WorldWideScience
1

The cysteine proteinases of the pineapple plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineapple plant (Ananas comosus) was shown to contain at least four distinct cysteine proteinases, which were purified by a procedure involving active-site-directed affinity chromatography. The major proteinase present in extracts of plant stem was stem bromelain, whilst fruit bromelain was the major proteinase in the fruit. Two additional cysteine proteinases were detected only in the stem: these were ananain and a previously undescribed enzyme that we have called comosain. Stem bromelain, fruit bromelain and ananain were shown to be immunologically distinct. Enzymic characterization revealed differences in both substrate-specificities and inhibition profiles. A study of the cysteine proteinase derived from the related bromeliad Bromelia pinguin (pinguinain) indicated that in many respects it was similar to fruit bromelain, although it was found to be immunologically distinct. PMID:2327970

Rowan, A D; Buttle, D J; Barrett, A J

1990-03-15

2

Investigations into the effects of plant derived cysteine proteinases on tapeworms (cestoda)  

OpenAIRE

Gastrointestinal (GI) helminths pose a significant threat to the livestock industry and are a recognized cause of global morbidity in humans. Control relies principally on chemotherapy but in the case of nematodes is rapidly losing efficacy through widespread development and spread of resistance to conventional anthelmintics and hence the urgent need for novel classes of anthelmintics. Cysteine proteinases (CPs) from papaya latex have been shown to be effective against three murine nematodes ...

Mansur, Fadlul Azim Fauzi Bin

2013-01-01

3

The relative anthelmintic efficacy of plant-derived cysteine proteinases on intestinal nematodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of plant cysteine proteinases (CPs) derived from pineapple (Ananas comosus) and kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa), and compared their efficacy as anthelmintics to the known effects of CPs from the latex of papaya (Carica papaya) against the rodent intestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides bakeri. Both fruit bromelain and stem bromelain had significant in vitro detrimental effects on H. bakeri but in comparison, actinidain from kiwi fruit had very little effect. However, in vivo trials indicated far less efficacy of stem bromelain and fruit bromelain than that expected from the in vitro experiments (24.5% and 22.4% reduction in worm burdens, respectively) against H. bakeri. Scanning electron microscopy revealed signs of cuticular damage on worms incubated in fruit bromelain, stem bromelain and actinidain, but this was far less extensive than on those incubated in papaya latex supernatant. We conclude that, on the basis of presently available data, CPs derived from pineapples and kiwi fruits are not suitable for development as novel anthelmintics for intestinal nematode infections. PMID:24176056

Luoga, W; Mansur, F; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Garnett, M C; Lowe, A; Behnke, J M

2015-03-01

4

Assessment of the anthelmintic effect of natural plant cysteine proteinases against the gastrointestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, in vitro  

OpenAIRE

We examined the mechanism of action and compared the anthelmintic efficacy of cysteine proteinases from papaya, pineapple, fig, kiwi fruit and Egyptian milkweed in vitro using the rodent gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Within a 2 h incubation period, all the cysteine proteinases, with the exception of the kiwi fruit extract, caused marked damage to the cuticle of H. polygyrus adult male and female worms, reflected in the loss of surface cuticular layers. Efficacy was ...

Stepek, G.; Buttle, D. J.; Duce, I. R.; Lowe, A.; Behnke, J. M.

2005-01-01

5

In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic efficacy of plant cysteine proteinases against the rodent gastrointestinal nematode, Trichuris muris  

OpenAIRE

We examined the mechanism of action and compared the anthelmintic efficacy of cysteine proteinases from papaya, pineapple, fig, kiwi fruit and Egyptian milkweed in vitro using the rodent gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Within a 2 h incubation period, all the cysteine proteinases, with the exception of the kiwi fruit extract, caused marked damage to the cuticle of H. polygyrus adult male and female worms, reflected in the loss of surface cuticular layers. Efficacy was ...

Stepek, G.; Lowe, A. E.; Buttle, D. J.; Duce, I. R.; Behnke, J. M.

2006-01-01

6

Identification, classification and expression pattern analysis of sugarcane cysteine proteinases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cysteine proteases are peptidyl hydrolyses dependent on a cysteine residue at the active center. The physical and chemical properties of cysteine proteases have been extensively characterized, but their precise biological functions have not yet been completely understood, although it is known that they are involved in a number of events such as protein turnover, cancer, germination, programmed cell death and senescence. Protein sequences from different cysteine proteinases, classified as members of the E.C.3.4.22 sub-sub-class, were used to perform a T-BLAST-n search on the Brazilian Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tags project (SUCEST data bank. Sequence homology was found with 76 cluster sequences that corresponded to possible cysteine proteinases. The alignments of these SUCEST clusters with the sequence of cysteine proteinases of known origins provided important information about the classification and possible function of these sugarcane enzymes. Inferences about the expression pattern of each gene were made by direct correlation with the SUCEST cDNA libraries from which each cluster was derived. Since no previous reports of sugarcane cysteine proteinases genes exists, this study represents a first step in the study of new biochemical, physiological and biotechnological aspects of sugarcane cysteine proteases.Proteinases cisteínicas são peptidil-hidrolases dependentes de um resíduo de cisteína em seu sítio ativo. As propriedades físico-químicas destas proteinases têm sido amplamente caracterizadas, entretanto suas funções biológicas ainda não foram completamente elucidadas. Elas estão envolvidas em um grande número de eventos, tais como: processamento e degradação protéica, câncer, germinação, morte celular programada e processos de senescência. Diferentes proteinases cisteínicas, classificadas pelo Comitê de Nomenclatura da União Internacional de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular (IUBMB como pertencentes à sub-sub-classe E.C.3.4.22, foram usadas na busca de clusters no banco de dados do SUCEST (SUgarCane EST project, utilizando-s o programa T-BLAST-n. Homologia de seqüências foram encontradas com 76 clusters que correspondem a prováveis proteinases cisteínicas. O alinhamento destas seqüências com a de outras proteases cisteínicas, de diversas origens, forneceu informação quanto à classificação e possível função das proteinases de cana-de-açúcar. Além disso, o padrão de expressão de cada gene foi postulado a partir da correlação direta com as bibliotecas de cDNA do SUCEST dos quais os clusters foram derivados. Uma vez que nenhum gene de protease cisteínica foi anteriormente evidenciado em cana-de-açúcar, este estudo representa uma etapa inicial para o estudo de novos aspectos bioquímicos, fisiológicos e biotecnológicos destas enzimas.

Gustavo Coelho Correa

2001-12-01

7

A hybrid, broad-spectrum inhibitor of Colorado potato beetle aspartate and cysteine digestive proteinases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Protein engineering approaches are currently being devised to improve the inhibitory properties of plant proteinase inhibitors against digestive proteinases of herbivorous insects. Here we engineered a potent hybrid inhibitor of aspartate and cysteine digestive proteinases found in the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say. Three cathepsin D inhibitors (CDIs) from stressed potato and tomato were first compared in their potency to inhibit digestive cathepsin D-like activity of the insect. After showing the high inhibitory potency of tomato CDI (M(r) approximately 21 kDa), an approximately 33-kDa hybrid inhibitor was generated by fusing this inhibitor to the N terminus of corn cystatin II (CCII), a potent inhibitor of cysteine proteinases. Inhibitory assays with recombinant forms of CDI, CCII, and CDI-CCII expressed in Escherichia coli showed the CDI-CCII fusion to exhibit a dual inhibitory effect against cystatin-sensitive and cathepsin D-like enzymes of the potato beetle, resulting in detrimental effects against 3rd-instar larvae fed the hybrid inhibitor. The inhibitory potency of CDI and CCII was not altered after their fusion, as suggested by IC(50) values for the interaction of CDI-CCII with target proteinases similar to those measured for each inhibitor. These observations suggest the potential of plant CDIs and cystatins as functional inhibitory modules for the design of effective broad-spectrum, hybrid inhibitors of herbivorous insect cysteine and aspartate digestive proteinases. PMID:16116621

Brunelle, France; Girard, Cécile; Cloutier, Conrad; Michaud, Dominique

2005-09-01

8

A triticale water-deficit-inducible phytocystatin inhibits endogenous cysteine proteinases in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water-deficit is accompanied by an increase in proteolysis. Phytocystatins are plant inhibitors of cysteine proteinases that belong to the papain and legumain family. A cDNA encoding the protein inhibitor TrcC-8 was identified in the vegetative organs of triticale. In response to water-deficit, increases in the mRNA levels of TrcC-8 were observed in leaf and root tissues. Immunoblot analysis indicated that accumulation of the TrcC-8 protein occurred after 72h of water-deficit in the seedlings. Using recombinant protein, inhibitory activity of TrcC-8 against cysteine proteases from triticale and wheat tissues was analyzed. Under water-deficit conditions, there are increases in cysteine proteinase activities in both plant tissues. The cysteine proteinase activities were inhibited by addition of the recombinant TrcC-8 protein. These results suggest a potential role for the triticale phytocystatin in modulating cysteine proteinase activities during water-deficit conditions. PMID:25462979

Chojnacka, Magdalena; Szewi?ska, Joanna; Mielecki, Marcin; Nykiel, Ma?gorzata; Imai, Ryozo; Bielawski, Wies?aw; Orzechowski, S?awomir

2015-02-01

9

Functional Properties of a Cysteine Proteinase from Pineapple Fruit with Improved Resistance to Fungal Pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana  

OpenAIRE

In plant cells, many cysteine proteinases (CPs) are synthesized as precursors in the endoplasmic reticulum, and then are subject to post-translational modifications to form the active mature proteinases. They participate in various cellular and physiological functions. Here, AcCP2, a CP from pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus L.) belonging to the C1A subfamily is analyzed based on the molecular modeling and homology alignment. Transcripts of AcCP2 can be detected in the different parts of fruits...

Wei Wang,; Lu Zhang; Ning Guo; Xiumei Zhang; Chen Zhang; Guangming Sun; Jianghui Xie

2014-01-01

10

New aspects of the molecular evolution of legumains, Asn-specific cysteine proteinases.  

Science.gov (United States)

The molecular evolution of asparagine-specific cysteine proteinases, called legumains, from plants and animals was analyzed using newly available related amino acid sequences from lower eukaryotes, bacteria and Archaea. The results suggest that genuine legumains originate from prokaryote pro-legumains. The evolutionary roots of genuine legumains from plants and animals descend from Parabasalia and Alveolata before developing into their respective separate branches headed by Chlorophyta and Placozoa. The branch of legumain-like plant/animal glycosylphosphatidyl inositol transamidases separated from the general evolutionary stem of legumains at the level of lower eukaryotes. Modeling of the 3D structure of a plant genuine legumain underlined the previously suggested similarity of the active site geometry of legumains with caspases, which are Asp-specific bacterial and eukaryote proteinases. PMID:22196948

Shutov, Andrei D; Blattner, Frank R; Kakhovskaya, Irina A; Müntz, Klaus

2012-02-15

11

Azapeptides as inhibitors and active site titrants for cysteine proteinases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ester and amide derivatives of alpha-azaglycine (carbazic acid, H2NNHCOOH), alpha-azaalanine, and alpha-azaphenylalanine (i.e., Ac-l-Phe-NHN(R)CO-X, where X = H, CH3, or CH2Ph, respectively) were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of the cysteine proteinases papain and cathepsin B. The ester derivatives inactivated papain and cathepsin B at rates which increased dramatically with leaving group hydrophobicity and electronegativity. For example, with 8 (R = H, X = OPh) the apparent second-order rate constant for papain inactivation was 67 600 M-1 s-1. Amide and P1-thioamide derivatives do not inactivate papain, nor are they substrates; instead they are weak competitive inhibitors (0.2 mM 24 h at 4 degrees C). Azaalanine derivatives Ac-L-Phe-NHN(CH3)CO-X inactivate papain ca. 400- 900-fold more slowly than their azaglycine analogues, consistent with the planar configuration at Nalpha of the P1 residue and the very substantial stereoselectivity of papain for L- vs D- residues at the P1 position of its substrates. Azaglycine derivative 9 (R = H, X = OC6H4NO2-p) inactivates papain extremely rapidly (>70 000 M-1 s-1), but it also decomposes rapidly in buffer with release of nitrophenol (kobs = 0.13 min-1); under the same conditions 8 shows hydrolysis over 24 h. This nitrophenol release probably involves cyclization to an oxadiazolone since 17 (R = CH3, X = OC6H4NO2-p), which cannot form an isocyanate, releases nitrophenol almost as rapidly (kobs = 0.028 min-1). Cathepsin C, another cysteine proteinase with a rather different substrate specificity (i.e., aminopeptidase), was not inactivated by 8, indicating that the inactivation of papain and cathepsin B by azapeptide esters is a specific process. Their ease of synthesis coupled with good solution stability suggests that azapeptide esters may be useful as active site titrants of cysteine proteinases and probes of their biological function in vivo. PMID:9548822

Xing, R; Hanzlik, R P

1998-04-01

12

Selective loss of cysteine residues and disulphide bonds in a potato proteinase inhibitor II family.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disulphide bonds between cysteine residues in proteins play a key role in protein folding, stability, and function. Loss of a disulphide bond is often associated with functional differentiation of the protein. The evolution of disulphide bonds is still actively debated; analysis of naturally occurring variants can promote understanding of the protein evolutionary process. One of the disulphide bond-containing protein families is the potato proteinase inhibitor II (PI-II, or Pin2, for short) superfamily, which is found in most solanaceous plants and participates in plant development, stress response, and defence. Each PI-II domain contains eight cysteine residues (8C), and two similar PI-II domains form a functional protein that has eight disulphide bonds and two non-identical reaction centres. It is still unclear which patterns and processes affect cysteine residue loss in PI-II. Through cDNA sequencing and data mining, we found six natural variants missing cysteine residues involved in one or two disulphide bonds at the first reaction centre. We named these variants Pi7C and Pi6C for the proteins missing one or two pairs of cysteine residues, respectively. This PI-II-7C/6C family was found exclusively in potato. The missing cysteine residues were in bonding pairs but distant from one another at the nucleotide/protein sequence level. The non-synonymous/synonymous substitution (Ka/Ks) ratio analysis suggested a positive evolutionary gene selection for Pi6C and various Pi7C. The selective deletion of the first reaction centre cysteine residues that are structure-level-paired but sequence-level-distant in PI-II illustrates the flexibility of PI-II domains and suggests the functionality of their transient gene versions during evolution. PMID:21494600

Li, Xiu-Qing; Zhang, Tieling; Donnelly, Danielle

2011-01-01

13

Effects of E-64, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, on cowpea weevil growth, development, and fecundity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

E-64, a specific inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, was incorporated into artificial seeds at low levels (0.01-0.25% by weight). It prolonged developmental time and increased mortality of the larval cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), in direct proportion to its concentration in the artificial seeds. The fecundity of females emerging from the artificial seeds was significantly decreased by E-64 concentrations of 0.06% and higher. These observations are compatible with the hypothesis that the midgut cysteine proteinase in C. maculatus is essential for normal growth and development.

Murdock, L.L.; Shade, R.E.; Pomeroy, M.A.

1988-06-01

14

Protective effects of a cysteine proteinase propeptide expressed in transgenic soybean roots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes cause extensive damage to a large number of ornamental plants and food crops, with estimated economical losses over 100 billion US$ worldwide. Various efforts have put forth in order to minimize nematode damage, which typically involve the use of nematicides that have high cost and enhanced toxicity to humans and the environment. Additionally, different strategies have been applied in order to develop genetically modified plants with improved nematode resistance. Among the strategies are anti-invasion and migration, feeding-cell attenuation, and anti-nematode feeding. In the present study, we focus on anti-nematode feeding, which involves the evaluation and potential use of the cysteine proteinase (CPs) propeptide as a control alternative. The cysteine proteinase prodomain, isolated from Heterodera glycines (HGCP prodomain), is a natural inhibitory peptide used to transform soybean cotyledons using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Genetically modified soybean roots expressing the propeptide were detected by Western blot and expression levels were measured by ELISA (around 0.3%). The transgenic roots expressing the propeptide were inoculated with a thousand H. glycines at the second juvenile stage, and a remarkable reduction in the number of females and eggs was observed. A reduction of female length and diameter was also observed after 35 days post-inoculation. Furthermore, the H. glycines mature protein was detected in females fed on soybean transformed root expressing or not expressing the propeptide. The data presented here indicate that the HGCP propeptide can reduce soybean cyst nematode infection and this strategy could be applied in the near future to generate resistant crop cultivars. PMID:19428757

Marra, Brener M; Souza, Djair S L; Aguiar, João N; Firmino, Alexandre A P; Sarto, Rafael P D; Silva, Francine B; Almeida, Charles D S; Cares, Juvenil E; Continho, Marise V; Martins-de-Sa, Cezar; Franco, Octavio L; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

2009-05-01

15

Allicin from garlic strongly inhibits cysteine proteinases and cytopathic effects of Entamoeba histolytica.  

OpenAIRE

The ability of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites to destroy monolayers of baby hamster kidney cells is inhibited by allicin, one of the active principles of garlic. Cysteine proteinases, an important contributor to amebic virulence, as well as alcohol dehydrogenase, are strongly inhibited by allicin.

Ankri, S.; Miron, T.; Rabinkov, A.; Wilchek, M.; Mirelman, D.

1997-01-01

16

Recombinant Cysteine Proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi Implicated in Human and Dog T-Cell Responses  

Science.gov (United States)

High in vitro lymphoproliferative responses were induced in humans and dogs by a recombinant Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi cysteine proteinase, with secretion of IFN-? in asymptomatic subjects or of IFN-?, interleukin 4 (IL-4), and IL-10 in oligosymptomatic subjects. In contrast, responses of symptomatic patients and dogs were lower, with production of IL-4 and IL-10. PMID:15908413

da Costa Pinheiro, Paulo Henrique; de Souza Dias, Suzana; Eulálio, Kelsen Dantas; Mendonça, Ivete L.; Katz, Simone; Barbiéri, Clara Lúcia

2005-01-01

17

Recombinant Cysteine Proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi Implicated in Human and Dog T-Cell Responses  

OpenAIRE

High in vitro lymphoproliferative responses were induced in humans and dogs by a recombinant Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi cysteine proteinase, with secretion of IFN-? in asymptomatic subjects or of IFN-?, interleukin 4 (IL-4), and IL-10 in oligosymptomatic subjects. In contrast, responses of symptomatic patients and dogs were lower, with production of IL-4 and IL-10.

Da Costa Pinheiro, Paulo Henrique; Souza Dias, Suzana; Eula?lio, Kelsen Dantas; Mendonc?a, Ivete L.; Katz, Simone; Barbie?ri, Clara Lu?cia

2005-01-01

18

The human anti-HIV antibodies 2F5, 2G12, and PG9 differ in their susceptibility to proteolytic degradation: down-regulation of endogenous serine and cysteine proteinase activities could improve antibody production in plant-based expression platforms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tobacco-related species Nicotiana benthamiana has recently emerged as a promising host for the manufacturing of protein therapeutics. However, the production of recombinant proteins in N. benthamiana is frequently hampered by undesired proteolysis. Here, we show that the expression of the human anti-HIV antibodies 2F5, 2G12, and PG9 in N. benthamiana leaves leads to the accumulation of discrete heavy chain-derived degradation products of 30-40 kDa. Incubation of purified 2F5 with N. benthamiana intercellular fluid resulted in rapid conversion into the 40-kDa fragment, whereas 2G12 proved largely resistant to degradation. Such a differential susceptibility to proteolytic attack was also observed when these two antibodies were exposed to various types of proteinases in vitro. While serine and cysteine proteinases are both capable of generating the 40-kDa 2F5 fragment, the 30-kDa polypeptide is most readily obtained by treatment with the latter class of enzymes. The principal cleavage sites reside within the antigen-binding domain, the VH -CH 1 linker segment and the hinge region of the antibodies. Collectively, these results indicate that down-regulation of endogenous serine and cysteine proteinase activities could be used to improve the performance of plant-based expression platforms destined for the production of biopharmaceuticals. PMID:24478053

Niemer, Melanie; Mehofer, Ulrich; Torres Acosta, Juan Antonio; Verdianz, Maria; Henkel, Theresa; Loos, Andreas; Strasser, Richard; Maresch, Daniel; Rademacher, Thomas; Steinkellner, Herta; Mach, Lukas

2014-04-01

19

Miltpain, new cysteine proteinase from the milt of chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new cysteine proteinase, salmon miltpain, was isolated and purified from the milt of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta). Native molecular mass was estimated as 67,000 by gel filtration column chromatography (Shodex WS2003) and 22,300 by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Isoelectoric point was determined to be 3.9 by isoelectric focusing. The first 15 amino acid residues in the N-terminal region were LPSFLY-AEMVGYNIL. The cysteine proteinase, which had a pH optimum of 6.0 for Z-Arg-Arg-MCA hydrolysis, required a thiol-reducing reagent for activation and was inhibited by E-64, iodacetamide, CA-074 Me, TLCK, TPCK and ZPCK. The cysteine proteinase exhibited unique substrate specificity toward paired basic residues such as Lys-Arg, Arg-Arg at the subsites of P2-P1 and had a K(m) of 16.3 microM and kcat of 20.3 s-1 with Z-Arg-Arg-MCA as substrate and a K(m) of 52.9 microM and kcat of 1.79 s-1 with Z-Phe-Arg-MCA. This proteinase was found to considerably hydrolyze basic proteins such as histone, salmine and clupaine but not milk casein. PMID:9253183

Kawabata, C; Ichishima, E

1997-07-01

20

Selective Loss of Cysteine Residues and Disulphide Bonds in a Potato Proteinase Inhibitor II Family  

OpenAIRE

Disulphide bonds between cysteine residues in proteins play a key role in protein folding, stability, and function. Loss of a disulphide bond is often associated with functional differentiation of the protein. The evolution of disulphide bonds is still actively debated; analysis of naturally occurring variants can promote understanding of the protein evolutionary process. One of the disulphide bond-containing protein families is the potato proteinase inhibitor II (PI-II, or Pin2, for short) s...

Li, Xiu-qing; Zhang, Tieling; Donnelly, Danielle

2011-01-01

21

Functional properties of a cysteine proteinase from pineapple fruit with improved resistance to fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

Science.gov (United States)

In plant cells, many cysteine proteinases (CPs) are synthesized as precursors in the endoplasmic reticulum, and then are subject to post-translational modifications to form the active mature proteinases. They participate in various cellular and physiological functions. Here, AcCP2, a CP from pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus L.) belonging to the C1A subfamily is analyzed based on the molecular modeling and homology alignment. Transcripts of AcCP2 can be detected in the different parts of fruits (particularly outer sarcocarps), and gradually increased during fruit development until maturity. To analyze the substrate specificity of AcCP2, the recombinant protein was overexpressed and purified from Pichia pastoris. The precursor of purified AcCP2 can be processed to a 25 kDa active form after acid treatment (pH 4.3). Its optimum proteolytic activity to Bz-Phe-Val-Arg-NH-Mec is at neutral pH. In addition, the overexpression of AcCP2 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana can improve the resistance to fungal pathogen of Botrytis cinerea. These data indicate that AcCP2 is a multifunctional proteinase, and its expression could cause fruit developmental characteristics of pineapple and resistance responses in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. PMID:24566309

Wang, Wei; Zhang, Lu; Guo, Ning; Zhang, Xiumei; Zhang, Chen; Sun, Guangming; Xie, Jianghui

2014-01-01

22

Functional Properties of a Cysteine Proteinase from Pineapple Fruit with Improved Resistance to Fungal Pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In plant cells, many cysteine proteinases (CPs are synthesized as precursors in the endoplasmic reticulum, and then are subject to post-translational modifications to form the active mature proteinases. They participate in various cellular and physiological functions. Here, AcCP2, a CP from pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus L. belonging to the C1A subfamily is analyzed based on the molecular modeling and homology alignment. Transcripts of AcCP2 can be detected in the different parts of fruits (particularly outer sarcocarps, and gradually increased during fruit development until maturity. To analyze the substrate specificity of AcCP2, the recombinant protein was overexpressed and purified from Pichia pastoris. The precursor of purified AcCP2 can be processed to a 25 kDa active form after acid treatment (pH 4.3. Its optimum proteolytic activity to Bz-Phe-Val-Arg-NH-Mec is at neutral pH. In addition, the overexpression of AcCP2 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana can improve the resistance to fungal pathogen of Botrytis cinerea. These data indicate that AcCP2 is a multifunctional proteinase, and its expression could cause fruit developmental characteristics of pineapple and resistance responses in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

Wei Wang

2014-02-01

23

Effectiveness of recombinant soybean cysteine proteinase inhibitors against selected crop pests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three recombinant soybean cysteine proteinase inhibitors (rSCPIs), L1, R1 and N2, were assessed for their potential to inhibit the growth and development of three major agricultural crop pests known to utilize digestive cysteine proteinases: Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, WCR), Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, CPB) and cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus, CW). In vitro experiments showed that cysteine proteinase activities in the crude gut extracts of the WCR, CPB, and CW were inhibited to various degrees by the three rSCPIs. Of the three rSCPIs tested, N2 was most effective in inhibiting the crude gut extract of WCR, CPB, and CW (50% inhibition at 5 x 10(-8), 5 x 10(-8), and 3 x 10(-7) M, respectively). The L1 was the least potent of the three CPIs tested, with 50% inhibition at 5 x 10(-6) M of the crude gut extracts of WCR. Results of in vivo experiments conducted to assess the effect of the three rSCPIs on the vital growth parameters of WCR, CPB and CW were consistent with results of the in vitro experiments. PMID:15907768

Lalitha, S; Shade, R E; Murdock, L L; Bressan, R A; Hasegawa, P M; Nielsen, S S

2005-02-01

24

Further protection studies using recombinant forms of Haemonchus contortus cysteine proteinases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Significant levels of protection against Haemonchus contortus have been achieved in sheep by vaccination with a cysteine proteinase-enriched fraction (TSBP) isolated from the gut of adult parasites. Protection is associated with three cathepsin B-like cysteine proteinases (hmcp 1, 4 & 6). Lambs vaccinated with these proteinases, expressed in bacteria as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins, had significantly reduced (38%) worm burdens compared to challenge controls although, intriguingly, egg output was unaffected. Here, a repeat trial with similar results is reported and protection obtained compared to that induced by vaccination with the predicted mature forms of hmcp1, 4 and 6 expressed in bacteria as non-fusion proteins. Sheep immunized with a cocktail of these non-fusion proteins had reduced faecal egg counts of 27% (P = 0.17) and worm burdens of 29% (P = 0.01) compared to controls. High levels of host serum IgG were detected in GST-hmcp and non-fusion hmcp-immunized animals, although no correlation with protection could be determined. Sera from these groups bound to the microvillar surface of the gut of H. contortus. PMID:16629707

Redmond, D L; Knox, D P

2006-05-01

25

The resistance of insects to plant proteinase inhibitors.  

OpenAIRE

The research reported in this thesis describes the induction of proteinase inhibitor synthesis in solanaceous plants (tobacco and tomato), when lepidopteran larvae (Manduca sexta and Spodoptera exigua) are feeding on leaves. It is shown that the larvae circumvent the proteinase inhibitor defense of these plants by the induction of non-susceptible gut proteinases. A phage display method is presented, which may allow the isolation of PIs that are also active against the non-susceptible proteina...

Jongsma, M. A.

1995-01-01

26

Structure of the Autocatalytic Cysteine Protease Domain of Potyvirus Helper-component Proteinase*  

OpenAIRE

The helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) of potyvirus is involved in polyprotein processing, aphid transmission, and suppression of antiviral RNA silencing. There is no high resolution structure reported for any part of HC-Pro, hindering mechanistic understanding of its multiple functions. We have determined the crystal structure of the cysteine protease domain of HC-Pro from turnip mosaic virus at 2.0 Å resolution. As a protease, HC-Pro only cleaves a Gly-Gly dipeptide at its own C terminus...

Guo?, Bihong; Lin?, Jinzhong; Ye?, Keqiong

2011-01-01

27

Identification of cis-elements for ethylene and circadian regulation of the Solanum melongena gene encoding cysteine proteinase.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have previously shown that the expression of SmCP which encodes Solanum melongena cysteine proteinase is ethylene-inducible and is under circadian control. To understand the regulation of SmCP, a 1.34-kb SmCP 5'-flanking region and its deletion derivatives were analyzed for cis-elements using GUS and luc fusions and by in vitro binding assays. Analysis of transgenic tobacco transformed with SmCP promoter-GUS constructs confirmed that the promoter region -415/+54 containing Ethylene Responsive Element ERE(-355/-348) conferred threefold ethylene-induction of GUS expression, while -827/+54 which also contains ERE(-683/-676), produced fivefold induction. Using gel mobility shift assays, we demonstrated that each ERE binds nuclear proteins from both ethephon-treated and untreated 5-week-old seedlings, suggesting that different transcriptions factors bind each ERE under varying physiological conditions. Binding was also observed in extracts from senescent, but not young, fruits. The variation in binding at the EREs in fruits and seedlings imply that organ-specific factors may participate in binding. Analysis of transgenic tobacco expressing various SmCP promoter-luc constructs containing wild-type or mutant Evening Elements (EEs) confirmed that both conserved EEs at -795/-787 and -785/-777 are important in circadian control. We confirmed the binding of total nuclear proteins to EEs in gel mobility shift assays and in DNase I footprinting. Our results suggest that multiple proteins bind the EEs which are conserved in plants other than Arabidopsis and that functional EEs and EREs are present in the 5'-flanking region of a gene encoding cysteine proteinase. PMID:15988560

Rawat, Reetika; Xu, Zeng-Fu; Yao, Kwok-Ming; Chye, Mee-Len

2005-03-01

28

Response of digestive cysteine proteinases from the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) and the black vine weevil (Otiorynchus sulcatus) to a recombinant form of human stefin A.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of the cystatins, human stefin A (HSA) and oryzacystatin I (OCI) on digestive cysteine proteinases of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and the black vine weevil (BVW), Otiorynchus sulcatus, were assessed using complementary inhibition assays, cystatin-affinity chromatography, and recombinant forms of the two inhibitors. For both insects, either HSA and OCI used in excess (10 or 20 microM) caused partial and stable inhibition of total proteolytic (azocaseinase) activity, but unlike for OCI the HSA-mediated inhibitions were significantly increased when the inhibitor was used in large excess (100 microM). As demonstrated by complementary inhibition assays, this two-step inhibition of the insect proteases by HSA was due to the differential inactivation of two distinct cysteine proteinase populations in either insect extracts, the rapidly (strongly) inhibited population corresponding to the OCI-sensitive fraction. After removing the cystatin-sensitive proteinases from CPB and BVW midgut extracts using OCI- (or HSA-) affinity chromatography, the effects of the insect "non-target" proteases on the structural integrity of the two cystatins were assessed. While OCI remained essentially stable, HSA was subjected to hydrolysis without the accumulation of detectable stable intermediates, suggesting the presence of multiple exposed cleavage sites sensitive to the action of the insect proteases on this cystatin. This apparent susceptibility of HSA to proteolytic cleavage may partially explain its low efficiency to inactivate the insect OCI-insensitive cysteine proteinases when not used in large excess. It could also have major implications when planning the use of cystatin-expressing transgenic plants for the control of coleopteran pests. PMID:8920105

Michaud, D; Nguyen-Quoc, B; Vrain, T C; Fong, D; Yelle, S

1996-01-01

29

Partial purification and characterization of cysteine proteinase inhibitor from chicken plasma.  

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A high-molecular-weight cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CPI) was purified from chicken (Gallus gallus) plasma using polyethylene glycol (PEG) fractionation and affinity chromatography on carboxymethyl-papain-Sepharose-4B. The CPI was purified 96.8-fold with a yield of 28.9%. Based on inhibitory activity staining for papain, CPI was shown to have an apparent molecular mass of 122 kDa. No inhibitory activity was obtained under reducing condition, indicating that CPI from chicken plasma was stabilized by disulfide bonds. CPI was stable in temperature ranges from 40 to 70 degrees C for 10 min; however, more than 50% of the inhibitory activity towards papain was lost within 30 min of heating at 90 degrees C. CPI was stable in the presence of salt up to 3%. The purified CPI exhibited the inhibitory activity toward autolysis of arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Pacific whiting (Merluccius productus) natural actomyosin (NAM) in a concentration-dependent manner. PMID:16815719

Rawdkuen, Saroat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Lanier, Tyre C

2006-08-01

30

Development of an in vitro cleavage assay system to examine vaccinia virus I7L cysteine proteinase activity  

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Full Text Available Abstract Through the use of transient expression assays and directed genetics, the vaccinia virus (VV I7L gene product has been implicated as the major maturational proteinase required for viral core protein cleavage to occur during virion assembly. To confirm this hypothesis and to enable a biochemical examination of the I7L cysteine proteinase, an in vitro cleavage assay was developed. Using extracts of VV infected cells as the source of enzyme, reaction conditions were developed which allowed accurate and efficient cleavage of exogenously added core protein precursors (P4a, P4b and P25K. The cleavage reaction proceeded in a time-dependent manner and was optimal when incubated at 25°C. I7L-mediated cleavage was not affected by selected inhibitors of metalloproteinases, aspartic acid proteinases or serine proteinases (EDTA, pepstatin, and PMSF, respectively, but was sensitive to several general cysteine proteinase inhibitors (E-64, EST, Iodoacetic acid, and NEM as well as the I7L active site inhibitor TTP-6171 [C. Byrd et al., J. Virol. 78:12147–12156 (2004]. Finally, in antibody pull down experiments, it could be demonstrated that monospecific ?I7L serum depleted the enzyme activity whereas control sera including ?G1L, directed against the VV metalloproteinase, did not. Taken together, these data provide biochemical evidence that I7L is a cysteine proteinase which is directly involved in VV core protein cleavage. Furthermore, establishment of this I7L-mediated in vitro cleavage assay should enable future studies into the enzymology and co-factor requirements of the proteolysis reaction, and facilitate antiviral drug development against this essential target.

Hruby Dennis E

2005-08-01

31

Cysteine proteinases of Trypanosoma cruzi: from digestive enzymes to programmed cell death  

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Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite causing Chagas disease, contains a number of proteolytic enzymes. The recent completion of the genome sequence of the T. cruzi CL Brener clone suggests the presence of 70 cysteine peptidases, 40 serine peptidases (none of them from the chymotrypsin family, about 250 metallopeptidases (most leishmanolysin homologues, 25 threonine peptidases, and only two aspartyl peptidases, none of them from the pepsin family. The cysteine peptidases belong to 7 families of Clan CA, 3 families of Clan CD, and one each of Clans CE and CF. In Clan CA, the C1 family is represented by cruzipains 1 and 2, biochemically well characterized, as well as cathepsin B and two other cathepsins. There are a number of homologues to calpains (family C2, probably non-functional, lacking the Ca-binding domain. Family C54 includes the Atg4 proteinases (autophagins, which seem to be involved in the autophagic process. Clan CD includes family C14, the metacaspases. We have expressed the metacaspases TcMCA3 and TcMCA5, and obtained indirect evidence of their participation in programmed cell death induced by fresh human serum in the parasite. More experiments are required to better define their role in apoptosis.

Gregor Kosec

2006-12-01

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Cysteine proteinases of Trypanosoma cruzi: from digestive enzymes to programmed cell death  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite causing Chagas disease, contains a number of proteolytic enzymes. The recent completion of the genome sequence of the T. cruzi CL Brener clone suggests the presence of 70 cysteine peptidases, 40 serine peptidases (none of them from the chymotrypsin family), about 250 [...] metallopeptidases (most leishmanolysin homologues), 25 threonine peptidases, and only two aspartyl peptidases, none of them from the pepsin family. The cysteine peptidases belong to 7 families of Clan CA, 3 families of Clan CD, and one each of Clans CE and CF. In Clan CA, the C1 family is represented by cruzipains 1 and 2, biochemically well characterized, as well as cathepsin B and two other cathepsins. There are a number of homologues to calpains (family C2), probably non-functional, lacking the Ca-binding domain. Family C54 includes the Atg4 proteinases (autophagins), which seem to be involved in the autophagic process. Clan CD includes family C14, the metacaspases. We have expressed the metacaspases TcMCA3 and TcMCA5, and obtained indirect evidence of their participation in programmed cell death induced by fresh human serum in the parasite. More experiments are required to better define their role in apoptosis.

Gregor, Kosec; Vanina, Alvarez; Juan J., Cazzulo.

2006-12-01

33

Action of plant proteinase inhibitors on enzymes of physiopathological importance  

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Full Text Available Obtained from leguminous seeds, various plant proteins inhibit animal proteinases, including human, and can be considered for the development of compounds with biological activity. Inhibitors from the Bowman-Birk and plant Kunitz-type family have been characterized by proteinase specificity, primary structure and reactive site. Our group mostly studies the genus Bauhinia, mainly the species bauhinioides, rufa, ungulata and variegata. In some species, more than one inhibitor was characterized, exhibiting different properties. Although proteins from this group share high structural similarity, they present differences in proteinase inhibition, explored in studies using diverse biological models.Obtidas de sementes leguminosas, várias proteínas inibem proteinases de origem animal, incluindo humanas, e podem ser consideradas para o desenvolvimento de compostos com atividade biológica. Inibidores da família Bowman-Birk e da família Kunitz vegetal tem sido caracterizados em relação a especificidade para proteinase, estrutura primária e sitio reativo. O nosso grupo majoritariamente vem estudando o gênero Bauhinia, principalmente as espécies bauhinioides, rufa, ungulatae variegata. Em algumas espécies, mais de um inibidor com propriedades diferentes foi caracterizado. Embora tais proteínas apresentem alta similaridade estrutural, diferem quanto à inibição de proteinases, e foram exploradas em estudos utilizando diversos modelos biológicos.

Maria Luiza V. Oliva

2009-09-01

34

Trypanoplasma borreli cystein proteinase activities support a conservation of function with respect to digestion of host proteins in common carp  

OpenAIRE

Trypanoplasma borreli is an extracellular parasite that is transmitted by a leech vector and is naturally found in the blood of cyprinid fish. High parasitemia and associated severe anemia together with splenomegaly are typical of infection of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Papain-like cysteine proteinases expressed by trypanosome parasites contribute to the pathogenicity of trypanosomes, and are considered an important target for the development of new trypanocidal drugs. T. borreli is a me...

Ruszczyk, A.; Forlenza, M.; Joerink, M.; Ribeiro, C. M. S.; Jurecka, P. M.; Wiegertjes, G. F.

2008-01-01

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Proregion of Acanthoscelides obtectus cysteine proteinase: a novel peptide with enhanced selectivity toward endogenous enzymes.  

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Acanthoscelides obtectus is a devastating storage insect pest capable of causing severe bean crop losses. In order to maintain their own development, insect pest larvae feed continuously, synthesizing efficient digestive enzymes. Among them, cysteine proteinases (CPs) are commonly produced as inactive precursors (procysteines), requiring a cleavage of the peptide proregion to become active. The proregion fits tightly into the active site of procysteines, efficiently preventing their activity. In this report, a CP cDNA (cpao) was isolated from A. obtectus midgut larvae. In silico studies indicated that the complete CP sequence contains a hydrophobic signal peptide, a prodomain and a conserved catalytic region. Moreover, the encoding cDNA contains 963bp translating into a 321 residue protein, CPAo, which was expressed in E. coli, fused with thioredoxin. Enzymatic assays using the recombinant protein revealed that the enzyme was catalytically active, being able to cleave the synthetic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-7-AMC. Additionally, this report also focuses the cpao propeptide (PCPAo) subcloning and expression. The expressed propeptide efficiently inhibited CPAo, as well as digestive CP of other bean bruchids. Little or no activity was found against proteolytic enzymes of two other coleopterans: Rhyzopertha dominica and Anthonomus grandis. The data reported here indicate the possibility of endogenous propeptides as a novel strategy on bruchids control, which could be applicable to bean improvement programs. PMID:17485144

Silva, F B; Monteiro, A C S; Del Sarto, R P; Marra, B M; Dias, S C; Figueira, E L Z; Oliveira, G R; Rocha, T L; Souza, D S L; da Silva, M C M; Franco, O L; Grossi-de-Sa, M F

2007-06-01

36

Characterisation of cysteine proteinases responsible for digestive proteolysis in guts of larval Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera) by expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris  

OpenAIRE

Cysteine proteinases are the major class of enzymes responsible for digestive proteolysis in western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera), a serious pest of maize. A larval gut extract hydrolysed typical cathepsin substrates, such as Z-phe-arg-AMC and Z-arg-arg-AMC, and hydrolysis was inhibited by Z-phe-tyr-DMK, specific for cathepsin L. A cDNA library representing larval gut tissue mRNA contained cysteine proteinase-encoding clones at high frequency. Sequence analysis of 11 cysteine proteina...

Bown, D. P.; Wilkinson, H. S.; Jongsma, M. A.; Gatehouse, J. A.

2004-01-01

37

Development of an in vitro cleavage assay system to examine vaccinia virus I7L cysteine proteinase activity  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Through the use of transient expression assays and directed genetics, the vaccinia virus (VV) I7L gene product has been implicated as the major maturational proteinase required for viral core protein cleavage to occur during virion assembly. To confirm this hypothesis and to enable a biochemical examination of the I7L cysteine proteinase, an in vitro cleavage assay was developed. Using extracts of VV infected cells as the source of enzyme, reaction conditions were ...

Hruby Dennis E; Byrd Chelsea M

2005-01-01

38

Molecular cloning and functional expression of cDNA encoding a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, cystatin, from Job's tears (Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. Ma-yuen Stapf).  

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A lambdaZAP II cDNA library was constructed from mRNA in immature seeds of the grass Job's tears. A cDNA clone for a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, cystatin, was isolated from the library. The cDNA clone spanned 757 base pairs and encoded 135 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence was similar to that of cystatins from the gramineous plants rice, sorghum, and corn. The central Gln-Val-Val-Ala-Gly sequence thought to be one of the binding sites of cystatins was found. A remarkable characteristic of the peptide sequence of Job's-tears cystatin was the putative signal peptide that has been found in sorghum and corn but not in rice. The cystatin cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged recombinant protein. The purified recombinant protein inhibited papain. PMID:12450152

Yoza, Koh-Ichi; Nakamura, Sumiko; Yaguchi, Miki; Haraguchi, Kazutomo; Ohtsubo, Ken-Ichi

2002-10-01

39

Human breast and colon carcinomas express cysteine proteinase activities with pro-aggregating and pro-coagulant properties.  

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We have investigated concomitantly the pro-aggregating and pro-coagulant activities of 11 breast and 2 colon human carcinomas. Tumor tissues, obtained at surgery, were immediately processed to prepare tumor-cell suspensions for the study of aggregating activity and tissue extracts for the study of procoagulant capacity. Nine carcinomas (8 breast and 1 colon) possessed a high, dose-dependent platelet-aggregating activity, which was present in the cell-free supernatant and was inhibited by HgCl2 and iodoacetic acid, specific cysteine proteinase inhibitors, while apyrase and hirudin had no significant effect; in contrast, the other tumors did not aggregate platelets. All the tumor extracts tested from 12 carcinomas (11 breast and 1 colon) were able to activate blood coagulation in both the presence and the absence of F VII. The activity was inhibited by HgCl2 and iodoacetamide, while Con A was less effective. Therefore, these tumors do not aggregate platelets through the production of ADP or thrombin, nor promote blood coagulation through the production and release of tissue factor; a tumor-associated cysteine proteinase plays a major role in both pro-aggregating and pro-coagulant activities. PMID:3170028

Grignani, G; Falanga, A; Pacchiarini, L; Alessio, M G; Zucchella, M; Fratino, P; Donati, M B

1988-10-15

40

Molecular karyotype and chromosomal localization of genes encoding ß-tubulin, cysteine proteinase, hsp 70 and actin in Trypanosoma rangeli  

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Full Text Available The molecular karyotype of nine Trypanosoma rangeli strains was analyzed by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis, followed by the chromosomal localization of ß-tubulin, cysteine proteinase, 70 kDa heat shock protein (hsp 70 and actin genes. The T. rangeli strains were isolated from either insects or mammals from El Salvador, Honduras, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama and southern Brazil. Also, T. cruzi CL-Brener clone was included for comparison. Despite the great similarity observed among strains from Brazil, the molecular karyotype of all T. rangeli strains analyzed revealed extensive chromosome polymorphism. In addition, it was possible to distinguish T. rangeli from T. cruzi by the chromosomal DNA electrophoresis pattern. The localization of ß-tubulin genes revealed differences among T. rangeli strains and confirmed the similarity between the isolates from Brazil. Hybridization assays using probes directed to the cysteine proteinase, hsp 70 and actin genes discriminated T. rangeli from T. cruzi, proving that these genes are useful molecular markers for the differential diagnosis between these two species. Numerical analysis based on the molecular karyotype data revealed a high degree of polymorphism among T. rangeli strains isolated from southern Brazil and strains isolated from Central and the northern South America. The T. cruzi reference strain was not clustered with any T. rangeli strain.

Toaldo CB

2001-01-01

41

Molecular karyotype and chromosomal localization of genes encoding ß-tubulin, cysteine proteinase, hsp 70 and actin in Trypanosoma rangeli  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The molecular karyotype of nine Trypanosoma rangeli strains was analyzed by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis, followed by the chromosomal localization of ß-tubulin, cysteine proteinase, 70 kDa heat shock protein (hsp 70) and actin genes. The T. rangeli strains were isolated [...] from either insects or mammals from El Salvador, Honduras, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama and southern Brazil. Also, T. cruzi CL-Brener clone was included for comparison. Despite the great similarity observed among strains from Brazil, the molecular karyotype of all T. rangeli strains analyzed revealed extensive chromosome polymorphism. In addition, it was possible to distinguish T. rangeli from T. cruzi by the chromosomal DNA electrophoresis pattern. The localization of ß-tubulin genes revealed differences among T. rangeli strains and confirmed the similarity between the isolates from Brazil. Hybridization assays using probes directed to the cysteine proteinase, hsp 70 and actin genes discriminated T. rangeli from T. cruzi, proving that these genes are useful molecular markers for the differential diagnosis between these two species. Numerical analysis based on the molecular karyotype data revealed a high degree of polymorphism among T. rangeli strains isolated from southern Brazil and strains isolated from Central and the northern South America. The T. cruzi reference strain was not clustered with any T. rangeli strain.

CB, Toaldo; M, Steindel; MA, Sousa; CC, Tavares.

2001-01-01

42

The families of papain- and legumain-like cysteine proteinases from embryonic axes and cotyledons of Vicia seeds: developmental patterns, intracellular localization and functions in globulin proteolysis.  

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Families of papain- and legumain-like cysteine proteinases (CPR) were found in Vicia seeds. cDNAs and antibodies were used to follow organ specificity and the developmental course of CPR-specific mRNAs and polypeptides. Four papain-like cysteine proteinases (CPR1, CPR2, proteinase A and CPR4) from vetch seeds (Vicia sativa L.) were analysed. CPR2 and its mRNA were already found in dry embryonic axes. CPR1 was only detected there during early germination. Both CPR1 and CPR2 strongly increased later during germination. In cotyledons, both CPR1 and CPR2 were only observed one to two days later than in the axis. Proteinase A was not found in axes. In cotyledons it could only be detected several days after seeds had germinated. CPR4 mRNA and polypeptide were already present in embryonic axes and cotyledons during seed maturation and decreased in both organs during germination. Purified CPR1, CPR2 and proteinase A exhibited partially different patterns of globulin degradation products in vitro. Although the cDNA-deduced amino acid sequence of the precursor of proteinase A has an N-terminal signal peptide, the enzyme was not found in vacuoles whereas the other papain-like CPRs showed vacuolar localization. Four different legumain-like cysteine proteinases (VsPB2, proteinase B, VnPB1 and VnPB2) of Vicia species were analysed. Proteinase B and VnPB1 mRNAs were detected in cotyledons and seedling organs after seeds had germinated. Proteinase B degraded globulins isolated from mature vetch seeds in vitro. VsPB2 and proteinase B are localized to protein bodies of maturing seeds and seedlings, respectively, of V. sativa. Like VsPB2 from V sativa, also VnPB2 of V. narbonensis corresponds to vacuolar processing enzymes (betaVPE). Based on these results different functions in molecular maturation and mobilization of storage proteins could be attributed to the various members of the CPR families. PMID:10949376

Fischer, J; Becker, C; Hillmer, S; Horstmann, C; Neubohn, B; Schlereth, A; Senyuk, V; Shutov, A; Müntz, K

2000-05-01

43

Inactivation of the serine proteinase operon (proMCD) of Staphylococcus warneri M: serine proteinase and cysteine proteases are involved in the autolysis.  

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Unlike other members of coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), strain warneri has proMCD operon, a homologue of sspABC proteinase operon of S. aureus. The proM and proC encode serine glutamyl endopeptidase and cysteine protease respectively, whereas proD directs homologue of SspC, putative cytoplasmic inhibitor which protects the host bacterium from premature activation of SspB. We determined whole nucleotide sequence of proMCD operon of S. warneri M, succeeded in expression of these genes, and investigated their functions by gene inactivation and complementation experiments. In gelatin zymography of the culture supernatant, a 20-kDa band corresponding to PROC cysteine protease was detected. By Western blotting, PROD was also confirmed in the cytoplasmic protein fraction. PROC and PROD showed significant similarity to SspB and SspC of S. aureus (73% and 58%, respectively). Inactivation mutants of proMCD, proCD and proD genes were established, separately. In the proMCD mutant, degradation/processing of extracellular proteins was drastically reduced, suggesting that PROM was responsible for the cleavage of extracellular proteins. By the proD mutation, the growth profile was not affected, and secretion of PROC was retained. Extracellular protein profiles of the proCD and proD mutants were not so different each other, but autolysin profiles were slightly dissimilar, around 39-48 kDa and 20kDa bands in zymogram. Experiments in buffer systems showed that autolysis was significantly diminished in proMCD mutant, and was promoted by addition of purified PROM. The proC gene was cloned into a multicopy plasmid, and introduced into the proMCD mutant. Compared with the wild type, autolysis of the proC-complemented strain was definitely enhanced by addition of purified PROM. These results suggested that PROM and PROC affected the coccal autolysis, through processing of the autolysin. PMID:23107764

Yokoi, Ken-Ji; Kuzuwa, Shinya; Kondo, Mitsuru; Yamakawa, Ayanori; Taketo, Akira; Kodaira, Ken-Ichi

2013-01-10

44

Enhanced Protective Efficacy of Nonpathogenic Recombinant Leishmania tarentolae Expressing Cysteine Proteinases Combined with a Sand Fly Salivary Antigen  

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Background Novel vaccination approaches are needed to prevent leishmaniasis. Live attenuated vaccines are the gold standard for protection against intracellular pathogens such as Leishmania and there have been new developments in this field. The nonpathogenic to humans lizard protozoan parasite, Leishmania (L) tarentolae, has been used effectively as a vaccine platform against visceral leishmaniasis in experimental animal models. Correspondingly, pre-exposure to sand fly saliva or immunization with a salivary protein has been shown to protect mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we tested the efficacy of a novel combination of established protective parasite antigens expressed by L. tarentolae together with a sand fly salivary antigen as a vaccine strategy against L. major infection. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of different DNA/Live and Live/Live prime-boost vaccination modalities with live recombinant L. tarentolae stably expressing cysteine proteinases (type I and II, CPA/CPB) and PpSP15, an immunogenic salivary protein from Phlebotomus papatasi, a natural vector of L. major, were tested both in susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 mice. Both humoral and cellular immune responses were assessed before challenge and at 3 and 10 weeks after Leishmania infection. In both strains of mice, the strongest protective effect was observed when priming with PpSP15 DNA and boosting with PpSP15 DNA and live recombinant L. tarentolae stably expressing cysteine proteinase genes. Conclusion/Significance The present study is the first to use a combination of recombinant L. tarentolae with a sand fly salivary antigen (PpSP15) and represents a novel promising vaccination approach against leishmaniasis. PMID:24675711

Taheri, Tahereh; Taslimi, Yasaman; Doustdari, Fatemeh; Seyed, Negar; Torkashvand, Fatemeh; Meneses, Claudio; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Rafati, Sima

2014-01-01

45

Comparison of clinical and environmental isolates of Acanthamoeba based on morphology, protease and gelatinase activity, and the cysteine proteinase gene  

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Full Text Available Acanthamoeba spp. are opportunistic pathogens that cause amebic keratitis and granulomatous amebic encephalitis in man. Recent attempts to correlate pathogenicity with species have been proven difficult due to inconsistencies in morphology-based classification. The objectives of this study were: (1 to compare clinical and environmental isolates based on morphology, protease and gelatinase activity, and the cysteine proteinase (CP gene, and (2 to determine whether these features can be used to differentiate the isolates. Results show some degree of variation in trophozoite and cyst morphology. Zymography, demonstrated gross differences in banding patterns, and the protease activity of clinical isolates was greater than the environmental isolates (p-value < 0.01. Amplification of the CP gene yielded two bands in the environmental isolates, approximately 755 bp and 440 bp in length. In contrast, only one band, either the 755 bp or 440 bp band was amplified in the clinical isolates. The results confirmed the limitations of morphology in differentiating Acanthamoeba species, and suggest that zymography, protease activity, and detection of the CP gene are useful reference tests to distinguish pathogenic from non-pathogenic isolates.

Gil M. Penuliar

2010-06-01

46

The TvLEGU-1, a legumain-like cysteine proteinase, plays a key role in Trichomonas vaginalis cytoadherence.  

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The goal of this paper was to characterize a Trichomonas vaginalis cysteine proteinase (CP) legumain-1 (TvLEGU-1) and determine its potential role as a virulence factor during T. vaginalis infection. A 30-kDa band, which migrates in three protein spots (pI~6.3, ~6.5, and ~6.7) with a different type and level of phosphorylation, was identified as TvLEGU-1 by one- and two-dimensional Western blot (WB) assays, using a protease-rich trichomonad extract and polyclonal antibodies produced against the recombinant TvLEGU-1 (anti-TvLEGU-1r). Its identification was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Immunofluorescence, cell binding, and WB assays showed that TvLEGU-1 is upregulated by iron at the protein level, localized on the trichomonad surface and in lysosomes and Golgi complex, bound to the surface of HeLa cells, and was found in vaginal secretions. Additionally, the IgG and Fab fractions of the anti-TvLEGU-1r antibody inhibited trichomonal cytoadherence up to 45%. Moreover, the Aza-Peptidyl Michael Acceptor that inhibited legumain proteolytic activity in live parasites also reduced levels of trichomonal cytoadherence up to 80%. In conclusion, our data show that the proteolytic activity of TvLEGU-1 is necessary for trichomonal adherence. Thus, TvLEGU-1 is a novel virulence factor upregulated by iron. This is the first report that a legumain-like CP plays a role in a pathogen cytoadherence. PMID:23509742

Rendón-Gandarilla, Francisco Javier; Ramón-Luing, Lucero de Los Angeles; Ortega-López, Jaime; Rosa de Andrade, Ivone; Benchimol, Marlene; Arroyo, Rossana

2013-01-01

47

Immunological cross-reactivity of the major allergen from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), Lol p I, and the cysteine proteinase, bromelain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibodies prepared in rabbits against the major allergen from ryegrass (Lolium perenne), Lol p I, cross-reacted with the cysteine proteinase bromelain from pineapple and vice versa. Deglycosylation of the proteins showed that the cross-reaction was based on recognition of the carbohydrate moiety of the allergen, but for bromelain the cross-reaction was most likely due to a combination of factors. The results indicate that the carbohydrate residues from these allergens play an important role in cross-reactions found between them and possibly those from other species. PMID:9104799

Pike, R N; Bagarozzi, D; Travis, J

1997-04-01

48

Relationship between the cysteine-proteinase-inhibitory function of rat T kininogen and the release of immunoreactive kinin upon trypsin treatment.  

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The potential kininogenic function of rat T kininogen has been studied in parallel with the cysteine-proteinase-inhibitory function also carried by this molecule. Proteolytic cleavage of the molecule was observed upon incubation with catalytic amounts of trypsin. These conditions do not permit any significant release of immunoreactive kinin and do not modify the total papain-inhibiting capacity of T kininogen. As trypsin concentration increases in the reaction mixture, immunoreactive kinin is liberated and the total papain-inhibiting capacity decreases accordingly, as indicated by titration studies. This decrease, however, does not exceed 50% of the initial value even at a trypsin concentration as high as 75 microM, indicating that only one of the two inhibitory sites has been inactivated. The remaining inhibitory fragment corresponds to a peptide of apparent Mr 24 000, which binds papain at least as well as native T kininogen. T kininogen, therefore, appears as a potent proteinase inhibitor and/or a proteinase inhibitor precursor, whereas its kininogenic function remains questionable since no specific kininogenase able to release T kinin or another kinin under physiologically compatible conditions has been found so far. PMID:3530756

Moreau, T; Gutman, N; el Moujahed, A; Esnard, F; Gauthier, F

1986-09-01

49

Successive use of non-host plant proteinase inhibitors required for effective inhibition of helicoverpa armigera gut proteinases and larval growth  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on the efficacy of proteinase inhibitors (PIs) from three host plants (chickpea [Cicer arietinum], pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan], and cotton [Gossypium arboreum]) and three non-host (groundnut [Arachis hypogea], winged bean [Psophocarpus tetragonolobus], and potato [Solanum tuberosum]) in retarding the growth of Helicoverpa armigera larvae, a devastating pest of important crop plants. Enzyme assays and electrophoretic analysis of interaction of H. armigera gut proteinases (HGPs) with PIs revealed that non-host PIs inhibited HGP activity efficiently whereas host PIs were ineffective. In the electrophoretic assay, trypsin inhibitor activity bands were detected in all of the host and non-host plants, but HGP inhibitor activity bands were present only in non-host plants (except cotton in the host plant group). H. armigera larvae reared on a diet containing non-host PIs showed growth retardation, a reduction in total and trypsin-like proteinase activity, and the production of inhibitor-insensitive proteinases. Electrophoretic analysis of PI-induced HGP showed differential regulation of proteinase isoforms. Interestingly, HGP activity induced in response to dietary potato PI-II was inhibited by winged bean PIs. The optimized combination of potato PI-II and winged bean PIs identified in the present study and their proposed successive use has potential in developing H. armigera-resistant transgenic plants. PMID:10517841

Harsulkar; Giri; Patankar; Gupta; Sainani; Ranjekar; Deshpande

1999-10-01

50

Global proteome changes in larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae:Bruchinae) following ingestion of a cysteine proteinase inhibitor  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The seed-feeding beetle Callosobruchus maculatus is an important cowpea pest (Vigna unguiculata) as well as an interesting model to study insect digestive physiology. The larvae of C. maculatus rely on cysteine and aspartic peptidases to digest proteins in their diet. In this work, the global proteomic changes induced in the intestinal tract of larval C. maculatus challenged by the ingestion of cystatin, a cysteine peptidase inhibitor, was investigated by a nanoLC-MS/MS approach. The ingestion of cystatin caused a delay in the development of the larvae, but the mortality was not high, indicating that C. maculatus is able to adapt to this inhibitor. This proteomic strategy resulted in the identification of 752 and 550 protein groups in the midgut epithelia and midgut contents, respectively, and quantitative analyses allowed us to establish relative differences of the identified proteins. Ingestion of cystatin led to significant changes in the proteome of both the midgut epithelia and midgut contents. We have observed that proteins related to plant cell wall degradation, particularly the key glycoside hydrolases of the families GH5 (endo-?-1,4-mannanase) and GH 28 (polygalacturonase) were overexpressed. Conversely, ?-amylases were downexpressed, indicating that an increase in hemicelluloses digestion helps the larvae to cope with the challenge of cystatin ingestion. Furthermore, a number of proteins associated with transcription/translation and antistress reactions were among the cystatin-responsive proteins, implying that a substantial rearrangement in the proteome occurred in C. maculatus exposed to the inhibitor.

Nogueira, Fábio C S; Silva, Carlos P

2012-01-01

51

Global proteome changes in larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae:Bruchinae) following ingestion of a cysteine proteinase inhibitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The seed-feeding beetle Callosobruchus maculatus is an important cowpea pest (Vigna unguiculata) as well as an interesting model to study insect digestive physiology. The larvae of C. maculatus rely on cysteine and aspartic peptidases to digest proteins in their diet. In this work, the global proteomic changes induced in the intestinal tract of larval C. maculatus challenged by the ingestion of cystatin, a cysteine peptidase inhibitor, was investigated by a nanoLC-MS/MS approach. The ingestion of cystatin caused a delay in the development of the larvae, but the mortality was not high, indicating that C. maculatus is able to adapt to this inhibitor. This proteomic strategy resulted in the identification of 752 and 550 protein groups in the midgut epithelia and midgut contents, respectively, and quantitative analyses allowed us to establish relative differences of the identified proteins. Ingestion of cystatin led to significant changes in the proteome of both the midgut epithelia and midgut contents. We have observed that proteins related to plant cell wall degradation, particularly the key glycoside hydrolases of the families GH5 (endo-?-1,4-mannanase) and GH 28 (polygalacturonase) were overexpressed. Conversely, ?-amylases were downexpressed, indicating that an increase in hemicelluloses digestion helps the larvae to cope with the challenge of cystatin ingestion. Furthermore, a number of proteins associated with transcription/translation and antistress reactions were among the cystatin-responsive proteins, implying that a substantial rearrangement in the proteome occurred in C. maculatus exposed to the inhibitor. PMID:22833537

Nogueira, Fábio C S; Silva, Carlos P; Alexandre, Daniel; Samuels, Richard I; Soares, Emanoella L; Aragão, Francisco J L; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Domont, Gilberto B; Roepstorff, Peter; Campos, Francisco A P

2012-08-01

52

In-silico comparative study of inhibitory mechanism of Plant Serine Proteinase Inhibitors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nematodes like root-knot and cyst are plant-parasitic pest found in horticultural and agricultural crops. They do damages in the roots of plants as a result losses million tons of production. High cost of nematicides and environment safety concern has necessitated finding of some alternative methods. Under Integrated Pest Management (IPM) such problems are solving significantly by means of target gene inhibition, agrobacterium mediated transformation etc. One of this strategy use Plant Proteinase Inhibitors (PIs) gene which are used to control the proteolysis mechanism of Pest by inhibiting gut Serine Proteinase (SP). Present work investigates the utility of computer aided methods to study the mechanism of Protein-Protein interactions and thereby inhibition of Serine Proteinase by PIs. Hence 3D models of Serine Proteinase as well as Serine Proteinase Inhibitors (SPIs) generated using homology modeling. Validations of constructed models have been done by PROCHECK, VERIFY3D, ERRAT and PROSA. Prediction of Protein interacting surface patches and site specific protein docking was performed by using ZDOCK Server. Backbone refinement of output protein complexes was executed in Fiber Dock server. Interaction study between SP and SPIs complexes shows their comparative inhibition efficacy, measured in terms of number of hydrogen bonds, Van dar wall attraction and docking energy. This work reported that Vigna marina and Phaseolus oligospermus are having better inhibition efficiency in comparison to other inhibitors. PMID:23055608

Siva Prasad, Chekkara Venkata Sathya; Gupta, Saurabh; Gaponenko, Alex; Dhar, Murli

2012-01-01

53

The Characterization of SaPIN2b, a Plant Trichome-Localized Proteinase Inhibitor from Solanum americanum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Proteinase inhibitors play an important role in plant resistance of insects and pathogens. In this study, we characterized the serine proteinase inhibitor SaPIN2b, which is constitutively expressed in Solanum americanum trichomes and contains two conserved motifs of the proteinase inhibitor II (PIN2 family. The recombinant SaPIN2b (rSaPIN2b, which was expressed in Escherichia coli, was demonstrated to be a potent proteinase inhibitor against a panel of serine proteinases, including subtilisin A, chymotrypsin and trypsin. Moreover, rSaPIN2b also effectively inhibited the proteinase activities of midgut trypsin-like proteinases that were extracted from the devastating pest Helicoverpa armigera. Furthermore, the overexpression of SaPIN2b in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in enhanced resistance against H. armigera. Taken together, our results demonstrated that SaPIN2b is a potent serine proteinase inhibitor that may act as a protective protein in plant defense against insect attacks.

Zeng-Fu Xu

2012-11-01

54

In silico predicted epitopes from the COOH-terminal extension of cysteine proteinase B inducing distinct immune responses during Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis experimental murine infection  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Leishmania parasites have been reported to interfere and even subvert their host immune responses to enhance their chances of survival and proliferation. Experimental Leishmania infection in mice has been widely used in the identification of specific parasite virulence factors involved in the interaction with the host immune system. Cysteine-proteinase B (CPB) is an important virulence factor in parasites from the Leishmania (Leishman...

As, Pereira Bernardo; Silva Franklin S; Rebello Karina M; Marín-Villa Marcel; Traub-Cseko Yara M; Cb, Andrade Thereza; Bertho Álvaro L; Caffarena Ernesto R; Alves Carlos R

2011-01-01

55

Antitumor Effects In Vitro and In Vivo and Mechanisms of Protection against Melanoma B16F10-Nex2 Cells By Fastuosain, a Cysteine Proteinase from Bromelia fastuosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present work, the antitumor effect of fastuosain, a cysteine proteinase from Bromelia fastuosa, was investigated. In the intravenous model of lung colonization in C57BI/6 mice, fastuosain and bromelain injected intraperitoneally were protective, very few nodules of B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells were detected. Tumor cells treated with fastuosain showed reduced expression of CD44 and decreased invasion through Matrigel, lost their cytoplasmic extensions and substrate adherence, became round and detached, forming strongly bound cell clusters in suspension. Peritoneal cells recruited and activated by fastuosain treatment (mainly monocytic cells and lymphocytes migrated to the lung, where pulmonary melanoma metastases grew. Adoptive transference of peritoneal cells recruited by fastuosain had no protective effect against lung metastases in recipient mice. Treatment of green fluorescent protein -chimeric animals with fastuosain did not change the number of cells that migrated to the lung, compared to PBSinjected control mice, but the number of positive major histocompatibility complex class II cells increased with fastuosain treatment. Murine antibodies against fastuosain, bromelain, cathepsins B and L crossreacted in ELISA and recognized surface and cytoplasmic components expressed on B16F10-Nex2 cells. Anti-fastuosain antibodies were cytotoxic/lytic to B16F10-Nex2 cells. Antitumor effects of fastuosain involve mainly the direct effect of the enzyme and elicitation of protective antibodies.

Carla A. Guimarães-Ferreira

2007-09-01

56

Cysteine protease enhances plant-mediated bollworm RNA interference.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral ingestion of plant-expressed double stranded RNA (dsRNA) triggers target gene suppression in insect. An important step of this process is the transmission of dsRNA from plant to midgut cells. Insect peritrophic matrix (PM) presents a barrier that prevents large molecules from entering midgut cells. Here, we show that uptake of plant cysteine proteases, such as GhCP1 from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and AtCP2 from Arabidopsis, by cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) larvae resulted in attenuating the PM. When GhCP1 or AtCP2 pre-fed larvae were transferred to gossypol-containing diet, the bollworm accumulated higher content of gossypol in midgut. Larvae previously ingested GhCP1 or AtCP2 were more susceptible to infection by Dendrolimus punctatus cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (DpCPV), a dsRNA virus. Furthermore, the pre-fed larvae exhibited enhanced RNAi effects after ingestion of the dsRNA-expressing plant. The bollworm P450 gene CYP6AE14 is involved in the larval tolerance to gossypol; cotton plants producing dsRNA of CYP6AE14 (dsCYP6AE14) were more resistant to bollworm feeding (Mao et al. in Transgenic Res 20:665-673, 2011). We found that cotton plants harboring both 35S:dsCYP6AE14 and 35S:GhCP1 were better protected from bollworm than either of the single-transgene lines. Our results demonstrate that plant cysteine proteases, which have the activity of increasing PM permeability, can be used to improve the plant-mediated RNAi against herbivorous insects. PMID:23460027

Mao, Ying-Bo; Xue, Xue-Yi; Tao, Xiao-Yuan; Yang, Chang-Qing; Wang, Ling-Jian; Chen, Xiao-Ya

2013-09-01

57

The recombinant prepro region of TvCP4 is an inhibitor of cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinases of Trichomonas vaginalis that inhibits trichomonal haemolysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trichomonas vaginalis expresses multiple proteinases, mainly of the cysteine type (CPs). A cathepsin L-like 34kDa CP, designated TvCP4, is synthesized as a 305-amino-acid precursor protein. TvCP4 contains the prepro fragment and the catalytic triad that is typical of the papain-like CP family of clan CA. The aim of this work was to determine the function of the recombinant TvCP4 prepro region (ppTvCP4r) as a specific inhibitor of CPs. We cloned, expressed, and purified the recombinant TvCP4 prepro region. The conformation of the purified and refolded ppTvCP4r polypeptide was verified by circular dichroism spectroscopy and fluorescence emission spectra. The inhibitory effect of ppTvCP4r was tested on protease-resistant extracts from T. vaginalis using fluorogenic substrates for cathepsin L and legumain CPs. In 1-D zymograms, the inhibitory effect of ppTvCP4r on trichomonad CP proteolytic activity was observed in the ?97, 65, 39, and 30kDa regions. By using 2-D zymograms and mass spectrometry, several of the CPs inhibited by ppTvCP4r were identified. A clear reduction in the proteolytic activity of several cathepsin L-like protein spots (TvCP2, TvCP4, TvCP4-like, and TvCP39) was observed compared with the control zymogram. Moreover, pretreatment of live parasites with ppTvCP4r inhibited trichomonal haemolysis in a concentration dependent manner. These results confirm that the recombinant ppTvCP4 is a specific inhibitor of the proteolytic activity of cathepsin L-like T. vaginalis CPs that is useful for inhibiting virulence properties depending on clan CA papain-like CPs. PMID:25499446

Cárdenas-Guerra, Rosa Elena; Ortega-López, Jaime; Flores-Pucheta, Claudia Ivonne; Benítez-Cardoza, Claudia Guadalupe; Arroyo, Rossana

2015-02-01

58

Trichocystatin-2 (TC-2): an endogenous inhibitor of cysteine proteinases in Trichomonas vaginalis is associated with TvCP39.  

Science.gov (United States)

The causal agent of trichomoniasis is a parasitic protist, Trichomonas vaginalis, which is rich in proteolytic activity, primarily carried out by cysteine proteases (CPs). Some CPs are known virulence factors. T. vaginalis also possesses three genes encoding endogenous cystatin-like CP inhibitors. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize one of these CP inhibitors. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS), a cystatin-like peptidase inhibitor dubbed Trichocystatin-2 (TC-2) was identified in the T. vaginalis active degradome in association with TvCP39, a 39kDa CP involved in cytotoxicity. To characterize the TC-2 inhibitor, we cloned and expressed the tvicp-2 gene, purified the recombinant protein (TC-2r), and produced a specific polyclonal antibody (?-TC-2r). This antibody recognized a 10kDa protein band by western blotting. An indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and cell fractionation assays using the ?-TC-2r antibody showed that TC-2 was localized in the cytoplasm and lysosomes and that it colocalized with TvCP39. TC-2r showed inhibitory activity against papain, cathepsin-L, and TvCP39 in trichomonad extracts and live parasites but not legumain-like CPs. Live trichomonads treated with TC-2r showed reduced trichomonal cytotoxicity to HeLa cell monolayers in a TC-2r-concentration-dependent manner. In this study, we identified and characterized an endogenous cystatin-like inhibitor in T. vaginalis, TC-2, which is associated with TvCP39 and appears to regulate the cellular damage caused by T. vaginalis. PMID:25200185

Puente-Rivera, Jonathan; Ramón-Luing, Lucero de los Ángeles; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa Elvira; Ortega-López, Jaime; Arroyo, Rossana

2014-09-01

59

Signaling in the plant cytosol: cysteine or sulfide?  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysteine (Cys) is the first organic compound containing reduced sulfur that is synthesized in the last stage of plant photosynthetic assimilation of sulfate. It is a very important metabolite not only because it is crucial for the structure, function and regulation of proteins but also because it is the precursor molecule of an enormous number of sulfur-containing metabolites essential for plant health and development. The biosynthesis of Cys is accomplished by the sequential reaction of serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and O-acetylserine(thiol)synthase (OASTL). In Arabidopsis thaliana, the analysis of specific mutants of members of the SAT and OASTL families has demonstrated that the cytosol is the compartment where the bulk of Cys synthesis takes place and that the cytosolic OASTL enzyme OAS-A1 is the responsible enzyme. Another member of the OASTL family is DES1, a novel L-cysteine desulfhydrase that catalyzes the desulfuration of Cys to produce sulfide, thus acting in a manner opposite to that of OAS-A1. Detailed studies of the oas-a1 and des1 null mutants have revealed the involvement of the DES1 and OAS-A1 proteins in coordinate regulation of Cys homeostasis and the generation of sulfide in the cytosol for signaling purposes. Thus, the levels of Cys in the cytosol strongly affect plant responses to both abiotic and biotic stress conditions, while sulfide specifically generated from the degradation of Cys negatively regulates autophagy induced in different situations. In conclusion, modulation of the levels of Cys and sulfide is likely critical for plant performance. PMID:24990521

Gotor, Cecilia; Laureano-Marín, Ana M; Moreno, Inmaculada; Aroca, Angeles; García, Irene; Romero, Luis C

2014-07-01

60

Characterization of cysteine proteases in Malian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts form 10 different Malian medicinal plants with a traditional use against schistosomiasis were investigated for their possible content of proteolytic activity. The proteolytic activity was studied by measuring the hydrolysis of two synthetic peptide substrates Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec and Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec. Legumain- and papain-like activities were found in all tested crude extracts except those from Entada africana, with the papain-like activity being the strongest. Cissus quadrangularis, Securidaca longepedunculata and Stylosanthes erecta extracts showed high proteolytic activities towards both substrates. After gel filtration the proteolytic activity towards the substrate Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec in root extract of Securidaca longepedunculata appeared to have Mr of 30 and 97kDa, while the activity in extracts from Cissus quadrangularis was at 39kDa. Enzymatic activity cleaving the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec showed apparent Mr of 97 and 26kDa in extracts from roots and leaves of Securidaca longepedunculata, while in Cissus quadrangularis extracts the activity eluted at 39 and 20kDa, with the highest activity in the latter. All Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec activities were inhibited by E-64 but unaffected by PMSF. The legumain activity was unaffected by E-64 and PMSF. The SDS-PAGE analysis exhibited five distinct gelatinolytic bands for Cissus quadrangularis extracts (115, 59, 31, 22 and 20kDa), while two bands (59 and 30kDa) were detected in Securidaca longepedunculata extracts. The inhibition profile of the gelatinolytic bands and that of the hydrolysis of the synthetic substrates indicate the cysteine protease class of the proteolytic activities. Several cysteine protease activities with different molecular weights along with a strong variability of these activities between species as well as between plant parts from the same species were observed. PMID:16621376

Bah, Sékou; Paulsen, Berit S; Diallo, Drissa; Johansen, Harald T

2006-09-19

61

Immunization with the cysteine proteinase Ldccys1 gene from Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and the recombinant Ldccys1 protein elicits protective immune responses in a murine model of visceral leishmaniasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gene Ldccys1 encoding a cysteine proteinase of 30 kDa from Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, as well as the recombinant cysteine proteinase rLdccys1, obtained by cloning and expression of the Ldccys1 gene in the pHIS vector, were used to evaluate their ability to induce immune protective responses in BALB/c mice against L. (L.) chagasi infection. Mice were immunized subcutaneously with rLdccys1 plus Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) or Propionibacterium acnes as adjuvants or intramuscularly with a plasmid carrying the Ldccys1 gene (Ldccys1/pcDNA3) and CpG ODN as the adjuvant, followed by a booster with rLdccys1 plus CpG ODN. Two weeks after immunization the animals were challenged with 1 x 10(7) amastigotes of L. (L.) chagasi. Both immunization protocols induced significant protection against L. (L.) chagasi infection as shown by a very low parasite load in the spleen of immunized mice compared to the non-immunized controls. However, DNA immunization was 10-fold more protective than immunization with the recombinant protein. Whereas rLdccys1 induced a significant secretion of IFN-gamma and nitric oxide (NO), animals immunized with the Ldccys1 gene increased the production of IgG2a antibodies, IFN-gamma and NO. These results indicated that protection triggered by the two immunization protocols was correlated to a predominant Th1 response. PMID:18160187

Ferreira, Josie Haydée L; Gentil, Luciana Girotto; Dias, Suzana Souza; Fedeli, Carlos Eduardo C; Katz, Simone; Barbiéri, Clara Lúcia

2008-01-30

62

A novel plant cysteine-rich peptide family conferring cadmium tolerance to yeast and plants  

OpenAIRE

We have identified a novel cDNA clone, termed DcCDT1, from Digitaria ciliaris, that confers cadmium (Cd)-tolerance to yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The gene encodes a predicted peptide of 55 amino acid residues of which 15 (27.3%) are cysteine residues. We found that monocotyledonous plants possess multiple DcCDT1 homologues, for example rice contains five DcCDT1 homologues (designated OsCDT1?5), whereas dicotyledonous plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica rapa, poplar (Popul...

Matsuda, Taiki; Kuramata, Masato; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Kitagawa, Etsuko; Youssefian, Shohab; Kusano, Tomonobu

2009-01-01

63

Inhibitors of lysosomal cysteine proteases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The review is devoted to the inhibitors of cysteine proteinases which are believed to be very important in many biochemical processes of living organisms. They participate in the development and progression of numerous diseases that involve abnormal protein turnover. One of the main regulators of these proteinases is their specific inhibitors: cystatins. The aim of this review was to present current knowledge about endogenous inhibitors of lysosomal cysteine proteases and their synthetic analogs.

Lyanna O. L.

2011-04-01

64

Trichomonas vaginalis surface proteinase activity is necessary for parasite adherence to epithelial cells.  

OpenAIRE

The role of cysteine proteinases in adherence of Trichomonas vaginalis NYH 286 to HeLa and human vaginal epithelial cells was evaluated. Only pretreatment of trichomonads, but not epithelial cells, with N-alpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK), an inhibitor of trichomonad cysteine proteinases, greatly diminished the ability of T. vaginalis to recognize and bind to epithelial cells. Leupeptin and L-1-tosylamide-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone, other cysteine proteinase inhibitors,...

Arroyo, R.; Alderete, J. F.

1989-01-01

65

Carboxy-terminal truncation of oryzacystatin II by oryzacystatin-insensitive insect digestive proteinases.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biochemical interactions between digestive proteinases of the Coleoptera pest black vine weevil (Otiorynchus sulcatus) and two plant cysteine proteinase inhibitors, oryzacystatin I (OCI) and oryzacystatin II (OCII), were assessed using gelatin-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, OCI-affinity chromatography, and recombinant forms of the two plant inhibitors. The insect proteinases were resolved in gelatin-containing polyacrylamide gels as five major bands, only three of them being totally or partially inactivated by OCI and OCII. The maximal inhibitory effect of both OCs at pH 5.0 was estimated at 40% and the inhibition was stable with time despite the presence of OC-insensitive proteases, indicating the stability of the OCI and OCII effects. After removing OC-sensitive proteinases from the insect crude extract by OCI-affinity chromatography, the effects of the insect cystatin-insensitive proteases on the structural integrity of the free OCs were analyzed. While OCI remained stable, OCII was subjected to limited proteolysis leading to its gradual transformation into a approximately 10.5-kDa unstable intermediate, OCIIi. As shown by the degradation pattern of a glutathione S-transferase (GST)/OCII fusion protein, the appearance of OCIIi resulted from the C-terminal truncation of OCII. Either free or linked to GST, OCIIi was as active against papain and human cathepsin H as OCII, and the initial specificities of the inhibitor for these two cysteine proteinases were conserved after cleavage. Although these observations indicate the high conformational stability of OCII near its active (inhibitory) site, they also suggest a general conformational destabilization of this inhibitor following its initial cleavage, subsequently leading to its complete hydrolysis. This apparent susceptibility of OCII to proteolytic cleavage by the insect proteinases could have major implications when planning the use of this plant cystatin for insect pest control. PMID:7574723

Michaud, D; Cantin, L; Vrain, T C

1995-10-01

66

A novel plant cysteine-rich peptide family conferring cadmium tolerance to yeast and plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have identified a novel cDNA clone, termed DcCDT1, from Digitaria ciliaris, that confers cadmium (Cd)-tolerance to yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The gene encodes a predicted peptide of 55 amino acid residues of which 15 (27.3%) are cysteine residues. We found that monocotyledonous plants possess multiple DcCDT1 homologues, for example rice contains five DcCDT1 homologues (designated OsCDT1~5), whereas dicotyledonous plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica rapa, poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba) and Picea sitchensis, appear to possess only a single homologue. GFP fusion experiments demonstrate that DcCDT1 and OsCDT1 are targeted to both the plant cytoplasmic membranes and cell walls. Constitutive expression of DcCDT1 or OsCDT1 confers Cd-tolerance to transgenic A. thaliana plants by lowering the accumulation of Cd in the cells. The functions of the DcCDT1 family members are discussed in the light of these findings. PMID:19816106

Matsuda, Taiki; Kuramata, Masato; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Kitagawa, Etsuko; Youssefian, Shohab; Kusano, Tomonobu

2009-05-01

67

Fasciola hepatica: isolation and characterisation of a cathepsin L proteinase  

OpenAIRE

Fasciola hepatica, a parasitic trematode, is the causative agent of liver fluke disease. It has been shown previously, that both the migratory and adult worm stage of the parasite secrete multiple cysteine proteinases when they are cultured overnight (Dalton & Heffernan, 1989). In this study, one of these proteinases has been purified by standard chromatographic techniques. The purified enzyme was characterised as a cathepsin L-like proteinase using synthetic substrates, inhibition studies, N...

Smith, Angela M.

1994-01-01

68

Fitness benefits of trypsin proteinase inhibitor expression in Nicotiana attenuata are greater than their costs when plants are attacked.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The commonly invoked cost-benefit paradigm, central to most of functional biology, explains why one phenotype cannot be optimally fit in all environments; yet it is rarely tested. Trypsin proteinase inhibitors (TPIs expression in Nicotiana attenuata is known to decrease plant fitness when plants compete with unattacked conspecifics that do not produce TPIs and also to decrease the performance of attacking herbivores. Results In order to determine whether the putative benefits of TPI production outweigh its cost, we transformed N. attenuata to silence endogenous TPI production or restore it in a natural mutant that was unable to produce TPIs. We compared the lifetime seed production of N. attenuata genotypes of the same genetic background with low or no TPI to that of genotypes with high TPI levels on which M. sexta larvae were allowed to feed freely. Unattacked low TPI-producing genotypes produced more seed capsules than did plants with high TPI levels. Caterpillar attack reduced seed capsule production in all genotypes and reversed the pattern of seed capsule production among genotypes. M. sexta larvae attacking genotypes with high TPI activity consumed more TPI, less protein, and move later to the young leaves. Larval masses were negatively correlated (R2 = 0.56 with seed capsule production per plant. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the fitness benefits of TPI production outweigh their costs in greenhouse conditions, when plants are attacked and that despite the ongoing evolutionary interactions between plant and herbivore, TPI-mediated decreases in M. sexta performance translates into a fitness benefit for the plant.

Baldwin Ian T

2004-08-01

69

A trypsin-like proteinase in the midgut of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): purification, characterization, and host plant inhibitors.  

Science.gov (United States)

A trypsin-like proteinase was purified and characterized in the midgut of Ectomyelois ceratoniae. A purification process that used Sepharyl G-100 and DEAE-cellulose fast flow chromatographies revealed a proteinase with specific activity of 66.7 ?mol/min/mg protein, recovery of 27.04 and purification fold of 23.35. Molecular weight of the purified protein was found to be 35.8 kDa. Optimal pH and temperature were obtained 9 and 20°C for the purified trypsin proteinase, respectively. The purified enzyme was significantly inhibited by PMSF, TLCK, and SBTI as specific inhibitors of trypsins in which TLCK showed the highest inhibitory effect. Trypsin proteinase inhibitors were extracted from four varieties of pomegranate including Brait, Torsh-Sabz, May-Khosh, and Shirin by ion exchange chromatography. It was found that fractions 17-20 of Brait; fractions 18 and 21-26 of Torsh-Sabz; fractions 1-7, 11-17, and 19-21 of May-Khosh and fraction 8 for Shirin showed presence of trypsin inhibitor in these host. Comparison of their inhibitory effects on the purified trypsin proteinase of E. ceratoniae demonstrated that fractions from May-khosh variety had the highest effect on the enzyme among other extracted fractions. Characterization of serine proteinases of insects mainly trypsins is one of the promising methods to decrease population and damages via extracting their inhibitors and providing resistant varieties. PMID:24338707

Ranjbar, Mina; Zibaee, Arash; Sendi, Jalal Jalali

2014-01-01

70

Tumor cell proteinase visualization and quantification using a fluorescent transition-state analog probe.  

OpenAIRE

The fluorescent proteinase transition-state analog inhibitor, dansyl-L-argininal (DnsArgH), may be a selective probe of cysteine and serine-type proteinases in a fibrosarcoma tumor cell line (HSDM1C1). DnsArgH binds with high affinity to proteinases because of its transition-state analog properties, and on association it gives a dramatically increased fluorescent yield. The DnsArgH binding is inhibited by the serine proteinase inhibitor diisopropyl fluorophosphate and by the cysteine proteina...

Kozlowski, K. A.; Wezeman, F. H.; Schultz, R. M.

1984-01-01

71

The still mysterious roles of cysteine-containing glutathione transferases in plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Glutathione transferases (GSTs) represent a widespread multigenic enzyme family able to modify a broad range of molecules. These notably include secondary metabolites and exogenous substrates often referred to as xenobiotics, usually for their detoxification, subsequent transport or export. To achieve this, these enzymes can bind non-substrate ligands (ligandin function) and/or catalyze the conjugation of glutathione onto the targeted molecules, the latter activity being exhibited by GSTs having a serine or a tyrosine as catalytic residues. Besides, other GST members possess a catalytic cysteine residue, a substitution that radically changes enzyme properties. Instead of promoting GSH-conjugation reactions, cysteine-containing GSTs (Cys-GSTs) are able to perform deglutathionylation reactions similarly to glutaredoxins but the targets are usually different since glutaredoxin substrates are mostly oxidized proteins and Cys-GST substrates are metabolites. The Cys-GSTs are found in most organisms and form several classes. While Beta and Omega GSTs and chloride intracellular channel proteins (CLICs) are not found in plants, these organisms possess microsomal ProstaGlandin E-Synthase type 2, glutathionyl hydroquinone reductases, Lambda, Iota and Hemerythrin GSTs and dehydroascorbate reductases (DHARs); the four last classes being restricted to the green lineage. In plants, whereas the role of DHARs is clearly associated to the reduction of dehydroascorbate to ascorbate, the physiological roles of other Cys-GSTs remain largely unknown. In this context, a genomic and phylogenetic analysis of Cys-GSTs in photosynthetic organisms provides an updated classification that is discussed in the light of the recent literature about the functional and structural properties of Cys-GSTs. Considering the antioxidant potencies of phenolic compounds and more generally of secondary metabolites, the connection of GSTs with secondary metabolism may be interesting from a pharmacological perspective. PMID:25191271

Lallement, Pierre-Alexandre; Brouwer, Bastiaan; Keech, Olivier; Hecker, Arnaud; Rouhier, Nicolas

2014-01-01

72

The toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles on the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plants play an important role in the fate of nanoparticles in the environment through their uptake, bioaccumulation, and transfer to trophic chains. However, the impacts of nanoparticles on plants as essential components of all ecosystems are not well documented. In the present study, the toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles on Spirodela polyrrhiza as an aquatic higher plant species were studied. l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles were synthesized using hydrothermal method and their characteristics were determined by XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, and FT-IR techniques. The diameter of majority of synthesized nanoparticles was about 15–20 nm. Subsequently, the uptake of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles by the plant species was confirmed using epifluorescence microscopy. The activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase as antioxidant enzymes was assayed and the relative frond number was calculated in the presence of different concentrations of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles. The obtained results revealed the toxic effects of the synthesized nanoparticles on S. polyrrhiza, leading to growth reduction and significant changes in antioxidant enzymes’ activity.Graphical Abstract

73

The toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles on the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plants play an important role in the fate of nanoparticles in the environment through their uptake, bioaccumulation, and transfer to trophic chains. However, the impacts of nanoparticles on plants as essential components of all ecosystems are not well documented. In the present study, the toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles on Spirodela polyrrhiza as an aquatic higher plant species were studied. l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles were synthesized using hydrothermal method and their characteristics were determined by XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, and FT-IR techniques. The diameter of majority of synthesized nanoparticles was about 15–20 nm. Subsequently, the uptake of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles by the plant species was confirmed using epifluorescence microscopy. The activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase as antioxidant enzymes was assayed and the relative frond number was calculated in the presence of different concentrations of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles. The obtained results revealed the toxic effects of the synthesized nanoparticles on S. polyrrhiza, leading to growth reduction and significant changes in antioxidant enzymes’ activity.Graphical Abstract.

Khataee, Alireza, E-mail: ar_khataee@yahoo.com [University of Tabriz, Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Movafeghi, Ali [University of Tabriz, Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nazari, Fatemeh [University of Tabriz, Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vafaei, Fatemeh [University of Tabriz, Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dadpour, Mohammad Reza [University of Tabriz, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hanifehpour, Younes; Joo, Sang Woo, E-mail: swjoo@yu.ac.kr [Yeungnam University, School of Mechanical Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

2014-12-15

74

Proteinase activity in latex of three plants of the family Euphorbiaceae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Dentro da família Euphorbiaceae, os gêneros Euphorbia e Sapium são conhecidos por incluírem basicamente espécies produtoras de látex. No presente estudo, o látex das plantas Euphorbia selloi (Klotzsch & Garcke) Boiss., Euphorbia papillosa A.St.-Hil. e Sapium glandulosum (L.) Morong, espécies nativas [...] do Brasil, foi analisado em relação à atividade proteolítica. Todas as amostras analisadas possuem proteínas com significativa atividade, sendo que o látex da espécie E. papillosa apresenta a maior atividade específica. Com o objetivo de analisar quais os tipos de proteases responsáveis pela atividade proteolítica, realizaram-se ensaios com diferentes inibidores. Nas três plantas testadas a atividade foi inibida significativamente pelo cloridrato de 4-(fluoreto de 2-aminoetilbenzenossulfonil) (AEBSF), um inibidor de serino-proteases. Utilizando técnicas de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE), as subunidades das proteínas foram separadas de acordo com sua massa molecular e, através da zimografia, a atividade proteolítica pode ser detectada visualmente. Abstract in english In the family of Euphorbiaceae, the genera Euphorbia and Sapium are known to contain essentially latex-bearing species. In the present study, the latex of Euphorbia selloi (Klotzsch & Garcke) Boiss., Euphorbia papillosa A.St.-Hil., and Sapium glandulosum (L.) Morong, plants native from Brazil, were [...] examined concerning proteolytic activity. All studied species have proteins with significant proteolytic activity and E. papillosa has the greatest specific activity. Aiming to verify the type of protease present, an assay with different inhibitors was performed. In the three tested plants, the proteolytic activity was significantly inhibited by a serine protease inhibitor 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF). Using techniques of electrophoresis with polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE), the subunits of proteins were separated according to their molecular masses, and the protein activity was visually detected by zymography.

Andréa Michel, Sobottka; Fabiana, Tonial; Sonja, Sytwala; Matthias, Melzig.

2014-09-01

75

Solution Structure of the Squash Aspartic Acid Proteinase Inhibitor (SQAPI) and Mutational Analysis of Pepsin Inhibition  

OpenAIRE

The squash aspartic acid proteinase inhibitor (SQAPI), a proteinaceous proteinase inhibitor from squash, is an effective inhibitor of a range of aspartic proteinases. Proteinaceous aspartic proteinase inhibitors are rare in nature. The only other example in plants probably evolved from a precursor serine proteinase inhibitor. Earlier work based on sequence homology modeling suggested SQAPI evolved from an ancestral cystatin. In this work, we determined the solution structure of SQAPI using NM...

Headey, Stephen J.; Macaskill, Ursula K.; Wright, Michele A.; Claridge, Jolyon K.; Edwards, Patrick J. B.; Farley, Peter C.; Christeller, John T.; Laing, William A.; Pascal, Steven M.

2010-01-01

76

Papain-like cysteine proteases: key players at molecular battlefields employed by both plants and their invaders.  

OpenAIRE

Papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs) play crucial roles in plant-pathogen/pest interactions. During these parasitic interactions, PLCPs act on non-self substrates, provoking the selection of counteracting inhibitors and other means to evade proteolysis. We review examples of PLCPs acting on molecular battlefields in the extracellular space, plant cytoplasm and herbivore gut. Examples are maize Mir1 (Maize inbred resistance 1), tomato Rcr3 (Required for Cladosporium resistance-3), Pseudomona...

Shindo, T.; Hoorn, Ra

2008-01-01

77

Modification of cystatin C activity by bacterial proteinases and neutrophil elastase in periodontitis.  

OpenAIRE

AIM: To study the interaction between the human cysteine proteinase inhibitor, cystatin C, and proteinases of periodontitis associated bacteria. METHODS: Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from discrete periodontitis sites and their cystatin C content was estimated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The interaction between cystatin C and proteolytic enzymes from cultured strains of the gingival bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Actinobacill...

Abrahamson, M.; Wikstro?m, M.; Potempa, J.; Renvert, S.; Hall, A.

1997-01-01

78

Cardosins in postembryonic development of cardoon: towards an elucidation of the biological function of plant aspartic proteinases  

OpenAIRE

Summary. Following on from previous work, the temporal and spatial accumulation of the aspartic proteinases (EC 3.4.23) cardosin A and cardosin B during postembryonic seed development of cardoon (Cynara cardunculus) was studied. mRNA and protein analyses of both cardosins suggested that the proteins accumulate during seed maturation, and that cardosin A is later synthesised de novo at the time of radicle emergence. Immunocytochemistry revealed that the precursor form of cardosin A accumulate...

Pereira, Cla?udia Sofia; Costa, Diana Soares Da; Pereira, Susana; Nogueira, F. Moura; Albuquerque, P. M.; Teixeira, J.; Faro, C.; Pissarra, J.

2008-01-01

79

Proteinases and associated genes of parasitic helminths.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many parasites have deployed proteinases to accomplish some of the tasks imposed by a parasitic life style, including tissue penetration, digestion of host tissue for nutrition and evasion of host immune responses. Information on proteinases from trematodes, cestodes and nematode parasites is reviewed, concentrating on those worms of major medical and economical importance. Their biochemical characterization is discussed, along with their putative biological roles and, where available, their associated genes. For example, proteinases expressed by the various stages of the schistosome life-cycle, in particular the well-characterized cercarial elastase which is involved in the penetration of the host skin and the variety of proteinases, such as cathepsin B (Sm31), cathepsin L1, cathepsin L2, cathepsin D, cathepsin C and legumain (Sm32), which are believed to be involved in the catabolism of host haemoglobin. The various endo- and exoproteinases of Fasciola hepatica, the causative agent of liver fluke disease, are reviewed, and recent reports of how these enzymes have been successfully employed in cocktail vaccines are discussed. The various proteinases of cestodes and of the diverse superfamilies of parasitic nematodes are detailed, with special attention being given to those parasites for which most is known, including species of Taenia, Echinococcus, Spirometra, Necator, Acylostoma and Haemonchus. By far the largest number of papers in the literature and entries to the sequence data bases dealing with proteinases of parasitic helminths report on enzymes belonging to the papain superfamily of cysteine proteinases. Accordingly, the final section of the review is devoted to a phylogenetic analysis of this superfamily using over 150 published sequences. This analysis shows that the papain superfamily can be divided into two major branches. Branch A contains the cathepin Bs, the cathepsin Cs and a novel family termed cathepsin Xs, while Branch B contains the cruzipains, cathepsin Ls, papain-like and aleurain/cathepsin H-like proteinases. The relationships of the helminth proteinases, and similar proteinases from protozoan parasites and other organisms, within these groups are discussed. PMID:10214692

Tort, J; Brindley, P J; Knox, D; Wolfe, K H; Dalton, J P

1999-01-01

80

The Botrytis cinerea aspartic proteinase family  

OpenAIRE

The ascomycete plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea secretes aspartic proteinase (AP) activity. Functional analysis was carried out on five aspartic proteinase genes (Bcap1-5) reported previously. Single and double mutants lacking these five genes showed neither a reduced secreted proteolytic activity, nor a reduction in virulence and they showed no alteration in sensitivity to antifungal proteins purified from grape juice. Scrutiny of the B. cinerea genome revealed the presence of nine additional...

Have, A.; Espino, J. J.; Dekkers, E.; Sluyter, S.; Brito, N.; Kay, J.; Gonza?lez, C.; Kan, J. A. L.

2010-01-01

81

Expression of sweet potato cysteine protease SPCP2 altered developmental characteristics and stress responses in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this report a full-length cDNA, SPCP2, which encoded a putative papain-like cysteine protease was isolated from senescent leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). SPCP2 contained 1101 nucleotides (366 amino acids) in its open reading frame, and exhibited high amino acid sequence identities (ca. 68% to 83%) with plant cysteine proteases, including Actinidia deliciosa, Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica oleracea, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativa, Vicia faba, Vicia sativa and Vigna mungo. RT-PCR analysis showed that SPCP2 gene expression was enhanced significantly in natural senescent leaves and in dark-, abscisic acid- (ABA-), jasmonic acid- (JA-) and ethephon-induced senescent leaves, but was almost not detected in mature green leaves, stems, and roots. Transgenic Arabidopsis with constitutive SPCP2 expression exhibited earlier floral transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, higher percentage of incompletely developed siliques per plant, reduced average fresh weight and lower germination percentage of seed, and higher salt and drought stress tolerance compared to those of control. Based on these results we conclude that sweet potato papain-like cysteine protease, SPCP2, is a functional senescence-associated gene, and its expression causes altered developmental characteristics and stress responses in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. PMID:20129700

Chen, Hsien-Jung; Su, Cheng-Ting; Lin, Chia-Hung; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Lin, Yaw-Huei

2010-07-01

82

Proteinase activity regulation by glycosaminoglycans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are few reports concerning the biological role and the mechanisms of interaction between proteinases and carbohydrates other than those involved in clotting. It has been shown that the interplay of enzymes and glycosaminoglycans is able to modulate the activity of different proteases and also to affect their structures. From the large number of proteases belonging to the well-known protease families and also the variety of carbohydrates described as widely distributed, only few events have been analyzed more deeply. The term "family" is used to describe a group of proteases in which every member shows an evolutionary relationship to at least one other protease. This relationship may be evident throughout the entire sequence, or at least in that part of the sequence responsible for catalytic activity. The majority of proteases belong to the serine, cysteine, aspartic or metalloprotease families. By considering the existing limited proteolysis process, in addition to the initial idea that the proteinases participate only in digestive processes, it is possible to conclude that the function of the enzymes is strictly limited to the cleavage of intended substrates since the destruction of functional proteins would result in normal tissue damage. In addition, the location as well as the eventual regulation of protease activity promoted by glycosaminoglycans can play an essential role in the development of several physiopathological conditions.

Tersariol I.L.S.

2002-01-01

83

Involvement of papain and legumain proteinase in the senescence process of Medicago truncatula nodules.  

Science.gov (United States)

The symbiotic interaction between legumes and Rhizobiaceae leads to the formation of new root organs called nodules. Within the nodule, Rhizobiaceae differentiate into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. However, this symbiotic interaction is time-limited as a result of the initiation of a senescence process, leading to a complete degradation of bacteroids and host plant cells. The increase in proteolytic activity is one of the key features of this process. In this study, we analysed the involvement of two different classes of cysteine proteinases, MtCP6 and MtVPE, in the senescence process of Medicago truncatula nodules. Spatiotemporal expression of MtCP6 and MtVPE was investigated using promoter- ?-glucuronidase fusions. Corresponding gene inductions were observed during both developmental and stress-induced nodule senescence. Both MtCP6 and MtVPE proteolytic activities were increased during stress-induced senescence. Down-regulation of both proteinases mediated by RNAi in the senescence zone delayed nodule senescence and increased nitrogen fixation, while their early expression promoted nodule senescence. Using green fluorescent protein fusions, in vivo confocal imaging showed that both proteinases accumulated in the vacuole of uninfected cells or the symbiosomes of infected cells. These data enlighten the crucial role of MtCP6 and MtVPE in the onset of nodule senescence. PMID:24527680

Pierre, Olivier; Hopkins, Julie; Combier, Maud; Baldacci, Fabien; Engler, Gilbert; Brouquisse, Renaud; Hérouart, Didier; Boncompagni, Eric

2014-05-01

84

Proteinase inhibition of fish muscle enzymes using legume seed extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seed extracts from indigenous and introduced legumes were prepared and used to search for inhibitors of fish muscle proteinases. Fish flesh extracts were prepared from samples of Merluccius productus (Pacific whiting or merluza) obtained off the Oregon coast and in the Gulf of California, respectively. The proteinase activity in the fish muscle for the Pacific whiting was the highest, followed by parasitized merluza. The lowest proteinase activity was for the nonparasitized merluza. Six out of 12 seed extracts reduced the proteinase activity from the fish flesh by more than 50%. The reduction of enzyme activity was higher for samples of fish flesh extracts from the Gulf of California than for the Oregon samples. Seed extracts also reduced the proteinase activity of commercial serine and cysteine proteinases such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, and papain. This inhibitory capacity was maintained even after heating the seed extracts to 90 degrees C for 15 min. Several seed extracts show promise for use as proteinase inhibitors during production of surimi, the intended commercial product of massive fisheries such as Pacific whiting or merluza. PMID:10463452

García-Carreño, F L; Navarrette Del Toro, M A; Díaz-López, M; Hernández-Cortés, M P; Ezquerra, J M

1996-03-01

85

Tumor cell proteinase visualization and quantification using a fluorescent transition-state analog probe.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fluorescent proteinase transition-state analog inhibitor, dansyl-L-argininal (DnsArgH), may be a selective probe of cysteine and serine-type proteinases in a fibrosarcoma tumor cell line (HSDM1C1). DnsArgH binds with high affinity to proteinases because of its transition-state analog properties, and on association it gives a dramatically increased fluorescent yield. The DnsArgH binding is inhibited by the serine proteinase inhibitor diisopropyl fluorophosphate and by the cysteine proteinase inhibitor p-chloromercuribenzoate. The fluorescence emission appears at its maximum steady-state yield immediately on addition of DnsArgH to the HSDM1C1 fibrosarcoma cells. The immediacy of the DnsArgH reaction supports the contention that DnsArgH binding may be to cell surface-associated proteinases. Quantification of the cell proteinase concentration, by comparison of the fluorescence yield obtained from DnsArgH interactions with bovine trypsin and papain, indicates 10(-15) to 10(-16) mol of proteinase per HSDM1C1 cell. In fluorescence microscopy, DnsArgH fluorescence appears distributed throughout the fibrosarcoma cell without association to organelles. DnsArgH fluorescence from normal fibroblast controls (IMR-90) was found to be substantially lower than in the transformed fibrosarcoma cells, supporting a hypothesis that proteinases have a role in malignancy. PMID:6366797

Kozlowski, K A; Wezeman, F H; Schultz, R M

1984-02-01

86

Influence of air temperature on proteinase activity and beverage quality in Coffea arabica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fruits were collected from trees of Coffea arabica cv. Obatã grown at Mococa and Adamantina in São Paulo State, Brazil, which are regions with marked differences in air temperature that produce coffee with distinct qualities. Mococa is a cooler location that produces high-quality coffee, whereas coffee from Adamantina is of lower quality. The amino acid and protein contents, amino acid profile, and proteinase activity and type in endosperm protein extracts were analysed. Proteinase genes were identified, and their expression was assayed. All results indicate that temperature plays a role in controlling proteinase activity in coffee endosperm. Proteinase activity was higher in the endosperm of immature fruits from Adamantina, which was correlated with higher amino acid content, changes in the amino acid profile, and increased gene expression. Cysteine proteinases were the main class of proteinases in the protein extracts. These data suggest that temperature plays an important role in coffee quality by altering nitrogen compound composition.

Hellen Marília Couto de Abreu

2012-01-01

87

Effects of pH on the Association between the Inhibitor Cystatin andthe Proteinase Chymopapain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysteine proteinases are involved in many aspects of physiological regulation. In humans, some cathepsins have shown another function in addition to their role as lysosomal proteases in intracellular protein degradation; they have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several heart and blood vessel diseases and in cancer development. In this work, we present a fluorometric and computational study of the binding of one representative plant cysteine proteinase, chymopapain, to one of the most studied inhibitors of these proteinases: chicken cystatin. The binding equilibrium constant, Kb, was determined in the pH range between 3.5 and 10.0,revealinga maximum in the affinity at pH 9.0. We constructed an atomic model for the chymopapain-cystatin dimer by docking the individual 3D protein structures; subsequently, the model was refined using a 100 ns NPT molecular dynamics simulation in explicit water. Upon scrutiny of this model, weidentified 14 ionizing residues at the interface of the complex using a cutoff distance of 5.0 Å. Using the pKavalues predicted with PROPKA and a modified proton-linkage model, we performed a regression analysis on our data to obtain the composite pKavalues for three isoacidic residues. We also calculated the electrostatic component of the binding energy (?Gb,elec) at different pH values using an implicit solvent model and APBS software. The pH profile of this calculated energy compares well with the experimentally obtained binding energy, ?Gb. We propose that the residues that form an interchain ionic pair, Lys139A from chymopapain and Glu19B from cystatin, as well as Tyr61A and Tyr67Afrom chymopapain are the main residues responsible for the observed pH dependence in the chymopapain-cystatin affinity. PMID:25426863

Reyes-Espinosa, Francisco; Arroyo-Reyna, Alfonso; García-Gutiérrez, Ponciano; Serratos, Iris N; Zubillaga, Rafael A

2014-11-26

88

Characterization of cysteine-degrading and H2S-releasing enzymes of higher plants - From the field to the test tube and back  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Due to the clean air acts and subsequent reduction of emission of gaseous sulfur compounds sulfur deficiency became one of the major nutrient disorders in Northern Europe. Typical sulfur deficiency symptoms can be diagnosed. Especially plants of the Cruciferae family are more susceptible against pathogen attack. Sulfur fertilization can in part recover or even increase resistance against pathogens in comparison to sulfur-deficient plants. The term sulfur-induced resistance (SIR) was introduced, however, the molecular basis for SIR is largely unknown. There are several sulfur-containing compounds in plants which might be involved in SIR, such as high levels of thiols, glucosinolates, cysteine-rich proteins, phytoalexins, elemental sulfur, or H2S. Probably more than one strategy is used by plants. Species- or even variety-dependent differences in the development of SIR are probably used. Our research focussed mainly on the release of H2S as defence strategy. In field experiments using different Brassica napus genotypes it was shown that the genetic differ- ences among Brassica genotypes lead to differences in sulfur content and L-cysteine desulfhydrase activity. Another field ex- periment demonstrated that sulfur supply and infection with Pyrenopeziza brassica influenced L-cysteine desulfhydrase activity in Brassica napus. Cysteine-degrading enzymes such as cysteine desulfhydrases are hypothesized to be involved in H2S release. Several L- and D-cysteine-specific desulfhydrase candidates have been isolated and partially analyzed from the model plant Arabi- dopsis thaliana. However, it cannot be excluded that H2S is also released in a partial back reaction of O-acetyl-L-serine(thiol)- lyase or enzymes not yet characterized. For the exact determi- nation of the H2S concentration in the cell a H2S-specific micro- sensor was used the first time for plant cells. The transfer of the results obtained for application back on Brassica was initiated.

Jutta, Papenbrock; Anja, Riemenschneider

2007-01-01

89

Cysteine tRNAs of plant origin as novel UGA suppressors.  

OpenAIRE

We have isolated and sequenced chloroplast (chl) and cytoplasmic (cyt) cysteine tRNAs from Nicotiana rustica. Both tRNAs carry a GCA anticodon but beyond that differ considerably in their nucleotide sequences. One obvious distinction resides in the presence of N6-isopentenyladenosine (i6A) and 1-methylguanosine (m1G) at position 37 in chl and cyt tRNA(Cys) respectively. In order to study the potential suppressor activity of tRNAs(Cys) we used in vitro synthesized zein mRNA transcripts in whic...

Urban, C.; Beier, H.

1995-01-01

90

Functional Specialization and Evolution of Leader Proteinases in the Family Closteroviridae  

OpenAIRE

Members of the Closteroviridae and Potyviridae families of the plant positive-strand RNA viruses encode one or two papain-like leader proteinases. In addition to a C-terminal proteolytic domain, each of these proteinases possesses a nonproteolytic N-terminal domain. We compared functions of the several leader proteinases using a gene swapping approach. The leader proteinase (L-Pro) of Beet yellows virus (BYV; a closterovirus) was replaced with L1 or L2 proteinases of Citrus tristeza virus (CT...

Peng, Chih-wen; Peremyslov, Valera V.; Mushegian, Arcady R.; Dawson, William O.; Dolja, Valerian V.

2001-01-01

91

Serpins in plants and green algae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Control of proteolysis is important for plant growth, development, responses to stress, and defence against insects and pathogens. Members of the serpin protein family are likely to play a critical role in this control through irreversible inhibition of endogenous and exogenous target proteinases. Serpins have been found in diverse species of the plant kingdom and represent a distinct clade among serpins in multicellular organisms. Serpins are also found in green algae, but the evolutionary relationship between these serpins and those of plants remains unknown. Plant serpins are potent inhibitors of mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family in vitro but, intriguingly, plants and green algae lack endogenous members of this proteinase family, the most common targets for animal serpins. An Arabidopsis serpin with a conserved reactive centre is now known to be capable of inhibiting an endogenous cysteine proteinase. Here, knowledge of plant serpins in terms of sequence diversity, inhibitory specificity, gene expression and function is reviewed. This was advanced through a phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of expressed plant serpins, delineation of plant serpin gene structures and prediction of inhibitory specificities based on identification of reactive centres. The review is intended to encourage elucidation of plant serpin functions.

Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Hejgaard, JØrn

2008-01-01

92

Proteinase inhibitors in Ascarida.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ascaris suum and A. lumbricoides are intestinal parasites that survive in a hostile hydrolytic environment They contain low-molecular-weight proteins that can inactivate most of the proteinases present in the worm's surroundings. Jeffrey Hawley, Mark Martzen and Robert Peanasky suggest that host specificity of these nematodes may be associated with the efficiency of their inhibitors. PMID:15275429

Hawley, J H; Martzen, M R; Peanasky, R J

1994-08-01

93

Improving the nutritive value of rice seeds: elevation of cysteine and methionine contents in rice plants by ectopic expression of a bacterial serine acetyltransferase.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the aim of increasing the cysteine level in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and thus improving its nutritional quality, transgenic rice plants were generated expressing an Escherichia coli serine acetyltransferase isoform (EcSAT), the enzyme synthesizing O-acetylserine, the precursor of cysteine. The gene was fused to the transit peptide of the Arabidopsis Rubisco and driven by a ubiquitin promoter to target the enzyme to plastids. Twenty-two transgenic plants were examined for transgene protein expression, and five lines with a high expression level and enzymatic activity, respectively, were selected for further analysis. In these lines, the contents of cysteine and glutathione increased 2.4-fold and 2-fold, respectively. More important is the increase in free methionine and methionine incorporated into the water-soluble protein fraction in seeds. Free methionine increased in leaves up to 2.7-fold, in seeds up to 1.4-fold, and bound to seed proteins up to 4.8-fold, respectively, while the bound methionine level remained constant or even decreased in leaves. Notably, the transgenic lines exhibited higher isoleucine, leucine, and valine contents (each up to 2-fold depending on tissue, free, or bound), indicating a potential conversion of methionine via methionine ?-lyase to isoleucine. As the transgenic rice plants overexpressing EcSAT had significantly higher levels of both soluble and protein-bound methionine, isoleucine, cysteine, and glutathione in rice they may represent a model and target system for improving the nutritional quality of cereal crops. PMID:23048130

Nguyen, Huu Cuong; Hoefgen, Rainer; Hesse, Holger

2012-10-01

94

Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results W...

Hughes David P; Semenova Tatyana A; Boomsma Jacobus J; Schiøtt Morten

2011-01-01

95

Role of tumor proteinases in tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a previous work we found a correlation between in vivo metastatic potential of cancer cells and their platelet aggregating activity in sublines of the mFS6 murine fibrosarcoma. In the present study the effects of different proteinase inhibitors on platelet aggregation induced by these cells were investigated. When the platelets were incubated with the inhibitors, only those effective against cysteine proteinases strongly reduced platelet aggregation by cancer cells; serine protease inhibitors, including hirudin, had no effect on platelet response. Incubation of neoplastic cells with the same inhibitors gave similar, though less evident results. Addition of neoplastic cells to platelet-rich plasma also caused significant production of fibrinopeptide A, more by the less malignant cells. Thus, in this experimental model a cysteine proteinase of the neoplastic cells appears to play an important role in the platelet aggregation induced by them, and this property was detected in the M4 cells with high metastatic in vivo activity. PMID:3536793

Pacchiarini, L; Grignani, G; Pagliarino, M; Ricetti, M M; Bottazzi, B; Mantovani, A; Ascari, E

1986-01-01

96

Salvage of the thiamin pyrimidine moiety by plant TenA proteins lacking an active-site cysteine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The TenA protein family occurs in prokaryotes, plants and fungi; it has two subfamilies, one (TenA_C) having an active-site cysteine, the other (TenA_E) not. TenA_C proteins participate in thiamin salvage by hydrolysing the thiamin breakdown product amino-HMP (4-amino-5-aminomethyl-2-methylpyrimidine) to HMP (4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine); the function of TenA_E proteins is unknown. Comparative analysis of prokaryote and plant genomes predicted that (i) TenA_E has a salvage role similar to, but not identical with, that of TenA_C and (ii) that TenA_E and TenA_C also have non-salvage roles since they occur in organisms that cannot make thiamin. Recombinant Arabidopsis and maize TenA_E proteins (At3g16990, GRMZM2G080501) hydrolysed amino-HMP to HMP and, far more actively, hydrolysed the N-formyl derivative of amino-HMP to amino-HMP. Ablating the At3g16990 gene in a line with a null mutation in the HMP biosynthesis gene ThiC prevented its rescue by amino-HMP. Ablating At3g16990 in the wild-type increased sensitivity to paraquat-induced oxidative stress; HMP overcame this increased sensitivity. Furthermore, the expression of TenA_E and ThiC genes in Arabidopsis and maize was inversely correlated. These results indicate that TenA_E proteins mediate amidohydrolase and aminohydrolase steps in the salvage of thiamin breakdown products. As such products can be toxic, TenA_E proteins may also pre-empt toxicity. PMID:25014715

Zallot, Rémi; Yazdani, Mohammad; Goyer, Aymeric; Ziemak, Michael J; Guan, Jiahn-Chou; McCarty, Donald R; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Gerdes, Svetlana; Garrett, Timothy J; Benach, Jordi; Hunt, John F; Shintani, David K; Hanson, Andrew D

2014-10-01

97

Cysteine and cysteine-related signaling pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysteine occupies a central position in plant metabolism because it is a reduced sulfur donor molecule involved in the synthesis of essential biomolecules and defense compounds. Moreover, cysteine per se and its derivative molecules play roles in the redox signaling of processes occurring in various cellular compartments. Cysteine is synthesized during the sulfate assimilation pathway via the incorporation of sulfide to O-acetylserine, catalyzed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL). Plant cells contain OASTLs in the mitochondria, chloroplasts, and cytosol, resulting in a complex array of isoforms and subcellular cysteine pools. In recent years, significant progress has been made in Arabidopsis, in determining the specific roles of the OASTLs and the metabolites produced by them. Thus, the discovery of novel enzymatic activities of the less-abundant, like DES1 with L-cysteine desulfhydrase activity and SCS with S-sulfocysteine synthase activity, has provided new perspectives on their roles, besides their metabolic functions. Thereby, the research has been demonstrated that cytosolic sulfide and chloroplastic S-sulfocysteine act as signaling molecules regulating autophagy and protecting the photosystems, respectively. In the cytosol, cysteine plays an essential role in plant immunity; in the mitochondria, this molecule plays a central role in the detoxification of cyanide, which is essential for root hair development and plant responses to pathogens. PMID:24285094

Romero, Luis C; Aroca, M Ángeles; Laureano-Marín, Ana M; Moreno, Inmaculada; García, Irene; Gotor, Cecilia

2014-02-01

98

Plasmin: indigenous milk proteinase  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most important characteristic of plasmin, as significant indigenous milk proteinase, its concentration, concentration measuring procedure and activity of plasmin are described. The most important factors, which have an influence on concentration and plasmin activity in milk, are stage of lactation and mastitis (high somatic cell count – SCC. In high SCC milk indigenous proteinase activity increased, especially in plasmin and plasminogen system.Specific hydrolytic activity of plasmin during primary proteolysis of some casein fractions is described. ß-CN is most susceptible fraction, but ?s1-CN and ?s2-Cn are less susceptible to degradation by plasmin. Almost all fractions of ?-CN are resistant to degradation by plasmin. Activation of plasminogen to plasmin is very complex biochemical process influenced by activators and inhibitors in milk, and can be increased in high SCC milk. There are many various types of inhibitors in milk serum and ßlactoglobulin is the most important after its thermal denaturation. Addition of aprotinin and soybean tripsin inhibitors in milk inhibits plasmin activity. Most important characteristic of plasmin is its thermostability onpasteurisation and even sterilisation. Mechanism of thermal inactivation of plasmin with developing covalent disulphide interaction between molecule of plasmin and serum proteins (mostly ß-laktoglobulin is described. Thermosensitive inhibitors of plasminogen activators and inhibitors of plasmin are inactivated by short pasteurisation and therefore increase plasmin activity,while higher temperature and longer treatment time inactivate plasmin activity.

Samir Kalit

2002-06-01

99

Characterization of Helicoverpa armigera gut proteinases and their interaction with proteinase inhibitors using gel X-ray film contact print technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since Helicoverpa armigera is a devastating pest, an attempt was made to separate its gut proteinases and assess their diversity. Gelatin coating present on the X-ray film was used as a substrate to detect electrophoretically separated proteinases of H. armigera gut extract on native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE and isoelectric focusing gels. The method involves electrophoresis, followed by washing the gel with Triton X-100 in case of SDS-PAGE, equilibration of the gel in proteinase assay buffers, overlaying the gel on X-ray film followed by washing the film with hot water to remove hydrolyzed gelatin revealing bands of proteinase activity. Using this protocol, at least six different proteinase isoforms were detected in H. armigera gut contents while three isoproteinases were identified in a commercial bacterial proteinase preparation. Adoption of the technique facilitated characterization of the H. armigera gut proteinases (HGP) and provided an easy tool to study the properties of the individual proteinases without purification. The approximate molecular masses of HGP as determined by SDS-PAGE were: 172.9, 59.3, 54.9, 47.6, 44.1 and 41.6 kDa, and of bacterial proteinases: 180.7, 127.3 and 95.3 kDa. The isoelectric point (pI) values of HGP and bacterial proteinase were in the range of 5.1-7.1 and 3.5-7.7, respectively. Some of the HGP isoforms were found to be highly pH-sensitive and showed activity only at pH 10.0. The major HGPs were inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride but not by (4-amidinophenyl)-methanesulfonyl fluoride. Incubation of HGP-resolved electrophoretic gel strips in chickpea or winged bean proteinase inhibitor solution permitted identification of specific inhibitors of individual proteinases and revealed that the major HGPs were insensitive to chickpea inhibitors whereas winged bean inhibitors effectively inhibited all the HGPs. Our results suggest that considerable variability exists among the isoproteinases of H. armigera gut with respect to their pH optima and sensitivity towards chemical and plant proteinase inhibitors. Such diversity is of immense biological significance as it explains the polyphagous nature of the insect which imparts unique adaptability to it against the defensive proteinase inhibitors of its wide range of host plants. PMID:9694289

Harsulkar, A M; Giri, A P; Gupta, V S; Sainani, M N; Deshpande, V V; Patankar, A G; Ranjekar, P K

1998-06-01

100

Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles of lower attine gardens and may thus represent the ancestral type of proteinase production, whereas serine proteinase activity dominated the activity profiles of the higher attine gardens reared by Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex, suggesting that there may be trade-offs in the production of these enzyme classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent changes in enzyme production may have occurred throughout the domestication history of fungus-garden symbionts. Conclusions: Proteinase pH optima and buffering capacities of fungal symbionts appear to have evolved remarkable adaptations to living in obligate symbiosis with farming ants. Although the functional roles of serine and metalloproteinases in fungus gardens are unknown, the differential production of these classes of proteolytic enzymes suggest that substrate specificity may be important and that trade-offs may prevent the simultaneous upregulation of both classes of enzymes.

Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter

2011-01-01

101

Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles of lower attine gardens and may thus represent the ancestral type of proteinase production, whereas serine proteinase activity dominated the activity profiles of the higher attine gardens reared by Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex, suggesting that there may be trade-offs in the production of these enzyme classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent changes in enzyme production may have occurred throughout the domestication history of fungus-garden symbionts. Conclusions Proteinase pH optima and buffering capacities of fungal symbionts appear to have evolved remarkable adaptations to living in obligate symbiosis with farming ants. Although the functional roles of serine and metalloproteinases in fungus gardens are unknown, the differential production of these classes of proteolytic enzymes suggest that substrate specificity may be important and that trade-offs may prevent the simultaneous upregulation of both classes of enzymes.

Hughes David P

2011-01-01

102

Influence of air temperature on proteinase activity and beverage quality in Coffea arabica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Fruits were collected from trees of Coffea arabica cv. Obatã grown at Mococa and Adamantina in São Paulo State, Brazil, which are regions with marked differences in air temperature that produce coffee with distinct qualities. Mococa is a cooler location that produces high-quality coffee, whereas cof [...] fee from Adamantina is of lower quality. The amino acid and protein contents, amino acid profile, and proteinase activity and type in endosperm protein extracts were analysed. Proteinase genes were identified, and their expression was assayed. All results indicate that temperature plays a role in controlling proteinase activity in coffee endosperm. Proteinase activity was higher in the endosperm of immature fruits from Adamantina, which was correlated with higher amino acid content, changes in the amino acid profile, and increased gene expression. Cysteine proteinases were the main class of proteinases in the protein extracts. These data suggest that temperature plays an important role in coffee quality by altering nitrogen compound composition.

Hellen Marília Couto de, Abreu; Paula Macedo, Nobile; Milton Massao, Shimizu; Paula Yuri, Yamamoto; Emerson Alves, Silva; Carlos Augusto, Colombo; Paulo, Mazzafera.

103

A Naturally Occurring Plant Cysteine Protease Possesses Remarkable Toxicity against Insect Pests and Synergizes Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin  

OpenAIRE

When caterpillars feed on maize (Zea maize L.) lines with native resistance to several Lepidopteran pests, a defensive cysteine protease, Mir1-CP, rapidly accumulates at the wound site. Mir1-CP has been shown to inhibit caterpillar growth in vivo by attacking and permeabilizing the insect's peritrophic matrix (PM), a structure that surrounds the food bolus, assists in digestion and protects the midgut from microbes and toxins. PM permeabilization weakens the caterpillar defenses by facilitati...

Mohan, Srinidi; Ma, Peter W. K.; Williams, W. Paul; Luthe, Dawn S.

2008-01-01

104

A fluorescent protein-based biological screen of proteinase activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cell-based fluorescent protein reporter assay for proteinase activity amenable to high-throughput applications was developed. This assay is based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between 2 variants of the green fluorescent protein connected by a short cleavable linker and expressed in Escherichia coli as tagged proteins. A library to assay proteinase specificity was generated by randomizing a portion of the linker using PCR. The library could be grown in microplates, allowing cells to be lysed in situ and substrate cleavage to be monitored through loss of FRET signal using a plate reader. Progress curves were generated to estimate cleavage efficiency, facilitating the identification of well-cleaved substrates. The polyhistidine-tagged fluorescent substrates could then be purified and used for further characterization. To establish the general utility of the screen, it was used to demonstrate that the cysteine proteinase of the hepatitis A virus, 3C(pro), prefers Ile, Val, or Leu at the P(4) position of the cleavage sequence and Gly, Ser, or Ala at the P'(1) position. The assay can also be used to screen small-molecule libraries for inhibitors. PMID:20086215

Huitema, Carly; Eltis, Lindsay D

2010-02-01

105

Macluralisin--a serine proteinase from fruits of Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid.  

Science.gov (United States)

A serine proteinase was isolated from fruits of Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid. by affinity chromatography on bacitracin-containing sorbents and gel-filtration. The enzyme, named macluralisin, is a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 65 kDa; its protein moiety corresponds to a molecular mass of 50 kDa. The substrate specificity of macluralisin towards synthetic peptides and insulin B-chain is similar to that of cucumisin, a subtilisin-like proteinase from melon fruit. The enzyme is completely inhibited by diisopropylfluorophosphate. Its amino-acid composition resembles that of a serine proteinase isolated from the Cucurbitaceae. The N-terminal sequence has 33% of its residues identical to those of the sequence of fungal subtilisin-like proteinase K. Hence, Maclura pomifera serine proteinase belongs to the subtilisin family, which seems to be broadly distributed in the plant kingdom. PMID:7767235

Rudenskaya, G N; Bogdanova, E A; Revina, L P; Golovkin, B N; Stepanov, V M

1995-01-01

106

Resistance to both cyst and root-knot nematodes conferred by transgenic Arabidopsis expressing a modified plant cystatin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant nematodes are major pests of agriculture. Transgenic plant technology has been developed based on the use of proteinase inhibitors as nematode anti-feedants. The approach offers prospects for novel plant resistance and reduced use of environmentally damaging nematicides. A modified rice cystatin, Oc-I delta D86, expressed as a transgene in Arabidopsis thaliana, has a profound effect on the size and fecundity of females for both Heterodera schachtii (beet-cyst nematode) and Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode). No females of either species achieved the minimum size they require for egg production. Ingestion of Oc-I delta D86 from the plant was correlated with loss of cysteine proteinase activity in the intestine thereby suppressing normal growth, as required of an effective antifeedant plant defence. PMID:9301094

Urwin, P E; Lilley, C J; McPherson, M J; Atkinson, H J

1997-08-01

107

Extracellular proteinase activity of Cryptococcus neoformans.  

OpenAIRE

Extracellular proteinase activity was studied for eight strains of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans and two strains of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. Proteinase activity was measured by protein agar clearance, azoalbumin hydrolysis, gelatin liquefaction, and protein substrate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. All strains of C. neoformans produced extracellular proteolytic activity. Maximal extracellular proteinase activity in supernatants of C. neoformans cultures was associate...

Chen, L. C.; Blank, E. S.; Casadevall, A.

1996-01-01

108

Purification of a cysteine protease inhibitor from larval hemolymph of the Tobacco Hornworm (Manduca sexta) and functional expression of the recombinant protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) with an apparent molecular mass of 11.5 kDa was purified from larval hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) by gel filtration of Sephadex G-50 followed by hydrophobic and ion-exchange column chromatographies. The purified cysteine proteinase inhibitor, ...

109

[Aspergillus ochraceus myxomycetes produce extracellular proteinases--protein C activators of blood plasma].  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural isolates of Aspergillus ochraceus myxomycetes from soil and plant remains from various regions have been screened. The isolated strains were characterized by similar cultural and morphological features and an identical nucleotide sequence in the ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. The ability of the extracellular proteinases of A. ochraceus myxomycetes to activate protein C of blood plasma has been established. Differences are revealed in the accumulation of proteinases activating protein C and proteinases with thrombin- and plasmin-like activities in the growth dynamics of producers. PMID:23101392

Osmolovski?, A A; Kre?er, V G; Kurakov, A V; Baranova, N A; Egorov, N S

2012-01-01

110

Digestive proteinases of yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) larvae: purification and characterization of a trypsin-like proteinase.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new trypsin-like proteinase was purified to homogeneity from the posterior midgut of Tenebrio molitor larvae by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and gel filtration on Superdex-75. The isolated enzyme had molecular mass of 25.5 kD and pI 7.4. The enzyme was also characterized by temperature optimum at 55 degrees C, pH optimum at 8.5, and K(m) value of 0.04 mM (for hydrolysis of Bz-Arg-pNA). According to inhibitor analysis the enzyme is a trypsin-like serine proteinase stable within the pH range of 5.0-9.5. The enzyme hydrolyzes peptide bonds formed by Arg or Lys residues in the P1 position with a preference for relatively long peptide substrates. The N-terminal amino acid sequence, IVGGSSISISSVPXQIXLQY, shares 50-72% identity with other insect trypsin-like proteinases, and 44-50% identity to mammalian trypsins. The isolated enzyme is sensitive to inhibition by plant proteinase inhibitors and it can serve as a suitable target for control of digestion in this stored product pest. PMID:15823084

Tsybina, T A; Dunaevsky, Y E; Belozersky, M A; Zhuzhikov, D P; Oppert, B; Elpidina, E N

2005-03-01

111

Molecular Structure of Cysteine  

Science.gov (United States)

Although cysteine is synthesized in the body, it can also be obtained from poultry, wheat, broccoli, eggs and garlic. Cysteine is well known for its aid in the detoxification of the human body as well as for protection of the liver. Additionally, this compound is an aid to the metabolism of biochemicals such as heparin, biotin, coenzyme A and glutathione. There is little data to affirm any side effects of overdose of cysteine, though insufficient levels of cysteine are thought to increase the risk of cancer in the uterus. Because cysteine is converted to N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) to perform the majority of its useful functions, NAC is sold as the dietary supplement rather than cysteine alone.

2002-08-20

112

Pepper pathogenesis-related protein 4c is a plasma membrane-localized cysteine protease inhibitor that is required for plant cell death and defense signaling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) type III effector AvrBsT triggers programmed cell death (PCD) and activates the hypersensitive response (HR) in plants. Here, we isolated and identified the plasma membrane localized pathogenesis-related (PR) protein 4c gene (CaPR4c) from pepper (Capsicum annuum) leaves undergoing AvrBsT-triggered HR cell death. CaPR4c encodes a protein with a signal peptide and a Barwin domain. Recombinant CaPR4c protein expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited cysteine protease-inhibitor activity and ribonuclease (RNase) activity. Subcellular localization analyses revealed that CaPR4c localized to the plasma membrane in plant cells. CaPR4c expression was rapidly and specifically induced by avirulent Xcv (avrBsT) infection. Transient expression of CaPR4c caused HR cell death in pepper leaves, which was accompanied by enhanced accumulation of H2 O2 and significant induction of some defense-response genes. Deletion of the signal peptide from CaPR4c abolished the induction of HR cell death, indicating a requirement for plasma membrane localization of CaPR4c for HR cell death. CaPR4c silencing in pepper disrupted both basal and AvrBsT-triggered resistance responses, and enabled Xcv proliferation in infected leaves. H2 O2 accumulation, cell-death induction, and defense-response gene expression were distinctly reduced in CaPR4c-silenced pepper. CaPR4c overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants conferred greater resistance against infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. These results collectively suggest that CaPR4c plays an important role in plant cell death and defense signaling. PMID:25335438

Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

2015-01-01

113

Bitter gourd proteinase inhibitors: potential growth inhibitors of Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteinase inhibitors (PIs) from the seeds of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) were identified as strong inhibitors of Helicoverpa armigera gut proteinases (HGP). Biochemical investigations showed that bitter gourd PIs (BGPIs) inhibited more than 80% HGP activity. Electrophoretic analysis revealed the presence of two major proteins (BGPI-1 and-2) and two minor proteins (BGPI-3 and-4) having inhibitory activity against both trypsin and HGP. The major isoforms BGPI-1 and BGPI-2 have molecular mass of 3.5 and 3.0 kDa, respectively. BGPIs inhibited HGP activity of larvae fed on different host plants, on artificial diet with or without added PIs and proteinases excreted in fecal matter. Degradation of BGPI-1 by HGP showed direct correlation with accumulation of BGPI-2-like peptide, which remained stable and active against high concentrations of HGP up to 3 h. Chemical inhibitors of serine proteinases offered partial protection to BGPI-1 from degradation by HGP, suggesting that trypsin and chymotrypsin like proteinases are involved in degradation of BGPI-1. In larval feeding studies, BGPIs were found to retard growth and development of two lepidopteran pests namely Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura. This is the first report showing that BGPIs mediated inhibition of insect gut proteinases directly affects fertility and fecundity of both H. armigera and S. litura. The results advocate use of BGPIs to introduce insect resistance in otherwise susceptible plants. PMID:12842136

Telang, Manasi; Srinivasan, Ajay; Patankar, Aparna; Harsulkar, Abhay; Joshi, Vijay; Damle, Archana; Deshpande, Vasanti; Sainani, Mohini; Ranjekar, Prabhakar; Gupta, Gorakh; Birah, Ajanta; Rani, Seema; Kachole, Manavendra; Giri, Ashok; Gupta, Vidya

2003-07-01

114

Proteinases of Trypanosoma cruzi: patential targets for the chemotherapy of Changas desease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of the American Trypanosomiasis, Chagas Disease, contains cysteine, serine, threonine and metallo proteinases. Aspartic proteinases have not been found so far. The most abundant among these enzymes is cruzipain, a cysteine proteinase expressed as a complex mixture of isoforms by the major developmental stages of the parasite, including some membrane-bound isoforms. The enzyme is an immunodominant antigen in human chronic Chagas disease and seems to be important in the host/parasite relationship. Inhibitors of cruzipain kill the parasite and cure infected mice, thus making the enzyme a very promising target for the development of new drugs against Chagas disease. In addition 30 kDa cathepsin B-like enzymes have been described. Serine peptidases described in the parasite include oligopeptidase B, a member of the prolyl oligopeptidase family involved in Ca(2+)-signalling during mammalian cell invasion; a prolyl endopeptidase (Tc80), against which inhibitors are being developed, and a serine carboxypeptidase belonging to the S10 family. Metalloproteinases homologous to the gp63 of Leishmania spp. are also present. The proteasome has properties similar to those of other eukaryotes, and its inhibition by lactacystin blocks some differentiation steps in the life cycle of the parasite. PMID:12171584

Cazzulo, Juan José

2002-11-01

115

Abscisic acid is involved in the wound-induced expression of the proteinase inhibitor II gene in potato and tomato  

OpenAIRE

Plants respond to wounding or pathogen attack by a variety of biochemical reactions, involving in some instances gene activation in tissues far apart from the actual site of wounding or pathogen invasion. One of the best analyzed examples for such a systemic reaction is the wound-induced expression of proteinase inhibitor genes in tomato and potato leaves. Local wounding of potato or tomato plants results in the accumulation of proteinase inhibitors I and II throughout the aerial part of the ...

Pe?na-corte?s, Hugo; Sa?nchez-serrano, Jose? J.; Mertens, Ru?diger; Willmitzer, Lothar; Prat, Salome?

1989-01-01

116

The Cysteine Protease–Cysteine Protease Inhibitor System Explored in Soybean Nodule Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Almost all protease families have been associated with plant development, particularly senescence, which is the final developmental stage of every organ before cell death. Proteolysis remobilizes and recycles nitrogen from senescent organs that is required, for example, seed development. Senescence-associated expression of proteases has recently been characterized using large-scale gene expression analysis seeking to identify and characterize senescence-related genes. Increasing activities of proteolytic enzymes, particularly cysteine proteases, are observed during the senescence of legume nodules, in which a symbiotic relationship between the host plant and bacteria (Rhizobia facilitate the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. It is generally considered that cysteine proteases are compartmentalized to prevent uncontrolled proteolysis in nitrogen-fixing nodules. In addition, the activities of cysteine proteases are regulated by endogenous cysteine protease inhibitors called cystatins. These small proteins form reversible complexes with cysteine proteases, leading to inactivation. However, very little is currently known about how the cysteine protease-cysteine protease inhibitor (cystatin system is regulated during nodule development. Moreover, our current understanding of the expression and functions of proteases and protease inhibitors in nodules is fragmented. To address this issue, we have summarized the current knowledge and techniques used for studying proteases and their inhibitors including the application of “omics” tools, with a particular focus on changes in the cysteine protease-cystatin system during nodule development.

Marian Dorcas Quain

2013-08-01

117

Extracellular proteinases in natural isolates of Staphylococci  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biochemical characteristics of proteinases from natural isolates of Staphylococcus sp. F22, F86, M104, S2007 and S2105 have been studied. It was found that these proteinases have relatively low molecular masses (from 20 to 32 kDa, and that they are released from the cell envelope in to the growth medium. Their temperature optima are between 30 and 37°C and their pH optima range from 6,5 to 8. Copper ions inhibit their activity, but the presence of calcium ions stimulates the activity of proteinases from isolates F22, M104 and S2007. Beside casein fractions, they also hydrolyze heterologous protein substrates, such as BSA and gelatin. Experiments with specific proteinase inhibitors revealed that proteinases from isolates F22 and M104 belong to the serine group of proteinases, S2007 and S2105 proteinases were classified as metalloproteinases. Type of F86 proteinase in these experiments could not be clearly determinated.

Fira ?.

2005-01-01

118

Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular characterization and transcriptional response upon immune stimulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors are involved in several biological and physiological processes in all multicellular organisms. Proteinase inhibitors play a key role in regulating the activity of the respective proteinases. Among serine proteinase inhibitors, kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs) are widely found in mammals, avians, and a variety of invertebrates. In this study, we describe the identification of a kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (Ab-KPI) from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, which is presumably involved in innate immunity. The full-length cDNA of Ab-KPI includes 600 bp nucleotides with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 143 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ab-KPI contains a putative 17-amino acid signal peptide and two tandem kazal domains with high similarity to other kazal-type SPIs. Each kazal domain consists of reactive site (P1) residue containing a leucine (L), and a threonine (T) located in the second amino acid position after the second conserved cysteine of each domain. Temporal expression of Ab-KPI was assessed by real time quantitative PCR in hemocytes and mantle tissue following bacterial and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) challenge, and tissue injury. At 6 h post-bacterial and -VHSV challenge, Ab-KPI expression in hemocytes was increased 14-fold and 4-fold, respectively, compared to control samples. The highest up-regulations upon tissue injury were shown at 9 h and 12 h in hemocytes and mantle, respectively. The transcriptional modulation of Ab-KPI following bacterial and viral challenges and tissue injury indicates that it might be involved in immune defense as well as wound healing process in abalone. PMID:23859879

Wickramaarachchi, W D Niroshana; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Wan, Qiang; Lee, Jehee

2013-09-01

119

A multifaceted study of stigma/style cysteine-rich adhesin (SCA)-like Arabidopsis lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) suggests diversified roles for these LTPs in plant growth and reproduction  

OpenAIRE

Lily stigma/style cysteine-rich adhesin (SCA), a plant lipid transfer protein (LTP) which is secreted into the extracellular matrix, functions in pollen tube guidance in fertilization. A gain-of-function mutant (ltp5-1) for Arabidopsis LTP5, an SCA-like molecule, was recently shown to display defects in sexual reproduction. In the current study, it is reported that ltp5-1 plants have dwarfed primary shoots, delayed hypocotyl elongation, various abnormal tissue fusions, and display multibranch...

Chae, Keun; Gonong, Benedict J.; Kim, Seung-chul; Kieslich, Chris A.; Morikis, Dimitrios; Balasubramanian, Shruthi; Lord, Elizabeth M.

2010-01-01

120

Anthropogenic increase in carbon dioxide compromises plant defense against invasive insects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), a consequence of anthropogenic global change, can profoundly affect the interactions between crop plants and insect pests and may promote yet another form of global change: the rapid establishment of invasive species. Elevated CO{sub 2} increased the susceptibility of soybean plants grown under field conditions to the invasive Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) and to a variant of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) resistant to crop rotation by down-regulating gene expression related to defense signaling [lipoxygenase 7 (lox7), lipoxygenase 8 (lox8), and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (acc-s)]. The down-regulation of these genes, in turn, reduced the production of cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CystPIs), which are specific deterrents to coleopteran herbivores. Beetle herbivory increased CystPI activity to a greater degree in plants grown under ambient than under elevated CO{sub 2}. Gut cysteine proteinase activity was higher in beetles consuming foliage of soybeans grown under elevated CO{sub 2} than in beetles consuming soybeans grown in ambient CO{sub 2}, consistent with enhanced growth and development of these beetles on plants grown in elevated CO{sub 2}. These findings suggest that predicted increases in soybean productivity under projected elevated CO{sub 2} levels may be reduced by increased susceptibility to invasive crop pests.

Zavala, J.; Casteel, C.; DeLucia, E.; Berenbaum, M. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)

2008-04-01

121

Insect resistance to sugar beet pests mediated by a Beta vulgaris proteinase inhibitor transgene  

Science.gov (United States)

We transformed sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) hairy roots and Nicotiana benthamiana plants with a Beta vulgaris root gene (BvSTI) that codes for a serine proteinase inhibitor. BvSTI is a root gene cloned from the F1016 breeding line that has moderate levels of resistance to the sugar beet root maggot ...

122

Allergic reactivity and IgG subclasses to a proteinase fraction of Setaria digitata in filariasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A low molecular weight fraction (30 KDa) of the cattle filarial parasite Setaria digitata that was earlier demonstrated to have allergenic activity was characterized to be a zinc-dependent cysteine proteinase. Immediate type hypersensitivity (ITH) reaction to the proteinase was evaluated in lymphatic filariasis patients and in endemic controls from Orissa, India. The extent of ITH positivity to the proteinase in infected individuals ranged from 20% in chronic filariasis (CP) patients group to 56% in asymptomatic microfilaraemic carriers (AS). About 62% of endemic normals (EN) were also ITH positive. The serum levels of IgG subclasses were compared in ITH positive and ITH negative filarial patients (AS and CP) as well as in endemic normals (EN) respectively. IgG4 levels were found to be inversely dependent on ITH reaction only in AS groups. Asymptomatic patients (AS) with positive ITH reactivity had lower IgG4 than ITH negative individuals from the same group. The serum levels of other IgG subclasses except IgG2, did not correlate with ITH reactivity. IgG2 levels were higher in ITH negative EN and CP patients but not in the AS group. PMID:8522762

Beuria, M K; Bal, M; Das, M K

1995-09-01

123

Improved methods for high-throughput extraction of green barley malt and assay of endoproteinase activity allow examination of the properties and putative functions of the proteinases in barley populations  

Science.gov (United States)

We report efficient sample extraction and assay methods allowing determinations of activities from two mechanistic classes (cysteine and serine) of barley malt proteinase, and use the improved methods to assay > 2200 developmental lines of malting barley. The distributions of the resulting activitie...

124

Characterization of a Serine Proteinase Mediating Encystation of Acanthamoeba?  

OpenAIRE

Members of the genus Acanthamoeba, amphizoic protozoan parasites, are causative agents of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and amoebic keratitis. Proteinases play a role in various biologic actions in Acanthamoeba, including host tissue destruction, pathogenesis, and digestion of phagocytosed food. Interestingly, we found that encystation of Acanthamoeba was inhibited by the serine proteinase inhibitor phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride. In this study, we characterize a serine proteinase that i...

Moon, Eun-kyung; Chung, Dong-il; Hong, Yeon-chul; Kong, Hyun-hee

2008-01-01

125

Extracellular proteinases in natural isolates of Staphylococci  

OpenAIRE

Biochemical characteristics of proteinases from natural isolates of Staphylococcus sp. F22, F86, M104, S2007 and S2105 have been studied. It was found that these proteinases have relatively low molecular masses (from 20 to 32 kDa), and that they are released from the cell envelope in to the growth medium. Their temperature optima are between 30 and 37°C and their pH optima range from 6,5 to 8. Copper ions inhibit their activity, but the presence of calcium ions stimulates the activity of pro...

Fira ?.; Begovi? Jelena M.; Topisirovi? Ljubiša

2005-01-01

126

Transcriptome analysis of the cowpea weevil bruchid: identification of putative proteinases and alpha-amylases associated with food breakdown.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe here the first systematic work to discover insect genes involved in food breakdown using a cDNA library enriched for gut-expressed transcripts from Callosobruchus maculatus. A total of 1056 clones were screened for cDNA insert-containing plasmids, and 503 nonredundant open reading frames were discovered. Twenty-three inferred genes potentially involved in digestive processes in cowpea weevil were identified, including proteinases and amylases. The predicted catalytic sites were identified in the inferred cysteine and aspartic acid proteinases, and in alpha-amylases. Transcriptome analysis of the cowpea bruchid will potentially permit gene discovery in other beetles, an insect order of major economic and ecological importance that is poorly represented in genomic databases. PMID:12864920

Pedra, J H F; Brandt, A; Westerman, R; Lobo, N; Li, H-M; Romero-Severson, J; Murdock, L L; Pittendrigh, B R

2003-08-01

127

Partial Isolation and Degradation of Caseins by Cell Wall Proteinase(s) of Streptococcus cremoris HP  

OpenAIRE

The cell wall proteinase fraction of Streptococcus cremoris HP has been isolated. This preparation did not exhibit any activity due to either specific peptidases known to be located near the outside surface of and in the membrane or intracellular proteolytic enzymes. By using thin-layer chromatography for the detection of relatively small hydrolysis products which remain soluble at pH 4.6, it was shown that ?-casein is preferentially attacked by the cell wall proteinase. This was also the ca...

Exterkate, Fred A.; Veer, Gerrie J. C. M.

1985-01-01

128

Multiple pathways for vacuolar sorting of yeast proteinase A  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The sorting of the yeast proteases proteinase A and carboxypeptidase Y to the vacuole is a saturable, receptor-mediated process. Information sufficient for vacuolar sorting of the normally secreted protein invertase has in fusion constructs previously been found to reside in the propeptide of proteinase A. We found that sorting of such a hybrid protein is dependent on the vacuolar protein-sorting receptor Vps10p. This was unexpected, as strains disrupted for VPS10 sort more than 85% of the proteinase A to the vacuole. Consistent with a role for Vps10p in sorting of proteinase A, we found that 1) overproduction of Vps10p suppressed the missorting phenotype associated with overproduction of proteinase A, 2) overproduction of proteinase A induced missorting of carboxypeptidase Y, 3) vacuolar sorting of proteinase A in a deltavps10 strain was readily saturated by modest overproduction of proteinase A, and 4) Vps10p and proteinase A interact directly and specifically as shown by chemical cross-linking. Interestingly, overexpression of two telomere-linked VPS10 homologues, VTH1 and VTH2 suppressed the missorting phenotypes of a deltavps10 strain. However, disruption of the VTH1 and VTH2 genes did not affect the sorting of proteinase A. We conclude that proteinase A utilizes at least two mechanisms for sorting, a Vps10p-dependent path and a Vth1p/Vth2p/Vps10p-independent path.

Westphal, V; Marcusson, E G

1996-01-01

129

Nonvolatile S-alk(en)ylthio-L-cysteine derivatives in fresh onion (Allium cepa L. cultivar).  

Science.gov (United States)

The L-cysteine derivatives (R)-2-amino-3-(methyldisulfanyl)propanoic acid (S-methylthio-L-cysteine), (R)-2-amino-3-(propyldisulfanyl)propanoic acid (S-propylthio-L-cysteine), (R)-2-amino-3-(1-propenyldisulfanyl)propanoic acid (S-(1-propenylthio)-L-cysteine), and (R)-2-amino-3-(2-propenyldisulfanyl)propanoic acid (S-allylthio-L-cysteine) were prepared from 3-[(methoxycarbonyl)dithio]-L-alanine, obtained from the reaction of L-cysteine with methoxycarbonylsulfenyl chloride. The occurrence of these S-(+)-alk(en)ylthio-L-cysteine derivatives in onion (Allium cepa L.) was proven by using UPLC-MS-ESI(+) in SRM mode. Their concentrations in fresh onion were estimated to be 0.19 mg/kg S-methylthio-L-cysteine, 0.01 mg/kg S-propylthio-L-cysteine, and 0.56 mg/kg (S-(1-propenyllthio)-L-cysteine, concentrations that are about 3000 times lower than that of isoalliin (S-(1-propenyl-S-oxo-L-cysteine). These compounds were treated with Fusobacterium nucleatum, a microorganism responsible for the formation of mouth malodor. These L-cysteine disulfides were demonstrated to predominantly produce tri- and tetrasulfides. Isoalliin is almost entirely consumed by the plant enzyme alliin lyase (EC 4.4.1.4 S-alk(en)yl-S-oxo-L-cysteine lyase) in a few seconds, but it is not transformed by F. nucleatum. This example of flavor modulation shows that the plant produces different precursors, leading to the formation of the same types of volatile sulfur compounds. Whereas the plant enzyme efficiently transforms S-alk(en)yl-S-oxo-L-cysteine, mouth bacteria are responsible for the transformation of S-alk(en)ylthio-L-cysteine. PMID:21854077

Starkenmann, Christian; Niclass, Yvan; Troccaz, Myriam

2011-09-14

130

Solution structure of the squash aspartic acid proteinase inhibitor (SQAPI) and mutational analysis of pepsin inhibition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The squash aspartic acid proteinase inhibitor (SQAPI), a proteinaceous proteinase inhibitor from squash, is an effective inhibitor of a range of aspartic proteinases. Proteinaceous aspartic proteinase inhibitors are rare in nature. The only other example in plants probably evolved from a precursor serine proteinase inhibitor. Earlier work based on sequence homology modeling suggested SQAPI evolved from an ancestral cystatin. In this work, we determined the solution structure of SQAPI using NMR and show that SQAPI shares the same fold as a plant cystatin. The structure is characterized by a four-strand anti-parallel beta-sheet gripping an alpha-helix in an analogous manner to fingers of a hand gripping a tennis racquet. Truncation and site-specific mutagenesis revealed that the unstructured N terminus and the loop connecting beta-strands 1 and 2 are important for pepsin inhibition, but the loop connecting strands 3 and 4 is not. Using ambiguous restraints based on the mutagenesis results, SQAPI was then docked computationally to pepsin. The resulting model places the N-terminal strand of SQAPI in the S' side of the substrate binding cleft, whereas the first SQAPI loop binds on the S side of the cleft. The backbone of SQAPI does not interact with the pepsin catalytic Asp(32)-Asp(215) diad, thus avoiding cleavage. The data show that SQAPI does share homologous structural elements with cystatin and appears to retain a similar protease inhibitory mechanism despite its different target. This strongly supports our hypothesis that SQAPI evolved from an ancestral cystatin. PMID:20538608

Headey, Stephen J; Macaskill, Ursula K; Wright, Michele A; Claridge, Jolyon K; Edwards, Patrick J B; Farley, Peter C; Christeller, John T; Laing, William A; Pascal, Steven M

2010-08-27

131

A new subtilisin-like proteinase from roots of the dandelion Taraxacum officinale Webb S. L.  

Science.gov (United States)

A serine proteinase from roots of Taraxacum officinale Webb S. L. was isolated by affinity chromatography and gel-filtration on Superose 6R using FPLC. The enzyme is a 67-kD glycoprotein containing 54% carbohydrate which we have named taraxalisin. The substrate specificity of taraxalisin toward synthetic peptides and oxidized insulin B-chain is comparable with that of cucumisin from Cucumis melo and the subtilisin-like serine proteinase macluralisin from Maclura pomifera. The proteinase is inactivated by DFP and PMSF. Taraxalisin exhibits maximal activity at pH 8.0. The pH range for stability of the enzyme is narrow--6.0-9.0. The temperature optimum for the subtilisin-like activity is 40 degrees C. The N-terminal sequence of taraxalisin has 40% of its residues identical to those of subtilisin Carlsberg. Thus, the serine proteinase from dandelion roots is a member of the subtilisin family, which is evidently widespread in the plant kingdom. PMID:10521720

Bogacheva, A M; Rudenskaya, G N; Preusser, A; Tchikileva, I O; Dunaevsky, Y E; Golovkin, B N; Stepanov, V M

1999-09-01

132

Formation of cysteine-S-conjugates in the Maillard reaction of cysteine and xylose.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysteine-S-conjugates (CS-conjugates) occur in foods derived from plant sources like grape, passion fruit, onion, garlic, bell pepper and hops. During eating CS-conjugates are degraded into aroma-active thiols by ?-lyases that originate from oral microflora. The present study provides evidence for the formation of the CS-conjugates S-furfuryl-l-cysteine (FFT-S-Cys) and S-(2-methyl-3-furyl)-l-cysteine (MFT-S-Cys) in the Maillard reaction of xylose with cysteine at 100°C for 2h. The CS-conjugates were isolated using cationic exchange and reversed-phase chromatography and identified by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and LC-MS(2). Spectra and LC retention times matched those of authentic standards. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that CS-conjugates are described as Maillard reaction products. Furfuryl alcohol (FFA) is proposed as an intermediate which undergoes a nucleophilic substitution with cysteine. Both FFT-S-Cys and MFT-S-Cys are odourless but produce strong aroma when tasted in aqueous solutions, supposedly induced by ? -lyases from the oral microflora. The perceived aromas resemble those of the corresponding aroma-active thiols 2-furfurylthiol (FFT) and 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (MFT) which smell coffee-like and meaty, respectively. PMID:23790889

Cerny, Christoph; Guntz-Dubini, Renée

2013-11-15

133

Specificity of binding of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein to different conformational states of the clade E serpins plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and proteinase nexin-1  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is the principal clearance receptor for serpins and serpin-proteinase complexes. The ligand binding regions of LRP consist of clusters of cysteine-rich approximately 40-residue complement-like repeats (CR), with cluster II being the principal ligand-binding region. To better understand the specificity of binding at different sites within the cluster and the ability of LRP to discriminate in vivo between uncomplexed and proteinase-complexed serpins, we have systematically examined the affinities of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and proteinase nexin-1 (PN-1) in their native, cleaved, and proteinase-complexed states to (CR)(2) and (CR)(3) fragments of LRP cluster II. A consistent blue shift of the CR domain tryptophan fluorescence suggested a common mode of serpin binding, involving lysines on the serpin engaging the acidic region around the calcium binding site of the CR domain. High affinity binding of non-proteinase-complexed PAI-1 and PN-1 occurred to all fragments containing three CR domains (3-59 nm) and most that contain only two CR domains, although binding energies to different (CR)(3) fragments differed by up to 18% for PAI-1 and 9% for PN-1. No detectable difference in affinity was seen between native and cleaved serpin. However, the presence of proteinase in complex with the serpin enhanced affinity modestly and presumably nonspecifically. This may be sufficient to give preferential binding of such complexes in vivo at the relevant physiological concentrations.

Jensen, Jan Kristian; Dolmer, Klavs

2009-01-01

134

The relevance of compartmentation for cysteine synthesis in phototrophic organisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the vascular plant Arabidopsis thaliana, synthesis of cysteine and its precursors O-acetylserine and sulfide is distributed between the cytosol, chloroplasts, and mitochondria. This compartmentation contributes to regulation of cysteine synthesis. In contrast to Arabidopsis, cysteine synthesis is exclusively restricted to chloroplasts in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Thus, the question arises, whether specification of compartmentation was driven by multicellularity and specified organs and tissues. The moss Physcomitrella patens colonizes land but is still characterized by a simple morphology compared to vascular plants. It was therefore used as model organism to study evolution of compartmented cysteine synthesis. The presence of O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OAS-TL) proteins, which catalyze the final step of cysteine synthesis, in different compartments was applied as criterion. Purification and characterization of native OAS-TL proteins demonstrated the presence of five OAS-TL protein species encoded by two genes in Physcomitrella. At least one of the gene products is dual targeted to plastids and cytosol, as shown by combination of GFP fusion localization studies, purification of chloroplasts, and identification of N termini from native proteins. The bulk of OAS-TL protein is targeted to plastids, whereas there is no evidence for a mitochondrial OAS-TL isoform and only a minor part of OAS-TL protein is localized in the cytosol. This demonstrates that subcellular diversification of cysteine synthesis is already initialized in Physcomitrella but appears to gain relevance later during evolution of vascular plants. PMID:22543690

Birke, Hannah; Müller, Stefanie J; Rother, Michael; Zimmer, Andreas D; Hoernstein, Sebastian N W; Wesenberg, Dirk; Wirtz, Markus; Krauss, Gerd-Joachim; Reski, Ralf; Hell, Rüdiger

2012-06-01

135

Seed-specific aspartic proteinase FeAP12 from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aspartic proteinase gene (FeAP12 has been isolated from the cDNA library of developing buckwheat seeds. Analysis of its deduced amino acid sequence showed that it resembled the structure and shared high homology with typical plant aspartic proteinases (AP characterized by the presence of a plant-specific insert (PSI, unique among APs. It was shown that FeAP12 mRNA was not present in the leaves, roots, steam and flowers, but was seed-specifically expressed. Moreover, the highest levels of FeAP12 expression were observed in the early stages of seed development, therefore suggesting its potential role in nucellar degradation.

Timotijevi? Gordana S.

2010-01-01

136

A chymotrypsin-like proteinase from the midgut of Tenebrio molitor larvae.  

Science.gov (United States)

A chymotrypsin-like proteinase was isolated from the posterior midgut of larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The enzyme, TmC1, was purified to homogeneity as determined by SDS-PAGE and postelectrophoretic activity detection. TmC1 had a molecular mass of 23.0 kDa, pI of 8.4, a pH optimum of 9.5, and the optimal temperature for activity was 51 degrees C. The proteinase displayed high stability at temperatures below 43 degrees C and in the pH range 6.5-11.2, which is inclusive of the pH of the posterior and middle midgut. The enzyme hydrolyzed long chymotrypsin peptide substrates SucAAPFpNA, SucAAPLpNA and GlpAALpNA and did not hydrolyze short chymotrypsin substrates. Kinetic parameters of the enzymatic reaction demonstrated that the best substrate was SucAAPFpNA, with k(cat app) 36.5 s(-1) and K(m) 1.59 mM. However, the enzyme had a lower K(m) for SucAAPLpNA, 0.5 mM. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) was an effective inhibitor of TmC1, and the proteinase was not inhibited by either tosyl-l-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) or N(alpha)-tosyl-l-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK). However, the activity of TmC1 was reduced with sulfhydryl reagents. Several plant and insect proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors were active against the purified enzyme, the most effective being Kunitz soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI). The N-terminal sequence of the enzyme was IISGSAASKGQFPWQ, which was up to 67% similar to other insect chymotrypsin-like proteinases and 47% similar to mammalian chymotrypsin A. The amino acid composition of TmC1 differed significantly from previously isolated T. molitor enzymes. PMID:15885871

Elpidina, E N; Tsybina, T A; Dunaevsky, Y E; Belozersky, M A; Zhuzhikov, D P; Oppert, B

2005-08-01

137

Protein engineering of novel proteinase inhibitors and their effects on the growth of Spodoptera exigua larvae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel types of proteinase inhibitors with multi-inhibitory activities were generated by replacement of phytocystatin domains in sunflower multi-cystatin (SMC) by the serine proteinase inhibitor BGIT from bitter gourd seeds. Two chimeric inhibitors SMC-T3 and SMC-T23, in which the third domain in SMC and the second and third domains in SMC were replaced by BGIT, acquired trypsin inhibitory activity (Ki: 1.46 x 10(-7) M and 1.75 x 10(-7) M), retaining inhibitory activity toward papain (Ki: 4.5 x 10(-8) M and 1.52 x 10(-7) M), respectively. We compared the chimeric inhibitors and the recombinant SMC (r-SMC) in relation to their effects on the growth of larval Spodoptera exigua. When the second instar larvae were reared on a diet containing rSMC, SMC-T3, or SMC-T23 for ten days, a significant reduction in weight gain was observed. Mean weights for rSMC, SMC-T3, and SMC-T23 were 43 mg, 32 mg, and 43 mg, respectively, as compared with that (60 mg) for the absence of the inhibitor. In contrast, BGIT had little effect on the growth of the S. exigua larvae. This result indicated that the chimeric inhibitor SMC-T3 with two phytocystatin domains and one serine proteinase inhibitor domain is an efficient inhibitor of proteinases in the S. exigua larvae. Therefore, this novel type of proteinase inhibitor with multi-inhibitory activities may represent a promising protein for successful application to a transgenic plant with insect resistance. PMID:11758918

Inanaga, H; Kobayasi, D; Kouzuma, Y; Aoki-Yasunaga, C; Iiyama, K; Kimura, M

2001-10-01

138

The aspartic proteinase family of three Phytophthora species  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Phytophthora species are oomycete plant pathogens with such major social and economic impact that genome sequences have been determined for Phytophthora infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum. Pepsin-like aspartic proteinases (APs) are produced in a wide variety of species (from bacteria to humans) and contain conserved motifs and landmark residues. APs fulfil critical roles in infectious organisms and their host cells. Anno...

ten Have Arjen; Jg, Meijer Harold; Kay John; Al, Kan Jan

2011-01-01

139

Development and bioassay of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing potato proteinase inhibitor II gene  

OpenAIRE

Lepidopteran larvae are the most injurious pests of Chinese cabbage production. We attempted the development of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing the potato proteinase inhibitor II gene (pinII) and bioassayed the pest-repelling ability of these transgenic plants. Cotyledons with petioles from aseptic seedlings were used as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated in vitro transformation. Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 contained the binary vector pBBBasta-pinII-bar comprising pinII and bar genes...

Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Fan; Yao, Lei; Luo, Chen; Yin, Yue; Wang, Guixiang; Huang, Yubi

2012-01-01

140

Purification and Characterization of Extracellular Proteinases of Aspergillus oryzae  

OpenAIRE

The extracellular proteinases of Aspergillus oryzae EI 212 were separated into two active fractions by (NH4)2SO4 and ethanol fractionation followed by diethyl-aminoethyl-Sephadex A-50 and hydroxyapatite chromatography. The molecular weight was estimated by gel filtration to be about 70,000 and 35,000 for proteinases I and II, respectively. Optimum pH for casein and hemoglobin hydrolysis was 6.5 at 60 C for proteinase I and 10.0 at 45 C for proteinase II, and for gelatin hydrolysis it was 6.5 ...

1983-01-01

141

Implication of the disulfide bridge in trypsin inhibitor SFTI-1 in its interaction with serine proteinases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fourteen monocyclic analogues of trypsin inhibitor SFTI-1 isolated from sunflower seeds were synthesized by the solid-phase method. The purpose of this work was to establish the role of a disulfide bridge present in inhibitor's side chains of Cys3 and Cys11 in association with serine proteinases. This cyclic fragment was replaced by the disulfide bridges formed by l-pencillamine (Pen), homo-l-cysteine (Hcy), N-sulfanylethylglycine (Nhcy) or combination of the three with Cys. As in the substrate specificity the P(1) position of the synthesized analogues Lys, Nlys [N-(4-aminobutyl)glycine], Phe or Nphe (N-benzylglycine) were present, and they were checked for trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity. The results clearly indicated that Pen and Nhcy were not acceptable at the position 3, yielding inactive analogues, whereas another residue (Cys11) could be substituted without any significant impact on the affinity towards proteinase. On the other hand, elongation of the Cys3 side chain by introduction of Hcy did not affect inhibitory activity, and an analogue with the Hcy-Hcy disulfide bridge was more than twice as effective as the reference compound ([Phe?] SFTI-1) in inhibition of bovine ?-chymotrypsin. PMID:21036622

L?gowska, Anna; D?bowski, Dawid; Lukajtis, Rafa?; Wysocka, Magdalena; Czaplewski, Cezary; Lesner, Adam; Rolka, Krzysztof

2010-12-01

142

Heterogeneity in late-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy. Effect of inhibitors of cysteine proteinases.  

OpenAIRE

The synthesis of arylsulfatase A polypeptides was followed in fibroblasts from 11 patients with late-onset forms of metachromatic leukodystrophy. In 10 cell lines, the apparent rate of synthesis was 20%-70% as measured by the amount of [35S]arylsulfatase A secreted in the presence of 10 mM NH4Cl. The specific activity of the secreted arylsulfatase A was normal. The residual activity of arylsulfatase A was below 10% except for one cell line in which it was 20%. The activity of arylsulfatase A ...

Von Figura, K.; Steckel, F.; Conary, J.; Hasilik, A.; Shaw, E.

1986-01-01

143

A rapid two-step purification of rat cystatin C, one major inhibitor of cysteine proteinases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rat cystatin C was purified to apparent homogeneity from rat urine after induction of a tubular dysfunction with sodium chromate. Twentyfold concentrated urine was chromatographed by a rapid purification procedure. A two-step purification including affinity chromatography on carboxymethyl papain- Sepharose and high-resolution anion exchange chromatography was developed. The purified protein has an apparent molecular mass of 15 kDa and pI of 10.2; its aminoacid composition was similar to human cystatin C. As opposed to previous data, purified urinary rat cystatin C did not contain significant amounts of carbohydrate. Antisera against rat cystatin C, raised in rabbits, partially cross-reacted with human and mouse cystatin C, indicating their antigenic similarities. Like human cystatin C, native rat cystatin C, named slow form, is degraded into a more acidic form, called fast form, by a loss of N-terminal amino acids; fast form displayed a pI of 9.4. PMID:2622871

Tavera, C; Guillemot, J C; Capdevielle, J; Ferrara, P; Leung-Tack, J; Collé, A

1989-01-01

144

Two cysteine proteinases respond to bacterial and WSSV challenge in Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cDNAs encoding CathL and legumain from Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis (FcCathL, FcLegu) were obtained. Both FcCathL and FcLegu mRNA were expressed mainly in the hepatopancreas of unchallenged shrimp. Time-course analysis of FcCathL showed that FcCathL was upregulated in the hepatopancreas of shrimp challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) at 12 h. FcLegu mRNA in hepatopancreas was down-regulated by Vibrio. FcLegu transcript first declined from 2 h to 6 h and then recovered from 12 h to 24 h in hepatopancreas challenged with WSSV. FcCathL protein was detected in the hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gill, stomach, and intestine of unchallenged shrimp. Three bands of FcCathL protein detected in some tissues may represent preproenzyme, single chain and mature double chain form respectively. In hepatopancreas, FcLegu was detected in the proenzyme form. In other tissues, only active form could be detected. The protein of FcLegu was down-regulated by Vibrio or WSSV challenge in the stomach and gills. FcCathL and FcLegu were proposed to play a role in shrimp innate immunity for the first time. PMID:20362060

Ren, Qian; Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Sun, Yun-Dong; Sun, Shan-Shan; Zhou, Jing; Wang, Zong-Heng; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

2010-10-01

145

Characterization of proteinases from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus involved in the generation of antimicrobial peptides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemoglobin is a rich source of biologically active peptides, some of which are potent antimicrobials (hemocidins. A few hemocidins have been purified from the midgut contents of ticks. Nonetheless, how antimicrobials are generated in the tick midgut and their role in immunity is still poorly understood. Here we report, for the first time, the contribution of two midgut proteinases to the generation of hemocidins. Results An aspartic proteinase, designated BmAP, was isolated from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus using three chromatographic steps. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that BmAP is restricted to the midgut. The other enzyme is a previously characterized midgut cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase designated BmCL1. Substrate specificities of native BmAP and recombinant BmCL1 were mapped using a synthetic combinatorial peptide library and bovine hemoglobin. BmCL1 preferred substrates containing non-polar residues at P2 subsite and polar residues at P1, whereas BmAP hydrolysed substrates containing non-polar amino acids at P1 and P1'. Conclusions BmAP and BmCL1 generate hemocidins from hemoglobin alpha and beta chains in vitro. We postulate that hemocidins may be important for the control of tick pathogens and midgut flora.

Craik Charles S

2010-07-01

146

Stress inducible proteinase inhibitor diversity in Capsicum annuum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Wound-inducible Pin-II Proteinase inhibitors (PIs are one of the important plant serine PIs which have been studied extensively for their structural and functional diversity and relevance in plant defense against insect pests. To explore the functional specialization of an array of Capsicum annuum (L. proteinase inhibitor (CanPIs genes, we studied their expression, processing and tissue-specific distribution under steady-state and induced conditions. Inductions were performed by subjecting C. annuum leaves to various treatments, namely aphid infestation or mechanical wounding followed by treatment with either oral secretion (OS of Helicoverpa armigera or water. Results The elicitation treatments regulated the accumulation of CanPIs corresponding to 4-, 3-, and 2-inhibitory repeat domains (IRDs. Fourty seven different CanPI genes composed of 28 unique IRDs were identified in total along with those reported earlier. The CanPI gene pool either from uninduced or induced leaves was dominated by 3-IRD PIs and trypsin inhibitory domains. Also a major contribution by 4-IRD CanPI genes possessing trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor domains was specifically revealed in wounded leaves treated with OS. Wounding displayed the highest number of unique CanPIs while wounding with OS treatment resulted in the high accumulation of specifically CanPI-4, -7 and ?10. Characterization of the PI protein activity through two dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed tissue and induction specific patterns. Consistent with transcript abundance, wound plus OS or water treated C. annuum leaves exhibited significantly higher PI activity and isoform diversity contributed by 3- and 4-IRD CanPIs. CanPI accumulation and activity was weakly elicited by aphid infestation yet resulted in the higher expression of CanPI-26, -41 and ?43. Conclusions Plants can differentially perceive various kinds of insect attacks and respond appropriately through activating plant defenses including regulation of PIs at transcriptional and post-translational levels. Based on the differentially elicited CanPI accumulation patterns, it is intriguing to speculate that generating sequence diversity in the form of multi-IRD PIs is a part of elaborative plant defense strategy to obtain a diverse pool of functional units to confine insect attack.

Mishra Manasi

2012-11-01

147

Characterization of cell envelope-associated proteinases of thermophilic lactobacilli.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proteolytic activities of two natural isolates of thermophilic lactobacilli, Lactobacillus acidophilus BGRA43 and Lact. delbrueckii BGPF1, and Lact. acidophilus CH2 (Chr. Hansen's strain) and Lact. acidophilus V74 (Visby's strain), were compared. Results revealed that optimal pH for all four proteinases is 6.5, whereas temperature optimum varied among proteinases. Determination of caseinolytic activity done under optimal conditions for each strain revealed that the CH2 and V74 proteinases completely hydrolysed both alphaS1-casein and beta-casein, showing very low activity towards kappa-casein. The BGPF1 proteinase completely hydrolysed only beta-casein. The BGRA43 proteinase completely hydrolysed all three casein fractions. The proteolytic activities of whole cells were inhibited by serine proteinase inhibitors, suggesting that all four strains produce serine proteinases. DNA-DNA hybridization and PCR analysis showed that BGPF1 contains the prtB-like proteinase gene. Characterized thermophilic strains BGPF1 and BGRA43 were successfully used as starter cultures for production of yoghurt and acidophilus milk, respectively. PMID:11155131

Fira, D; Kojic, M; Banina, A; Spasojevic, I; Strahinic, I; Topisirovic, L

2001-01-01

148

Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Cellular Physiology of Cysteine Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana  

OpenAIRE

Cysteine is one of the most versatile molecules in biology, taking over such different functions as catalysis, structure, regulation and electron transport during evolution. Research on Arabidopsis has contributed decisively to the understanding of cysteine synthesis and its role in the assimilatory pathways of S, N and C in plants. The multimeric cysteine synthase complex is present in the cytosol, plastids and mitochondria and forms the centre of a unique metabolic sensing and signaling sys...

Hell, Ru?diger; Wirtz, Markus

2011-01-01

149

Cysteine S-conjugate ?-lyases  

OpenAIRE

Cysteine S-conjugate ?-lyases are pyridoxal 5?-phosphate (PLP)-containing enzymes that catalyze the conversion of cysteine S-conjugates [RSCH2CH(NH3+)CO2?] and selenium Se-conjugates [RSeCH2CH(NH3+)CO2?] that contain a leaving group in the ? position to pyruvate, ammonium and a sulfur-containing fragment (RSH) or selenium-containing fragment (RSeH), respectively. At least ten PLP enzymes catalyze ?-elimination reactions with such cysteine S-conjugates. All are enzymes involved in ami...

Cooper, Arthur J. L.; Krasnikov, Boris F.; Pinto, John T.; Bruschi, Sam A.

2010-01-01

150

Structure of soybean serine acetyltransferase and formation of the cysteine regulatory complex as a molecular chaperone  

Science.gov (United States)

Serine acetyltransferase (SAT) catalyzes the limiting reaction in plant and microbial biosynthesis of cysteine. In addition to its enzymatic function, SAT forms a macromolecular complex with O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS). Formation of the cysteine regulatory complex (CRC) is a critical biochem...

151

Overexpression of a Weed (Solanum americanum) Proteinase Inhibitor in Transgenic Tobacco Results in Increased Glandular Trichome Density and Enhanced Resistance to Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura  

OpenAIRE

In this study we produced transgenic tobacco plants by overexpressing a serine proteinase inhibitor gene, SaPIN2a, from the American black nightshade Solanum americanum under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. SaPIN2a was properly transcribed and translated as indicated by Northern blot and Western blot analyses. Functional integrity of SaPIN2a in transgenic plants was confirmed by proteinase inhibitory activity assay. Bioassays for i...

Zeng-Fu Xu; Yinpeng Cai; Kuai-Fei Xia; Huapeng Li; Ming Luo; Zhaoyu Wang

2009-01-01

152

Cysteine sulfoxide derivatives in Petiveria alliacea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two diastereomers of S-benzyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide have been isolated from fresh roots of Petiveria alliacea. Their structures and absolute configurations have been determined by NMR, MALDI-HRMS, IR and CD spectroscopy and confirmed by comparison with authentic compounds. Both the R(S) and S(S) diastereomers of the sulfoxide are present in all parts of the plant (root, stem, and leaves) with the latter diastereomer being predominant. Their total content greatly varied in different parts of the plant between 0.07 and 2.97 mg g(-1) fr. wt, being by far the highest in the root. S-Benzylcysteine has also been detected in trace amounts (<10 microg g(-1) fr. wt) in all parts of the plant. This represents the first report of the presence of S-benzylcysteine derivatives in nature. PMID:11684199

Kubec, R; Musah, R A

2001-11-01

153

Molecular identification of a bevy of serine proteinases in Manduca sextahemolymph?  

OpenAIRE

Extracellular serine proteinase pathways control immune and homeostatic processes in insects. Our current knowledge of their components is limited—prophenoloxidase-activating proteinases (PAPs) are among the few hemolymph proteinases (HPs) with known functions. To identify components of proteinase systems in the hemolymph of Manduca sexta, we amplified cDNAs from larval fat body or hemocytes using degenerate primers coding for two conserved regions in S1 family serine proteinases. PCR yield...

Jiang, Haobo; Wang, Yang; Gu, Yongli; Guo, Xiaoping; Zou, Zhen; Scholz, Frank; Trenczek, Tina E.; Kanost, Michael R.

2005-01-01

154

Characterization of the Cell Wall-Bound Proteinase of Lactobacillus casei HN14  

OpenAIRE

Lactobacillus casei HN14, which was isolated from homemade cheese, produces an extracellular, cell wall-bound proteinase. The HN14 proteinase can be removed from the cell envelope by washing the cells in a Ca2+-free buffer. The activity of the crude proteinase extract is inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, showing that the enzyme is a serine-type proteinase. Considering the substrate specificity, the HN14 proteinase is similar to the lactococcal PI-type enzyme, since it hydrolyzes ?-...

Kojic, M.; Fira, D.; Banina, A.; Topisirovic, L.

1991-01-01

155

A second hepatitis C virus-encoded proteinase.  

OpenAIRE

Host and viral proteinases are believed to be required for the production of at least nine hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific polyprotein cleavage products. Although several cleavages appear to be catalyzed by host signal peptidase or the HCV NS3 serine proteinase, the enzyme responsible for cleavage at the 2/3 site has not been identified. In this report, we have defined the 2/3 cleavage site and obtained evidence which suggests that this cleavage is mediated by a second HCV-encoded proteinase...

Grakoui, A.; Mccourt, D. W.; Wychowski, C.; Feinstone, S. M.; Rice, C. M.

1993-01-01

156

Analysis of the solvent accessibility of cysteine residues on Maize rayado fino virus virus-like particles produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants and cross-linking of peptides to VLPs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mimicking and exploiting virus properties and physicochemical and physical characteristics holds promise to provide solutions to some of the world's most pressing challenges. The sheer range and types of viruses coupled with their intriguing properties potentially give endless opportunities for applications in virus-based technologies. Viruses have the ability to self- assemble into particles with discrete shape and size, specificity of symmetry, polyvalence, and stable properties under a wide range of temperature and pH conditions. Not surprisingly, with such a remarkable range of properties, viruses are proposed for use in biomaterials, vaccines, electronic materials, chemical tools, and molecular electronic containers. In order to utilize viruses in nanotechnology, they must be modified from their natural forms to impart new functions. This challenging process can be performed through several mechanisms including genetic modification of the viral genome and chemically attaching foreign or desired molecules to the virus particle reactive groups. The ability to modify a virus primarily depends upon the physiochemical and physical properties of the virus. In addition, the genetic or physiochemical modifications need to be performed without adversely affecting the virus native structure and virus function. Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) coat proteins self-assemble in Escherichia coli producing stable and empty VLPs that are stabilized by protein-protein interactions and that can be used in virus-based technologies applications. VLPs produced in tobacco plants were examined as a scaffold on which a variety of peptides can be covalently displayed. Here, we describe the steps to 1) determine which of the solvent-accessible cysteines in a virus capsid are available for modification, and 2) bioconjugate peptides to the modified capsids. By using native or mutationally-inserted amino acid residues and standard coupling technologies, a wide variety of materials have been displayed on the surface of plant viruses such as, Brome mosaic virus, Carnation mottle virus, Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus, Tobacco mosaic virus, Turnip yellow mosaic virus, and MRFV. PMID:23439009

Natilla, Angela; Hammond, Rosemarie W

2013-01-01

157

Reaction of pertechnetate with cysteine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The kinetics of reaction of pertechnetate with cysteine and cysteine ethyl ester in acidic solution has been investigated radiochromatographically. Pertechnetate is reduced by thiols forming technetium(V)thiol complexes, in which co-ordination of amino acids to technetium is facilitated by thiol and amino groups. The reaction is first order in each reactant. The second order rate constant increases with increasing acidity of the solution. The rate-determining step in the reaction proved to be the nucleophilic attack of the thiol on the performed pertechnetium acid. (author)

158

Molecular basis for the resistance of an insect chymotrypsin to a potato type II proteinase inhibitor  

OpenAIRE

Plants produce a variety of proteinase inhibitors (PIs) that have a major function in defense against insect herbivores. In turn, insects have developed strategies to minimize the effect of dietary PIs on digestion. We have discovered that Helicoverpa larvae that survive consumption of a multidomain serine PI from Nicotiana alata (NaPI) contain high levels of a chymotrypsin that is not inhibited by NaPI. Here we describe the isolation of this NaPI-resistant chymotrypsin and an NaPI-susceptibl...

Dunse, K. M.; Kaas, Q.; Guarino, R. F.; Barton, P. A.; Craik, D. J.; Anderson, M. A.

2010-01-01

159

Protease Inhibitors from Plants with Antimicrobial Activity  

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Full Text Available Antimicrobial proteins (peptides are known to play important roles in the innate host defense mechanisms of most living organisms, including plants, insects, amphibians and mammals. They are also known to possess potent antibiotic activity against bacteria, fungi, and even certain viruses. Recently, the rapid emergence of microbial pathogens that are resistant to currently available antibiotics has triggered considerable interest in the isolation and investigation of the mode of action of antimicrobial proteins (peptides. Plants produce a variety of proteins (peptides that are involved in the defense against pathogens and invading organisms, including ribosome-inactivating proteins, lectins, protease inhibitors and antifungal peptides (proteins. Specially, the protease inhibitors can inhibit aspartic, serine and cysteine proteinases. Increased levels of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors correlated with the plants resistance to the pathogen. Usually, the purification of antimicrobial proteins (peptides with protease inhibitor activity was accomplished by salt-extraction, ultrafiltration and C18 reverse phase chromatography, successfully. We discuss the relation between antimicrobial and anti-protease activity in this review. Protease inhibitors from plants potently inhibited the growth of a variety of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains and are therefore excellent candidates for use as the lead compounds for the development of novel antimicrobial agents.

Yoonkyung Park

2009-06-01

160

Differential gene expression for suicide-substrate serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) in vegetative and grain tissues of barley  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Proteins of the serpin superfamily (similar to43 kDa) from mature cereal grains are in vitro suicide-substrate inhibitors of specific mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family. However, unlike the 'standard-mechanism' serine proteinase inhibitors (<25 kDa), the biological functions of plant serpins are unknown. Expression studies of genes encoding members of three subfamilies of serpins (BSZx, BSZ4 and BSZ7) in developing grain and vegetative tissues of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) showed that transcripts encoding BSZx, which inhibits distinct proteinases at overlapping reactive centres in vitro, were ubiquitous at low levels, but the protein could not be detected. EST analysis showed that expression of genes for serpins with BSZx-type reactive centres in vegetative tissues is widespread in the plant kingdom, suggesting a common regulatory function. For BSZ4 and BSZ7, expression at the protein level was highest in the maturing grain (greater than or equal to15 d post-anthesis), where these serpins were localized by immunomicroscopy to the central and peripheral starchy endosperm, subaleurone, and (at lower levels) to the aleurone. Serpins were also localized to the meristem and vascular tissues of roots, and to the phloem of coleoptiles and leaves. The identification of BSZ4 in vegetative tissues by western blotting was confirmed for the roots by purification and amino acid sequencing, and for the leaves by in vitro reactive-centre loop cleavage studies. Plant serpins are likely to use their irreversible inhibitory mechanism in the inhibition of exogenous proteinases capable of breaking down seed storage proteins, and in the defence of specific cell types in vegetative tissues.

Roberts, T.H.; Marttila, S.

2003-01-01

161

Proteinases of human epidermis; a possible mechanism for polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three neutral proteinases (EC 3.4.-,-) and cathepsin D have been identified in human epidermis utilizing a highly sensitive radioactive method. The proteinases were extracted in 1.0 M KCl and 0.1% Triton X-100 and separated by Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The neutral proteinase peaks were all inhibited by diisopropyl fluorophosphate and thus were serine proteinases. Incubation of the enzyme fractions with [3H]diisopropyl fluorophosphate followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that the two larger molecular weight proteinases were enzyme mixtures. The small molecular weight [3H]diisopropyl fluorophosphate proteinase migrated as a single band. Injection of the small molecular weight neutral proteinase into rabbit skin produced a polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration and edema. The reaction was not observed with the diisopropul fluorophosphate-inhibited enzyme fraction. The release of neutral proteinases may be one of the signal events in the epidermal inflammatory response

162

Overexpression of a Weed (Solanum americanum Proteinase Inhibitor in Transgenic Tobacco Results in Increased Glandular Trichome Density and Enhanced Resistance to Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we produced transgenic tobacco plants by overexpressing a serine proteinase inhibitor gene, SaPIN2a, from the American black nightshade Solanum americanum under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. SaPIN2a was properly transcribed and translated as indicated by Northern blot and Western blot analyses. Functional integrity of SaPIN2a in transgenic plants was confirmed by proteinase inhibitory activity assay. Bioassays for insect resistance showed that SaPIN2a-overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants were more resistant to cotton bollworm(Helicoverpa armigera and tobacco cutworm(Spodoptera litura larvae, two devastating pests of important crop plants, than the control plants. Interestingly, overexpression of SaPIN2a in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in a significant increase in glandular trichome density and a promotion of trichome branching, which could also provide an additional resistance mechanism in transgenic plants against insect pests. Therefore, SaPIN2a could be used as an alternative proteinase inhibitor for the production of insect-resistant transgenic plants.

Zeng-Fu Xu

2009-04-01

163

Neutrophil elastase and proteinase-3 trigger G protein-biased signaling through proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1).  

Science.gov (United States)

Neutrophil proteinases released at sites of inflammation can affect tissue function by either activating or disarming signal transduction mediated by proteinase-activated receptors (PARs). Because PAR1 is expressed at sites where abundant neutrophil infiltration occurs, we hypothesized that neutrophil-derived enzymes might also regulate PAR1 signaling. We report here that both neutrophil elastase and proteinase-3 cleave the human PAR1 N terminus at sites distinct from the thrombin cleavage site. This cleavage results in a disarming of thrombin-activated calcium signaling through PAR1. However, the distinct non-canonical tethered ligands unmasked by neutrophil elastase and proteinase-3, as well as synthetic peptides with sequences derived from these novel exposed tethered ligands, selectively stimulated PAR1-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. This signaling was blocked by pertussis toxin, implicating a G?i-triggered signal pathway. We conclude that neutrophil proteinases trigger biased PAR1 signaling and we describe a novel set of tethered ligands that are distinct from the classical tethered ligand revealed by thrombin. We further demonstrate the function of this biased signaling in regulating endothelial cell barrier integrity. PMID:24052258

Mihara, Koichiro; Ramachandran, Rithwik; Renaux, Bernard; Saifeddine, Mahmoud; Hollenberg, Morley D

2013-11-15

164

Effects of leupeptin on proteinase and germination of castor beans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leupeptin, a tripeptide inhibitor of some proteinases, was shown previously to maintain the stability of several enzymes (isocitrate lyase, fumarase, and catalase) in crude extracts of castor bean endosperm. This reagent is now shown to inhibit the breakdown of water-soluble and crystalloidstorage proteins of the protein bodies isolated from castor beans by the SH-proteinase and it also inhibits the endopeptidase from mung beans. When suitably introduced into the endosperm of dry castor beans it strongly inhibits germination and seedling development. Application of leupeptin to endosperm halves removed from the seed prevents the normal development of enzymes concerned with gluconeogenesis from fat and drastically curtails sugar production. The results suggest that the SH-proteinase is intimately involved in the mobilization of storage proteins. PMID:16662011

Alpi, A; Beevers, H

1981-10-01

165

Effects of leupeptin on proteinase and germination of castor beans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Leupeptin, tripeptide inhibitor of some proteinases, was shown previously to maintain the stability of several enzymes (isocitrate lyase, fumarase, and catalase) in crude extracts of castor bean endosperm. This reagent is now shown to inhibit the breakdown of water-soluble and crystalloid-storage proteins of the protein bodies isolated from castor beans by the SH-proteinase and it also inhibits the endopeptidase from mung beans. When suitably introduced into the endosperm of dry castor beans it strongly inhibits germination and seedling development. Application of leupeptin to endosperm halves removed from the seed prevents the normal development of enzymes concerned with gluconeogenesis from fat and drastically curtails sugar production. The results suggest that the SH-proteinase is intimately involved in the mobilization of storage proteins.

Alpi, A.; Beevers, H.

1981-10-01

166

Isolation and structural analysis of a gene coding for a novel type of aspartic proteinase from buckwheat seed (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel type of aspartic proteinase gene was isolated from the cDNA library of developing buckwheat seeds. This cDNA, FeAPL1, encoded an AP-like protein lacking the plant-specific insert (PSI domain characteristic of typical plant aspartic proteinases. In addition the corresponding genomic fragment was isolated. It is demonstrated that this gene does not contain introns. Since bioinformatics analysis of the Arabidopsis genome showed that most potential AP genes are intronless and PSI-less, it appears that "atypical" is an inappropriate word for that class of AP. Isolation of this specific buckwheat gene among the small group of those isolated from other plant species provides a new perspective on the diversity of AP family members in plants. .

Milisavljevi? Mira ?.

2007-01-01

167

DIVERSITY OF DIGESTIVE PROTEINASES IN TENEBRIO MOLITOR (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE) LARVAE  

Science.gov (United States)

The spectrum of Tenebrio molitor larvae digestive proteinases was studied in the context of spatial organization of protein digestion in the midgut. The pH of midgut contents increased from 5.2–5.6 to 7.8–8.2 from the anterior to the posterior. This pH gradient was reflected in the pH optima of the ...

168

Manduca sexta serpin-5 regulates prophenoloxidase activation and the Toll signaling pathway by inhibiting hemolymph proteinase HP6  

OpenAIRE

Insect immune responses include prophenoloxidase (proPO) activation and Toll pathway initiation, which are mediated by serine proteinase cascades and regulated by serpins. Manduca sexta hemolymph proteinase 6 (HP6) is a component of both pathways. It cleaves and activates proPO activating proteinase 1 (PAP1) and hemolymph proteinase 8 (HP8), which activates proSpätzle. Inhibitors of HP6 could have the capability of regulating both of these innate immune proteinase cascade pathways. Covalent ...

An, Chunju; Kanost, Michael R.

2010-01-01

169

Perspectives of digestive pest control with proteinase inhibitors that mainly affect the trypsin-like activity of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae  

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Full Text Available The present study describes the main characteristics of the proteolytic activities of the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, and their sensitivity to proteinase inhibitors and activators. Midguts of last instar larvae reared on an artificial diet were homogenized in 0.15 M NaCl and centrifuged at 14,000 g for 10 min at 4ºC and the supernatants were used in enzymatic assays at 30ºC, pH 10.0. Basal total proteolytic activity (azocasein hydrolysis was 1.14 ± 0.15 absorbance variation min-1 mg protein-1, at 420 nm; basal trypsin-like activity (N-benzoyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide, BApNA, hydrolysis was 0.217 ± 0.02 mmol p-nitroaniline min-1 mg protein-1. The maximum proteolytic activities were observed at pH 10.5 using azocasein and at pH 10.0 using BApNA, this pH being identical to the midgut pH of 10.0. The maximum trypsin-like activity occurred at 50ºC, a temperature that reduces enzyme stability to 80 and 60% of the original, when pre-incubated for 5 and 30 min, respectively. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibited the proteolytic activities with an IC50 of 0.39 mM for azocasein hydrolysis and of 1.35 mM for BApNA hydrolysis. Benzamidine inhibited the hydrolysis with an IC50 of 0.69 and 0.076 mM for azocasein and BApNA, respectively. The absence of cysteine-proteinases is indicated by the fact that 2-mercaptoethanol and L-cysteine did not increase the rate of azocasein hydrolysis. These results demonstrate the presence of serine-proteinases and the predominance of trypsin-like activity in the midgut of Lepidoptera insects, now also detected in A. gemmatalis, and suggest this enzyme as a major target for pest control based on disruption of protein metabolism using proteinase inhibitors.

M.E. Pereira

2005-11-01

170

Perspectives of digestive pest control with proteinase inhibitors that mainly affect the trypsin-like activity of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study describes the main characteristics of the proteolytic activities of the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, and their sensitivity to proteinase inhibitors and activators. Midguts of last instar larvae reared on an artificial diet were homogenized in 0.15 M NaCl an [...] d centrifuged at 14,000 g for 10 min at 4ºC and the supernatants were used in enzymatic assays at 30ºC, pH 10.0. Basal total proteolytic activity (azocasein hydrolysis) was 1.14 ± 0.15 absorbance variation min-1 mg protein-1, at 420 nm; basal trypsin-like activity (N-benzoyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide, BApNA, hydrolysis) was 0.217 ± 0.02 mmol p-nitroaniline min-1 mg protein-1. The maximum proteolytic activities were observed at pH 10.5 using azocasein and at pH 10.0 using BApNA, this pH being identical to the midgut pH of 10.0. The maximum trypsin-like activity occurred at 50ºC, a temperature that reduces enzyme stability to 80 and 60% of the original, when pre-incubated for 5 and 30 min, respectively. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibited the proteolytic activities with an IC50 of 0.39 mM for azocasein hydrolysis and of 1.35 mM for BApNA hydrolysis. Benzamidine inhibited the hydrolysis with an IC50 of 0.69 and 0.076 mM for azocasein and BApNA, respectively. The absence of cysteine-proteinases is indicated by the fact that 2-mercaptoethanol and L-cysteine did not increase the rate of azocasein hydrolysis. These results demonstrate the presence of serine-proteinases and the predominance of trypsin-like activity in the midgut of Lepidoptera insects, now also detected in A. gemmatalis, and suggest this enzyme as a major target for pest control based on disruption of protein metabolism using proteinase inhibitors.

M.E., Pereira; F.A., Dörr; N.C., Peixoto; J.F., Lima-Garcia; F., Dörr; G.G., Brito.

1633-16-01

171

Regulatory Protein-Protein Interactions in Primary Metabolism: The Case of the Cysteine Synthase Complex  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfur is an essential nutrient for plant growth and development. In plant sulfur assimilation, cysteine biosynthesis plays a central role in fixing inorganic sulfur from the environment into the metabolic precursor for cellular thiol-containing compounds. A key regulatory feature of this process ...

172

Characterization of the Cell Wall-Bound Proteinase of Lactobacillus casei HN14.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactobacillus casei HN14, which was isolated from homemade cheese, produces an extracellular, cell wall-bound proteinase. The HN14 proteinase can be removed from the cell envelope by washing the cells in a Ca-free buffer. The activity of the crude proteinase extract is inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, showing that the enzyme is a serine-type proteinase. Considering the substrate specificity, the HN14 proteinase is similar to the lactococcal PI-type enzyme, since it hydrolyzes beta-casein only. Lactobacillus casei HN14 appeared to be plasmid free, which suggests that the proteinase gene is chromosomally located. Chromosomal DNA of this strain hybridizes with DNA probes Q1 (which contains a fragment of the prtM gene) and Q6 and Q92 (which contain fragments of the prtP gene); all three probes originated from the proteinase gene region of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2. A restriction enzyme map of the proteinase region of Lactobacillus casei HN14 was constructed on the basis of hybridization experiments. Comparison of the restriction enzyme maps of the Lactobacillus casei HN14 proteinase gene region and those of lactococcal proteinase gene regions studied so far indicates that they are highly similar. PMID:16348511

Kojic, M; Fira, D; Banina, A; Topisirovic, L

1991-06-01

173

The aspartic proteinase family of three Phytophthora species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora species are oomycete plant pathogens with such major social and economic impact that genome sequences have been determined for Phytophthora infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum. Pepsin-like aspartic proteinases (APs are produced in a wide variety of species (from bacteria to humans and contain conserved motifs and landmark residues. APs fulfil critical roles in infectious organisms and their host cells. Annotation of Phytophthora APs would provide invaluable information for studies into their roles in the physiology of Phytophthora species and interactions with their hosts. Results Genomes of Phytophthora infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum contain 11-12 genes encoding APs. Nine of the original gene models in the P. infestans database and several in P. sojae and P. ramorum (three and four, respectively were erroneous. Gene models were corrected on the basis of EST data, consistent positioning of introns between orthologues and conservation of hallmark motifs. Phylogenetic analysis resolved the Phytophthora APs into 5 clades. Of the 12 sub-families, several contained an unconventional architecture, as they either lacked a signal peptide or a propart region. Remarkably, almost all APs are predicted to be membrane-bound. Conclusions One of the twelve Phytophthora APs is an unprecedented fusion protein with a putative G-protein coupled receptor as the C-terminal partner. The others appear to be related to well-documented enzymes from other species, including a vacuolar enzyme that is encoded in every fungal genome sequenced to date. Unexpectedly, however, the oomycetes were found to have both active and probably-inactive forms of an AP similar to vertebrate BACE, the enzyme responsible for initiating the processing cascade that generates the A? peptide central to Alzheimer's Disease. The oomycetes also encode enzymes similar to plasmepsin V, a membrane-bound AP that cleaves effector proteins of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum during their translocation into the host red blood cell. Since the translocation of Phytophthora effector proteins is currently a topic of intense research activity, the identification in Phytophthora of potential functional homologues of plasmepsin V would appear worthy of investigation. Indeed, elucidation of the physiological roles of the APs identified here offers areas for future study. The significant revision of gene models and detailed annotation presented here should significantly facilitate experimental design.

ten Have Arjen

2011-05-01

174

[Various aspects of structural studies of aspartate proteinases].  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper is a brief account of aspartic proteinases' structural studies developed in V.A. Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology during the last 3 years. The work on porcine pepsin has been finalized after the refinement of the monoclinic crystal form at 1.8 A resolution performed in collaboration with the group of protein structure and function studies of the University of Alberta in Canada. An important structural property of chymosin which explains the enzyme specificity has been found. Protein engineering work on chymosin is being developed. The structural template for aspartic proteinases has been elucidated and on the basis of this template the model of HIV-1 protease molecule has been built. Some approaches to the design of HIV-1 protease inhibitors were elucidated. PMID:2698993

Andreeva, N S; Gushchina, A E; Zhdanov, A S; Pechik, I V; Safro, M G; Fedorov, A A

1989-01-01

175

Clinical isolates of HIV-1 contain few pre-existing proteinase inhibitor resistance-conferring mutations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteinase inhibitors are an important new class of antiviral agents for AIDS, however, in vitro experiments have identified proteinase mutations that confer resistance to several different families of the inhibitors. This study was undertaken to determine if these resistance-conferring amino-acid substitutions occur in HIV strains before the application of selective pressure. We determined the nucleic acid sequence of the proteinase gene from the 23 clinical isolates of HIV-1 and three laboratory-adapted strains using a method that detects the majority species present in viral populations. Analysis of minor subpopulations will require alternative strategies. The clinical isolates studied contained an average of 3 (range 1-8) amino-acid substitutions as compared to the prototypical BH10 sequence. We did not detect substitutions characteristic of reported highly proteinase-resistant strains. These results suggest significant variation occurs in the HIV-1 proteinase gene but pre-existing highly proteinase-resistant strains are uncommon. PMID:8519793

Yamaguchi, K; Byrn, R A

1995-12-01

176

Functional diversity of proteinases encoded by genes of the rat tissue kallikrein family.  

Science.gov (United States)

A group of proteinases closely related to tissue kallikrein was purified from the rat submandibular gland. Physicochemical characterization of these proteinases, including amino terminal sequencing, allowed correlation with the genes of the rat kallikrein family. In spite of their similar structure, these proteinases have different substrate specificities and different susceptibilities to inhibitors which suggest that they do not share the same biological function. Kallikrein-like proteinases also have restricted specificities that are probably related to their extended substrate binding site. This makes them good candidates for processing inactive protein or peptide precursors into biologically active peptides. A general approach to identifying the putative biological substrates of individual proteinases based on analysis of the specific cleavage of synthetic and natural peptide substrates by kallikrein-related proteinases is described. PMID:1466290

Gauthier, F; Moreau, T; Gutman, N; el Moujahed, A; Brillard-Bourdet, M

1992-01-01

177

A four-domain Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor from Solen grandis is implicated in immune response.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serine proteinase inhibitor (SPI) serves as a negative regulator in immune signal pathway by restraining the activities of serine proteinase (SP) and plays an essential role in the innate immunity. In the present study, a Kunitz-type SPI was identified from the mollusk razor clam Solen grandis (designated as SgKunitz). The full-length cDNA of SgKunitz was of 1284 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 768 bp. The ORF encoded four Kunitz domains, and their amino acids were well conserved when compared with those in other Kunitz-type SPIs, especially the six cysteines involved in forming of three disulfide bridges in each domain. In addition, the tertiary structure of all the four domains adopted a typical model of Kunitz-type SPI family, indicating SgKunitz was a new member of Kunitz-type SPI superfamily. The mRNA transcripts of SgKunitz were detected in all tested tissues of razor clam, including muscle, mantle, gonad, gill, hepatopancreas and hemocytes, and with the highest expression level in gill. When the razor clams were stimulated by LPS, PGN or ?-1, 3-glucan, the expression level of SgKunitz mRNA in hemocytes was significantly up-regulated (P < 0.01), suggesting SgKunitz might involved in the processes of inhibiting the activity of SPs during the immune responses triggered by various pathogens. Furthermore, the recombinant protein of SgKunitz could effectively inhibit the activities of SP trypsin and chymotrypsin in vitro. The present results suggested SgKunitz could serve as an inhibitor of SP involving in the immune response of S. grandis, and provided helpful evidences to understand the regulation mechanism of immune signal pathway in mollusk. PMID:23022284

Wei, Xiumei; Yang, Jialong; Yang, Jianmin; Liu, Xiangquan; Liu, Meijun; Yang, Dinglong; Xu, Jie; Hu, Xiaoke

2012-12-01

178

Evaluation of tear film proteinases in horses with ulcerative keratitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ulcerative keratitis is a common and potentially blinding ocular disease of horses, capable of progressing to corneal perforation in as little as 24 h. This rapid stromal degeneration is mediated in part by exogenous and endogenous proteinases. We measured and compared the concentrations of two matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and a serine proteinase (neutrophil elastase) present in the precorneal tear film of normal horses and horses with rapidly progressing ulcerative keratitis. Precorneal tear film samples were collected from 23 ulcerated and 21 unaffected eyes of 23 horses with unilateral ulcerative keratitis, and from 33 normal eyes of 17 control horses. MMP-2, MMP-9, and neutrophil elastase were identified by casein and gelatin zymography and quantified by computerized image analysis. Median MMP-9 levels were significantly higher in the precorneal tear film of young control horses vs. older control horses (P = 0.005). Median MMP-2, MMP-9, and neutrophil elastase levels were significantly higher in the precorneal tear film of ulcerated eyes when compared to age-matched normal controls (P = 0.004, P = 0.001, and P = 0.012, respectively). Median MMP-2 levels were also significantly higher in the precorneal tear film of contralateral eyes of affected horses when compared to age-matched normal controls (P = 0.004). No significant differences in median proteinase levels were detected between 'sterile' ulcers and those from which bacteria or mixed infections (bacteria and fungi) were isolated. However, median MMP-2 and neutrophil elastase levels were significantly higher in the precorneal tear film of eyes with 'sterile' ulcers when compared with ulcerated eyes from which fungi were isolated (P < 0.05). The results of this study support the use of topical antiproteinase therapy which targets both MMPs and serine proteinases in progressive equine ulcerative keratitis. PMID:11397292

Strubbe, D.T.; Brooks, D.E.; Schultz, G.S.; Willis-Goulet, H.; Gelatt, K.N.; Andrew, S.E.; Kallberg, M.E.; MacKay, E.O.; Collante, W.R.

2000-01-01

179

Alterações funcionais e conformacionais promovidas numa proteinase aspártica por trifluoroetanol  

OpenAIRE

O estudo das proteinases aspárticas tem vindo a ganhar interesse devido à importância desta classe de enzimas na etiologia e evolução de doenças humanas que são hoje fonte duma preocupação crescente, como são os casos da doença de Alzheimer, do cancro da mama ou da SIDA. A base molecular de algumas destas doenças está associada a erros de folding (enrolamento), que impossibilitam a sua função. Estudos de estabilidade sobre esta classe de enzimas são de ...

Almeida, Ana Sofia Fraga

2010-01-01

180

Biochemical characterization of Acacia schweinfurthii serine proteinase inhibitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the many control mechanisms of serine proteinases is their specific inhibition by protein proteinase inhibitors. An extract of Acacia schweinfurthii was screened for potential serine proteinase inhibition. It was successfully purified to homogeneity by precipitating with 80% (v/v) acetone and sequential chromatographic steps, including ion-exchange, affinity purification and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Reducing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis conditions revealed an inhibitor (ASTI) consisting of two polypeptide chains A and B of approximate molecular weights of 16 and 10?kDa, respectively, and under non-reducing conditions, 26?kDa was observed. The inhibitor was shown to inhibit bovine trypsin (Ki of 3.45?nM) at an approximate molar ratio of inhibitor:trypsin (1:1). The A- and B-chains revealed complete sequences of 140 and 40 amino acid residues, respectively. Sequence similarity (70%) was reported between ASTI A-chain and ACTI A-chain (Acacia confusa) using ClustalW. The B-chain produced a 76% sequence similarity between ASTI and Leucaena leucocephala trypsin inhibitor. PMID:24090421

Odei-Addo, Frank; Frost, Carminita; Smith, Nanette; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Muramoto, Koji; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela; Gráf, László; Naude, Ryno

2014-10-01

181

Expression of proteinases and inhibitors in human breast cancer progression and survival  

OpenAIRE

Aims: The expression of proteinases and their inhibitors determines the extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover in normal and pathological processes. In cancer, proteolysis is abnormally regulated, favouring ECM degradation, which aids tumour invasion and metastasis. Previous studies have determined the expression of proteinases and inhibitors in breast cancer using a variety of techniques, including immunohistochemistry; however, most have looked at the expression of individual proteinases and/o...

Baker, E. A.; Stephenson, T. J.; Reed, M. W. R.; Brown, N. J.

2002-01-01

182

Identification of a gene required for maturation of an extracellular lactococcal serine proteinase.  

OpenAIRE

Directly upstream of the Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2 proteinase gene is an oppositely directed open reading frame (ORF1). The complete nucleotide sequence of ORF1, encoding a 33-kilodalton protein, was determined. A protein of approximately 32 kilodaltons was synthesized when ORF1 was expressed in Escherichia coli by using a T7 RNA polymerase-specific promoter. L. lactis subsp. lactis MG1363 transformants carrying the proteinase gene but lacking ORF1 were phenotypically proteinase ...

Haandrikman, A. J.; Kok, J.; Laan, H.; Soemitro, S.; Ledeboer, A. M.; Konings, W. N.; Venema, G.

1989-01-01

183

Expression of virus-encoded proteinases: functional and structural similarities with cellular enzymes.  

OpenAIRE

Many viruses express their genome, or part of their genome, initially as a polyprotein precursor that undergoes proteolytic processing. Molecular genetic analyses of viral gene expression have revealed that many of these processing events are mediated by virus-encoded proteinases. Biochemical activity studies and structural analyses of these viral enzymes reveal that they have remarkable similarities to cellular proteinases. However, the viral proteinases have evolved unique features that per...

Dougherty, W. G.; Semler, B. L.

1993-01-01

184

Neutrophil chemotactic activity is modulated by human cystatin C, an inhibitor of cysteine proteases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cystatin C, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor has recently been suggested to be a potent regulator of inflammatory processes and may act in defense against viral and bacterial infections. Two common forms of the protein were purified from the urine of a patient having received a renal transplant. The slow form of cystatin C possessed the N-terminal tetrapeptide Lys Pro Pro Arg, which was cleaved in the fast form. This peptide sequence, called postin, was synthesized. The three molecules, slow and fast forms of cystatin and the synthetic peptide, were tested for their effects on the migration activity of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). The slow form was found to display both chemotactic and chemokinetic activities, while the fast form and postin were only chemokinetic. Nevertheless, all the substances could induce a "motile" morphology. In addition, the two forms of cystatin C were powerful inhibitors of PMN chemotaxis induced by complement-derived chemotactic factors. This suggests that cystatin C in its two different cleaved forms and the N-terminal tetrapeptide can modulate PMN locomotion. Cysteine proteases may therefore play a role in neutrophil migration activity. PMID:2361732

Leung-Tack, J; Tavera, C; Martinez, J; Colle, A

1990-06-01

185

Evidence for cysteine sulfinate as a neurotransmitter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Na+-independent binding of L-[3H]cysteine sulfinate and L-[3H]cysteine sulfinate uptake were investigated in rat brain membranes and vesicles. Specific binding of L-[3H]cysteine sulfinate was saturable and occurred by a single high affinity process with a Ksub(b) of 100 nM +- 9 and a capacity (Bsub(max)) of 2.4 +- 0.22 pmol/mg protein. The regional distribution of the binding of L-[3H]cysteine sulfinate in the brain was found to be heterogeneous. The rate of L-[3H]cysteine sulfinate uptake shows a biphasic dependence on the concentration of L-cysteine sulfinate, corresponding to a high affinity (27.2 ?M) and a low affinity (398 ?M) transport system. The maximum L-[3H]cysteine sulfinate uptake is reached at 2min and the uptake increases as a function of the sodium concentration. Chloride and potassium ions stimulate the uptake. (Auth.)

186

Functions of Manduca sexta Hemolymph Proteinases HP6 and HP8 in Two Innate Immune Pathways*  

OpenAIRE

Serine proteinases in insect plasma have been implicated in two types of immune responses; that is, activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) and activation of cytokine-like proteins. We have identified more than 20 serine proteinases in hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, but functions are known for only a few of them. We report here functions of two additional M. sexta proteinases, hemolymph proteinases 6 and 8 (HP6 and HP8). HP6 and HP8 are each composed of an amino-terminal cli...

An, Chunju; Ishibashi, Jun; Ragan, Emily J.; Jiang, Haobo; Kanost, Michael R.

2009-01-01

187

The role of proteinase enzymes in the process of conversion of muscle to meat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Post mortem meat tenderization is a complex mechanism and unfortunately it has not been fully identified scientifically. It is known that endogenous proteinases have an important role in this mechanism. Detailed studies are being performed about the destructive effects of lysosomal proteinases and calcium dependent proteinases on the myofibrils and these are most common topics that are being investigated about meat tenderization processes by the scientists. The aim of this paper is to review the role of proteinase enzymes in the process of conversion of muscle to meat. .

Dümen Emek

2006-01-01

188

Mechanism of Excretion of a Bacterial Proteinase: Factors Controlling Accumulation of the Extracellular Proteinase of a Sarcina Strain (Coccus P)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It has been known that the extracellular proteinase of Coccus P is found only in cultures grown in the presence of Ca{sup 2+}. It is now shown that this cation is required neither for synthesis, excretion, or activation of a zymogen nor as a prosthetic factor necessary for enzymatic activity. The only function of Ca{sup 2+} is to stabilize the active structure of the enzyme molecule, presumably by substituting for absence of S-S bridges. In the absence of Ca{sup 2+} , the excreted proteinase undergoes rapid autodigestion and, instead of the active protein, its hydrolytic products are accumulated in the culture fluid. In minimal medium and under conditions of enzyme stability [presence of Ca{sup 2+} and Ficoll (Pharmacia)], Coccus P accumulates the proteinase at a gradually reduced speed although the rate of cultural growth remains constant. It is shown that this decline in rate of accumulation is caused by the excreted proteinase itself, possibly acting on its own precursor emerging from the cell in a form susceptible to proteolytic attack and not amenable to Ca{sup 2+} protection. A proteinase precursor is actually demonstrable in a calciumless culture at the onset of the enzyme accumulation which follows Ca{sup 2+} addition. It is suggested that excreted proteins require an unfolded (or incompletely folded) structure to cross the cell envelope. The proteinase excreted by a Sarcina strain (Coccus P) is found only in cultures containing Ca{sup 2+} ions (1), a feature common to proteinases of other bacteria (4, 12, 18) and to other excreted enzymes (14). Among the nontoxic divalent cations, Ca{sup 2+} is rather specific in this effect. Other ions such as Mn{sup 2+} or Mg{sup 2+}, the latter being present in all media as an indispensible growth factor, are ineffective. Addition of Ca{sup 2+} to the proteolytically inactive supernatant fluid of a calcium- free culture does not result in the appearance of the missing enzyme activity. The early assumption that Ca{sup 2+} was needed for enzyme synthesis or excretion (1) was challenged when the observation was made (5) that Ca{sup 2+} and not Mn{sup 2}, Mg{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, or Ba{sup 2+} was needed for preventing irreversible loss of activity of several bacterial proteinases. In particular, in the case of the excreted proteinase of Coccus P, it was shown (17) that this irreversible inactivation is due to autodigestion occurring in the absence of Ca2 . An antiwetting agent, Ficoll, delays this autodigestion, suggesting that the function of Ca{sup 2+} is to stabilize an already active form of the enzyme molecule rather than to act as a constituent of the prosthetic group required for activity. It has also been observed that, when Coccus P is grown in a complex proteose peptone medium, the proteinase appears abruptly late in the growth of the culture. The sudden burst of activity was explained by demonstrating the presence of a zymogen which is activated autocatalytically (8). The late appearance of activity was accounted for when it was discovered that in minimal medium containing Ca{sup 2+}, Coccus P excreted the proteinase immediately at the onset of growth (9), but that addition of Casamino Acid hydrolysate delayed enzyme production for a length of time roughly proportional to the amount added (H. Ennis and L. Gorini, 1959, unpublished data). A similar amino acid effect was observed for other proteolytic bacteria (3, 13). It was assumed, therefore, that in the absence of amino acids an unrestricted proteinase production could be found. However, another deviation, from a constant relationship between amount of enzyme and amount of cells producing it, became evident by using minimal medium. The rate of accumulation of enzyme decreased gradually, long before exponential growth had slowed down (T. Heyman and L. Gorini, 1955, unpublished data). As yet, no explanation for this decline has been provided. In this paper, in addition to studying the role of Ca{sup 2+} in enzyme production, we also analyze the kinetics of enzyme appearance and accumulation in minimal medium. It is fou

BISSELL, MINA J.; TOSI, ROBERTO; GORINI, LUIGI

1970-06-29

189

Autophagic activity measured in whole rat hepatocytes as the accumulation of a novel BHMT fragment (p10), generated in amphisomes by the asparaginyl proteinase, legumain.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the stepwise autophagic-lysosomal processing of hepatocellular proteins, the abundant cytosolic enzyme, betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) was used as a probe. Full-length (45 kDa) endogenous BHMT was found to be cleaved in an autophagy-dependent (3-methyladenine-sensitive) manner in isolated rat hepatocytes to generate a novel N-terminal 10-kDa fragment (p10) identified and characterized by mass spectrometry. The cleavage site was consistent with cleavage by the asparaginyl proteinase, legumain and indeed a specific inhibitor of this enzyme (AJN-230) was able to completely suppress p10 formation in intact cells, causing instead accumulation of a 42-kDa intermediate. To prevent further degradation of p10 or p42 by the cysteine proteinases present in autophagic vacuoles, the proteinase inhibitor leupeptin had to be present. Asparagine, an inhibitor of amphisome-lysosome fusion, did not detectably impede either p42 or p10 formation, indicating that BHMT processing primarily takes place in amphisomes rather than in lysosomes. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was similarly degraded primarily in amphisomes by leupeptin-sensitive proteolysis, but some additional leupeptin-resistant LDH degradation in lysosomes was also indicated. The autophagic sequestration of BHMT appeared to be nonselective, as the accumulation of p10 (in the presence of leupeptin) or of its precursors (in the additional presence of AJN-230) proceeded at approximately the same rate as the model autophagic cargo, LDH. The complete lack of a cytosolic background makes p10 suitable for use in a "fragment assay" of autophagic activity in whole cells. Incubation of hepatocytes with ammonium chloride, which neutralizes amphisomes as well as lysosomes, caused rapid, irreversible inhibition of legumain activity and stopped all p10 formation. The availability of several methods for selective targeting of legumain in intact cells may facilitate functional studies of this enigmatic enzyme, and perhaps suggest novel ways to reduce its contribution to cancer cell metastasis or autoimmune disease. PMID:21610319

Øverbye, Anders; Sætre, Frank; Hagen, Linda Korseberg; Johansen, Harald Thidemann; Seglen, Per O

2011-09-01

190

Sulfide Production from Cysteine by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans  

OpenAIRE

Two rumen nitrate-reducing isolates of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans were found to hydrolyze cysteine with the production of sulfide and pyruvate. When cultured on agar medium containing yeast extract with nitrate as the primary electron acceptor and ferrous chloride as the indicator, blackening of colonies occurred. The blackening of colonies appeared sooner and was more intense when either cysteine or sulfate was added to the culture medium with nitrate present.

Forsberg, C. W.

1980-01-01

191

Multifunctional amaranth cystatin inhibits endogenous and digestive insect cysteine endopeptidases: A potential tool to prevent proteolysis and for the control of insect pests.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a previous study, the amaranth cystatin was characterized.This cystatin is believed to provide protection from abiotic stress because its transcription is induced in response to heat, drought and salinity. It has also been shown that recombinant amaranth cystatin inhibits bromelain, ficin and cysteine endopeptidases from fungal sources and inhibits the growth of phytopathogenic fungi. In the present study, evidence is presented regarding the potential function of amaranth cystatin as a regulator of endogenous proteinases and insect digestive proteinases. During amaranth germination and seedling growth, different proteolytic profiles were observed at different pH levels in gelatin-containing SDS-PAGE. Most of the proteolytic enzymes detected at pH 4.5, were mainly inhibited by E-64-and by the purified recombinant amaranth cystatin. Furthermore, the recombinant amaranth cystatin was active against insect proteinases. In particular, the E-64-sensitive proteolytic digestive enzymes from Callosobruchus maculatus, Zabrotes subfasciatus and Acanthoscelides obtectus were inhibited by the amaranth cystatin. Taken together, these results suggest multiple roles for cystatin in amaranth, specifically during germination and seedling growth and in the protection of A. hypochondriacus against insect predation. Amaranth cystatin represents a promising tool for diverse applications in the control of insect pest, and for preventing undesirable proteolytic activity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25345487

Valdés-Rodríguez, Silvia; Galván-Ramírez, Juan Pablo; Guerrero-Rangel, Armando; Cedro-Tanda, Alberto

2014-10-27

192

Aminotransferase, L-amino acid oxidase and beta-lyase reactions involving L-cysteine S-conjugates found in allium extracts. Relevance to biological activity?  

Science.gov (United States)

Several cysteine S-conjugates that occur in extracts of garlic and other plants of the allium family possess anti-oxidant properties, and many, including S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) and S-allylmercapto-L-cysteine (SAMC), are promising anti-cancer agents. To understand possible biochemical mechanisms contributing to the protective effects, the ability of selected allium-derived L-cysteine S-conjugates to undergo various enzyme-catalyzed transformations was investigated. SAC, SAMC, S-propylmercapto-L-cysteine and S-penta-1,3-dienylmercapto-L-cysteine were shown to be substrates of: (a) highly purified rat kidney glutamine transaminase K (GTK); (b) purified snake venom L-amino acid oxidase; and (c) a cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase present in rat liver cytosol. S-Methylmercapto-L-cysteine was shown to be a substrate of GTK and L-amino acid oxidase, but not of the cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase. Evidence is presented that a major enzyme responsible for the cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase reactions in the rat liver cytosol is gamma-cystathionase. The possible role of gamma-cystathionase in generating sulfane sulfur from the disulfide-containing cysteine S-conjugates present in allium extracts, and the possible role of this sulfane sulfur in enzyme regulation, targeting of cancer cells and detoxification reactions is discussed. An interesting side finding of the present work is that rat liver mitochondria are more active than rat liver cytosol in catalyzing a cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase reaction with the mitochondrial protoxicant S-(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-L-cysteine (TFEC) at physiological pH and at low substrate concentration. PMID:15627473

Cooper, Arthur J L; Pinto, John T

2005-01-15

193

Chromosomal stabilization of the proteinase genes in Lactococcus lactis.  

OpenAIRE

The plasmid-encoded proteinase genes prtP and prtM of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2 were integrated by a Campbell-like mechanism into the L. lactis subsp. lactis MG1363 chromosome by using the insertion vector pKLG610. Two transformants were obtained that differed in the number of amplified pKLG610 copies in head-to-tail arrangements on their chromosomes; MG610 contained approximately two copies, and MG611 contained about eight copies. The amplifications were stably maintained during...

Leenhouts, K. J.; Gietema, J.; Kok, J.; Venema, G.

1991-01-01

194

Rapid purification of serine proteinases from Bothrops alternatus and Bothrops moojeni venoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Envenomation by Bothrops species results, among other symptoms, in hemostatic disturbances. These changes can be ascribed to the presence of enzymes, primarily serine proteinases some of which are structurally similar to thrombin and specifically cleave fibrinogen releasing fibrinopeptides. A rapid, three-step, chromatographic procedure was developed to routinely purify serine proteinases from the venoms of Bothrops alternatus and Bothrops moojeni. The serine proteinase from B. alternatus displays an apparent molecular mass of ~32 kDa whereas the two closely related serine proteinases from B. moojeni display apparent molecular masses of ~32 kDa and ~35 kDa in SDS-PAGE gels. The partial sequences indicated that these enzymes share high identity with serine proteinases from the venoms of other Bothrops species. These proteins coagulate plasma and possess fibrinogenolytic activity but lack fibrinolytic activity. PMID:24140922

Fernandes de Oliveira, Liliane Maria; Ullah, Anwar; Masood, Rehana; Zelanis, André; Spencer, Patrick J; Serrano, Solange M T; Arni, Raghuvir K

2013-12-15

195

Nonfouling property of zwitterionic cysteine surface.  

Science.gov (United States)

Applications of implantable bioelectronics for analytical and curative purposes are currently limited by their poor long-term biofunctionality in physiological media and nonspecific interactions with biomolecules. In an attempt to prolong in vivo functionality, recent advances in surface modifications have demonstrated that zwitterionic coatings can rival the performance of conventional poly(ethylene glycol) polymers in reducing nonspecific protein fouling. Herein, we report the fabrication of a very thin layer of nonfouling zwitterionic cysteine surface capable of protecting implantable bioelectronics from nonspecific adsorption of plasma proteins. This work is the first of its kind to fabricate, through solution chemistry, a cysteine surface exhibiting zwitterionic state as high as 88% and to demonstrate antibiofouling under the exposure of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum. The fabricated surface utilized a minimal amount of gold substrate, approximately 10 nm, and an extremely thin antifouling layer at 1.14 nm verified by ellipsometry. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy assessment of the nitrogen (N1s) and carbon (C1s) spectra conclude that 87.8% of the fabricated cysteine surface is zwitterionic, 2.5% is positively charged, and 9.6% is noncharged. Antibiofouling performance of the cysteine surface is quantitatively determined by bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein assay as well as qualitatively confirmed using scanning electron spectroscopy. Cysteine surfaces demonstrated a BSA fouling of 3.9 ± 4.84% ?g/cm(2), which is 93.6% and 98.5% lower than stainless steel and gold surfaces, respectively. Surface plasmon resonance imaging analysis returned similar results and suggest that a thinner cysteine coating will enhance performance. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the results of BCA assay and suggested that the cysteine surface demonstrated a 69% reduction to serum fouling. The results reported in this paper demonstrate that it is possible to achieve a highly zwitterionic surface through solution chemistry on a macroscopic level that is capable of improving biocompatibility of long-term implantable bioelectronics. PMID:24841849

Lin, Peter; Ding, Ling; Lin, Chii-Wann; Gu, Frank

2014-06-10

196

Crystal Structure of Mammalian Cysteine dioxygenase: A Novel Mononuclear Iron Center for Cysteine Thiol Oxidation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cysteine dioxygenase is a mononuclear iron-dependent enzyme responsible for the oxidation of cysteine with molecular oxygen to form cysteinesulfinate. This reaction commits cysteine to either catabolism to sulfate and pyruvate or to the taurine biosynthetic pathway. Cysteine dioxygenase is a member of the cupin superfamily of proteins. The crystal structure of recombinant rat cysteine dioxygenase has been determined to 1.5 Angstroms resolution, and these results confirm the canonical cupin {beta}-sandwich fold and the rare cysteinyl-tyrosine intramolecular crosslink (between Cys93 and Tyr157) seen in the recently reported murine cysteine dioxygenase structure. In contrast to the catalytically inactive mononuclear Ni(II) metallocenter present in the murine structure, crystallization of a catalytically competent preparation of rat cysteine dioxygenase revealed a novel tetrahedrally coordinated mononuclear iron center involving three histidines (His86, His88, and His140) and a water molecule. Attempts to acquire a structure with bound ligand using either co-crystallization or soaks with cysteine revealed the formation of a mixed disulfide involving Cys164 near the active site, which may explain previously observed substrate inhibition. This work provides a framework for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in thiol dioxygenation and sets the stage for exploring the chemistry of both the novel mononuclear iron center and the catalytic role of the cysteinyl-tyrosine linkage.

Simmons,C.; Liu, Q.; Huang, Q.; Hao, Q.; Begley, T.; Karplus, P.; Stipanuk, M.

2006-01-01

197

Crystal Structure of Mammalian Cysteine dioxygenase: A Novel Mononuclear Iron Center for Cysteine Thiol Oxidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cysteine dioxygenase is a mononuclear iron-dependent enzyme responsible for the oxidation of cysteine with molecular oxygen to form cysteinesulfinate. This reaction commits cysteine to either catabolism to sulfate and pyruvate or to the taurine biosynthetic pathway. Cysteine dioxygenase is a member of the cupin superfamily of proteins. The crystal structure of recombinant rat cysteine dioxygenase has been determined to 1.5 Angstroms resolution, and these results confirm the canonical cupin ?-sandwich fold and the rare cysteinyl-tyrosine intramolecular crosslink (between Cys93 and Tyr157) seen in the recently reported murine cysteine dioxygenase structure. In contrast to the catalytically inactive mononuclear Ni(II) metallocenter present in the murine structure, crystallization of a catalytically competent preparation of rat cysteine dioxygenase revealed a novel tetrahedrally coordinated mononuclear iron center involving three histidines (His86, His88, and His140) and a water molecule. Attempts to acquire a structure with bound ligand using either co-crystallization or soaks with cysteine revealed the formation of a mixed disulfide involving Cys164 near the active site, which may explain previously observed substrate inhibition. This work provides a framework for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in thiol dioxygenation and sets the stage for exploring the chemistry of both the novel mononuclear iron center and the catalytic role of the cysteinyl-tyrosine catalytic role of the cysteinyl-tyrosine linkage

198

Effects of soybean proteinase inhibitors on development of the soil mite Scheloribates praeincisus (Acari: Oribatida).  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteinase inhibitors (PI) are present in plant tissues, especially in seeds, and act as a defense mechanism against herbivores and pathogens. Serine PI from soybean such as Bowman-Birk (BBPI) and Kunitz have been used to enhance resistance of sugarcane varieties to the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), the major pest of this crop. The use of these genetically-modified plants (GM) expressing PI requires knowledge of its sustainability and environmental safety, determining the stability of the introduced characteristic and its effects on non-target organisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate direct effects of ingestion of semi-purified and purified soybean PI and GM sugarcane plants on the soil-dwelling mite Scheloribates praeincisus (Berlese) (Acari: Oribatida). This mite is abundant in agricultural soils and participates in the process of organic matter decomposition; for this reason it will be exposed to PI by feeding on GM plant debris. Eggs of S. praeincisus were isolated and after larvae emerged, immatures were fed milled sugarcane leaves added to semi-purified or purified PI (Kunitz and BBPI) or immatures were fed GM sugarcane varieties expressing Kunitz and BBPI type PI or the untransformed near isogenic parental line variety as a control. Developmental time (larva-adult) and survival of S. praeincisus was evaluated. Neither Kunitz nor BBPI affected S. praeincisus survival. On the other hand, ingestion of semi-purified and purified Kunitz inhibitor diminished duration of S. praeincisus immature stages. Ingestion of GM senescent leaves did not have an effect on S. praeincisus immature developmental time and survival, compared to ingestion of leaves from the isogenic parental plants. These results indicate that cultivation of these transgenic sugarcane plants is safe for the non-target species S. praeincisus. PMID:18357504

Simões, R A; Silva-Filho, M C; Moura, D S; Delalibera, I

2008-03-01

199

Nivulian-II a new milk clotting cysteine protease of Euphorbia nivulia latex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nivulian-II, new milk clotting cysteine protease has been purified from the latex of Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham. Nivulian-II is a monomeric protein with an apparent molecular mass 43670.846 Da. It presents its optimum activity at pH 6.3 and temperature of 50°C. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by common thiol-blocking reagents thereby indicating that it belongs to cysteine protease family. Nivulian-II is a type of glycoprotein and its pI is 3.4. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Nivulian-II is DFPPNTCCCICC. This sequence showed relatively low homology with several other proteases of Euphorbian plants, suggesting that the isolated enzyme is a new cysteine protease. PMID:25043129

Badgujar, Shamkant B; Mahajan, Raghunath T

2014-09-01

200

Implication of Cysteine, Glutathione and Cysteine Synthase in Theobroma cacao L. Zygotic Embryogenesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An investigation on sulfur metabolism during cocoa zygotic embryogenesis was carried out by analysing total amino acids, cysteine, glutathione, cysteine synthase and proteins in the endosperm and in the embryos. Cacao clones SNK10 and Sca6 were used. As the embryo was getting mature, the endosperm became progressively cellularized from the mycropilar zone. Amino acid, cysteine, glutathione and protein contents were always higher in the embryos than in the endosperm in both genotypes. In the embryo, the contents of these molecules were higher in the earlier stages while in the endosperm, their contents were almost constant during maturation. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.623; p<0.01 between cysteine content in the embryo and glutathione content in the endosperm. Meanwhile cysteine content was positively correlated to amino acids (r = 0.883; p<0.01 and protein (r = 0.866; p<0.01 in the embryo. Our findings suggest that cysteine might be mainly provided by the endosperm for embryo development. In the embryo, two cysteine synthase isoforms (A and B were revealed from stage 5+ to stage 8+ but were not detected from stage 0+ to stage 4+. Reversely, in the endosperm, both isoforms were present only from stage 0+ to stage 3+. Similarity in protein distribution in the endosperm at different embryo stages suggests that embryogenesis takes place through seven steps characterized by their protein patterns.

Minyaka Emile

2007-01-01

201

Effects of sulphate-deficiency on cysteine metabolism in the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana  

OpenAIRE

Plants, bacteria and fungi have the ability to assimilate inorganic sulphur and incorporate it into inorganic compounds. Animals on the contrary, do not assimilate inorganic sulphur; they require methionine as an essential amino acid for their source of sulphur nutrient. The amino acid cysteine (Cys) is the first committed molecule in plant metabolism containing sulphur and it is the sulphide donor for the generation of methionine, glutathione (GSH), phytochelatins, iron-sulphur clusters,...

Salbitani, Giovanna

2010-01-01

202

Engineered multidomain cysteine protease inhibitors yield resistance against western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) in greenhouse trials  

OpenAIRE

Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), cause very large economic damage on a variety of field and greenhouse crops. In this study, plant resistance against thrips was introduced into transgenic potato plants through the expression of novel, custom-made, multidomain protease inhibitors. Representative classes of inhibitors of cysteine and aspartic proteases [kininogen domain 3 (K), stefin A (A), cystatin C (C), potato cystatin (P) and equistatin...

Outchkourov, N. S.; Kogel, W. J.; Wiegers, G. L.; Abrahamson, M.; Jongsma, M. A.

2004-01-01

203

Role of scuticociliate proteinases in infection success in turbot, Psetta maxima (L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Scuticociliatosis caused by Philasterides dicentrarchi is one of the most severe diseases of farmed turbot, Psetta maxima (L.). Immunized fish showed elevated levels of specific antibodies (Ab), which caused the destruction of parasites through the activation of complement by the alternative and classical pathways. By using affinity chromatography on bacitracin-sepharose columns, we demonstrated the existence of high levels of parasite proteinases in the serum and, to a lesser extent, in the ascitic fluid of experimentally infected fish, and the absence of such proteinases in the serum of uninfected fish. Serum from uninfected fish displayed haemolytic activity against sheep red blood cells. However, incubation of this serum with parasite proteinases led to a decrease in serum haemolytic activity, suggesting that proteinases are able to destroy fish complement. Proteinases isolated from serum or ascitic fluid of infected fish were also able to degrade turbot Ab. Preincubation of turbot serum containing specific Ab for P. dicentrarchi with the proteinases led to a significant decrease in the killing activity of the serum. The results confirm that P. dicentrarchi proteinases in serum from infected fish may provide a mechanism for circumventing normal host immunity by inactivating the Ab and complement factors required for complement activation. PMID:21711365

Piazzon, C; Lamas, J; Leiro, J M

2011-10-01

204

Engineering proteinase K using machine learning and synthetic genes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Altering a protein's function by changing its sequence allows natural proteins to be converted into useful molecular tools. Current protein engineering methods are limited by a lack of high throughput physical or computational tests that can accurately predict protein activity under conditions relevant to its final application. Here we describe a new synthetic biology approach to protein engineering that avoids these limitations by combining high throughput gene synthesis with machine learning-based design algorithms. Results We selected 24 amino acid substitutions to make in proteinase K from alignments of homologous sequences. We then designed and synthesized 59 specific proteinase K variants containing different combinations of the selected substitutions. The 59 variants were tested for their ability to hydrolyze a tetrapeptide substrate after the enzyme was first heated to 68°C for 5 minutes. Sequence and activity data was analyzed using machine learning algorithms. This analysis was used to design a new set of variants predicted to have increased activity over the training set, that were then synthesized and tested. By performing two cycles of machine learning analysis and variant design we obtained 20-fold improved proteinase K variants while only testing a total of 95 variant enzymes. Conclusion The number of protein variants that must be tested to obtain significant functional improvements determines the type of tests that can be performed. Protein engineers wishing to modify the property of a protein to shrink tumours or catalyze chemical reactions under industrial conditions have until now been forced to accept high throughput surrogate screens to measure protein properties that they hope will correlate with the functionalities that they intend to modify. By reducing the number of variants that must be tested to fewer than 100, machine learning algorithms make it possible to use more complex and expensive tests so that only protein properties that are directly relevant to the desired application need to be measured. Protein design algorithms that only require the testing of a small number of variants represent a significant step towards a generic, resource-optimized protein engineering process.

Wang Rebecca P

2007-03-01

205

[The study of two alkaliphilic thermophile bacteria of the anoxybacillus genus as producers of extracellular proteinase].  

Science.gov (United States)

Two strains of alkaliphilic thermophile bacteria of the genus Anoxybacillus from hydrothermal vents of Lake Baikal were detected and characterized. It was demonstrated that proteinases secreted by these bacteria had wide substrate specificity, hydrolyzed proteins and n-nitroanilide substrates, and showed maximal activity at pyroglutamyl-alanine-alanine-leucine n-nitroanilide hydrolysis. We determined maximal activity of the proteinases at alkaline pH values (10.0-10.5), the enzymes were thermostable and were characterized by a wide thermal optimum (55-70 degrees C). The results of inhibitor analysis and substrate specifity examination of extracellular enzymes demonstrated their belonging to the subtilisin-like serine proteinases. PMID:19845284

Lavrent'eva, E V; Shagzhina, A P; Babasanova, O B; Dunaevski?, Ia E; Namsaraev, Z B; Barkhutova, D D

2009-01-01

206

Isolation of a keratinolytic proteinase from Trichophyton mentagrophytes with enzymatic activity at acidic pH.  

OpenAIRE

A keratinolytic proteinase with enzyme activity at acidic pH was isolated from culture filtrates of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, a major pathogenic fungus of dermatophytosis. The molecular weight of the proteinase was estimated to be 41,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 38,000 by gel filtration. The isoelectric point was determined to be 3.9. The proteinase had a pH optimum of 4.5 for keratin and 5.5 for hemoglobin. This enzyme hydrolyzed the synthetic chymo...

Tsuboi, R.; Ko, I.; Takamori, K.; Ogawa, H.

1989-01-01

207

Partial characterization of hepatopancreatic and extracellular digestive proteinases of wild and cultivated Octopus maya  

OpenAIRE

Proteinases from hepatopancreas (HP) and gastric juice (GJ) from wild and cultured red octopus (Octopus maya) were characterized. Hepatopancreas assays revealed optimal activity at pH 4, 9-10 and 10 for wild and pH 3, 8, and 9, for cultured octopuses, for total proteinases, trypsin and chymotrypsin, respectively. In the gastric juice, maximum activity was recorded at pH 6, 8, and 7 for total proteinases, trypsin, and chymotrypsin, respectively for both wild and cultured octopus. A reduction o...

Martinez, Romain; Santos, R.; Alvarez, A.; Cuzon, Gerard; Arena, L.; Mascaro, M.; Pascual, C.; Rosas, C.

2011-01-01

208

RNA-dependent cysteine biosynthesis in archaea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several methanogenic archaea lack cysteinyl-transfer RNA (tRNA) synthetase (CysRS), the essential enzyme that provides Cys-tRNA(Cys) for translation in most organisms. Partial purification of the corresponding activity from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii indicated that tRNA(Cys) becomes acylated with O-phosphoserine (Sep) but not with cysteine. Further analyses identified a class II-type O-phosphoseryl-tRNA synthetase (SepRS) and Sep-tRNA:Cys-tRNA synthase (SepCysS). SepRS specifically forms Sep-tRNA(Cys), which is then converted to Cys-tRNA(Cys) by SepCysS. Comparative genomic analyses suggest that this pathway, encoded in all organisms lacking CysRS, can also act as the sole route for cysteine biosynthesis. This was proven for Methanococcus maripaludis, where deletion of the SepRS-encoding gene resulted in cysteine auxotrophy. As the conversions of Sep-tRNA to Cys-tRNA or to selenocysteinyl-tRNA are chemically analogous, the catalytic activity of SepCysS provides a means by which both cysteine and selenocysteine may have originally been added to the genetic code. PMID:15790858

Sauerwald, Anselm; Zhu, Wenhong; Major, Tiffany A; Roy, Hervé; Palioura, Sotiria; Jahn, Dieter; Whitman, William B; Yates, John R; Ibba, Michael; Söll, Dieter

2005-03-25

209

Cysteine-selective reactions for antibody conjugation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Moving tracks from maleimide: New site-selective protein modification reactions at cysteine have been developed. Unlike conventional maleimide conjugation, which results in a labile thioether succinimide, the new bioconjugation reactions result in stable conjugates and provide opportunities to develop a new generation of homogeneous, stable, and therapeutically useful conjugates. PMID:25070879

Cal, Pedro M S D; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Gois, Pedro M P

2014-09-26

210

Ozone effects on inhibitors of human neutrophil proteinases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of ozone on human alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (A-1-PI), alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (A-1-Achy), bronchial leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (BLPI), and Eglin C were studied using in vitro exposures in phosphate-buffered solutions. Following ozone exposure, inhibitory activities against human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and/or cathepsin G (Cat G) were measured. Exposure of A-1-PI to 50 mol O3/mol protein resulted in a complete loss of HNE inhibitory activity, whereas A-1-Achy lost only 50% of its Cat G inhibitory activity and remained half active even after exposure to 250 mol of O3. At 40 mol O3/mol protein, BLPI lost 79% of its activity against HNE and 87% of its Cat G inhibitory activity. Eglin C, a leech-derived inhibitor, lost 81% of its HNE inhibitory activity and 92% of its ability to inhibit Cat G when exposed to 40 mol O3/mol. Amino acid analyses of ozone-exposed inhibitors showed destruction of Trp, Met, Tyr, and His with as little as 10 mol O3/mol protein, and higher levels of O3 resulted in more extensive oxidation of susceptible residues. The variable ozone susceptibility of the different amino acid residues in the four proteins indicated that oxidation was a function of protein structure, as well as the inherent susceptibility of particular amino acids. Exposure of A-1-PI and BLPI in the presence of the antioxidants, Trolox C (water soluble vitamin E) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C), showed that antioxidant vitamins may protect proteins from oxidative inactivation by ozone. Methionine-specific modification of BLPI reduced its HNE and Cat G inhibitory activities. Two moles of N-chlorosuccinimide per mole of BLPI methionine caused an 80% reduction in activity against Cat G, but only a 40% reduction in HNE inhibitory activity.

Smith, C.E.; Stack, M.S.; Johnson, D.A.

1987-02-15

211

Determining cysteine oxidation status using differential alkylation  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidative damage to proteins plays a major role in aging and in the pathology of many degenerative diseases. Under conditions of oxidative stress, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can modify key redox sensitive amino acid side chains leading to altered biological activities or structures of the targeted proteins. This in turn can affect signaling or regulatory control pathways as well as protein turnover and degradation efficiency in the proteasome. Cysteine residues are particularly susceptible to oxidation, primarily through reversible modifications (e.g., thiolation and nitrosylation), although irreversible oxidation can lead to products that cannot be repaired in vivo such as sulfonic acid. This report describes a strategy to determine the overall level of reversible cysteine oxidation using a stable isotope differential alkylation approach in combination with mass spectrometric analysis. This method employs 13C-labeled alkylating reagents, such as N-ethyl-[1,4-13C2]-maleimide, bromo-[1,2-13C2]-acetic acid and their non-labeled counterparts to quantitatively assess the level of cysteine oxidation at specific sites in oxidized proteins. The differential alkylation protocol was evaluated using standard peptides and proteins, and then applied to monitor and determine the level of oxidative damage induced by diamide, a mild oxidant. The formation and mass spectrometric analysis of irreversible cysteine acid modification will also be discussed as several such modifications have been identified in subunits of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes. This strategy will hopefully contribute to our understanding of the role that cysteine oxidation plays in such chronic diseases such as Parkinson's disease, where studies in animal and cell models have shown oxidative damage to mitochondrial Complex I to be a specific and early target.

Schilling, Birgit; Yoo, Chris B.; Collins, Christopher J.; Gibson, Bradford W.

2004-08-01

212

Activity of purified biosynthetic proteinase of human immunodeficiency virus on natural substrates and synthetic peptides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retroviral capsid proteins and replication enzymes are synthesized as polyproteins that are proteolytically processed to the mature products by a virus-encoded proteinase. We have purified the proteinase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), expressed in Escherichia coli, to approximately 90% purity. The purified enzyme at a concentration of approximately 20 nM gave rapid, efficient, and specific cleavage of an in vitro synthesized gag precursor protein. Purified HIV proteinase also induced specific cleavage of five decapeptide substrates whose amino acid sequences corresponded to cleavage sites in the HIV polyprotein but not of a peptide corresponding to a cleavage site in another retrovirus. Competition experiments with different peptides allowed a ranking of cleavage sites. Inhibition studies indicated that the HIV proteinase was inhibited by pepstatin A with an IC50 of 0.7 microM. Images PMID:2644644

Kräusslich, H G; Ingraham, R H; Skoog, M T; Wimmer, E; Pallai, P V; Carter, C A

1989-01-01

213

Overexpression of serine acetlytransferase produced large increases in O-acetylserine and free cysteine in developing seeds of a grain legume.  

Science.gov (United States)

There have been many attempts to increase concentrations of the nutritionally essential sulphur amino acids by modifying their biosynthetic pathway in leaves of transgenic plants. This report describes the first modification of cysteine biosynthesis in developing seeds; those of the grain legume, narrow leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius, L.). Expression in developing lupin embryos of a serine acetyltransferase (SAT) from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtSAT1 or AtSerat 2;1) was associated with increases of up to 5-fold in the concentrations of O-acetylserine (OAS), the immediate product of SAT, and up to 26-fold in free cysteine, resulting in some of the highest in vivo concentrations of these metabolites yet reported. Despite the dramatic changes in free cysteine in developing embryos of SAT overexpressers, concentrations of free methionine in developing embryos, and the total cysteine and methionine concentrations in mature seeds were not significantly altered. Pooled F(2) seeds segregating for the SAT transgene and for a transgene encoding a methionine- and cysteine-rich sunflower seed storage protein also had increased OAS and free cysteine, but not free methionine, during development, and no increase in mature seed total sulphur amino acids compared with controls lacking SAT overexpression. The data support the view that the cysteine biosynthetic pathway is active in developing seeds, and indicate that SAT activity limits cysteine biosynthesis, but that cysteine supply is not limiting for methionine biosynthesis or for storage protein synthesis in maturing lupin embryos in conditions of adequate sulphur nutrition. OAS and free methionine, but not free cysteine, were implicated as signalling metabolites controlling expression of a gene for a cysteine-rich seed storage protein. PMID:19939888

Tabe, Linda; Wirtz, Markus; Molvig, Lisa; Droux, Michel; Hell, Ruediger

2010-03-01

214

Expression profile of water-soluble proteinases during ontogenesis of Megachile rotundata: an electrophoretic investigation  

OpenAIRE

Variations in proteinase activity pattern in larva, pupa and imago of the solitary bee Megachile rotundata are described. Extraction of insect homogenates under mild conditions was followed by the electrophoretic separation of the protein extract in polyacrylamide gels, precast with either gelatine or pollen protein extracts. In these conditions, twelve distinct proteinases were detectable in the pooled I-IV instar larvae, six in the pollen-eating V instar, two in the mature V instar, none in...

Felicioli, Antonio; Donadio, Elena; Balestreri, Ettore; Montagnoli, Giorgio; Felicioli, Romano; Podesta?, Adriano

2004-01-01

215

Proteinase-activated receptor-1 mediates dorsal root ganglion neuronal degeneration in HIV/AIDS  

OpenAIRE

Distal sensory polyneuropathy is a frequent complication of lentivirus infections of the peripheral nervous system including both human immunodeficiency virus and feline immunodeficiency virus. Proteinase-activated receptors are G protein-coupled receptors implicated in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Proteinase-activated receptor-1 is expressed on different cell types within the nervous system including neurons and glia, but little is known about its role in the ...

Acharjee, Shaona; Zhu, Yu; Maingat, Ferdinand; Pardo, Carlos; Ballanyi, Klaus; Hollenberg, Morley D.; Power, Christopher

2011-01-01

216

Applicability of Yeast Extracellular Proteinases in Brewing: Physiological and Biochemical Aspects  

OpenAIRE

A general screening survey for expression of extracellular acid proteinase production was performed on over 100 cultures belonging to the genus Saccharomyces. Although two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed positive extracellular proteinase phenotypes in plate tests, it was not possible to demonstrate proteolytic activities in cell-free culture supernatants in assays performed at beer pH values. Of several yeasts from other genera examined, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Torulopsis m...

Bilinski, Carl A.; Russell, Inge; Stewart, Graham G.

1987-01-01

217

Proteinase-activated receptor 4 stimulation-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in alveolar epithelial cells  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs; PAR1–4) that can be activated by serine proteinases such as thrombin and neutrophil catepsin G are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of various pulmonary diseases including fibrosis. Among these PARs, especially PAR4, a newly identified subtype, is highly expressed in the lung. Here, we examined whether PAR4 stimulation plays a role in the formation of fibrotic response in the l...

Araki Hiromasa; Kawai Kenzo; Yagi Yasuhiro; Otani Hitomi; Ando Seijitsu; Fukuhara Shirou; Inagaki Chiyoko

2007-01-01

218

Generation of transgenic plantain (Musa spp.) with resistance to plant pathogenic nematodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant parasitic nematodes impose a severe constraint on plantain and banana productivity; however, the sterile nature of many cultivars precludes conventional breeding for resistance. Transgenic plantain cv. Gonja manjaya (Musa AAB) plants, expressing a maize cystatin that inhibits nematode digestive cysteine proteinases and a synthetic peptide that disrupts nematode chemoreception, were assessed for their ability to resist nematode infection. Lines were generated that expressed each gene singly or both together in a stacked defence. Nematode challenge with a single species or a mixed population identified 10 lines with significant resistance. The best level of resistance achieved against the major pest species Radopholus similis was 84% ± 8% for the cystatin, 66% ± 14% for the peptide and 70% ± 6% for the dual defence. In the mixed population, trial resistance was also demonstrated to Helicotylenchus multicinctus. A fluorescently labelled form of the chemodisruptive peptide underwent retrograde transport along certain sensory dendrites of R. similis as required to disrupt chemoreception. The peptide was degraded after 30 min in simulated intestinal fluid or boiling water and after 1 h in nonsterile soil. In silico sequence analysis suggests that the peptide is not a mammalian antigen. This work establishes the mode of action of a novel nematode defence, develops the evidence for its safe and effective deployment against multiple nematode species and identifies transgenic plantain lines with a high level of resistance for a proposed field trial. PMID:22435592

Roderick, Hugh; Tripathi, Leena; Babirye, Annet; Wang, Dong; Tripathi, Jaindra; Urwin, Peter E; Atkinson, Howard J

2012-10-01

219

Analysis of factors that induce cysteine bonding state.  

Science.gov (United States)

Regarding the fact that the protein structure is principally encoded in its sequence, investigating the bonding state of cysteine has gained a great deal of attention due to its significance in the formation of protein structure. Due to lack of evident influence of free cysteines on the protein structure, it may be expected that only half-cystines convey encoded information. The results obtained from the analysis of amino acid distribution in proximity of both states of cysteines explicitly indicated that perquisite information for inducing cysteine bonding state is present even in the flanking amino acid sequences of free cysteines. PMID:19246035

Hoseini, Somayyeh; Jahandideh, Mina; Hoseini, Afsaneh; Yazdi, Ali Salehzadeh; Karami, Zahra; Abdolmaleki, Parviz; Rezaei, Mohammad Ali; Jahandideh, Samad; Asadabadi, Ebrahim Barzegari

2009-04-01

220

Trypsin-like proteinase produced by Fusarium culmorum grown on grain proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fungal disease Fusarium head blight occurs on wheat (Triticum spp.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and is one of the worldwide problems of agriculture. It can be caused by various Fusarium species. We are characterizing the proteinases of F. culmorum to investigate how they may help the fungus to attack the grain. A trypsin-like proteinase has been purified from a gluten-containing culture medium of F. culmorum. The enzyme was maximally active at about pH 9 and 45 degrees C, but was not stable under those conditions. It was stabilized by calcium ions and by the presence of other proteins. The proteinase was most stable at pH 6-7 at ambient temperatures, but was quickly inactivated at 50 degrees C. It was strongly inhibited by p-amidino phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (p-APMSF), and soybean trypsin and Bowman-Birk inhibitors, and it preferentially hydrolyzed the peptide bonds of the protein substrate beta-purothionin on the C-terminal side of Arg (mainly) and Lys residues. These characteristics show that it is a trypsin-like proteinase. In addition, its N-terminal amino acid sequence was 88% identical to that of the F. oxysporum trypsin-like enzyme. The proteinase hydrolyzed the D hordein and some of the C hordeins (the barley storage proteins). This enzyme, and a subtilisin-like proteinase that we recently purified from the same organism, possibly play roles in helping the fungus to colonize grains. PMID:12059170

Pekkarinen, Anja I; Jones, Berne L

2002-06-19

221

Plant defensins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant defensins are small, basic peptides that have a characteristic three-dimensional folding pattern that is stabilized by eight disulfide-linked cysteines. They are termed plant defensins because they are structurally related to defensins found in other types of organism, including humans. To date, sequences of more than 80 different plant defensin genes from different plant species are available. In Arabidopsis thaliana, at least 13 putative plant defensin genes (PDF) are present, encoding 11 different plant defensins. Two additional genes appear to encode plant defensin fusions. Plant defensins inhibit the growth of a broad range of fungi but seem nontoxic to either mammalian or plant cells. Antifungal activity of defensins appears to require specific binding to membrane targets. This review focuses on the classification of plant defensins in general and in Arabidopsis specifically, and on the mode of action of plant defensins against fungal pathogens. PMID:12447532

Thomma, Bart P H J; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

2002-12-01

222

Gamma irradiation or hydrocortisone treatment of rats increases the proteinase activity associated with histones of thymus nuclei  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An increase in the activity of histone-associated rat thymus nucleus proteinases specific for histones H2A, H2B and H1 was shown after ? irradiation or hydrocortisone treatment of animals. Histone H1-specific proteinase activity is dependent on DNA and increases in the presence of denatured DNA, whereas proteinases specific for core histones are inhibited in the presence of denatured DNA. The increase in the activity of histone-associated proteinases depends on the radiation dose and the time after irradiation or hydrocortisone injection. In the presence of dithiothreitol and sodium dodecyl sulfate, these proteinases dissociate from histones. It was found by gel electrophoresis that several proteinases of various molecular masses are closely associated with histones obtained from thymus nuclei of irradiated or hydrocortisone-treated rats. 43 refs., 7 figs

223

Cysteine-based redox switches in enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The enzymes involved in metabolism and signaling are regulated by posttranslational modifications that influence their catalytic activity, rates of turnover, and targeting to subcellular locations. Most prominent among these has been phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, but now a distinct class of modification coming to the fore is a set of versatile redox modifications of key cysteine residues. Here we review the chemical, structural, and regulatory aspects of such redox regulation of enzymes and discuss examples of how these regulatory modifications often work in concert with phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events, making redox dependence an integral part of many cell signaling processes. Included are the emerging roles played by peroxiredoxins, a family of cysteine-based peroxidases that now appear to be major players in both antioxidant defense and cell signaling. PMID:20799881

Klomsiri, Chananat; Karplus, P Andrew; Poole, Leslie B

2011-03-15

224

Cysteine reactivity in Thermoanaerobacter brockii alcohol dehydrogenase.  

OpenAIRE

The free cysteine residues in the extremely thermophilic Thermoanaerobacter brockii alcohol dehydrogenase (TBADH) were characterized using selective chemical modification with the stable nitroxyl biradical bis(1-oxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-imidazoline-4-yl)disulfide, via a thiol-disulfide exchange reaction and with 2[14C]iodoacetic acid, via S-alkylation. The respective reactions were monitored by electron paramagenetic resonance (EPR) and by the incorporation of the radioactive label. In nativ...

Peretz, M.; Weiner, L. M.; Burstein, Y.

1997-01-01

225

Cysteine-Based Redox Switches in Enzymes  

OpenAIRE

The enzymes involved in metabolism and signaling are regulated by posttranslational modifications that influence their catalytic activity, rates of turnover, and targeting to subcellular locations. Most prominent among these has been phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, but now a distinct class of modification coming to the fore is a set of versatile redox modifications of key cysteine residues. Here we review the chemical, structural, and regulatory aspects of such redox regulation of enzymes ...

Klomsiri, Chananat; Karplus, P. Andrew; Poole, Leslie B.

2011-01-01

226

Low molecular weight proteinase inhibitors. I. Extraction and identification of activity from normal and malignant human breast tissues.  

OpenAIRE

Extracts of both normal human breast tissues and infiltrating ductal carcinoma tissues were ultrafiltered and concentrated to recover proteins having nominal molecular weights between 1000 and 50,000 daltons. Proteinase inhibitory activity of the final concentrates of tumours and normal breast controls were found to be distinct from the majority of proteinase inhibitory activity in human serum as judged by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. All final concentrates contained proteinase inhibito...

Waxler, B.; Wezeman, F. H.

1983-01-01

227

Lipases and proteinases in milk : occurrence, heat inactivation, and their importance for the keeping quality of milk products  

OpenAIRE

The occurrence and heat inactivation of native and bacterial lipases and proteinases in milk were studied.Production of these enzymes by Gram-negative psychrotrophic bacteria in milk was found to take place towards the end of exponential growth and in the stationary growth phase.Kinetics of heat inactivation in milk of milk lipoprotein lipase, alkaline milk proteinase and lipases and proteinases of some Gram-negative bacteria are given.The effects of residual lipolytic and proteolytic activit...

Driessen, F. M.

1983-01-01

228

Fluorescent properties of antioxidant cysteine ABZ analogue.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antioxidant properties of aminobenzamide cysteine (ABZ Cys) makes it a molecule that can potentially be used as a drug in oxidative stress related diseases and delivered in the form of a nanoparticles. Here we have studied the photo-physical properties of ABZ Cys, a fluorescent analogue of a popular antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). We have compared ABZ Cys steady state and time-resolved fluorescence properties with its parent compounds anthranilic acid and anthranilamide in solution as well as in poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer films. ABZ Cys did not show any significant shift in absorption after entrapment in PVA film, but there was a shift towards shorter wavelengths in the emission peak compared to the phosphate buffer solution. Fluorescence lifetimes and quantum yields indicated a slight quenching of ABZ Cys fluorescence in comparison to the cysteine-less parent compounds. We also demonstrated that very low concentrations of ABZ Cys, such as 100 nM, are readily detected by a commercial spectrofluorometer. Hence we have established the possible use of ABZ Cys in biomedical applications. PMID:21237671

Raut, Sangram; Heck, Amber; Vishwanatha, Jamboor; Sarkar, Pabak; Mody, Avani; Luchowski, Rafal; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Gryczynski, Ignacy

2011-03-01

229

Reaction of 5-halocytosine derivatives with cysteine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

5-Bromo-(1) and 5-iodo-2[prime]-deoxycytidine (2) undergo 100 percent dehalogenation to 2[prime]-deoxycytidine on heating with cysteine in 1N aq K[sub 2]CO[sub 3] in a nitrogen atmosphere at 50[degrees] for 72 h and 21 h, respectively. 5-Chloro-2[prime]-deoxycytidine (3) and 1-methyl-5-chlorocytosine (3m) on the other hand undergo very little dehalogenation, forming instead two products, 4, 5 and 4m, 5m respectively, whose structures have been determined by mass spectrometry and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the 3m products: 1-methyl-5(cystein-S-yl)cytosine (4m) and 3-methyl-2,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-oxo-3H-pyrimido [5,4-b][1,4]-thiazine-7-carboxylic acid (5m), mp. 236[degrees]C, 78 percent yield. Initially produced 4m undergoes a novel and facile cyclization to form 5m with loss of NH[sub 3] in the presence of cysteine. The compound 3m, mp. 258[degrees]C, has been synthesized by treating 1-methylcytosine with N-chlorosuccinimide in acetic acid at 105[degrees] for 3 h in 56 percent yield. Ultraviolet absorption spectral properties of 1, 2, 3, 3m, 4, 4m, 5, and 5m are reported.

Pal, B.C.; Ghosh, C.; Sethi, S.K.; Suttle, B.E.; McCloskey, J.A. (ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN (United States) Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

1988-01-01

230

Molecular characterization, expression and function analysis of a five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serine proteinase inhibitors represent an expanding superfamily of endogenous inhibitors that are regulate proteolytic events and involved in a variety of physiological and immunological processes. A five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (poKSPI) was identified and characterized from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata based on expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis. The full-length cDNA was 737 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) 660 bp encoding a 219 amino acid protein a theoretical molecular weight (Mw) of 23.3 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.40. A putative signal peptide of 19 amino acid residues and five tandem Kazal domains were identified. Four of the Kazal domains had the highly conserved motif sequences with six cysteine residues responsible for the formation of disulfide bridges. The deduced amino acid sequence of the poKSPI shared high homology with KSPIs from Hirudo medicinalis. The poKSPI mRNA could be detected in all examined tissues, the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA was the highest in mantle and gonad, while the lowest in haemocyte and intestine. After LPS challenge, the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA in digestive gland was significantly up-regulated at 4 h post-challenge and reached the peak at 12 h post-challenge, which was 4.23-fold higher than control group; the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA in gill was also significantly up-regulated at 8 and 12 h post-challenge, which were 4.48 and 2.26-fold higher than control group. After Vibrio alginolyticus challenge, the expression levels of the poKSPI mRNA in digestive gland were significantly up-regulated at 8, 12, 48 and 72 h post-challenge, which were 1.70, 1.79, 3.89 and 5.69-fold higher than control group, respectively; the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA in gill was significantly up-regulated at 24 h post-challenge, which was 5.30-fold higher than control group. The recombinant poKSPI protein could inhibit chymotrypsin and trypsin activities in dose-dependent manner, when the ratios of rpoKSPI to chymotrypsin and trypsin were 36:1 and 72:1, respectively, the proteinase activities of chymotrypsin and trypsin could be almost completely inhibited, but the rpoKSPI could not inhibit subtilisin. PMID:24378679

Zhang, Dianchang; Ma, Jianjun; Jiang, Shigui

2014-03-01

231

?1-Proteinase inhibitor mutants with specificity for plasma kallikrein and C1s but not C1  

OpenAIRE

Coagulation and complement proteinases are activated in sepsis, and one approach to therapy is to develop proteinase inhibitors that will specifically inhibit these proteinases without inhibiting activated protein C, a proteinase that is beneficial to survival. In this study, we made mutants of the serpin ?1-PI, designed to mimic the specificity of C1-inhibitor. The P3-P2-P1 residues of ?1-PI were changed from IPM to LGR and PFR, sequences preferred by C1s and kallikrein, respectively. Inhi...

Sulikowski, Thomas; Bauer, Bryan A.; Patston, Philip A.

2002-01-01

232

Wound-induced proteinase inhibitor in Salix viminalis and its association with defence against insects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For successful traditional breeding, the plant material has to be screened for genetic variation for the desired traits. By screening Salix clones for wound-induced proteinase inhibitor (PI) activity and ethylene evolution, it was possible to identify variation for both characters among the Salix clones tested. However, no correlation was observed with insect and pathogen resistance. Since there was no simple relationship between wound-induced ethylene production, accumulation of PI and pest resistance, a more systematic investigation of Salix PIs was begun. A gene (swin1.1) encoding a 21 kDa trypsin inhibitor with characteristics of Kunitz-type of PI was sequenced. The trypsin inhibitor encoded by the isolated swin1.1 gene was shown to be functional in vitro and exhibit specificity for trypsin. It is therefore likely that this PI is involved in the plant defence in Salix, since many insects have trypsin as their major digestive protease. In further support of this view, in bio-tests with poplar the mortality of the first instar larvae (Lymantria dispar) was significantly increased, both after application of the trypsin inhibitor encoded by swin1.1 directly on poplar leaves and after feeding the larvae with transgenic poplar over-expressing the swin1.1 gene. In Salix, the swin1.1 gene was shown to be induced by mechanical wounding, insect feeding and by treatment with the signalling substances salicylic and jasmonic acid. The locally wound-induced response (mechanical and insect) was greater than the systemic response. Other swin1 gene family members were also differentially expressed after the inductive treatment. 187 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Saarikoski, P. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics

1997-09-01

233

Structural and functional characterization of proteinase inhibitors from seeds of Cajanus cajan (cv. ICP 7118).  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteinase inhibitors (C11PI) from mature dry seeds of Cajanus cajan (cv. ICP 7118) were purified by chromatography which resulted in 87-fold purification and 7.9% yield. SDS-PAGE, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrum and two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis together resolved that C11PI possessed molecular mass of 8385.682 Da and existed as isoinhibitors. However, several of these isoinhibitors exhibited self association tendency to form small oligomers. All the isoinhibitors resolved in Native-PAGE and 2-D gel electrophoresis showed inhibitory activity against bovine pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin as well as Achaea janata midgut trypsin-like proteases (AjPs), a devastating pest of castor plant. Partial sequences of isoinhibitor (pI 6.0) obtained from MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis and N-terminal sequencing showed 100% homology to Bowman-Birk Inhibitors (BBIs) of leguminous plants. C11PI showed non-competitive inhibition against trypsin and chymotrypsin. A marginal loss (<15%) in C11PI activity against trypsin at 80 (°)C and basic pH (12.0) was associated with concurrent changes in its far-UV CD spectra. Further, in vitro assays demonstrated that C11PI possessed significant inhibitory potential (IC50 of 78 ng) against AjPs. On the other hand, in vivo leaf coating assays demonstrated that C11PI caused significant mortality rate with concomitant reduction in body weight of both larvae and pupae, prolonged the duration of transition from larva to pupa along with formation of abnormal larval-pupal and pupal-adult intermediates. Being smaller peptides, it is possible to express C11PI in castor to protect them against its devastating pest A. janata. PMID:25093261

Swathi, Marri; Lokya, Vadthya; Swaroop, Vanka; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Kannan, Monica; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna; Padmasree, Kollipara

2014-10-01

234

Inhibitory selectivity of canecystatin: a recombinant cysteine peptidase inhibitor from sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cDNA of a cystein peptidase inhibitor was isolated from sugarcane and expressed in Escherichia coli. The protein, named canecystatin, has previously been shown to exert antifungal activity on the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Herein, the inhibitory specificity of canecystatin was further characterized. It inhibits the cysteine peptidases from plant source papain (Ki=3.3 nM) and baupain (Ki=2.1x10-8 M), but no inhibitory effect was observed on ficin or bromelain. Canecystatin also inhibits lysosomal cysteine peptidases such as human cathepsin B (Ki=125 nM), cathepsin K (Ki=0.76 nM), cathepsin L (Ki=0.6 nM), and cathepsin V (Ki=1.0 nM), but not the aspartyl peptidase cathepsin D. The activity of serine peptidases such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, pancreatic, and neutrophil elastases, and human plasma kallikrein is not affected by the inhibitor, nor is the activity of the metallopeptidases angiotensin converting enzyme and neutral endopeptidase. This is the first report of inhibitory activity of a sugarcane cystatin on cysteine peptidases

235

Benzoquinone Reveals a Cysteine-Dependent Desensitization Mechanism of TRPA1  

OpenAIRE

The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) nonselective cation channel has a conserved function as a noxious chemical sensor throughout much of Metazoa. Electrophilic chemicals activate both insect and vertebrate TRPA1 via covalent modification of cysteine residues in the amino-terminal region. Although naturally occurring electrophilic plant compounds, such as mustard oil and cinnamaldehyde, are TRPA1 agonists, it is unknown whether arthropod-produced electrophiles activate mammalian...

Ibarra, Yessenia; Blair, Nathaniel T.

2013-01-01

236

The role of papain-like cysteine proteases of tomato in pathogen defense  

OpenAIRE

Recognition and induction of plant immune responses by microbial pathogens is a dynamic process that requires signalling mechanisms associated with defense. Tomato is a host for the fungus Cladosporium fulvum and the oomycete Phytophthora infestans. The Cf2 resistance gene of tomato confers recognition of the Avr2 avirulence gene of Cladosporium fulvum. The Avr2 gene encodes a small secreted protein that inhibits the cysteine proteases Rcr3 and PIP1 in the apoplast of tomato leaves. The perce...

Ilyas, Muhammad

2014-01-01

237

Describing some characters of serine proteinase using fractal analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we calculated the fractal dimensions of four proteins, chymotrypsin, elastase, trypsin and subtilisin, which are made up of about 220–275 amino acids and belong to the family of serine proteinase by using three definitions of fractal dimension i.e. the chain fractal dimension (DL), the mass fractal dimension (Dm) and the correlation fractal dimension (Dc). We also analyzed the relationship between fractal dimension and space structure or secondary structure contents of proteins. The results showed that the values of fractal dimensions are almost same for the global mammalian enzymes (chymotrypsin, elastase and trypsin), but different for the global subtilisin. This demonstrated that the more similar structures, the more equal fractal dimensions, and if the fractal dimensions of proteins are different from each other, the three dimensional structures should not be similar. On the other hand, the detailed structures and fractal dimensions of the active sites of four enzymes are extraordinarily similar. Therefore, the fractal method can be applied to the elucidation of the proteins evolution.

238

Determination of germ tube, phospholipase, and proteinase production by bloodstream isolates of Candida albicans  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction Candida albicans is a commensal and opportunistic agent that causes infection in immunocompromised individuals. Several attributes contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of this yeast, including the production of germ tubes (GTs) and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, particularl [...] y phospholipase and proteinase. This study aimed to investigate GT production and phospholipase and proteinase activities in bloodstream isolates of C. albicans. Methods One hundred fifty-three C. albicans isolates were obtained from blood samples and analyzed for GT, phospholipase, and proteinase production. The assays were performed in duplicate in egg yolk medium containing bovine serum albumin and human serum. Results Detectable amounts of proteinase were produced by 97% of the isolates, and 78% of the isolates produced phospholipase. GTs were produced by 95% of the isolates. A majority of the isolates exhibited low levels of phospholipase production and high levels of proteinase production. Conclusions Bloodstream isolates of C. albicans produce virulence factors such as GT and hydrolytic enzymes that enable them to cause infection under favorable conditions.

Antonella Souza, Mattei; Sydney Hartz, Alves; Cecilia Bittencourt, Severo; Luciana da Silva, Guazzelli; Flavio de Mattos, Oliveira; Luiz Carlos, Severo.

2013-06-01

239

Effect of pH on the production of alkaline proteinase by alkalophilic Bacillus sp  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of the pH of the medium on the microbial growth and alkaline proteinase production, and on the uptake of various substances by alkalophilic Bacillus sp. No.8-1 were studied to investigate the physiological properties of alkalophilic bacteria. Both the microbial growth and alkaline proteinase production by replacement culture were maximum between pH 9 and 10. The alkaline proteinase production sources were also effective for the production. The uptake of various substances such as glucose, acetate, amino acids, and uracil, necessary for proteinase production by this strain, was maximum between pH 9 and 10. The uptake of ?-aminoisobutyric acid, a nonmetabolizable amino acid analogue, was also maximum at pH 10. The pH-dependence of these substance was not due to their ionic forms being affected by extracellular pH. It was concluded from above results that good production of alkaline proteinase in alkaline media was due to the active uptake of various nutrients in this culture condition. (auth.)

240

Domain 15 of the serine proteinase inhibitor LEKTI blocks HIV infection in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor (LEKTI is a 15-domain serine proteinase inhibitor, parts of which have first been isolated from human blood filtrate. It is encoded by the gene SPINK5. In the past, different groups reported antiviral activities of certain serine proteinase inhibitors, such as mucous proteinase inhibitor and alpha1-proteinase inhibitor. The purpose of this study was to test two representative domains of the proteinase inhibitor LEKTI for anti-HIV activities.Methods: LEKTI domains 6 and 15 were recombinantly produced in E.coli. To test their inhibitory activity against HIV infection, the reporter cell line P4-R5 MAGI carrying an HIV-inducible reporter gene was infected by a CCR5-tropic HIV strain in the presence of different inhibitor concentrations. After three days, infection rates were determined by quantifying ß-galactosidase activities using the Galacto-Light Plus™ ß-Galactosidase Reporter Gene Assay.Results: In contrast to LEKTI domain 6, LEKTI domain 15 suppressed HIV-induced reporter gene activities with an IC50 value of approximately 29 µM.Conclusion: LEKTI domain 15 represents an inhibitor of HIV infection. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:131-5. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i3.580Keywords: HIV, inhibition, LEKTI, P4-R5 MAGI

David Palesch

2013-08-01

241

Analysis of the presence of prtR proteinase gene in natural isolates of Lactobacillus rhamnosus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The region of the prtR gene coding for the active site of PrtR proteinase was detected in natural isolates of lactobacilli, previously determined as Lactobacillus rhamnosus. This region was present in all L. rhamnosus strains with proteolytic activity. The PCR primers used were constructed on the basis of the sequence of the catalytic domain of the prtR proteinase gene. These primers generated in colony-PCR procedure specific 611 1-bp product with DNA from natural isolates of L. rhamnosus. No PCR amplifications using these primers were obtained for closely related bacteria of genus Lactobacillus, regardless of their proteolytic activity. In addition, these primers could be used singly or in multiplex PCR together with the Lactobacillus genus-specific primers. Compared with the other proteinases within the genus Lactobacillus (PrtP, PrtB and PrtH) which retained the activity in cell-free proteinase extracts, PrtR proteinase showed proteolytic activity only under in vivo conditions (whole cells of the producing strains). PMID:17455789

Pastar, I; Fira, D; Strahini?, I; Krsti?, K; Begovi?, J; Topisirovi?, L; Jovanovi?, G

2006-01-01

242

The role of compartment-specific cysteine synthesis for sulfur homeostasis during H2S exposure in Arabidopsis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfide is the endproduct of assimilatory sulfate reduction in chloroplasts. It is then used by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OAS-TL) to produce cysteine, the source of reduced sulfur in plants. While its formation in chloroplasts is essential for plant metabolism, sulfide is also a potent toxin mainly targeting respiration in mitochondria. Here, the application of sublethal concentrations of sulfide to Arabidopsis thaliana was used to bypass assimilatory sulfate reduction, resulting in down-regulation of most genes of the pathway. The dualism of sulfide as substrate and toxin was investigated using knock-out mutants of the chloroplast, mitochondrium and cytosol targeted OAS-TL isoforms. Surprisingly, growth retardation due to intoxication by sulfide was independent of the presence or absence of the three OAS-TL isoforms, indicating rapid exchange towards sulfur homoeostasis between the compartments. Cysteine, glutathione and sulfate, but less so S-sulfocysteine, were identified as major sinks for excess sulfide in wildtype plants. Additionally, the concentration of thiosulfate increased 1000-fold, pointing towards a significant function of thiosulfate formation during H2S exposure. Synthesis of cysteine in the cytosol was found to be particularly important for accumulation of sulfite, sulfate and thiosulfate, indicating an important role of cytosolic OAS-TL for the re-oxidation of sulfide. The results show that thiosulfate and sulfate accumulation is strongly linked to cytosolic cysteine synthesis and that scavenging of sulfide by cysteine synthesis enhances sulfur compound accumulation. However, lack of cysteine synthesis in a subcellular compartment has no crucial consequences for toxicity and subsequent growth retardation. PMID:25416292

Birke, Hannah; De Kok, Luit J; Wirtz, Markus; Hell, Rüdiger

2014-11-20

243

Structural studies of cysteine proteases and their inhibitors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysteine proteases (CPs) are responsible for many biochemical processes occurring in living organisms and they have been implicated in the development and progression of several diseases that involve abnormal protein turnover. The activity of CPs is regulated among others by their specific inhibitors: cystatins. The main aim of this review is to discuss the structure-activity relationships of cysteine proteases and cystatins, as well as of some synthetic inhibitors of cysteine proteases structurally based on the binding fragments of cystatins. PMID:11440158

Grzonka, Z; Jankowska, E; Kasprzykowski, F; Kasprzykowska, R; Lankiewicz, L; Wiczk, W; Wieczerzak, E; Ciarkowski, J; Drabik, P; Janowski, R; Kozak, M; Jaskólski, M; Grubb, A

2001-01-01

244

Novel Oxidative Modifications in Redox-Active Cysteine Residues*  

OpenAIRE

Redox-active cysteine, a highly reactive sulfhydryl, is one of the major targets of ROS. Formation of disulfide bonds and other oxidative derivatives of cysteine including sulfenic, sulfinic, and sulfonic acids, regulates the biological function of various proteins. We identified novel low-abundant cysteine modifications in cellular GAPDH purified on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) by employing selectively excluded mass screening analysis for nano ultraperformance liquid chromatog...

Jeong, Jaeho; Jung, Yongsik; Na, Seungjin; Jeong, Jihye; Lee, Eunsun; Kim, Mi-sun; Choi, Sun; Shin, Dong-hae; Paek, Eunok; Lee, Hee-yoon; Lee, Kong-joo

2010-01-01

245

Cysteine-containing peptides having antioxidant properties  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysteine containing amphipathic alpha helices of the exchangeable apolipoproteins, as exemplified by apolipoprotein (apo) A-I.sub.Milano (R173C) and apoA-I.sub.Paris, (R151C) were found to exhibit potent antioxidant activity on phospholipid surfaces. The addition of a free thiol, at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface of an amphipathic alpha helix of synthetic peptides that mimic HDL-related proteins, imparts a unique antioxidant activity to these peptides which inhibits lipid peroxidation and protects phospholipids from water-soluble free radical initiators. These peptides can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, ischemia, bone disease and other inflammatory related diseases.

Bielicki, John K. (Castro Valley, CA)

2009-10-13

246

Reactive cysteine is protonated in the triplet excited state of the LOV2 domain in Adiantum phytochrome3.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phototropin is a plant blue-light sensor protein that possesses a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as the chromophore in LOV domains. Its photoreaction is an adduct formation between FMN and a nearby cysteine that takes place in the triplet excited state of FMN. In this communication, we revealed that the reactive cysteine is protonated in the triplet excited state of the LOV2 domain of Adiantum phytochrome3 by means of low-temperature FTIR spectroscopy. Its hydrogen-bonding interaction is strengthened in the triplet excited state, presumably with the FMN chromophore. Such strong interaction drives adduct formation on a microsecond time scale. PMID:15669833

Sato, Yoshiaki; Iwata, Tatsuya; Tokutomi, Satoru; Kandori, Hideki

2005-02-01

247

Mechanism and ion-dependence of in vitro autoactivation of yeast proteinase A : possible implications for compartmentalized activation in vivo  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Yeast proteinase A is synthesized as a zymogen which transits through the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi complex and the endosome to the vacuole. On arrival in the vacuole, activation takes place. It has previously been found that proteinase A can activate autocatalytically; however, the propeptide of proteinase A shows essentially no similarity to other known aspartic proteinase propeptides. To understand why proteinase A activation occurs rapidly in the vacuole but not at all in earlier compartments, we have purified the zymogen and investigated the conditions that trigger autoactivation and the mechanism of autoactivation. Autoactivation was triggered by acidic pH and its rate increased with increasing ionic strength. Kinetic evidence indicates that autoactivation mainly occurs via a bimolecular product-catalysed mechanism in which an active proteinase A molecule activates a zymogen molecule. Both the pH- and ionic-strength-dependence and the predominance of a product-catalysed mechanism are well adaptedto the situation in vivo, since slow activation in the absence of active proteinase A helps to prevent activation in prevacuolar compartments, whereas, on delivery to the vacuole, lower pH, higher ionic strength and the presence of already active proteinases ensure rapid activation. Product-catalysed autoactivation may be a general mechanism by which cells ensure autoactivation of intracellular enzymes to be both rapid and compartmentalized.

Van Den Hazel, H; Wolff, A M

1997-01-01

248

How does proteinase 3 interact with lipid bilayers?  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteinase 3 (PR3) is a serine protease of the neutrophils whose membrane expression is relevant in a number of inflammatory pathologies. It has been shown to strongly interact with reconstituted bilayers containing dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) or mixtures of both phospholipids. Here we present the results of molecular dynamics simulations of PR3 anchored at three different phospholipid bilayers: DMPC, DMPG and an equimolar mixture of DMPC/DMPG. We present for the first time a detailed model of membrane-bound PR3. A thorough inventory of the interaction between the lipids and the enzyme reveals three types of interactions contributing to the anchorage of PR3. Basic residues (R177, R186A, R186B, K187 and R222) interact via hydrogen bonds with the lipid headgroups to stabilize PR3 at the interfacial membrane region. Hydrophobic amino acids (V163, F165, F166, I217, L223, and F224) insert into the hydrophobic core below the carbonyl groups of the bilayers and six aromatic amino acids (F165, F192, F215, W218, F224, and F227) contribute electrostatic interaction via cation-pi interactions with the choline groups of DMPC. PR3 presents all the characteristics of a peripheral membrane protein with an ability to bind negative phospholipids. Although the catalytic triad remains unperturbed by the presence of the membrane, the ligand binding sites are located in close proximity to the membrane and amino acids K99 and I217 interact significantly with the lipids. We expect the binding of long ligands to be modified by the presence of the lipids. PMID:20532386

Broemstrup, Torben; Reuter, Nathalie

2010-07-21

249

Oxidized mucus proteinase inhibitor: a fairly potent neutrophil elastase inhibitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

N-chlorosuccinimide oxidizes one of the methionine residues of mucus proteinase inhibitor with a second-order rate constant of 1.5 M-1.s-1. Cyanogen bromide cleavage and NH2-terminal sequencing show that the modified residue is methionine-73, the P'1 component of the inhibitor's active centre. Oxidation of the inhibitor decreases its neutrophil elastase inhibitory capacity but does not fully abolish it. The kinetic parameters describing the elastase-oxidized inhibitor interaction are: association rate constant kass. = 2.6 x 10(5) M-1.s-1, dissociation rate constant kdiss. = 2.9 x 10(-3) s-1 and equilibrium dissociation constant Ki = 1.1 x 10(-8) M. Comparison with the native inhibitor indicates that oxidation decreases kass. by a factor of 18.8 and increases kdiss. by a factor of 6.4, and therefore leads to a 120-fold increase in Ki. Yet, the oxidized inhibitor may still act as a potent elastase inhibitor in the upper respiratory tract where its concentration is 500-fold higher than Ki, i.e. where the elastase inhibition is pseudo-irreversible. Experiments in vitro with fibrous human lung elastin, the most important natural substrate of elastase, support this view: 1.35 microM elastase is fully inhibited by 5-6 microM oxidized inhibitor whether the enzyme-inhibitor complex is formed in the presence or absence of elastin and whether elastase is pre-adsorbed on elastin or not. PMID:7945266

Boudier, C; Bieth, J G

1994-10-01

250

The aspartic proteinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae folds its own inhibitor into a helix  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aspartic proteinase A from yeast is specifically and potently inhibited by a small protein called IA3 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although this inhibitor consists of 68 residues, we show that the inhibitory activity resides within the N-terminal half of the molecule. Structures solved at 2.2 and 1.8 A, respectively, for complexes of proteinase A with full-length IA3 and with a truncated form consisting only of residues 2-34, reveal an unprecedented mode of inhibitor-enzyme interactions. Neither form of the free inhibitor has detectable intrinsic secondary structure in solution. However, upon contact with the enzyme, residues 2-32 become ordered and adopt a near-perfect alpha-helical conformation. Thus, the proteinase acts as a folding template, stabilizing the helical conformation in the inhibitor, which results in the potent and specific blockage of the proteolytic activity.

Li, M; Phylip, L H

2000-01-01

251

Toll-like receptors recognize distinct proteinase-resistant glycoconjugates in Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Campylobacter jejuni causes gastroenteritis and autoimmune neuropathy Guillain-Barré syndrome. The mechanism by which C. jejuni infection results in such the hyperimmunity is not completely understood. Host immunity plays an important role in the disease pathogenesis; however, little is known how immune system recognizes this human pathogen. In this study, we report that Toll-like receptors recognize distinct proteinase K-resistant glycoconjugates in C. jejuni and Escherichia coli. Lipopolysaccharide is solely proteinase-resistant glycoconjugate in E. coli. In contrast, C. jejuni possesses at least five different components that are resistant to proteinase digestion and are capable of inducing NF-?B activation through TLR2 and TLR4. Possession of multiple activators of Toll-like receptors may be the unique strategy of C. jejuni to trigger hyperimmunity. PMID:25530156

Phongsisay, Vongsavanh; Hara, Hiromitsu; Fujimoto, Shuji

2015-03-01

252

Dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes Produces Cysteine Protease Inhibitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The protein inhibitor of cysteine proteases was isolated from an important zoophilic dermatophyte species Trichophyton mentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes) and partially characterized. The isolation process involved affinity chromatography, followed by ion-exchange chromatography and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. The fungal inhibitor appears to exist in a high (24 kDa) and low (12 kDa) molecular mass form. It inhibits proteolytic activity of papain, cathepsins B and L but not of cathepsin H or trypsin. Results of immunoblotting procedures indicate that sera of T. mentagrophytes infected rabbits contain antibodies against higher molecular mass forms of the inhibitor. Since no sequence homology has been found between partial protein sequences of T. mentagrophytes inhibitor and other known cysteine protease inhibitors so far, we can speculate that this inhibitor has some structurally unique characteristics. The T. mentagrophytes inhibitor shares some biochemical similarities (molecular mass, high and low molecular mass forms, inhibitory profiles) with clitocypin from Clitocybe nebularis and macrocypins from Macrolepiota procera. PMID:24061940

Premrov-Bajuk, Blanka; Zdovc, Irena; Smrekar, Vida; Križaj, Igor; Leonardi, Adrijana; Drobni?-Košorok, Marinka

2011-03-01

253

Coronavirus 3CLpro proteinase cleavage sites: Possible relevance to SARS virus pathology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the passing of more than a year since the first outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS, efficient counter-measures are still few and many believe that reappearance of SARS, or a similar disease caused by a coronavirus, is not unlikely. For other virus families like the picornaviruses it is known that pathology is related to proteolytic cleavage of host proteins by viral proteinases. Furthermore, several studies indicate that virus proliferation can be arrested using specific proteinase inhibitors supporting the belief that proteinases are indeed important during infection. Prompted by this, we set out to analyse and predict cleavage by the coronavirus main proteinase using computational methods. Results We retrieved sequence data on seven fully sequenced coronaviruses and identified the main 3CL proteinase cleavage sites in polyproteins using alignments. A neural network was trained to recognise the cleavage sites in the genomes obtaining a sensitivity of 87.0% and a specificity of 99.0%. Several proteins known to be cleaved by other viruses were submitted to prediction as well as proteins suspected relevant in coronavirus pathology. Cleavage sites were predicted in proteins such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, transcription factors CREB-RP and OCT-1, and components of the ubiquitin pathway. Conclusions Our prediction method NetCorona predicts coronavirus cleavage sites with high specificity and several potential cleavage candidates were identified which might be important to elucidate coronavirus pathology. Furthermore, the method might assist in design of proteinase inhibitors for treatment of SARS and possible future diseases caused by coronaviruses. It is made available for public use at our website: http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetCorona/.

Blom Nikolaj

2004-06-01

254

Coronavirus 3CL(pro) proteinase cleavage sites: Possible relevance to SARS virus pathology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Despite the passing of more than a year since the first outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), efficient counter-measures are still few and many believe that reappearance of SARS, or a similar disease caused by a coronavirus, is not unlikely. For other virus families like the picornaviruses it is known that pathology is related to proteolytic cleavage of host proteins by viral proteinases. Furthermore, several studies indicate that virus proliferation can be arrested using specific proteinase inhibitors supporting the belief that proteinases are indeed important during infection. Prompted by this, we set out to analyse and predict cleavage by the coronavirus main proteinase using computational methods. Results: We retrieved sequence data on seven fully sequenced coronaviruses and identified the main 3CL proteinase cleavage sites in polyproteins using alignments. A neural network was trained to recognise the cleavage sites in the genomes obtaining a sensitivity of 87.0% and a specificity of 99.0%. Several proteins known to be cleaved by other viruses were submitted to prediction as well as proteins suspected relevant in coronavirus pathology. Cleavage sites were predicted in proteins such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator ( CFTR), transcription factors CREB-RP and OCT-I, and components of the ubiquitin pathway. Conclusions: Our prediction method NetCorona predicts coronavirus cleavage sites with high specificity and several potential cleavage candidates were identified which might be important to elucidate coronavirus pathology. Furthermore, the method might assist in design of proteinase inhibitors for treatment of SARS and possible future diseases caused by coronaviruses.

Kiemer, Lars; Lund, Ole

2004-01-01

255

Negative Effects of a Nonhost Proteinase Inhibitor of ~19.8?kDa from Madhuca indica Seeds on Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)  

Science.gov (United States)

An affinity purified trypsin inhibitor from the seed flour extracts of Madhuca indica (MiTI) on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that MiTI consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of ~19.8?kDa. MiTI inhibited the total proteolytic and trypsin-like activities of the midgut proteinases of Helicoverpa armigera larvae by 87.51% and 76.12%, respectively, at concentration of 5?µg/mL with an IC50 of 1.75?µg/mL against trypsin like midgut proteinases. The enzyme kinetic studies demonstrated that MiTI is a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 4.1 × 10?10?M for Helicoverpa trypsin like midgut proteinases. In vivo experiments with different concentrations of MiTI in artificial diet (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5%?w/w) showed an effective downfall in the larval body weight and an increase in larval mortality. The concentration of MiTI in the artificial diet to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 1.5%?w/w and that to cause reduction in mass of larvae by 50% (ED50) was 1.0%?w/w. Nutritional indices observations suggest the toxic and adverse effects of MiTI on the growth and development of H. armigera larvae. The results suggest a strong bioinsecticidal potential of affinity purified MiTI which can be exploited in insect pest management of crop plants. PMID:25298962

Jamal, Farrukh; Singh, Dushyant; Pandey, Prabhash K.

2014-01-01

256

Identification of a cathepsin G-like proteinase in the MCTC type of human mast cell.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human mast cells can be divided into two subsets based on serine proteinase composition: a subset that contains the serine proteinases tryptase and chymase (MCTC), and a subset that contains only tryptase (MCT). In this study we examined both types of mast cells for two additional proteinases, cathepsin G and elastase, which are the major serine proteinases of neutrophils. Because human mast cell chymase and cathepsin G are both chymotrypsin-like proteinases, the properties of these enzymes were further defined to confirm their distinctiveness. Comparison of their N-terminal sequences showed 30% nonidentity over the first 35 amino acids, and comparison of their amino acid compositions demonstrated a marked difference in their Arg/Lys ratios, which was approximately 1 for chymase and 10 for cathepsin G. Endoglycosidase F treatment increased the electrophoretic mobility of chymase on SDS gels, indicating significant N-linked carbohydrate on chymase; no effect was observed on cathepsin G. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting with specific antisera to each proteinase revealed little, if any, detectable cross-reactivity. Immunocytochemical studies showed selective labelling of MCTC type mast cells by cathepsin G antiserum in sections of human skin, lung, and bowel. No labeling of mast cells by elastase antiserum was detected in the same tissues, or in dispersed mast cells from lung and skin. A protein cross-reactive with cathepsin G was identified in extracts of human skin mast cells by immunoblot analysis. This protein had a slightly higher Mr (30,000) than the predominant form of neutrophil cathepsin G (Mr 28,000), and could not be separated from chymase (Mr 30,000) by SDS gel electrophoresis because of the size similarity. Using casein, a protein substrate hydrolyzed at comparable rates by chymase and cathepsin G, it was shown that about 30% of the caseinolytic activity in mast cell extracts was sensitive to inhibitors of cathepsin G that had no effect on chymase. Hydrolytic activity characteristic of elastase was not detected in these extracts. These studies indicate that human MCTC mast cells may contain two different chymotrypsin-like proteinases: chymase and a proteinase more closely related to cathepsin G, both of which are undetectable in MCT mast cells. Neutrophil elastase, on the other hand, was not detected in human mast cells by our procedures. PMID:2212656

Schechter, N M; Irani, A M; Sprows, J L; Abernethy, J; Wintroub, B; Schwartz, L B

1990-10-15

257

HIV proteinase inhibitors target the Ddi1-like protein of Leishmania parasites  

OpenAIRE

HIV proteinase inhibitors reduce the levels of Leishmania parasites in vivo and in vitro, but their biochemical target is unknown. We have identified an ortholog of the yeast Ddi1 protein as the only member of the aspartic proteinase family in Leishmania parasites, and in this study we investigate this protein as a potential target for the drugs. To date, no enzyme assay has been developed for the Ddi1 proteins, but Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking the DDI1 gene secrete high levels of protein...

White, Rhian E.; Powell, David J.; Berry, Colin

2011-01-01

258

The cell envelope subtilisin-like proteinase is a virulence determinant for Streptococcus suis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen and zoonotic agent that mainly causes septicemia, meningitis, and endocarditis. It has recently been suggested that proteinases produced by S. suis (serotype 2 are potential virulence determinants. In the present study, we screened a S. suis mutant library created by the insertion of Tn917 transposon in order to isolate a mutant deficient in a cell surface proteinase. We characterized the gene and assessed the proteinase for its potential as a virulence factor. Results Two mutants (G6G and M3G possessing a single Tn917 insertion were isolated. The affected gene coded for a protein (SSU0757 that shared a high degree of identity with Streptococccus thermophilus PrtS (95.9% and, to a lesser extent, with Streptococcus agalactiae CspA (49.5%, which are cell surface serine proteinases. The SSU0757 protein had a calculated molecular mass of 169.6 kDa and contained the catalytic triad characteristic of subtilisin family proteinases: motif I (Asp200, motif II (His239, and motif III (Ser568. SSU0757 also had the Gram-positive cell wall anchoring motif (Leu-Pro-X-Thr-Gly at the carboxy-terminus, which was followed by a hydrophobic domain. All the S. suis isolates tested, which belonged to different serotypes, possessed the gene encoding the SSU0757 protein. The two mutants devoid of subtilisin-like proteinase activity had longer generation times and were more susceptible to killing by whole blood than the wild-type parent strain P1/7. The virulence of the G6G and M3G mutants was compared to the wild-type strain in the CD1 mouse model. Significant differences in mortality rates were noted between the P1/7 group and the M3G and G6G groups (p Conclusion In summary, we identified a gene coding for a cell surface subtilisin-like serine proteinase that is widely distributed in S. suis. Evidences were brought for the involvement of this proteinase in S. suis virulence.

Gottschalk Marcelo

2010-02-01

259

Discovery of novel antimicrobial peptides with unusual cysteine motifs in dandelion Taraxacum officinale Wigg. flowers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three novel antimicrobial peptides designated ToAMP1, ToAMP2 and ToAMP3 were purified from Taraxacum officinale flowers. Their amino acid sequences were determined. The peptides are cationic and cysteine-rich and consist of 38, 44 and 42 amino acid residues for ToAMP1, ToAMP2 and ToAMP3, respectively. Importantly, according to cysteine motifs, the peptides are representatives of two novel previously unknown families of plant antimicrobial peptides. ToAMP1 and ToAMP2 share high sequence identity and belong to 6-Cys-containing antimicrobial peptides, while ToAMP3 is a member of a distinct 8-Cys family. The peptides were shown to display high antimicrobial activity both against fungal and bacterial pathogens, and therefore represent new promising molecules for biotechnological and medicinal applications. PMID:22640720

Astafieva, A A; Rogozhin, E A; Odintsova, T I; Khadeeva, N V; Grishin, E V; Egorov, Ts A

2012-08-01

260

Synthesis and release of platelet-activating factor is inhibited by plasma alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor or alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and is stimulated by proteinases  

OpenAIRE

TNF and IL-1 stimulate the synthesis and release of platelet-activating factor (PAF) by neutrophils and vascular endothelial cells. Serum inhibits PAF production even after inactivation of an acetylhydrolase that degrades PAF. Human plasma was fractionated by gel filtration chromatography, and two inhibitory fractions were detected, one containing PAF-acetylhydrolase activity and the other alpha 1- proteinase inhibitor. Low concentrations of this antiproteinase and of human plasma alpha 1-ant...

1988-01-01

261

A VOLTAMMETRIC STUDY ON THE INTERACTION OF NOVOBIOCIN WITH CYSTEINE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The interaction of novobiocin (NOV), an aminocoumarin antibiotic, with cysteine was studied by square-wave voltammetry technique on the hanging mercury drop electrode in different pH values. After the addition of NOV into the cysteine solution, the peak current of mercurous cysteine thiolate decreas [...] ed and its voltammetric peak potential shifted to more positive values. Voltammetric results showed that NOV binds with cysteine forming 1:1 nonelectroactive molecular complex by means of electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding interactions. The binding constants of NOV with cysteine at pHs 5, 7 and 10 were calculated to be 3.06x10³, 1.54x10(4) and 1.06x10(5) M-1, respectively. Furthermore, apossible mechanism of such interaction was also discussed.

ENDER, BÇER; PAKZE, QETNKAYA.

262

Tagging of plant potyvirus replication and movement by insertion of beta-glucuronidase into the viral polyprotein.  

OpenAIRE

Infectious RNA transcripts were generated from full-length cDNA clones of the tobacco etch potyvirus genome containing an insertion of the bacterial beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene between the polyprotein-coding sequences for the N-terminal 35-kDa proteinase and the helper component-proteinase. The recombinant virus was able to spread systemically in plants and accumulated to a level comparable with wild-type tobacco etch potyvirus. Proteolytic processing mediated by the 35-kDa proteinase and h...

Dolja, V. V.; Mcbride, H. J.; Carrington, J. C.

1992-01-01

263

Reference: ERELEE4 [PLACE  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available ERELEE4 Rawat R, Xu ZF, Yao KM, Chye ML. Identification of cis-elements for ethylene and circadi ... an regulation of the Solanum ... melongena gene encoding cysteine proteinase. Plant ...

264

Reference: EVENINGAT [PLACE  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available EVENINGAT Rawat R, Xu ZF, Yao KM, Chye ML. Identification of cis-elements for ethylene and circa ... dian regulation of the Solanum ... melongena gene encoding cysteine proteinase. Plant ...

265

Presence of tRNA-dependent pathways correlates with high cysteine content in methanogenic Archaea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Archeal proteomes can be clustered into two groups based on their cysteine content. One group of proteomes displays a low cysteine content ( approximately 0.7% of the entire proteome), whereas the second group contains twice as many cysteines as the first ( approximately 1.3%). All cysteine-rich organisms belong to the methanogenic Archaea, which generates special cysteine clusters associated with primitive metabolic reactions. Our findings suggest that cysteine plays an important role in early forms of life. PMID:18192060

Klipcan, Liron; Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Safro, Mark G

2008-02-01

266

Cysteine 904 Is Required for Maximal Insulin Degrading Enzyme Activity and Polyanion Activation  

OpenAIRE

Cysteine residues in insulin degrading enzyme have been reported as non-critical for its activity. We found that converting the twelve cysteine residues in rat insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) to serines resulted in a cysteine-free form of the enzyme with reduced activity and decreased activation by polyanions. Mutation of each cysteine residue individually revealed cysteine 904 as the key residue required for maximal activity and polyanion activation, although other cysteines affect polyanion ...

Song, Eun Suk; Melikishvili, Manana; Fried, Michael G.; Juliano, Maria A.; Juliano, Luiz; Rodgers, David W.; Hersh, Louis B.

2012-01-01

267

Expression of human ?1-proteinase inhibitor in Aspergillus niger  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Human ?1-proteinase inhibitor (?1-PI, also known as antitrypsin, is the most abundant serine protease inhibitor (serpin in plasma. Its deficiency is associated with development of progressive, ultimately fatal emphysema. Currently in the United States, ?1-PI is available for replacement therapy as an FDA licensed plasma-derived (pd product. However, the plasma source itself is limited; moreover, even with efficient viral inactivation steps used in manufacture of plasma products, the risk of contamination from emerging viruses may still exist. Therefore, recombinant ?1-PI (r-?1-PI could provide an attractive alternative. Although r-?1-PI has been produced in several hosts, protein stability in vitro and rapid clearance from the circulation have been major issues, primarily due to absent or altered glycosylation. Results We have explored the possibility of expressing the gene for human ?1-PI in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger (A. niger, a system reported to be capable of providing more "mammalian-like" glycosylation patterns to secretable proteins than commonly used yeast hosts. Our expression strategy was based on fusion of ?1-PI with a strongly expressed, secreted leader protein (glucoamylase G2, separated by dibasic processing site (N-V-I-S-K-R that provides in vivo cleavage. SDS-PAGE, Western blot, ELISA, and ?1-PI activity assays enabled us to select the transformant(s secreting a biologically active glycosylated r-?1-PI with yields of up to 12 mg/L. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS analysis further confirmed that molecular mass of the r-?1-PI was similar to that of the pd-?1-PI. In vitro stability of the r-?1-PI from A. niger was tested in comparison with pd-?1-PI reference and non-glycosylated human r-?1-PI from E. coli. Conclusion We examined the suitability of the filamentous fungus A. niger for the expression of the human gene for ?1-PI, a medium size glycoprotein of high therapeutic value. The heterologous expression of the human gene for ?1-PI in A. niger was successfully achieved to produce the secreted mature human r-?1-PI in A. niger as a biologically active glycosylated protein with improved stability and with yields of up to 12 mg/L in shake-flask growth.

Punt Peter J

2007-10-01

268

Prospeção de inibidores de serinoproteinases em folhas de leguminosas arbóreas da floresta Amazônica Prospecting serine proteinase inhibitors in leaves from leguminous trees of the Amazon forest  

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Full Text Available Os inibidores de proteinases são proteínas extensivamente investigadas nos tecidos de estocagem, mas pouco prospectadas em outros tecidos vegetais. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de inibidores de serinoproteinases em extratos foliares de quinze espécies de leguminosas arbóreas da Amazônia. As espécies estudadas foram: Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata e S. polyphylla. Folhas foram coletadas, secas a 30ºC durante 48 h, trituradas e submetidas à extração com NaCl (0,15 M, 10% p/v resultando no extrato total. Ensaios foram executados para determinar a concentração de proteínas e detectar a atividade inibitória contra a tripsina e quimotripsina bovina. Os teores de proteínas bruta e solúvel nos extratos foliares variaram de 7,9 a 31,2% e 1,3 a 14,8%, respectivamente. A atividade inibitória sobre a tripsina e quimotripsina foi observada em todos os extratos foliares. Contudo, nos extratos de E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata e S. polyphylla a inibição foi maior sobre a tripsina, enquanto o extrato de P. multijuga foi mais efetivo contra a quimotripsina. Nós concluímos que nos extratos foliares de leguminosas arbóreas têm inibidores de serinoproteinases e exibem potencial aplicações biotecnológicas.The proteinase inhibitors are proteins extensively investigated in tissue storage, but few prospected in other plant tissues. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of serine proteinase inhibitors in leaf extracts from fifteen species of leguminous trees of the Amazon forest. The species studied were Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata and S. polyphylla. Leaves were collected, dried at 30ºC for 48 h, crushed and subjected to extraction with NaCl (0.15 M, 10% w/v, resulting in the total extract. Tests were performed to determine the concentration of proteins and to detect of inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin. The content of crude and soluble protein in leaf extracts varied from 7.9 to 31.2% and 1.3 to 14.8%, respectively. The inhibitory activity on trypsin and chymotrypsin was observed in all leaf extracts. However, in extracts of E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata and S. polyphylla, the inhibition was greater on trypsin, while extract of P. multijuga was more effective against chymotrypsin. We conclude that leaf extracts of leguminous trees have serine proteinase inhibitors and show potential biotecnological applications.

Larissa Ramos Chevreuil

2011-03-01

269

CHARACTERIZATION OF DANSYLATED CYSTEINE, GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE, CYSTEINE AND CYSTINE BY NARROW BORE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY  

Science.gov (United States)

A method using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric (RP-LC/ESI-MS) method has been developed to confirm the identity of dansylated derivatives of cysteine and glutathione, and their respective dimers. Cysteine, GSH, CSSC...

270

Glutathione and cysteine biosynthesis in two varieties of Abelmoschus esculentus in response to mine spoil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The extent of accumulation of some heavy metals and glutathione and cysteine levels in the roots and aerial plant parts in two genotypically different varieties of A. esculentus (KS404 and BO2) exposed to mine spoil were investigated. Glutathione (GSH) level in both the varieties on control sites increased from basal level to 155.15 nmol g(-1) dry weight (d.wt.), almost 1.5 fold on 30 day and attained a plateau within 60 day Mine spoil exposure of both the varieties decreased glutathione 1.13 fold (89.2 nmol g(-1) dry weight) during 60 day from its basal level. GSH concentration in shoots of these varieties increased accompanying growth contrary to roots where it finally declined 2 fold. Cysteine content in control plants increased 2 fold (31.6 nmol g(-1) dry weight) on 30 day and finally declined 1.38 fold (22.35 nmol g(-1) dry weight, at 60 day). Both the varieties, when exposed to mine spoil, showed enhanced cysteine content almost 2 fold during 30 day (50.95 nmol g(-1) dry weight) but failed to increase further Forshoots in both the varieties challenged with mine spoil, cysteine maxima reached late (15.2 nmol g(-1) dry weight, at 40 day) relative to control but the levels declined subsequently (11.85 nmol g(-l) dry weight). Contrary to GSH, cysteine content in roots of both the varieties responded positively to mine spoil as apparent from the 2.23 fold increase during 30 d than basal level although it lowered to a level of 12.85 nmol g(-1) dry weight finally at 60 day. Both the varieties accumulated almost maximum level of selected cations (Fe > Mn> Zn> Cu > Ni) during 30 day, but BO2 variety was significantly superior in this regard. Invariably high accumulation of such cations in roots over shoots indicated accumulation, retention or restricted translocation from root to shoot. The metal share of the edible part was just 6% of the plant load. Thus, present work reflects a genotypic differences in metal accumulation and that affected the major non-enzymatic traits or synthesis of sulthydryl compounds as well. The present results also indicate that metal tolerance is in part associated with anti-oxidant system activity. PMID:18831339

Arya, Shashi K; Khalique, Shaista; Kumar, Sanjay; Roy, B K

2008-01-01

271

Prevalence, susceptibility profile and proteinase production of yeasts causing vulvovaginitis in Turkish women.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), antifungal susceptibility and proteinase production of isolated Candida species were investigated. Vaginal swabs were collected from symptomatic women with vulvovaginitis attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic of Kocaeli University, Turkey. The relation between risk factors, such as pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, antibiotic and corticosteroid use, history of sexually transmitted diseases and contraceptive methods, was recorded. Candida spp. were identified by conventional methods, then evaluated for proteinase secretion in a medium containing casein. Antifungal susceptibility was determined according to the NCCLS microdilution method. The prevalence of women with vulvovaginitis was 35.7% (170/6080) and 16% (28/170) of them were diagnosed as VVC. Candida albicans was the dominant species: 21 (75%), followed by 4 C. glabrata (14%), 2 C. tropicalis (7%), and one C. krusei (3.5%). All isolates were susceptible to fluconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B, except one C. krusei, one C. glabrata and one C. albicans that were resistant to fluconazole. Proteinase production was determined in 19 (90.5%) C. albicans and in all C. tropicalis isolates. Proteinase activity was not associated with antifungal resistance. No association was found between risk factors and VVC. PMID:16519751

Ozcan, Sema Keceli; Budak, Fatma; Yucesoy, Gulseren; Susever, Serdar; Willke, Ayse

2006-02-01

272

Identification of proteinase 3 as the major caseinolytic activity in acute human wound fluid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wound fluid contains several proteinases that are important in the repair process. In this study, we analyzed caseinolytic activity in wound fluid obtained from acute (burn) wounds. Caseinolytic activity in wound fluid increased markedly 2 d after injury and appeared on casein zymographs as a series of bands or a smear ranging from 30 to 100 kDa. Most of the enzyme activity was inhibited by the synthetic human neutrophil elastase inhibitor MDL 27,367 but not by the naturally occurring inhibitor of elastase, human secretory leukoproteinase inhibitor. Fractionation of wound fluid indicated that a single enzyme accounted for approximately 80% of the caseinolytic activity. This enzyme degraded the elastase substrate methoxysuccinyl-ala-ala-pro-val-p-nitroanilide at a slow rate. The above findings suggested that the enzyme responsible for caseinolytic activity might be proteinase 3, an elastase-related enzyme whose physiologic functions are poorly understood. Consistent with the above possibility, we found that monoclonal antibodies against proteinase 3 removed caseinolytic activity from wound fluid, and that purified proteinase 3 had a similar caseinolytic profile and inhibitor sensitivity to burn fluid. PMID:9424090

He, Y; Young, P K; Grinnell, F

1998-01-01

273

A low-calcium-requiring calcium-activated neutral proteinase from human placenta.  

Science.gov (United States)

A low-calcium-requiring calcium-activated neutral proteinase (mu CANP) has been purified to homogeneity from human placenta. The purification procedure includes chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, Ultrogel AcA-22 and DEAE-Sephadex in succession. The purified mu CANP is a thiol proteinase and requires calcium for activity. Half-maximal activation occurs at 40 microM calcium. It is a heterodimer with subunits of 74 kDa and 32 kDa. (The placental mCANP has subunits of 70 kDa and 32 kDa.) Mn2+ or Sr2+, in combination with Ca2+, activates the enzyme synergistically. The presence of both mCANP and mu CANP in equal proportion in human placenta is reported for the first time. This will facilitate a comparative study of these two forms of human calcium-activated neutral proteinase, especially their physiological structural and functional interrelationship. Maximal activation of the autolysed mCANP occurs at a calcium concentration much higher than that for mu CANP; and this autolysed mCANP does not cross-react with antiserum against mu CANP, suggesting that the two forms of proteinase are independent species. PMID:3019407

Shastri, R; Anandaraj, M P

1986-09-26

274

[Status of the proteinase-protease inhibitor system in patients with pathological scars].  

Science.gov (United States)

In patients with pathological scars, especially in children, the activity of proteolytic enzymes (prekallikrein, acid and neutral proteinases) is increased. Summary inhibitory activity and content of the alpha 2-macroglobulin in the serum and scar tissue is also increased. This is indicative of continued inflammation. PMID:1712412

Lositskaia, V M; Sizov, V M

1991-01-01

275

Isolation and Properties of Stachyrase A, a Chymotrypsin-Like Serine Proteinase from Stachybotrys chartarum  

OpenAIRE

A strain of the common mold Stachybotrys chartarum has been isolated from the lung of a child with pulmonary hemorrhage. We report the purification of stachyrase A, a new serine chymotrypsin-like proteinase from S. chartarum. This enzyme cleaves major protease inhibitors, several biologically active peptides, and collagen, all of which are found in the lung.

Kordula, Tomasz; Banbula, Agnieszka; Macomson, Jeremy; Travis, James

2002-01-01

276

Correlation of phospholipase and proteinase production of Candida with in vivo pathogenicity in Galleria mellonella  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english An essential factor to the virulence of the genus Candida is the ability to produce enzymes and this may be crucial in the establishment of fungal infections. AIM:This study investigated in vitro enzymatic activities of Candida species and their virulence in an in vivo Galleria mellonella experiment [...] al model. METHODS: Twenty-four clinical strains of Candida spp. isolated from the human oral cavity were evaluated, including the following species: C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. norvegensis, C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii. All Candida strains were tested in vitro for production of proteinase and phospholipase. The Candida strains were also injected into Galleria mellonella larvae to induce experimental candidiasis, and after 24 hours, the survival rate was assessed. RESULTS: Phospholipase and proteinase activity were observed in 100% of the C. albicans strains. In the non-albicans species, proteinase and phospholipase activity were observed in 25 and 43% of the studied strains, respectively. The most pathogenic Candida species in G. mellonella were C. albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. lusitaniae, whereas C. glabrata was the least virulent species. Furthermore, a positive significant correlation was found between both enzymatic activities with virulence in G. mellonella. CONCLUSIONS: The virulence of Candida strains in G. mellonella is related to the quantity of proteinases and phospholipases production of each strain.

Rodnei Dennis, Rossoni; Júnia Oliveira, Barbosa; Simone Furgeri Godinho, Vilela; Jéssica Diane dos, Santos; Antonio Olavo Cardoso, Jorge; Juliana Campos, Junqueira.

2013-09-01

277

Characterization of the Proteinase that Initiates the Degradation of the Trypsin Inhibitor in Germinating Mung Beans (Vigna radiata).  

Science.gov (United States)

The proteinase (proteinase F) responsible for the initial proteolysis of the mung bean (Vigna radiata) trypsin inhibitor (MBTI) during germination has been purified 1400-fold from dry beans. The enzyme acts as an endopeptidase, cleaving the native inhibitor, MBTI-F, to produce the first modified inhibitor form, MBTI-E. The cleavage of the Asp76-Lys77 peptide bond of MBTI-F occurs at a pH optimum of 4.5, with the tetrapeptide Lys-Asp-Asp-Asp being released. Proteinase F exhibited no activity against the modified inhibitor forms MBTI-E and MBTI-C. Vicilin, the major storage protein of the mung bean, does not serve as a substrate for proteinase F between pH 4 and 7. Proteinase F is inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, chymostatin, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, and p-chlorophenylsulfonate, but not by iodoacetate and CuCl(2). It is not activated by dithiothreitol, and is stable for extended periods of time (10 months, 4 degrees C, pH 4.0) in the absence of reducing agents. An apparent molecular weight of 65,000 was found for proteinase F by gel filtration. Subcellular fractionation in glycerol suggests that greater than 85% of the proteinase F activity is found in the protein bodies of the ungerminated mung bean. The same studies indicate that at least 56% of the MBTI of the seed is also localized in the protein bodies. PMID:16665413

Wilson, K A; Tan-Wilson, A L

1987-05-01

278

Characterization of the Proteinase that Initiates the Degradation of the Trypsin Inhibitor in Germinating Mung Beans (Vigna radiata) 1  

Science.gov (United States)

The proteinase (proteinase F) responsible for the initial proteolysis of the mung bean (Vigna radiata) trypsin inhibitor (MBTI) during germination has been purified 1400-fold from dry beans. The enzyme acts as an endopeptidase, cleaving the native inhibitor, MBTI-F, to produce the first modified inhibitor form, MBTI-E. The cleavage of the Asp76-Lys77 peptide bond of MBTI-F occurs at a pH optimum of 4.5, with the tetrapeptide Lys-Asp-Asp-Asp being released. Proteinase F exhibited no activity against the modified inhibitor forms MBTI-E and MBTI-C. Vicilin, the major storage protein of the mung bean, does not serve as a substrate for proteinase F between pH 4 and 7. Proteinase F is inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, chymostatin, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, and p-chlorophenylsulfonate, but not by iodoacetate and CuCl2. It is not activated by dithiothreitol, and is stable for extended periods of time (10 months, 4°C, pH 4.0) in the absence of reducing agents. An apparent molecular weight of 65,000 was found for proteinase F by gel filtration. Subcellular fractionation in glycerol suggests that greater than 85% of the proteinase F activity is found in the protein bodies of the ungerminated mung bean. The same studies indicate that at least 56% of the MBTI of the seed is also localized in the protein bodies. PMID:16665413

Wilson, Karl A.; Tan-Wilson, Anna L.

1987-01-01

279

Cysteine elevation in levodopa-treated patients with Parkinson's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Homocysteine, cysteine, and cysteinyl-glycine are all metabolically interrelated. Levodopa/decarboxylase inhibitor (LD/DCI) administration increases total homocysteine (tHcy) plasma levels. Objectives were to investigate associations between LD/DCI intake, concentrations of tHcy, cysteine, and cysteinyl-glycine in PD patients and healthy controls. Cysteine levels were significant lower in controls and PD patients with tHcy below the treshold of 15 [micromol/L] when compared with PD patients with tHcy above 15. Cysteinyl-glycine did not significantly differ between the three cohorts. Significant associations appeared between tHcys and cysteine in PD patients. tHcy and cysteine concentrations correlated to LD/DCI intake and severity of PD. The cysteine increase may be due to the significant higher dosing of daily LD/DCI and the significant higher morning LD/DCI dose 1 hour before blood sampling in PD patients with tHcy above 15 when compared with the remaining PD patients and the controls. The correlation outcomes support the view that LD/DCI intake may also increase cysteine. PMID:19243072

Müller, Thomas; Kuhn, Wilfried

2009-04-30

280

Identification of potent inhibitors of Helicoverpa armigera gut proteinases from winged bean seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dry mature seeds of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L., DC.) (WB) contain several proteinase inhibitors. Two-dimensional gel analysis of WB seed protein followed by activity visualization using a gel-X-ray film contact print technique revealed at least 14 trypsin inhibitors (TIs) in the range of 28-6 kD. A total of seven inhibitors (WBTI-1 to 7) were purified by heat treatment and gel filtration followed by elution from preparative native gels. Based on their biochemical characterization such as molecular mass, pI, heat stability, and susceptibility to inactivation by reducing agents, WBTI-1 to 4 are Kunitz type inhibitors while WBTI-5 to 7 are classified as Bowman-Birk type serine proteinase inhibitors. Although Kunitz type TIs (20-24 kD) of WB have been reported, the smaller TIs that belong to the Bowman-Birk type have not been previously characterized. Seven major TIs isolated from WB seed were individually assessed for their potential to inhibit the gut proteinases (HGP) of Helicoverpa armigera, a pest of several economically important crops, which produces at least six major and several minor trypsin/chymotrypsin/elastase-like serine proteinases in the gut. WBTI-1 (28 kD) was identified as a potent inhibitor of HGP relative to trypsin and among the other WBTIs; it inhibited 94% of HGP activity while at the same concentration it inhibited only 22% of trypsin activity. WBTI-2 (24 kD) and WBTI-4 (20 kD) inhibited HGP activity greater than 85%. WBTI-3,-5,-6 and-7 showed limited inhibition of HGP as compared with trypsin. These results indicate that WBTIs have different binding potentials towards HGP although most of the HGP activity is trypsin-like. We also developed a simple and versatile method for identifying and purifying proteinase inhibitors after two-dimensional separation using the gel-X-ray film contact print technique. PMID:12809712

Giri, Ashok P; Harsulkar, Abhay M; Ku, Maurice S B; Gupta, Vidya S; Deshpande, Vasanti V; Ranjekar, Prabhakar K; Franceschi, Vincent R

2003-07-01

281

Identification and characterization of a serine-like proteinase of the murine coronavirus MHV-A59.  

OpenAIRE

Gene 1 of the murine coronavirus, MHV-A59, encodes approximately 800 kDa of protein products within two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs 1a and 1b). The gene is expressed as a polyprotein that is processed into individual proteins, presumably by virus-encoded proteinases. ORF 1a has been predicted to encode proteins with similarity to viral and cellular proteinases, such as papain, and to the 3C proteinases of the picornaviruses (A. E. Gorbalenya, A. P. Donchenko, V. M. Blinov, and E. V....

Lu, Y.; Lu, X.; Denison, M. R.

1995-01-01

282

Studies of a novel cysteine sulfoxide lyase from Petiveria alliacea: the first heteromeric alliinase.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) was detected and purified from the roots of the Amazonian medicinal plant Petiveria alliacea. The isolated enzyme is a heteropentameric glycoprotein composed of two alpha-subunits (68.1 kD each), one beta-subunit (56.0 kD), one gamma-subunit (24.8 kD), and one delta-subunit (13.9 kD). The two alpha-subunits are connected by a disulfide bridge, and both alpha- and beta-subunits are glycosylated. The enzyme has an isoelectric point of 4.78 and pH and temperature optima of 8.0 and approximately 52 degrees C, respectively. Its activation energy with its natural substrate S-benzyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide is 64.6 kJ mol(-1). Kinetic studies showed that both K(m) and V(max) vary as a function of substrate structure, with the most preferred substrates being the naturally occurring P. alliacea compounds S-benzyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide and S-2-hydroxyethyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide. The alliinase reacts with these substrates to produce S-benzyl phenylmethanethiosulfinate and S-(2-hydroxyethyl) 2-hydroxyethanethiosulfinate, respectively. PMID:19789290

Musah, Rabi A; He, Quan; Kubec, Roman; Jadhav, Abhijit

2009-11-01

283

Silver(I) Complex formation with Cysteine, Penicillamine and Glutathione  

OpenAIRE

The complex formation between silver(I) and cysteine (H2Cys), penicillamine (H2Pen) or glutathione (H3Glu) in alkaline aqueous solution was examined using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and 109Ag NMR spectroscopic techniques. The complexes formed in 0.1 mol·dm?3 Ag(I) solutions with cysteine and penicillamine were investigated for ligand/Ag(I) (L/Ag) mole ratios increasing from 2.0 to 10.0. For the series of cysteine solutions (pH 10 - 11) a mean Ag-S bond distance 2.45 ?...

Leung, Bonnie O.; Jalilehvand, Farideh; Mah, Vicky; Parvez, Masood; Wu, Qiao

2013-01-01

284

Reactivity of C-terminal cysteines with HNO.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitroxyl (HNO), a potential heart failure therapeutic, is known to target cysteine residues to form sulfinamides and/or disulfides. Because HNO-derived modifications may depend on their local environment, we have investigated the reactivity of HNO with cysteine derivatives and C-terminal cysteine-containing peptides at physiological pH and temperature. Our findings indicate that the nature of HNO-derived modifications of C-terminal cysteines is affected by the C-terminal carboxylate. Apart from the lack of sulfinamide formation, these studies have revealed the presence of new products, a sulfohydroxamic acid derivative (RS(O)2NHOH) and a thiosulfonate (RS(O)2SR), presumably produced under our experimental conditions via the intermediacy of a cyclic structure that is hydrolyzed to give a sulfenic acid (RSOH). Moreover, these modifications are formed independent of oxygen. PMID:24869490

Keceli, Gizem; Toscano, John P

2014-06-10

285

Reversible targeting of noncatalytic cysteines with chemically tuned electrophiles  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Targeting noncatalytic cysteine residues with irreversible acrylamide-based inhibitors is a powerful approach for enhancing pharmacological potency and selectivity. Nevertheless, concerns about off-target modification motivate the development of reversible cysteine-targeting strategies. Here we show that electron-deficient olefins, including acrylamides, can be tuned to react with cysteine thiols in a rapidly reversible manner. Installation of a nitrile group increased the olefins' intrinsic reactivity, but, paradoxically, eliminated the formation of irreversible adducts. Incorporation of these electrophiles into a noncovalent kinase-recognition scaffold produced slowly dissociating, covalent inhibitors of the p90 ribosomal protein S6 kinase RSK2. A cocrystal structure revealed specific noncovalent interactions that stabilize the complex by positioning the electrophilic carbon near the targeted cysteine. Disruption of these interactions by protein unfolding or proteolysis promoted instantaneous cleavage of the covalent bond. Our results establish a chemistry-based framework for engineering sustained covalent inhibition without accumulating permanently modified proteins and peptides.

Serafimova, Iana M; Pufall, Miles A

2012-01-01

286

Modification of Keap1 Cysteine Residues by Sulforaphane  

OpenAIRE

Activation of the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) through modification of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) cysteines, leading to up-regulation of the antioxidant response element (ARE), is an important mechanism of cellular defense against reactive oxygen species and xenobiotic electrophiles. Sulforaphane, occurring in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, is a potent natural ARE activator that functions by modifying Keap1 cysteine residues, but there are conf...

Hu, Chenqi; Eggler, Aimee L.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Breemen, Richard B.

2011-01-01

287

Effect of L-cysteine on acetaldehyde self-administration  

OpenAIRE

Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first metabolite of ethanol, has been implicated in several behavioural actions of alcohol, including its reinforcing effects. Recently, we reported that L-cysteine, a sequestrating agent of ACD, reduced oral ethanol self-administration and that ACD was orally self-administered. This study examined the effects of L-cysteine pre-treatment during the acquisition and maintenance phases of ACD (0.2%) self-administration as well as on the deprivation effect after ACD extinc...

Peana, Alessandra Tiziana; Muggironi, Giulia; Fois, Giulia R.; Zinellu, Manuel; Sirca, Donatella

2012-01-01

288

ESR studies of radiation protection effect by cysteine and cysteamine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By means of ESR a large transfer of radiation induced spins from thymine or cytosine to cysteamine in these binary systems has been confirmed. Furthermore, by substituting paramethylbenzenesulfonate of cysteine for its hydrochloride, marked protection effect of cysteine on thymine or deoxythymidine-5'-monophosphate-(NH4)2.2H2O (dTMP) in the above binary systems was also observed. The mechanism of this effect is briefly discussed. (author)

289

Novel oxidative modifications in redox-active cysteine residues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Redox-active cysteine, a highly reactive sulfhydryl, is one of the major targets of ROS. Formation of disulfide bonds and other oxidative derivatives of cysteine including sulfenic, sulfinic, and sulfonic acids, regulates the biological function of various proteins. We identified novel low-abundant cysteine modifications in cellular GAPDH purified on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) by employing selectively excluded mass screening analysis for nano ultraperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray-quadrupole-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry, in conjunction with MODi and MODmap algorithm. We observed unexpected mass shifts (?m=-16, -34, +64, +87, and +103 Da) at redox-active cysteine residue in cellular GAPDH purified on 2D-PAGE, in oxidized NDP kinase A, peroxiredoxin 6, and in various mitochondrial proteins. Mass differences of -16, -34, and +64 Da are presumed to reflect the conversion of cysteine to serine, dehydroalanine (DHA), and Cys-SO2-SH respectively. To determine the plausible pathways to the formation of these products, we prepared model compounds and examined the hydrolysis and hydration of thiosulfonate (Cys-S-SO2-Cys) either to DHA (?m=-34 Da) or serine along with Cys-SO2-SH (?m=+64 Da). We also detected acrylamide adducts of sulfenic and sulfinic acids (+87 and +103 Da). These findings suggest that oxidations take place at redox-active cysteine residues in cellular proteins, with the formation of thiosulfonate, Cys-SO2-SH, and DHA, and conversion of cysteine to serine, in addition to sulfenic, sulfinic and sulfonic acids of reactive cysteine. PMID:21148632

Jeong, Jaeho; Jung, Yongsik; Na, Seungjin; Jeong, Jihye; Lee, Eunsun; Kim, Mi-Sun; Choi, Sun; Shin, Dong-Hae; Paek, Eunok; Lee, Hee-Yoon; Lee, Kong-Joo

2011-03-01

290

Cathodic Behaviour of Cysteine at a Platinum Electrode  

OpenAIRE

The electroreduction behaviour of cysteine was investigated using cyclic, square wave and differencial pulse voltammetric techniques at a platinum working electrode. The reduction of cysteine occurs at a potential of -0.36 V independent of pH. It is a reversible process, controlled mainly by diffusion and in the mechanism of reduction 1 electron per molecule is involved. Using the voltammetric techniques: Cyclic Voltammetry, Square Wave Voltammetry and Differencial Pulse Voltammetry, differen...

Fa?tima Barroso, M.; Teresa Santos; Sales, M. Goreti F.; Cristina Delerue-Matos; Vaz, M. Carmo V. F.

2007-01-01

291

s-Allyl cysteine, s-ethyl cysteine, and s-propyl cysteine alleviate ?-amyloid, glycative, and oxidative injury in brain of mice treated by D-galactose.  

Science.gov (United States)

The neuroprotective effects of s-allyl cysteine, s-ethyl cysteine, and s-propyl cysteine in D-galactose (DG)-treated mice were examined. DG treatment increased the formation of A?(1-40) and A?(1-42), enhanced mRNA expression of ?-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and ?-site APP cleavage enzyme 1 (BACE1), and reduced neprilysin expression in brain (P brain protein kinase C (PKC) activity and mRNA expression (P PKC activity, and the expression of PKC-? and PKC-? (P brain activity and mRNA expression of aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase as well as increased brain levels of carboxymethyllysine (CML), pentosidine, sorbitol, and fructose (P brain GPX, SOD, and catalase activities (P < 0.05). These findings support that these compounds via their anti-A?, antiglycative, and antioxidative effects were potent agents against the progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:21548553

Tsai, Shih-Jei; Chiu, C Perry; Yang, Hui-Ting; Yin, Mei-Chin

2011-06-01

292

Induction of protective immunity in cattle against infection with Fasciola hepatica by vaccination with cathepsin L proteinases and with hemoglobin.  

OpenAIRE

Two cathepsin L proteinases, cathepsin L1 and cathepsin L2, secreted by liver flukes may be involved in tissue penetration, nutrition, and protection from immune attack. To ascertain the immunoprophylactic potential of these proteinases, and of another molecule, liver fluke hemoglobin (Hb), we performed vaccine trials in cattle. In the first vaccine trial various doses of cathepsin L1 were tested. The mean protection level obtained was 53.7%. In a second vaccine trial cathepsin L1 and Hb elic...

Dalton, J. P.; Mcgonigle, S.; Rolph, T. P.; Andrews, S. J.

1996-01-01

293

Hypothesis for a serine proteinase-like domain at the COOH terminus of Slowpoke calcium-activated potassium channels  

OpenAIRE

Bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) is a 58-residue protein with three disulfide bonds that belongs to the Kunitz family of serine proteinase inhibitors. BPTI is an extremely potent inhibitor of trypsin, but it also specifically binds to various active and inactive serine proteinase homologs with KD values that range over eight orders of magnitude. We previously described an interaction of BPTI at an intracellular site that results in the production of discrete subconductance events in...

Moss, Gw; Marshall, J.; Moczydlowski, E.

1996-01-01

294

Proteolysis by Neutrophils: RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF CELL-SUBSTRATE CONTACT AND OXIDATIVE INACTIVATION OF PROTEINASE INHIBITORS IN VITRO  

OpenAIRE

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes have been implicated in connective tissue injury in a variety of disease processes. To gain insight into mechanisms by which neutrophils might degrade connective tissue macromolecules in the presence of proteinase inhibitors, we have used a model system that allows neutrophils to be held in vitro under physiologic conditions in close proximity to a very proteinase-sensitive substrate, 125I-labeled fibronectin. We have found: (a) neutrophils spread rapidly on the f...

Campbell, Edward J.; Senior, Robert M.; Mcdonald, John A.; Cox, David L.; Greco, Jeanne M.; Landis, Jill A.

1982-01-01

295

Effects of Serine Protease Inhibitors on Growth and Development and Digestive Serine Proteinases of the Sunn Pest, Eurygaster integriceps  

OpenAIRE

In the current study the effects of serine proteinase inhibitors (TLCK, TPCK, SBTI, and a combination of SBTI and TPCK) with concentrations of 1% and 4% of dietary protein in artificial diets were tested against growth of the Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), development, and its gut serine proteinase targets. Analysis of variance indicated that protease inhibitors affected nymphal development time, adult weight, and survival. Mean development time of third i...

Saadati, Fatemeh; Bandani, Ali R.

2011-01-01

296

Vaccination with Cathepsin L Proteinases and with Leucine Aminopeptidase Induces High Levels of Protection against Fascioliasis in Sheep  

OpenAIRE

The potential of different parasite proteinases for use as vaccine candidates against fascioliasis in sheep was studied by vaccinating animals with the cathepsin L proteinases CL1 and CL2 and with leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) purified from adult flukes. In the first trial, sheep were immunized with CL1 or CL2 and the mean protection levels obtained were 33 and 34%, respectively. Furthermore, a significant reduction in egg output was observed in sheep vaccinated either with CL1 (71%) or with C...

Piacenza, Luci?a; Acosta, Daniel; Basmadjian, Isabel; Dalton, John P.; Carmona, Carlos

1999-01-01

297

Identification of a Serine Proteinase Homolog (Sp-SPH) Involved in Immune Defense in the Mud Crab Scylla paramamosain  

OpenAIRE

Clip domain serine proteinase homologs are involved in many biological processes including immune response. To identify the immune function of a serine proteinase homolog (Sp-SPH), originally isolated from hemocytes of the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain, the Sp-SPH was expressed recombinantly and purified for further studies. It was found that the Sp-SPH protein could bind to a number of bacteria (including Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio...

Zhang, Qiu-xia; Liu, Hai-peng; Chen, Rong-yuan; Shen, Kai-li; Wang, Ke-jian

2013-01-01

298

Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of cysteine-free coprisin nonapeptides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coprisin is a 43-mer defensin-like peptide from the dung beetle, Copris tripartitus. CopA3 (LLCIALRKK-NH?), a 9-mer peptide containing a single free cysteine residue at position 3 of its sequence, was derived from the ?-helical region of coprisin and exhibits potent antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. The single cysteine implies a tendency for dimerization; however, it remains unknown whether this cysteine residue is indispensible for CopA3's antimicrobial activity. To address this issue, in the present study we synthesized eight cysteine-substituted monomeric CopA3 analogs and two dimeric analogs, CopA3 (Dimer) and CopIK (Dimer), and evaluated their antimicrobial effects against bacteria and fungi, as well as their hemolytic activity toward human erythrocytes. Under physiological conditions, CopA3 (Mono) exhibits a 6/4 (monomer/dimer) molar ratio in HPLC area percent, indicating that its effects on bacterial strains likely reflect a CopA3 (Mono)/CopA3 (Dimer) mixture. We also report the identification of CopW, a new cysteine-free nonapeptide derived from CopA3 that has potent antimicrobial activity with virtually no hemolytic activity. Apparently, the cysteine residue in CopA3 is not essential for its antimicrobial function. Notably, CopW also exhibited significant synergistic activity with ampicillin and showed more potent antifungal activity than either wild-type coprisin or melittin. PMID:24321546

Lee, Jaeho; Lee, Daeun; Choi, Hyemin; Kim, Ha Hyung; Kim, Ho; Hwang, Jae Sam; Lee, Dong Gun; Kim, Jae Il

2014-01-10

299

pH-dependent processing of yeast procarboxypeptidase Y by proteinase A in vivo and in vitro  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Carboxypeptidase Y is a vacuolar enzyme from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It enters the vacuole as a zymogen, procarboxypeptidase Y, which is immediately processed in a reaction involving two endoproteases, proteinase A and proteinase B. We have investigated the in vitro activation of purified procarboxypeptidase Y by purified proteinase A. This has identified two different processing intermediates; one active and one inactive. The intermediates define a 33 amino acid segment of the 91 amino acid propeptide as sufficient for maintaining the enzyme in an inactive state. The inactive intermediate was isolated from a processing reaction at neutral pH. In order to investigate the influence of vacuolar pH on processing in vivo, the autoactivation of proteinase A and its processing of procarboxypeptidase Y were studied in a vma2 prb1 mutant, which is deficient in vacuolar acidification and proteinase B activity. Efficient processing of procarboxypeptidase Y in the absence of proteinase B is dependent on acidic vacuolar pH, and the processing at neutral pH is slow and takes place in two steps similar to those identified in vitro.

SØrensen, S O; van den Hazel, H B

1994-01-01

300

Synthesis and Characterization of Nano Structured Zinc(II) Cysteine Complex under Ultrasound Irradiation  

OpenAIRE

Cysteine and zinc oxides are important materials that have a wide range of applications especially in biomedical sciences. In this study, synthesis and characterization of nano structured Zn(II) complex of cysteine, (cysteine = 2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid), in two different particle sizes, has been investigated. The reaction of Zinc(II) acetate and KI with cysteine ligand under ultrasonic irradiation, leads to the formation of nano sized Zn(II) cysteine complex. Particle sizes of the ...

Ranjbar, Maryam; Shahsavan, Nasrin; Yousefi, Mohammad

2012-01-01

301

Plants  

SCPinfonet

...Interests: plant anatomy and development; seed biology; genomics; abiotic and biotic stress physiology; transcriptional regulation; systems biology Contribution: Special Issue: ...staff/vagner_benedito Interests: functional genetics and genomics; plant development and molecular physiology; biological nitrogen fixation in legumes; hormonal Interactions in tomato ...html Interests: plant anatomy and development (especially with regard to roots); stress physiology; aerenchyma formation; and programmed cell death Prof. Dr....shtml Interests: plant responses to suboptimal environmental conditions; biochemistry; physiology; molecular biology; freezing stress tolerance Dr. Günter Hoch Institute of Botany,...

302

Cysteine- and glutathione-mediated uptake of lead and cadmium into Zea mays and Brassica napus roots  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examines a new mechanism for the uptake of Pb and Cd into Brassica napus and Zea mays roots. During hydroponic experiments, the uptake of Pb and Cd was enhanced in the presence of cysteine and glutathione, whereas no or very low uptake was observed in EDTA and penicillamine controls. Uptake rates were also enhanced after pre-exposure to cysteine or glutathione and inhibited in the presence of vanadate, suggesting a biological mechanism of uptake. Increasing concentrations of glutathione in solution resulted in decreasing Pb uptake rates, indicating competition for transport between free-glutathione and Pb-glutathione species. Pb uptake in the presence of increasing cysteine concentrations resulted in decreased uptake initially but linearly increasing uptake at higher concentrations. Experimentation showed concentration dependent Pb uptake rates. We speculate that there are specific transporters for these thiol ligands and describe what barriers remain for application of this novel transport mechanism in chelator-assisted phytoremediation. - Cysteine and glutathione mediate the transport of lead and cadmium into plant roots.

303

Irreversible Oxidation of the Active-site Cysteine of Peroxiredoxin to Cysteine Sulfonic Acid for Enhanced Molecular Chaperone Activity*  

OpenAIRE

The thiol (–SH) of the active cysteine residue in peroxiredoxin (Prx) is known to be reversibly hyperoxidized to cysteine sulfinic acid (–SO2H), which can be reduced back to thiol by sulfiredoxin/sestrin. However, hyperoxidized Prx of an irreversible nature has not been reported yet. Using an antibody developed against the sulfonylated (–SO3H) yeast Prx (Tsa1p) active-site peptide (AFTFVCPTEI), we observed an increase in the immunoblot intensity in proportion to ...

Lim, Jung Chae; Choi, Hoon-in; Park, Yu Sun; Nam, Hyung Wook; Woo, Hyun Ae; Kwon, Ki-sun; Kim, Yu Sam; Rhee, Sue Goo; Kim, Kanghwa; Chae, Ho Zoon

2008-01-01

304

A Kunitz proteinase inhibitor from corms of Xanthosoma blandum with bactericidal activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial infections directly affect the world's population, and this situation has been aggravated by indiscriminate use of antimicrobial agents, which can generate resistant microorganisms. In this report, an initial screening of proteins with antibacterial activity from corms of 15 species of the Xanthosoma genus was conducted. Since Xanthosoma blandum corms showed enhanced activity toward bacteria, a novel protein with bactericidal activity was isolated from this particular species. Edman degradation was used for protein N-termini determination; the primary structure showed similarities with Kunitz inhibitors, and this protein was named Xb-KTI. This protein was further challenged against serine proteinases from different sources, showing clear inhibitory activities. Otherwise, no hemolytic activity was observed for Xb-KTI. The results demonstrate the biotechnological potential of Xb-KTI, the first proteinase inhibitor with antimicrobial activity described in the Xanthosoma genus. PMID:21520894

Lima, Thaís B; Silva, Osmar N; Migliolo, Ludovico; Souza-Filho, Carlos R; Gonçalves, Eduardo G; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Oliveira, José T A; Amaral, André C; Franco, Octávio L

2011-05-27

305

Characterization of a glutenin-specific serine proteinase of Sunn bug Eurygaster integricepts Put.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glutenin hydrolyzing proteinases (GHPs) have been purified, by affinity chromatography, from wheat seeds damaged by the Sunn bug Eurygaster integriceps (Hemiptera, Scutelleridae). A 28 kDa protein was partially sequenced by mass spectrometry and Edman degradation which showed homology to serine proteases from various insects. Three full length clones were obtained from cDNA isolated from Sunn bug salivary glands using degenerate PCR based on the sequences obtained. The cleavage site of the protease was determined using recombinant and synthetic peptides and shown to be between the consensus hexapeptide and nonapeptide repeat motifs present in the high molecular weight subunits of wheat glutenin (PGQGQQ?GYYPTSLQQ). Homology models were generated for the three proteinases identified in this study using the high resolution X-ray structure of a crayfish (Pontastacus leptodactylus) trypsin complexed with a peptide inhibitor as template (PDB accession 2F91). The novel specificity of this protease may find applications in both fundamental and applied studies. PMID:21323348

Konarev, Alexander V; Beaudoin, Frédéric; Marsh, Justin; Vilkova, Nina A; Nefedova, Ludmila I; Sivri, Dilek; Köksel, Hamit; Shewry, Peter R; Lovegrove, Alison

2011-03-23

306

Proteinase-activated receptor 2 modulates neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis  

OpenAIRE

The proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are widely recognized for their modulatory properties of inflammation and neurodegeneration. We investigated the role of PAR2 in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in humans and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. PAR2 expression was increased on astrocytes and infiltrating macrophages in human MS and murine EAE central nervous system (CNS) white matter (P < 0.05). Macrophages and astrocytes from PAR2 wild-type (WT) and k...

Noorbakhsh, Farshid; Tsutsui, Shigeki; Vergnolle, Nathalie; Boven, Leonie A.; Shariat, Neda; Vodjgani, Mohammed; Warren, Kenneth G.; Andrade-gordon, Patricia; Hollenberg, Morley D.; Power, Christopher

2006-01-01

307

Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus Prevents Amoebal Encystment-Mediating Serine Proteinase Expression and Circumvents Cell Encystment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acanthamoeba is a genus of free-living amoebas distributed worldwide. Few studies have explored the interactions between these protozoa and their infecting giant virus, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV). Here we show that, once the amoebal encystment is triggered, trophozoites become significantly resistant to APMV. Otherwise, upon infection, APMV is able to interfere with the expression of a serine proteinase related to amoebal encystment and the encystment can no longer be triggered. PMID:25520511

Boratto, Paulo; Albarnaz, Jonas Dutra; Almeida, Gabriel Magno de Freitas; Botelho, Lucas; Fontes, Alide Caroline Lima; Costa, Adriana Oliveira; Santos, Daniel de Assis; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; La Scola, Bernard; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos

2015-03-01

308

The insect immune protein scolexin is a novel serine proteinase homolog.  

OpenAIRE

Scolexin is a coagulation-provoking plasma protein induced in response to bacterial or viral infection of larval Manduca sexta, a large lepidopterous insect. Here we report the isolation and sequencing of two cDNA clones that code for scolexin isoforms sharing 80% sequence identity. The scolexin sequences have low but recognizable sequence similarity to members of the chymotrypsin family and represent a new subfamily of chymotrypsin-like serine proteinases. Comparison with known structures re...

Finnerty, C. M.; Karplus, P. A.; Granados, R. R.

1999-01-01

309

Antiviral activity of caspase inhibitors: effect on picornaviral 2A proteinase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peptide-based fluoromethyl ketones have been considered for many years to be highly specific caspase inhibitors distinctly blocking the progress of apoptosis in a variety of systems. Here we demonstrate that these compounds can significantly reduce rhinovirus multiplication in cell culture. In their methylated forms they block eIF4GI cleavage in vivo and in vitro and inhibit the activity of picornaviral 2A proteinases. PMID:14987997

Deszcz, Luiza; Seipelt, Joachim; Vassilieva, Elena; Roetzer, Andreas; Kuechler, Ernst

2004-02-27

310

Cytopathic effects of Treponema denticola chymotrypsin-like proteinase on migrating and stratified epithelial cells  

OpenAIRE

The effects of Treponema denticola and its outer membrane-bound chymotrypsin-like proteinase on periodontal ligament epithelial cell cultures at different stages of maturity were studied. In sparse cultures with migrating epithelial cells, large intracellular vacuoles were formed rapidly following exposure to live T. denticola. Treponemes showing structural damage were seen occasionally inside membrane-bound vesicles. Intensive membrane blebbing occurred in infected cells and continued for up...

Uitto, V. J.; Pan, Y. M.; Leung, W. K.; Larjava, H.; Ellen, R. P.; Finlay, B. B.; Mcbride, B. C.

1995-01-01

311

Effect of acute ozone exposure on the proteinase-antiproteinase balance in the rat lung  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lung disease may result from a persisting proteinase excess or a depletion of antiproteinase in pulmonary parenchyma. We investigated the in vivo effect of a 48-hr exposure to ozone at 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 ppm on proteinase and antiproteinase activity of rat lungs. Elastase inhibitory capacities of serum, lung tissue, and airway washings were measured as indicators of antielastase activity. Trypsin inhibitory capacity was measured using an esterolytic procedure. Proteinase was measured as radioactive release from a 14C-globin substrate. The 48-hr exposures to O3 at levels up to 1 ppm produced concentration-dependent decreases of 35-80% of antiproteinase activities in serum and in lung tissue. However, exposure to 1.5 ppm O3 resulted in no decrease in antiproteinase activities. Acid proteinase activities (pH 4.2) were increased 65-120% by exposure to 1 or 1.5 ppm O3, which correlated with inflammatory cells noted histologically. At 1.5 ppm O3, pulmonary edema and hemorrhage were noted in histologic sections. These changes led to a flooding of the alveoli with up to 40 times normal protein levels and a greater than fivefold increase in airway antiproteinase. These data suggest that serum and soluble lung tissue antiproteinase activity decreased upon exposure to low levels of ozone. However, if O3 exposure is high enough to produce pulmonary hemorrhage, antiproteinase may increase following serum exudation. Thmay increase following serum exudation. These changes may be important in the development of ozone-induced lung diseases, especially emphysema

312

Helper Component Proteinase of the Genus Potyvirus Is an Interaction Partner of Translation Initiation Factors eIF(iso)4E and eIF4E and Contains a 4E Binding Motif?†  

OpenAIRE

The multifunctional helper component proteinase (HCpro) of potyviruses (genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae) shows self-interaction and interacts with other potyviral and host plant proteins. Host proteins that are pivotal to potyvirus infection include the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E and the isoform eIF(iso)4E, which interact with viral genome-linked protein (VPg). Here we show that HCpro of Potato virus A (PVA) interacts with both eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E, with interactions with eIF...

Ala-poikela, Marjo; Goytia, Elisa; Haikonen, Tuuli; Rajama?ki, Minna-liisa; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

2011-01-01

313

Epithelial effects of proteinase-activated receptors in the gastrointestinal tract  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The intestinal epithelium plays a crucial role in providing a barrier between the external environment and the internal milieu of the body. A compromised mucosal barrier is characteristic of mucosal inflammation and is a key determinant of the development of intestinal diseases such as Crohn's disea [...] se and ulcerative colitis. The intestinal epithelium is regularly exposed to serine proteinases and this exposure is enhanced in numerous disease states. Thus, it is important to understand how proteinase-activated receptors (PARs), which are activated by serine proteinases, can affect intestinal epithelial function. This review surveys the data which demonstrate the wide distribution of PARs, particularly PAR-1 and PAR-2, in the gastrointestinal tract and accessory organs, focusing on the epithelium and those cells which communicate with the epithelium to affect its function. PARs have a role in regulating secretion by epithelia of the salivary glands, stomach, pancreas and intestine. In addition, PARs located on subepithelial nerves, fibroblasts and mast cells have important implications for epithelial function. Recent data outline the importance of the cellular site of PAR expression, as PARs expressed on epithelia may have effects that are countered by PARs expressed on other cell types. Finally, PARs and their ability to promote epithelial cell proliferation are discussed in terms of colon cancer.

Wallace K, MacNaughton.

2005-03-01

314

Characterization of the mature cell surface proteinase of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cell envelope-associated proteinase (CEP) of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581 (PrtL) has an essential role in bacterial growth, contributes to the flavor and texture development of fermented products, and can release bioactive health-beneficial peptides during milk fermentation. The genome of L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581 possesses only one gene that encodes PrtL, which consists of 1924 amino acids and is a multidomain protein anchored to the cell via its W domain. PrtL was extracted from the cell under high ionic strength conditions using NaCl, suggesting an electrostatic interaction between the proteinase and the cell envelope. The released PrtL was purified and biochemically characterized; its activity was maximal at temperatures between 37 and 40 °C and at pH between 7 and 8. Under optimal conditions, PrtL exhibited higher affinity for succinyl-alanyl-alanyl-prolyl-phenylalanine-p-nitroanilide than for succinyl-alanyl-glutamyl-prolyl-phenylalanine-p-nitroanilide, while methoxy-succinyl-arginyl-prolyl-tyrosyl-p-nitroanilide was not degraded. A similar ?- and ?-casein degradation pattern was observed with the purified and the cell envelope-bound proteinase. Finally, on the basis of its specificity towards caseins and the unique combination of amino acids at residues thought to be involved in substrate specificity, PrtL can be classified as a representative of a new group of CEP. PMID:25487890

Villegas, Josefina M; Brown, Lucía; Savoy de Giori, Graciela; Hebert, Elvira M

2014-12-01

315

Trichoderma harzianum transformant has high extracellular alkaline proteinase expression during specific mycoparasitic interactions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O micoparasita Trichoderma harzianum produz uma protease alcalina que pode estar especificamente envolvida em micoparasitismo. Foram construídas linhagens transgênicas deste fungo que super-expressam esta protease alcalina. A atividade de protease alcalina foi verificada em alguns destes transforman [...] tes e aqueles com maior atividade do que o tipo selvagem foram selecionados para estudos posteriores. Uma destas linhagens produziu um nível elevado e constitutivo de mRNA do gene que codifica a protease alcalina, prb1, durante interações micoparasíticas com o fitopatógeno Rhizoctonia solani. Abstract in english The mycoparasite Trichoderma harzianum produces an alkaline proteinase that may be specifically involved in mycoparasitism. We have constructed transformant strains of this fungus that overexpress this alkaline proteinase. Some of the transformants were assessed for alkaline proteinase activity, and [...] those with higher activity than the wild type were selected for further studies. One of these transformant strains produced an elevated and constitutive pbr1 mRNA level during mycoparasitic interactions with Rhizoctonia solani.

Maria Helena S., Goldman; Gustavo H., Goldman.

1998-09-01

316

In vitro evaluation of proteinase, phospholipase and haemolysin activities of Candida species isolated from clinical specimens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Virulence attributes of Candida species include adherence to host tissues, morphological changes and secretion of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. These enzymes play pivotal roles in pathogenicity of candida infection. Aim: The present study aimed to determine phospholipase, proteinase and haemolysin activities in Candida species isolated from various clinical samples. Material and Method: A total of 110 Candida species isolated from various clinical specimens were identified up to species level by standard mycological techniques and were tested for extracellular hydrolytic enzyme activity. Results: Phospholipase activity was in 60.9% of isolates, 59.1% produced proteinase and haemolysin activity was demonstrated seen in 51.8% of Candida isolates. Maximum strains of Candida albicans produced extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Among Non-albicans Candida (NAC species, phospholipase and proteinase activity was higher in C.tropicalis whereas, haemolysin production was more in C.dubliniensis. Conclusion: From the present study it can be concluded, that both C. albicans and NAC species produce of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Since these enzymes are important to understand the co-relation between the species and infection their detection is extremely important.

Sachin C.D

2012-01-01

317

Genetic analysis of regulatory mutants affecting synthesis of extracellular proteinases in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica: identification of a RIM101/pacC homolog.  

OpenAIRE

Depending on the pH of the growth medium, the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica secretes both an acidic proteinase and an alkaline proteinase, the synthesis of which is also controlled by carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur availability, as well as by the presence of extracellular proteins. Recessive mutations at four unlinked loci, named PAL1 to PAL4, were isolated which prevent alkaline proteinase derepression under conditions of carbon and nitrogen limitation at pH 6.8. These mutations markedly affect ma...

Lambert, M.; Blanchin-roland, S.; Le Louedec, F.; Lepingle, A.; Gaillardin, C.

1997-01-01

318

Differential expression of cysteine desulfurases in soybean  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Iron-sulfur [Fe-S] clusters are prosthetic groups required to sustain fundamental life processes including electron transfer, metabolic reactions, sensing, signaling, gene regulation and stabilization of protein structures. In plants, the biogenesis of Fe-S protein is compartmentalized and adapted to specific needs of the cell. Many environmental factors affect plant development and limit productivity and geographical distribution. The impact of these limi...

Heis Marta D; Ditmer Elisabeth M; de Oliveira Luisa A; Frazzon Ana Paula G; Margis Rogério; Frazzon Jeverson

2011-01-01

319

Amelioration of selenium toxicity by arsenicals and cysteine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Young chicks exhibited a 61% reduction in weight gain when a corn-soybean meal diet was supplemented with 15 mg/kg Se provided as Na selenite. The same level of Se provided as selenomethionine depressed weight gain by 32%. Supplementing the high selenite diet with isoarsenous (14 mg/kg As) additions of As2O5, As2O3, phenylarsonic acid, phenylarsine oxide and roxarsone ameliorated the Se-induced growth depression: As2O5 almost totally restored growth rate; As2O3, phenylarsonic acid and phenylarsine oxide gave intermediate responses; and roxarsone gave only a small ameliorative growth response. Arsanilic acid was without effect in stimulating growth rate of selenite-intoxicated chicks. Dietary addition of .4% L-cysteine produced a growth response in selenite intoxicated chicks that was somewhat greater than that obtained with roxarsone; administering both roxarsone and cysteine corrected growth better than either compound given singly. Both roxarsone and As2O5 also effectively ameliorated the Se-toxicity growth depression caused by selenomethionine (15 mg Se/kg) supplementation, but cysteine showed no efficacy against morbidity caused by this form of Se. Liver Se concentration was elevated 10-fold by selenite and 25-fold by selenomethionine supplementation. The arsenic compounds had varying effects on liver Se, whereas cysteine tended to increase Se concentration. These findings suggest that both inorganic and organic arsenicals as well as cysteine ameliorate selenium toxicity by different mechanisms. PMID:2715121

Lowry, K R; Baker, D H

1989-04-01

320

Sensitive detection of cysteine based on fluorescent silver clusters.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we report the application of novel, water-soluble fluorescent Ag clusters in fluorescent sensors for detecting cysteine, an important biological analyte. The fluorescence of poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA)-templated Ag clusters was found to be quenched effectively by cysteine, but not when the other alpha-amino acids were present. By virtue of the specific response, a new, simple, and sensitive fluorescent method for detecting cysteine has been developed based on Ag clusters. The present assay allows for the selective determination of cysteine in the range of 2.5 x 10(-8) to 6.0 x 10(-6)M with a detection limit of 20 nM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Based on the absorption and fluorescence studies, we suggested that cysteine quenched the emission by the thiol-adsorption-accelerated oxidation of the emissive Ag clusters. The present study shows a promising step toward the application of silver clusters, a new class of attractive fluorescence probes. PMID:18823770

Shang, Li; Dong, Shaojun

2009-02-15

321

Isolation of recombinant cysteine dioxygenase protein from Trichophyton mentagrophytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO, EC 1.13.11.20) catalyses the oxygenation of cysteine to cysteine sulphinic acid leading to the production of sulphite, sulphate and taurine as the final metabolites of cysteine catabolism. Keratinolytic fungi secrete sulphite and sulphate to reduce disulphide bridges in host tissue keratin proteins as the first step of keratinolysis. In the present study, we describe the identification of cDNA, as well as expression and characterisation of recombinant CDO protein from Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The cDNA was amplified using primers designed on the basis of high conservancy CDO regions identified in other fungi. PCR product was cloned and sequenced. Recombinant CDO was expressed in Escherichia coli, and affinity purified and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Enzyme activity was assayed by monitoring the production of cysteine sulphinate using mass spectrometry. The Cdo cDNA encodes for a protein consisting of 219 amino acids. Recombinant CDO protein C-terminally fused with a His tag was purified by affinity chromatography. The CDO purified under native condition was proved to be enzymatically active. Protein identity was confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS. Comparison of cDNA sequence with those identified in other fungi revealed significant homology. Identification of T. mentagrophytes CDO provides indispensable tools for future studies of dermatophyte pathogenicity and development of new approaches for prevention and therapy. PMID:21039937

Kasperova, Alena; Kunert, Jiri; Horynova, Milada; Weigl, Evzen; Sebela, Marek; Lenobel, Rene; Raska, Milan

2011-09-01

322

Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease heterologous expressed in yeast  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During germination of barley seeds, the mobilization of protein is essential and Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins [1]. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme until activated through reduction of the active site cysteines and via removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. One of the key cysteine proteases in Barley, (Hordeum vulgare) endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned with and without the 5 amino acid C-terminal sequence into the Pichia pastoris expression vector pPICZ A? and electrotransformed into Pichia pastoris strain SDM1163. Heterologous protein production was induced with 2% MeOH and the protein expression were monitered during induction by collecting 1 ml samples every hr for 24 hrs. After 4 days, the supernatant were harvested and analyzed by SDS-PAGE, activity assay and Western blot. A significant amount of functional, heterologous protein was produced and the protein production was highest after 4 days and the expression in the C-terminal mutant was slightly higher than for the full length protease.

Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe

323

Evaluation of the biodistribution and in vivo biochemistry of 99mTc-cysteine and (99(99m))Tc-cysteine complexes - A potential renal imaging agent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cysteine was chelated with 99mTc and/or 99Tc in a freeze-dried kit containing Tin(II) ions, and the yellow(99m(99)) Tc-cysteine complex (complex I) was separated to study the biodistribution. Comparison of the distribution of (99m(99))Tc-cysteine and 99mTc-cysteine complexes was made in rats and mice. The renal excretion patterns were studied in rats in the presence and absence of the renal tubular transport inhibitor 2,4-dinitrophenol. The carrier of Tc-cysteine complex in the blood and also the radioactive compounds in the urine were studied by HPGFC and SDS-electrophoresis. The kidney was confirmed as the target organ; serum albumin serves as a carrier for transport of Tc-cysteine complex to the kidney. The Tc-cysteine complex was the primary form in excreta, and glomerular filtration was the dominant excretory pathway

324

Cathodic Behaviour of Cysteine at a Platinum Electrode  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The electroreduction behaviour of cysteine was investigated using cyclic, square wave and differencial pulse voltammetric techniques at a platinum working electrode. The reduction of cysteine occurs at a potential of -0.36 V independent of pH. It is a reversible process, controlled mainly by diffusion and in the mechanism of reduction 1 electron per molecule is involved. Using the voltammetric techniques: Cyclic Voltammetry, Square Wave Voltammetry and Differencial Pulse Voltammetry, different parameters (pH, frequency, step potential, pulse amplitude, scan rate were optimized in order to develop an electrochemical procedure for determination of cysteine in pharmaceutical products. The repeatability, reproducibility, precision and accuracy of the methods were studied. No electroactive interferences from the excipient were found in the pharmaceutical compounds.

M. Fátima Barroso

2007-01-01

325

The spectrum character of photoreaction of Hypocrellin A and cysteine  

Science.gov (United States)

In the current work, Hypocrellin A (HA) is one of the nature photosensitizer was recognized by researchers, and it used as a probe to research the molecular recognition and interaction with protein, the work suggested the HA can as the medicine to treat some disease. This paper study the spectrum character of photoreaction of Hypocrellin A and cysteine in different pH value, the spectrum show an isosbestic point at 495nm, and the absorption peak at 478nm was red-shifted to about 500nm. The result suggested the HA can react with cysteine in this condition, and farther illuminated the cysteine residue may is one of the target of the interaction of HA or HB with protein.

Zhang, Jucheng; Liu, Wei; Li, Ying; Zhang, Pei; Yi, Zhongzhou; Min, Yong; Huang, Zhaolong; Yao, Lihua; Lu, Haiju

2008-12-01

326

Phycobilin:cystein-84 biliprotein lyase, a near-universal lyase for cysteine-84-binding sites in cyanobacterial phycobiliproteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phycobilisomes, the light-harvesting complexes of cyanobacteria and red algae, contain two to four types of chromophores that are attached covalently to seven or more members of a family of homologous proteins, each carrying one to four binding sites. Chromophore binding to apoproteins is catalyzed by lyases, of which only few have been characterized in detail. The situation is complicated by nonenzymatic background binding to some apoproteins. Using a modular multiplasmidic expression-reconstitution assay in Escherichia coli with low background binding, phycobilin:cystein-84 biliprotein lyase (CpeS1) from Anabaena PCC7120, has been characterized as a nearly universal lyase for the cysteine-84-binding site that is conserved in all biliproteins. It catalyzes covalent attachment of phycocyanobilin to all allophycocyanin subunits and to cysteine-84 in the beta-subunits of C-phycocyanin and phycoerythrocyanin. Together with the known lyases, it can thereby account for chromophore binding to all binding sites of the phycobiliproteins of Anabaena PCC7120. Moreover, it catalyzes the attachment of phycoerythrobilin to cysteine-84 of both subunits of C-phycoerythrin. The only exceptions not served by CpeS1 among the cysteine-84 sites are the alpha-subunits from phycocyanin and phycoerythrocyanin, which, by sequence analyses, have been defined as members of a subclass that is served by the more specialized E/F type lyases. PMID:17726096

Zhao, Kai-Hong; Su, Ping; Tu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Xing; Liu, Hui; Plöscher, Matthias; Eichacker, Lutz; Yang, Bei; Zhou, Ming; Scheer, Hugo

2007-09-01

327

Resonant dissociative electron attachments to cysteine and cystine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shape-resonant electron attachments to cysteine and cystine and the subsequent dissociation dynamics are investigated with the single-center expansion potential scattering calculations. Selectivity of the direct bond cleavage at a given resonant state or by the specific resonant state coupling is demonstrated with the one-dimensional complex potential energy curves of the temporary anion (cysteine)(-). The wave function of the lowest shape resonant state of the temporary anion (cystine)(-) distinctly shows the localized anti-bond (S-S)* character, implying that this disulfide bond can be easily broken due to the low-energy electron resonant attachment. PMID:21785790

Wang, Yong-Feng; Tian, Shan Xi; Yang, Jinlong

2011-09-14

328

Inhibition of cathepsin D-type proteinase of macrophages by pepstatin, a specific pepsin inhibitor, and other substances.  

Science.gov (United States)

The macrophage is the main cell participating in chronic inflammation. It contains an acid-acting, cathepsin D-type proteinase with the specificity of pepsin, which may release mediators of the inflammatory process. To find new pharmaceutical inhibitors of this proteinase, we tested a variety of chemical compounds in vitro. For this survey, the possible inhibitor (at a concentration of 0.4 mg/ml) was assayed with partially purified cathepsin D-type proteinase from beef lung (a macrophage-rich tissue) and hemoglobin as the substrate. Diazophenylbutanone, three acetophenones, two barbiturates, a gold salt, a copper chelate of a substituted nicotinic acid, a hexapeptide containing a d-amino acid, and Pepstatin inhibited this enzyme; over 200 other potential inhibitors did not. By far the most active and specific inhibitor found to date is Pepstatin, a pentapeptide with two gamma-NH linkages, two beta-OH groups, and five branched aliphatic side chains. Banyu Pharmaceutical Co., Tokyo, Japan, produces this nontoxic compound for the treatment of peptic ulcers. In vitro, as little as 4 ng of Pepstatin inhibits the acid-acting cathepsin D-type proteinase purified from beef and rabbit lung as well as the similar proteinase of rabbit peritoneal and pulmonary macrophages. PMID:4586863

McAdoo, M H; Dannenberg, A M; Hayes, C J; James, S P; Sanner, J H

1973-04-01

329

Investigating human immunodeficiency virus-1 proteinase specificity at positions P4 to P2 using a bacterial screening system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus-1(HIV-1) proteinase have been used for several years to treat acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. Despite intensive research, however, the substrate specificity of this enzyme is not completely elucidated. Here, we assessed the HIV-1 proteinase P(4) to P(2) substrate specificity using a bacterial screening system. In this system, the bacterial enzyme beta-galactosidase has been transformed into an HIV-1 proteinase substrate by insertion of the p6/PR cleavage site. Consequently, HIV-1 processing can be determined by measuring the beta-galactosidase activity on X-gal plates and by examination of the extent of cleavage of the beta-galactosidase protein itself. We screened a library containing randomized sequences at the P(4) to P(2) positions and found strong preferences for Thr, Ser, and Pro at P(4), for Leu, Met, and Phe at P(3), and for Ser, Met, and Leu at P(2). The frequent observations of Thr at P(4) and Ser at P(2) extend previous findings and offer the possibility of producing inhibitors with different properties. These new data on HIV proteinase specificity illustrate the usefulness of random libraries in the genetic screening system. This approach can be applied to examine any proteinase that has a recognition site extending across several amino acids. PMID:18384738

Schlick, Petra; Skern, Tim

2008-06-15

330

Purification and characterization of cysteine protease from germinating cotyledons of horse gram  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteolytic enzymes play central role in the biochemical mechanism of germination and intricately involved in many aspects of plant physiology and development. To study the mechanism of protein mobilization, undertaken the task of purifying and characterizing proteases, which occur transiently in germinating seeds of horse gram. Results Cysteine protease (CPRHG was purified to homogeneity with 118 fold by four step procedure comprising Crude extract, (NH42SO4 fractionation, DEAE-Cellulose and CM-sephacel chromatography from the 2 day germinating cotyledons of horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam. Verdc.. CPRHG is a monomer with molecular mass of 30 k Da, was determined by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. The purified enzyme on IEF showed two isoforms having pI values of 5.85 and 6.1. CPRHG composed of high content of aspartic acid, glutamic acid and serine. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by pCMB, iodoacetate and DEPC indicating cysteine and histidine residues at the active site. However, on addition of sulfhydryl reagents (cysteine, dithiothreitol, glutathione and beta-ME reverse the strong inhibition by pCMB. The enzyme is fairly stable toward pH and temperature. Immunoblot analysis shows that the enzyme synthesized as zymogen (preproenzyme with 81 kDa and processed to a 40 kDa proenzyme which was further degraded to give 30 kDa active enzyme. Conclusion It appears that the newly synthesized protease is inactive, and activation takes place during germination. CPRHG has a broad substrate specificity and stability in pH, temperature, etc. therefore, this protease may turn out to be an efficient choice for the pharmaceutical, medicinal, food, and biotechnology industry.

Rao Sridhar K

2009-11-01

331

Exposure to tobacco-derived materials induces overproduction of secreted proteinases in mast cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mast cells reside at interfaces with the environment, including the mucosa of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. This localization exposes mast cells to inhaled, or ingested, environmental challenges. In the airways of smokers, resident immune cells will be in contact with the condensed components of cigarette smoke. Mast cells are of particular interest due to their ability to promote airway remodeling and mucus hypersecretion. Clinical data show increased levels of mast cell-secreted tryptase and increased numbers of degranulated mast cells in the lavage and bronchial tissue of smokers. Since mast cell-secreted proteinases (MCPTs), including tryptases, contribute to pathological airway remodeling, we investigated the relationship between mast cell proteinases and smoke exposure. We exposed a mast cell line to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). We show that CSC exposure increases MCPT levels in mast cells using an assay for tryptase-type MCPT activity. We hypothesized that this increase in MCPT activity reflects a CSC-induced increase in the cytosolic pool of proteinase molecules, via stimulation of MCPT transcription. Transcript array data suggested that mRNA changes in response to CSC were limited in number and peaked after 3 h of CSC exposure. However, we noted marked transcriptional regulation of several MCPT genes. CSC-induced changes in the mRNA levels for MCPTs were confirmed using quantitative RT-PCR. Taken together, our data suggest that chronic expogether, our data suggest that chronic exposure to cigarette smoke up-regulates MCPT levels in mast cells at both the protein and the mRNA level. We suggest that the pathological airway remodeling that has been described in clinical studies of smoke inhalation may be attributable to MCPT overproduction in vivo

332

Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor has been purified from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds. SDS-PAGE analysis of a purified sample showed a homogeneous band corresponding to a molecular weight of 21 kDa. The protein was identified as a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor based on N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis. It was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 6000. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group C222(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 37.2, b = 77.1, c = 129.1 A. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.7 A. Preliminary crystallographic analysis indicated the presence of one proteinase inhibitor molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 44%. PMID:19574654

Patil, Dipak N; Chaudhry, Anshul; Sharma, Ashwani K; Tomar, Shailly; Kumar, Pravindra

2009-07-01

333

Cysteine pKa values for the bacterial peroxiredoxin AhpC†‡  

OpenAIRE

Salmonella typhimurium AhpC is a founding member of the peroxiredoxin family, a ubiquitous group of cysteine-based peroxidases with high reactivity toward hydrogen peroxide, organic hydroperoxides and peroxynitrite. For all of the peroxiredoxins, the catalytic cysteine, referred to as the peroxidatic cysteine (CP), acts as a nucleophile in attacking the peroxide substrate, forming a cysteine sulfenic acid at the active site. Because thiolates are far stronger nucleophiles than thiol groups, i...

Nelson, Kimberly J.; Parsonage, Derek; Hall, Andrea; Karplus, P. Andrew; Poole, Leslie B.

2008-01-01

334

Restoration of Proper Trafficking to the Cell Surface for Membrane Proteins Harboring Cysteine Mutations  

OpenAIRE

A common phenotype for many genetic diseases is that the cell is unable to deliver full-length membrane proteins to the cell surface. For some forms of autism, hereditary spherocytosis and color blindness, the culprits are single point mutations to cysteine. We have studied two inheritable cysteine mutants of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels that produce achromatopsia, a common form of severe color blindness. By taking advantage of the reactivity of cysteine’s sulfhydryl group, we modified ...

Lopez-rodriguez, Angelica; Holmgren, Miguel

2012-01-01

335

Oxidative stress increases SNAT1 expression and stimulates cysteine uptake in freshly isolated rat cardiomyocytes  

OpenAIRE

Intracellular cysteine availability is an important rate-limiting factor governing glutathione synthesis in the heart. This is also dependent on the magnitude and rate of cysteine uptake into cardiomyocytes, which has been little studied. This study investigated the hypothesis that changes to cysteine transporter expression and activity during oxidative stress influence cardiomyocyte glutathione levels. The uptake of 0–3 mM l-[35S]cysteine into ventricular cardiomyocytes isolated from adult...

King, Nicola; Lin, Hua; Suleiman, M. -saadeh

2010-01-01

336

Desulfurization of Cysteine-Containing Peptides Resulting from Sample Preparation for Protein Characterization by MS  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we have examined two cysteine modifications resulting from sample preparation for protein characterization by MS: (1) a previously observed conversion of cysteine to dehydroalanine, now found in the case of disulfide mapping and (2) a novel modification corresponding to conversion of cysteine to alanine. Using model peptides, the conversion of cysteine to dehydroalanine via ?-elimination of a disulfide bond was seen to result from the conditions of typical tryptic digestion (3...

Wang, Zhouxi; Rejtar, Tomas; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Karger, Barry L.

2010-01-01

337

Cysteine functionalized copper organosol: synthesis, characterization and catalytic application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We herein report a facile one-pot synthesis, stabilization, redispersion and Cu-S interaction of L-cysteine and dodecanethiol (DDT) protected copper organosol in toluene from precursor copper stearate using sodium borohydride in toluene under a nitrogen atmosphere. Surface modification of the synthesized copper organosol with an amino acid L-cysteine and an alkanethiol (dodecanethiol, DDT) is accomplished by a thiolate bond between the used ligands and nanoparticle surface. The cysteine molecule binds the copper surface via a thiolate and amine linkage but not through electrostatic interaction with the carboxylate group due to the solvent polarity and dielectric medium. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis was performed to confirm the surface functionalization of the amino acid and DDT to the copper surface. Copper organosol has been characterized by optical spectroscopy (UV/vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The as-synthesized particles are spherical in shape and exhibit a Mie scattering profile with an absorption maxima in the visible range. Copper nanoparticles capped by cysteine and/or DDT in non-aqueous media are found to represent an interesting catalytic approach for the synthesis of octylphenyl ether.

Panigrahi, Sudipa [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302 (India); Kundu, Subrata [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Nebraska, Lincoln (United States); Basu, Soumen [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302 (India); Praharaj, Snigdhamayee [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302 (India); Jana, Subhra [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302 (India); Pande, Surojit [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302 (India); Ghosh, Sujit Kumar [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302 (India); Pal, Anjali [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302 (India); Pal, Tarasankar [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302 (India)

2006-11-14

338

Cysteine Protease Inhibitors as Chemotherapy: Lessons from a Parasite Target  

Science.gov (United States)

Papain family cysteine proteases are key factors in the pathogenesis of cancer invasion, arthritis, osteoporosis, and microbial infections. Targeting this enzyme family is therefore one strategy in the development of new chemotherapy for a number of diseases. Little is known, however, about the efficacy, selectivity, and safety of cysteine protease inhibitors in cell culture or in vivo. We now report that specific cysteine protease inhibitors kill Leishmania parasites in vitro, at concentrations that do not overtly affect mammalian host cells. Inhibition of Leishmania cysteine protease activity was accompanied by defects in the parasite's lysosome/endosome compartment resembling those seen in lysosomal storage diseases. Colocalization of anti-protease antibodies with biotinylated surface proteins and accumulation of undigested debris and protease in the flagellar pocket of treated parasites were consistent with a pathway of protease trafficking from flagellar pocket to the lysosome/endosome compartment. The inhibitors were sufficiently absorbed and stable in vivo to ameliorate the pathology associated with a mouse model of Leishmania infection.

Selzer, Paul M.; Pingel, Sabine; Hsieh, Ivy; Ugele, Bernhard; Chan, Victor J.; Engel, Juan C.; Bogyo, Matthew; Russell, David G.; Sakanari, Judy A.; McKerrow, James H.

1999-09-01

339

Some peculiarities of synthesis of cysteine-containing peptides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data on protective groups for the thiol function of cysteine and methods of disulfide bonds formation used in modern peptide chemistry are considered and systematised. The advantages and disadvantages of protective groups, of reagents used for cyclisation, and possible side reactions associated with them are described. The bibliography includes 119 references.

Kudryavtseva, Elena V; Sidorova, Mariya V [Russian Cardiologycal Scientific Centre, Ministry of Health Care and Medical Industry of the Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation); Evstigneeva, Rima P [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State Academy of Fine Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1998-07-31

340

Some peculiarities of synthesis of cysteine-containing peptides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data on protective groups for the thiol function of cysteine and methods of disulfide bonds formation used in modern peptide chemistry are considered and systematised. The advantages and disadvantages of protective groups, of reagents used for cyclisation, and possible side reactions associated with them are described. The bibliography includes 119 references.

341

Some peculiarities of synthesis of cysteine-containing peptides  

Science.gov (United States)

Data on protective groups for the thiol function of cysteine and methods of disulfide bonds formation used in modern peptide chemistry are considered and systematised. The advantages and disadvantages of protective groups, of reagents used for cyclisation, and possible side reactions associated with them are described. The bibliography includes 119 references.

Kudryavtseva, Elena V.; Sidorova, Mariya V.; Evstigneeva, Rima P.

1998-07-01

342

Consequences of manganese replacement of copper for prion protein function and proteinase resistance  

OpenAIRE

The prion protein (PrP) binds copper and has antioxidant activity enhancing the survival of neurones in culture. The ability of the PrP to bind other cations was tested and it was found that only manganese could substitute for copper. Although initially manganese-loaded PrP exhibited similar structure and activity to copper-loaded PrP, after aging, manganese-loaded PrP became proteinase resistant and lost function. It was also found that manganese could be incorporated into PrP expressed by a...

Brown, David R.; Hafiz, Farida; Glasssmith, Leslie L.; Wong, Boon-seng; Jones, Ian M.; Clive, Christine; Haswell, Stephen J.

2000-01-01

343

Leader Proteinase of Beet Yellows Virus Functions in Long-Distance Transport  

OpenAIRE

The 66-kDa leader proteinase (L-Pro) of the Beet yellows virus (BYV) possesses a nonconserved N-terminal domain and a conserved, papain-like C-terminal domain. Previous work revealed that the N-terminal domain functions in RNA amplification, whereas the C-terminal domain is required for autoproteolysis. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis was applied to complete the functional analysis of L-Pro throughout the virus life cycle. This analysis indicated that the C-terminal domain of L-Pro, in addition ...

Peng, Chih-wen; Napuli, Alberto J.; Dolja, Valerian V.

2003-01-01

344

Trypsin activates pancreatic duct epithelial cell ion channels through proteinase-activated receptor-2  

OpenAIRE

Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is a G protein–coupled receptor that is cleaved by trypsin within the NH2-terminus, exposing a tethered ligand that binds and activates the receptor. We examined the secretory effects of trypsin, mediated through PAR-2, on well-differentiated nontransformed dog pancreatic duct epithelial cells (PDEC). Trypsin and activating peptide (AP or SLIGRL-NH2, corresponding to the PAR-2 tethered ligand) stimulated both an 125I– efflux inhibited by Ca2+-activa...

Nguyen, Toan D.; Moody, Mark W.; Steinhoff, Martin; Okolo, Charles; Koh, Duk-su; Bunnett, Nigel W.

1999-01-01

345

Purification and Characterization of a 43-Kilodalton Extracellular Serine Proteinase from Cryptococcus neoformans  

OpenAIRE

An extracellular proteinase was purified from culture filtrates of Cryptococcus neoformans NHPY24 by DEAE ion-exchange chromatography and gelatin affinity column chromatography with azoalbumin as the substrate. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was 43 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, its pH optimum was 7.0 to 8.0, and maximal activity was obtained at pH 7.5 and 37°C. By isoelectric focusing, the purified enzyme had a pI of 4.77. Enzyme activity was in...

Yoo, Jae Il; Lee, Yeong Seon; Song, Chul-yong; Kim, Bong Su

2004-01-01

346

Limited proteolysis of native proteins: the interaction between avidin and proteinase K.  

OpenAIRE

Avidin is a tetramer of 16-kDa subunits that have a high affinity for biotin. Proteolysis of native apoavidin by proteinase K results in a limited attack at the loop between beta-strands 3 and 4, involving amino acids 38-43. Specifically, sites of proteolysis are at Thr 40-Ser 41 and Asn 42-Glu 43. The limited proteolysis results in an avidin product that remains otherwise intact and which has enhanced binding for 4'-hydroxyazobenzene-2-benzoic acid (HABA), a chromogenic reporter that can occ...

Ellison, D.; Hinton, J.; Hubbard, S. J.; Beynon, R. J.

1995-01-01

347

Inhibitors of blood plasma proteinases at early stages of acute radiation sickness of monkeys (Macacus nemestrinus)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was made of the postirradiation kinetics of blood antiproteinase activity in monkeys (Macacus nemestrinus). Whole-body uniform ?-irradiation (LD100/45) was shown to induce a significant decrease in the activity of ?2-macroglobulin during the first 24 h following irradiation: the decreased activity level was retained throughout the entire latent period of radiation sickness. At the height of radiation sickness (the 7th-10th day) up to the animals' death, a sharp increase was registered in the activity of ?1-inhibitor of blood plasma proteinases. The authors discuss a pathogenetic role of the diminution of the inhibitory potential of blood in the course of radiation sickness

348

Slime production and proteinase activity of Candida species isolated from blood samples and the comparison of these activities with minimum inhibitory concentration values of antifungal agents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Slime and proteinase activity of 54 strains consisting of 19 Candida parapsilosis and 35 C. albicans strains isolated from blood samples were investigated in this study. Ketoconazole, amphothericin B, and fluconazole susceptibility of Candida species were compared with slime production and proteinase activity of these species. For both Candida species, no correlation was detected between the slime activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the three antifungal agents. For both Candida species no correlation was detected between the proteinase activity and the MIC values of amphothericin B, and fluconazole however, statistically significant difference, was determined between the proteinase activity and MIC values of ketoconazole (p = 0.007. Slime production was determined by using modified Christensen macrotube method and proteinase activity was measured by the method of Staib. Antifungal susceptibility was determined through the guidelines of National Committee for Laboratory Standards (NCCLS M27-A.

Semiha Ozkan

2005-05-01

349

Pestivirus gene expression: protein p80 of bovine viral diarrhea virus is a proteinase involved in polyprotein processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), the prototypic pestivirus, possesses a positive-strand RNA genome with a single large open reading frame (ORF) encoding about 4000 amino acids. We have endeavored to elucidate the mechanisms involved in protein biogenesis by this pestivirus. Here, we present our studies on gene expression from the viral nonstructural protein coding region encompassing the carboxy-terminal 60% of the ORF. Previous sequence and modeling analyses predicted the amino-terminal region of the BVDV nonstructural protein p80 to be a trypsin-like serine proteinase. Using a mammalian cell transient expression system, we show that this region indeed possessed a proteolytic activity and, further, required the serine residue previously predicted to be the putative serine proteinase catalytic site. We found the p80-region proteinase activity was required for proteolytic processing of all viral nonstructural proteins. Cleavage by this activity at the amino and carboxy termini of the p80 protein itself likely occurred intramolecularly (in cis), since we were unable to demonstrate activity in trans at these sites. Cleavages at the three processing sites downstream of the carboxy terminus of p80 were shown to occur in trans. However, p80 proteinase activity alone was not sufficient for cleavage of the last of these sites. Another viral gene product, or specific condition, is implicated as a necessary cofactor for p80 proteinase activity at this site. Pestivirus polyprotein processing can now be compared to similar events by viruses of other groups. Finally, the potential role of p80 proteinase activity in the phenotype of cytopathic biotypes of BVDV is discussed. PMID:1651596

Wiskerchen, M; Collett, M S

1991-09-01

350

Hypothesis for a serine proteinase-like domain at the COOH terminus of Slowpoke calcium-activated potassium channels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) is a 58-residue protein with three disulfide bonds that belongs to the Kunitz family of serine proteinase inhibitors. BPTI is an extremely potent inhibitor of trypsin, but it also specifically binds to various active and inactive serine proteinase homologs with KD values that range over eight orders of magnitude. We previously described an interaction of BPTI at an intracellular site that results in the production of discrete subconductance events in large conductance Ca2+ activated K+ channels (Moss, G.W.J., and E. Moczydlowski. 1996, J. Gen. Physiol, 107:47-68). In this paper, we summarize a variety of accumulated evidence which suggests that BPTI binds to a site on the KCa channel protein that structurally resembles a serine proteinase. One line of evidence includes the finding that the complex of BPTI and trypsin, in which the inhibitory loop of BPTI is masked by interaction with trypsin, is completely ineffective in the production of substate events in the KCa channel. To further investigate this notion, we performed a sequence analysis of the alpha-subunit of cloned slowpoke KCa channels from Drosophila and mammals. This analysis suggests that a region of approximately 250 residues near the COOH terminus of the KCa channel is homologous to members of the serine proteinase family, but is catalytically inactive because of various substitutions of key catalytic residues. The sequence analysis also predicts the location of a Ca(2+)-binding loop that is found in many serine proteinase enzymes. We hypothesize that this COOH-terminal domain of the slowpoke KCa channel adopts the characteristic double-barrel fold of serine proteinases, is involved in Ca(2+)-activation of the channel, and may also bind other intracellular components that regulate KCa channel activity. PMID:8972386

Moss, G W; Marshall, J; Moczydlowski, E

1996-12-01

351

Cysteine digestive peptidases function as post-glutamine cleaving enzymes in tenebrionid stored-product pests.  

Science.gov (United States)

The major storage proteins in cereals, prolamins, have an abundance of the amino acids glutamine and proline. Storage pests need specific digestive enzymes to efficiently hydrolyze these storage proteins. Therefore, post-glutamine cleaving peptidases (PGP) were isolated from the midgut of the stored-product pest, Tenebrio molitor (yellow mealworm). Three distinct PGP activities were found in the anterior and posterior midgut using the highly-specific chromogenic peptide substrate N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-Ala-L-Ala-L-Gln p-nitroanilide. PGP peptidases were characterized according to gel elution times, activity profiles in buffers of different pH, electrophoretic mobility under native conditions, and inhibitor sensitivity. The results indicate that PGP activity is due to cysteine and not serine chymotrypsin-like peptidases from the T. molitor larvae midgut. We propose that the evolutionary conservation of cysteine peptidases in the complement of digestive peptidases of tenebrionid stored-product beetles is due not only to the adaptation of insects to plants rich in serine peptidase inhibitors, but also to accommodate the need to efficiently cleave major dietary proteins rich in glutamine. PMID:22056682

Goptar, I A; Semashko, T A; Danilenko, S A; Lysogorskaya, E N; Oksenoit, E S; Zhuzhikov, D P; Belozersky, M A; Dunaevsky, Y E; Oppert, B; Filippova, I Yu; Elpidina, E N

2012-02-01

352

Prospeção de inibidores de serinoproteinases em folhas de leguminosas arbóreas da floresta Amazônica / Prospecting serine proteinase inhibitors in leaves from leguminous trees of the Amazon forest  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os inibidores de proteinases são proteínas extensivamente investigadas nos tecidos de estocagem, mas pouco prospectadas em outros tecidos vegetais. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de inibidores de serinoproteinases em extratos foliares de quinze espécies de leguminosas arbóreas da Am [...] azônia. As espécies estudadas foram: Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata e S. polyphylla. Folhas foram coletadas, secas a 30ºC durante 48 h, trituradas e submetidas à extração com NaCl (0,15 M, 10% p/v) resultando no extrato total. Ensaios foram executados para determinar a concentração de proteínas e detectar a atividade inibitória contra a tripsina e quimotripsina bovina. Os teores de proteínas bruta e solúvel nos extratos foliares variaram de 7,9 a 31,2% e 1,3 a 14,8%, respectivamente. A atividade inibitória sobre a tripsina e quimotripsina foi observada em todos os extratos foliares. Contudo, nos extratos de E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata e S. polyphylla a inibição foi maior sobre a tripsina, enquanto o extrato de P. multijuga foi mais efetivo contra a quimotripsina. Nós concluímos que nos extratos foliares de leguminosas arbóreas têm inibidores de serinoproteinases e exibem potencial aplicações biotecnológicas. Abstract in english The proteinase inhibitors are proteins extensively investigated in tissue storage, but few prospected in other plant tissues. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of serine proteinase inhibitors in leaf extracts from fifteen species of leguminous trees of the Amazon forest. The species s [...] tudied were Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata and S. polyphylla. Leaves were collected, dried at 30ºC for 48 h, crushed and subjected to extraction with NaCl (0.15 M, 10% w/v), resulting in the total extract. Tests were performed to determine the concentration of proteins and to detect of inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin. The content of crude and soluble protein in leaf extracts varied from 7.9 to 31.2% and 1.3 to 14.8%, respectively. The inhibitory activity on trypsin and chymotrypsin was observed in all leaf extracts. However, in extracts of E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata and S. polyphylla, the inhibition was greater on trypsin, while extract of P. multijuga was more effective against chymotrypsin. We conclude that leaf extracts of leguminous trees have serine proteinase inhibitors and show potential biotecnological applications.

Larissa Ramos, Chevreuil; José Francisco de Carvalho, Gonçalves; Flávia Camila, SCHIMPL; Cristiane Santos do Carmo Ribeiro de, Souza; Luiz Augusto Gomes de, Souza; Silvana Cristina, Pando.

2011-03-01

353

Structure of Soybean Serine Acetyltransferase and Formation of the Cysteine Regulatory Complex as a Molecular Chaperone*  

Science.gov (United States)

Serine acetyltransferase (SAT) catalyzes the limiting reaction in plant and microbial biosynthesis of cysteine. In addition to its enzymatic function, SAT forms a macromolecular complex with O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase. Formation of the cysteine regulatory complex (CRC) is a critical biochemical control feature in plant sulfur metabolism. Here we present the 1.75–3.0 ? resolution x-ray crystal structures of soybean (Glycine max) SAT (GmSAT) in apoenzyme, serine-bound, and CoA-bound forms. The GmSAT-serine and GmSAT-CoA structures provide new details on substrate interactions in the active site. The crystal structures and analysis of site-directed mutants suggest that His169 and Asp154 form a catalytic dyad for general base catalysis and that His189 may stabilize the oxyanion reaction intermediate. Glu177 helps to position Arg203 and His204 and the ?1c-?2c loop for serine binding. A similar role for ionic interactions formed by Lys230 is required for CoA binding. The GmSAT structures also identify Arg253 as important for the enhanced catalytic efficiency of SAT in the CRC and suggest that movement of the residue may stabilize CoA binding in the macromolecular complex. Differences in the effect of cold on GmSAT activity in the isolated enzyme versus the enzyme in the CRC were also observed. A role for CRC formation as a molecular chaperone to maintain SAT activity in response to an environmental stress is proposed for this multienzyme complex in plants. PMID:24225955

Yi, Hankuil; Dey, Sanghamitra; Kumaran, Sangaralingam; Lee, Soon Goo; Krishnan, Hari B.; Jez, Joseph M.

2013-01-01

354

Decrease in vivo of cysteine endopeptidases in blood of patients with tumor of the larynx.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since cysteine endopeptidase (cathepsins B and L) have been proposed to be implicated in tumor malignancy, we have attempted to decrease these in vivo. Large amounts of urine cysteine peptidase inhibitors (UCPI) are present in the urine of patients. Our results indicate protective effects of a UCIP preparation against human serum cysteine endopeptidases. PMID:8358062

Mikulewicz, W; Berdowska, I; Jarmu?owicz, J; Siewi?ski, M

1993-06-01

355

Medical significance of cysteine protease inhibitors in mammalian secretory fluids.  

Science.gov (United States)

New cysteine protease inhibitors in human tears and milk and their medical significance are reviewed in this paper. As protective components against bacterial infection in the eyes, we detected four kinds of anti-bacterial proteins in normal human tears including lysozyme and three kinds of cysteine protease inhibitors. Using our reverse zymography of normal tears, three kinds of cysteine protease inhibitors were found to be 78kDa, 20kDa and 15kDa and were determined to be lactoferrin, Von Ebner's Gland (VEG) protein and cystatin S, respectively. All of them belong to the cystatin super family and VEG protein and cystatin S are well known cysteine protease inhibitors. The C-terminus area 17mer peptide, Y679-K695, of lactoferrin showed strong homology with a common active domain of the cystatin family and the synthesized peptide showed inhibition of cysteine proteases. Not only were disease-specific changes found in these inhibitor profiles, but also disease-specific new inhibitors in patients tears with certain autoimmune diseases. A 35kDa inhibitor, which was detected specifically in tears with Behcet's disease, an typical autoimmune disease, was determined to be a lacrimal acidic proline-rich protein based on the N-terminus sequence analysis. A 65kDa inhibitor of tears with Harada's autoimmune disease was determined to be an Ig heavy chain V-III region. In addition, lactoferrin content in Harada's disease was very low. We found two cathepsin inhibitors in bovine milk using reverse zymography, namely lactoferrin and beta-casein. The L133-Q151, in the human beta-casein molecule is the active inhibitory domain. They may play an important role in antiseptic and anti-infectious functions. PMID:13678384

Katunuma, Nobuhiko; Shiota, Hiroshi; Le, Quang Trong

2003-08-01

356

Genome-wide search and comparative genomic analysis of the trypsin inhibitor-like cysteine-rich domain-containing peptides.  

Science.gov (United States)

It was shown that peptides containing trypsin inhibitor-like cysteine-rich (TIL) domain are able to inhibit proteinase activities, and thus play important roles in various biological processes, such as immune response and anticoagulation. However, only a limited number of the TIL peptides have been identified and characterized so far; and little has been known about the evolutionary relationships of the genes encoding the TIL peptides. BmKAPi is a TIL domain-containing peptide that was identified from Mesobuthus martensii Karsch. Here, we conducted genome-wide searches for new peptides that are homologous to BmKAPi or possess a cysteine pattern similar to that of BmKAPi. As a result, we identified a total of 80 different TIL peptides from 34 species of arthropods. We found that these peptides can be classified into seven evolutionarily distinct groups. Furthermore, we cloned the genomic sequence of BmKAPi; the genomic sequences of the majority of other TIL peptides were also identified from the GenBank database using bioinformatical approaches. Through phylogenetic and comparative genomic analysis, we found 26 cases of intron gain events occurred in the genes of the TIL peptides; however, no instances of intron loss were observed. Moreover, we found that alternative splicing contributes to the diversification of the TIL peptides. It is interesting to see that four genes of the TIL domain-containing peptides overlap in a DNA region located on the chromosome LG B15 of Bombus terretris. These data suggest that the evolution of the TIL peptide genes are dynamic, which was dominated by intron gain. PMID:23973966

Zeng, Xian-Chun; Liu, Yichen; Shi, Wanxia; Zhang, Lei; Luo, Xuesong; Nie, Yao; Yang, Ye

2014-03-01

357

The proteolytic system of Lactobacillus sanfrancisco CB1: purification and characterization of a proteinase, a dipeptidase, and an aminopeptidase.  

OpenAIRE

A cell envelope 57-kDa proteinase, a cytoplasmic 65-kDa dipeptidase, and a 75-kDa aminopeptidase were purified from Lactobacillus sanfrancisco CB1 sourdough lactic acid bacterium by sequential fast protein liquid chromatography steps. All of the enzymes are monomers. The proteinase was most active at pH 7.0 and 40 degrees C, while aminopeptidase and dipeptidase had optima at pH 7.5 and 30 to 35 degrees C. Relatively high activities were observed at the pH and temperature of the sourdough ferm...

Gobbetti, M.; Smacchi, E.; Corsetti, A.

1996-01-01

358

Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor as alternative culture medium substrates for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis AMT-3  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor or yeast extract were used as the sole organic forms for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis in submerged fermentation. The influence of the C and N concentrations, as well as the incubation periods, were assessed. Eight proteolytic bands were detected through gelatin-gel-electrophoresis in the various extracts obtained from the different media and after different incubation periods, with apparent molecular masses of 20, 35, 43, 50, 70, 100, 116 and 212 kDa. The results obtained suggest an opportunity for exploring this alternative strategy for proteinases production by actinomycetes, using BSG and CSL as economically feasible substrates.

Rodrigo Pires do Nascimento

2011-12-01

359

A proteomic approach to studying plant response to crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata) in pea (Pisum sativum).  

Science.gov (United States)

Crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata) is a parasitic plant that threatens legume production in Mediterranean areas. Pea (Pisum sativum) is severely affected, and only moderate levels of genetic resistance have so far been identified. In the present work we selected the most resistant accession available (Ps 624) and compared it with a susceptible (Messire) cultivar. Experiments were performed by using pot and Petri dish bioassays, showing little differences in the percentage of broomrape seed germination induced by both genotypes, but a significant hamper in the number of successfully installed tubercles and their developmental stage in the Ps 624 compared to Messire. The protein profile of healthy and infected P. sativum root tissue were analysed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Approximately 500 individual protein spots could be detected on silver stained gels. At least 22 different protein spots differentiated control, non-infected, Messire and Ps 624 accessions. Some of them were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and database searching as cysteine proteinase, beta-1,3-glucanase, endochitinase, profucosidase, and ABA-responsive protein. Both qualitative and quantitative differences have been found among infected and non-infected root extracts. Thus, in the infected susceptible Messire genotype 34 spots were decreased, one increased and three newly detected, while in Ps 624, 15 spots were increased, three decreased and one newly detected. In response to the inoculation, proteins that correspond to enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism (fructokinase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase), nitrogen metabolism (ferredoxin-NADP reductase) and mitochondrial electronic chain transport (alternative oxidase 2) decreased in the susceptible check, while proteins that correspond to enzymes of the nitrogen assimilation pathway (glutamine synthetase) or typical pathogen defence, PR proteins, including beta-1,3-glucanase and peroxidases, increased in Ps 624. Results are discussed in terms of changes in the carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism an induction of defence proteins in response to broomrape parasitism. PMID:15276440

Angeles Castillejo, M; Amiour, Nardjis; Dumas-Gaudot, Eliane; Rubiales, Diego; Jorrín, Jesús V

2004-06-01

360

Mass Spectrometric Analysis of l-Cysteine Metabolism: Physiological Role and Fate of l-Cysteine in the Enteric Protozoan Parasite Entamoeba histolytica  

OpenAIRE

l-Cysteine is essential for virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to higher eukaryotes. Besides having a role in the synthesis of virtually all proteins and of taurine, cysteamine, glutathione, and other redox-regulating proteins, l-cysteine has important functions under anaerobic/microaerophilic conditions. In anaerobic or microaerophilic protozoan parasites, such as Entamoeba histolytica, l-cysteine has been implicated in growth, attachment, survival, and protection from oxidative s...

Jeelani, Ghulam; Sato, Dan; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Watanabe, Haruo; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

2014-01-01

361

Potentiometric determination of cysteine with thiol sensitive silver-mercury electrode.  

Science.gov (United States)

A potentiometric procedure for cysteine thiol group concentration monitoring in media generating free radicals was developed using a thiol specific silver-mercury electrode. Electrolytic deposition of mercury on a silver wire and treatment with 20 mM cysteine in 0.5 M NaOH were used to produce the electrode. A silver-chloride electrode in saturated KCl was the reference. A glass capillary with 1 M KNO3 in 1% agarose gel was the liquid junction. The electrode responded to cysteine concentration in the range from 0.01 to 20 mM yielding a perfect linear relationship for the dependence of log [cysteine] versus electrode potential [mV], with b0 (constant) = -373.43 [mV], b1 (slope) = -53.82 and correlation coefficient r2 = 0.97. The electrode potential change per decade of cysteine concentration was 57 mV. The minimal measurable signal response was at a cysteine concentration of 0.01 mM. The signal CV amounted to 4-6% for cysteine concentrations of 0.01 to 0.05 mM and to less than 1% for cysteine concentrations of 0.5 to 20 mM. The response time ranged from about 100 s for cysteine concentrations of 0.01 to 0.1 mM to 30 s at higher cysteine concentrations. The standard curve reproducibility was the best at cysteine concentrations from 0.1 to 20 mM. In a reaction medium containing cysteine and copper(II)-histidine complex ([His-Cu]2+) solution in 55 mM phosphate buffer pH 7.4 the electrode adequately responded to changes in cysteine concentration. Beside cysteine, the silver-mercury electrode responded also to thiol groups of homocysteine and glutathione, however, the Nernst equation slope was about half of that for cysteine. PMID:17351672

Drozdz, Ryszard; Naskalski, Jerzy; Zabek-Adamska, Anna

2007-01-01

362

Proteinase K-catalyzed synthesis of linear and star oligo(L-phenylalanine) conjugates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemoenzymatic synthesis of peptides is a green and clean chemical reaction that offers high yields without using organic synthesis and serves as an alternative to traditional peptide synthesis methods. This report describes the chemoenzymatic synthesis of oligo(L-phenylalanine) mediated by proteinase K from Tritirachium album, which is one of the most widely used proteases in molecular biological studies. The synthesized linear oligo-phenylalanine showed a unique self-assembly in aqueous solutions. To further functionalize linear oligo(L-phenylalanine) as a low-molecular-weight gelator, it was cosynthesized with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine to obtain star-oligo(L-phenylalanine), which was bioconjugated to demonstrate its self-assembly into fluorescent fibers. The self-assembled fibers of star-oligo(L-phenylalanine) formed fibrous networks with various branching ratios, which depended on the molecular weights and molecular aspect ratios of star-oligo(L-phenylalanine). This is the first study to demonstrate that proteinase K is a suitable enzyme for chemoenzymatic cosynthesis of oligopeptides and star-shaped heteropeptides. PMID:24000943

Ageitos, Jose M; Baker, Peter J; Sugahara, Michihiro; Numata, Keiji

2013-10-14

363

Random substitution of large parts of the propeptide of yeast proteinase A  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The yeast aspartic protease, proteinase A, has a 54 amino-acid propeptide, which is removed during activation of the zymogen in the vacuole. Apart from being involved inhibition/activation, the propeptide has been shown to be essential for formation of a stable active enzyme (van den Hazel, H. B., Kielland-Brandt, M. C., and Winther, J. R. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 18002-18007). We have investigated the sequence requirements for function of the propeptide. The N-terminal half and the C-terminal half of the propeptide were replaced by random sequences at the genetic level, and collections of the mutants were subjected to a colony screen for ones exhibiting activity. A high frequency (around 1%) of active constructs was found, which indicates a very high tolerance for mutations in the propeptide. Thirty-nine functional mutant forms containing random sequence at either the N- or C-terminal half of the propeptide were characterized. Comparison of the propeptides of the active constructs suggests that a particular lysine residue is important for efficient biosynthesis of proteinase A.

van den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten

1995-01-01

364

An aspartic proteinase expressed in the yolk sac and neonatal stomach of the mouse.  

Science.gov (United States)

A murine aspartic proteinase, described herein, is intermediate in amino acid sequence identity between the placentally produced pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) and gastric pepsins. While PAGs are secreted products of placental trophoblast tissue of ungulates and most are not believed to function proteolytically, pepsins are digestive enzymes. The cDNA for this aspartic proteinase was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from RNA extracted from murine placentas and neonatal stomachs. The open reading frame encoded a 387-amino acid polypeptide with a 15-residue signal sequence. The enzyme most resembled pepsinogen F (a protein identified in the stomachs of neonatal rabbits and rats) and PAG-like proteins cloned from equine and feline placentae. In the stomach, both its mRNA and protein were expressed in gastric chief cells of preweaned neonates. Within the placenta, its mRNA was present in both the parietal and visceral yolk sacs. However, the protein was most prevalent in the visceral yolk sac, with little detectable in the parietal yolk sac. The recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. This protein was capable of self-activation and exhibited proteolytic activity toward casein. The presence of this enzyme in two organs involved in the selective transcellular transport of proteins suggests that it has specialized digestive functions. PMID:11566730

Chen, X; Rosenfeld, C S; Roberts, R M; Green, J A

2001-10-01

365

Intracellular localization of Treponema denticola chymotrypsin-like proteinase in chronic periodontitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Treponema denticola is an important periodontal pathogen capable of tissue invasion. Its chymotrypsin-like proteinase (CTLP can degrade a number of basement membrane components in vitro, thus suggesting a contribution to tissue invasion by the spirochete. The aim of this study was to analyze the localization of CTLP in chronic periodontitis tissues ex vivo. A polyclonal antibody specific to T. denticola cell-bound CTLP was used to detect the spirochetes in the gingival tissues of patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis (n=25 by immunohistochemistry and periodic acid-Schiff staining (PAS. The presence of T. denticola in the periodontal tissue samples was analyzed by PCR. Periodontal tissue samples of 12 of the 25 patients were found to be positive for T. denticola by PCR. Moreover, CTLP could be detected in the periodontal tissues of all these patients by immunohistochemistry. In the epithelium, the CTLP was mostly intracellular. Typically, the positive staining could be seen throughout the whole depth of the epithelium. When detected extracellularly, CTLP was localized mainly as granular deposits. The connective tissue stained diffusely positive in four cases. The positive staining co-localized with the PAS stain in nine cases. T. denticola and its CTLP could be detected in diseased human periodontium both intra- and extracellularly. The granular staining pattern was suggestive of the presence of T. denticola bacteria, whereas the more diffused staining pattern was indicative of the recent presence of the bacterium and shedding of the cell-bound proteinase.

Emilia Marttila

2014-07-01

366

Oxidized elafin and trappin poorly inhibit the elastolytic activity of neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neutrophil proteinase-mediated lung tissue destruction is prevented by inhibitors, including elafin and its precursor, trappin. We wanted to establish whether neutrophil-derived oxidants might impair the inhibitory function of these molecules. Myeloperoxidase/H(2)O(2) and N-chlorosuccinimide oxidation of the inhibitors was checked by mass spectrometry and enzymatic methods. Oxidation significantly lowers the affinities of the two inhibitors for neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase 3 (Pr3). This decrease in affinity is essentially caused by an increase in the rate of inhibitory complex dissociation. Oxidized elafin and trappin have, however, reasonable affinities for NE (K(i) = 4.0-9.2 x 10(-9) M) and for Pr3 (K(i) = 2.5-5.0 x 10(-8) M). These affinities are theoretically sufficient to allow the oxidized inhibitors to form tight binding complexes with NE and Pr3 in lung secretions where their physiological concentrations are in the micromolar range. Yet, they are unable to efficiently inhibit the elastolytic activity of the two enzymes. At their physiological concentration, fully oxidized elafin and trappin do not inhibit more than 30% of an equimolar concentration of NE or Pr3. We conclude that in vivo oxidation of elafin and trappin strongly impairs their activity. Inhibitor-based therapy of inflammatory lung diseases must be carried out using oxidation-resistant variants of these molecules. PMID:16279952

Nobar, Shila M; Zani, Marie-Louise; Boudier, Christian; Moreau, Thierry; Bieth, Joseph G

2005-11-01

367

Studies of a Novel Cysteine Sulfoxide Lyase from Petiveria alliacea: The First Heteromeric Alliinase1[W][OA  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) was detected and purified from the roots of the Amazonian medicinal plant Petiveria alliacea. The isolated enzyme is a heteropentameric glycoprotein composed of two ?-subunits (68.1 kD each), one ?-subunit (56.0 kD), one ?-subunit (24.8 kD), and one ?-subunit (13.9 kD). The two ?-subunits are connected by a disulfide bridge, and both ?- and ?-subunits are glycosylated. The enzyme has an isoelectric point of 4.78 and pH and temperature optima of 8.0 and approximately 52°C, respectively. Its activation energy with its natural substrate S-benzyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide is 64.6 kJ mol?1. Kinetic studies showed that both Km and Vmax vary as a function of substrate structure, with the most preferred substrates being the naturally occurring P. alliacea compounds S-benzyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide and S-2-hydroxyethyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide. The alliinase reacts with these substrates to produce S-benzyl phenylmethanethiosulfinate and S-(2-hydroxyethyl) 2-hydroxyethanethiosulfinate, respectively. PMID:19789290

Musah, Rabi A.; He, Quan; Kubec, Roman; Jadhav, Abhijit

2009-01-01

368

Frequency and enzymatic activity (proteinase and phospholipase of Candida albicans from edentulous patients, with and without denture stomatitis Freqüência e atividade enzimática (proteinase e fosfolipase de Candida albicans de pacientes desdentados totais, com e sem estomatite protética  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The so called erithematous stomatitis is frequently observed in denture wearers, being local factors, mainly related to the presence of yeasts, considered important for its development. Having these aspects in mind, we evaluated edentulous patients with and without denture stomatitis (DS, identifying the yeasts obtained from the palate, and determining the relative level of the proteinase and phospholipase exo-enzymes produced by C. albicans. The results suggested that C. albicans was the most frequent species observed, being more prevalent in patients presenting DS, isolated or in association with other yeasts, with high expression of proteinase.A Estomatite Protética (EP é freqüentemente observada em pacientes portadores de prótese total, sendo a presença de fungos considerada um importante fator para o seu aparecimento. Baseado neste fato, avaliamos pacientes edêntulos com e sem estomatite protética, identificando os fungos presentes, e os níveis de proteinase e fosfolipase produzidos por Candida albicans. Os resultados mostraram que C. albicans foi a espécie mais freqüente, prevalecendo em pacientes com EP. Todas as cepas de C. albicans isoladas foram fortemente positivas para proteinase, diferentemente da atividade de fosfolipase.

Sibele Sarti PENHA

2000-06-01

369

Frequency and enzymatic activity (proteinase and phospholipase) of Candida albicans from edentulous patients, with and without denture stomatitis / Freqüência e atividade enzimática (proteinase e fosfolipase) de Candida albicans de pacientes desdentados totais, com e sem estomatite protética  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A Estomatite Protética (EP) é freqüentemente observada em pacientes portadores de prótese total, sendo a presença de fungos considerada um importante fator para o seu aparecimento. Baseado neste fato, avaliamos pacientes edêntulos com e sem estomatite protética, identificando os fungos presentes, e [...] os níveis de proteinase e fosfolipase produzidos por Candida albicans. Os resultados mostraram que C. albicans foi a espécie mais freqüente, prevalecendo em pacientes com EP. Todas as cepas de C. albicans isoladas foram fortemente positivas para proteinase, diferentemente da atividade de fosfolipase. Abstract in english The so called erithematous stomatitis is frequently observed in denture wearers, being local factors, mainly related to the presence of yeasts, considered important for its development. Having these aspects in mind, we evaluated edentulous patients with and without denture stomatitis (DS), identifyi [...] ng the yeasts obtained from the palate, and determining the relative level of the proteinase and phospholipase exo-enzymes produced by C. albicans. The results suggested that C. albicans was the most frequent species observed, being more prevalent in patients presenting DS, isolated or in association with other yeasts, with high expression of proteinase.

Sibele Sarti, PENHA; Esther Goldenberg, BIRMAN; Fernando Ricardo Xavier da, SILVEIRA; Claudete Rodrigues de, PAULA.

2000-06-01

370

A Cysteine Protease Isolated from the Latex of Ficus microcarpa: Purification and Biochemical Characterization.  

Science.gov (United States)

A plant protease named microcarpain was purified from the latex of Ficus microcarpa by acetonic (20-40 % saturation) precipitation, Sephadex G-75 filtration, and Mono Q-Sefinose FF chromatography. The protease was purified with a yield of 9.25 % and a purification factor of 8. The molecular weight of the microcarpain was estimated to be 20 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The purified enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 8.0 and at a temperature of 70 °C. Proteolytic activity was strongly inhibited by dithio-bis-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+). The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified microcarpain "VPETVDWRSKGAV" showed high homology with a protease from Arabidopsis thaliana. Inhibition studies and N-terminal sequence classified the enzyme as a member of the cysteine peptidases family. PMID:25424283

Mnif, Ibtissem Hamza; Siala, Rayda; Nasri, Rim; Mhamdi, Samiha; Nasri, Moncef; Kamoun, Alya Sellami

2015-02-01

371

Fluoresence quenching of riboflavin in aqueous solution by methionin and cystein  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields, and fluorescence lifetimes of riboflavin in methanol, DMSO, water, and aqueous solutions of the sulphur atom containing amino acids methionin and cystein have been determined. In methanol, DMSO, and water (pH=4-8) only dynamic fluorescence reduction due to intersystem crossing and internal conversion is observed. In aqueous methionin solutions of pH=5.25-9 a pH independent static and dynamic fluorescence quenching occurs probably due to riboflavin anion-methionin cation pair formation. In aqueous cystein solutions (pH range from 4.15 to 9) the fluorescence quenching increases with rising pH due to cystein thiolate formation. The cystein thiol form present at low pH does not react with neutral riboflavin. Cystein thiolate present at high pH seems to react with neutral riboflavin causing riboflavin deprotonation (anion formation) by cystein thiolate reduction to the cystein thiol form

372

MANGANESE UPREGULATES CELLULAR PRION PROTEINS AND INHIBITS THE RATE OF PROTEINASE-K DEPENDENT LIMITED PROTEOLYSIS IN NEURONAL CELLS  

Science.gov (United States)

The key event in the pathogenesis of prion diseases is the conversion of normal cellular prion proteins (PrP**c) to the proteinase K (PK) resistant, abnormal form (PrP**sc); however, the cellular mechanisms underlying the conversion remain enigmatic. Binding of divalent cations such as copper to th...

373

In praise of impurity: 30S ribosomal S15 protein-assisted crystallization of turnip yellow mosaic virus proteinase  

OpenAIRE

Diffraction-quality crystals of the turnip yellow mosaic virus proteinase/ubiquitin hydrolase could only be obtained from a protein preparation that was heavily contaminated with E. coli 30S ribosomal S15 protein. Crystal packing reveals the basis of this observation.

Robin, Charlotte; Beaurepaire, Lionel; Chenon, Me?lanie; Jupin, Isabelle; Bressanelli, Ste?phane

2012-01-01

374

Heterologous expression of Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease in yeast  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins during germination. Several Cysteine proteases have been identified in barley. One of the key enzymes, Hordeum vulgare endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned with and without the 5 amino acid C-terminal sequence into the Pichia pastoris expression vector pPICZ A? and electrotransformed into Pichia pastoris strain SDM1163. Heterologous protein production was induced with 2% MeOH. To monitor the protein expression during induction, 1 ml samples was collected every hr for 24 hrs. After 4 days, the supernatant were harvested and analyzed by SDS-PAGE, activity assay and Western blot. A significant amount of heterologous protein was produced and the protein production was highest after 4 days and the expression in the C-terminal mutant was slightly higher than for the full length protease.

Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe

375

Subcellular distribution of glutathione and cysteine in cyanobacteria  

OpenAIRE

Glutathione plays numerous important functions in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Whereas it can be found in virtually all eukaryotic cells, its production in prokaryotes is restricted to cyanobacteria and proteobacteria and a few strains of gram-positive bacteria. In bacteria, it is involved in the protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS), osmotic shock, acidic conditions, toxic chemicals, and heavy metals. Glutathione synthesis in bacteria takes place in two steps out of cysteine,...

Zechmann, Bernd; Tomas?ic?, Ana; Horvat, Lucija; Fulgosi, Hrvoje

2010-01-01

376

Thiazolidine prodrugs of cysteamine and cysteine as radioprotective agents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need for protection against the toxic effects of ionizing radiation comes from many different directions: occupational exposure, nuclear accidents, environmental sources and protection of normal tissue during the therapeutic irradiation of cancer. Sulfhydryl-containing compounds, including cysteamine and L-cysteine, have long been known to possess radioprotective properties, but their therapeutic utility is limited by their side effects at radioprotective doses. To avoid this drawback, thiazolidine prodrugs of cysteamine and L-cysteine were prepared by the condensation of each thiolamine with the aldose monosaccharides, D-ribose and D-glucose, producing RibCyst, GlcCyst, Rib-Cys and GlcCys. The prodrugs were designed to liberate the parent thiolamine nonenzymatically, after ring opening and hydrolysis, which is then available e to function as a radioprotective agent. Cysteamine`s inherent toxicity, measured using Chinese hamster V79 cells growing in culture, was completely eliminated, even at concentrations as high as 25 mM, by providing the thiolamine in the form of a prodrug. Good protection against radiation-induced lethality was demonstrated by the cysteamine prodrugs using a clonogenic assay. Protection against radiation-induced DNA single-strand breaks, as measured by alkaline elution, was also shown by both RibCyst and GlcCyst; this activity was higher than that exhibited by either cysteamine or WR-1065. The L-cysteine prodrugs, RibCys and GlcCys, also possessed radioprotective abilities under most of the conditions studied. Protection against DNA damage was comparable between L-cystein, WR-1065 and RibCys. 42 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Roberts, J.C.; Koch, K.E.; Detrick, S.R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [and others

1995-08-01

377

Thiazolidine prodrugs of cysteamine and cysteine as radioprotective agents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The need for protection against the toxic effects of ionizing radiation comes from many different directions: occupational exposure, nuclear accidents, environmental sources and protection of normal tissue during the therapeutic irradiation of cancer. Sulfhydryl-containing compounds, including cysteamine and L-cysteine, have long been known to possess radioprotective properties, but their therapeutic utility is limited by their side effects at radioprotective doses. To avoid this drawback, thiazolidine prodrugs of cysteamine and L-cysteine were prepared by the condensation of each thiolamine with the aldose monosaccharides, D-ribose and D-glucose, producing RibCyst, GlcCyst, Rib-Cys and GlcCys. The prodrugs were designed to liberate the parent thiolamine nonenzymatically, after ring opening and hydrolysis, which is then available e to function as a radioprotective agent. Cysteamine's inherent toxicity, measured using Chinese hamster V79 cells growing in culture, was completely eliminated, even at concentrations as high as 25 mM, by providing the thiolamine in the form of a prodrug. Good protection against radiation-induced lethality was demonstrated by the cysteamine prodrugs using a clonogenic assay. Protection against radiation-induced DNA single-strand breaks, as measured by alkaline elution, was also shown by both RibCyst and GlcCyst; this activity was higher than that exhibited by either cysteamine or WR-1065. The L-cysteine prodrugs, RibCys and GlcCys, also possine prodrugs, RibCys and GlcCys, also possessed radioprotective abilities under most of the conditions studied. Protection against DNA damage was comparable between L-cystein, WR-1065 and RibCys. 42 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

378

Nuclear cysteine cathepsin variants in thyroid carcinoma cells  

OpenAIRE

The cysteine peptidase cathepsin B is important in thyroid physiology by being involved in thyroid prohormone processing initiated in the follicular lumen and completed in endo-lysosomal compartments. However, cathepsin B has also been localized to the extrafollicular space and is therefore suggested to promote invasiveness and metastasis in thyroid carcinomas through e.g. ECM degradation. In this study, immunofluorescence and biochemical data from subcellular fractionation revealed that cath...

Tedelind, Sofia; Poliakova, Kseniia; Valeta, Amanda; Hunegnaw, Ruth; Yemanaberhan, Eyoel Lemma; Heldin, Nils-erik; Kurebayashi, Junichi; Weber, Ekkehard; Kopitar-jerala, Natas?a; Turk, Boris; Bogyo, Matthew; Brix, Klaudia

2010-01-01

379

A Putative Fe2+-bound Persulfenate Intermediate in Cysteine Dioxygenase  

OpenAIRE

The common reactions of dioxygen, superoxide and hydroperoxides with thiolates are thought to proceed via persulfenate intermediates, yet these have never been visualized. Here we report a 1.4 Å resolution crystal structure of the Fe2+-dependent enzyme cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) containing this putative intermediate trapped in its active site pocket. The complex raises the possibility that, distinct from known dioxygenases and proposed CDO mechanisms, the Fe-proximal oxygen atom may be invol...

Simmons, Chad R.; Krishnamoorthy, Kalyanaraman; Granett, Spencer L.; Schuller, David J.; Dominy, John E.; Begley, Tadhg P.; Stipanuk, Martha H.; Karplus, P. Andrew

2008-01-01

380

Decavanadate interactions with actin: cysteine oxidation and vanadyl formation  

OpenAIRE

Incubation of actin with decavanadate induces cysteine oxidation and oxidovanadium(IV) formation. The studies were performed combining kinetic with spectroscopic (NMR and EPR) methodologies. Although decavanadate is converted to labile oxovanadates, the rate of deoligomerization can be very slow (half-life time of 5.4 h, at 25 ?C, with a first order kinetics), which effectively allows decavanadate to exist for some time under experimental conditions. It was observed that decavanada...

Ramos, Susana; Duarte, Rui O.; Moura, Jose? J. G.; Aureliano, Manuel

2009-01-01

381

Acetaminophen-cysteine adducts during therapeutic dosing and following overdose  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Acetaminophen-cysteine adducts (APAP-CYS) are a specific biomarker of acetaminophen exposure. APAP-CYS concentrations have been described in the setting of acute overdose, and a concentration >1.1 nmol/ml has been suggested as a marker of hepatic injury from acetaminophen overdose in patients with an ALT >1000 IU/L. However, the concentrations of APAP-CYS during therapeutic dosing, in cases of acetaminophen toxicity from repeated dosing and in cases of hep...

Judge Bryan S; James Laura P; Green Jody L; Heard Kennon J; Zolot Liza; Rhyee Sean; Dart Richard C

2011-01-01

382

The Unique Cysteine Knot Regulates the Pleotropic Hormone Leptin  

OpenAIRE

Leptin plays a key role in regulating energy intake/expenditure, metabolism and hypertension. It folds into a four-helix bundle that binds to the extracellular receptor to initiate signaling. Our work on leptin revealed a hidden complexity in the formation of a previously un-described, cysteine-knotted topology in leptin. We hypothesized that this unique topology could offer new mechanisms in regulating the protein activity. A combination of in silico simulation and in vitro experiments was u...

Haglund, Ellinor; Su?kowska, Joanna I.; He, Zhao; Feng, Gen-sheng; Jennings, Patricia A.; Onuchic, Jose? N.

2012-01-01

383

The murine endogenous retrovirus MIA14 encodes an active aspartic proteinase that is functionally similar to proteinases from D-type retroviruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Murine intracisternal A-type particles (IAPs) are endogenous retroviruses showing sequence homologies to B/D- and avian C-type retroviruses and a gene expression strategy similar to that of D-type retroviruses. These viruses form immature particles in the endoplasmic reticulum and do not release extracellular virions, but are competent for retrotransposition within the virus-producing cell. It had been assumed that lack of polyprotein processing and maturation is due to a defect in the viral proteinase (PR), but recent experiments have shown that polyprotein processing occurs when assembly of the mouse IAP MIA14 is artificially directed to the plasma membrane. We have expressed and purified recombinant MIA14 PR and show that it undergoes N- and C-terminal autoprocessing at defined sites. Using peptide cleavage and inhibition assays and in vitro cleavage of recombinant HIV-1 and MIA14 Gag polyproteins, we show that MIA14 PR is a catalytically competent enzyme comparable in its efficiency to PRs from type D exogenous retroviruses. MIA14 PR is related to the PR of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus both functionally and with respect to its expression strategy, and is distinct from HIV-1 PR with respect to substrate specificity and catalytic efficiency. These findings reveal a functional and possibly evolutionary relationship between MIA14 and D-type retroviruses and imply that a functional PR may be relevant for intracellular retrotransposition even in the case of an endogenous retrovirus that does not produce extracellular virus. PMID:11831858

Strísovský, Kvido; Smrz, Daniel; Fehrmann, Frauke; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Konvalinka, Jan

2002-02-15

384

Acid-Mediated Tumor Proteolysis: Contribution of Cysteine Cathepsins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the noncellular microenvironmental factors that contribute to malignancy of solid tumors is acidic peritumoral pH. We have previously demonstrated that extracellular acidosis leads to localization of the cysteine pro-tease cathepsin B on the tumor cell membrane and its secretion. The objective of the present study was to determine if an acidic extracellular pH such as that observed in vivo (i.e., pHe 6.8 affects the activity of proteases, e.g., cathepsin B, that contribute to degradation of collagen IV by tumor cells when grown in biologically relevant three-dimensional (3D cultures. For these studies, we used 1 3D reconstituted basement membrane overlay cultures of human carcinomas, 2 live cell imaging assays to assess proteolysis, and 3 in vivo imaging of active tumor proteases. At pHe 6.8, there were increases in pericellular active cysteine cathepsins and in degradation of dye-quenched collagen IV, which was partially blocked by a cathepsin B inhibitor. Imaging probes for active cysteine cathepsins localized to tumors in vivo. The amount of bound probe decreased in tumors in bicarbonate-treated mice, a treatment previously shown to increase peritumoral pHe and reduce local invasion of the tumors. Our results are consistent with the acid-mediated invasion hypothesis and with a role for cathepsin B in promoting degradation of a basement membrane protein substrate, i.e., type IV collagen, in an acidic peritumoral environment.

Jennifer M Rothberg

2013-10-01

385

Cysteine is a cardiovascular risk factor in hyperlipidemic patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies have reported that moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is related to an increased risk for atherosclerosis, but few data are available with regard to any other thiol compound having a potential vascular toxicity. Therefore, we measured both total cysteine and homocysteine plasma levels in patients with hyperlipidemia (242 males and 147 females, 41-65 years old). Homocysteine was higher in males than in females, 13.2+/-4.1 versus 11.1+/-3.4 micromol/l (Psplit in two groups, symptomatic patients with cardiovascular disease (n = 106) and asymptomatic subjects (n = 283). Blood pressure, smoking status, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides did not statistically differ between groups, but the mean HDL-cholesterol level was lower in symptomatic patients (1.24+/-0.38 versus 1.42+/-0.41, Pratios for having symptomatic cardiovascular disease were 1.81 (95% CI, 1.02-3.21) and 2.05 (95% CI, 1.16-3.60) for the mid and highest tertiles of cysteine using the lowest as the reference. After adjustment in a multivariate model including age, sex, and creatinine, the odds ratio for disease remained significant between the highest tertile versus the lowest (OR = 1.89). Adjusted odds ratios were found to be weaker when homocysteine tertiles were compared. Our data suggest that plasma total cysteine is a risk factor for atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:10487486

Jacob, N; Bruckert, E; Giral, P; Foglietti, M J; Turpin, G

1999-09-01

386

Biospecific haemosorbents based on proteinase inhibitor. II. Efficiency of biospecific antiproteinase haemosorbent 'Ovosorb' in complex treatment of experimental generalized purulent peritonitis and acute destructive pancreatitis in dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biospecific antiproteinase haemosorbent (BAH) 'Ovosorb' containing, in the bulk of polyacryamide gel, the ovomucoid from whites of duck eggs, was used for a complex treatment of the experimental generalized purulent peritonitis and acute destructive pancreatitis in dogs. The efficiency of BAH was manifested in the significant reduction of lethality of the experimental animals, a more rapid liquidation of proteinasaemia, normalization in plasma of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor and protein metabolism. Thus, by eliminating proteinases from circulation, Ovosorb contributes to the cessation of imbalance in the proteinase-inhibitor system and is efficient in the therapy of pathological states related to this imbalance. PMID:8031989

Platé, N A; Kirkovsky, V V; Antiperovich, O F; Nicolaichik, V V; Valueva, T A; Sinilo, S B; Moin, V M; Lobacheva, G A

1994-03-01

387

Overexpression of serine acetlytransferase produced large increases in O-acetylserine and free cysteine in developing seeds of a grain legume  

OpenAIRE

There have been many attempts to increase concentrations of the nutritionally essential sulphur amino acids by modifying their biosynthetic pathway in leaves of transgenic plants. This report describes the first modification of cysteine biosyntheis in developing seeds; those of the grain legume, narrow leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius, L.). Expression in developing lupin embryos of a serine acetyltransferase (SAT) from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtSAT1 or AtSerat 2;1) was associated with increase...

Tabe, Linda; Wirtz, Markus; Molvig, Lisa; Droux, Michel; Hell, Ruediger

2009-01-01

388

Specificity of the collagenolytic serine proteinase from the pancreas of the catfish (Parasilurus asotus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The collagenolytic serine proteinase from the pancreas of the catfish (Parasilus asotus) had a pH optimum of 7.5 for native, reconstituted calf skin collagen fibrils. The enzyme was most stable at pH 6-9. The enzyme hydrolyzed heat-denatured collagen (gelatin), casein, hemoglobin and elastin in addition to native collagen but not virtually Tos-Arg-OEe, Bz-Tyr-OEe and Suc-(Ala)3-NA. The enzyme cleaved Leu-Gly (or Gln-Gly), Gly-Ile and Ile-Ala bonds on DNP-Pro-Leu-Gly-Ile-Ala-Gly-Arg-NH2 and DNP-Pro-Gln-Gly-Ile-Ala-Gly-Gln-D-Arg. PMID:3480788

Yoshinaka, R; Sato, M; Yamashita, M; Itoko, M; Ikeda, S

1987-01-01

389

Antioxidant activity of bovine casein hydrolysates produced by Ficus carica L.-derived proteinase.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Ficus carica L. latex proteinase preparation was investigated for its ability to produce antioxidant hydrolysates/peptides from bovine casein (CN). The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) values for NaCN and ?-CN hydrolysates ranged from 0.06 to 0.18, and from 0.51 to 1.19?mol Trolox equivalents/mg freeze-dried sample, respectively. Gel permeation HPLC showed that the ?-CN hydrolysate with a degree of hydrolysis of 21% had 65% of peptide material with a molecular mass <500Da. The RP-UPLC profiles also indicated that ?-CN was substantially hydrolysed during the early stages of hydrolysis. Analysis of the 4h ?-CN hydrolysate by LC-ESI-MS/MS allowed identification of 8 peptide sequences with potential antioxidant properties. PMID:24629973

Di Pierro, Giovanna; O'Keeffe, Martina B; Poyarkov, Alexey; Lomolino, Giovanna; FitzGerald, Richard J

2014-08-01

390

Protein degradation in Euglena gracilis: Purification and characterization of the major proteinase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protolysis in a crude extract of Euglena gracilis was characterized by autolysis and the hydrolysis of 125I-labeled bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA). Both procedures showed similar properties: stimulation by dithiothreitol, inhibition by leupeptin, and the same pH optima. Hydrolysis of 125I-BSA increased with growth stage and with the depletion of nutrient in the medium. The major proteolytic enzyme was purified to near homogeneity from extracts of dark-grown, stationary-phase Euglena gracilis by acid treatment, and by chromatography on CM-cellulose, DEAE-cellulose, Sephadex G-75, and hydroxyapatite using 125I-BSA as substrate. The molecular weight of the proteinase was 30,000 when determined by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and 15,000 when estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The enzyme therefore appears to be composed of two subunits

391

Isolation and functional assessment of a tomato proteinase inhibitor II gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

A genomic clone encoding a serine proteinase inhibitor II, designated as TPI-2, was isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedling. It consisted of a 990 bp upstream regulatory region and a 680 bp transcription region containing an intron. As shown by northern hybridization, mechanical injury activated its expression in roots, stems and leaves, and so did exogenous hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and alpha-Linolenic acid (LA), though abscisic acid (ABA) and NaCl failed to induce its expression. Salicylic acid (SA) was found to inhibit the inducing effect of LA but not those of mechanical injury and JA. As demonstrated experimentally, TPI-2 could be expressed effectively in tobacco cells and the protein products showed insecticidal activity. PMID:15191748

Zhang, Hui-yong; Xie, Xian-zhi; Xu, Yun-zhe; Wu, Nai-hu

2004-05-01

392

A novel potentiometric biosensor for selective L-cysteine determination using L-cysteine-desulfhydrase producing Trichosporon jirovecii yeast cells coupled with sulfide electrode  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Trichosporon jirovecii yeast cells are used for the first time as a source of L-cysteine desulfhydrase enzyme (EC 4.4.1.1) and incorporated in a biosensor for determining L-cysteine. The cells are grown under cadmium stress conditions to increase the expression level of the enzyme. The intact cells are immobilized on the membrane of a solid-state Ag2S electrode to provide a simple L-cysteine responsive biosensor. Upon immersion of the sensor in L-cysteine containing solutions, L-cysteine undergoes enzymatic hydrolysis into pyruvate, ammonia and sulfide ion. The rate of sulfide ion formation is potentiometrically measured as a function of L-cysteine concentration. Under optimized conditions (phosphate buffer pH 7, temperature 37 ± 1 deg. C and actual weight of immobilized yeast cells 100 mg), a linear relationship between L-cysteine concentration and the initial rate of sulfide liberation (dE/dt) is obtained. The sensor response covers the concentration range of 0.2-150 mg L-1 (1.7-1250 ?mol L-1) L-cysteine. Validation of the assay method according to the quality control/quality assurance standards (precision, accuracy, between-day variability, within-day reproducibility, range of measurements and lower limit of detection) reveals remarkable performance characteristics of the proposed biosensor. The sensor is satisfactorily utilized for determination of L-cysteine in some pharmaceutical formulations. The lower limit of detection is ions. The lower limit of detection is ?1 ?mol L-1 and the accuracy and precision of the method are 97.5% and ±1.1%, respectively. Structurally similar sulfur containing compounds such as glutathione, cystine, methionine, and D-cysteine do no interfere

393

Mass Spectrometric Analysis of l-Cysteine Metabolism: Physiological Role and Fate of l-Cysteine in the Enteric Protozoan Parasite Entamoeba histolytica  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT l-Cysteine is essential for virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to higher eukaryotes. Besides having a role in the synthesis of virtually all proteins and of taurine, cysteamine, glutathione, and other redox-regulating proteins, l-cysteine has important functions under anaerobic/microaerophilic conditions. In anaerobic or microaerophilic protozoan parasites, such as Entamoeba histolytica, l-cysteine has been implicated in growth, attachment, survival, and protection from oxidative stress. However, a specific role of this amino acid or related metabolic intermediates is not well understood. In this study, using stable-isotope-labeled l-cysteine and capillary electrophoresis-time of flight mass spectrometry, we investigated the metabolism of l-cysteine in E. histolytica. [U-13C3, 15N]l-cysteine was rapidly metabolized into three unknown metabolites, besides l-cystine and l-alanine. These metabolites were identified as thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (T4C), 2-methyl thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (MT4C), and 2-ethyl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (ET4C), the condensation products of l-cysteine with aldehydes. We demonstrated that these 2-(R)-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids serve for storage of l-cysteine. Liberation of l-cysteine occurred when T4C was incubated with amebic lysates, suggesting enzymatic degradation of these l-cysteine derivatives. Furthermore, T4C and MT4C significantly enhanced trophozoite growth and reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels when it was added to cultures, suggesting that 2-(R)-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids are involved in the defense against oxidative stress. PMID:25370494

Jeelani, Ghulam; Sato, Dan; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Watanabe, Haruo

2014-01-01

394

Proteinases involved in the degradation of trypsin inhibitor in germinating mung beans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) trypsin inhibitor (MBTI) is rapidly modified by limited proteolysis during the early stages of seedling growth. Using an electrophoretic assay that separates the unmodified inhibitor (MBTI-F) and the first two modified species (MBTI-E and -C), a pH optimum of approximately 4 was found for the modification reaction. The inhibitor modifying activity is initially low in ungerminated seeds, with the reaction F leads to E being the primary reaction catalyzed. Activity catalyzing the production of MBTI-C appears on the first day of germination. This activity (F leads to E leads to C) increases up to 6 days after inhibition, at which time the cotyledons begin to abscise. The activity converting MBTI-F and -E to MBTI-C was strongly inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (3.3 mM) but only weakly by iodoacetate (9 mM) and not at all by pepstatin A (9 microM), leupeptin (18 microM), or EDTA (5 mM). These results suggest the involvement of proteinases other than the major endopeptidase of the germinating seed, vicilin peptidohydrolase. This conclusion is further supported by gel filtration of the extracts of cotyledons on Sephacryl S-200. At least three proteinases are present in germinated cotyledons capable of modifying MBTI-F to MBTI-C and/or -E. All are distinguishable from vicilin peptidohydrolase on the basis of their molecular weight and inhibition by low molecular weight organic reagents. PMID:6346766

Wilson, K A; Tan-Wilson, A L

1983-01-01

395

Role of Candida albicans-Secreted Aspartyl Proteinases (Saps in Severe Early Childhood Caries  

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Full Text Available Candida albicans is strongly associated with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC. However, the roles of secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps, an important virulence factor of C. albicans, in the progress of S-ECC are not clear. In our study, the Saps activities were evaluated by the yeast nitrogen base–bovine serum albumi (YNB–BSA agar plate method and by the MTT method with bovine serum albumin (BSA as the substrate. Genotypes of C. albicans and gene expression of Sap1–5 were evaluated. The relationships of Saps activities and genotypes with S-ECC were analyzed. The results showed that enzyme activities of Saps in the S-ECC group were significantly higher than those in the caries free (CF group (p < 0.05. Genotypes A, B and C were detected in the S-ECC group, and genotypes A and C were detected in the CF group. In the genotype A group, Saps activity in the S-ECC group was significantly different from that in the CF group (p < 0.05. The gene expression level of Sap1 in the S-ECC group was significantly higher than that in the CF group (p = 0.001, while Sap4 expression was significantly lower than that in the CF group (p = 0.029. It can be concluded that Sap1–5 are the predominant proteinase genes expressed in C. albicans from dental biofilm and Sap1 may play an important role in the development of S-ECC.

Wenqing Li

2014-06-01

396

Proteinase-free myeloperoxidase increases airway epithelial permeability in a whole trachea model.  

Science.gov (United States)

In cystic fibrosis the bronchiectatic conducting airways have large numbers of neutrophils in their walls and in their luminal contents. The neutrophil's primary granule enzyme activities of elastase and peroxidase are increased in the sputum of these patients. It has been postulated that these enzymes--together or individually--act to damage the airway epithelium. However, only peroxidase activity has consistently correlated with the degree of structural and functional airway disease in these patients with leakage of plasma protein into the airway lumen (Regelmann et al., Pediatr Pulmonol, 1995; 19:1-9). The present study was designed to test whether human neutrophil-derived myeloperoxidase can independently produce bronchial epithelial damage without the presence of proteases, as measured by increased permeability of the airway epithelium. Human peripheral blood neutrophils were purified, their primary granules isolated, and their peroxidase purified using affinity and ion exchange column chromatography. Activity of the proteinase-free peroxidase was measured using a chromogenic substrate. The effect of this peroxidase on the permeability of excised rat tracheas was measured using radioactive and fluorescent-labeled non-ionic molecules of varying molecular weight. Rat tracheas exposed to 15 minute treatments with either 130 U of peroxidase or hydrogen peroxide (10(-5) M) did not show a significant increase in the permeability of the epithelium to [3H]inulin, [14C]sucrose, and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran 20 compared with control tracheas. However, those tracheas exposed to 130 U peroxidase followed by 10(-5) M hydrogen peroxide showed an increased permeability to each of the three test solutes. We conclude that proteinase-free myeloperoxidase, in the presence of non-toxic concentrations of its substrates, hydrogen peroxide and halide, produced increases in permeability to non-ionic molecules in the rat trachea within 15 minutes. PMID:9261850

Regelmann, W E; Schneider, L A; Fahrenkrug, S C; Gray, B H; Johnson, S; Herron, J M; Clawson, C C; Clawson, D J; Wangensteen, O D

1997-07-01

397

Extended interaction network of procollagen C-proteinase enhancer-1 in the extracellular matrix.  

Science.gov (United States)

PCPE-1 (procollagen C-proteinase enhancer-1) is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that can stimulate procollagen processing by procollagen C-proteinases such as BMP-1 (bone morphogenetic protein 1). PCPE-1 interacts with several proteins in addition to procollagens and BMP-1, suggesting that it could be involved in biological processes other than collagen maturation. We thus searched for additional partners of PCPE-1 in the extracellular matrix, which could provide new insights into its biological roles. We identified 17 new partners of PCPE-1 by SPR (surface plasmon resonance) imaging. PCPE-1 forms a transient complex with the ?-amyloid peptide, whereas it forms high or very high affinity complexes with laminin-111 (KD=58.8 pM), collagen VI (KD=9.5 nM), TSP-1 (thrombospondin-1) (KD1=19.9 pM, KD2=14.5 nM), collagen IV (KD=49.4 nM) and endostatin, a fragment of collagen XVIII (KD1=0.30 nM, KD2=1.1 nM). Endostatin binds to the NTR (netrin-like) domain of PCPE-1 and decreases the degree of superstimulation of PCPE-1 enhancing activity by heparin. The analysis of the PCPE-1 interaction network based on Gene Ontology terms suggests that, besides its role in collagen deposition, PCPE-1 might be involved in tumour growth, neurodegenerative diseases and angiogenesis. In vitro assays have indeed shown that the CUB1CUB2 (where CUB is complement protein subcomponents C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor and BMP-1) fragment of PCPE-1 inhibits angiogenesis. PMID:24117177

Salza, Romain; Peysselon, Franck; Chautard, Emilie; Faye, Clément; Moschcovich, Laura; Weiss, Tali; Perrin-Cocon, Laure; Lotteau, Vincent; Kessler, Efrat; Ricard-Blum, Sylvie

2014-01-01

398

Conserved active site cysteine residue of archaeal THI4 homolog is essential for thiamine biosynthesis in Haloferax volcanii.  

Science.gov (United States)

BackgroundThiamine (vitamin B1) is synthesized de novo by certain yeast, fungi, plants, protozoans, bacteria and archaea. The pathway of thiamine biosynthesis by archaea is poorly understood, particularly the route of sulfur relay to form the thiazole ring. Archaea harbor structural homologs of both the bacterial (ThiS-ThiF) and eukaryotic (THI4) proteins that mobilize sulfur to thiazole ring precursors by distinct mechanisms.ResultsBased on comparative genome analysis, halophilic archaea are predicted to synthesize the pyrimidine moiety of thiamine by the bacterial pathway, initially suggesting that also a bacterial ThiS-ThiF type mechanism for synthesis of the thiazole ring is used in which the sulfur carrier ThiS is first activated by ThiF-catalyzed adenylation. The only ThiF homolog of Haloferax volcanii (UbaA) was deleted but this had no effect on growth in the absence of thiamine. Usage of the eukaryotic THI4-type sulfur relay was initially considered less likely for thiamine biosynthesis in archaea, since the active-site cysteine residue of yeast THI4p that donates the sulfur to the thiazole ring by a suicide mechanism is replaced by a histidine residue in many archaeal THI4 homologs and these are described as D-ribose-1,5-bisphosphate isomerases. The THI4 homolog of the halophilic archaea, including Hfx. volcanii (HVO_0665, HvThi4) was found to differ from that of methanogens and thermococci by having a cysteine residue (Cys165) corresponding to the conserved active site cysteine of yeast THI4p (Cys205). Deletion of HVO_0665 generated a thiamine auxotroph that was trans-complemented by a wild-type copy of HVO_0665, but not the modified gene encoding an HvThi4 C165A variant.ConclusionsBased on our results, we conclude that the archaeon Hfx. volcanii uses a yeast THI4-type mechanism for sulfur relay to form the thiazole ring of thiamine. We extend this finding to a relatively large group of archaea, including haloarchaea, ammonium oxidizing archaea, and some methanogen and Pyrococcus species, by observing that these organisms code for THI4 homologs that have a conserved active site cysteine residue which is likely used in thiamine biosynthesis. Thus, archaeal members of IPR002922 THI4 family that have a conserved cysteine active site should be reexamined for a function in thiamine biosynthesis. PMID:25348237

Hwang, Sungmin; Cordova, Bryan; Chavarria, Nikita; Elbanna, Dina; McHugh, Stephen; Rojas, Jenny; Pfeiffer, Friedhelm; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A

2014-10-28

399

Enhancement of thioredoxin/glutaredoxin-mediated L-cysteine synthesis from S-sulfocysteine increases L-cysteine production in Escherichia coli  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli has two L-cysteine biosynthetic pathways; one is synthesized from O-acetyl L-serine (OAS and sulfate by L-cysteine synthase (CysK, and another is produced via S-sulfocysteine (SSC from OAS and thiosulfate by SSC synthase (CysM. SSC is converted into L-cysteine and sulfite by an uncharacterized reaction. As thioredoxins (Trx1 and Trx2 and glutaredoxins (Grx1, Grx2, Grx3, Grx4, and NrdH are known as reductases of peptidyl disulfides, overexpression of such reductases might be a good way for improving L-cysteine production to accelerate the reduction of SSC in E. coli. Results Because the redox enzymes can reduce the disulfide that forms on proteins, we first tested whether these enzymes catalyze the reduction of SSC to L-cysteine. All His-tagged recombinant enzymes, except for Grx4, efficiently convert SSC into L-cysteine in vitro. Overexpression of Grx1 and NrdH enhanced a 15-40% increase in the E. coliL-cysteine production. On the other hand, disruption of the cysM gene cancelled the effect caused by the overexpression of Grx1 and NrdH, suggesting that its improvement was due to the efficient reduction of SSC under the fermentative conditions. Moreover, L-cysteine production in knockout mutants of the sulfite reductase genes (?cysI and ?cysJ and the L-cysteine synthase gene (?cysK each decreased to about 50% of that in the wild-type strain. Interestingly, there was no significant difference in L-cysteine production between wild-type strain and gene deletion mutant of the upstream pathway of sulfite (?cysC or ?cysH. These results indicate that sulfite generated from the SSC reduction is available as the sulfur source to produce additional L-cysteine molecule. It was finally found that in the E. coliL-cysteine producer that co-overexpress glutaredoxin (NrdH, sulfite reductase (CysI, and L-cysteine synthase (CysK, there was the highest amount of L-cysteine produced per cell. Conclusions In this work, we showed that Grx1 and NrdH reduce SSC to L-cysteine, and the generated sulfite is then utilized as the sulfur source to produce additional L-cysteine molecule through the sulfate pathway in E. coli. We also found that co-overexpression of NrdH, CysI, and CysK increases L-cysteine production. Our results propose that the enhancement of thioredoxin/glutaredoxin-mediated L-cysteine synthesis from SSC is a novel method for improvement of L-cysteine production.

Nakatani Takeshi

2012-05-01

400

Slime production and proteinase activity of Candida species isolated from blood samples and the comparison of these activities with minimum inhibitory concentration values of antifungal agents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Slime and proteinase activity of 54 strains consisting of 19 Candida parapsilosis and 35 C. albicans strains isolated from blood samples were investigated in this study. Ketoconazole, amphothericin B, and fluconazole susceptibility of Candida species were compared with slime production and proteinas [...] e activity of these species. For both Candida species, no correlation was detected between the slime activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the three antifungal agents. For both Candida species no correlation was detected between the proteinase activity and the MIC values of amphothericin B, and fluconazole however, statistically significant difference, was determined between the proteinase activity and MIC values of ketoconazole (p = 0.007). Slime production was determined by using modified Christensen macrotube method and proteinase activity was measured by the method of Staib. Antifungal susceptibility was determined through the guidelines of National Committee for Laboratory Standards (NCCLS M27-A).

Semiha, Ozkan; Fatma, Kaynak; Ayse, Kalkanci; Ufuk, Abbasoglu; Semra, Kustimur.

2005-05-01

401

SNOSite: Exploiting Maximal Dependence Decomposition to Identify Cysteine S-Nitrosylation with Substrate Site Specificity  

OpenAIRE

S-nitrosylation, the covalent attachment of a nitric oxide to (NO) the sulfur atom of cysteine, is a selective and reversible protein post-translational modification (PTM) that regulates protein activity, localization, and stability. Despite its implication in the regulation of protein functions and cell signaling, the substrate specificity of cysteine S-nitrosylation remains unknown. Based on a total of 586 experimentally identified S-nitrosylation sites from SNAP/L-cysteine-stimulated mouse...

Lee, Tzong-yi; Chen, Yi-ju; Lu, Tsung-cheng; Huang, Hsien-da; Chen, Yu-ju

2011-01-01

402

Emission of hydrogen sulfide by leaf tissue in response to L-cysteine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leaf discs and detached leaves exposed to L-cysteine emitted a volatile sulfur compound which was proven by gas chromatography to be H2S. This phenomenon was demonstrated in all nine species tested (Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita pepo, Nicotiana tabacum, Coleus blumei, Beta vulgaris, Phaseolus vulgaris, Medicago sativa, Hordeum vulgare, and Gossypium hirsutum). The emission of volatile sulfur by cucumber leaves occurred in the dark at a similar rate to that in the light. The emission of leaf discs reached the maximal rate, more than 40 picomoles per minute per square centimeter, 2 to 4 hours after starting exposure to L-cysteine; then it decreased. In the case of detached leaves, the maximum occurred 5 to 10 h after starting exposure. The average emission rate of H2S during the first 4 hours from leaf discs of cucurbits in response to 10 millimolar L-cysteine, was usually more than 40 picomoles per minute per square centimeter, i.e. 0.24 micromoles per hour per square decimeter. Leaf discs exposed to 1 millimolar L-cysteine emitted only 2% as much as did the discs exposed to 10 millimolar L-cysteine. The emission from leaf discs and from detached leaves lasted for at least 5 and 15 hours, respectively. However, several hours after the maximal emission, injury of the leaves, manifested as chlorosis, was evident. H2S emission was a specific consequence of exposure to L-cysteine; neither D-cysteine nor L-cysteine elicited H2S emissr L-cysteine elicited H2S emission. Aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of pyridoxal phosphate dependent enzymes, inhibited the emission. In a cell free system from cucumber leaves, H2S formation and its release occurred in response to L-cysteine. Feeding experiments with [35S]t-cysteine showed that most of the sulfur in H2S was derived from sulfur in the L-cysteine supplied

403

UGA is translated as cysteine in pheromone 3 of Euplotes octocarinatus.  

OpenAIRE

Pheromone 3 mRNA of the ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus contains three in-frame UGA codons that are translated as cysteines. This was revealed from cDNA sequencing and from plasma desorption mass spectrometry of cleaved pheromone 3 in connection with pyridylethylation of the fragments. N-terminal sequence analysis of carboxymethylated protein confirmed this conclusion for the first of the three UGA codons. Besides UGA the common cysteine codons UGU and UGC are also used to encode cysteine. UAA...

Meyer, F.; Schmidt, H. J.; Plu?mper, E.; Hasilik, A.; Mersmann, G.; Meyer, H. E.; Engstro?m, A.; Heckmann, K.

1991-01-01

404

Role of cysteine in regulating morphogenesis and mitochondrial activity in the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum.  

OpenAIRE

Three stages can be distinguished in the temperature-induced mycelial-to-yeast phase transition of Histoplasma capsulatum. Stage one is characterized by a progressive decrease in the respiration rate and in the intracellular concentrations of cysteine and other amino acids. By stage two, respiration has ceased completely and free cysteine has fallen to low levels. Exogenous cysteine is required during the second stage for activation of mitochondrial respiration (stage three) and completion of...

Maresca, B.; Lambowitz, A. M.; Kumar, V. B.; Grant, G. A.; Kobayashi, G. S.; Medoff, G.

1981-01-01

405

Proteome-wide quantification and characterization of oxidation-sensitive cysteines in pathogenic bacteria  

OpenAIRE

Thiol group oxidation of active and allosteric cysteines is a widespread regulatory post-translational protein modification. Pathogenic bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, use regulatory cysteine oxidation to respond to and overcome reactive oxygen species (ROS) encountered in the host environment. To obtain a proteome-wide view of oxidation-sensitive cysteines in these two pathogens, we employed a competitive activity-based protein profiling approach to glob...

Deng, Xin; Weerapana, Eranthie; Ulanovskaya, Olesya; Sun, Fei; Liang, Haihua; Ji, Quanjiang; Ye, Yan; Fu, Ye; Zhou, Lu; Li, Jiaxin; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Chu; Alvarez, Sophie; Hicks, Leslie M.; Lan, Lefu

2013-01-01

406

Silver(I) complex formation with cysteine, penicillamine, and glutathione.  

Science.gov (United States)

The complex formation between silver(I) and cysteine (H2Cys), penicillamine (H2Pen), and glutathione (H3Glu) in alkaline aqueous solution was examined using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and (109)Ag NMR spectroscopic techniques. The complexes formed in 0.1 mol dm(-3) Ag(I) solutions with cysteine and penicillamine were investigated for ligand/Ag(I) (L/Ag) mole ratios increasing from 2.0 to 10.0. For the series of cysteine solutions (pH 10-11) a mean Ag-S bond distance of 2.45 ± 0.02 Å consistently emerged, while for penicillamine (pH 9) the average Ag-S bond distance gradually increased from 2.40 to 2.44 ± 0.02 Å. EXAFS and (109)Ag NMR spectra of a concentrated Ag(I)-cysteine solution (C(Ag(I)) = 0.8 mol dm(-3), L/Ag = 2.2) showed a mean Ag-S bond distance of 2.47 ± 0.02 Å and ?((109)Ag) 1103 ppm, consistent with prevailing, partially oligomeric AgS3 coordinated species, while for penicillamine (C(Ag(I)) = 0.5 mol dm(-3), L/Ag = 2.0) the mean Ag-S bond distance of 2.40 ± 0.02 Å and ?((109)Ag) 922 ppm indicate that mononuclear AgS2 coordinated complexes dominate. For Ag(I)-glutathione solutions (C(Ag(I)) = 0.01 mol dm(-3), pH ?11), mononuclear AgS2 coordinated species with a mean Ag-S bond distance of 2.36 ± 0.02 Å dominate for L/Ag mole ratios from 2.0 to 10.0. The crystal structure of the silver(I)-cysteine compound (NH4)Ag2(HCys)(Cys)·H2O (1) precipitating at pH ?10 was solved and showed a layer structure with both AgS3 and AgS3N coordination to the cysteinate ligands. A redetermination of the crystal structure of Ag(HPen)·H2O (2) confirmed the proposed digonal AgS2 coordination environment to bridging thiolate sulfur atoms in polymeric intertwining chains forming a double helix. A survey of Ag-S bond distances for crystalline Ag(I) complexes with S-donor ligands in different AgS2, AgS2(O/N), and AgS3 coordination environments was used, together with a survey of (109)Ag NMR chemical shifts, to assist assignments of the Ag(I) coordination in solution. PMID:23556419

Leung, Bonnie O; Jalilehvand, Farideh; Mah, Vicky; Parvez, Masood; Wu, Qiao

2013-04-15

407

Wheat streak mosaic virus Lacking Helper Component-Proteinase Is Competent to Produce Disease Synergism in Double Infections with Maize chlorotic mottle virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT The tritimovirus Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and the machlomovirus Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) each cause systemic chlorosis in infected maize plants. Infection of maize with both viruses produces corn lethal necrosis disease (CLND). Here, we report that complete deletion of the WSMV helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) coding region had no effect on induction of CLND symptoms following coinoculation of maize with WSMV and MCMV. We further demonstrated that elevation of virus titers in double infections, relative to single infections, also was independent of WSMV HC-Pro. Thus, unlike potyvirus HC-Pro, WSMV HC-Pro was dispensable for disease synergism. Because disease synergism involving potyviruses requires HC-Pro-mediated suppression of posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS), we hypothesized that WSMV HC-Pro may not be a suppressor of PTGS. Indeed, WSMV HC-Pro did not suppress PTGS of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene in an Agrobacterium-mediated coinfiltration assay in which potyvirus HC-Pro acted as a strong suppressor. Furthermore, coinfiltration with potyvirus HC-Pro, but not WSMV HC-Pro, resulted in elevated levels of the GFP target mRNA under conditions which trigger PTGS. Collectively, these results revealed significant differences in HC-Pro function among divergent genera of the family Potyviridae and suggest that the tritimovirus WSMV utilizes a gene other than HC-Pro to suppress PTGS and mediate synergistic interactions with unrelated viruses. PMID:18943679

Stenger, Drake C; Young, Brock A; Qu, Feng; Morris, T Jack; French, Roy

2007-10-01

408

Exploring the Role of the Active Site Cysteine in Human Muscle Creatine Kinase†  

OpenAIRE

All known guanidino kinases contain a conserved cysteine residue that interacts with the non-nucleophilic ?1-nitrogen of the guanidino substrate. Site-directed mutagenesis studies have shown that this cysteine is important, but not essential for activity. In human muscle creatine kinase (HMCK) this residue, Cys283, forms part of a conserved cysteine-proline-serine (CPS) motif and has a pKa about 3 pH units below that of a regular cysteine residue. Here we employ a computational approach to p...

Wang, Pan-fen; Flynn, Allen J.; Naor, Mor M.; Jensen, Jan H.; Cui, Guanglei; Merz, Kenneth M.; Kenyon, George L.; Mcleish, Michael J.

2006-01-01

409

Frequency and enzymatic activity (proteinase and phospholipase) of Candida albicans from edentulous patients, with and without denture stomatitis Freqüência e atividade enzimática (proteinase e fosfolipase) de Candida albicans de pacientes desdentados totais, com e sem estomatite protética  

OpenAIRE

The so called erithematous stomatitis is frequently observed in denture wearers, being local factors, mainly related to the presence of yeasts, considered important for its development. Having these aspects in mind, we evaluated edentulous patients with and without denture stomatitis (DS), identifying the yeasts obtained from the palate, and determining the relative level of the proteinase and phospholipase exo-enzymes produced by C. albicans. The results suggested that C. albicans was the mo...

Penha, Sibele Sarti; Birman, Esther Goldenberg; Silveira, Fernando Ricardo Xavier Da; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues

2000-01-01

410

In vitro digestibility of globulins from sapucaia (Lecythis pisonis Camb.) nuts by mammalian digestive proteinases / Digestibilidade in vitro de globulinas das amêndoas de sapucaia (Lecythis pisonis Camb.) por proteinases digestivas de mamíferos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Amêndoas cruas de Sapucaia (Lecythis pisonis Camb.) colhidas no Brasil foram analisadas para se determinar a composição centesimal, o perfil de aminoácidos de suas proteínas, a digestibilidade protéica in vitro e a presença de fatores antinutricionais, para avaliar o seu potencial como complemento a [...] limentar protéico. As amêndoas apresentaram quantidades adequadas de aminoácidos essenciais, ácidos graxos e minerais; no entanto, baixo teor de fibra foi observado. No presente estudo, a presença de lectinas ou inibidores de proteinases, quando detectada, apresentou baixos níveis. A digestibilidade in vitro de globulinas, in natura ou aquecidas, por proteinases digestivas de mamíferos foi realizada utilizando-se tripsina + quimotripsina + peptidase, obtendo-se valores aproximados de 71,5 e 73,5%, respectivamente. Estes resultados sugerem que as amêndoas de sapucaia podem ser utilizadas como complemento alimentar de proteínas, sendo um potencial agente nutricional. Abstract in english Sapucaia (Lecythis pisonis Camb.) raw nuts collected from Brazil were analyzed to determine the proximate composition, amino acid profile of protein fractions, in vitro protein digestibility and antinutritional factors in order to evaluate their potential as a protein alimentary complement. The nuts [...] contained adequate amounts of essential amino acids, fatty acids and minerals. In the present study, no hemagglutinating or inhibitory activities were observed in any of the samples investigated, indicating low or non-detectable levels of proteinase inhibitors or lectins in the samples. In vitro digestibility of in natura and heated nut globulins by mammalian digestive proteinases was carried out using trypsin + chymotrypsin + peptidase, with resulting mean values of approximately 70.30 and 71.35%, respectively. Taken together, the results suggest that sapucaia nuts may provide a new source of protein to use as a potential nutritional agent.

Sandra Maria Silveira, Denadai; Priscila Aiko, Hiane; Sergio, Marangoni; Paulo Aparecido, Baldasso; Ana Maria Rauen de Oliveira, Miguel; Maria Lígia Rodrigues, Macedo.

2007-09-01

411

Proteinases from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum moench seeds: Purification and properties of the 47 kDa enzyme  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aspartic proteinases from buckwheat seeds are analyzed. Three forms of 47 kDa, 40 kDa and 28 kDa, were purified from mature buckwheat seeds, while two forms of 47 kDa and 28 kDa were detected in developing buckwheat seeds using pepstatin A affinity chromatography. A form of 47 kDa was selectively precipitated from other forms by ammonium sulfate precipitation. This enzyme resembles the chymosin-like pattern of proteolytic activity, as it was shown using BSA and k-casein as substrates, clarifying its ability for milk-clotting. The 47 kDa aspartic proteinase form is localized in the membrane fraction. .

Timotijevi? Gordana S.

2006-01-01

412

Production of proteinase A by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a cell-recycling fermentation system: Experiments and computer simulations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Overproduction of proteinase A by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated by cultivations in a cell-recycling bioreactor. Membrane filtration was used to separate cells from the broth. Recycling ratios and dilution rates were varied and the effect on enzyme production was studied both experimentally and by computer simulations. Experiments and simulations showed that cell mass and product concentration were enhanced by high ratios of recycling. Additional simulations showed that the proteinase A concentration decreased drastically at high dilution rates and the optimal volumetric productivities were at high dilution rates just below washout and at high ratios of recycling. Cell-recycling fermentation gave much higher volumetric productivities and stable product concentrations in contrast to simple continuous fermentation.

GrØn, S.; Biedermann, K.

1996-01-01

413

Redox interactions between Fe and cysteine: Spectroscopic studies and multiplet calculations  

Science.gov (United States)

The biogeochemical cycle of Fe is intricately linked with that of organic matter. Cysteine represents an organic molecule with functionalities (O, S, N functional groups) and a C backbone that may mimic the functional groups present in organic matter from terrestrial and aquatic environments. In the present study we explore the redox speciation and coordination environment of Fe and the roles of the various ligand atoms of cysteine (C, N, S) in iron-organic redox coupling and transformations. The changes in oxidation state of Fe, C, N, and S in laboratory-synthesized Fe(II)-cysteine (synthesized from ferrous sulfate) and Fe(III)-cysteine (synthesized from ferric nitrate) complexes are monitored as a function of time using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (Fe L2,3-edge XANES; C, N and S K-edge XANES; Fe K-edge EXAFS) and theoretical multiplet calculations using the program CTM4XAS (Charge Transfer Multiplet for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy). CTM4XAS calculations show that 80% of the total Fe in both the Fe(II)-cysteine and the Fe(III)-cysteine complexes is present as Fe2+ initially (t = 0), thus indicating preservation of Fe(II) in Fe(II)-cysteine and reduction of Fe(III) in Fe(III)-cysteine at initial conditions, the latter caused by an internal electron transfer reaction from S of -SH on the cysteine molecule. After 12 months, however, ?60% of the total Fe is present as Fe3+ in the Fe(II)-cysteine complex whereas ?67% of the total Fe is present as Fe2+ in the Fe(III)-cysteine complex. The fact that a larger proportion of the Fe in the Fe(III)-cysteine complex remained reduced after 12 months than that in the Fe(II)-cysteine complex suggests that the reduced Fe in Fe(III)-cysteine after 12 months is further stabilized via preferential binding with the donor atoms of cysteine. Stabilization via preferential binding is supported by a coordination environment that changed from tetrahedral Fe2+ binding to S at a distance of 2.3 Å at t = 0 for both Fe(II,III)-cysteine complexes, to Fe3+ in an octahedral coordination with O/N atoms at a distance of 2.05 Å (most prevalent in Fe(II)-cysteine) and Fe2+ in tetrahedral coordination with S/O/N atoms at an average distance of 2.15 Å (most prevalent in Fe(III)-cysteine) at t = 12 months. Redox changes in the -NH2 and -SH groups of cysteine accompanied the Fe redox changes thus reflecting the true potential of cysteine as a redox ligand. Our studies of the Fe(II,III)-cysteine complexes add valuable information to the existing literature on the redox chemistry of Fe-cysteine systems by shedding light on the electron exchange pathways that may occur within the complexes and by providing a detailed depiction of the iron-l