant tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) and the ability of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and cysteine to alter these hepatic effects were studied in male rats. In control animals, the i.p. administration of a single dose of mixed PAs, 160 mg/kg, produced marked fibrosis, biliary hyperplasia, megalocytosis, necrosis and calcification in liver 8 weeks post injection. In contrast, consumption of 0.75% BHA diet 10 days before and 14 days after PA administration reduced the incidence and/or completely prevented the occurrence of these pathological changes. Similar treatment with 1% cysteine, however, only reduced the severity of the hepatic lesions. PMID:7080083

  13. Prospeção de inibidores de serinoproteinases em folhas de leguminosas arbóreas da floresta Amazônica Prospecting serine proteinase inhibitors in leaves from leguminous trees of the Amazon forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Ramos Chevreuil

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os inibidores de proteinases são proteínas extensivamente investigadas nos tecidos de estocagem, mas pouco prospectadas em outros tecidos vegetais. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de inibidores de serinoproteinases em extratos foliares de quinze espécies de leguminosas arbóreas da Amazônia. As espécies estudadas foram: Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata e S. polyphylla. Folhas foram coletadas, secas a 30ºC durante 48 h, trituradas e submetidas à extração com NaCl (0,15 M, 10% p/v resultando no extrato total. Ensaios foram executados para determinar a concentração de proteínas e detectar a atividade inibitória contra a tripsina e quimotripsina bovina. Os teores de proteínas bruta e solúvel nos extratos foliares variaram de 7,9 a 31,2% e 1,3 a 14,8%, respectivamente. A atividade inibitória sobre a tripsina e quimotripsina foi observada em todos os extratos foliares. Contudo, nos extratos de E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata e S. polyphylla a inibição foi maior sobre a tripsina, enquanto o extrato de P. multijuga foi mais efetivo contra a quimotripsina. Nós concluímos que nos extratos foliares de leguminosas arbóreas têm inibidores de serinoproteinases e exibem potencial aplicações biotecnológicas.The proteinase inhibitors are proteins extensively investigated in tissue storage, but few prospected in other plant tissues. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of serine proteinase inhibitors in leaf extracts from fifteen species of leguminous trees of the Amazon forest. The species studied were Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata and S. polyphylla. Leaves were collected, dried at 30ºC for 48 h, crushed and subjected to extraction with NaCl (0.15 M, 10% w/v, resulting in the total extract. Tests were performed to determine the concentration of proteins and to detect of inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin. The content of crude and soluble protein in leaf extracts varied from 7.9 to 31.2% and 1.3 to 14.8%, respectively. The inhibitory activity on trypsin and chymotrypsin was observed in all leaf extracts. However, in extracts of E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata and S. polyphylla, the inhibition was greater on trypsin, while extract of P. multijuga was more effective against chymotrypsin. We conclude that leaf extracts of leguminous trees have serine proteinase inhibitors and show potential biotecnological applications.

  14. Prospeção de inibidores de serinoproteinases em folhas de leguminosas arbóreas da floresta Amazônica / Prospecting serine proteinase inhibitors in leaves from leguminous trees of the Amazon forest

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Larissa Ramos, Chevreuil; José Francisco de Carvalho, Gonçalves; Flávia Camila, SCHIMPL; Cristiane Santos do Carmo Ribeiro de, Souza; Luiz Augusto Gomes de, Souza; Silvana Cristina, Pando.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os inibidores de proteinases são proteínas extensivamente investigadas nos tecidos de estocagem, mas pouco prospectadas em outros tecidos vegetais. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de inibidores de serinoproteinases em extratos foliares de quinze espécies de leguminosas arbóreas da Am [...] azônia. As espécies estudadas foram: Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata e S. polyphylla. Folhas foram coletadas, secas a 30ºC durante 48 h, trituradas e submetidas à extração com NaCl (0,15 M, 10% p/v) resultando no extrato total. Ensaios foram executados para determinar a concentração de proteínas e detectar a atividade inibitória contra a tripsina e quimotripsina bovina. Os teores de proteínas bruta e solúvel nos extratos foliares variaram de 7,9 a 31,2% e 1,3 a 14,8%, respectivamente. A atividade inibitória sobre a tripsina e quimotripsina foi observada em todos os extratos foliares. Contudo, nos extratos de E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata e S. polyphylla a inibição foi maior sobre a tripsina, enquanto o extrato de P. multijuga foi mais efetivo contra a quimotripsina. Nós concluímos que nos extratos foliares de leguminosas arbóreas têm inibidores de serinoproteinases e exibem potencial aplicações biotecnológicas. Abstract in english The proteinase inhibitors are proteins extensively investigated in tissue storage, but few prospected in other plant tissues. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of serine proteinase inhibitors in leaf extracts from fifteen species of leguminous trees of the Amazon forest. The species s [...] tudied were Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata and S. polyphylla. Leaves were collected, dried at 30ºC for 48 h, crushed and subjected to extraction with NaCl (0.15 M, 10% w/v), resulting in the total extract. Tests were performed to determine the concentration of proteins and to detect of inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin. The content of crude and soluble protein in leaf extracts varied from 7.9 to 31.2% and 1.3 to 14.8%, respectively. The inhibitory activity on trypsin and chymotrypsin was observed in all leaf extracts. However, in extracts of E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata and S. polyphylla, the inhibition was greater on trypsin, while extract of P. multijuga was more effective against chymotrypsin. We conclude that leaf extracts of leguminous trees have serine proteinase inhibitors and show potential biotecnological applications.

  15. Overexpression of Catalase Diminishes Oxidative Cysteine Modifications of Cardiac Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chunxiang; Behring, Jessica B.; Shao, Di; Sverdlov, Aaron L.; Whelan, Stephen A.; Elezaby, Aly; Yin, Xiaoyan; Siwik, Deborah A.; Seta, Francesca; Costello, Catherine E.; Cohen, Richard A.; Matsui, Reiko; Colucci, Wilson S.; McComb, Mark E.; Bachschmid, Markus M.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive protein cysteine thiolates are instrumental in redox regulation. Oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), react with thiolates to form oxidative post-translational modifications, enabling physiological redox signaling. Cardiac disease and aging are associated with oxidative stress which can impair redox signaling by altering essential cysteine thiolates. We previously found that cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase (Cat), an enzyme that detoxifies excess H2O2, protected from oxidative stress and delayed cardiac aging in mice. Using redox proteomics and systems biology, we sought to identify the cysteines that could play a key role in cardiac disease and aging. With a ‘Tandem Mass Tag’ (TMT) labeling strategy and mass spectrometry, we investigated differential reversible cysteine oxidation in the cardiac proteome of wild type and Cat transgenic (Tg) mice. Reversible cysteine oxidation was measured as thiol occupancy, the ratio of total available versus reversibly oxidized cysteine thiols. Catalase overexpression globally decreased thiol occupancy by ?1.3 fold in 82 proteins, including numerous mitochondrial and contractile proteins. Systems biology analysis assigned the majority of proteins with differentially modified thiols in Cat Tg mice to pathways of aging and cardiac disease, including cellular stress response, proteostasis, and apoptosis. In addition, Cat Tg mice exhibited diminished protein glutathione adducts and decreased H2O2 production from mitochondrial complex I and II, suggesting improved function of cardiac mitochondria. In conclusion, our data suggest that catalase may alleviate cardiac disease and aging by moderating global protein cysteine thiol oxidation. PMID:26642319

  16. Correlation of phospholipase and proteinase production of Candida with in vivo pathogenicity in Galleria mellonella

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodnei Dennis, Rossoni; Júnia Oliveira, Barbosa; Simone Furgeri Godinho, Vilela; Jéssica Diane dos, Santos; Antonio Olavo Cardoso, Jorge; Juliana Campos, Junqueira.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An essential factor to the virulence of the genus Candida is the ability to produce enzymes and this may be crucial in the establishment of fungal infections. AIM:This study investigated in vitro enzymatic activities of Candida species and their virulence in an in vivo Galleria mellonella experiment [...] al model. METHODS: Twenty-four clinical strains of Candida spp. isolated from the human oral cavity were evaluated, including the following species: C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. norvegensis, C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii. All Candida strains were tested in vitro for production of proteinase and phospholipase. The Candida strains were also injected into Galleria mellonella larvae to induce experimental candidiasis, and after 24 hours, the survival rate was assessed. RESULTS: Phospholipase and proteinase activity were observed in 100% of the C. albicans strains. In the non-albicans species, proteinase and phospholipase activity were observed in 25 and 43% of the studied strains, respectively. The most pathogenic Candida species in G. mellonella were C. albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. lusitaniae, whereas C. glabrata was the least virulent species. Furthermore, a positive significant correlation was found between both enzymatic activities with virulence in G. mellonella. CONCLUSIONS: The virulence of Candida strains in G. mellonella is related to the quantity of proteinases and phospholipases production of each strain.

  17. Novel Aggregation Properties of Candida albicans Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase Sap6 Mediate Virulence in Oral Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohitashw; Saraswat, Darpan; Tati, Swetha; Edgerton, Mira

    2015-07-01

    Candida albicans, a commensal fungus of the oral microbiome, causes oral candidiasis in humans with localized or systemic immune deficiencies. Secreted aspartic proteinases (Saps) are a family of 10 related proteases and are virulence factors due to their proteolytic activity, as well as their roles in adherence and colonization of host tissues. We found that mice infected sublingually with C. albicans cells overexpressing Sap6 (SAP6 OE and a ?sap8 strain) had thicker fungal plaques and more severe oral infection, while infection with the ?sap6 strain was attenuated. These hypervirulent strains had highly aggregative colony structure in vitro and higher secreted proteinase activity; however, the levels of proteinase activity of C. albicans Saps did not uniformly match their abilities to damage cultured oral epithelial cells (SCC-15 cells). Hyphal induction in cells overexpressing Sap6 (SAP6 OE and ?sap8 cells) resulted in formation of large cell-cell aggregates. These aggregates could be produced in germinated wild-type cells by addition of native or heat-inactivated Sap6. Sap6 bound only to germinated cells and increased C. albicans adhesion to oral epithelial cells. The adhesion properties of Sap6 were lost upon deletion of its integrin-binding motif (RGD) and could be inhibited by addition of RGD peptide or anti-integrin antibodies. Thus, Sap6 (but not Sap5) has an alternative novel function in cell-cell aggregation, independent of its proteinase activity, to promote infection and virulence in oral candidiasis. PMID:25870228

  18. Fasciola gigantica cathepsin L proteinase-based synthetic peptide for immunodiagnosis and prevention of sheep fasciolosis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Jan; El Ridi, R.; Salah, M.; Wagih, A.; Aziz, H. W.; Tallima, H.; El Shafie, M. H.; Khalek, T. A.; Ammou, F. F. A.; Strongylis, C.; Moussis, V.; Tsikaris, V.

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 90, ?. 3 (2008), s. 349-357. ISSN 0006-3525 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cathepsin L proteinase * peptides * sequential oligopeptide carriers * synthetic peptide vaccine * Fasciiola gigantica Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.823, year: 2008

  19. Selective irreversible chemical tagging of cysteine with 3-arylpropiolonitriles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniev, Oleksandr; Leriche, Geoffray; Nothisen, Marc; Remy, Jean-Serge; Strub, Jean-Marc; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Baati, Rachid; Wagner, Alain

    2014-02-19

    Exquisite chemoselectivity for cysteine has been found for a novel class of remarkably hydrolytically stable reagents, 3-arylpropiolonitriles (APN). The efficacy of the APN-mediated tagging was benchmarked against other cysteine-selective methodologies in a model study on a series of traceable amino acid derivatives. The selectivity of the methodology was further explored on peptide mixtures obtained by trypsin digestion of lysozyme. Additionally, the superior stability of APN-cysteine conjugates in aqueous media, human plasma, and living cells makes this new thiol-click reaction a promising methodology for applications in bioconjugation. PMID:24410136

  20. Silver(I) Complex formation with Cysteine, Penicillamine and Glutathione

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Bonnie O.; Jalilehvand, Farideh; Mah, Vicky; Parvez, Masood; Qiao WU

    2013-01-01

    The complex formation between silver(I) and cysteine (H2Cys), penicillamine (H2Pen) or glutathione (H3Glu) in alkaline aqueous solution was examined using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and 109Ag NMR spectroscopic techniques. The complexes formed in 0.1 mol·dm?3 Ag(I) solutions with cysteine and penicillamine were investigated for ligand/Ag(I) (L/Ag) mole ratios increasing from 2.0 to 10.0. For the series of cysteine solutions (pH 10 - 11) a mean Ag-S bond distance 2.45 ± 0....

  1. Reference: EVENINGAT [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EVENINGAT Rawat R, Xu ZF, Yao KM, Chye ML. Identification of cis-elements for ethylene and circa ... dian regulation of the Solanum ... melongena gene encoding cysteine proteinase. Plant ...

  2. Reference: ERELEE4 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ERELEE4 Rawat R, Xu ZF, Yao KM, Chye ML. Identification of cis-elements for ethylene and circadi ... an regulation of the Solanum ... melongena gene encoding cysteine proteinase. Plant ...

  3. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, James P; Wang, Shujing; Wong, Ka H; Tan, Wei Liang

    2015-01-01

    Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic), lipid transfer proteins, ?-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms. PMID:26580629

  4. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Tam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic, lipid transfer proteins, ?-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms.

  5. Cloning and characterization of a novel cysteine protease gene (HbCP1) from Hevea brasiliensis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shi-Qing Peng; Jia-Hong Zhu; Hui-Liang Li; Wei-Min Tian

    2008-12-01

    The full-length cDNA encoding a cysteine protease, designated HbCP1, was isolated for the first time from Hevea brasiliensis by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. HbCP1 contained a 1371 bp open reading frame encoding 457 amino acids. The deduced HbCP1 protein, which showed high identity to cysteine proteases of other plant species, was predicted to possess a putative repeat in toxin (RTX) domain at the N-terminal and a granulin (GRAN) domain at the C-terminal. Southern blot analysis indicated that the HbCP1 gene is present as a single copy in the rubber tree. Transcription pattern analysis revealed that HbCP1 had high transcription in laticifer, and low transcription in bark and leaf. The transcription of HbCP1 in latex was induced by ethylene and tapping. Cloning of the HbCP1 gene will enable us to further understand the molecular characterization of cysteine protease and its possible function in the rubber tree.

  6. Organometallic palladium reagents for cysteine bioconjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Ekaterina V; Zhang, Chi; Spokoyny, Alexander M; Pentelute, Bradley L; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2015-10-29

    Reactions based on transition metals have found wide use in organic synthesis, in particular for the functionalization of small molecules. However, there are very few reports of using transition-metal-based reactions to modify complex biomolecules, which is due to the need for stringent reaction conditions (for example, aqueous media, low temperature and mild pH) and the existence of multiple reactive functional groups found in biomolecules. Here we report that palladium(II) complexes can be used for efficient and highly selective cysteine conjugation (bioconjugation) reactions that are rapid and robust under a range of bio-compatible reaction conditions. The straightforward synthesis of the palladium reagents from diverse and easily accessible aryl halide and trifluoromethanesulfonate precursors makes the method highly practical, providing access to a large structural space for protein modification. The resulting aryl bioconjugates are stable towards acids, bases, oxidants and external thiol nucleophiles. The broad utility of the bioconjugation platform was further corroborated by the synthesis of new classes of stapled peptides and antibody-drug conjugates. These palladium complexes show potential as benchtop reagents for diverse bioconjugation applications. PMID:26511579

  7. Organometallic palladium reagents for cysteine bioconjugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Ekaterina V.; Zhang, Chi; Spokoyny, Alexander M.; Pentelute, Bradley L.; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2015-10-01

    Reactions based on transition metals have found wide use in organic synthesis, in particular for the functionalization of small molecules. However, there are very few reports of using transition-metal-based reactions to modify complex biomolecules, which is due to the need for stringent reaction conditions (for example, aqueous media, low temperature and mild pH) and the existence of multiple reactive functional groups found in biomolecules. Here we report that palladium(II) complexes can be used for efficient and highly selective cysteine conjugation (bioconjugation) reactions that are rapid and robust under a range of bio-compatible reaction conditions. The straightforward synthesis of the palladium reagents from diverse and easily accessible aryl halide and trifluoromethanesulfonate precursors makes the method highly practical, providing access to a large structural space for protein modification. The resulting aryl bioconjugates are stable towards acids, bases, oxidants and external thiol nucleophiles. The broad utility of the bioconjugation platform was further corroborated by the synthesis of new classes of stapled peptides and antibody-drug conjugates. These palladium complexes show potential as benchtop reagents for diverse bioconjugation applications.

  8. Methylene Blue Inhibits Caspases by Oxidation of the Catalytic Cysteine

    OpenAIRE

    Prateep Pakavathkumar; Gyanesh Sharma; Vikas Kaushal; Bénédicte Foveau; LeBlanc, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    Methylene blue, currently in phase 3 clinical trials against Alzheimer Disease, disaggregates the Tau protein of neurofibrillary tangles by oxidizing specific cysteine residues. Here, we investigated if methylene blue can inhibit caspases via the oxidation of their active site cysteine. Methylene blue, and derivatives, azure A and azure B competitively inhibited recombinant Caspase-6 (Casp6), and inhibited Casp6 activity in transfected human colon carcinoma cells and in serum-deprived primary...

  9. Heterologous expression of Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben B; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins during germination. Several Cysteine proteases have been identified in barley. One of the key enzymes, Hordeum vulgare endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned with and without the 5 amino acid C-terminal sequence into the Pichia pastoris expression vector pPICZ A? and electrotransformed into Pichia pastoris strain SDM1163. Heterologous protein production was induced wit...

  10. Cysteine inhibits mercury methylation by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hui [ORNL; Lu, Xia [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine enhances Hg uptake and methylation by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA wild type (WT) strain in short-term assays. The prevalence of this enhancement in other strains remains poorly understood. We examined the influence of cysteine concentration on time-dependent Hg(II) reduction, sorption and methylation by PCA-WT and its c-type cytochrome-deficient mutant ( omcBESTZ) in phosphate buffered saline. Without cysteine, the mutant methylated twice as much Hg(II) as the PCA-WT, whereas addition of cysteine inhibited Hg methylation, regardless of the reaction time. PCA-WT, however, exhibited both time-dependent and cysteine concentration-dependent methylation. In 144 hour assay, nearly complete sorption of the Hg(II) by PCA-WT occurred in the presence of 1 mM cysteine, resulting in our highest observed methylmercury production. The chemical speciation modeling and experimental data suggest that uncharged Hg(II) species are more readily taken up, and that this uptake is kinetic limiting, thereby affecting Hg methylation by both mutant and WT.

  11. The Contribution of Proteinase-Activated Receptors to Intracellular Signaling, Transcellular Transport and Autophagy in Alzheimer´s Disease.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mat?j, R.; Rohan, Z.; Holada, K.; Olejár, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 12, ?. 1 (2015), s. 2-12. ISSN 1567-2050 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Alzheimer ´s Disease * autophagy * proteinase-activated receptors Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 3.889, year: 2014

  12. Secreted aspartic proteinases of .I.Candida parapsilosis./I..I.: activation and specificity of different Sap isoenzymes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Ji?í; Merkerová, Michaela; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga; Pichová, Iva

    Oxford : The Biochemical Society, 2003. s. 9. [Harden Conference Proteinase Structure and Function /57./. 09.09.2003-13.09.2003, Oxford] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : secreted aspartic proteases Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 21 kDa Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor was purified from tamarind (T. indica) seeds, crystallized and characterized by X-ray diffraction. A Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor has been purified from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds. SDS–PAGE analysis of a purified sample showed a homogeneous band corresponding to a molecular weight of 21 kDa. The protein was identified as a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor based on N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis. It was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 6000. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.2, b = 77.1, c = 129.1 Å. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.7 Å. Preliminary crystallographic analysis indicated the presence of one proteinase inhibitor molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 44%

  14. The crystal structure of the cysteine protease Xylellain from Xylella fastidiosa reveals an intriguing activation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Ney Ribeiro; Faro, Aline Regis; Dotta, Maria Amélia Oliva; Faim, Livia Maria; Gianotti, Andreia; Silva, Flavio Henrique; Oliva, Glaucius; Thiemann, Otavio Henrique

    2013-02-14

    Xylella fastidiosa is responsible for a wide range of economically important plant diseases. We report here the crystal structure and kinetic data of Xylellain, the first cysteine protease characterized from the genome of the pathogenic X. fastidiosa strain 9a5c. Xylellain has a papain-family fold, and part of the N-terminal sequence blocks the enzyme active site, thereby mediating protein activity. One novel feature identified in the structure is the presence of a ribonucleotide bound outside the active site. We show that this ribonucleotide plays an important regulatory role in Xylellain enzyme kinetics, possibly functioning as a physiological mediator. PMID:23333295

  15. The potency and specificity of the interaction between the IA3 inhibitor and its target aspartic proteinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phylip, L H; Lees, W E; Brownsey, B G; Bur, D; Dunn, B M; Winther, Jakob R.; Gustchina, A; Li, M; Copeland, T; Wlodawer, A; Kay, J

    2001-01-01

    The yeast IA3 polypeptide consists of only 68 residues, and the free inhibitor has little intrinsic secondary structure. IA3 showed subnanomolar potency toward its target, proteinase A from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and did not inhibit any of a large number of aspartic proteinases with similar sequences/structures from a wide variety of other species. Systematic truncation and mutagenesis of the IA3 polypeptide revealed that the inhibitory activity is located in the N-terminal half of the sequen...

  16. Candida albicans secreted aspartyl proteinases: isoenzyme pattern is determined by cell type, and levels are determined by environmental factors.

    OpenAIRE

    White, T. C.; Agabian, N.

    1995-01-01

    For the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, secreted aspartyl proteinase (Sap) activity has been correlated with virulence. A family consisting of at least eight SAP genes can be drawn upon to produce Sap enzymatic activity. In this study, the levels of Sap1, Sap2, and Sap3 isoenzymes were monitored under a variety of growth conditions for several strains, including strain WO-1, which alternates between two switch phenotypes, white (W) and opaque (O). When cultured under proteinase-inducing co...

  17. Functional diversity of cysteine residues in proteins and unique features of catalytic redox-active cysteines in thiol oxidoreductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomenko, Dmitri E; Marino, Stefano M; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2008-09-30

    Thiol-dependent redox systems are involved in regulation of diverse biological processes, such as response to stress, signal transduction, and protein folding. The thiol-based redox control is provided by mechanistically similar, but structurally distinct families of enzymes known as thiol oxidoreductases. Many such enzymes have been characterized, but identities and functions of the entire sets of thiol oxidoreductases in organisms are not known. Extreme sequence and structural divergence makes identification of these proteins difficult. Thiol oxidoreductases contain a redox-active cysteine residue, or its functional analog selenocysteine, in their active sites. Here, we describe computational methods for in silico prediction of thiol oxidoreductases in nucleotide and protein sequence databases and identification of their redox-active cysteines. We discuss different functional categories of cysteine residues, describe methods for discrimination between catalytic and noncatalytic and between redox and non-redox cysteine residues and highlight unique properties of the redox-active cysteines based on evolutionary conservation, secondary and three-dimensional structures, and sporadic replacement of cysteines with catalytically superior selenocysteine residues. PMID:18648218

  18. pH-dependent processing of yeast procarboxypeptidase Y by proteinase A in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, S O; van den Hazel, H B

    1994-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase Y is a vacuolar enzyme from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It enters the vacuole as a zymogen, procarboxypeptidase Y, which is immediately processed in a reaction involving two endoproteases, proteinase A and proteinase B. We have investigated the in vitro activation of purified procarboxypeptidase Y by purified proteinase A. This has identified two different processing intermediates; one active and one inactive. The intermediates define a 33 amino acid segment of the 91 amino acid propeptide as sufficient for maintaining the enzyme in an inactive state. The inactive intermediate was isolated from a processing reaction at neutral pH. In order to investigate the influence of vacuolar pH on processing in vivo, the autoactivation of proteinase A and its processing of procarboxypeptidase Y were studied in a vma2 prb1 mutant, which is deficient in vacuolar acidification and proteinase B activity. Efficient processing of procarboxypeptidase Y in the absence of proteinase B is dependent on acidic vacuolar pH, and the processing at neutral pH is slow and takes place in two steps similar to those identified in vitro.

  19. Cysteine- and glutathione-mediated uptake of lead and cadmium into Zea mays and Brassica napus roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines a new mechanism for the uptake of Pb and Cd into Brassica napus and Zea mays roots. During hydroponic experiments, the uptake of Pb and Cd was enhanced in the presence of cysteine and glutathione, whereas no or very low uptake was observed in EDTA and penicillamine controls. Uptake rates were also enhanced after pre-exposure to cysteine or glutathione and inhibited in the presence of vanadate, suggesting a biological mechanism of uptake. Increasing concentrations of glutathione in solution resulted in decreasing Pb uptake rates, indicating competition for transport between free-glutathione and Pb-glutathione species. Pb uptake in the presence of increasing cysteine concentrations resulted in decreased uptake initially but linearly increasing uptake at higher concentrations. Experimentation showed concentration dependent Pb uptake rates. We speculate that there are specific transporters for these thiol ligands and describe what barriers remain for application of this novel transport mechanism in chelator-assisted phytoremediation. - Cysteine and glutathione mediate the transport of lead and cadmium into plant roots.

  20. Cysteine- and glutathione-mediated uptake of lead and cadmium into Zea mays and Brassica napus roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadas, Timothy M., E-mail: tvadas@umbc.ed [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, 320 Riley-Robb Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Ahner, Beth A., E-mail: baa7@cornell.ed [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, 320 Riley-Robb Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    This study examines a new mechanism for the uptake of Pb and Cd into Brassica napus and Zea mays roots. During hydroponic experiments, the uptake of Pb and Cd was enhanced in the presence of cysteine and glutathione, whereas no or very low uptake was observed in EDTA and penicillamine controls. Uptake rates were also enhanced after pre-exposure to cysteine or glutathione and inhibited in the presence of vanadate, suggesting a biological mechanism of uptake. Increasing concentrations of glutathione in solution resulted in decreasing Pb uptake rates, indicating competition for transport between free-glutathione and Pb-glutathione species. Pb uptake in the presence of increasing cysteine concentrations resulted in decreased uptake initially but linearly increasing uptake at higher concentrations. Experimentation showed concentration dependent Pb uptake rates. We speculate that there are specific transporters for these thiol ligands and describe what barriers remain for application of this novel transport mechanism in chelator-assisted phytoremediation. - Cysteine and glutathione mediate the transport of lead and cadmium into plant roots.

  1. Measuring site occupancy : a new perspective on cysteine oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Wojdyla, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Site occupancy is an extremely important aspect of quantification of protein modifications. Knowing the degree of modification of each oxidised cysteine residue is critical to understanding the biological role of these modifications. Yet modification site occupancy is very often overlooked, in part because there are very few analytical tools that allow such measurements. Here we present a new strategy, which provides quantitative analysis of cysteine S-nitrosylation (SNO) and S-sulfenylation (SOH) simultaneously at the resolution of single cysteine and allows for determination of relative oxidation occupancy of the modification site. We show that, on one hand, heavily modified cysteines are not necessarily involved in the response to oxidative stress. On the other hand residues with low modification level can be dramatically affected by mild oxidative imbalance. We make use of high resolution mass spectrometry. The method relies on differential reduction of "total" cysteines, SNO cysteines and SOH cysteines with TCEP, sodium ascorbate and sodium arsenite respectively followed by iodoTMT(TM) alkylation. Enrichment of iodoTMT(TM)-containing peptides is performed using anti-TMT antibody. In vivo model of mild oxidative stress in Escherichia coli is used. To induce endogenous SNO bacteria were grown anaerobically in minimal media supplemented with fumarate or nitrate. Short-term treatment with submilimolar levels of hydrogen peroxide were used to induce SOH. We have quantified 114 SNO/SOH modified peptides corresponding to 90 proteins. Only 6 modified peptides changed significantly under mild oxidative stress. Quantitative information allowed us to determine relative modification site occupancy of each identified modified residue and pin point heavily modified ones. The method proved to be precise and sensitive enough to detect and quantify endogenous levels of oxidative stress on proteome-wide scale and brings a new perspective on the role of the modification site occupancy in cellular redox response.

  2. Modified TB rapid test by proteinase K for rapid diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, Shamsi; Hadizadeh Tasbiti, Alireza; Ghanei, Mostafa; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Fateh, Abolfazl; Yari, Fatemeh; Bahrmand, Ahmadreza

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis continues to be a challenge due to the low sensitivity of traditional diagnostic methods. Better and more rapid tests are needed for diagnosis of pleural TB. In this study, pleural fluids were tested with rapid test to determine Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB antigen). Affinity chromatography was used to purify specific polyclonal antibodies against MTB antigen. Pleural samples after decontamination were treated with proteinase K. Rapid test for pleural fluids was prepared by specific antibody. Rapid test was performed on 85 pleural fluid patients. The patients had a mean age of 46.55 ± 15.96 years and 38 were men. The performance of rapid test, using proteinase K, was found to be the most impressive: sensitivity 93%, specificity 94%, PPV 90%, and NPV 96% compared with adenosine deaminase test (ADA), PCR, smear, and culture. The present study did demonstrate that modified TB rapid test can substantially improve the diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB. PMID:26693840

  3. Human seminal proteinase and prostate-specific antigen are the same protein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abdul Waheed; Md Imtaiyaz Hassan; Robert L Van Etten; Faizan Ahmad

    2008-06-01

    Human seminal proteinase and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were each isolated from human seminal fluid and compared. Both are glycoproteins of 32–34 kDa with protease activities. Based on some physicochemical, enzymatic and immunological properties, it is concluded that these proteins are in fact identical. The protein exhibits properties similar to kallikrein-like serine protease, trypsin, chymotrypsin and thiol acid protease. Tests of the activity of the enzyme against some potential natural and synthetic substrates showed that bovine serum albumin was more readily hydrolysed than casein. The results of this study should be useful in purifying and assaying this protein. Based on published studies and the present results, the broad proteolytic specificity of human seminal proteinase suggests a role for this protein in several physiological functions.

  4. Isolation of Proteinase K-Sensitive Prions Using Pronase E and Phosphotungstic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Castro, Laura; Wenborn, Adam; Gros, Nathalie; Joiner, Susan; Cronier, Sabrina; Collinge, John; Wadsworth, Jonathan D. F.

    2010-01-01

    Disease-related prion protein, PrPSc, is classically distinguished from its normal cellular precursor, PrPC, by its detergent insolubility and partial resistance to proteolysis. Molecular diagnosis of prion disease typically relies upon detection of protease-resistant fragments of PrPSc using proteinase K, however it is now apparent that the majority of disease-related PrP and indeed prion infectivity may be destroyed by this treatment. Here we report that digestion of RML prion-infected mouse brain with pronase E, followed by precipitation with sodium phosphotungstic acid, eliminates the large majority of brain proteins, including PrPC, while preserving >70% of infectious prion titre. This procedure now allows characterization of proteinase K-sensitive prions and investigation of their clinical relevance in human and animal prion disease without being confounded by contaminating PrPC. PMID:21187933

  5. Effect of cooking on proteinase inhibitors of Dolichos lablab bean (Dolichos lablab perpureus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, V R; Manjunath, N H

    1995-09-01

    Proteinase inhibitory activity in ten different varieties of Dolichos lablab perpureus. L. was determined. All the varieties tested exhibited appreciable level of proteinase inhibitory activity (PIA). The trypsin inhibitory activity (TIA) (Mean: 20170 TIU/g) was relatively higher than the chymotrypsin inhibitory activity (CIA) (Mean: 15380 CIU/g). Effect of temperature and cooking on PIA was studied. The nature of cooking medium and duration of cooking had profound effect on the PIA. The dry fried seeds lost their PIA very rapidly (91% in 20 min). Seeds cooked in slightly alkaline medium lost their PIA quickly (89% in 30 min) compared to those cooked in acidic (80% in 30 min) and neutral pH (83% in 30 min). The PIA in green pods was also determined and they had only one third of the PIA (8200 TIU/g and 8125 CIU/g) found in the dry seeds. PMID:8837868

  6. Structure of an inhibitor complex of the proteinase from feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodawer, A; Gustchina, A; Reshetnikova, L; Lubkowski, J; Zdanov, A; Hui, K Y; Angleton, E L; Farmerie, W G; Goodenow, M M; Bhatt, D

    1995-06-01

    The crystal structure of a recombinant form of the proteinase encoded by the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV PR) has been solved at 2 A resolution and refined to an R-factor of 0.148. The refined structure includes a peptidomimetic, statine-based inhibitor, LP-149, which is an even more potent inhibitor of HIV PR. Kinetic parameters were obtained for the cleavage of five substrates by FIV PR, and inhibition constants were measured for four inhibitors. The structure of FIV PR resembles other related retroviral enzymes although few inhibitors of HIV PR are capable of inhibiting FIV PR. The structure of FIV PR will enhance our knowledge of this class of enzymes, and will direct testing of new proteinase inhibitors in a feline animal model. PMID:7664111

  7. Effect of acute ozone exposure on the proteinase-antiproteinase balance in the rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung disease may result from a persisting proteinase excess or a depletion of antiproteinase in pulmonary parenchyma. We investigated the in vivo effect of a 48-hr exposure to ozone at 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 ppm on proteinase and antiproteinase activity of rat lungs. Elastase inhibitory capacities of serum, lung tissue, and airway washings were measured as indicators of antielastase activity. Trypsin inhibitory capacity was measured using an esterolytic procedure. Proteinase was measured as radioactive release from a 14C-globin substrate. The 48-hr exposures to O3 at levels up to 1 ppm produced concentration-dependent decreases of 35-80% of antiproteinase activities in serum and in lung tissue. However, exposure to 1.5 ppm O3 resulted in no decrease in antiproteinase activities. Acid proteinase activities (pH 4.2) were increased 65-120% by exposure to 1 or 1.5 ppm O3, which correlated with inflammatory cells noted histologically. At 1.5 ppm O3, pulmonary edema and hemorrhage were noted in histologic sections. These changes led to a flooding of the alveoli with up to 40 times normal protein levels and a greater than fivefold increase in airway antiproteinase. These data suggest that serum and soluble lung tissue antiproteinase activity decreased upon exposure to low levels of ozone. However, if O3 exposure is high enough to produce pulmonary hemorrhage, antiproteinase may increase following serum exudation. These changes may be important in the development of ozone-induced lung diseases, especially emphysema

  8. Proteinases of common pathogenic bacteria degrade and inactivate the antibacterial peptide LL-37

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidtchen, Artur; Frick, Inga-Maria; Andersson, Emma; Tapper, Hans; Björck, Lars

    2002-01-01

    Effectors of the innate immune system, the anti-bacterial peptides, have pivotal roles in preventing infection at epithelial surfaces. Here we show that proteinases of the significant human pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis and Streptococcus pyogenes, degrade the antibacterial peptide LL-37. Analysis by mass spectrometry of fragments generated by P. aeruginosa elastase in vitro revealed that the initial cleavages occurred at Asn-Leu and Asp-Phe, follow...

  9. Degradation of Human Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 by Staphylococcus aureus-Derived Proteinases

    OpenAIRE

    Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Mydel, Piotr; Krawczyk, Katarzyna; Wójcik, Kinga; Puklo, Magdalena; Lupa, Boguslaw; Suder, Piotr; Silberring, Jerzy; Reed, Matthew; Pohl, Jan; Shafer, William; McAleese, Fionnuala; FOSTER, TIMOTHY; Travis, Jim; Potempa, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Cathelicidin LL-37 is one of the few human bactericidal peptides with potent antistaphylococcal activity. In this study we examined the susceptibility of LL-37 to proteolytic degradation by two major proteinases produced by Staphylococcus aureus, a metalloproteinase (aureolysin) and a glutamylendopeptidase (V8 protease). We found that aureolysin cleaved and inactivated LL-37 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Analysis of the generated fragments by mass spectroscopy revealed that t...

  10. Suppression of pancreatitis-related allodynia/hyperalgesia by proteinase-activated receptor-2 in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kawabata, Atsufumi; Matsunami, Maho; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Ishiki, Tsuyoshi; Fukushima, Osamu; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Kawao, Naoyuki; Minami, Takeshi; Kanke, Toru; Saito, Naohiro

    2006-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2), a receptor activated by trypsin and tryptase, is abundantly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract including the C-fiber terminal, and might play a role in processing of visceral pain. In the present study, we examined and characterized the roles of PAR2 in pancreatitis-related abdominal hyperalgesia/allodynia in mice.Caerulein, administered i.p. once, caused a small increase in abdominal sensitivity to stimulation with von Frey hairs, without causing ...

  11. A lymphokine regulates expression of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor in human monocytes and macrophages.

    OpenAIRE

    TAKEMURA, S.; Rossing, T H; Perlmutter, D H

    1986-01-01

    Biosynthesis and secretion of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1 PI) has been demonstrated in primary cultures of human mononuclear phagocytes, making it possible to study regulation of alpha 1 PI in normal (PiMM) and homozygous-deficient (PiZZ) individuals. In this study, expression of alpha 1 PI by blood monocytes, bronchoalveolar, and breast milk macrophages decreased during 1 wk in culture whereas expression of other secreted proteins increased. The addition of crude supernatants from ...

  12. Ixodes scapularis tick serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) gene family; annotation and transcriptional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chalaire Katelyn C; Khumthong Rabuesak; Mulenga Albert

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Serine proteinase inhibitors (Serpins) are a large superfamily of structurally related, but functionally diverse proteins that control essential proteolytic pathways in most branches of life. Given their importance in the biology of many organisms, the concept that ticks might utilize serpins to evade host defenses and immunizing against or disrupting their functions as targets for tick control is an appealing option. Results A sequence homology search strategy has allowed...

  13. SARS CoV Main Proteinase: The Monomer-Dimer Equilibrium Dissociation Constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano,V.; McGrath, W.; Yang, L.; Mangel, W.

    2006-01-01

    The SARS coronavirus main proteinase (SARS CoV main proteinase) is required for the replication of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV), the virus that causes SARS. One function of the enzyme is to process viral polyproteins. The active form of the SARS CoV main proteinase is a homodimer. In the literature, estimates of the monomer-dimer equilibrium dissociation constant, K{sub D}, have varied more than 650000-fold, from <1 nM to more than 200 {mu}M. Because of these discrepancies and because compounds that interfere with activation of the enzyme by dimerization may be potential antiviral agents, we investigated the monomer-dimer equilibrium by three different techniques: small-angle X-ray scattering, chemical cross-linking, and enzyme kinetics. Analysis of small-angle X-ray scattering data from a series of measurements at different SARS CoV main proteinase concentrations yielded K{sub D} values of 5.8 {+-} 0.8 {mu}M (obtained from the entire scattering curve), 6.5 {+-} 2.2 {mu}M (obtained from the radii of gyration), and 6.8 {+-} 1.5 {mu}M (obtained from the forward scattering). The K{sub D} from chemical cross-linking was 12.7 {+-} 1.1 {mu}M, and from enzyme kinetics, it was 5.2 {+-} 0.4 {mu}M. While each of these three techniques can present different, potential limitations, they all yielded similar K{sub D} values.

  14. Coronavirus 3CL(pro) proteinase cleavage sites: Possible relevance to SARS virus pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiemer, Lars; Lund, Ole; Brunak, Søren; Blom, Nikolaj

    2004-01-01

    Background: Despite the passing of more than a year since the first outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), efficient counter-measures are still few and many believe that reappearance of SARS, or a similar disease caused by a coronavirus, is not unlikely. For other virus families like the picornaviruses it is known that pathology is related to proteolytic cleavage of host proteins by viral proteinases. Furthermore, several studies indicate that virus proliferation can be arrested u...

  15. A Single Step Purification of Gastricsin-Like Proteinase from Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua)

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Amiza; R.K. Owusu Apenten

    2002-01-01

    A gastricsin-like proteinase was purified from gastric mucosa of Atlantic cod by a single step purification scheme on ion-exchange of Amberlite CG-50. The purification was very efficient as the recovery was 205% and the purification factor was 1796-fold. The enzyme preparation was homogeneous as observed by SDS-PAGE and isoelectric focusing. The enzyme has an estimated molecular weight of 34 kDa and the pI of 4.4.

  16. A Single Step Purification of Gastricsin-Like Proteinase from Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Amiza

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A gastricsin-like proteinase was purified from gastric mucosa of Atlantic cod by a single step purification scheme on ion-exchange of Amberlite CG-50. The purification was very efficient as the recovery was 205% and the purification factor was 1796-fold. The enzyme preparation was homogeneous as observed by SDS-PAGE and isoelectric focusing. The enzyme has an estimated molecular weight of 34 kDa and the pI of 4.4.

  17. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus prevents amoebal encystment-mediating serine proteinase expression and circumvents cell encystment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boratto, Paulo; Albarnaz, Jonas Dutra; Almeida, Gabriel Magno de Freitas; Botelho, Lucas; Fontes, Alide Caroline Lima; Costa, Adriana Oliveira; Santos, Daniel de Assis; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; La Scola, Bernard; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos

    2015-03-01

    Acanthamoeba is a genus of free-living amoebas distributed worldwide. Few studies have explored the interactions between these protozoa and their infecting giant virus, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV). Here we show that, once the amoebal encystment is triggered, trophozoites become significantly resistant to APMV. Otherwise, upon infection, APMV is able to interfere with the expression of a serine proteinase related to amoebal encystment and the encystment can no longer be triggered. PMID:25520511

  18. Degradation of the S. frugiperda peritrophic matrix by an inducible maize cysteine protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, S; Ma, P W K; Pechan, T; Bassford, E R; Williams, W P; Luthe, D S

    2006-01-01

    A unique 33-kDa cysteine protease (Mir1-CP) rapidly accumulates at the feeding site in the whorls of maize (Zea mays L.) lines that are resistant to herbivory by Spodoptera frugiperda and other lepidopteran species. When larvae were reared on resistant plants, larval growth was reduced due to impaired nutrient utilization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the peritrophic matrix (PM) was damaged when larvae fed on resistant plants or transgenic maize callus expressing Mir1-CP. To directly determine the effects of Mir1-CP on the PM in vitro, dissected PMs were treated with purified, recombinant Mir1-CP and the movement of Blue Dextran 2000 across the PM was measured. Mir1-CP completely permeabilized the PM and the time required to reach full permeability was inversely proportional to the concentration of Mir1-CP. Inclusion of E64, a specific cysteine protease inhibitor prevented the damage. The lumen side of the PM was more vulnerable to Mir1-CP attack than the epithelial side. Mir1-CP damaged the PM at pH values as high as 8.5 and more actively permeabilized the PM than equivalent concentrations of the cysteine proteases papain, bromelain and ficin. The effect of Mir1-CP on the PMs of Helicoverpa zea, Danaus plexippus, Ostrinia nubilalis, Periplaneta americana and Tenebrio molitor also was tested, but the greatest effect was on the S. frugiperda PM. These results demonstrate that the insect-inducible Mir1-CP directly damages the PM in vitro and is critical to insect defense in maize. PMID:16243350

  19. Comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberger, Jutta [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dr. Bohr-Gasse 9/3, A-1030 Vienna (Austria); Kontaxis, Georg [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, University of Vienna, Department of Structural and Computational Biology, Campus Vienna Biocenter 5, A-1030 Vienna (Austria); Rancan, Chiara [Helmholtz Zentrum München, Department of Gene Vectors, Haematologikum, Marchioninistrasse 25, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Skern, Tim, E-mail: timothy.skern@meduniwien.ac.at [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dr. Bohr-Gasse 9/3, A-1030 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-09-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (Lb{sup pro}) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. NMR studies on the monomeric variant Lb{sup pro} L200F provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. {sup 15}N-HSQC measurements of Lb{sup pro} L200F showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant sLb{sup pro}, lacking six C-terminal residues. This indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal extension (CTE) of one molecule and its own active site. Contrastingly, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader proteinase nsp1?, with a papain-like fold like Lb{sup pro}, stably binds its own CTE. Parts of the ?-sheet domains but none of the ?-helical domains of Lb{sup pro} and nsp1? superimpose; consequently, the ?-helical domain of nsp1? is oriented differently relative to its ?-sheet domain. This provides a large interaction surface for the CTE with the globular domain, stabilising the intramolecular complex. Consequently, self-processing inactivates nsp1? but not Lb{sup pro}. - Highlights: • We examine self-processing of the leader protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus. • NMR analysis strongly supports intramolecular self-processing. • Self-processing is a dynamic process with no stable complex. • Structural comparison with nsp1? of PRRSV which forms stable intramolecular complex. • Subdomain orientation explains differences in stability of intramolecular complexes.

  20. Comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (Lbpro) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. NMR studies on the monomeric variant Lbpro L200F provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. 15N-HSQC measurements of Lbpro L200F showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant sLbpro, lacking six C-terminal residues. This indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal extension (CTE) of one molecule and its own active site. Contrastingly, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader proteinase nsp1?, with a papain-like fold like Lbpro, stably binds its own CTE. Parts of the ?-sheet domains but none of the ?-helical domains of Lbpro and nsp1? superimpose; consequently, the ?-helical domain of nsp1? is oriented differently relative to its ?-sheet domain. This provides a large interaction surface for the CTE with the globular domain, stabilising the intramolecular complex. Consequently, self-processing inactivates nsp1? but not Lbpro. - Highlights: • We examine self-processing of the leader protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus. • NMR analysis strongly supports intramolecular self-processing. • Self-processing is a dynamic process with no stable complex. • Structural comparison with nsp1? of PRRSV which forms stable intramolecular complex. • Subdomain orientation explains differences in stability of intramolecular complexes

  1. Effect of Trichoderma reesei proteinases on the affinity of an inorganic-binding peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Care, Andrew; Nevalainen, Helena; Bergquist, Peter L; Sunna, Anwar

    2014-08-01

    An inorganic-binding peptide sequence with high affinity to silica-containing materials was fused to a glycoside hydrolase GH26 mannanase, ManA, from the extremely thermophilic bacterium Dictyoglomus thermophilum. The resulting recombinant enzyme produced in Escherichia coli, ManA-Linker, displayed high binding affinity towards synthetic zeolite while retaining its catalytic activity at 80 °C. ManA-Linker was able to bind to the zeolite at different pH levels, indicating a true pH-independent binding. However, complete degradation of the peptide linker was observed when the recombinant ManA-Linker was exposed to the supernatant from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. This degradation was caused by extracellular proteinases produced by T. reesei during its growth phase. Several derivatives of ManA-Linker were designed and expressed in E. coli. All the derivatives carrying a single sequence of the linker were still susceptible to T. reesei proteinase degradation. Complete substitution of the linker sequence by (GGGGS)16 resulted in a proteinase-resistant ManA derivative, ManA-Linker-(GGGGS)16, which was able to bind to zeolite in a pH-dependent manner. PMID:24970048

  2. Implantation Serine Proteinases heterodimerize and are critical in hatching and implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Guoliang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently reported the expression of murine Implantation Serine Proteinase genes in pre-implantation embryos (ISP1 and uterus (ISP1 and ISP2. These proteinases belong to the S1 proteinase family and are similar to mast cell tryptases, which function as multimers. Results Here, we report the purification and initial characterization of ISP1 and 2 with respect to their physico-chemical properties and physiological function. In addition to being co-expressed in uterus, we show that ISP1 and ISP2 are also co-expressed in the pre-implantation embryo. Together, they form a heterodimer with an approximate molecular weight of 63 kD. This complex is the active form of the enzyme, which we have further characterized as being trypsin-like, based on substrate and inhibitor specificities. In addition to having a role in embryo hatching and outgrowth, we demonstrate that ISP enzyme is localized to the site of embryo invasion during implantation and that its activity is important for successful implantation in vivo. Conclusion On the basis of similarities in structural, chemical, and functional properties, we suggest that this ISP enzyme complex represents the classical hatching enzyme, strypsin. Our results demonstrate a critical role for ISP in embryo hatching and implantation.

  3. Redundancy between Cysteine Cathepsins in Murine Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Euan Ramsay Orr; Yates, Robin Michael

    2015-01-01

    The cysteine cathepsins B, S, and L are functionally linked to antigen processing, and hence to autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Stemming from several studies that demonstrate that mice can be protected from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) through the pharmacologic inhibition of cysteine cathepsins, it has been suggested that targeting these enzymes in multiple sclerosis may be of therapeutic benefit. Utilizing mice deficient in cysteine cathepsins both individually and in combination, we found that the myelin-associated antigen myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) was efficiently processed and presented by macrophages to CD4+ T cells in the individual absence of cathepsin B, S or L. Similarly, mice deficient in cathepsin B or S were susceptible to MOG-induced EAE and displayed clinical progression and immune infiltration into the CNS, similar to their wild-type counterparts. Owing to a previously described CD4+ T cell deficiency in mice deficient in cathepsin L, such mice were protected from EAE. When multiple cysteine cathepsins were simultaneously inhibited via genetic deletion of both cathepsins B and S, or by a cathepsin inhibitor (LHVS), MHC-II surface expression, MOG antigen presentation and EAE were attenuated or prevented. This study demonstrates the functional redundancy between cathepsin B, S and L in EAE, and suggests that the inhibition of multiple cysteine cathepsins may be needed to modulate autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis. PMID:26075905

  4. Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease heterologous expressed in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe

    During germination of barley seeds, the mobilization of protein is essential and Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins [1]. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme until activated through reduction of the active site cysteines and via removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. One of the key cysteine proteases in Barley, (Hordeum vulgare) endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned with and without the 5 amino acid C-terminal sequence into the Pichia pastoris expression vector pPICZ A? and electrotransformed into Pichia pastoris strain SDM1163. Heterologous protein production was induced with 2% MeOH and the protein expression were monitered during induction by collecting 1 ml samples every hr for 24 hrs. After 4 days, the supernatant were harvested and analyzed by SDS-PAGE, activity assay and Western blot. A significant amount of functional, heterologous protein was produced and the protein production was highest after 4 days and the expression in the C-terminal mutant was slightly higher than for the full length protease.

  5. Deletion of Various Carboxy-Terminal Domains of Lactococcus lactis SK11 Proteinase: Effects on Activity, Specificity, and Stability of the Truncated Enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Bruinenberg, P.G.; De Vos, W. M.; Siezen, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    The Lactococcus lactis SK11 cell envelope proteinase is an extracellular, multidomain protein of nearly 2,000 residues consisting of an N-terminal serine protease domain, followed by various other domains of largely unknown function. Using a strategy of deletion mutagenesis, we have analyzed the function of several C-terminal domains of the SK11 proteinase which are absent in cell envelope proteinases of other lactic acid bacteria. The various deletion mutants were functionally expressed in L...

  6. Elevated aspartic proteinase secretion and experimental pathogenicity of Candida albicans isolates from oral cavities of subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    OpenAIRE

    De Bernardis, F.; Chiani, P; Ciccozzi, M; PELLEGRINI, G; Ceddia, T; D'Offizzi, G; Quinti, I; Sullivan, P A; Cassone, A

    1996-01-01

    Isolates of Candida albicans from the oral cavities of subjects at different stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or uninfected controls were examined for (i) production of aspartic proteinase(s), a putative virulence-associated factor(s); (ii) the presence in the fungal genome of two major genes (SAP1 and SAP2) of the aspartic proteinase family; and (iii) experimental pathogenicity in a murine model of systemic infection. It was found that the fungal isolates from symptomat...

  7. Serpins in plants and green algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Hejgaard, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    Control of proteolysis is important for plant growth, development, responses to stress, and defence against insects and pathogens. Members of the serpin protein family are likely to play a critical role in this control through irreversible inhibition of endogenous and exogenous target proteinases. Serpins have been found in diverse species of the plant kingdom and represent a distinct clade among serpins in multicellular organisms. Serpins are also found in green algae, but the evolutionary rela...

  8. Inhibitory Properties of Cysteine Protease Pro-Peptides from Barley Confer Resistance to Spider Mite Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Martinez, Manuel; Diaz, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    C1A plant cysteine proteases are synthesized as pre-pro-enzymes that need to be processed to become active by the pro-peptide claves off from its cognate enzyme. These pro-sequences play multifunctional roles including the capacity to specifically inhibit their own as well as other C1A protease activities from diverse origin. In this study, it is analysed the potential role of C1A pro-regions from barley as regulators of cysteine proteases in target phytophagous arthropods (coleopteran and acari). The in vitro inhibitory action of these pro-sequences, purified as recombinant proteins, is demonstrated. Moreover, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing different fragments of HvPap-1 barley gene containing the pro-peptide sequence were generated and the acaricide function was confirmed by bioassays conducted with the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Feeding trials resulted in a significant reduction of leaf damage in the transgenic lines expressing the pro-peptide in comparison to non-transformed control and strongly correlated with an increase in mite mortality. Additionally, the analysis of the expression levels of a selection of potential mite targets (proteases and protease inhibitors) revealed a mite strategy to counteract the inhibitory activity produced by the C1A barley pro-prodomain. These findings demonstrate that pro-peptides can control mite pests and could be applied as defence proteins in biotechnological systems. PMID:26039069

  9. Cathodic Behaviour of Cysteine at a Platinum Electrode

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. Fátima, Barroso; Teresa, Santos; M. Goreti F., Sales; Cristina, Delerue-Matos; M. Carmo V. F., Vaz.

    Full Text Available The electroreduction behaviour of cysteine was investigated using cyclic, square wave and differencial pulse voltammetric techniques at a platinum working electrode. The reduction of cysteine occurs at a potential of -0.36 V independent of pH. It is a reversible process, controlled mainly by diffusi [...] on and in the mechanism of reduction 1 electron per molecule is involved. Using the voltammetric techniques: Cyclic Voltammetry, Square Wave Voltammetry and Differencial Pulse Voltammetry, different parameters (pH, frequency, step potential, pulse amplitude, scan rate) were optimized in order to develop an electrochemical procedure for determination of cysteine in pharmaceutical products. The repeatability, reproducibility, precision and accuracy of the methods were studied. No electroactive interferences from the excipient were found in the pharmaceutical compounds.

  10. Cathodic Behaviour of Cysteine at a Platinum Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fátima Barroso

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The electroreduction behaviour of cysteine was investigated using cyclic, square wave and differencial pulse voltammetric techniques at a platinum working electrode. The reduction of cysteine occurs at a potential of -0.36 V independent of pH. It is a reversible process, controlled mainly by diffusion and in the mechanism of reduction 1 electron per molecule is involved. Using the voltammetric techniques: Cyclic Voltammetry, Square Wave Voltammetry and Differencial Pulse Voltammetry, different parameters (pH, frequency, step potential, pulse amplitude, scan rate were optimized in order to develop an electrochemical procedure for determination of cysteine in pharmaceutical products. The repeatability, reproducibility, precision and accuracy of the methods were studied. No electroactive interferences from the excipient were found in the pharmaceutical compounds.

  11. Phospholipase and Aspartyl Proteinase Activities of Candida Species Causing Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassyouni, Rasha H; Wegdan, Ahmed Ashraf; Abdelmoneim, Abdelsamie; Said, Wessam; AboElnaga, Fatma

    2015-10-28

    Few research had investigated the secretion of phospholipase and aspartyl proteinase from Candida spp. causing infection in females with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in diabetic versus non-diabetic women and compare the ability of identified Candida isolates to secrete phospholipases and aspartyl proteinases with characterization of their genetic profile. The study included 80 females with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 100 non-diabetic females within the child-bearing period. Candida strains were isolated and identified by conventional microbiological methods and by API Candida. The isolates were screened for their extracellular phospholipase and proteinase activities by culturing them on egg yolk and bovine serum albumin media, respectively. Detection of aspartyl proteinase genes (SAP1 to SAP8) and phospholipase genes (PLB1, PLB2) were performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicated that vaginal candidiasis was significantly higher among the diabetic group versus nondiabetic group (50% versus 20%, respectively) (p = 0.004). C. albicans was the most prevalent species followed by C. glabrata in both groups. No significant association between diabetes mellitus and phospholipase activities was detected (p = 0.262), whereas high significant proteinase activities exhibited by Candida isolated from diabetic females were found (82.5%) (p = 0.000). Non-significant associations between any of the tested proteinase or phospholipase genes and diabetes mellitus were detected (p > 0.05). In conclusion, it is noticed that the incidence of C. glabrata causing VVC is increased. The higher prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among diabetics could be related to the increased aspartyl proteinase production in this group of patients. PMID:26032358

  12. Expression of the Arabidopsis abi1-1 mutant allele inhibits proteinase inhibitor wound-induction in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, E; Prat, S

    1998-09-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential component in the wound signalling cascade. Increased levels of endogenous ABA were observed after wounding and shown to be a requisite for wound-induced expression of the proteinase inhibitor II genes. We have taken advantage of the dominant character of the Arabidopsis abi1-1 mutation, to investigate whether ABl1 has a function in ABA signalling in response to wounding. Transgenic tomato plants carrying copies of either the wild-type ABI1 or the mutant abi1-1 alleles were obtained and assayed for wound-induction of the pin2 or LAP genes. While normal levels of gene induction were observed in the transgenic ABI1 plants, the abi1-1 transformants displayed a severe wilty phenotype and reduced seed dormancy. Expression of the abi1-1 dominant mutation blocked accumulation of the drought-induced TAS14 and LE25 mRNAs in response to ABA, as well as ABA- and wound-induced expression of the defense-associated pin2 and LAP transcripts. MeJA-induction of the pin2 and LAP mRNAs, on the contrary, was not affected in the abi1-1 transformants. These results indicate that abi1-1 inhibits wound-induced expression of the pin2 and LAP transcripts by blocking ABA-induction of these genes. This implicates ABI1 in wound-signalling and suggests that a common early ABA signalling pathway may function in the responses to wounding and water stress. PMID:9807815

  13. Gel diffusion--a simple and sensitive technique for the assay of proteinase inhibitors and its use for the determination of the ratio of proteinases in mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, F; Reimerdes, E H; Klostermeyer, H

    1977-07-29

    In casein-containing agarose gels, pepsin and chymosin form radial diffusion zones; the diameters of these zones show rectilinear correlations with the logarithm of the enzyme concentration at constant time. The sensitivity for both enzymes is below 1 microgram. Addition of the inhibitor pepstatin A to these enzymes causes a reduction of the diameters of the diffusion zones, with large differences for both the enzymes. With this procedure, the pepsin/chymosin ratio in rennet preparations was assayed with an accuracy of +/- 5%. Identification of the inhibitors allows the determination of amounts in the namomole range. This method is a simple technique for the evaluation of proteinases and their inhibitors in screening systems. PMID:333809

  14. The effects of a plant proteinase inhibitor from Enterolobium contortisiliquum on human tumor cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Nakahata, Adriana Miti; Mayer, Barbara; Ries, Christian; Andrade de Paula, Claudia Alessandra; Karow, Marisa; Neth, Peter; Sampaio, Misako U.; Jochum, Marianne; Oliva, Maria Luiza V.

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary to the efficient inhibition of trypsin, chymotrypsin, plasma kallikrein, and plasmin already described by the EcTI inhibitor from Enterolobium contortisiliquum, it also blocks human neutrophil elastase (K(iapp)=4.3 nM) and prevents phorbol ester (PMA)-stimulated activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 probably via interference with membrane-type 1 (MT1)-MMP. Moreover, plasminogen-induced activation of proMMP-9 and processing of active MMP-2 was also inhibited. Furthermore...

  15. Chloro(triphenylphosphole)gold(I) - A selective Chemosensor for Cysteine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maruthai Kumaravel; Maravanji S Balakrishna

    2016-02-01

    Photophysical studies of luminescent gold complex of triphenylphosphole has been described. Addition of biologically relevant thio compounds was found to quench its fluorescence in methanol solution. Based on this, a simple and selective luminescence sensing method for cysteine detection has been developed.

  16. Cysteine functionalized copper organosol: synthesis, characterization and catalytic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We herein report a facile one-pot synthesis, stabilization, redispersion and Cu-S interaction of L-cysteine and dodecanethiol (DDT) protected copper organosol in toluene from precursor copper stearate using sodium borohydride in toluene under a nitrogen atmosphere. Surface modification of the synthesized copper organosol with an amino acid L-cysteine and an alkanethiol (dodecanethiol, DDT) is accomplished by a thiolate bond between the used ligands and nanoparticle surface. The cysteine molecule binds the copper surface via a thiolate and amine linkage but not through electrostatic interaction with the carboxylate group due to the solvent polarity and dielectric medium. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis was performed to confirm the surface functionalization of the amino acid and DDT to the copper surface. Copper organosol has been characterized by optical spectroscopy (UV/vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The as-synthesized particles are spherical in shape and exhibit a Mie scattering profile with an absorption maxima in the visible range. Copper nanoparticles capped by cysteine and/or DDT in non-aqueous media are found to represent an interesting catalytic approach for the synthesis of octylphenyl ether

  17. Cysteine Enhances Bioavailability of Copper to Marine Phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael J; Goodnow, Sarah D; Vezeau, Grace E; Richter, Lubna V; Ahner, Beth A

    2015-10-20

    Emiliania huxleyi, a ubiquitous marine algae, was cultured under replete and Cu-limiting conditions to investigate Cu uptake strategies involving thiols and associated redox reactions; comparisons to a model diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana, were also drawn. Cu-limitation increased rates of cell surface reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) in E. huxleyi but not in T. pseudonana. Furthermore, Cu-limited E. huxleyi cells took up more Cu when cysteine was present compared to when no ligand was added, although a dependence on cysteine concentration was not observed. In contrast, Cu uptake by replete cells was dependent upon the relative abundance of inorganic species [Cu(I)']. We also show that cysteine can increase the bioavailability of Cu to Cu-limited cells, of both species, through the reductive release of Cu(I) from fairly strong Cu(II) ligands such as EDTA. Finally, support for a mechanism involving uptake of a Cys-Cu complex in E. huxleyi is drawn from the observation that Cu-limitation significantly enhances cysteine uptake by transporters that exhibit Michaelis-Menten kinetics. These Cu uptake strategies help explain the presence and distribution of dissolved thiols in surface seawater and have implications for the biogeochemical cycling of Cu in low Cu environments. PMID:26420592

  18. Isolation of recombinant cysteine dioxygenase protein from Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašperová, A.; Kunert, J.; Horynová, M.; Weigl, E.; Sebela, M.; Lenobel, René; Raška, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 54, ?. 5 (2011), E456-E462. ISSN 0933-7407 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Cysteine dioxygenase * dermatophytes * recombinant protein * keratinolytic fungi * cDNA Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.247, year: 2011

  19. Methylene Blue Inhibits Caspases by Oxidation of the Catalytic Cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakavathkumar, Prateep; Sharma, Gyanesh; Kaushal, Vikas; Foveau, Bénédicte; LeBlanc, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    Methylene blue, currently in phase 3 clinical trials against Alzheimer Disease, disaggregates the Tau protein of neurofibrillary tangles by oxidizing specific cysteine residues. Here, we investigated if methylene blue can inhibit caspases via the oxidation of their active site cysteine. Methylene blue, and derivatives, azure A and azure B competitively inhibited recombinant Caspase-6 (Casp6), and inhibited Casp6 activity in transfected human colon carcinoma cells and in serum-deprived primary human neuron cultures. Methylene blue also inhibited recombinant Casp1 and Casp3. Furthermore, methylene blue inhibited Casp3 activity in an acute mouse model of liver toxicity. Mass spectrometry confirmed methylene blue and azure B oxidation of the catalytic Cys163 cysteine of Casp6. Together, these results show a novel inhibitory mechanism of caspases via sulfenation of the active site cysteine. These results indicate that methylene blue or its derivatives could (1) have an additional effect against Alzheimer Disease by inhibiting brain caspase activity, (2) be used as a drug to prevent caspase activation in other conditions, and (3) predispose chronically treated individuals to cancer via the inhibition of caspases. PMID:26400108

  20. Enabling olefin metathesis on proteins: chemical methods for installation of S-allyl cysteine.

    OpenAIRE

    Chalker, JM; LIN, Ya; Boutureira, O; Davis, BG

    2009-01-01

    Multiple, complementary methods are reported for the chemical conversion of cysteine to S-allyl cysteine on protein surfaces, a useful transformation for the exploration of olefin metathesis on proteins.

  1. A Family of Bacterial Cysteine Protease Type III Effectors Utilizes Acylation-dependent and -independent Strategies to Localize to Plasma Membranes*

    OpenAIRE

    Dowen, Robert H.; Engel, James L.; Shao, Feng; Ecker, Joseph R; Dixon, Jack E.

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial phytopathogens employ a type III secretion system to deliver effector proteins into the plant cell to suppress defense pathways; however, the molecular mechanisms and subcellular localization strategies that drive effector function largely remain a mystery. Here, we demonstrate that the plant plasma membrane is the primary site for subcellular localization of the Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrPphB and five additional cysteine protease family members. AvrPphB and two AvrPphB-like ...

  2. L-cysteine, PIP3 and Insulin Signaling in Diabetes | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes has become an epidemic and remains a major public health issue worldwide. The primary purpose of this application is to discover the mechanisms by which L-cysteine (LC) supplementation improves glucose homeostasis in diabetic patients. Diabetic patients have lower blood levels of L-cysteine (LC), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and glutathione (GSH). Supplementation with cysteine-rich proteins (whey protein and ?-lactoalbumin), LC, or N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) has been shown to lower glycemia in diabetic animal studies.

  3. Oxidative stress increases SNAT1 expression and stimulates cysteine uptake in freshly isolated rat cardiomyocytes

    OpenAIRE

    King, Nicola; LIN, HUA; Suleiman, M.-Saadeh

    2010-01-01

    Intracellular cysteine availability is an important rate-limiting factor governing glutathione synthesis in the heart. This is also dependent on the magnitude and rate of cysteine uptake into cardiomyocytes, which has been little studied. This study investigated the hypothesis that changes to cysteine transporter expression and activity during oxidative stress influence cardiomyocyte glutathione levels. The uptake of 0–3 mM l-[35S]cysteine into ventricular cardiomyocytes isolated from adult m...

  4. Exposure to tobacco-derived materials induces overproduction of secreted proteinases in mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast cells reside at interfaces with the environment, including the mucosa of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. This localization exposes mast cells to inhaled, or ingested, environmental challenges. In the airways of smokers, resident immune cells will be in contact with the condensed components of cigarette smoke. Mast cells are of particular interest due to their ability to promote airway remodeling and mucus hypersecretion. Clinical data show increased levels of mast cell-secreted tryptase and increased numbers of degranulated mast cells in the lavage and bronchial tissue of smokers. Since mast cell-secreted proteinases (MCPTs), including tryptases, contribute to pathological airway remodeling, we investigated the relationship between mast cell proteinases and smoke exposure. We exposed a mast cell line to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). We show that CSC exposure increases MCPT levels in mast cells using an assay for tryptase-type MCPT activity. We hypothesized that this increase in MCPT activity reflects a CSC-induced increase in the cytosolic pool of proteinase molecules, via stimulation of MCPT transcription. Transcript array data suggested that mRNA changes in response to CSC were limited in number and peaked after 3 h of CSC exposure. However, we noted marked transcriptional regulation of several MCPT genes. CSC-induced changes in the mRNA levels for MCPTs were confirmed using quantitative RT-PCR. Taken together, our data suggest that chronic exposure to cigarette smoke up-regulates MCPT levels in mast cells at both the protein and the mRNA level. We suggest that the pathological airway remodeling that has been described in clinical studies of smoke inhalation may be attributable to MCPT overproduction in vivo

  5. Five atomic resolution structures of endothiapepsin inhibitor complexes: implications for the aspartic proteinase mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, L; Erskine, P T; Crump, M P; Wood, S P; Cooper, J B

    2002-05-17

    Endothiapepsin is derived from the fungus Endothia parasitica and is a member of the aspartic proteinase class of enzymes. This class of enzyme is comprised of two structurally similar lobes, each lobe contributing an aspartic acid residue to form a catalytic dyad that acts to cleave the substrate peptide bond. The three-dimensional structures of endothiapepsin bound to five transition state analogue inhibitors (H189, H256, CP-80,794, PD-129,541 and PD-130,328) have been solved at atomic resolution allowing full anisotropic modelling of each complex. The active sites of the five structures have been studied with a view to studying the catalytic mechanism of the aspartic proteinases by locating the active site protons by carboxyl bond length differences and electron density analysis. In the CP-80,794 structure there is excellent electron density for the hydrogen on the inhibitory statine hydroxyl group which forms a hydrogen bond with the inner oxygen of Asp32. The location of this proton has implications for the catalytic mechanism of the aspartic proteinases as it is consistent with the proposed mechanism in which Asp32 is the negatively charged aspartate. A number of short hydrogen bonds (approximately 2.6 A) with ESD values of around 0.01 A that may have a role in catalysis have been identified within the active site of each structure; the lengths of these bonds have been confirmed using NMR techniques. The possibility and implications of low barrier hydrogen bonds in the active site are considered. PMID:12083527

  6. The 24 kDa proteinases of comoviruses are virus-specific in cis as well as in trans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, M; Dessens, J T; Lomonossoff, G P

    1996-09-01

    To investigate the specificity of comoviral 24 kDa ('24K') proteinases, a full-length cDNA copy of red clover mottle virus (RCMV) RNA 1 has been cloned downstream of a T7 promoter. Translation in rabbit reticulocyte lysates of in vitro transcripts from this clone resulted in the synthesis of a 200K protein which was processed in a manner similar to that of the equivalent protein from cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). Full-length cDNA clones of the RNA 1 molecules of RCMV and CPMV were used to create hybrid RNA 1 molecules. RNA transcribed in vitro from these hybrids was translated in vitro and the ability of the 24K proteinase from one comovirus to cleave the 32K/170K processing site from the other assessed. The results of the experiments show that the 24K proteinases are virus-specific in cis. PMID:8811039

  7. Characterization of HLA-DR-restricted T-cell epitopes derived from human proteinase 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piesche, Matthias; Hildebrandt, York; Chapuy, Björn; Wulf, Gerald G; Trümper, Lorenz; Schroers, Roland

    2009-01-01

    Human proteinase 3 (PRTN3) is a leukemia-associated antigen specifically recognized by CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). PRTN3 also has been shown to elicit both antibody responses and T-cell proliferation in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. In order to improve current vaccines that aim to stimulate CTL without inducing harmful autoimmune disease, it is necessary to study the role of PRTN3-specific CD4+ T-helper (TH) and CD4+ T-regulatory (Treg) cells. Since both TH and Treg cells recog...

  8. Characterization of a keratinolytic serine proteinase from Streptomyces pactum DSM 40530.

    OpenAIRE

    Böckle, B; Galunsky, B.; R Müller

    1995-01-01

    A serine protease from the keratin-degrading Streptomyces pactum DSM 40530 was purified by casein agarose affinity chromatography. The enzyme had a molecular weight of 30,000 and an isoelectric point of 8.5. The proteinase was optimally active in the pH range from 7 to 10 and at temperatures from 40 to 75 degrees C. The enzyme was specific for arginine and lysine at the P1 site and for phenylalanine and arginine at the P1' site. It showed a high stereoselectivity and secondary specificity wit...

  9. Aspartic proteinase napsin is a useful marker for diagnosis of primary lung adenocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ueno, T.; Linder, S.; Elmberger, G

    2003-01-01

    Napsin A is an aspartic proteinase expressed in lung and kidney. We have reported that napsin A is expressed in type II pneumocytes and in adenocarcinomas of the lung. The expression of napsin was examined in 118 lung tissues including 16 metastases by in situ hybridisation. Napsin was expressed in the tumour cell compartment in 33 of 39 adenocarcinomas (84.6%), in two of 11 large cell carcinomas and in one lung metastasis of a renal cell carcinoma. Expression of napsin was found to be associ...

  10. Random substitution of large parts of the propeptide of yeast proteinase A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1995-01-01

    The yeast aspartic protease, proteinase A, has a 54 amino-acid propeptide, which is removed during activation of the zymogen in the vacuole. Apart from being involved inhibition/activation, the propeptide has been shown to be essential for formation of a stable active enzyme (van den Hazel, H. B., Kielland-Brandt, M. C., and Winther, J. R. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 18002-18007). We have investigated the sequence requirements for function of the propeptide. The N-terminal half and the C-terminal...

  11. Two distinct phases of apoptosis in mammary gland involution: proteinase-independent and -dependent pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Leif R; Romer, John; Thomasset, Nicole; Solberg, Helene; Pyke, Charles; Bissell, Mina J; Dano, Keld; Werb, Zena

    1996-01-01

    Postlactational involution of the mammary gland is characterized by two distinct physiological events: apoptosis of the secretory, epithelial cells undergoing programmed cell death, and proteolytic degradation of the mammary gland basement membrane. We examined the spatial and temporal patterns of apoptotic cells in relation to those of proteinases during involution of the BALB/c mouse mammary gland. Apoptosis was almost absent during lactation but became evident at day 2 of involution, when {beta}-casein gene expression was still high. Apoptotic cells were then seen at least up to day 8 of involution, when {beta}-casein gene expression was being extinguished. Expression of sulfated glycoprotein-2 (SGP-2), interleukin-1{beta} converting enzyme (ICE) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 was upregulated at day 2, when apoptotic cells were seen initially. Expression of the matrix metalloproteinases gelatinase A and stromelysin-1 and the serine proteinase urokinase-type plasminogen activator, which was low during lactation, was strongly upregulated in parallel starting at day 4 after weaning, coinciding with start of the collapse of the lobulo-alveolar structures and the intensive tissue remodeling in involution. The major sites of mRNA synthesis for these proteinases were fibroblast-like cells in the periductal stroma and stromal cells surrounding the collapsed alveoli, suggesting that the degradative phase of involution is due to a specialized mesenchymal-epithelial interaction. To elucidate the functional role of these proteinases during involution, at the onset of weaning we treated mice systemically with the glucocorticoid hydrocortisone, which is known to inhibit mammary gland involution. Although the initial wave of apoptotic cells appeared in the lumina of the gland, the dramatic regression and tissue remodeling usually evident by day 5 was substantially inhibited by systemic treatment with hydrocortisone. mRNA and protein for gelatinase A, stromelysin-1 and uPA were weakly induced, if at all, in hydrocortisonetreated mice. Furthermore, mRNA for membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase decreased after hydrocortisone treatment and paralleled the almost complete inhibition of activation of latent gelatinase A. Concomitantly, the gland filled with an overabundance of milk. Our data support the hypothesis that there are at least two distinct phases of involution: an initial phase, characterized by induction of the apoptosis-associated genes SGP-2 and ICE and apoptosis of fully differentiated mammary epithelial cells without visible degradation of the extracellular matrix, and a second phase, characterized by extracellular matrix remodeling and altered mesenchymal-epithelial interactions, followed by apoptosis of cells that are losing differentiated functions.

  12. Purification and Characterization of a Keratinolytic Serine Proteinase from Streptomyces albidoflavus

    OpenAIRE

    Bressollier, Philippe; Letourneau, François; Urdaci, Maria; Verneuil, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Streptomyces strain K1-02, which was identified as a strain of Streptomyces albidoflavus, secreted at least six extracellular proteases when it was cultured on feather meal-based medium. The major keratinolytic serine proteinase was purified to homogeneity by a two-step procedure. This enzyme had a molecular weight of 18,000 and was optimally active at pH values ranging from 6 to 9.5 and at temperatures ranging from 40 to 70°C. Its sensitivity to protease inhibitors, its specificity on synthe...

  13. Cloning and molecular characterization of a human intracellular serine proteinase inhibitor.

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlin, P; J. Sun; Cerruti, L; H.H. Salem; Bird, P.

    1993-01-01

    We describe a cDNA encoding a serine proteinase inhibitor present in placental tissue and the cytosolic fraction of K562 cells. On the basis of its interaction with thrombin, through which it was discovered, the inhibitor has been operationally named the placental thrombin inhibitor (PTI). Amino acid sequence comparisons suggest that its reactive center is located at Arg-341 and Cys-342, that it lacks a classical N-terminal signal sequence, and that it has the highest degree of similarity to ...

  14. Consequences of manganese replacement of copper for prion protein function and proteinase resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, David R.; Hafiz, Farida; Glasssmith, Leslie L.; Wong, Boon-Seng; Jones, Ian M; Clive, Christine; Haswell, Stephen J

    2000-01-01

    The prion protein (PrP) binds copper and has antioxidant activity enhancing the survival of neurones in culture. The ability of the PrP to bind other cations was tested and it was found that only manganese could substitute for copper. Although initially manganese-loaded PrP exhibited similar structure and activity to copper-loaded PrP, after aging, manganese-loaded PrP became proteinase resistant and lost function. It was also found that manganese could be incorporated into PrP expressed by a...

  15. Effects of ozone and nitrogen dioxide on human lung proteinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D A

    1987-01-01

    Based on available knowledge, this study shows that alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1-PI) plays an important role in protecting lung elastin from elastolytic proteinases, particularly human neutrophil elastase (HNE). Studies previous to this one showed that alpha 1-PI was very susceptible to inactivation by oxidants. We sought to use this oxidant sensitivity as an in vivo marker for ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure. The mechanism of alpha 1-PI inactivation by O3 and NO2 was examined to provide insight concerning the pathogenesis of oxidant-mediated lung damage. Attention also was focused on the bronchial leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (BLPI), which inhibits HNE in the bronchial secretions. Careful examination of blood plasma samples from individuals exposed to 0.5 ppm O3 for four hours on two consecutive days failed to detect any inactivation of alpha 1-PI. This result showed that blood alpha 1-PI was not a satisfactory marker for O3 exposure, but, more importantly, demonstrated that inhaling O3 for short periods does not grossly inactivate this important protein. Studies on BLPI showed that it is a significant inhibitor of HNE and probably plays a more important role in protecting the lung than previously thought. BLPI, like alpha 1-PI, was found to be inactivated by oxidants, including O3 and NO2. The mechanism of O3 inactivation of leukocyte proteinase inhibitors was studied using alpha 1-PI, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (alpha 1-Achy), BLPI, and Eglin C. While all these inhibitors differed in structure, the concentrations of O3 required for inactivation were essentially the same, except for alpha 1-Achy, which only lost half of its inhibitory activity. It would seem from these results that O3 can damage proteins via the oxidation of any of the following: tryptophan (Trp), methionine (Met), tyrosine (Tyr), or histidine (His) residues. Interestingly, Eglin C, which does not have oxidizable amino acids in its inhibitory active site, was inactivated by the same amount of O3 as BLPI, BLPI was easily inactivated by a methionine-specific oxidant, suggesting an important role for methionine in this inhibitor. In vitro exposure of alpha 1-PI and BLPI to 800 moles of NO2 per mole of inhibitor resulted in 35% and 50% losses of HNE inhibitory activity, respectively. Tryptophan was destroyed by NO2 and studies are in progress to examine effects on other amino acids. PMID:3268287

  16. Direct observation by X-ray analysis of the tetrahedral "intermediate" of aspartic proteinases.

    OpenAIRE

    Veerapandian, B.; Cooper, J. B.; Sali, A; Blundell, T L; Rosati, R. L.; Dominy, B. W.; Damon, D. B.; Hoover, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    We report the X-ray analysis at 2.0 A resolution for crystals of the aspartic proteinase endothiapepsin (EC 3.4.23.6) complexed with a potent difluorostatone-containing tripeptide renin inhibitor (CP-81,282). The scissile bond surrogate, an electrophilic ketone, is hydrated in the complex. The pro-(R) (statine-like) hydroxyl of the tetrahedral carbonyl hydrate is hydrogen-bonded to both active-site aspartates 32 and 215 in the position occupied by a water in the native enzyme. The second hydr...

  17. Secretory Aspartyl Proteinases Cause Vaginitis and Can Mediate Vaginitis Caused by Candida albicans in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Amacker, Mario; Kasper, Lydia; Roselletti, Elena; Luciano, Eugenio; Sabbatini, Samuele; Kaeser, Matthias; Moser, Christian; Hube, Bernhard; Vecchiarelli, Anna; Cassone, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal inflammation (vaginitis) is the most common disease caused by the human-pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Secretory aspartyl proteinases (Sap) are major virulence traits of C. albicans that have been suggested to play a role in vaginitis. To dissect the mechanisms by which Sap play this role, Sap2, a dominantly expressed member of the Sap family and a putative constituent of an anti-Candida vaccine, was used. Injection of full-length Sap2 into the mouse vagina caused local neutrophi...

  18. Effects of cysteine on growth, protease production, and catalase activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    OpenAIRE

    Himelbloom, B H; Hassan, H. M. [??? ????? ???

    1986-01-01

    Cysteine inhibits growth of and protease production by Pseudomonas fluorescens NC3. Catalase activity in P. fluorescens NC3 was increased by cysteine. The addition of exogenous hydrogen peroxide did not increase catalase activity, thus suggesting a role for the endogenous generation of hydrogen peroxide via the autoxidation of cysteine.

  19. Occurrence of digestive cysteine proteases in Perillus bioculatus, a natural predator of the Colorado potato beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overney, S; Yelle, S; Cloutier, C

    1998-05-01

    Oryzacystatins (OCs) are protease inhibitors (PIs) that inhibit Colorado potato beetle (CPB) digestive proteases, and transgenic potato plants containing these PIs are currently under test. However, OCs could interfere with the digestive system of beneficial insects. Protease activity and susceptibility to class-specific protease inhibitors were studied in protein extracts of Perillus bioculatus, a stinkbug predator that has shown potential for biological control of the CPB. At physiological pH, the analysis of protease activity showed that up to 90% of P. bioculatus protease activity is of the cysteine type. All active life stages of the predator were tested, and electrophoretic characterization detected no major qualitative variation in protease pattern between stages. Protease activity in extracts of P. bioculatus nymphs was significantly reduced, up to 70%, by the two recombinant cystatins from rice (OCI and OCII), and by stefin A, a PI encoded by a human gene. These results clearly indicate that cysteine PIs are active not only against the CPB digestive protease complex, but also against proteases of one of its most important natural predators. PMID:9787788

  20. Chitosan in Plant Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelbasset El Hadrami

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitin and chitosan are naturally-occurring compounds that have potential in agriculture with regard to controlling plant diseases. These molecules were shown to display toxicity and inhibit fungal growth and development. They were reported to be active against viruses, bacteria and other pests. Fragments from chitin and chitosan are known to have eliciting activities leading to a variety of defense responses in host plants in response to microbial infections, including the accumulation of phytoalexins, pathogen-related (PR proteins and proteinase inhibitors, lignin synthesis, and callose formation. Based on these and other proprieties that help strengthen host plant defenses, interest has been growing in using them in agricultural systems to reduce the negative impact of diseases on yield and quality of crops. This review recapitulates the properties and uses of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives, and will focus on their applications and mechanisms of action during plant-pathogen interactions.

  1. Slime production and proteinase activity of Candida species isolated from blood samples and the comparison of these activities with minimum inhibitory concentration values of antifungal agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semiha Ozkan

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Slime and proteinase activity of 54 strains consisting of 19 Candida parapsilosis and 35 C. albicans strains isolated from blood samples were investigated in this study. Ketoconazole, amphothericin B, and fluconazole susceptibility of Candida species were compared with slime production and proteinase activity of these species. For both Candida species, no correlation was detected between the slime activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the three antifungal agents. For both Candida species no correlation was detected between the proteinase activity and the MIC values of amphothericin B, and fluconazole however, statistically significant difference, was determined between the proteinase activity and MIC values of ketoconazole (p = 0.007. Slime production was determined by using modified Christensen macrotube method and proteinase activity was measured by the method of Staib. Antifungal susceptibility was determined through the guidelines of National Committee for Laboratory Standards (NCCLS M27-A.

  2. Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor as alternative culture medium substrates for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis AMT-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pires do Nascimento

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor or yeast extract were used as the sole organic forms for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis in submerged fermentation. The influence of the C and N concentrations, as well as the incubation periods, were assessed. Eight proteolytic bands were detected through gelatin-gel-electrophoresis in the various extracts obtained from the different media and after different incubation periods, with apparent molecular masses of 20, 35, 43, 50, 70, 100, 116 and 212 kDa. The results obtained suggest an opportunity for exploring this alternative strategy for proteinases production by actinomycetes, using BSG and CSL as economically feasible substrates.

  3. Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor as alternative culture medium substrates for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis AMT-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Rodrigo Pires; Junior, Nelson Alves; Coelho, Rosalie Reed Rodrigues

    2011-10-01

    Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor or yeast extract were used as the sole organic forms for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis in submerged fermentation. The influence of the C and N concentrations, as well as the incubation periods, were assessed. Eight proteolytic bands were detected through gelatin-gel-electrophoresis in the various extracts obtained from the different media and after different incubation periods, with apparent molecular masses of 20, 35, 43, 50, 70, 100, 116 and 212 kDa. The results obtained suggest an opportunity for exploring this alternative strategy for proteinases production by actinomycetes, using BSG and CSL as economically feasible substrates. PMID:24031767

  4. Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor as alternative culture medium substrates for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis AMT-3

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo Pires do, Nascimento; Nelson, Alves Junior; Rosalie Reed Rodrigues, Coelho.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor or yeast extract were used as the sole organic forms for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis in submerged fermentation. The influence of the C and N concentrations, as well as the incubation periods, were assessed. Eight proteolytic bands wer [...] e detected through gelatin-gel-electrophoresis in the various extracts obtained from the different media and after different incubation periods, with apparent molecular masses of 20, 35, 43, 50, 70, 100, 116 and 212 kDa. The results obtained suggest an opportunity for exploring this alternative strategy for proteinases production by actinomycetes, using BSG and CSL as economically feasible substrates.

  5. Identification and characterization of alpha-I-proteinase inhibitor from common carp sarcoplasmic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriangkanakun, Siriphon; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Yongsawadigul, Jirawat

    2016-02-01

    Purification of proteinase inhibitor from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sarcoplasmic proteins resulted in 2.8% yield with purification fold of 111. Two inhibitors, namely inhibitor I and II, exhibited molecular mass of 47 and 52 kDa, respectively, based on non-reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Both inhibitors I and II were identified to be alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (?1-PI) based on LC-MS/MS. They were glycoproteins and molecular mass after peptide-N-glycosidase F treatment was 38 and 45 kDa, respectively. The N-glycosylation sites of both inhibitors were determined to be at N214 and N226. The inhibitors specifically inhibited trypsin. The common carp ?1-PI showed high thermal stability with denaturation temperatures of 65.43 and 73.31 °C, which were slightly less than those of ovomucoid. High stability toward NaCl was also evident up to 3M. The common carp ?1-PI effectively reduced autolytic degradation of bigeye snapper surimi at the concentration as low as 0.025%. PMID:26304452

  6. Intracellular localization of Treponema denticola chymotrypsin-like proteinase in chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Marttila

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Treponema denticola is an important periodontal pathogen capable of tissue invasion. Its chymotrypsin-like proteinase (CTLP can degrade a number of basement membrane components in vitro, thus suggesting a contribution to tissue invasion by the spirochete. The aim of this study was to analyze the localization of CTLP in chronic periodontitis tissues ex vivo. A polyclonal antibody specific to T. denticola cell-bound CTLP was used to detect the spirochetes in the gingival tissues of patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis (n=25 by immunohistochemistry and periodic acid-Schiff staining (PAS. The presence of T. denticola in the periodontal tissue samples was analyzed by PCR. Periodontal tissue samples of 12 of the 25 patients were found to be positive for T. denticola by PCR. Moreover, CTLP could be detected in the periodontal tissues of all these patients by immunohistochemistry. In the epithelium, the CTLP was mostly intracellular. Typically, the positive staining could be seen throughout the whole depth of the epithelium. When detected extracellularly, CTLP was localized mainly as granular deposits. The connective tissue stained diffusely positive in four cases. The positive staining co-localized with the PAS stain in nine cases. T. denticola and its CTLP could be detected in diseased human periodontium both intra- and extracellularly. The granular staining pattern was suggestive of the presence of T. denticola bacteria, whereas the more diffused staining pattern was indicative of the recent presence of the bacterium and shedding of the cell-bound proteinase.

  7. Proteinase K-catalyzed synthesis of linear and star oligo(L-phenylalanine) conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageitos, Jose M; Baker, Peter J; Sugahara, Michihiro; Numata, Keiji

    2013-10-14

    Chemoenzymatic synthesis of peptides is a green and clean chemical reaction that offers high yields without using organic synthesis and serves as an alternative to traditional peptide synthesis methods. This report describes the chemoenzymatic synthesis of oligo(L-phenylalanine) mediated by proteinase K from Tritirachium album, which is one of the most widely used proteases in molecular biological studies. The synthesized linear oligo-phenylalanine showed a unique self-assembly in aqueous solutions. To further functionalize linear oligo(L-phenylalanine) as a low-molecular-weight gelator, it was cosynthesized with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine to obtain star-oligo(L-phenylalanine), which was bioconjugated to demonstrate its self-assembly into fluorescent fibers. The self-assembled fibers of star-oligo(L-phenylalanine) formed fibrous networks with various branching ratios, which depended on the molecular weights and molecular aspect ratios of star-oligo(L-phenylalanine). This is the first study to demonstrate that proteinase K is a suitable enzyme for chemoenzymatic cosynthesis of oligopeptides and star-shaped heteropeptides. PMID:24000943

  8. Random substitution of large parts of the propeptide of yeast proteinase A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten

    1995-01-01

    The yeast aspartic protease, proteinase A, has a 54 amino-acid propeptide, which is removed during activation of the zymogen in the vacuole. Apart from being involved inhibition/activation, the propeptide has been shown to be essential for formation of a stable active enzyme (van den Hazel, H. B., Kielland-Brandt, M. C., and Winther, J. R. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 18002-18007). We have investigated the sequence requirements for function of the propeptide. The N-terminal half and the C-terminal half of the propeptide were replaced by random sequences at the genetic level, and collections of the mutants were subjected to a colony screen for ones exhibiting activity. A high frequency (around 1%) of active constructs was found, which indicates a very high tolerance for mutations in the propeptide. Thirty-nine functional mutant forms containing random sequence at either the N- or C-terminal half of the propeptide were characterized. Comparison of the propeptides of the active constructs suggests that a particular lysine residue is important for efficient biosynthesis of proteinase A.

  9. Proteinase assay by capillary electrophoresis employing fluorescence-quenched protein-dye conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welder, Frank; McCorquodale, Elizabeth Moody; Colyer, Christa L

    2002-06-01

    Determination of proteinases--enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds--is often difficult due to the presence of interferences in complex biological media and limited sample size. Capillary electrophoresis (CE), with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) can serve as a useful tool for such determinations. LIF detection offers the advantages of increased sensitivity and increased selectivity. However, direct LIF detection requires the proteinase analyte to be fluorescently derivatized prior to analysis. A viable alternative is offered by the present work, in which protein substrates are first labeled with BODIPY dye, a relatively pH-insensitive, high-fluorescence quantum yield dye. Upon binding of some 4-10 molecules of dye to a single protein, the dye is effectively fluorescence-quenched. Digestion of the BODIPY--labeled and quenched protein by an unlabeled enzyme yields smaller peptide fragments in which the fluorescence of associated BODIPY tags is restored. We will present how the fragmentation pattern of BODIPY-labeled casein changes as a function of incubation time with trypsin, as well as the effect of varying concentrations of trypsin on the BODIPY-casein digest. PMID:12179975

  10. High-resolution structure of proteinase K cocrystallized with digalacturonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of proteinase K cocrystallized with digalacturonic acid and HEPES was solved at 1.32 Å resolution. The disaccharide was rotationally disordered about a twofold axis, but nonetheless contributed to intermolecular lattice interactions. Proteinase K, a subtilisin-like fungal protease, was crystallized from a cocktail of small molecules containing digalacturonic acid (DGA). The crystal structure was determined to 1.32 Å resolution and refined to an R factor of 0.158. The final model contained, beside the protein, two calcium ions, 379 water molecules, a molecule of DGA and a partially occupied HEPES molecule. The DGA molecule has one sugar moiety disposed exactly on a crystallographic twofold axis; the second ring was not observed. The DGA molecule is bound to two protein molecules across the twofold axis through hydrogen-bonding networks involving Ser150 and water molecules. One of the calcium-ion sites has not been reported previously. This study further illustrates the involvement of small molecules in the crystallization of macromolecules through their ability to form intermolecular lattice interactions

  11. Structure of the SARS coronavirus main proteinase as an active C{sub 2} crystallographic dimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ting; Ooi, Amy; Lee, Hooi Chen; Wilmouth, Rupert [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Liu, Ding Xiang [Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (Singapore); Lescar, Julien, E-mail: julien@ntu.edu.sg [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore)

    2005-11-01

    An orthorhombic crystal form of the SARS CoV main proteinase diffracting to a resolution of 1.9 Å is reported. The conformation of residues in the catalytic site indicates an active enzyme. The 34 kDa main proteinase (M{sup pro}) from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) plays an important role in the virus life cycle through the specific processing of viral polyproteins. As such, SARS-CoV M{sup pro} is a key target for the identification of specific inhibitors directed against the SARS virus. With a view to facilitating the development of such compounds, crystals were obtained of the enzyme at pH 6.5 in the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 that diffract to a resolution of 1.9 Å. These crystals contain one monomer per asymmetric unit and the biologically active dimer is generated via the crystallographic twofold axis. The conformation of the catalytic site indicates that the enzyme is active in the crystalline form and thus suitable for structure-based inhibition studies.

  12. Candida tropicalis Biofilms: Biomass, Metabolic Activity and Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Melyssa; Silva, Sónia; Capoci, Isis Regina Grenier; Azeredo, Joana; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    According to epidemiological data, Candida tropicalis has been related to urinary tract infections and haematological malignancy. Several virulence factors seem to be responsible for C. tropicalis infections, for example: their ability to adhere and to form biofilms onto different indwelling medical devices; their capacity to adhere, invade and damage host human tissues due to enzymes production such as proteinases. The main aim of this work was to study the behaviour of C. tropicalis biofilms of different ages (24-120 h) formed in artificial urine (AU) and their ability to express aspartyl proteinase (SAPT) genes. The reference strain C. tropicalis ATCC 750 and two C. tropicalis isolates from urine were used. Biofilms were evaluated in terms of culturable cells by colony-forming units enumeration; total biofilm biomass was evaluated using the crystal violet staining method; metabolic activity was evaluated by XTT assay; and SAPT gene expression was determined by real-time PCR. All strains of C. tropicalis were able to form biofilms in AU, although with differences between strains. Candida tropicalis biofilms showed a decrease in terms of the number of culturable cells from 48 to 72 h. Generally, SAPT3 was highly expressed. C. tropicalis strains assayed were able to form biofilms in the presence of AU although in a strain- and time-dependent way, and SAPT genes are expressed during C. tropicalis biofilm formation. PMID:26572148

  13. Purification and characterization of a proteinase inhibitor from field bean, Dolichos lablab perpureus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, V R; Manjunatha, N H

    1999-01-01

    A proteinase inhibitor resembling Bowman-Birk family inhibitors has been purified from the seeds of cultivar HA-3 of Dolichos lablab perpureus L. The protein was apparently homogeneous as judged by SDS-PAGE, PAGE, IEF, and immunodiffusion. The inhibitor had 12 mole% 1/2-cystine and a few aromatic amino acids, and lacks tryptophan. Field bean proteinase inhibitor (FBPI) exhibited a pI of 4.3 and an Mr of 18,500 Da. CD spectral studies showed random coiled secondary structure. Conformational changes were detected in the FBPI-trypsin/chymotrypsin complexes by difference spectral studies. Apparent Ka values of complexes of inhibitor with trypsin and chymotrypsin were 2.1x10(7) M(-1) and 3.1x10(7) M(-1), respectively. The binary and ternary complexes of FBPI with trypsin and chymotrypsin have been isolated indicating 1:1 stoichiometry with independent sites for cognate enzymes. Amino acid modification studies showed lysine and tyrosine at the reactive sites of FBPI for trypsin and chymotrypsin, respectively. PMID:10071928

  14. Structure of the SARS coronavirus main proteinase as an active C2 crystallographic dimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An orthorhombic crystal form of the SARS CoV main proteinase diffracting to a resolution of 1.9 Å is reported. The conformation of residues in the catalytic site indicates an active enzyme. The 34 kDa main proteinase (Mpro) from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) plays an important role in the virus life cycle through the specific processing of viral polyproteins. As such, SARS-CoV Mpro is a key target for the identification of specific inhibitors directed against the SARS virus. With a view to facilitating the development of such compounds, crystals were obtained of the enzyme at pH 6.5 in the orthorhombic space group P21212 that diffract to a resolution of 1.9 Å. These crystals contain one monomer per asymmetric unit and the biologically active dimer is generated via the crystallographic twofold axis. The conformation of the catalytic site indicates that the enzyme is active in the crystalline form and thus suitable for structure-based inhibition studies

  15. Kinetic constants for the hydrolysis of aggrecan by the papaya proteinases and their relevance for chemonucleolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekeyser, P M; Buttle, D J; Devreese, B; Van Beeumen, J; Demeester, J; Lauwers, A

    1995-07-10

    The four known proteinases from papaya latex, namely papain (EC 3.4.22.2), chymopapain (EC 3.4.22.6), caricain (EC 3.4.22.30), and glycyl endopeptidase (EC 3.4.22.25), were purified to homogeneity and fully characterized by single radial immunodiffusion and active-site titration. A modified HPLC gel permeation assay was used to determine the kinetic constants for aggrecan hydrolysis by the papaya proteinases. The disappearance of intact aggrecan monomer was first-order, indicating that for the four enzymes studied the Km was much larger than 0.5 microM and that kcat/Km = 1.2 +/- 0.1 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 for chymopapain, 1.20 +/- 0.08 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 for caricain, 0.90 +/- 0.02 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 for papain, and 0.120 +/- 0.005 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 for glycyl endopeptidase. Chymodiactin, the chymopapain preparation used for chemonucleolysis, consists of a mixture of chymopapain (70%), caricain (20%), and glycyl endopeptidase (4%). The rate constant for the aggrecan hydrolysis by such a mixture was not significantly different from the rate constant for pure chymopapain. As a result of these observations, we predict that pure chymopapain could replace partially purified chymopapain preparations for chemonucleolysis. PMID:7625846

  16. Effect of the Solvent Temperatures on Dynamics of Serine Protease Proteinase K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Peng; Yang, Qiong; Du, Xing; Yang, Nan; Yang, Li-Quan; Ji, Xing-Lai; Fu, Yun-Xin; Meng, Zhao-Hui; Liu, Shu-Qun

    2016-01-01

    To obtain detailed information about the effect of the solvent temperatures on protein dynamics, multiple long molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of serine protease proteinase K with the solute and solvent coupled to different temperatures (either 300 or 180 K) have been performed. Comparative analyses demonstrate that the internal flexibility and mobility of proteinase K are strongly dependent on the solvent temperatures but weakly on the protein temperatures. The constructed free energy landscapes (FELs) at the high solvent temperatures exhibit a more rugged surface, broader spanning range, and higher minimum free energy level than do those at the low solvent temperatures. Comparison between the dynamic hydrogen bond (HB) numbers reveals that the high solvent temperatures intensify the competitive HB interactions between water molecules and protein surface atoms, and this in turn exacerbates the competitive HB interactions between protein internal atoms, thus enhancing the conformational flexibility and facilitating the collective motions of the protein. A refined FEL model was proposed to explain the role of the solvent mobility in facilitating the cascade amplification of microscopic motions of atoms and atomic groups into the global collective motions of the protein. PMID:26907253

  17. An S-acylation switch of conserved G domain cysteines is required for polarity signaling by ROP GTPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorek, Nadav; Segev, Oshik; Gutman, Orit; Bar, Einat; Richter, Sandra; Poraty, Limor; Hirsch, Joel A; Henis, Yoav I; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Jürgens, Gerd; Yalovsky, Shaul

    2010-05-25

    Rho GTPases are master regulators of cell polarity. For their function, Rhos must associate with discrete plasma membrane domains. Rho of Plants (ROPs) or RACs comprise a single family. Prenylation and S-acylation of hypervariable domain cysteines of Ras and Rho GTPases are required for their function; however, lipid modifications in the G domain have never been reported. Reversible S-acylation involves the attachment of palmitate (C16:0) or other saturated lipids to cysteines through a thioester linkage and was implicated in the regulation of signaling. Here we show that transient S-acylation of Arabidopsis AtROP6 takes place on two conserved G domain cysteine residues, C21 and C156. C21 is relatively exposed and is accessible for modification, but C156 is not, implying that its S-acylation involves a conformational change. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching beam-size analysis shows that S-acylation of AtROP6 regulates its membrane-association dynamics, and detergent-solubilization studies indicate that it regulates AtROP6 association with lipid rafts. Site-specific acylation-deficient AtROP6 mutants can bind and hydrolyze GTP but display compromised effects on polar cell growth, endocytic uptake of the tracer dye FM4-64, and distribution of reactive oxygen species. These data reveal an S-acylation switch that regulates Rho signaling. PMID:20451389

  18. Additive In Vitro Antiplasmodial Effect of N-Alkyl and N-Benzyl-1,10-Phenanthroline Derivatives and Cysteine Protease Inhibitor E64

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, Mahardika Agus; Sholikhah, Eti Nurwening; Hadanu, Ruslin; Jumina, Jumina; Supargiyono, Supargiyono; Mustofa, Mustofa

    2010-01-01

    Potential new targets for antimalarial chemotherapy include parasite proteases, which are required for several cellular functions during the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle. Four new derivatives of N-alkyl and N-benzyl-1,10-phenanthroline have been synthesized. Those are (1)-N-methyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium sulfate, (1)-N-ethyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium sulfate, (1)-N-benzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium chloride, and (1)-N-benzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium iodide. Those compounds had potential antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values from 260.42 to 465.38 nM. Cysteine proteinase inhibitor E64 was used to investigate the mechanism of action of N-alkyl and N-benzyl-1,10-phenanthroline derivatives. A modified fixed-ratio isobologram method was used to study the in vitro interactions between the new compounds with either E64 or chloroquine. The interaction between N-alkyl and N-benzyl-1,10-phenanthroline derivatives and E64 was additive as well as their interactions with chloroquine were also additive. Antimalarial mechanism of chloroquine is mainly on the inhibition of hemozoin formation. As the interaction of chloroquine and E64 was additive, the results indicated that these new compounds had a mechanism of action by inhibiting Plasmodium proteases. PMID:22332022

  19. Heterologous expression of Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe

    Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins during germination. Several Cysteine proteases have been identified in barley. One of the key enzymes, Hordeum vulgare endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned with and without the 5 amino acid C-terminal sequence into the Pichia pastoris expression vector pPICZ A? and electrotransformed into Pichia pastoris strain SDM1163. Heterologous protein production was induced with 2% MeOH. To monitor the protein expression during induction, 1 ml samples was collected every hr for 24 hrs. After 4 days, the supernatant were harvested and analyzed by SDS-PAGE, activity assay and Western blot. A significant amount of heterologous protein was produced and the protein production was highest after 4 days and the expression in the C-terminal mutant was slightly higher than for the full length protease.

  20. Paired cysteine residues are required for high levels of the Helicobacter pylori autotransporter VacA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letley, Darren P; Rhead, Joanne L; Bishop, Keith; Atherton, John C

    2006-05-01

    The Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin VacA shares homology in its C-terminal domain with many autotransporter proteins, suggesting a similar mechanism of secretion. Like most autotransporters, VacA contains a single pair of cysteine residues located near the C-terminus of the passenger domain. This study aimed to investigate the role of these conserved cysteine residues. This involved changing each cysteine in the VacA passenger domain to serine, quantifying the effect on VacA levels and assessing toxin activity in H. pylori. It was shown that both cysteine residues were required for high VacA levels, although mutation of each cysteine reduced toxin amounts to differing extents, implying that their importance was not simply for intramolecular disulphide bond formation. Although less VacA was observed for the cysteine mutants, vacuolating activity was detected, showing that the cysteines were not required for VacA function. PMID:16622049

  1. Fluoresence quenching of riboflavin in aqueous solution by methionin and cystein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields, and fluorescence lifetimes of riboflavin in methanol, DMSO, water, and aqueous solutions of the sulphur atom containing amino acids methionin and cystein have been determined. In methanol, DMSO, and water (pH=4-8) only dynamic fluorescence reduction due to intersystem crossing and internal conversion is observed. In aqueous methionin solutions of pH=5.25-9 a pH independent static and dynamic fluorescence quenching occurs probably due to riboflavin anion-methionin cation pair formation. In aqueous cystein solutions (pH range from 4.15 to 9) the fluorescence quenching increases with rising pH due to cystein thiolate formation. The cystein thiol form present at low pH does not react with neutral riboflavin. Cystein thiolate present at high pH seems to react with neutral riboflavin causing riboflavin deprotonation (anion formation) by cystein thiolate reduction to the cystein thiol form

  2. Fluoresence quenching of riboflavin in aqueous solution by methionin and cystein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droessler, P.; Holzer, W.; Penzkofer, A.; Hegemann, P

    2003-01-15

    The fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields, and fluorescence lifetimes of riboflavin in methanol, DMSO, water, and aqueous solutions of the sulphur atom containing amino acids methionin and cystein have been determined. In methanol, DMSO, and water (pH=4-8) only dynamic fluorescence reduction due to intersystem crossing and internal conversion is observed. In aqueous methionin solutions of pH=5.25-9 a pH independent static and dynamic fluorescence quenching occurs probably due to riboflavin anion-methionin cation pair formation. In aqueous cystein solutions (pH range from 4.15 to 9) the fluorescence quenching increases with rising pH due to cystein thiolate formation. The cystein thiol form present at low pH does not react with neutral riboflavin. Cystein thiolate present at high pH seems to react with neutral riboflavin causing riboflavin deprotonation (anion formation) by cystein thiolate reduction to the cystein thiol form.

  3. Subcellular distribution of glutathione and cysteine in cyanobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Zechmann, Bernd; Tomaši?, Ana; Horvat, Lucija; Fulgosi, Hrvoje

    2010-01-01

    Glutathione plays numerous important functions in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Whereas it can be found in virtually all eukaryotic cells, its production in prokaryotes is restricted to cyanobacteria and proteobacteria and a few strains of gram-positive bacteria. In bacteria, it is involved in the protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS), osmotic shock, acidic conditions, toxic chemicals, and heavy metals. Glutathione synthesis in bacteria takes place in two steps out of cysteine,...

  4. Characterization of extracellular polymeric matrix, and treatment of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilms with DNase I and proteinase K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Mansoor Ali Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biofilms are organized communities of microorganisms embedded in a self-produced extracellular polymeric matrix (EPM, often with great phylogenetic variety. Bacteria in the subgingival biofilm are key factors that cause periodontal diseases; among these are the Gram-negative bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The objectives of this study were to characterize the major components of the EPM and to test the effect of deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I and proteinase K. Methods: F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis bacterial cells were grown in dynamic and static biofilm models. The effects of DNase I and proteinase K enzymes on the major components of the EPM were tested during biofilm formation and on mature biofilm. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used in observing biofilm structure. Results: Proteins and carbohydrates were the major components of the biofilm matrix, and extracellular DNA (eDNA was also present. DNase I and proteinase K enzymes had little effect on biofilms in the conditions used. In the flow cell, F. nucleatum was able to grow in partially oxygenated conditions while P. gingivalis failed to form biofilm alone in similar conditions. F. nucleatum supported the growth of P. gingivalis when they were grown together as dual species biofilm. Conclusion: DNase I and proteinase K had little effect on the biofilm matrix in the conditions used. F. nucleatum formed biofilm easily and supported the growth of P. gingivalis, which preferred anaerobic conditions.

  5. [The effect of exogenous protein--a proteinase inhibitor--on the development of experimental pancreatitis in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, N L; Valueva, T A; Emel'ianov, S I; Pisarevski?, G N; Titova, G P; Penin, V A; Mosolov, V V

    1990-01-01

    Small doses of an exogenous protein inhibitor of proteinases ovomucoid, isolated from duck egg-white, exhibited distinct therapeutic effects in acute pancreatitis of dogs. The inhibitor decreased the lethality rate and exceeded the base Kunitz trypsin inhibitor in its efficiency. PMID:2075722

  6. Flexibility of cold- and heat-adapted subtilisin-like serine proteinases evaluated with fluorescence quenching and molecular dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigtryggsdóttir, Asta Rós; Papaleo, Elena; Thorbjarnardóttir, Sigríður H.; Kristjánsson, Magnús M.

    2014-01-01

    The subtilisin-like serine proteinases, VPR, from a psychrotrophic Vibrio species and aqualysin I (AQUI) from the thermophile Thermus aquaticus, are structural homologues, but differ significantly with respect to stability and catalytic properties. It has been postulated that the higher catalytic...

  7. Microplate fluorescence protease assays test the inhibition of select North American snake venoms' activities with an anti-proteinase library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Joseph A

    2015-09-01

    Snake envenomation is a relatively neglected significant world health problem, designated an orphan disease by the WHO. While often effective, antivenins are insufficient. Could another approach greatly aid inhibition of the venom toxins? New fluorescent substrates for measuring protease activity in microplate assays suitable for high throughput screening were tested and found reproducible with snake venom. Representative North American venoms showed relatively strong proteinase and collagenase, but weaker elastase activities. Caseinolytic activity is inhibited by the nonspecific proteinase inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline and by EDTA, as is collagenase activity, consistent with the action of metalloproteinases. Both general protease and collagenase assays CV average 3%, and Km measured were above normal working conditions. Using a library of anti -proteinase compounds with multiple venoms revealed high inhibitor activity by three agents with known multiple metalloproteinase inhibitor activity (Actinonin, GM6001, and NNGH), which incidentally supports the concept that much of the degradative activity of certain venoms is due to metalloproteinases with collagenase activity. These results together support the use of microplate proteinase assays, particularly this collagenase assay, in future drug repurposing studies leading to the development of new treatments for those envenomations that have a major proteolytic component in their pathophysiology. PMID:26130521

  8. Evidence for the presence of proteolytically active secreted aspartic proteinase 1 of Candida parapsilosis in the cell wall.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinterová, Zuzana; Šanda, Miloslav; Dostál, Ji?í; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga; Pichová, Iva

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 20, ?. 12 (2011), s. 2004-2012. ISSN 0961-8368 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531; GA ?R GA310/09/1945 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Candida parapsilosis * secreted aspartic proteinases * Sapp1p * cell wall * biotin * proteolytic activity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.798, year: 2011

  9. Analysis of S-nitrosothiols via Copper Cysteine (2C) and Copper Cysteine - Carbon Monoxide (3C) Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Stephen C.; Gibbons, Lindsey B.; Griffin, Sherraine; Doctor, Allan

    2012-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the principles of RSNO measurement in the gas phase, utilizing ozone-based chemiluminescence and the copper cysteine (2C) ± carbon monoxide (3C) reagent. Although an indirect method for quantifying RSNOs, this assay represents one of the most robust methodologies available. It exploits the NO• detection sensitivity of ozone based chemiluminscence, which is within the range required to detect physiological concentrations of RSNO metabolites. Additionally, the specificit...

  10. A new tyrosine-specific chymotrypsin-like and angiotensin-degrading serine proteinase from Vipera lebetina snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siigur, Ene; Tõnismägi, Külli; Trummal, Katrin; Samel, Mari; Vija, Heiki; Aaspõllu, Anu; Rönnholm, Gunilla; Subbi, Juhan; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Siigur, Jüri

    2011-02-01

    Vipera lebetina venom contains different metallo- and serine proteinases that affect coagulation and fibrin(ogen)olysis. A novel serine proteinase from V. Lebetina venom having ChymoTrypsin Like Proteolytic activity (VLCTLP) was purified to homogeneity from the venom using Sephadex G-100sf, DEAE-cellulose, heparin-agarose and FPLC on Superdex 75 chromatographies. VLCTLP is a glycosylated serine proteinase with a molecular mass of 41926 Da. It reacts with N-acetyl-L-tyrosine ethyl ester (ATEE) but not with Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA or Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Leu-pNA. The complete amino acid sequence of the VLCTLP is deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA encoding this protein. The full-length cDNA sequence of the VLCTLP encodes open reading frame of 257 amino acid residues that includes a putative signal peptide of 18 amino acids, a proposed activation peptide of six amino acid residues and serine proteinase of 233 amino acid residues. VLCTLP belongs to the S1 (chymotrypsin) subfamily of proteases. The multiple alignment of its deduced amino acid sequence showed structural similarity with other serine proteases from snake venoms. The protease weakly hydrolyses azocasein, A?-chain and more slowly B?-chain of fibrinogen. VLCTLP does not cleave fibrin and has no gelatinolytic activity. Specificity studies against peptide substrates (angiotensin I and II, oxidized insulin B-chain, glucagon, fibrinogen fragments etc.) showed that VLCTLP catalysed the cleavage of peptide bonds after tyrosine residues. VLCTLP is the only purified and characterized serine proteinase from snake venoms that catalyses ATEE hydrolysis. We detected ATEE-hydrolysing activities also in 9 different Viperidae and Crotalidae venoms. PMID:20950666

  11. Binding of amino acid side chains to preformed cavities: interaction of serine proteinases with turkey ovomucoid third domains with coded and noncoded P1 residues.

    OpenAIRE

    Bigler, T. L.; Lu, W; Park, S.J.; Tashiro, M; Wieczorek, M.; Wynn, R; Laskowski, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the association of serine proteinases with their cognate substrates and inhibitors an important interaction is the fitting of the P1 side chain of the substrate or inhibitor into a preformed cavity of the enzyme called the S1 pocket. In turkey ovomucoid third domain, which is a canonical protein proteinase inhibitor, the P1 residue is Leu18. Here we report the values of equilibrium constants, Ka, for turkey ovomucoid third domain and 13 additional Leu18X variants with six serine proteinase...

  12. Biospecific haemosorbents based on proteinase inhibitor. II. Efficiency of biospecific antiproteinase haemosorbent 'Ovosorb' in complex treatment of experimental generalized purulent peritonitis and acute destructive pancreatitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platé, N A; Kirkovsky, V V; Antiperovich, O F; Nicolaichik, V V; Valueva, T A; Sinilo, S B; Moin, V M; Lobacheva, G A

    1994-03-01

    The biospecific antiproteinase haemosorbent (BAH) 'Ovosorb' containing, in the bulk of polyacryamide gel, the ovomucoid from whites of duck eggs, was used for a complex treatment of the experimental generalized purulent peritonitis and acute destructive pancreatitis in dogs. The efficiency of BAH was manifested in the significant reduction of lethality of the experimental animals, a more rapid liquidation of proteinasaemia, normalization in plasma of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor and protein metabolism. Thus, by eliminating proteinases from circulation, Ovosorb contributes to the cessation of imbalance in the proteinase-inhibitor system and is efficient in the therapy of pathological states related to this imbalance. PMID:8031989

  13. Isolation and characterization of a gene encoding a polyethylene glycol-induced cysteine protease in common wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qing-Wei Zang; Cai-Xiang Wang; Xu-Yan Li; Zhi-Ai Guo; Rui-Lian Jing; Jun Zhao; Xiao-Ping Chang

    2010-09-01

    Plant cysteine protease (CP) genes are induced by abiotic stresses such as drought, yet their functions remain largely unknown. We isolated the full-length cDNA encoding a Triticum aestivum CP gene, designated TaCP, from wheat by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. Sequence analysis revealed that TaCP contains an open reading frame encoding a protein of 362 amino acids, which is 96% identical to barley cysteine protease HvSF42. The TaCP transcript level in wheat seedlings was upregulated during polyethylene glycol (PEG) stress, with a peak appearing around 12 h after treatment. TaCP expression level increased rapidly with NaCl treatment at 48 h. TaCP responded strongly to low temperature (4°C) treatment from 1 h post-treatment and reached a peak of about 40-fold at 72 h. However, it showed only a very slight response to abscisic acid (ABA). More than one copy of TaCP was present in each of the three genomes of hexaploid wheat and its diploid donors. TaCP fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) was located in the plasma membrane of onion epidermis cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaCP showed stronger drought tolerance and higher CP activity under water-stressed conditions than wild-type Arabidopsis plants. The results suggest that TaCP plays a role in tolerance to water deficit.

  14. The Arabidopsis thaliana sulfiredoxin is a plastidic cysteine-sulfinic acid reductase involved in the photooxidative stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Pascal; Bécuwe, Noëlle; Barrault, Marie-Bénédicte; Rumeau, Dominique; Havaux, Michel; Biteau, Benoît; Toledano, Michel B

    2007-02-01

    The 2-cysteine peroxiredoxins (2-Cys-Prxs) are antioxidants that reduce peroxides through a thiol-based mechanism. During catalysis, these ubiquitous enzymes are occasionally inactivated by the substrate-dependent oxidation of the catalytic cysteine to the sulfinic acid (-SO2H) form, and are reactivated by reduction by sulfiredoxin (Srx), an enzyme recently identified in yeast and in mammal cells. In plants, 2-Cys-Prxs constitute the most abundant Prxs and are located in chloroplasts. Here we have characterized the unique Srx gene in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtSrx) from a functional point of view, and analyzed the phenotype of two AtSrx knockout (AtSrx-) mutant lines. AtSrx is a chloroplastic enzyme displaying sulfinic acid reductase activity, as shown by the ability of the recombinant AtSrx to reduce the overoxidized 2-Cys-Prx form in vitro, and by the accumulation of the overoxidized Prx in mutant lines lacking Srx in vivo. Furthermore, AtSrx mutants exhibit an increased tolerance to photooxidative stress generated by high light combined with low temperature. These data establish that, as in yeast and in mammals, plant 2-Cys-Prxs are subject to substrate-mediated inactivation reversed by Srx, and suggest that the 2-Cys-Prx redox status and sulfiredoxin are parts of a signaling mechanism participating in plant responses to oxidative stress. PMID:17217469

  15. A novel potentiometric biosensor for selective L-cysteine determination using L-cysteine-desulfhydrase producing Trichosporon jirovecii yeast cells coupled with sulfide electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichosporon jirovecii yeast cells are used for the first time as a source of L-cysteine desulfhydrase enzyme (EC 4.4.1.1) and incorporated in a biosensor for determining L-cysteine. The cells are grown under cadmium stress conditions to increase the expression level of the enzyme. The intact cells are immobilized on the membrane of a solid-state Ag2S electrode to provide a simple L-cysteine responsive biosensor. Upon immersion of the sensor in L-cysteine containing solutions, L-cysteine undergoes enzymatic hydrolysis into pyruvate, ammonia and sulfide ion. The rate of sulfide ion formation is potentiometrically measured as a function of L-cysteine concentration. Under optimized conditions (phosphate buffer pH 7, temperature 37 ± 1 deg. C and actual weight of immobilized yeast cells 100 mg), a linear relationship between L-cysteine concentration and the initial rate of sulfide liberation (dE/dt) is obtained. The sensor response covers the concentration range of 0.2-150 mg L-1 (1.7-1250 ?mol L-1) L-cysteine. Validation of the assay method according to the quality control/quality assurance standards (precision, accuracy, between-day variability, within-day reproducibility, range of measurements and lower limit of detection) reveals remarkable performance characteristics of the proposed biosensor. The sensor is satisfactorily utilized for determination of L-cysteine in some pharmaceutical formulations. The lower limit of detection is 1 ?mol L-1 and the accuracy and precision of the method are 97.5% and ±1.1%, respectively. Structurally similar sulfur containing compounds such as glutathione, cystine, methionine, and D-cysteine do no interfere

  16. Antioxidant activity of bovine casein hydrolysates produced by Ficus carica L.-derived proteinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Giovanna; O'Keeffe, Martina B; Poyarkov, Alexey; Lomolino, Giovanna; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2014-08-01

    A Ficus carica L. latex proteinase preparation was investigated for its ability to produce antioxidant hydrolysates/peptides from bovine casein (CN). The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) values for NaCN and ?-CN hydrolysates ranged from 0.06 to 0.18, and from 0.51 to 1.19?mol Trolox equivalents/mg freeze-dried sample, respectively. Gel permeation HPLC showed that the ?-CN hydrolysate with a degree of hydrolysis of 21% had 65% of peptide material with a molecular mass <500Da. The RP-UPLC profiles also indicated that ?-CN was substantially hydrolysed during the early stages of hydrolysis. Analysis of the 4h ?-CN hydrolysate by LC-ESI-MS/MS allowed identification of 8 peptide sequences with potential antioxidant properties. PMID:24629973

  17. Protein degradation in Euglena gracilis: Purification and characterization of the major proteinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protolysis in a crude extract of Euglena gracilis was characterized by autolysis and the hydrolysis of 125I-labeled bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA). Both procedures showed similar properties: stimulation by dithiothreitol, inhibition by leupeptin, and the same pH optima. Hydrolysis of 125I-BSA increased with growth stage and with the depletion of nutrient in the medium. The major proteolytic enzyme was purified to near homogeneity from extracts of dark-grown, stationary-phase Euglena gracilis by acid treatment, and by chromatography on CM-cellulose, DEAE-cellulose, Sephadex G-75, and hydroxyapatite using 125I-BSA as substrate. The molecular weight of the proteinase was 30,000 when determined by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and 15,000 when estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The enzyme therefore appears to be composed of two subunits

  18. The effect of proteinases (keratinases) in the pathogenesis of Dermatophyte infection using scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the inter-relationship between the stratum corneum of host and the fungal micro-organisms using scanning electron microscopy for a complete understanding of the host parasite relationship. Material and Methods: Skin surface biopsies were obtained two patients suffering from tinea cruris infection. One patient was infected with trichophyton rubrum and the other with epidermophytom floccosum strains. Results: The scanning electron microphotographs obtained from two patients showed a large number of villi in the infected area. The fungal hyphae were seen to placed intercellularly as well seem to be traversing through the corneocytes in many places. Conclusion: From the results observed in this study it could be suggested that the secretion of proteinases from the fungal hyphae together with the mechanical force of the invading organisms in vivo might be playing part in the invasion of the organisms. (author)

  19. Production and administration to dogs of aerosols of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of aerosol administration of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (human) (A1PI) was assessed. Of three different methods of aerosolizing A1PI that were evaluated, an ultrasonic nebulizer was found to be best suited to the present purpose, producing particles of a size that allowed them to reach the distal air spaces of the lung and that retained specific A1PI anti-elastase activity. Administration of 20 mg/kg of A1PI and 150 microCi of 131-iodine-A1PI to three dogs was accomplished without complications. Gamma camera scans documented a relatively homogenous distribution throughout the lungs. Bronchial lavage fluid that was recovered from the lungs of the dogs six hours after administration contained large amounts of human A1PI and showed a proportional elevation of anti-elastase activity. There was no evidence of acute toxicity

  20. Quantification of the degree of biotinylation of proteins using proteinase K digestion and competition ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispens, Theo; Ooijevaar-de Heer, Pleuni

    2016-03-01

    Quantification of the degree of biotinylation of proteins is useful to achieve and maintain a high degree of consistency of reagents used in research and diagnostic setting. Unfortunately, existing protocols and commercial kits suffer from a number of shortcomings that limit their usefulness. Here, we describe a simple protocol that overcomes the limitations of current assays. A robust competition ELISA was developed that is easy to carry out, uses no specialized equipment other than a standard plate reader for absorbance measurements and only reagents that are commonly available. The protocol uses a proteinase K digestion step of a sample of biotinylated protein to eliminate multivalency issues and sterical hindrance from bulky proteins. Furthermore, the use of an anti-biotin antibody instead of streptavidin results in a convenient range of sensitivity, avoiding million-fold dilutions that may impair precision. The resulting assay typically consumes about 1?gof biotinylated protein. PMID:26795634

  1. Proteinase-activated receptors 1 and 2 exert opposite effects on renal renin release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höcherl, Klaus; Gerl, Melanie; Schweda, Frank

    2011-10-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) 1 to 4 are highly expressed in the kidney and are involved in the regulation of renal hemodynamics and tubular function. Since intravascular infusion of the proteinase thrombin, which activates PARs, has been shown to decrease plasma renin activity in rats, we investigated the effects of the respective PAR subtypes on renin release using the isolated perfused mouse kidney model. Thrombin dose-dependently reduced perfusate flow and inhibited renin secretion rates (RSRs) that had been prestimulated by the ?-adrenoreceptor agonist isoproterenol. The suppression of RSRs was prevented by the selective PAR1 inhibitor SCH79797, and direct activation of PAR1 by TFLLR mimicked the effects of thrombin on RSRs and vascular tone. Moreover, TFLLR suppressed the stimulations of RSRs in response to the loop diuretic bumetanide, to prostaglandin E(2), or to a decrease in renal perfusion pressure but not in response to a reduction in extracellular calcium. The PAR2-activating peptide SLIGRL concentration dependently increased RSR and perfusate flow. The stimulation of RSRs by SLIGRL was markedly attenuated by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, suggesting an NO-dependent mechanism. Activation of PAR4 by AYPGKF did not modulate RSRs or perfusate flow. PAR1 and PAR2 immunoreactivity were detected in the juxtaglomerular region and were colocalized with renin immunoreactivity. Our data provide evidence that PAR1 activation inhibits renal renin secretion and induces renal vasoconstriction, whereas PAR2 activation stimulates renin release and induces vasodilation mainly via the release of NO. PMID:21859963

  2. Role of Candida albicans-Secreted Aspartyl Proteinases (Saps in Severe Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is strongly associated with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC. However, the roles of secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps, an important virulence factor of C. albicans, in the progress of S-ECC are not clear. In our study, the Saps activities were evaluated by the yeast nitrogen base–bovine serum albumi (YNB–BSA agar plate method and by the MTT method with bovine serum albumin (BSA as the substrate. Genotypes of C. albicans and gene expression of Sap1–5 were evaluated. The relationships of Saps activities and genotypes with S-ECC were analyzed. The results showed that enzyme activities of Saps in the S-ECC group were significantly higher than those in the caries free (CF group (p < 0.05. Genotypes A, B and C were detected in the S-ECC group, and genotypes A and C were detected in the CF group. In the genotype A group, Saps activity in the S-ECC group was significantly different from that in the CF group (p < 0.05. The gene expression level of Sap1 in the S-ECC group was significantly higher than that in the CF group (p = 0.001, while Sap4 expression was significantly lower than that in the CF group (p = 0.029. It can be concluded that Sap1–5 are the predominant proteinase genes expressed in C. albicans from dental biofilm and Sap1 may play an important role in the development of S-ECC.

  3. Effects of cysteine protease inhibitors on rabbit cathepsin D maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the effects of cysteine protease inhibitors on cathepsin D intracellular transport, proteolytic processing, and secretion, primary cultures of rabbit cardiac fibroblasts were grown to confluence and exposed to media containing leupeptin, E 64, or chloroquine. Cathepsin D maturation was then evaluated in pulse-chase biosynthetic labeling experiments. None of the three agents affected the charge modification of procathepsin D within the Golgi apparatus. However, all three agents interfered with the subsequent proteolytic processing of procathepsin D isoforms to active cathepsin D. Both leupeptin and E 64 caused the intracellular accumulation of large amounts of a Mr 51,000 processing intermediate. Trace amounts of this intermediate were also detected in chloroquine-treated cells. Combined activity assay and radioimmunoassay of cell lysates indicated that this partially processed form of cathepsin D possessed proteolytic activity. Whereas low medium concentrations of leupeptin (10-100 microM) but not E 64 appeared to stimulate procathepsin D secretion, neither agent appeared to have a major effect on the rate of proenzyme secretion at doses required to inhibit proteolytic maturation (1-10 mM). Furthermore, pretreatment of cells with 10 mM leupeptin appeared only to delay, but not prevent, the intracellular transport of cathepsin D to lysosomes. In contrast, chloroquine increased procathepsin D secretion in a dose-dependent manner, diverting the majority of newly synthesized procathepsin D from the intracellular protease(s) responsible for proteolytic processing. These results suggest that cysteine proteases participate in the proteolytic maturation of procathepsin D during the transport of newly synthesized enzyme to lysosomes, but cysteine protease-mediated proteolytic processing is not required for cathepsin D activation or lysosomal translocation

  4. Teratogenicity of patulin and patulin adducts formed with cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciegler, A; Beckwith, A C; Jackson, L K

    1976-01-01

    The mean lethal dose of patulin for the chicken embryo injected in the air cell before incubation was determined to be 68.7 mug and that for the 4-day-old embryo was 2.35 mug. Both patulin (1 to 2 mug/egg) and the reaction mixture between patulin and cysteine (15 to 150 mug of patulin equivalents) were teratogenic to the chicken embryo. At least two ninhydrin-negative and four ninhydrin-positive products were formed during the latter reaction. Our explanation of the reaction mechanism remains to be elaborated. PMID:1275488

  5. Synergistic Effect of Curcuminoid and S-methyl Cysteine in Regulation of Cholesterol Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K. Adnyana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available its combination with S-methyl cysteine increased the conversion of cholesterol into the feces as much as 3 times higher than the control group. While the S-methyl cysteine alone did not increase the conversion of cholesterol into the feces. We concluded that curcuminoid and S-methyl cysteine have multiple site of actions in lowering cholesterol level in the body. Both also work synergistically to overcome hyperlipidemia.

  6. Cysteine and obesity: consistency of the evidence across epidemiologic, animal and cellular studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Elshorbagy, AK; Kozich, V; Smith, AD; Refsum, H.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The concentrations of several plasma amino acids increase in obesity. Notably, plasma total concentrations of the sulphur amino acid cysteine (tCys) are linearly associated with fat mass in large population studies. Animal and cellular experiments support the concept that cysteine may be obesogenic. Here we review experimental and epidemiologic findings linking cysteine and related compounds with fat regulation and obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: tCys, and to a lesser extent cyst...

  7. [Molecular cloning and analysis of cDNA sequences encoding serine proteinase and Kunitz type inhibitor in venom gland of Vipera nikolskii viper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazanova, A S; Fil'kin, S Iu; Starkov, V G; Utkin, Iu N

    2011-01-01

    Serine proteinases and Kunitz type inhibitors are widely represented in venoms of snakes from different genera. During the study of the venoms from snakes inhabiting Russia we have cloned cDNAs encoding new proteins belonging to these protein families. Thus, a new serine proteinase called nikobin was identified in the venom gland of Vipera nikolskii viper. By amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA sequence, nikobin differs from serine proteinases identified in other snake species. Nikobin amino acid sequence contains 15 unique substitutions. This is the first serine proteinase of viper from Vipera genus for which a complete amino acid sequence established. The cDNA encoding Kunitz type inhibitor was also cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence of inhibitor is homologous to those of other proteins from that snakes of Vipera genus. However there are several unusual amino acid substitutions that might result in the change of biological activity of inhibitor. PMID:21899053

  8. Slime production and proteinase activity of Candida species isolated from blood samples and the comparison of these activities with minimum inhibitory concentration values of antifungal agents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Semiha, Ozkan; Fatma, Kaynak; Ayse, Kalkanci; Ufuk, Abbasoglu; Semra, Kustimur.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Slime and proteinase activity of 54 strains consisting of 19 Candida parapsilosis and 35 C. albicans strains isolated from blood samples were investigated in this study. Ketoconazole, amphothericin B, and fluconazole susceptibility of Candida species were compared with slime production and proteinas [...] e activity of these species. For both Candida species, no correlation was detected between the slime activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the three antifungal agents. For both Candida species no correlation was detected between the proteinase activity and the MIC values of amphothericin B, and fluconazole however, statistically significant difference, was determined between the proteinase activity and MIC values of ketoconazole (p = 0.007). Slime production was determined by using modified Christensen macrotube method and proteinase activity was measured by the method of Staib. Antifungal susceptibility was determined through the guidelines of National Committee for Laboratory Standards (NCCLS M27-A).

  9. Cysteine cathepsin activity suppresses osteoclastogenesis of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgington-Mitchell, Laura E; Rautela, Jai; Duivenvoorden, Hendrika M; Jayatilleke, Krishnath M; van der Linden, Wouter A; Verdoes, Martijn; Bogyo, Matthew; Parker, Belinda S

    2015-09-29

    Cysteine cathepsin proteases contribute to many normal cellular functions, and their aberrant activity within various cell types can contribute to many diseases, including breast cancer. It is now well accepted that cathepsin proteases have numerous cell-specific functions within the tumor microenvironment that function to promote tumor growth and invasion, such that they may be valid targets for anti-metastatic therapeutic approaches. Using activity-based probes, we have examined the activity and expression of cysteine cathepsins in a mouse model of breast cancer metastasis to bone. In mice bearing highly metastatic tumors, we detected abundant cysteine cathepsin expression and activity in myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). These immature immune cells have known metastasis-promoting roles, including immunosuppression and osteoclastogenesis, and we assessed the contribution of cysteine cathepsins to these functions. Blocking cysteine cathepsin activity with multiple small-molecule inhibitors resulted in enhanced differentiation of multinucleated osteoclasts. This highlights a potential role for cysteine cathepsin activity in suppressing the fusion of osteoclast precursor cells. In support of this hypothesis, we found that expression and activity of key cysteine cathepsins were downregulated during MDSC-osteoclast differentiation. Another cysteine protease, legumain, also inhibits osteoclastogenesis, in part through modulation of cathepsin L activity. Together, these data suggest that cysteine protease inhibition is associated with enhanced osteoclastogenesis, a process that has been implicated in bone metastasis. PMID:26308073

  10. Functional analysis of cysteine residues of ECP elicitor proteins of the fungal tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum

    OpenAIRE

    Luderer, R.; Kock, M.J.D., de; Dees, R.H.L.; Wit, P.J.G.M. de; Joosten, M.H.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    A striking feature of all elicitor proteins of Cladosporium fulvum that are specifically recognized by tomato is that they contain an even number of cysteine residues. These cysteine residues are thought to be involved in disulphide bridges. In this study, a mutational analysis of the cysteine residues of ECP1, ECP2 and ECP5 was performed, to examine their role in stability and hypersensitive response-inducing activity of the proteins. We show that not all cysteine residues of the ECPs are cr...

  11. Influence of cysteine doping on photoluminescence intensity from semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnosov, N. V.; Leontiev, V. S.; Linnik, A. S.; Karachevtsev, V. A.

    2015-03-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) from semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes can be applied for detection of cysteine. It is shown that cysteine doping (from 10-8 to 10-3 M) into aqueous suspension of nanotubes with adsorbed DNA leads to increase of PL intensity. The PL intensity was enhanced by 27% at 10-3 M cysteine concentration in suspension. Most likely, the PL intensity increases due to the passivation of p-defects on the nanotube by the cysteine containing reactive thiol group. The effect of doping with other amino acids without this group (methionine, serine, aspartic acid, lysine, proline) on the PL intensity is essentially weaker.

  12. Chicken scFvs with an Artificial Cysteine for Site-Directed Conjugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soohyun; Kim, Hyori; Chung, Junho

    2016-01-01

    For the site-directed conjugation of chemicals and radioisotopes to the chicken-derived single-chain variable fragment (scFv), we investigated amino acid residues replaceable with cysteine. By replacing each amino acid of the 157 chicken variable region framework residues (FR, 82 residues on VH and 75 on VL) with cysteine, 157 artificial cysteine mutants were generated and characterized. At least 27 residues on VL and 37 on VH could be replaced with cysteine while retaining the binding activity of the original scFv. We prepared three VL (L5, L6 and L7) and two VH (H13 and H16) mutants as scFv-Ckappa fusion proteins and showed that PEG-conjugation to the sulfhydryl group of the artificial cysteine was achievable in all five mutants. Because the charge around the cysteine residue affects the in vivo stability of thiol-maleimide conjugation, we prepared 16 charge-variant artificial cysteine mutants by replacing the flanking residues of H13 with charged amino acids and determined that the binding activity was not affected in any of the mutants except one. We prepared four charge-variant H13 artificial cysteine mutants (RCK, DCE, ECD and ECE) as scFv-Ckappa fusion proteins and confirmed that the reactivity of the sulfhydryl group on cysteine is active and their binding activity is retained after the conjugation process. PMID:26764487

  13. Role of proteinase in the formation of inhibitory levels of hematin by group A streptococcus cultures on blood-containing media.

    OpenAIRE

    Hynes, W L; Tagg, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    Group A streptococci were tested for proteinase production and for the possible relationship of this production to the generation of bacteriocinlike inhibitor activity. Of 126 strains tested, 83% were positive for proteinase, and a similar distribution was found among strains isolated in association with rheumatic fever (89%) and nephritis (94%) and from uncomplicated acute infections (78%). Although application of an inhibitor production (P) typing scheme demonstrated a variety of P types, a...

  14. The Secreted Aspartyl Proteinases Sap1 and Sap2 Cause Tissue Damage in an In Vitro Model of Vaginal Candidiasis Based on Reconstituted Human Vaginal Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Schaller, Martin; Bein, Matthias; Korting, Hans C; Baur, Stefan; Hamm, Gerald; Monod, Michel; Beinhauer, Sabine; Hube, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps) contribute to the ability of Candida albicans to cause mucosal and disseminated infections. A model of vaginal candidiasis based on reconstituted human vaginal epithelium (RHVE) was used to study the expression and role of these C. albicans proteinases during infection and tissue damage of vaginal epithelium. Colonization of the RHVE by C. albicans SC5314 did not cause any visible epithelial damage 6 h after inoculation, although expression of SAP2, SAP9, ...

  15. Anti-collagenase, anti-elastase and anti-oxidant activities of extracts from 21 plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hili Pauline; Thring Tamsyn SA; Naughton Declan P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Owing to their roles in tissue remodelling in health and disease, several studies have reported investigations on plant extracts as inhibitors of proteinases and as anti-oxidants. Methods The anti-ageing and anti-oxidant properties of 23 plant extracts (from 21 plant species) were assessed as anti-elastase and anti-collagenase activities and in selected anti-oxidant assays along with phenolic content. Results Anti-elastase activities were observed for nine of the extracts ...

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the cysteine protease ervatamin A from Ervatamia coronaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervatamin A is a papain-family cysteine protease with high activity and stability. It has been isolated and purified from the latex of the medicinal flowering plant E. coronaria and crystallized by the vapour-diffusion technique. Crystals diffracted to 2.1 Å and the structure was solved by molecular replacement. The ervatamins are highly stable cysteine proteases that are present in the latex of the medicinal plant Ervatamia coronaria and belong to the papain family, members of which share similar amino-acid sequences and also a similar fold comprising two domains. Ervatamin A from this family, a highly active protease compared with others from the same source, has been purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography and crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method. Needle-shaped crystals of ervatamin A diffract to 2.1 Å resolution and belong to space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 31.10, b = 144.17, c = 108.61 Å. The solvent content using an ervatamin A molecular weight of 27.6 kDa is 43.9%, with a VM value of 2.19 Å3 Da?1 assuming one protein molecule in the asymmetric unit. A molecular-replacement solution has been found using the structure of ervatamin C as a search model

  17. Copper oxide assisted cysteine hierarchical structures for immunosensor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Chandra Mouli [Biomedical Instrumentation Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Sumana, Gajjala, E-mail: sumanagajjala@gmail.com [Biomedical Instrumentation Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Tiwari, Ida [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2014-09-08

    The present work describes the promising electrochemical immunosensing strategy based on copper (II) assisted hierarchical cysteine structures (CuCys) varying from star to flower like morphology. The CuCys having average size of 10??m have been synthesised using L-Cysteine as initial precursor in presence of copper oxide under environmentally friendly conditions in aqueous medium. To delineate the synthesis mechanism, detailed structural investigations have been carried out using characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The electrochemical behaviour of self-assembled CuCys on gold electrode shows surface controlled electrode reaction with an apparent electron transfer rate constant of 3.38?×?10{sup ?4?}cm s{sup ?1}. This innovative platform has been utilized to fabricate an immunosensor by covalently immobilizing monoclonal antibodies specific for Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli). Under the optimal conditions, the fabricated immunosensor is found to be sensitive and specific for the detection of E. coli with a detection limit of 10?cfu/ml.

  18. Effect of supplementation with a cysteine donor on muscular performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lands, L C; Grey, V L; Smountas, A A

    1999-10-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to muscular fatigue. GSH is the major intracellular antioxidant, the biosynthesis of which is dependent on cysteine availability. We hypothesized that supplementation with a whey-based cysteine donor [Immunocal (HMS90)] designed to augment intracellular GSH would enhance performance. Twenty healthy young adults (10 men, 10 women) were studied presupplementation and 3 mo postsupplementation with either Immunocal (20 g/day) or casein placebo. Muscular performance was assessed by whole leg isokinetic cycle testing, measuring peak power and 30-s work capacity. Lymphocyte GSH was used as a marker of tissue GSH. There were no baseline differences (age, ht, wt, %ideal wt, peak power, 30-s work capacity). Follow-up data on 18 subjects (9 Immunocal, 9 placebo) were analyzed. Both peak power [13 +/- 3.5 (SE) %, P Immunocal group, with no change (2 +/- 9.0 and 1 +/- 9.3%) in the placebo group. Lymphocyte GSH also increased significantly in the Immunocal group (35.5 +/- 11.04%, P < 0.02), with no change in the placebo group (-0.9 +/- 9.6%). This is the first study to demonstrate that prolonged supplementation with a product designed to augment antioxidant defenses resulted in improved volitional performance. PMID:10517767

  19. Assignment of the vibrational spectrum of L-cysteine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Stewart F., E-mail: stewart.parker@stfc.ac.uk

    2013-10-16

    Highlights: • Periodic density functional theory of the polymorphic forms of L-cysteine. • A weak dihydrogen bond in the gauche conformer of the monoclinic form was found. • Comparison of observed and calculated neutron spectra shows good agreement. - Abstract: Ab initio calculations of the complete unit cell of L-cysteine for both the orthorhombic and monoclinic polymorphs have been carried out. The results suggest the presence of a previously unrecognised, weak dihydrogen bond of a novel type: S–H···N–H in the gauche conformer of the monoclinic polymorph. Comparison of the calculated transition energies to those observed in the infrared, Raman and inelastic neutron scattering spectra of the orthorhombic form shows excellent agreement, as does the simulated INS spectra to that experimentally measured. The assignments are in general agreement with those in the literature but differ in detail. The strong intermolecular interactions present make the use of periodic-DFT essential in order to correctly assign the spectra. The need for, and the complementarity of, all three types of vibrational spectra: infrared, Raman and INS is clearly demonstrated.

  20. Utilização da fração semipurificada da proteinase do Trypanosoma cruzi no imunodiagnóstico da doença de Chagas The use of a semipurified fraction of Trypanosoma cruzi proteinase in immunodiagnosis of Chagas' disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ajax Mercês Atta; Angela Maria de Carvalho Pontes; Maria Luiza de Souza; Daria Repka; Rangel, Humberto A.

    1984-01-01

    Foram sensibilizadas hemácias humanas 0 Rh negativo com a fração semipurificada (Fp) da proteinase do Trypanosoma cruzi, e testadas quanto a antigenicidade com soros de pacientes portadores de tripanossomíase americana crônica e de outras doenças parasitárias não relacionadas. Reações de hemaglutinação positivas foram observadas com os soros de pacientes chagásicos e com alguns soros de indivíduos portadores de leishmaniose cutaneo-mucosa. Não foram observadas reações cruzadas com os soros de...

  1. Water molecules participate in proteinase-inhibitor interactions: crystal structures of Leu18, Ala18, and Gly18 variants of turkey ovomucoid inhibitor third domain complexed with Streptomyces griseus proteinase B.

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, K.; Lu, W; Anderson, S; Laskowski, M.; M. N. James

    1995-01-01

    Crystal structures of the complexes of Streptomyces griseus proteinase B (SGPB) with three P1 variants of turkey ovomucoid inhibitor third domain (OMTKY3), Leu18, Ala18, and Gly18, have been determined and refined to high resolution. Comparisons among these structures and of each with native, uncomplexed SGPB reveal that each complex features a unique solvent structure in the S1 binding pocket. The number and relative positions of water molecules bound in the S1 binding pocket vary according ...

  2. Serpin genes AtSRP2 and AtSRP3 are required for normal growth sensitivity to a DNA alkylating agent in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Atwell Brian J; Ahn Joon-Woo; Roberts Thomas H

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The complex responses of plants to DNA damage are incompletely understood and the role of members of the serpin protein family has not been investigated. Serpins are functionally diverse but structurally conserved proteins found in all three domains of life. In animals, most serpins have regulatory functions through potent, irreversible inhibition of specific serine or cysteine proteinases via a unique suicide-substrate mechanism. Plant serpins are also potent proteinase i...

  3. Proteinases from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum moench seeds: Purification and properties of the 47 kDa enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timotijevi? Gordana S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartic proteinases from buckwheat seeds are analyzed. Three forms of 47 kDa, 40 kDa and 28 kDa, were purified from mature buckwheat seeds, while two forms of 47 kDa and 28 kDa were detected in developing buckwheat seeds using pepstatin A affinity chromatography. A form of 47 kDa was selectively precipitated from other forms by ammonium sulfate precipitation. This enzyme resembles the chymosin-like pattern of proteolytic activity, as it was shown using BSA and k-casein as substrates, clarifying its ability for milk-clotting. The 47 kDa aspartic proteinase form is localized in the membrane fraction. .

  4. Synthesis of stable isotope-labelled analogs of the cysteine and N-acetylcysteine conjugates of tetrachloroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable isotope-labelled analogs of the cysteine and N-acetylcysteine conjugates of tetrachloroethylene have been prepared. S-(1,2,2-Trichlorovinyl)-DL-cysteine-3,3-2H2 was synthesized in a rapid, one-step procedure from tetra-chloroethylene and DL-cysteine-3,3-2H2. Unlabelled S-(1,2,2-trichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine was prepared in a similar fashion. The corresponding 13C-N-acetyl-S-(1,2,2-trichlorovinyl)cysteine compounds were then prepared via acetylation of the deuterated and unlabelled cysteine conjugates with 13C-acetyl chloride. (Author)

  5. Emission of hydrogen sulfide by leaf tissue in response to L-cysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaf discs and detached leaves exposed to L-cysteine emitted a volatile sulfur compound which was proven by gas chromatography to be H2S. This phenomenon was demonstrated in all nine species tested (Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita pepo, Nicotiana tabacum, Coleus blumei, Beta vulgaris, Phaseolus vulgaris, Medicago sativa, Hordeum vulgare, and Gossypium hirsutum). The emission of volatile sulfur by cucumber leaves occurred in the dark at a similar rate to that in the light. The emission of leaf discs reached the maximal rate, more than 40 picomoles per minute per square centimeter, 2 to 4 hours after starting exposure to L-cysteine; then it decreased. In the case of detached leaves, the maximum occurred 5 to 10 h after starting exposure. The average emission rate of H2S during the first 4 hours from leaf discs of cucurbits in response to 10 millimolar L-cysteine, was usually more than 40 picomoles per minute per square centimeter, i.e. 0.24 micromoles per hour per square decimeter. Leaf discs exposed to 1 millimolar L-cysteine emitted only 2% as much as did the discs exposed to 10 millimolar L-cysteine. The emission from leaf discs and from detached leaves lasted for at least 5 and 15 hours, respectively. However, several hours after the maximal emission, injury of the leaves, manifested as chlorosis, was evident. H2S emission was a specific consequence of exposure to L-cysteine; neither D-cysteine nor L-cysteine elicited H2S emission. Aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of pyridoxal phosphate dependent enzymes, inhibited the emission. In a cell free system from cucumber leaves, H2S formation and its release occurred in response to L-cysteine. Feeding experiments with [35S]t-cysteine showed that most of the sulfur in H2S was derived from sulfur in the L-cysteine supplied

  6. Emission of hydrogen sulfide by leaf tissue in response to L-cysteine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiya, J.; Schmidt, A.; Wilson, L.G.; Filner, P.

    1982-08-01

    Leaf discs and detached leaves exposed to L-cysteine emitted a volatile sulfur compound which was proven by gas chromatography to be H/sub 2/S. This phenomenon was demonstrated in all nine species tested (Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita pepo, Nicotiana tabacum, Coleus blumei, Beta vulgaris, Phaseolus vulgaris, Medicago sativa, Hordeum vulgare, and Gossypium hirsutum). The emission of volatile sulfur by cucumber leaves occurred in the dark at a similar rate to that in the light. The emission of leaf discs reached the maximal rate, more than 40 picomoles per minute per square centimeter, 2 to 4 hours after starting exposure to L-cysteine; then it decreased. In the case of detached leaves, the maximum occurred 5 to 10 h after starting exposure. The average emission rate of H/sub 2/S during the first 4 hours from leaf discs of cucurbits in response to 10 millimolar L-cysteine, was usually more than 40 picomoles per minute per square centimeter, i.e. 0.24 micromoles per hour per square decimeter. Leaf discs exposed to 1 millimolar L-cysteine emitted only 2% as much as did the discs exposed to 10 millimolar L-cysteine. The emission from leaf discs and from detached leaves lasted for at least 5 and 15 hours, respectively. However, several hours after the maximal emission, injury of the leaves, manifested as chlorosis, was evident. H/sub 2/S emission was a specific consequence of exposure to L-cysteine; neither D-cysteine nor L-cysteine elicited H/sub 2/S emission. Aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of pyridoxal phosphate dependent enzymes, inhibited the emission. In a cell free system from cucumber leaves, H/sub 2/S formation and its release occurred in response to L-cysteine. Feeding experiments with (/sup 35/S)t-cysteine showed that most of the sulfur in H/sub 2/S was derived from sulfur in the L-cysteine supplied.

  7. A novel cysteine-rich antifungal peptide ToAMP4 from Taraxacum officinale Wigg. flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafieva, A A; Rogozhin, Eugene A; Andreev, Yaroslav A; Odintsova, T I; Kozlov, S A; Grishin, Eugene V; Egorov, Tsezi A

    2013-09-01

    A novel peptide named ToAMP4 was isolated from Taraxacum officinale Wigg. flowers by a combination of acetic acid extraction and different types of chromatography: affinity, size-exclusion, and RP-HPLC. The amino acid sequence of ToAMP4 was determined by automated Edman degradation. The peptide is basic, consists of 41 amino acids, and incorporates three disulphide bonds. Due to the unusual cysteine spacing pattern, ToAMP4 does not belong to any known plant AMP family, but classifies together with two other antimicrobial peptides ToAMP1 and ToAMP2 previously isolated from the dandelion flowers. To study the biological activity of ToAMP4, it was successfully produced in a prokaryotic expression system as a fusion protein with thioredoxin. The recombinant peptide was shown to be identical to the native ToAMP4 by chromatographic behavior, molecular mass, and N-terminal amino acid sequence. The peptide displays broad-spectrum antifungal activity against important phytopathogens. Two ToAMP4-mediated inhibition strategies depending on the fungus were demonstrated. The results obtained add to our knowledge on the structural and functional diversity of AMPs in plants. PMID:23771034

  8. Production of proteinase A by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a cell-recycling fermentation system: Experiments and computer simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, S.; Biedermann, K.; Emborg, Claus

    1996-01-01

    Overproduction of proteinase A by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated by cultivations in a cell-recycling bioreactor. Membrane filtration was used to separate cells from the broth. Recycling ratios and dilution rates were varied and the effect on enzyme production was studied both experimentally and by computer simulations. Experiments and simulations showed that cell mass and product concentration were enhanced by high ratios of recycling. Additional simulations showed that th...

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae can secrete Sapp1p proteinase of Candida parapsilosis but cannot use it for efficient nitrogen acquisition.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinterová, Zuzana; Bauerová, Václava; Dostál, Ji?í; Sychrová, Hana; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga; Pichová, Iva

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 51, ?. 3 (2013), s. 336-344. ISSN 1225-8873 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA310/09/1945; GA ?R GAP302/12/1151 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : Candida parapsilosis * Saccharomyces cerevisiae * secreted aspartic proteinase * SAPP1 * nitrogen metabolism Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; EE - Microbiology, Virology (FGU-C) Impact factor: 1.529, year: 2013

  10. Rational design of renin inhibitors: x-ray studies of aspartic proteinases complexed with transition-state analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blundell, T.L.; Cooper, J.; Foundling, S.I.; Jones, D.M.; Atrash, B.; Szelke, M.

    1987-09-08

    The acceleration of the rates of specific reactions by enzymes is attributed to the stabilization of the transition state at the catalytic center. As a consequence, inhibitors that partially mimic the transition state bind more tightly than the equivalent substrate(s), and such transition-state analogues are being designed and tested for clinical use. Renin, an aspartic proteinase produced in the juxtaglomerula cells of the kidneys, catalyzes removal of the decapeptide angiotensin I (AI) from the N-terminus of angiotensinogen. The conversion of AI to the octapeptide angiotensin II (AII) is catalyzed by a carboxydipeptidase, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Renin is a highly specific enzyme: it cleaves only the 10-11 bond in angiotensinogen. The minimum sequence of substrate still hydrolyzed by renin at a measurable rate is the 6-13 octapeptide. However, this cleavage is sufficiently slow to enable the octapeptide to act as a weak competitive inhibitor of the enzyme in vitro, with an IC/sub 50/ of 0.2 mM. The crystal structures of several aspartic proteinases have been solved by X-ray diffraction, revealing a common bilobal structure with a large cleft between the N- and C-terminal domains. The two essential carboxylates of Asp-32 and Asp-215 are within hydrogen-bonding distance and are approximately coplanar due to the restraints of a hydrogen-bonding network involving residues of the two highly conserved loops that contain the two essential aspartates. Modeling studies based on the homology of renin with other aspartic proteinases have shown that renins may assume tertiary structures that are similar to those of other aspartic proteinases.

  11. Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor as alternative culture medium substrates for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis AMT-3

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Pires do Nascimento; Nelson Alves Junior; Rosalie Reed Rodrigues Coelho

    2011-01-01

    Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor or yeast extract were used as the sole organic forms for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis in submerged fermentation. The influence of the C and N concentrations, as well as the incubation periods, were assessed. Eight proteolytic bands were detected through gelatin-gel-electrophoresis in the various extracts obtained from the different media and after different incubation periods, with apparent molecular masses of 20, 35, 43, 50, 70...

  12. Proteinases in Excretory-Secretory Products of Toxocara canis Second-Stage Larvae: Zymography and Modeling Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Ernesto González-Páez; Fernando Alba-Hurtado; Carlos Gerardo García-Tovar; Raúl Argüello-García

    2014-01-01

    Components released in excretory-secretory products of Toxocara canis larvae (TES) include phosphatidylethanolamine-binding proteins (TES26), mucins (TES120, MUC2-5), and C-type lectins (TES32, TES70) and their biochemical, immunological, and diagnostic properties have been extensively studied albeit proteinase activities towards physiological substrates are almost unknown. Proteolytic activities in TES samples were first analyzed by gel electrophoresis with gelatin as substrate. Major activi...

  13. Conformational flexibility in the active sites of aspartyl proteinases revealed by a pepstatin fragment binding to penicillopepsin.

    OpenAIRE

    M. N. James; Sielecki, A; Salituro, F; Rich, D H; Hofmann, T.

    1982-01-01

    Crystals of the molecular complex between the esterified tripeptide fragment of pepstatin and the aspartyl proteinase penicillopepsin are isomorphous with crystals of native penicillopepsin. The difference electron-density map at 1.8-A resolution, computed by using the amplitude differences and refined phases of reflections from the crystal of native penicillopepsin, unambiguously showed the binding mode of isovaleryl-Val-Val-StaOEt, where StaOEt is the ethyl ester of statine [(4S,3S)-4-amino...

  14. In vitro angiogenesis on the human amniotic membrane: requirement for basic fibroblast growth factor-induced proteinases

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    The role of basic fibroblast growth factor-(bFGF) induced proteinases in basement membrane (BM) invasion by bovine capillary endothelial (BCE) cells was studied using a quantitative in vitro assay previously described (Mignatti et al., 1986). 125I-iododeoxyuridine-labeled BCE cells were grown for 72 h on the human amnion BM, and cell invasion was determined by measuring the radioactivity associated with the tissue after removal of the noninvasive cell layer. BCE cells were noninvasive under n...

  15. Elimination of hydrogen sulphide and ? substitution in cystein, catalyzed by the cysteine-lyase of hens yolk-sac and yolk (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yolk of incubated hen's eggs contains a pyridoxal phosphate activated enzyme, free of iron, copper, magnesium and calcium. This enzyme activates the ?-carbon atom of cysteine. Its reactivity is demonstrated by the ease with which this ?-carbon fixes various sulfur containing substances in which the sulfur has reducing properties: inorganic sulfide, sulfide or cysteine itself. In the absence of substances able to react with the ?-carbon atom, the active complex, consisting of the enzyme and the aminated tri-carbon chain, is hydrolysed to pyruvic acid and ammonia. The liberation of hydrogen sulfide thus appears to be the consequence either of the substitution of the ?-carbon atom of cysteine or of the decomposition of the complex which this aminoacid forms with the enzyme studied. The latter seems therefore to possess an activity which differs from the activity of the desulfhydrases as yet known. We suggest to call this enzyme cystein-lyase. (authors)

  16. Differential expression of the putative Kex2 processed and secreted aspartic proteinase gene family of Cryphonectria parasitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob-Wilk, Debora; Moretti, Marino; Turina, Massimo; Kazmierczak, Pam; Van Alfen, Neal K

    2012-03-01

    Kex2-silenced strains of Cryphonectria parasitica, the ascomycete causal agent of chestnut blight, show a significant reduction in virulence, reduced sexual and asexual sporulation and reductions in mating and fertility. Due to this and the known involvement of Kex2 in the processing of important proproteins in other systems, we searched the whole C. parasitica genome for putative Kex2 substrates. Out of 1299 open reading frames (ORFs) predicted to be secreted, 222 ORFs were identified as potential Kex2 substrates by this screen. Within the putative substrates we identified cell wall modifying proteins, putative proteinases, lipases, esterases, and oxidoreductases. This in silico screen also uncovered a family of nine secreted aspartic proteinases (SAPs) of C. parasitica. Northern blot analyses of this gene family showed differential expression when exposed to chestnut wood and Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1). Due to the reduction in fungal virulence known to be caused upon hypoviral infection of C. parasitica, the differential gene expression observed, and the known involvement of SAPs in virulence in other systems, we conducted deletion analyses of four of these proteinases, representing different expression patterns. Deletion of each of the four SAPs did not affect growth rates, sporulation or virulence, suggesting that none of the considered SAPs is essential for the full development or virulence of C. parasitica under the conditions tested. PMID:22385619

  17. A relationship between proteinase activity and clinical parameters in the treatment of periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailhot, J M; Potempa, J; Stein, S H; Travis, J; Sterrett, J D; Hanes, P J; Russell, C M

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of a biochemical assay which measures proteolytic enzyme activity in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and to relate this enzyme activity to clinical parameters traditionally utilized for periodontitis detection. A clinical trial was conducted on 8 periodontitis subjects with > or =4 sites exhibiting a loss of attachment of > or =5 mm and probing depths of > or =5 mm with bleeding on probing. On each subject, a plaque index was performed, followed by GCF sampling at those sites which exhibited a loss of attachment and probing depths. GCF was analyzed for activity against benzoyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide in the presence (BAPNA w/gly-gly) and the absence (BAPNA w/o gly-gly) of glycyl-glycine and against MeOSuc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Val-pNA and Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA for neutrophil serine proteinases activity (elastase and cathepsin G, respectively). Subsequently, a gingival index was performed, attachment levels and probing depths were recorded using a constant force probe with bleeding on probing being noted. A split-mouth design was employed and half mouths were randomly assigned to the following treatment groups: group A, half of the mouth received scaling/root planing and polishing: group B, half of the mouth received no treatment (control). Subjects were treated, then instructed on toothbrushing and interdental cleaning. After 4 weeks, subjects returned to receive a plaque index; GCF sampling, gingival index, attachment levels, probing depths and bleeding on probing as described above. Using a paired Student t-test, the findings suggest that BAPNA w/gly-gly was significantly less in treatment sites than in non-treated control sites (p=0.05). No such correlation was found for other activities, including neutrophil serine proteinases which were shown to occur in GCF in free, proteolytically active forms. In addition, significant treatment effects were detected for probing depths (p= 0.03) which reduced by 1.3 mm and attachment levels (p=0.02) which gained 0.7 mm. The reduction of P. gingivalis from treated periodontitis sites as detected by a significant decrease in BAPNA w/ gly-gly may prove to be a valuable marker for periodontal disease activity. PMID:9696259

  18. Proteinase-activated receptor 4 stimulation-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in alveolar epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araki Hiromasa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs; PAR1–4 that can be activated by serine proteinases such as thrombin and neutrophil catepsin G are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of various pulmonary diseases including fibrosis. Among these PARs, especially PAR4, a newly identified subtype, is highly expressed in the lung. Here, we examined whether PAR4 stimulation plays a role in the formation of fibrotic response in the lung, through alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT which contributes to the increase in myofibroblast population. Methods EMT was assessed by measuring the changes in each specific cell markers, E-cadherin for epithelial cell, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA for myofibroblast, using primary cultured mouse alveolar epithelial cells and human lung carcinoma-derived alveolar epithelial cell line (A549 cells. Results Stimulation of PAR with thrombin (1 U/ml or a synthetic PAR4 agonist peptide (AYPGKF-NH2, 100 ?M for 72 h induced morphological changes from cobblestone-like structure to elongated shape in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells and A549 cells. In immunocytochemical analyses of these cells, such PAR4 stimulation decreased E-cadherin-like immunoreactivity and increased ?-SMA-like immunoreactivity, as observed with a typical EMT-inducer, tumor growth factor-? (TGF-?. Western blot analyses of PAR4-stimulated A549 cells also showed similar changes in expression of these EMT-related marker proteins. Such PAR4-mediated changes were attenuated by inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR kinase and Src. PAR4-mediated morphological changes in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells were reduced in the presence of these inhibitors. PAR4 stimulation increased tyrosine phosphorylated EGFR or tyrosine phosphorylated Src level in A549 cells, and the former response being inhibited by Src inhibitor. Conclusion PAR4 stimulation of alveolar epithelial cells induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT as monitored by cell shapes, and epithelial or myofibroblast marker at least partly through EGFR transactivation via receptor-linked Src activation.

  19. Resolution of oxidative stress by thioredoxin reductase: Cysteine versus selenocysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Cunniff

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin reductase (TR catalyzes the reduction of thioredoxin (TRX, which in turn reduces mammalian typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (PRXs 1–4, thiol peroxidases implicated in redox homeostasis and cell signaling. Typical 2-Cys PRXs are inactivated by hyperoxidation of the peroxidatic cysteine to cysteine-sulfinic acid, and regenerated in a two-step process involving retro-reduction by sulfiredoxin (SRX and reduction by TRX. Here transient exposure to menadione and glucose oxidase was used to examine the dynamics of oxidative inactivation and reactivation of PRXs in mouse C10 cells expressing various isoforms of TR, including wild type cytoplasmic TR1 (Sec-TR1 and mitochondrial TR2 (Sec-TR2 that encode selenocysteine, as well as mutants of TR1 and TR2 in which the selenocysteine codon was changed to encode cysteine (Cys-TR1 or Cys-TR2. In C10 cells endogenous TR activity was insensitive to levels of hydrogen peroxide that hyperoxidize PRXs. Expression of Sec-TR1 increased TR activity, reduced the basal cytoplasmic redox state, and increased the rate of reduction of a redox-responsive cytoplasmic GFP probe (roGFP, but did not influence either the rate of inactivation or the rate of retro-reduction of PRXs. In comparison to roGFP, which was reduced within minutes once oxidants were removed reduction of 2-Cys PRXs occurred over many hours. Expression of wild type Sec-TR1 or Sec-TR2, but not Cys-TR1 or TR2, increased the rate of reduction of PRXs and improved cell survival after menadione exposure. These results indicate that expression levels of TR do not reduce the severity of initial oxidative insults, but rather govern the rate of reduction of cellular factors required for cell viability. Because Sec-TR is completely insensitive to cytotoxic levels of hydrogen peroxide, we suggest TR functions at the top of a redox pyramid that governs the oxidation state of peroxiredoxins and other protein factors, thereby dictating a hierarchy of phenotypic responses to oxidative insults.

  20. Molecular cloning of the cDNA and gene for an elastinolytic aspartic proteinase from Aspergillus fumigatus and evidence of its secretion by the fungus during invasion of the host lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J.D.; Kolattukudy, P E

    1995-01-01

    Hydrolysis of structural proteins in the lung by extracellular proteinases secreted by Aspergillus fumigatus is thought to play a significant role in invasive aspergillosis. This fungus was found previously to secrete an elastinolytic serine proteinase and a metalloproteinase. We report that A. fumigatus also secretes an aspartic proteinase (aspergillopepsin F) that can catalyze hydrolysis of the major structural proteins of basement membrane, elastin, collagen, and laminin. The pH optimum fo...

  1. Cysteine as a non toxic corrosion inhibitor for copper alloys in conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravgaard, Mari; van Lanschot, Jettie

    2012-01-01

    studies of colour changes in the corrosion products. The results obtained in this article demonstrate that cysteine could be a non-toxic alternative to BTA. Cysteine performed as well as BTA on pre-corroded coupons with bronze disease in high humidity and showed acceptable results during testing for...

  2. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine proteases: heterologous expression, purification and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    During germination of barley seeds, mobilization of protein is essential and cysteine proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme and is activated through reduction of the active...

  3. Loss of the nodule-specific cysteine rich peptide, NCR169, abolishes symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the Medicago truncatula dnf7 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Beatrix; Domonkos, Ágota; Kereszt, Attila; Sz?cs, Attila; Ábrahám, Edit; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Bóka, Károly; Chen, Yuhui; Chen, Rujin; Murray, Jeremy D; Udvardi, Michael K; Kondorosi, Éva; Kaló, Péter

    2015-12-01

    Host compatible rhizobia induce the formation of legume root nodules, symbiotic organs within which intracellular bacteria are present in plant-derived membrane compartments termed symbiosomes. In Medicago truncatula nodules, the Sinorhizobium microsymbionts undergo an irreversible differentiation process leading to the development of elongated polyploid noncultivable nitrogen fixing bacteroids that convert atmospheric dinitrogen into ammonia. This terminal differentiation is directed by the host plant and involves hundreds of nodule specific cysteine-rich peptides (NCRs). Except for certain in vitro activities of cationic peptides, the functional roles of individual NCR peptides in planta are not known. In this study, we demonstrate that the inability of M. truncatula dnf7 mutants to fix nitrogen is due to inactivation of a single NCR peptide, NCR169. In the absence of NCR169, bacterial differentiation was impaired and was associated with early senescence of the symbiotic cells. Introduction of the NCR169 gene into the dnf7-2/NCR169 deletion mutant restored symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Replacement of any of the cysteine residues in the NCR169 peptide with serine rendered it incapable of complementation, demonstrating an absolute requirement for all cysteines in planta. NCR169 was induced in the cell layers in which bacteroid elongation was most pronounced, and high expression persisted throughout the nitrogen-fixing nodule zone. Our results provide evidence for an essential role of NCR169 in the differentiation and persistence of nitrogen fixing bacteroids in M. truncatula. PMID:26401023

  4. Production of hydrogen sulfide from D-cysteine and its therapeutic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NorihiroShibuya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows that H2S has physiological functions in various tissues and organs. It includes regulation of neuronal activity, vascular tension, a release of insulin, and protection of the heart, kidney and brain from ischemic insult. H2S is produced by enzymes from L-cysteine; cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS, cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST along with cysteine aminotransferase (CAT. We recently discovered an additional pathway for the production of H2S from D-cysteine. D-Amino acid oxidase (DAO provides 3-mercaptopyruvate (3MP for 3MST to produce H2S. D-Cysteine protects cerebellar neurons from oxidative stress and attenuates ischemia-reperfusion injury caused in the kidney more effectively than L-cysteine. This review focuses on a novel pathway for the production of H2S and its therapeutic application especially to the renal diseases.

  5. Intramolecular synergistic effect of glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine against copper corrosion in hydrochloric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Daquan, E-mail: zhdq@sh163.net [Department of Environmental Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Xie Bin; Gao Lixin; Cai Qirui [Department of Environmental Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Joo, Hyung Goun; Lee, Kang Yong [Stress Analysis and Failure Design Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-31

    The corrosion protection of copper by glutamic acid, cysteine, glycine and their derivative (glutathione) in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid solution has been studied by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The inhibition efficiency of the organic inhibitors on copper corrosion increases in the order: glutathione > cysteine > cysteine + glutamic acid + glycine > glutamic acid > glycine. Maximum inhibition efficiency for cysteine reaches about 92.9% at 15 mM concentration level. The glutathione can give 96.4% inhibition efficiency at a concentration of 10 mM. The molecular structure parameters were obtained by PM3 (Parametric Method 3) semi-empirical calculation. The intramolecular synergistic effect of glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine moieties in glutathione is attributed to the lower energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (E{sub LUMO}) level and to the excess hetero-atom adsorption centers and the bigger coverage on the copper surface.

  6. Replication of murine coronavirus requires multiple cysteines in the endodomain of spike protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jinhua; Lv, Jun; Wang, Yuyan; Gao, Shuang; Yao, Qianqian; Qu, Di; Ye, Rong, E-mail: yerong24@fudan.edu.cn

    2012-06-05

    A conserved cysteine-rich motif located between the transmembrane domain and the endodomain is essential for membrane fusion and assembly of coronavirus spike (S) protein. Here, we proved that three cysteines within the motif, but not dependent on position, are minimally required for the survival of the recombinant mouse hepatitis virus. When the carboxy termini with these mutated motifs of S proteins were respectively introduced into a heterogeneous protein, both incorporation into lipid rafts and S-palmitoylation of these recombinant proteins showed a similar quantity requirement to cysteine residues. Meanwhile, the redistribution of these proteins on cellular surface indicated that the absence of the positively charged rather than cysteine residues in the motif might lead the dramatic reduction in syncytial formation of some mutants with the deleted motifs. These results suggest that multiple cysteine as well as charged residues concurrently improves the membrane-associated functions of S protein in viral replication and cytopathogenesis.

  7. Replication of murine coronavirus requires multiple cysteines in the endodomain of spike protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conserved cysteine-rich motif located between the transmembrane domain and the endodomain is essential for membrane fusion and assembly of coronavirus spike (S) protein. Here, we proved that three cysteines within the motif, but not dependent on position, are minimally required for the survival of the recombinant mouse hepatitis virus. When the carboxy termini with these mutated motifs of S proteins were respectively introduced into a heterogeneous protein, both incorporation into lipid rafts and S-palmitoylation of these recombinant proteins showed a similar quantity requirement to cysteine residues. Meanwhile, the redistribution of these proteins on cellular surface indicated that the absence of the positively charged rather than cysteine residues in the motif might lead the dramatic reduction in syncytial formation of some mutants with the deleted motifs. These results suggest that multiple cysteine as well as charged residues concurrently improves the membrane-associated functions of S protein in viral replication and cytopathogenesis.

  8. The role of lysosomal cysteine proteases in crustacean immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FL Garcia-Carreño

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the long course of evolution and under the selective pressure exerted by pathogens and parasites, animals have selectively fixed a number of defense mechanisms against the constant attack of intruders. The immune response represents a key component to optimize the biological fitness of individuals. Two decades ago, prevention and control of diseases in crustacean aquaculture systems were considered priorities in most shrimp-producing countries, but knowledge was scarce and various pathogens have severely affected aquaculture development around the world. Scientific contributions have improved our understanding of the crustacean immune response. Several studies confirm the central role played by proteases in the immune response of animals, and the cooperative interaction of these enzymes in a wide variety of organisms is well known. This review summarizes the current information regarding the role of cysteine proteases in the immune system of Crustacea and points to aspects that are needed to provide a better integration of our knowledge.

  9. NMR analysis of the interaction of picornaviral proteinases Lb and 2A with their substrate eukaryotic initiation factor 4GII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumayr, Martina; Fedosyuk, Sofiya; Ruzicska, Katharina; Sousa-Blin, Carla; Kontaxis, Georg; Skern, Tim

    2015-12-01

    Messenger RNA is recruited to the eukaryotic ribosome by a complex including the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E (the cap-binding protein), the scaffold protein eIF4G and the RNA helicase eIF4A. To shut-off host-cell protein synthesis, eIF4G is cleaved during picornaviral infection by a virally encoded proteinase; the structural basis of this reaction and its stimulation by eIF4E is unclear. We have structurally and biochemically investigated the interaction of purified foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) leader proteinase (Lb(pro) ), human rhinovirus 2 (HRV2) 2A proteinase (2A(pro) ) and coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4) 2A(pro) with purified eIF4GII, eIF4E and the eIF4GII/eIF4E complex. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), we completed (13) C/(15) N sequential backbone assignment of human eIF4GII residues 551-745 and examined their binding to murine eIF4E. eIF4GII551-745 is intrinsically unstructured and remains so when bound to eIF4E. NMR and biophysical techniques for determining stoichiometry and binding constants revealed that the papain-like Lb(pro) only forms a stable complex with eIF4GII551-745 in the presence of eIF4E, with KD values in the low nanomolar range; Lb(pro) contacts both eIF4GII and eIF4E. Furthermore, the unrelated chymotrypsin-like 2A(pro) from HRV2 and CVB4 also build a stable complex with eIF4GII/eIF4E, but with KD values in the low micromolar range. The HRV2 enzyme also forms a stable complex with eIF4E; however, none of the proteinases tested complex stably with eIF4GII alone. Thus, these three picornaviral proteinases have independently evolved to establish distinct triangular heterotrimeric protein complexes that may actively target ribosomes involved in mRNA recruitment to ensure efficient host cell shut-off. PMID:26384734

  10. Enantiospecific adsorption of cysteine on a chiral Au34 cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesús Pelayo, José; Valencia, Israel; Díaz, Gabriela; López-Lozano, Xóchitl; Garzón, Ignacio L.

    2015-12-01

    The interaction of biological molecules like chiral amino acids with chiral metal clusters is becoming an interesting and active field of research because of its potential impact in, for example, chiral molecular recognition phenomena. In particular, the enantiospecific adsorption (EA) of cysteine (Cys) on a chiral Au55 cluster was theoretically predicted a few years ago. In this work, we present theoretical results, based on density functional theory, of the EA of non-zwitterionic cysteine interacting with the C3-Au34 chiral cluster, which has been experimentally detected in gas phase, using trapped ion electron diffraction. Our results show that, indeed, the adsorption energy of the amino acid depends on which enantiomers participate in the formation Cys-Au34 chiral complex. EA was obtained in the adsorption modes where both the thiol, and the thiol-amino functional groups of Cys are adsorbed on low-coordinated sites of the metal cluster surface. Similarly to what was obtained for the Cys-Au55 chiral complex, in the present work, it is found that the EA is originated from the different strength and location of the bond between the COOH functional group and surface Au atoms of the Au34 chiral cluster. Calculations of the vibrational spectrum for the different Cys-Au34 diastereomeric complexes predict the existence of a vibro-enantiospecific effect, indicating that the vibrational frequencies of the adsorbed amino acid depend on its handedness. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic Cluster Collisions (7th International Symposium)", edited by G. Delgado Barrio, A. Solov'Yov, P. Villarreal, R. Prosmiti.

  11. Aspartic acid-promoted highly selective and sensitive colorimetric sensing of cysteine in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qin; Deng, Jingjing; Wang, Dalei; Yang, Lifen; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2012-11-01

    Direct selective determination of cysteine in the cerebral system is of great importance because of the crucial roles of cysteine in physiological and pathological processes. In this study, we report a sensitive and selective colorimetric assay for cysteine in the rat brain with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) as the signal readout. Initially, Au-NPs synthesized with citrate as the stabilizer are red in color and exhibit absorption at 520 nm. The addition of an aqueous solution (20 ?L) of cysteine or aspartic acid alone to a 200 ?L Au-NP dispersion causes no aggregation, while the addition of an aqueous solution of cysteine into a Au-NP dispersion containing aspartic acid (1.8 mM) causes the aggregation of Au-NPs and thus results in the color change of the colloid from wine red to blue. These changes are ascribed to the ion pair interaction between aspartic acid and cysteine on the interface between Au-NPs and solution. The concentration of cysteine can be visualized with the naked eye and determined by UV-vis spectroscopy. The signal output shows a linear relationship for cysteine within the concentration range from 0.166 to 1.67 ?M with a detection limit of 100 nM. The assay demonstrated here is highly selective and is free from the interference of other natural amino acids and other thiol-containing species as well as the species commonly existing in the brain such as lactate, ascorbic acid, and glucose. The basal dialysate level of cysteine in the microdialysate from the striatum of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats is determined to be around 9.6 ± 2.1 ?M. The method demonstrated here is facile but reliable and durable and is envisaged to be applicable to understanding the chemical essence involved in physiological and pathological events associated with cysteine. PMID:23025476

  12. Subcellular distribution of calcium-activated neutral proteinase (CANP) in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, A.; Yoshida, Y.; Singh, I.; Banik, N.; Hogan, E.

    1987-05-01

    In pursuing the association of calcium-activated neutral proteinase (CANP) with purified myelin, its subcellular distribution in myelin and other organelles of rat brain has been determined quantitatively. Subcellular fractions were prepared according to Eichberg et al. CANP was assayed using UC-azocasein as substrate in 50 mM Tris acetate buffer, pH 7.4, 0.1% Triton X-100 and 5 mM US -mercaptoethanol, with and without CaS . TCA-soluble radioactivity was that activity over an EGTA control. Triton X-100 increased CANP activitiy in homogenate and myelin by ten fold. CANP activity was present primarily in the particulate fractions P1 (nuclear), P2 (mitochondrial) and P3 (microsomal). On subfractionation of these fractions, over 50% of the activity was recovered in the myelin-rich fractions (P1A, P2A, P3A). The distribution of activity was P2A > P1 A > P3 A. The cytosolic fraction contained 30% of the homogenate activity. Further purification of myelin of P2A increased the specific activity by more than 2.5-fold over homogenate. The same myelin had the highest proportion and specific activity of CNPase. The purity of each subcellular fraction was tested by monitoring the activity of suitable marker enzymes. Their results indicate that in CNS CANP is present as membrane bound and soluble forms and the bulk of CANP is intimately associated with the myelin membrane.

  13. Subcellular distribution of calcium-activated neutral proteinase (CANP) in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In pursuing the association of calcium-activated neutral proteinase (CANP) with purified myelin, its subcellular distribution in myelin and other organelles of rat brain has been determined quantitatively. Subcellular fractions were prepared according to Eichberg et al. CANP was assayed using 14C-azocasein as substrate in 50 mM Tris acetate buffer, pH 7.4, 0.1% Triton X-100 and 5 mM ?-mercaptoethanol, with and without Ca2+. TCA-soluble radioactivity was that activity over an EGTA control. Triton X-100 increased CANP activitiy in homogenate and myelin by ten fold. CANP activity was present primarily in the particulate fractions P1 (nuclear), P2 (mitochondrial) and P3 (microsomal). On subfractionation of these fractions, over 50% of the activity was recovered in the myelin-rich fractions (P1A, P2A, P3A). The distribution of activity was P2A > P1 A > P3 A. The cytosolic fraction contained 30% of the homogenate activity. Further purification of myelin of P2A increased the specific activity by more than 2.5-fold over homogenate. The same myelin had the highest proportion and specific activity of CNPase. The purity of each subcellular fraction was tested by monitoring the activity of suitable marker enzymes. Their results indicate that in CNS CANP is present as membrane bound and soluble forms and the bulk of CANP is intimately associated with the myelin membrane

  14. Foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase: structural insights into the mechanism of intermolecular cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, Jutta; Grishkovskaya, Irina; Cencic, Regina; Juliano, Luiz; Juliano, Maria A; Skern, Tim

    2014-11-01

    Translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA initiates at one of two start codons leading to the synthesis of two forms of leader proteinase L(pro) (Lab(pro) and Lb(pro)). These forms free themselves from the viral polyprotein by intra- and intermolecular self-processing and subsequently cleave the cellular eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4 G. During infection, Lb(pro) removes six residues from its own C-terminus, generating sLb(pro). We present the structure of sLb(pro) bound to the inhibitor E64-R-P-NH2, illustrating how sLb(pro) can cleave between Lys/Gly and Gly/Arg pairs. In intermolecular cleavage on polyprotein substrates, Lb(pro) was unaffected by P1 or P1' substitutions and processed a substrate containing nine eIF4GI cleavage site residues whereas sLb(pro) failed to cleave the eIF4GI containing substrate and cleaved appreciably more slowly on mutated substrates. Introduction of 70 eIF4GI residues bearing the Lb(pro) binding site restored cleavage. These data imply that Lb(pro) and sLb(pro) may have different functions in infected cells. PMID:25240326

  15. Suppression of pancreatitis-related allodynia/hyperalgesia by proteinase-activated receptor-2 in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Atsufumi; Matsunami, Maho; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Ishiki, Tsuyoshi; Fukushima, Osamu; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Kawao, Naoyuki; Minami, Takeshi; Kanke, Toru; Saito, Naohiro

    2006-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2), a receptor activated by trypsin and tryptase, is abundantly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract including the C-fiber terminal, and might play a role in processing of visceral pain. In the present study, we examined and characterized the roles of PAR2 in pancreatitis-related abdominal hyperalgesia/allodynia in mice. Caerulein, administered i.p. once, caused a small increase in abdominal sensitivity to stimulation with von Frey hairs, without causing pancreatitis, in PAR2-knockout (KO) mice, but not wild-type (WT) mice. Caerulein, given hourly six times in total, caused more profound abdominal hyperalgesia/allodynia in PAR2-KO mice, as compared with WT mice, although no significant differences were detected in the severity of pancreatitis between the KO and WT animals. The PAR2-activating peptide, 2-furoyl-LIGRL-NH2, coadministered repeatedly with caerulein six times in total, abolished the caerulein-evoked abdominal hyperalgesia/allodynia in WT, but not PAR2-KO, mice. Repeated doses of 2-furoyl-LIGRL-NH2 moderately attenuated the severity of caerulein-induced pancreatitis in WT animals. Our data from experiments using PAR2-KO mice provide evidence that PAR2 functions to attenuate pancreatitis-related abdominal hyperalgesia/allodynia without affecting pancreatitis itself, although the PAR2AP applied exogenously is not only antinociceptive but also anti-inflammatory. PMID:16520745

  16. Proton NMR spectroscopy of the active site histidine of ?-lytic proteinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A histidine auxotroph of Lysobacter enzymogenes (ATC 29847) was grown on media containing either isotopically labeled [90% 13Cesup(epsilon)]L- or [90%15Nsup(delta), 90% 15Nsup(epsilon)]D,L-histidine. The enzyme, ?-lytic proteinase (EC 3.4.21.12), was isolated from these cultures as well as from cultures of wild-type bacteria grown on unlabeled medium. 1H NMR spectra at 360 MHz were obtained with all 3 purified enzymes. Presence of the adjacent 15N labels broadened the histidine Csup(epsilon)-H peak by about a factor of 2 by unresolved scalar coupling. Presence of a direcly bonded 13C led to disappearance of the histidine Csup(epsilon)-H peak by a combination of scalar coupling and dipolar broadening. These effects should be useful for the cross-assignment of 1H NMR peaks of 13C and 15N enriched proteins. The 13C and 15N labeled proteins were found to undergo the reversible a-b conformational transition which changes the pKsub(a)' of His57 from 6.5-5.9. (Auth.)

  17. Computational study of some benzamidine-based inhibitors of thrombin-like snake venom proteinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Elsa S.; Nascimento, Marco A. C.; Ramos, Maria João

    Pit viper venoms contain a number of serine proteinases that, despite their observed coagulant thrombin-like action in vitro, exhibit a paradoxical benign defibrinogenating (anticoagulant) action in vivo, with clinical applications in preventing thrombi and improved blood circulation. Considering that several benzamidine-based inhibitors, some highly selective to thrombin, also inhibit the enzymatic activity of such venombins, the modeling of their enzyme-inhibitor interactions could provide valuable information on the topological factors that determine the divergences in activity. The first step, and the object of the present study, was to derive the necessary set of parameters, consistent with the CHARMM force field, and to perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on a few selected representatives of the inhibitors in question under physiological conditions. Bonding and van der Waals parameters were derived by analogy to similar ones in the existing force field. Net atomic charges were obtained with a restrained fitting to the molecular electrostatic potential generated at B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. The parameters were refined to reproduce the available experimental geometries and crystal data, and the MD simulations of the free inhibitors in aqueous solution at 298 K provided an insightful description of their available conformational space.

  18. Conformational changes of ovine ?-1-proteinase inhibitor: The influence of heparin binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Gowda, Lalitha R.

    2008-11-01

    ?-1-Proteinase inhibitor (?-1-PI), the archetypal serpin causes rapid, irreversible stoichiometric inhibition of redundant circulating serine proteases and is associated with emphysema, inflammatory response and maintenance of protease-inhibitor equilibrium in vascular and peri-vascular spaces. A homogenous preparation of heparin octasaccharide binds to ovine and human ?-1-PI and enhances their protease inhibitory activity phenomenally. Size-exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering experiments reveal that ovine ?-1-PI undergoes a decrease in the Stokes' radius upon heparin binding. A strong binding; characterizes this ?-1-PI-heparin interaction as revealed by the binding constant ( K?) 1.98 ± 0.2 × 10 -6 M and 2.1 ± 0.2 × 10 -6 M determined by fluorescence spectroscopy and equilibrium dialysis, respectively. The stoichiometry of heparin binding to ovine ?-1-PI was 1.1 ± 0.2:1. The Stern-Volmer constants ( Ksv) for heparin activated ovine and human ?-1-PI were found to be 5.13 × 10 -6 M and 5.67 × 10 -6 M, respectively, significantly higher than the native inhibitors. FTIR and CD spectroscopy project the systematic structural reorientations that ?-1-PI undergoes upon heparin binding characterized by a decrease in ?-helical content and a concomitant increase in ?-turn and random coil elements. It is likely that these conformational changes result in the movement of the ?-1-PI reactive site loop into an extended structure that is better poised to combat the cognate protease and accelerate the inhibition.

  19. Pulmonary penetration of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor administered parenterally to dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the penetration of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (A1Pl) into the lungs of healthy dogs, 83 mg/kg of active A1Pl was administered intravenously over 30 min followed by a bolus of 131I-A1Pl. Animals were lavaged 2 to 72 h after infusion, sequential gamma camera scans were acquired, and urine was analyzed for the excretion of desmosine. After a distribution phase, infused A1Pl left the bloodstream with a half-life of 103 +/- 24 h. Analysis of plasma antiprotease activity demonstrated preservation of function of the infused A1Pl. Lavage fluid A1Pl concentration and activity were significantly increased 24 h after infusion. Gamma camera scans demonstrated that lung, liver, and spleen acquired 131I-A1Pl similarly; radioactivities per gram of tissue of these organs were similar at autopsy. Excretion of desmosine did not decrease from a baseline of 157 +/- 59 nmol/24 h after A1Pl infusion, indicating no effect of A1Pl infusion on background elastolysis. These data suggest that intravenous administration of A1Pl can raise lung antiproteinase levels within 24 h despite the absence of preferential uptake by the lung of the infused protein

  20. Purification and partial characterization of ?1-proteinase inhibitor in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parambeth, Joseph Cyrus; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2015-04-01

    Fecal alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (?1-PI) concentration has been to diagnose enteric protein loss in dogs and cats. Chronic lymphocytic enteritis is commonly seen in the marmoset (Callithrix jaccus) and is characterized by hypoalbuminemia. As a prelude to immunoassay development for detecting enteric protein loss, marmoset serum ?1-PI was purified using immunoaffinity chromatography and ceramic hydroxyapatite chromatography. Partial characterization was performed by reducing gel electrophoresis and enzyme inhibitory assays. Protein identity was confirmed with peptide mass fingerprinting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Molecular mass, relative molecular mass, and isoelectric point for marmoset ?1-PI were 54?kDa, 51,677, and 4.8-5.4, respectively. Trypsin, chymotrypsin, and elastase inhibitory activity were observed. N-terminal amino acid sequence for marmoset ?1-PI was EDPQGDAAQKMDTSHH. In conclusion, marmoset ?1-PI was successfully purified from serum with an overall yield of 12% using a rapid and efficient method. Purified marmoset ?1-PI has characteristics similar to those of ?1-PI reported for other species. PMID:25745866

  1. Rapid turnover of antimicrobial-type cysteine-rich protein genes in closely related Oryza genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenton, Matthew R; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Wang, Zi-Xuan; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Nagata, Toshifumi; Feng, Qi; Han, Bin; Kurata, Nori

    2015-10-01

    Defensive and reproductive protein genes undergo rapid evolution. Small, cysteine-rich secreted peptides (CRPs) act as antimicrobial agents and function in plant intercellular signaling and are over-represented among reproductively expressed proteins. Because of their roles in defense, reproduction and development and their presence in multigene families, CRP variation can have major consequences for plant phenotypic and functional diversification. We surveyed the CRP genes of six closely related Oryza genomes comprising Oryza sativa ssp. japonica and ssp. indica, Oryza glaberrima and three accessions of Oryza rufipogon to observe patterns of evolution in these gene families and the effects of variation on their gene expression. These Oryza genomes, like other plant genomes, have accumulated large reservoirs of CRP sequences, comprising 26 groups totaling between 676 and 843 genes, in contrast to antimicrobial CRPs in animal genomes. Despite the close evolutionary relationships between the genomes, we observed rapid changes in number and structure among CRP gene families. Many CRP sequences are in gene clusters generated by local duplications, have undergone rapid turnover and are more likely to be silent or specifically expressed. By contrast, conserved CRP genes are more likely to be highly and broadly expressed. Variable CRP genes created by repeated duplication, gene modification and inactivation can gain new functions and expression patterns in newly evolved gene copies. For the CRP proteins, the process of gain/loss by deletion or duplication at gene clusters seems to be an important mechanism in evolution of the gene families, which also contributes to their expression evolution. PMID:25842177

  2. "Comparison of Adult Somatic and Cysteine Proteinas Antigens of Fasciola gigantica in Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Serodiagnosis of Human Fasciolosis"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MB Rokni

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica and F.gigantica is one of the major public health problems in the world and in Iran. Considering that stool examination for Fasciola eggs is not a sensitive method and only 25% of infected patients pass the eggs in the faeces , and immunodiagnosis methods are more applicable for this purpose, the present study was conducted to compare the somatic (S and cysteine proteinase (CP antigens of F.gigantica in IgG-ELISA to diagnose human fasciolosis. This has been the first report on this case so far in Iran. Serum samples obtained from 178 individuals collected during the fasciolosis outbreak in 1999 in the Gilan province, northern Iran, that were coprologically positive for fasciolosis, were analyzed by IgG-ELISA for total antibody responses against (S and CP antigens from Fasciola gigantica. The cut-off points for (S and CP were 0.38 and 0.33, respectively. All cases that showed clinical manifestations of fasciolosis, were also seropositive using both (S and CP antigens whereas all 25 non-infected controls were seronegative. Therefore, the sensitivity of the test was 100% for both antigens. On the other hand the specificity of (S and CP antigens were calculated as 96.4% and 98.1%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of the test regarding (S antigen were 97.8% and 100%, whereas these values as for CP antigen were 98.9% and 100% correspondingly. Two individuals with hydatidosis and two with toxocariasis had antibodies against (S antigen whereas concerning CP antigen, one individual with hydatidosis and another with toxocariasis showed cross reactivity against it. We have demonstrated that altogether CP antigen provide a more conclusive diagnosis as possessing lower cut-off and enabling better to discriminate between seronegative and seropositive subpopulations.This study may be useful to implement a reliable test to diagnose human fasciolosis and for seroepidmiological objectives.

  3. Philibertain g I, the most basic cysteine endopeptidase purified from the latex of Philibertia gilliesii Hook. et Arn. (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeiros, C; Torres, M J; Trejo, S A; Esteves, J L; Natalucci, C L; López, L M I

    2005-11-01

    A new papain-like cysteine peptidase isolated from latex of Philibertia gilliesii Hook. et Arn., Apocynaceae (formerly Asclepiadaceae) has been purified and characterized. The enzyme, named philibertain g I, is the most basic component present in latex extracts and was purified by acetone fractionation followed by cation exchange chromatography (SP-Sepharose HR) using FPLC system. Homogeneity was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectroscopy (MS). Molecular mass of the enzyme was 23,530 Da (MALDI-TOF MS), its isoelectric point was >10.25, and maximum proteolytic activity (casein) was achieved at pH 7-8. The new protease was inhibited by E-64 a cysteine peptidases inhibitor. Km was 0.15 mM, using PFLNA as substrate. The N-terminal sequence of philibertain g I (LPASVDWRKEGAVLPIRHQGQCG) was compared with those of twenty plant proteases. Philibertain g I showed the higher degree of identity (73%) with caricain, one of the Carica papaya endopepetidases. PMID:16328737

  4. The mechanism of cysteine detection in biological media by means of vanadium oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, A. G. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Departamento Academico de Fisica (Brazil); Barison, A. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Quimica (Brazil); Oliveira, V. S. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Fisica (Brazil); Foti, L.; Krieger, M. A. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Instituto de Biologia Molecular do Parana (Brazil); Dhalia, R.; Viana, I. F. T. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhaes (Brazil); Schreiner, W. H., E-mail: wido@fisica.ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Fisica (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    We report on the interaction of vanadate nanoparticles, produced using the laser ablation in liquids synthesis, with cysteine in biological molecules. Cysteine is a very important amino acid present in most proteins, but also because cysteine and the tripeptide glutathione are the main antioxidant molecules in our body system. Detailed UV-Vis absorption spectra and dynamic light scattering measurements were done to investigate the detection of cysteine in large biological molecules. The intervalence band of the optical absorption spectra shows capability for quantitative cysteine sensing in the {mu}M range in biological macromolecules. Tests included cytoplasmic repetitive antigen and flagellar repetitive antigen proteins of the Trypanosoma cruzi protozoa, as well as the capsid p24 proteins from Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 and type 2. Detailed NMR measurements for hydrogen, carbon, and vanadium nuclei show that cysteine in contact with the vanadate looses hydrogen of the sulphydryl side chain, while the vanadate is reduced. The subsequent detachment of two deprotonated molecules to form cystine and the slow return to the vanadate complete the oxidation-reduction cycle. Therefore, the vanadate acts as a charge exchanging catalyst on cysteine to form cystine. The NMR results also indicate that the nanoparticles are not formed by the common orthorhombic V{sub 2}O{sub 5} form.

  5. The mechanism of cysteine detection in biological media by means of vanadium oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the interaction of vanadate nanoparticles, produced using the laser ablation in liquids synthesis, with cysteine in biological molecules. Cysteine is a very important amino acid present in most proteins, but also because cysteine and the tripeptide glutathione are the main antioxidant molecules in our body system. Detailed UV–Vis absorption spectra and dynamic light scattering measurements were done to investigate the detection of cysteine in large biological molecules. The intervalence band of the optical absorption spectra shows capability for quantitative cysteine sensing in the μM range in biological macromolecules. Tests included cytoplasmic repetitive antigen and flagellar repetitive antigen proteins of the Trypanosoma cruzi protozoa, as well as the capsid p24 proteins from Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 and type 2. Detailed NMR measurements for hydrogen, carbon, and vanadium nuclei show that cysteine in contact with the vanadate looses hydrogen of the sulphydryl side chain, while the vanadate is reduced. The subsequent detachment of two deprotonated molecules to form cystine and the slow return to the vanadate complete the oxidation–reduction cycle. Therefore, the vanadate acts as a charge exchanging catalyst on cysteine to form cystine. The NMR results also indicate that the nanoparticles are not formed by the common orthorhombic V2O5 form.

  6. Hierarchical effect behind the supramolecular chirality of silver(I)-cysteine coordination polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, Rosalba; Di Mauro, Alessandro; D'Urso, Alessandro; Messina, Gabriele C; Compagnini, Giuseppe; Villari, Valentina; Micali, Norberto; Purrello, Roberto; Fragalà, Maria Elena

    2015-04-01

    Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that easily coordinates to soft metal ions and grafts to noble metal surfaces. Recently, chiroptical activity of Ag(+)/cysteine coordination polymers has been widely studied, while, on the other hand, the appearance of a plasmon-enhanced circular dichroic signal (PECD) at the plasmonic spectral region (? > 400 nm) has been observed for AgNPs capped with chiral sulfur-containing amino acids. These two events are both potentially exploited for sensing applications. However, the presence of Ag(+) ions in AgNP colloidal solution deals with the competition of cysteine grafting at the metal NP surface and/or metal ion coordination. Herein we demonstrate that the chiroptical activity observed by adding cysteine to AgNP colloids prepared by pulsed laser ablation in liquids (PLAL) is mainly related to the formation of CD-active Ag(+)/cysteine supramolecular polymers. The strict correlation between supramolecular chirality and hierarchical effects, driven by different chemical environments experienced by cysteine when different titration modalities are used, is pivotal to validate cysteine as a fast and reliable probe to characterize the surface oxidation of AgNPs prepared by pulsed laser ablation in liquids by varying the laser wavelengths. PMID:25781213

  7. Deletion of various carboxy-terminal domains of Lactococcus lactis SK11 proteinase: effects on activity, specificity, and stability of the truncated enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinenberg, P G; De Vos, W M; Siezen, R J

    2000-07-01

    The Lactococcus lactis SK11 cell envelope proteinase is an extracellular, multidomain protein of nearly 2,000 residues consisting of an N-terminal serine protease domain, followed by various other domains of largely unknown function. Using a strategy of deletion mutagenesis, we have analyzed the function of several C-terminal domains of the SK11 proteinase which are absent in cell envelope proteinases of other lactic acid bacteria. The various deletion mutants were functionally expressed in L. lactis and analyzed for enzyme stability, activity, (auto)processing, and specificity toward several substrates. C-terminal deletions of first the cell envelope W (wall) and AN (anchor) domains and then the H (helix) domain leads to fully active, secreted proteinases of unaltered specificity. Gradually increasing the C-terminal deletion into the so-called B domain leads to increasing instability and autoproteolysis and progressively less proteolytic activity. However, the mutant with the largest deletion (838 residues) from the C terminus and lacking the entire B domain still retains proteolytic activity. All truncated enzymes show unaltered proteolytic specificity toward various substrates. This suggests that the main role played by these domains is providing stability or protection from autoproteolysis (B domain), spacing away from the cell (H domain), and anchoring to the cell envelope (W and AN domains). In addition, this study allowed us to more precisely map the main C-terminal autoprocessing site of the SK11 proteinase and the epitope for binding of group IV monoclonal antibodies. PMID:10877779

  8. Glutenase and collagenase activities of wheat cysteine protease Triticain-?: feasibility for enzymatic therapy assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvateeva, Lyudmila V; Gorokhovets, Neonila V; Makarov, Vladimir A; Serebryakova, Marina V; Solovyev, Andrey G; Morozov, Sergey Yu; Reddy, V Prakash; Zernii, Evgeni Yu; Zamyatnin, Andrey A; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2015-05-01

    Insufficient and/or improper protein degradation is associated with the development of various human pathologies. Enzymatic therapy with proteolytic enzymes aimed to improve insufficient proteolytic activity was suggested as a treatment of protease deficiency-induced disorders. Since in many cases human degradome is incapable of degrading the entire target protein(s), other organisms can be used as a source of proteases exhibiting activities distinct from human enzymes, and plants are perspective candidates for this source. In this study recombinant wheat cysteine protease Triticain-? was shown to refold in vitro into an autocatalytically activated proteolytic enzyme possessing glutenase and collagenase activities at acidic (or close to neutral) pH levels at the temperature of human body. Mass-spectrometry analysis of the products of Triticain-?-catalyzed gluten hydrolysis revealed multiple cleavage sites within the sequences of gliadin toxic peptides, in particular, in the major toxic 33-mer ?-gliadin-derived peptide initiating inflammatory responses to gluten in celiac disease (CD) patients. Triticain-? was found to be relatively stable in the conditions simulating stomach environment. We conclude that Triticain-? can be exploited as a basic compound for development of (i) pharmaceuticals for oral administration aimed at release of the active enzyme into the gastric lumen for CD treatment, and (ii) topically active pharmaceuticals for wound debridement applications. PMID:25765959

  9. Antifungal defensins and their role in plant defense

    OpenAIRE

    PATRICIABARBOSAPELEGRINI; ArianeLacerda; Maria FatimaGrossi-de-Sa

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 90s lots of cationic plant, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been studied. However, Broekaert et al. (1995) only coined the term “plant defensin,” after comparison of a new class of plant antifungal peptides with known insect defensins. From there, many plant defensins have been reported and studies on this class of peptides encompass its activity toward microorganisms and molecular features of the mechanism of action against bacteria and fungi. Plant...

  10. Chikungunya nsP2 protease is not a papain-like cysteine protease and the catalytic dyad cysteine is interchangeable with a proximal serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisawang, Chonticha; Saitornuang, Sawanan; Sillapee, Pornpan; Ubol, Sukathida; Smith, Duncan R; Ketterman, Albert J

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is the pathogenic alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever in humans. In the last decade millions of cases have been reported around the world from Africa to Asia to the Americas. The alphavirus nsP2 protein is multifunctional and is considered to be pivotal to viral replication, as the nsP2 protease activity is critical for proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein during replication. Classically the alphavirus nsP2 protease is thought to be papain-like with the enzyme reaction proceeding through a cysteine/histidine catalytic dyad. We performed structure-function studies on the chikungunya nsP2 protease and show that the enzyme is not papain-like. Characterization of the catalytic dyad cysteine residue enabled us to identify a nearby serine that is catalytically interchangeable with the dyad cysteine residue. The enzyme retains activity upon alanine replacement of either residue but a replacement of both cysteine and serine residues results in no detectable activity. Protein dynamics appears to allow the use of either the cysteine or the serine residue in catalysis. This switchable dyad residue has not been previously reported for alphavirus nsP2 proteases and would have a major impact on the nsP2 protease as an anti-viral target. PMID:26597768

  11. Preparation, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis to 1.5 Å resolution of rat cysteine dioxygenase, a mononuclear iron enzyme responsible for cysteine thiol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Chad R. [Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-8001 (United States); Hao, Quan [MacCHESS at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-8001 (United States); Stipanuk, Martha H., E-mail: mhs6@cornell.edu [Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-8001 (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Recombinant rat cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) has been expressed, purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 1.5 Å resolution. Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO; EC 1.13.11.20) is an ?23 kDa non-heme iron metalloenzyme that is responsible for the oxidation of cysteine by O{sub 2}, yielding cysteinesulfinate. CDO catalyzes the first step in the conversion of cysteine to taurine, as well as the first step in the catabolism of cysteine to pyruvate plus sulfate. Recombinant rat CDO was heterologously expressed, purified and crystallized. The protein was expressed as a fusion protein bearing a polyhistidine tag to facilitate purification, a thioredoxin tag to improve solubility and a factor Xa cleavage site to permit removal of the entire N-terminus, leaving only the 200 amino acids inherent to the native protein. A multi-step purification scheme was used to achieve >95% purity of CDO. The optimal CDO crystals diffracted to 1.5 Å resolution and belonged to space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 57.55, c = 123.06 Å, ? = ? = ? = 90°. CDO shows little homology to any other proteins; therefore, the structure of the enzyme will be determined by ab initio phasing using a selenomethionyl derivative.

  12. SENSORY ANALYSIS OF A MODEL SYSTEM USING 5'-IMP AND CYSTEINE AT DIFFERENT pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADRUGA Marta Suely

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory analysis was used to get an overall flavour description of a reaction mixtures containing 5'-IMP and Cysteine. Ribose/cysteine systems were used as reference systems. Results from triangle and aroma profiling show a clear correlation between the terms used and the volatile analysis described in literature for these model systems. For instance reactions at pH 3.0 and 4.5 for 5'-IMP/cysteine systems, which were described as "meaty" and "boiled meat" by panellists, presented, in the literature, the higher number of "meaty" compounds in volatile analysis (1, 7, 8, 20 .

  13. Interaction of cysteine and copper ions on the surface of iron: EIS, polarization and XPS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The current study demonstrates a comprehensive study for Cysteine + Cu(II) ions as an efficient inhibitor as demonstrated by EIS, XPS and potentiodynamic polarization measurements, in addition to traditional weight loss measurements. ? The novelty of the current work originates from the combined use of an eco-friendly compound (i.e., cysteine) with a minute amount of copper ions (in the micro molar range) as a corrosion inhibitor for low carbon steel in acidic medium. To this end, cysteine shows only moderate inhibition ca. 60% for iron which jumps up to more than 95% in the presence of micro molar range of Cu(II) ions. ? Cysteine-Cu(II) blends are found superior to benzotriazole (BTAH)-Cu(II) blends in terms of their long-term stability in addition to the avoidance of the use of the well-reported highly toxic BTAH. - Abstract: This study addresses the enhancing effect of copper ions on the inhibition efficiency (IE) of cysteine (an eco-friendly compound) against the corrosion of iron in 0.5 M sulphuric acid. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data revealed a significant increase in the polarization resistance (Rp) of the iron/solution interface in the presence of cysteine and Cu(II) ions instead of cysteine alone. That is, IE of 95% is obtained in the presence of 5 mM cysteine and 25 ?M Cu(II) ions, compared to 66% in absence of Cu(II) ions. Moreover, electrochemical polarization measurements indicate that cysteine and Cu(II) ions blends act as mixed-type inhibitors for the corrosion of iron. The formation of Cu(I)-cysteinate complex and/or cysteine SAM at Cu atop the iron surface (as evident from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)) blocks the underlying iron surface and imparts a pronounced protection against its corrosion. IE of cysteine-Cu(II) blend remains effectively unchanged with immersion time indicating its high stability in the used acidic medium.

  14. Proteinase 3 on apoptotic cells disrupts immune silencing in autoimmune vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Arnaud; Martin, Katherine R; Bonnefoy, Francis; Saas, Philippe; Mocek, Julie; Alkan, Manal; Terrier, Benjamin; Kerstein, Anja; Tamassia, Nicola; Satyanarayanan, Senthil Kumaran; Ariel, Amiram; Ribeil, Jean-Antoine; Guillevin, Loïc; Cassatella, Marco A; Mueller, Antje; Thieblemont, Nathalie; Lamprecht, Peter; Mouthon, Luc; Perruche, Sylvain; Witko-Sarsat, Véronique

    2015-11-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis that is associated with granulomatous inflammation and the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) directed against proteinase 3 (PR3). We previously determined that PR3 on the surface of apoptotic neutrophils interferes with induction of antiinflammatory mechanisms following phagocytosis of these cells by macrophages. Here, we demonstrate that enzymatically active membrane-associated PR3 on apoptotic cells triggered secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including granulocyte CSF (G-CSF) and chemokines. This response required the IL-1R1/MyD88 signaling pathway and was dependent on the synthesis of NO, as macrophages from animals lacking these pathways did not exhibit a PR3-associated proinflammatory response. The PR3-induced microenvironment facilitated recruitment of inflammatory cells, such as macrophages, plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), and neutrophils, which were observed in close proximity within granulomatous lesions in the lungs of GPA patients. In different murine models of apoptotic cell injection, the PR3-induced microenvironment instructed pDC-driven Th9/Th2 cell generation. Concomitant injection of anti-PR3 ANCAs with PR3-expressing apoptotic cells induced a Th17 response, revealing a GPA-specific mechanism of immune polarization. Accordingly, circulating CD4+ T cells from GPA patients had a skewed distribution of Th9/Th2/Th17. These results reveal that PR3 disrupts immune silencing associated with clearance of apoptotic neutrophils and provide insight into how PR3 and PR3-targeting ANCAs promote GPA pathophysiology. PMID:26436651

  15. The M358R variant of ?1-proteinase inhibitor inhibits coagulation factor VIIa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, William P; Bhakta, Varsha

    2016-02-12

    The naturally occurring M358R mutation of the plasma serpin ?1-proteinase inhibitor (API) changes both its cleavable reactive centre bond to Arg-Ser and the efficacy with which it inhibits different proteases, reducing the rate of inhibition of neutrophil elastase, and enhancing that of thrombin, factor XIa, and kallikrein, by several orders of magnitude. Although another plasma serpin with an Arg-Ser reactive centre, antithrombin (AT), has been shown to inhibit factor VIIa (FVIIa), no published data are available with respect to FVIIa inhibition by API M358R. Recombinant bacterially-expressed API M358R and plasma-derived AT were therefore compared using gel-based and kinetic assays of FVIIa integrity and activity. Under pseudo-first order conditions of excess serpin over protease, both AT and API M358R formed denaturation-resistant inhibitory complexes with FVIIa in reactions accelerated by TF; AT, but not API M358R, also required heparin for maximal activity. The second order rate constant for heparin-independent API M358R-mediated FVIIa inhibition was determined to be 7.8 ± 0.8 × 10(2) M(-1)sec(-1). We conclude that API M358R inhibits FVIIa by forming inhibitory complexes of the serpin type more rapidly than AT in the absence of heparin. The likely 20-fold excess of API M358R over AT in patient plasma during inflammation raises the possibility that it could contribute to the hemorrhagic tendencies manifested by rare individuals expressing this mutant serpin. PMID:26797521

  16. Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor from Clitoria fairchildiana seeds: Isolation, biochemical properties and insecticidal potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzger, Miriam; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Scorsato, Valéria; Aparicio, Ricardo; Marangoni, Sergio; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2015-10-01

    Herein described is the biochemical characterisation, including in vitro and in vivo assays, for a proteinase inhibitor purified from Clitoria fairchildiana seeds (CFPI). Purification was performed by hydrophobic interaction and gel filtration chromatography. Kinetic studies of the purified inhibitor showed a competitive-type inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin, with an inhibition stoichiometry of 1:1 for both enzymes. The inhibition constants against trypsin and chymotrypsin were 3.3 × 10(-10) and 1.5 × 10(-10)M, respectively, displaying a tight binding property. SDS-PAGE showed that CFPI has a single polypeptide chain with an apparent molecular mass of 15 kDa under non-reducing conditions. However, MALDI-TOF analysis demonstrated a molecular mass of 7.973 kDa, suggesting that CFPI is dimeric in solution. The N-terminal sequence of CFPI showed homology with members of the Bowman-Birk inhibitor family. CFPI remained stable to progressive heating for 30 min to each temperature range of 37 up to 100 °C and CD analysis exhibited no changes in spectra at 207 nm after heating at 90 °C and subsequent cooling. Moreover, CFPI was active over a wide pH range (2-10). In contrast, reduction with DTT resulted in a loss of inhibitory activity against trypsin and chymotrypsin. CFPI also exhibited significant inhibitory activity against larval midgut trypsin enzymes from Anagasta kuehniella (76%), Diatraea saccharalis (59%) and Heliothis virescens (49%). Its insecticidal properties were further analysed by bioassays and confirmed by negative impact on A. kuehniella development. PMID:26330217

  17. Regulation of neutrophilic inflammation by proteinase-activated receptor 1 during bacterial pulmonary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, Ricardo J; Williams, Andrew E; Mercer, Paul F; Sulikowski, Michal G; Brown, Jeremy S; Chambers, Rachel C

    2015-06-15

    Neutrophils are key effector cells of the innate immune response to pathogenic bacteria, but excessive neutrophilic inflammation can be associated with bystander tissue damage. The mechanisms responsible for neutrophil recruitment to the lungs during bacterial pneumonia are poorly defined. In this study, we focus on the potential role of the major high-affinity thrombin receptor, proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1), during the development of pneumonia to the common lung pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Our studies demonstrate that neutrophils were indispensable for controlling S. pneumoniae outgrowth but contributed to alveolar barrier disruption. We further report that intra-alveolar coagulation (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid thrombin-antithrombin complex levels) and PAR-1 immunostaining were increased in this model of bacterial lung infection. Functional studies using the most clinically advanced PAR-1 antagonist, SCH530348, revealed a key contribution for PAR-1 signaling in influencing neutrophil recruitment to lung airspaces in response to both an invasive and noninvasive strain of S. pneumoniae (D39 and EF3030) but that PAR-1 antagonism did not impair the ability of the host to control bacterial outgrowth. PAR-1 antagonist treatment significantly decreased pulmonary levels of IL-1?, CXCL1, CCL2, and CCL7 and attenuated alveolar leak. Ab neutralization studies further demonstrated a nonredundant role for IL-1?, CXCL1, and CCL7 in mediating neutrophil recruitment in response to S. pneumoniae infection. Taken together, these data demonstrate a key role for PAR-1 during S. pneumoniae lung infection that is mediated, at least in part, by influencing multiple downstream inflammatory mediators. PMID:25948816

  18. Mandatory role of proteinase-activated receptor 1 in experimental bladder inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Carole A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general, inflammation plays a role in most bladder pathologies and represents a defense reaction to injury that often times is two edged. In particular, bladder neurogenic inflammation involves the participation of mast cells and sensory nerves. Increased mast cell numbers and tryptase release represent one of the prevalent etiologic theories for interstitial cystitis and other urinary bladder inflammatory conditions. The activity of mast cell-derived tryptase as well as thrombin is significantly increased during inflammation. Those enzymes activate specific G-protein coupled proteinase-activated receptors (PARs. Four PARs have been cloned so far, and not only are all four receptors highly expressed in different cell types of the mouse urinary bladder, but their expression is altered during experimental bladder inflammation. We hypothesize that PARs may link mast cell-derived proteases to bladder inflammation and, therefore, play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of cystitis. Results Here, we demonstrate that in addition to the mouse urinary bladder, all four PA receptors are also expressed in the J82 human urothelial cell line. Intravesical administration of PAR-activating peptides in mice leads to an inflammatory reaction characterized by edema and granulocyte infiltration. Moreover, the inflammatory response to intravesical instillation of known pro-inflammatory stimuli such as E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, substance P, and antigen was strongly attenuated by PAR1-, and to a lesser extent, by PAR2-deficiency. Conclusion Our results reveal an overriding participation of PAR1 in bladder inflammation, provide a working model for the involvement of downstream signaling, and evoke testable hypotheses regarding the role of PARs in bladder inflammation. It remains to be determined whether or not mechanisms targeting PAR1 gene silencing or PAR1 blockade will ameliorate the clinical manifestations of cystitis.

  19. Expression of serine proteinase P186 of Arthrobotrys oligospora and analysis of its nematode-degrading activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hailong; Qiao, Jun; Meng, Qingling; Gong, Shasha; Chen, Cheng; Liu, Tianli; Tian, Lulu; Cai, Xuepeng; Luo, Jianxun; Chen, Chuangfu

    2015-12-01

    The nematode-trapping fungi possess a unique capability of predating and invading nematodes. As a representative nematode-trapping fungus, Arthrobotrys oligospora has been widely used to study the interactions between nematode-trapping fungi and their hosts. Serine proteinase is one of the important virulence factors during process of invasion of the nematode-trapping fungi into nematodes. In this study, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we amplified the gene sequence of serine proteinase 186 from A. oligospora, cloned it into pPIC9K vector and expressed it in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The expressed recombinant serine proteinase186 (reP186) was purified via Ni-affinity chromatography. The in vitro nematode-degrading activity of reP186 was analyzed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis revealed that reP186 with molecular weight of 33 kDa was successfully obtained. ReP186 was capable of degrading a series of protein substrates including casein, gelatin, bovine serum albumin, denatured collagen and nematode cortical layer. The reP186 exhibited the maximal activity at pH 8.0 and 55 °C and was highly sensitive to the inhibitor, phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride. Treatment of Caenorhabditis elegans and Haemonchus contortus with reP186 for 12, 24 and 36 h, respectively, resulted in 62, 88 and 100 % of killing rates for C. elegans, and 52, 65 and 84 % of killing rates for H. contortus, respectively, indicating a relatively strong nematode-degrading bioactivity of reP186. PMID:26419902

  20. VaSP1, catalytically active serine proteinase from Vipera ammodytes ammodytes venom with unconventional active site triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtovi?, Tihana; Brgles, Marija; Leonardi, Adrijana; Lang Balija, Maja; Sajevic, Tamara; Križaj, Igor; Allmaier, Günter; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Halassy, Beata

    2014-01-01

    VaSP1, a serine proteinase from Vipera ammodytes ammodytes venom, is a glycosylated monomer of 31.5 kDa, as determined by MALDI mass spectrometry, showing multiple isoelectric points between pH 6.5 and pH 8.5. Partial amino acid sequencing of VaSP1 by Edman degradation and MS/MS analysis identified sequences which allowed its classification among the so-called snake venom serine proteinase homologues, members of the peptidase S1 family, however being devoid of the canonical catalytic triad. Only few representatives of this group have been identified so far with just two of them characterised in detail at the protein level. Despite substitution of His57 with Arg, VaSP1 possesses proteolytic activity which can be inhibited by Pefabloc, benzamidine, Zn²? ions, DTT and trypsin inhibitor II, a Kunitz/BPTI group member. It hydrolyses N(?)-benzoyl-Phe-Val-Arg-p-NA, exhibiting Michaelis-Menten behaviour with K(m) = 48.2 ?M and V(m) = 0.019 nM s?¹. The pH for optimal activity on tested substrate is around 9.0. VaSP1 also cleaves insulin B-chain, digesting it at positions His¹?-Leu¹¹, Ala¹?-Leu¹? and Tyr¹?-Leu¹?. Furthermore, the novel serine proteinase is active towards wide array of proteins involved in haemostasis where its degradation of fibrinogen, fibrin, prothrombin, factor X and plasminogen in vivo probably results in depletion of coagulation factors in blood circulation. The possibility that VaSP1 possesses anticoagulant properties has been further indicated by its ability to prolong prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time. PMID:24269689

  1. Efficacy of N-acetyl cysteine in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, Katharine; Baratz-Goldstein, Renana; Pick, Chiam G; Zindel, Ofra; Balaban, Carey D; Hoffer, Michael E; Lockwood, Megan; Miller, Jonathan; Hoffer, Barry J

    2014-01-01

    In this study, using two different injury models in two different species, we found that early post-injury treatment with N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) reversed the behavioral deficits associated with the TBI. These data suggest generalization of a protocol similar to our recent clinical trial with NAC in blast-induced mTBI in a battlefield setting, to mild concussion from blunt trauma. This study used both weight drop in mice and fluid percussion injury in rats. These were chosen to simulate either mild or moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). For mice, we used novel object recognition and the Y maze. For rats, we used the Morris water maze. NAC was administered beginning 30-60 minutes after injury. Behavioral deficits due to injury in both species were significantly reversed by NAC treatment. We thus conclude NAC produces significant behavioral recovery after injury. Future preclinical studies are needed to define the mechanism of action, perhaps leading to more effective therapies in man. PMID:24740427

  2. Identification and preliminary characterization of protein-cysteine farnesyltransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manne, V.; Roberts, D.; Tobin, A.; O' Rourke, E.; Barbacid, M.; De Virgilio, M.; Meyers, C. (Squibb Institute for Medical Research, Princeton, NJ (USA)); Ahmed, N.; Kurz, B.; Resh, M. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA)); Kung, Hsiang-Fu (National Cancer Institute-Frederic Cancer Research Facility, MD (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Ras proteins must be isoprenylated at a conserved cysteine residue near the carboxyl terminus in order to exert their biological activity. Previous studies indicate that an intermediate in the mevalonate pathway, most likely farnesyl pyrophosphate, is the donor of this isoprenyl group. Inhibition of mevalonate synthesis reverts the abnormal phenotypes induced by the mutant RAS2{sup Val{endash}19} gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and blocks the maturation of Xenopus oocytes induced by an onocogenic Ras p21 protein of human origin. These results have raised the possibility of using inhibitors of the mevalonate pathway to block the transforming properties of ras oncogenes. Unfortunately, mevalonate is a precursor of various end products essential to mammalian cells, such as dolichols, ubiquinones, heme A, and cholesterol. In this study, the authors describe an enzymatic activity(ies) capable of catalyzing the farnesylation of unprocessed Ras p21 proteins in vitro at the correct (Cys-186) residue. Gel filtration analysis of a partially purified preparation of protein farnesyltransferase revealed two peaks of activity at 250-350 kDa and 80-130 kDa. Availability of an in vitro protein farnesyltransferase assay should be useful in screening for potential inhibitors of ras oncogene function that will not interfere with other aspects of the mevalonate pathway.

  3. Extracellular Cysteine in Connexins: Role as Redox Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal, Mauricio A.; García, Isaac E.; Pinto, Bernardo I.; Pupo, Amaury; Báez, David; Stehberg, Jimmy; Del Rio, Rodrigo; González, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Connexin-based channels comprise hemichannels and gap junction channels. The opening of hemichannels allow for the flux of ions and molecules from the extracellular space into the cell and vice versa. Similarly, the opening of gap junction channels permits the diffusional exchange of ions and molecules between the cytoplasm and contacting cells. The controlled opening of hemichannels has been associated with several physiological cellular processes; thereby unregulated hemichannel activity may induce loss of cellular homeostasis and cell death. Hemichannel activity can be regulated through several mechanisms, such as phosphorylation, divalent cations and changes in membrane potential. Additionally, it was recently postulated that redox molecules could modify hemichannels properties in vitro. However, the molecular mechanism by which redox molecules interact with hemichannels is poorly understood. In this work, we discuss the current knowledge on connexin redox regulation and we propose the hypothesis that extracellular cysteines could be important for sensing changes in redox potential. Future studies on this topic will offer new insight into hemichannel function, thereby expanding the understanding of the contribution of hemichannels to disease progression.

  4. Poliovirus proteinase 3C: large-scale expression, purification, and specific cleavage activity on natural and synthetic substrates in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicklin, M J; Harris, K. S.; Pallai, P V; Wimmer, E.

    1988-01-01

    Proteinase 3C of poliovirus type 2 (Sabin) was expressed at 4% total protein in Escherichia coli. The protein was soluble and could be purified by a simple scheme. It was weakly active on the capsid precursor P1 (expressed in vitro), which contains two cleavage sites. The products of processing P1 were 1ABC and 1D (VP1). The activity was insensitive to Triton X-100. Crude extracts of cells infected with poliovirus type 1 (Mahoney) gave strong processing and yielded 1AB (VP0), 1C (VP3), and 1D...

  5. Isolation and characterization of a serine proteinase with thrombin-like activity from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper

    OpenAIRE

    A.V Pérez; Rucavado, A; Sanz, L.; Calvete, J. J.; Gutiérrez, J.M

    2008-01-01

    A serine proteinase with thrombin-like activity was isolated from the venom of the Central American pit viper Bothrops asper. Isolation was performed by a combination of affinity chromatography on aminobenzamidine-Sepharose and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose. The enzyme accounts for approximately 0.13% of the venom dry weight and has a molecular mass of 32 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE, and of 27 kDa as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Its partial amino acid sequence ...

  6. Chromosomal mapping of the human proteinase inhibitor 6 (PI6) gene to 6p25 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, P.; Sun, J.; Salem, H. [Monash Medical School, Box Hill (Australia)] [and others

    1995-03-20

    Proteinase inhibitor (PI6), also known as placental thrombin inhibitor, is a recently identified protein originally purified from human placentas that belongs to the serpin super-family of proteins. The amino acid sequence of PI6 suggests that it is a member of a subfamily known as {open_quotes}oval-bumin serpins{close_quotes}. Characteristic features of this subfamily are: (a) they lack N-terminal and C-terminal sequences common in other serpins, (b) they do not have a classical N-terminal signal sequence for secretion, and (c) they display a similar gene organization, with seven exons and eight introns. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  7. SDZ PRI 053, an orally bioavailable human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteinase inhibitor containing the 2-aminobenzylstatine moiety.

    OpenAIRE

    Billich, A.; Fricker, G; Müller, I.; Donatsch, P.; Ettmayer, P; Gstach, H; Lehr, P; Peichl, P; D. Scholz; Rosenwirth, B

    1995-01-01

    A series of inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proteinase containing the 2-aralkyl-amino-substituted statine moiety as a novel transition-state analog was synthesized, with the aim to obtain compounds which combine anti-HIV potency with oral bioavailability. The reduced-size 2-aminobenzylstatine derivative SDZ PRI 053, which contains 2-(S)-amino-3-(R)-hydroxyindane in place of an amino acid amide, is a potent and orally bioavailable inhibitor of HIV-1 replication. The a...

  8. Synthesis of the proteinase inhibitor LEKTI domain 6 by the fragment condensation method and regioselective disulfide bond formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, Zoe; Barlos, Kostas K; Gatos, Dimitrios; Adermann, Knut; Deraison, Celine; Barlos, Kleomenis

    2010-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors are of high pharmaceutical interest and are drug candidates for a variety of indications. Specific kallikrein inhibitors are important for their antitumor activity and their potential application to the treatment of skin diseases. In this study we describe the synthesis of domain 6 of the kallikrein inhibitor Lympho-Epithilial Kazal-Type Inhibitor (LEKTI) by the fragment condensation method and site-directed cystine bridge formation. To obtain the linear LEKTI precursor, the condensation was best performed in solution, coupling the protected fragment 1-22 to 23-68. This method yielded LEKTI domain 6 of high purity and equipotent to the recombinantly produced peptide. PMID:20069636

  9. Will transgenic plants adversely affect the environment?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vassili V Velkov; Alexander B Medvinsky; Mikhail S Sokolov; Anatoly I Marchenko

    2005-09-01

    Transgenic insecticidal plants based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) endotoxins, on proteinase inhibitors and on lectins, and transgenic herbicide tolerant plants are widely used in modern agriculture. The results of the studies on likelihood and non-likelihood of adverse effects of transgenic plants on the environment including: (i) effects on nontarget species; (ii) invasiveness; (iii) potential for transgenes to ‘escape’ into the environment by horizontal gene transfer; and (iv) adverse effects on soil biota are reviewed. In general, it seems that large-scale implementation of transgenic insecticidal and herbicide tolerant plants do not display considerable negative effects on the environments and, moreover, at least some transgenic plants can improve the corresponding environments and human health because their production considerably reduces the load of chemical insecticides and herbicides.

  10. Knock-down of transcript abundance of a family of Kunitz proteinase inhibitor genes in white clover (Trifolium repens) reveals a redundancy and diversity of gene function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Afsana; Leung, Susanna; Burgess, Elisabeth P J; Laing, William A; Richardson, Kim A; Hofmann, Rainer W; Dijkwel, Paul P; McManus, Michael T

    2015-12-01

    The transcriptional regulation of four phylogenetically distinct members of a family of Kunitz proteinase inhibitor (KPI) genes isolated from white clover (Trifolium repens; designated Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5) has been investigated to determine their wider functional role. The four genes displayed differential transcription during seed germination, and in different tissues of the mature plant, and transcription was also ontogenetically regulated. Heterologous over-expression of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5 in Nicotiana tabacum retarded larval growth of the herbivore Spodoptera litura, and an increase in the transcription of the pathogenesis-related genes PR1 and PR4 was observed in the Tr-KPI1 and Tr-KPI4 over-expressing lines. RNA interference (RNAi) knock-down lines in white clover displayed significantly altered vegetative growth phenotypes with inhibition of shoot growth and a stimulation of root growth, while knock-down of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2 and Tr-KPI5 transcript abundance also retarded larval growth of S. litura. Examination of these RNAi lines revealed constitutive stress-associated phenotypes as well as altered transcription of cellular signalling genes. These results reveal a functional redundancy across members of the KPI gene family. Further, the regulation of transcription of at least one member of the family, Tr-KPI2, may occupy a central role in the maintenance of a cellular homeostasis. PMID:26377591

  11. Zingipain, A cysteine protease from Zingiber ottensii Valeton rhizomes with antiproliferative activities against fungi and human malignant cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnchanatat, Aphichart; Tiengburanatam, Nathachai; Boonmee, Apaporn; Puthong, Songchan; Sangvanich, Polkit

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the activity of a protein identified as cysteine protease, purified from Zingiber ottensii Valeton rhizomes, in terms of antiproliferation against fungi, bacteria, and human malignant cell lines. By means of buffer extraction followed by (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography, the obtained dominant protein (designated F50) was submitted to non-denaturing and reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), where a single band and three bands were revealed from eletrophoretic patterns, respectively. It could be concluded at this point that the F50 was potentially a heterotrimer or heterodimer composed of either two small (?13.8 and ?15.2 kD) subunits or these two together with a larger (?32.5 kD) one. In-gel digestion was carried out for the most intense band from reducing SDS-PAGE, and to the resulting material was applied liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectroscopy (MS)/MS. The main F50 subunit was found to contain fragments with 100% similarity to zingipain-1, a cysteine protease first discovered in Zingiber officinale. The activity corresponding to the identified data, cysteine protease, was then confirmed in the F50 by azocasein assay and a positive result was obtained. The F50 then was further investigated for antiproliferation against three plant pathogenic fungi species by disk diffusion test, four bacterial species by direct exposure in liquid culture and dish diffusion tests, and five human malignant cell lines by tissue culture assay. It was found that a dose of 23.6 µg F50/0.3 cm(2) of paper disk exhibited the best inhibitory effect against Collectotrichum cassiicola, while lesser effects were found in Exserohilum turicicum and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. No inhibitory effect against bacterial proliferation was detected in all studied bacterial strains. However, relatively strong antiproliferative effects were found against five human cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 1.13 µg/mL (hepatoma cancer; HEP-G2) to 5.37 µg/mL (colon cancer; SW620). By periodic acid-Schiff's staining and phenol-sulfuric acid assay, the F50 was determined as a glycoprotein containing 26.30 ± 1.01% (by weight) of carbohydrate. Thus, a new glycoprotein with protease activity was successfully identified in Zingiber ottensii rhizome. The glycoprotein also contained antiproliferative activity against some plant pathogenic fungi and human cancer cell lines. PMID:21442550

  12. Synaptic dysfunctions and activity-dependent neurodegeneration in mice lacking cystein string protein-alpha

    OpenAIRE

    Rozas, José Luis; Gómez-Sánchez, L.; Linares-Clemente, P.; Vázquez, E.; Luján, Rafael; Fernández-Chacón, R

    2011-01-01

    Cysteine string protein-alpha (CSP-α) is a synaptic vesicle protein that prevents presynaptic neurodegeneration. CSP-α KO mice suffer from a lethal neurological phenotype after the second postnatal week.

  13. Controllable synthesis of TiO2 nanomaterials by assisting with l-cysteine and ethylenediamine

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, Yugui

    2013-11-21

    This paper reports a facile l-cysteine-assisted solvothermal synthesis of TiO2 nanomaterials using ethylenediamine (En) and distilled water as solvent. The influence of reaction time, temperature, l-cysteine and solvent was initially investigated. Results demonstrated the reaction temperature, l-cysteine and En significantly imposed impact on the phase and morphology of the particles. Amorphous nanosheets, mixed-crystal nanorods and pure anatase nanoparticles were controllably synthesized by varying reaction temperature. The formation of the amorphous nanosheets and mixed-crystal nanorods were directly affected by the presence of l-cysteine and En. And the presence of En distinctly affected the crystal phase of the products, which was rarely mentioned in other studies. Moreover, the photocatalytic activities of three typical samples were excellent. The possible formation mechanism of the sample was also discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  14. Esophagitis Corrosive Treatment of N-acetyl Cysteine Preventing Early Stricture use development activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülin Durgun Yetim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Esophageal stricture early corrosive burns to investigate the effectiveness in preventing the use of N-acetyl-cysteine.Strictures of the esophagus due to caustic substances occur with the ingestion of solid or liquid corrosive materials. Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of conventional therapy alone and conventional therapy + N-acetyl cysteine. Fifty patients with grade 2b and grade 3 burnt were analyzed. Intensive n-acetyl cysteine therapy can reduce the incidence of stricture development in patients with advanced grade corrosive esophagitis.Results: N-acetyl cysteine group+ Konvansitonel used in 1 patient, stenosis developed in 7 patients in the group with conventional treatment. Conclusion: We believe that our findings will be better supported with the groups including larger number of patients or with the experimental studies.

  15. Brewer’s spent grain and corn steep liquor as alternative culture medium substrates for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis AMT-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Rodrigo Pires; Junior, Nelson Alves; Coelho, Rosalie Reed Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Brewer’s spent grain and corn steep liquor or yeast extract were used as the sole organic forms for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis in submerged fermentation. The influence of the C and N concentrations, as well as the incubation periods, were assessed. Eight proteolytic bands were detected through gelatin-gel-electrophoresis in the various extracts obtained from the different media and after different incubation periods, with apparent molecular masses of 20, 35, 43, 50, 70, 100, 116 and 212 kDa. The results obtained suggest an opportunity for exploring this alternative strategy for proteinases production by actinomycetes, using BSG and CSL as economically feasible substrates. PMID:24031767

  16. Micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics and prebiotics, a review of effectiveness in reducing HIV progression

    OpenAIRE

    Ruben Hummelen; Jaimie Hemsworth; Gregor Reid

    2010-01-01

    Low serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical trials of these interventions on the progression of HIV. Vitamin B, C, E, and folic acid have been shown to delay the progression of HIV. Supplementation with selenium, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebio...

  17. Topography of the cysteine residues in DNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical modification of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase with radioactive monoiodo[14C]acetic acid and N-[14C]ethylmaleamide has been performed. The positions of the exposed and functionally important cysteine residues in the enzyme have been determined. The topography of the cysteine residues in the ? subunit of RNA polymerase has been studied in detail. The results obtained are summarized in the form of a model

  18. Myeloid-derived Suppressor Cells Inhibit T Cell Activation by Depleting Cystine and Cysteine

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Minu K; Sinha, Pratima; Clements, Virginia K.; Rodriguez, Paulo; Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are present in most cancer patients and are potent inhibitors of T-cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity. Their inhibitory activity is attributed to production of arginase, reactive oxygen species, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and IL-10. We now report that MDSC also block T cell activation by sequestering cystine and limiting the availability of cysteine. Cysteine is an essential amino acid for T cell activation because T cells lack cystathionase, which...

  19. Immunoprotection in goats against Haemonchus contortus after immunization with cysteine protease enriched protein fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Antonio; Molina, José; González, Jorge; Conde, Magnolia; Martín, Sergio; Hernández, Yeray

    2004-01-01

    Haemonchus cysteine proteases, because of their apparent critical function in worm physiology, are considered important candidates in the immunological control of haemonchosis in sheep. Only limited information is, however, available on the immunoprotective properties of these molecules in goats. In the present study cysteine proteases of Haemonchus contortus adult worms isolated from a goat strain (Gran Canaria, Spain) were enriched by affinity chromatography and evaluated as immunoprotectiv...

  20. Utilização da fração semipurificada da proteinase do Trypanosoma cruzi no imunodiagnóstico da doença de Chagas The use of a semipurified fraction of Trypanosoma cruzi proteinase in immunodiagnosis of Chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajax Mercês Atta

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram sensibilizadas hemácias humanas 0 Rh negativo com a fração semipurificada (Fp da proteinase do Trypanosoma cruzi, e testadas quanto a antigenicidade com soros de pacientes portadores de tripanossomíase americana crônica e de outras doenças parasitárias não relacionadas. Reações de hemaglutinação positivas foram observadas com os soros de pacientes chagásicos e com alguns soros de indivíduos portadores de leishmaniose cutaneo-mucosa. Não foram observadas reações cruzadas com os soros de pacientes portadores de leishmaniose visceral, malária, toxoplasmose, sífilis, esquistossomose e mononucleose. Os resultados obtidos são favoráveis ao emprego desta fração antigênica em testes de imunodiagnóstico da tripanossomíase americana.Group 0 Rh negative human erytrocytes were coated with the semipurified fraction of T. cruzi proteinase and tested with sera both from patients with chagas' disease and from others with unrelated parasitic diseases. Positive haemagglutination reactions were only observed with the sera from the former and with that from two patients with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. No crossed reactions were observed with visceral leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis syphilis, schistosomiasis or mononucleosis sera. Results suggest that this purified fraction can be used in immunodiagnosis of American Trypanosomiasis.

  1. Utilização da fração semipurificada da proteinase do Trypanosoma cruzi no imunodiagnóstico da doença de Chagas / The use of a semipurified fraction of Trypanosoma cruzi proteinase in immunodiagnosis of Chagas' disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ajax Mercês, Atta; Angela Maria de Carvalho, Pontes; Maria Luiza de, Souza; Daria, Repka; Humberto A., Rangel.

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram sensibilizadas hemácias humanas 0 Rh negativo com a fração semipurificada (Fp) da proteinase do Trypanosoma cruzi, e testadas quanto a antigenicidade com soros de pacientes portadores de tripanossomíase americana crônica e de outras doenças parasitárias não relacionadas. Reações de hemaglutina [...] ção positivas foram observadas com os soros de pacientes chagásicos e com alguns soros de indivíduos portadores de leishmaniose cutaneo-mucosa. Não foram observadas reações cruzadas com os soros de pacientes portadores de leishmaniose visceral, malária, toxoplasmose, sífilis, esquistossomose e mononucleose. Os resultados obtidos são favoráveis ao emprego desta fração antigênica em testes de imunodiagnóstico da tripanossomíase americana. Abstract in english Group 0 Rh negative human erytrocytes were coated with the semipurified fraction of T. cruzi proteinase and tested with sera both from patients with chagas' disease and from others with unrelated parasitic diseases. Positive haemagglutination reactions were only observed with the sera from the forme [...] r and with that from two patients with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. No crossed reactions were observed with visceral leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis syphilis, schistosomiasis or mononucleosis sera. Results suggest that this purified fraction can be used in immunodiagnosis of American Trypanosomiasis.

  2. Electrochemical behaviour of dopamine at covalent modified glassy carbon electrode with l-cysteine: preliminary results

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Alberto, Martínez-Huitle; Monica, Cerro-Lopez; Marco Antonio, Quiroz.

    Full Text Available The surface of glassy carbon (GC) electrode has been modified by oxidation of L-cysteine. The covalent modified GC electrode with L-Cysteine has been studied, according the supporting electrolyte used. Favourable interactions between the L-cysteine film and DA enhance the current response compared t [...] o that at the Nafion GC and bare GC electrodes, achieving better performances than those other electrodes. This behaviour was as result of the adsorption of the cysteine layer film, compact and uniform formation; depending on L-cysteine solution (phosphate buffer or chloridric acid supporting electrolyte) used for modifying GC surface. In cyclic voltammetric measurements, modified electrodes can successfully separate the oxidation/reduction DA peaks in different buffer solutions, but an evident dependence in the response was obtained as function of pH and modified electrode. The modified electrode prepared with L-cysteine/HCl solution was used to obtain the calibration curve and it exhibited a stable and sensitive response to DA. The results are described and discussed in the light of the existing literature.

  3. Landmark mapping: A general method for localizing cysteine residues within a protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a general method to locate the positions of cysteine residues relative to the amino terminus of a protein, using a modified chemical cleavage of the polypeptide backbone at cysteine. The cleavage reaction introduces the carbon atom of 14CN into the carboxyl-terminal fragment produced at each cleavage of the polypeptide chain. Peptides containing the amino terminus of the intact protein are not labeled; all other peptides are labeled at their amino termini. Partial cleavage of a protein followed by gel electrophoresis and autoradiography identifies a ladder of unlabeled peptides that maps positions of the cysteine residues relative to the protein amino terminus. To map individual proteins present in a complex mixture, the polypeptides are cyanolated in solution with 14CN, and the modified proteins are separated by discontinuous SDS/PAGE. The gel is stained, and the desired protein is excised, cleaved at cysteine within the gel slice, and mapped in the second dimension by gel electrophoresis. These techniques are demonstrated with proteins of known sequence containing from zero to five cysteine residues. The cysteine landmark map should be particularly useful in locating protein modifications, in questions of protein similarity, and in mapping functional domains. A strategy is also presented for locating other residues in the polypeptide, for which specific cleavage methods exist

  4. Reaction of acetaldehyde with cysteine and its potential significance in alcoholic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cysteine is important as a precursor for the synthesis of glutathione and in regeneration of glutathione during the ?-glutamyl cycle. The reaction of ?-aminothiols like cysteine with aldehydes to form thiazolidines is well known. Cysteine reacts rapidly with acetaldehyde, the first oxidation product of ingested ethanol, in PBS at 37deg C, pH 7.4 to form 2-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TC) (k2 = 5.8 M-1 sec-1), TC is stable under the same conditions: kobs = 4.6 x 10-2 h-1 (t1/2 = 15 hours) for ring opening. These rate constants suggest that appreciable amounts of TC may form in liver during ethanol metabolism, potentially decreasing the available concentration of cysteine for glutathione synthesis. Using [2-13C] ethanol, NAD+ and an NAD+ regenerating system, alcohol dehydrogenase and cysteine, TC labelled with 13C in the methyl carbon can be produced quantitatively. Use of a polarization transfer sequence allows observation of only the methyl protons by proton NMR. The effect of rat liver homogenate on the formation and stability of TC will be described. Similarly the effect of replacement of cysteine by its ?,? -dimethyl analog, penicillamine, will be discussed

  5. A novel sulfate-reducing bacteria detection method based on inhibition of cysteine protease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Peng; Zhang, Dun; Wan, Yi

    2014-11-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been extensively studied in corrosion and environmental science. However, fast enumeration of SRB population is still a difficult task. This work presents a novel specific SRB detection method based on inhibition of cysteine protease activity. The hydrolytic activity of cysteine protease was inhibited by taking advantage of sulfide, the characteristic metabolic product of SRB, to attack active cysteine thiol group in cysteine protease catalytic sites. The active thiol S-sulfhydration process could be used for SRB detection, since the amount of sulfide accumulated in culture medium was highly related with initial bacterial concentration. The working conditions of cysteine protease have been optimized to obtain better detection capability, and the SRB detection performances have been evaluated in this work. The proposed SRB detection method based on inhibition of cysteine protease activity avoided the use of biological recognition elements. In addition, compared with the widely used most probable number (MPN) method which would take up to at least 15days to accomplish whole detection process, the method based on inhibition of papain activity could detect SRB in 2 days, with a detection limit of 5.21×10(2) cfu mL(-1). The detection time for SRB population quantitative analysis was greatly shortened. PMID:25127594

  6. Cd–cysteine precursor nanowire templated microwave-assisted transformation route to CdS nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiao-Lin, E-mail: liu_x_l@sina.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000 (China); Zhu, Ying-Jie [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang, Qian; Li, Zhi-Feng; Yang, Bin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Cadmium sulfide polycrystalline nanotubes have been successfully synthesized by microwave-assisted transformation method using Cd–cysteine precursor nanowires as the source material and template in ethylene glycol at 160 °C or ethanol at 60 °C. Display Omitted Highlights: ? Cd–cysteine precursor nanowires were successfully synthesized in alkaline solution. ? CdS nanotubes were prepared by templated microwave-assisted transformation method. ? CdS nanotubes can well duplicate the size and morphology of precursor nanowires. ? This method has the advantages of the simplicity and low cost. -- Abstract: We report the Cd–cysteine precursor nanowire templated microwave-assisted transformation route to CdS nanotubes. In this method, the Cd–cysteine precursor nanowires are synthesized using CdCl{sub 2}·2.5H{sub 2}O, L-cysteine and ethanolamine in water at room temperature. The Cd–cysteine precursor nanowires are used as the source material and template for the subsequent preparation of CdS nanotubes by a microwave-assisted transformation method using ethylene glycol or ethanol as the solvent. This method has the advantages of the simplicity and low cost, and may be extended to the synthesis of nanotubes of other compounds. The products are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  7. Pyridoxal-phosphate dependent mycobacterial cysteine synthases: Structure, mechanism and potential as drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Robert; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Schneider, Gunter

    2015-09-01

    The alarming increase of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains poses a severe threat to human health. Chemotherapy is particularly challenging because M. tuberculosis can persist in the lungs of infected individuals; estimates of the WHO indicate that about 1/3 of the world population is infected with latent tuberculosis providing a large reservoir for relapse and subsequent spread of the disease. Persistent M. tuberculosis shows considerable tolerance towards conventional antibiotics making treatment particularly difficult. In this phase the bacilli are exposed to oxygen and nitrogen radicals generated as part of the host response and redox-defense mechanisms are thus vital for the survival of the pathogen. Sulfur metabolism and de novo cysteine biosynthesis have been shown to be important for the redox homeostasis in persistent M. tuberculosis and these pathways could provide promising targets for novel antibiotics for the treatment of the latent form of the disease. Recent research has provided evidence for three de novo metabolic routes of cysteine biosynthesis in M. tuberculosis, each with a specific PLP dependent cysteine synthase with distinct substrate specificities. In this review we summarize our present understanding of these pathways, with a focus on the advances on functional and mechanistic characterization of mycobacterial PLP dependent cysteine synthases, their role in the various pathways to cysteine, and first attempts to develop specific inhibitors of mycobacterial cysteine biosynthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cofactor-dependent proteins: evolution, chemical diversity and bio-applications. PMID:25484279

  8. Structure of the cysteine-rich intestinal protein, CRIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Alvarado, G C; Kosa, J L; Louis, H A; Beckerle, M C; Winge, D R; Summers, M F

    1996-03-22

    LIM domains are Zn-binding arrays found in a number of proteins involved in the control of cell differentiation, including several developmentally regulated transcription factors and a human proto-oncogene product. The rat cysteine-rich intestinal protein, CRIP, is a 76-residue polypeptide which contains a LIM motif. The solution structure of CRIP has been determined by homonuclear and 1H-15N heteronuclear correlated nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Structures with individual distance violations of LIM2), CRIP binds two equivalents of zinc, forming N-terminal CCHC (Cys3, Cys6, His24, Cys27) and C-terminal CCCC (Cys30, Cys33, Cys51, Cys55) modules. The CCHC and CCCC modules in CRIP contain two orthogonally-arrayed antiparallel beta-sheets. The C-terminal end of the CCHC module contains a tight turn and the C terminus of the CCCC module forms an alpha-helix. The modules pack via hydrophobic interactions, forming a compact structure that is similar to that observed for cCRP-LIM2. The most significant differences between the structures occur at the CCHC module-CCCC module interface, which results in a difference in the relative orientations of the modules, and at the C terminus where the alpha-helix appears to be packed more tightly against the preceding antiparallel beta-sheet. The greater abundance of NOE information obtained for CRIP relative to cCRP-LIM2, combined with the analysis of J-coupling and proton chemical shift data, have allowed a more detailed evaluation of the molecular level interactions that stabilize the fold of the LIM motif. PMID:8632452

  9. Role of L2 cysteines in papillomavirus infection and neutralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanam Balasubramanyam

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vaccination of mice with minor capsid protein L2 or passive transfer with the L2-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody RG-1 protects against human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 challenge. Here we explored the nature of the RG-1 epitope and its contribution to viral infectivity. RG-1 bound equivalently HPV16 L2 residues 17-36 with or without an intact C22-C28 disulphide bridge. HPV16 L2 mutations K20A, C22A, C22S, C28A, C28S, or P29A prevented RG-1 binding, whereas Y19A, K23A or Q24A had no impact. Mutation of either C22 or C28 to alanine or serine compromises HPV16 pseudoviral infectivity both in vitro and in the murine vaginal tract, but does not impact pseudovirion assembly. Despite their lack of infectivity, HPV16 pseudovirions containing C22S or C28S mutant L2 bind to cell surfaces, are taken up, and expose the 17-36 region on the virion surface as for wild type HPV16 pseudovirions suggesting normal furin cleavage of L2. Mutation of the second cysteine residue in Bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1 L2 to serine (C25S dramatically reduced the infectivity of BPV1 pseudovirions. Surprisingly, in contrast to the double mutation in HPV16 L2, the BPV1 L2 C19S, C25S double mutation reduced BPV1 pseudovirion infectivity of 293TT cells by only half.

  10. Detergent-Stable Salt-Activated Proteinases from Virgibacillus halodenitrificans SK1-3-7 Isolated from Fish Sauce Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montriwong, Aungkawipa; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2015-05-01

    The NaCl-activated and detergent-stable proteinases from Virgibacillus halodenitrificans SK1-3-7 isolated from fish sauce fermentation were purified and characterized. The enzymes with molecular masses of 20 and 36 kDa showed caseinolytic activity on a zymogram. Optimum azocaseinolytic activity was at 60 °C and pH 9. The proteolytic activity increased in the presence of 10 mM CaCl2 and 0.5 M NaCl and showed high stability at 0-2 M NaCl. The enzymes were stable at pH 4-10 and 10-50 °C. The enzymes preferably hydrolyzed Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA and were completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), showing subtilisin-like characteristics. Activity and stability remained high in the presence of H2O2 and various surfactants. The enzymes exhibited high stability (>95%) in various organic solvents (DMSO, butanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetonitrile) at concentration of 50%. The V. halodenitrificans SK1-3-7 proteinases showed potential as a biocatalyst in aqueous-organic solvent systems and as an additive in laundry detergent. PMID:25820449

  11. Isolation and characterization of a serine proteinase with thrombin-like activity from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A serine proteinase with thrombin-like activity was isolated from the venom of the Central American pit viper Bothrops asper. Isolation was performed by a combination of affinity chromatography on aminobenzamidine-Sepharose and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose. The enzyme accounts for approximately 0.13% of the venom dry weight and has a molecular mass of 32 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE, and of 27 kDa as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Its partial amino acid sequence shows high identity with snake venom serine proteinases and a complete identity with a cDNA clone previously sequenced from this species. The N-terminal sequence of the enzyme is VIGGDECNINEHRSLVVLFXSSGFL CAGTLVQDEWVLTAANCDSKNFQ. The enzyme induces clotting of plasma (minimum coagulant dose = 4.1 µg and fibrinogen (minimum coagulant dose = 4.2 µg in vitro, and promotes defibrin(ogenation in vivo (minimum defibrin(ogenating dose = 1.0 µg. In addition, when injected intravenously in mice at doses of 5 and 10 µg, it induces a series of behavioral changes, i.e., loss of the righting reflex, opisthotonus, and intermittent rotations over the long axis of the body, which closely resemble the `gyroxin-like' effect induced by other thrombin-like enzymes from snake venoms.

  12. Isolation and characterization of a serine proteinase with thrombin-like activity from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, A V; Rucavado, A; Sanz, L; Calvete, J J; Gutiérrez, J M

    2008-01-01

    A serine proteinase with thrombin-like activity was isolated from the venom of the Central American pit viper Bothrops asper. Isolation was performed by a combination of affinity chromatography on aminobenzamidine-Sepharose and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose. The enzyme accounts for approximately 0.13% of the venom dry weight and has a molecular mass of 32 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE, and of 27 kDa as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Its partial amino acid sequence shows high identity with snake venom serine proteinases and a complete identity with a cDNA clone previously sequenced from this species. The N-terminal sequence of the enzyme is VIGGDECNINEHRSLVVLFXSSGFL CAGTLVQDEWVLTAANCDSKNFQ. The enzyme induces clotting of plasma (minimum coagulant dose = 4.1 microg) and fibrinogen (minimum coagulant dose = 4.2 microg) in vitro, and promotes defibrin(ogen)ation in vivo (minimum defibrin(ogen)ating dose = 1.0 microg). In addition, when injected intravenously in mice at doses of 5 and 10 microg, it induces a series of behavioral changes, i.e., loss of the righting reflex, opisthotonus, and intermittent rotations over the long axis of the body, which closely resemble the ;gyroxin-like' effect induced by other thrombin-like enzymes from snake venoms. PMID:17994164

  13. Assessing Proteinase K Resistance of Fish Prion Proteins in a Scrapie-Infected Mouse Neuroblastoma Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Salta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The key event in prion pathogenesis is the structural conversion of the normal cellular protein, PrPC, into an aberrant and partially proteinase K resistant isoform, PrPSc. Since the minimum requirement for a prion disease phenotype is the expression of endogenous PrP in the host, species carrying orthologue prion genes, such as fish, could in theory support prion pathogenesis. Our previous work has demonstrated the development of abnormal protein deposition in sea bream brain, following oral challenge of the fish with natural prion infectious material. In this study, we used a prion-infected mouse neuroblastoma cell line for the expression of three different mature fish PrP proteins and the evaluation of the resistance of the exogenously expressed proteins to proteinase K treatment (PK, as an indicator of a possible prion conversion. No evidence of resistance to PK was detected for any of the studied recombinant proteins. Although not indicative of an absolute inability of the fish PrPs to structurally convert to pathogenic isoforms, the absence of PK-resistance may be due to supramolecular and conformational differences between the mammalian and piscine PrPs.

  14. Ixodes scapularis tick serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin gene family; annotation and transcriptional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalaire Katelyn C

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serine proteinase inhibitors (Serpins are a large superfamily of structurally related, but functionally diverse proteins that control essential proteolytic pathways in most branches of life. Given their importance in the biology of many organisms, the concept that ticks might utilize serpins to evade host defenses and immunizing against or disrupting their functions as targets for tick control is an appealing option. Results A sequence homology search strategy has allowed us to identify at least 45 tick serpin genes in the Ixodes scapularis genome that are structurally segregated into 32 intronless and 13 intron-containing genes. Nine of the intron-containing serpins occur in a cluster of 11 genes that span 170 kb of DNA sequence. Based on consensus amino acid residues in the reactive center loop (RCL and signal peptide scanning, 93% are putatively inhibitory while 82% are putatively extracellular. Among the 11 different amino acid residues that are predicted at the P1 sites, 16 sequences possess basic amino acid (R/K residues. Temporal and spatial expression analyses revealed that 40 of the 45 serpins are differentially expressed in salivary glands (SG and/or midguts (MG of unfed and partially fed ticks. Ten of the 38 serpin genes were expressed from six to 24 hrs of feeding while six and fives genes each are predominantly or exclusively expressed in either MG and SG respectively. Conclusion Given the diversity among tick species, sizes of tick serpin families are likely to be variable. However this study provides insight on the potential sizes of serpin protein families in ticks. Ticks must overcome inflammation, complement activation and blood coagulation to complete feeding. Since these pathways are regulated by serpins that have basic residues at their P1 sites, we speculate that I. scapularis may utilize some of the serpins reported in this study to manipulate host defense. We have discussed our data in the context of advances on the molecular physiology of I. scapularis. Although the paper is descriptive, this study provides the first step toward a comprehensive understanding of serpins in tick physiology.

  15. Preparation, Crystallization and X-ray Diffraction Analysis to 1.5 A Resolution of Rat Cysteine Dioxygenase, a Mononuclear Iron Enzyme Responsible for Cysteine Thiol Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons,C.; Hao, Q.; Stipanuk, M.

    2005-01-01

    Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO; EC 1.13.11.20) is an {approx}23 kDa non-heme iron metalloenzyme that is responsible for the oxidation of cysteine by O2, yielding cysteinesulfinate. CDO catalyzes the first step in the conversion of cysteine to taurine, as well as the first step in the catabolism of cysteine to pyruvate plus sulfate. Recombinant rat CDO was heterologously expressed, purified and crystallized. The protein was expressed as a fusion protein bearing a polyhistidine tag to facilitate purification, a thioredoxin tag to improve solubility and a factor Xa cleavage site to permit removal of the entire N-terminus, leaving only the 200 amino acids inherent to the native protein. A multi-step purification scheme was used to achieve >95% purity of CDO. The optimal CDO crystals diffracted to 1.5 Angstroms resolution and belonged to space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 57.55, c = 123.06 Angstrom, {alpha} = {beta} = {gamma} = 90. CDO shows little homology to any other proteins; therefore, the structure of the enzyme will be determined by ab initio phasing using a selenomethionyl derivative.

  16. Modulation of an Interleukin-12 and Gamma Interferon Synergistic Feedback Regulatory Cycle of T-Cell and Monocyte Cocultures by Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide in the Absence or Presence of Cysteine Proteinases

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Peter L. W.; DeCarlo, Arthur A.; Collyer, Charles; Hunter, Neil

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is an efficient inducer and enhancer of gamma interferon (IFN-?) production by both resting and activated T cells. There is evidence that human monocytes exposed to IFN-? have enhanced ability to produce IL-12 when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In this study, it was demonstrated that LPS from the oral periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis stimulated monocytes primed with IFN-? to release IL-12, thereby enhancing IFN-? accumulation in T-cell populatio...

  17. Arabidopsis cysteine-rich receptor-like kinase 45 functions in the responses to abscisic acid and abiotic stresses

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiujuan

    2013-06-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates seed germination, plant growth and development, and response to abiotic stresses such as drought and salt stresses. Receptor-like kinases are well known signaling components that mediate plant responses to developmental and environmental stimuli. Here, we characterized the biological function of an ABA and stress-inducible cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase, CRK45, in ABA signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. The crk45 mutant was less sensitive to ABA than the wild type during seed germination and early seedling development, whereas CRK45 overexpression plants were more sensitive to ABA compared to the wild type. Furthermore, overexpression of CRK45 led to hypersensitivity to salt and glucose inhibition of seed germination, whereas the crk45 mutant showed the opposite phenotypes. In addition, CRK45 overexpression plants had enhanced tolerance to drought. Gene expression analyses revealed that the expression of representative stress-responsive genes was significantly enhanced in CRK45 overexpression plants in response to salt stress. ABA biosynthetic genes such as NCED3,. 22NCED3, 9-Cis-Epoxycarotenoid Dioxygenase 3.NCED5,. 33NCED5, 9-Cis-Epoxycarotenoid Dioxygenase 5.ABA2,. 44ABA2, Abscisic Acid Deficient 2. and AAO355AAO3, Abscisic Aldehyde Oxidase 3. were also constitutively elevated in the CRK45 overexpression plants. We concluded that CRK45 plays an important role in ABA signaling that regulates Arabidopsis seeds germination, early seedling development and abiotic stresses response, by positively regulating ABA responses in these processes. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. Aggregation mechanism of Pd nanoparticles in L-cysteine aqueous solution studied by NEXAFS and AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, C., E-mail: tsukada.chie@e.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Quantum Engineering, School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ogawa, S.; Mizutani, T. [Department of Quantum Engineering, School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kutluk, G.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M. [Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Yagi, S. [Department of Quantum Engineering, School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We focus on the biocompatibility of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) for L-cysteine under water environment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Pd NPs have been fabricated and deposited on Si wafer by gas evaporation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer When the Pd NPs/Si has been dipped into L-cysteine aqueous solution, the L-cysteine has selectively adsorbed on Pd NPs surface and existed as the L-cysteine thiolate, atomic S and L-cystine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moreover, the aggregation of Pd NPs occurs by the migration of Pd NPs on Si and the cross-linked reaction between L-cysteine thiolate molecules adsorbed on Pd NPs. - Abstract: We focus on the biocompatibility of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) from the point of microscopic view. Thus, as the basic research for the biocompatibility, we have investigated the adsorbates on the Pd NPs surface and the aggregation mechanism for the Pd NPs on Si substrate after dipping into L-cysteine aqueous solution by means of NEXAFS measurement and AFM observation. The Pd NPs have been fabricated and deposited on the Si wafer by the gas evaporation method. Judging from the results of NEXAFS measurement, it is clear that the L-cysteine thiolate and atomic S exist on the Pd NPs surface. The results of AFM observation show that the Pd NPs aggregate. It is thought that the aggregation of the Pd NPs occurs by both the migration of the Pd NPs on Si wafer and the cross-linked reaction.

  19. Comparative study of action of cell wall proteinases from various strains of Streptococcus cremoris on bovine ?/sub s1-/, ?-, and kappa-casein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments are described in which partially purified cell wall proteinases of eight strains of S. cremoris, including strain HP, were compared in their action on ?/sub s1-/, ?-, and kappa-casein, as visualized by starch gel electrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and TLC, and also in their action on methyl-14C-labeled ?-casein

  20. THE LEADER PROTEINASE OF FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS REDUCES THE EXPRESSION OF INTERFERON BY SUPPRESSING THE ACTIVITY OF THE NUCLEAR FACTOR KAPPA B

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously shown that the leader proteinase of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is involved in antagonizing the innate immune response by inhibiting the translation of interferon (IFN) mRNA and the immediate-early induction of IFN'beta mRNA. These results correlated with the attenuated ph...