Phonon laser action in a tunable, two-level photonic molecule
Grudinin, Ivan S.; Painter, O.; Vahala, Kerry J.
2009-01-01
The phonon analog of an optical laser has long been a subject of interest. We demonstrate a compound microcavity system, coupled to a radio-frequency mechanical mode, that operates in close analogy to a two-level laser system. An inversion produces gain, causing phonon laser action above a pump power threshold of around 50 $\\mu$W. The device features a continuously tunable, gain spectrum to selectively amplify mechanical modes from radio frequency to microwave rates. Viewed as a Brillouin pro...
Jing, H.; Ozdemir, Sahin K.; Lv, Xin-You; ZHANG Jing; Yang, Lan; Nori, Franco
2014-01-01
By exploiting recent developments associated with coupled microcavities, we introduce the concept of PT-symmetric phonon laser with balanced gain and loss. This is accomplished by introducing gain to one of the microcavities such that it balances the passive loss of the other. In the vicinity of the gain-loss balance, a strong nonlinear relation emerges between the intracavity photon intensity and the input power. This then leads to a giant enhancement of both optical pressure and mechanical ...
Photon-phonon laser on crystalline silicon: a feasibility study
Zadernovsky, A. A.
2015-03-01
We discuss a feasibility of photon-phonon laser action in bulk silicon with electron population inversion. It is well known, that only direct gap semiconductors are used as an active medium in optical lasers. In indirect gap semiconductors, such as crystalline silicon, the near-to-gap radiative electron transitions must be assisted by emission or absorption of phonons to conserve the momentum. The rate of such two-quantum transitions is much less than in direct gap semiconductors, where the similar radiative transitions are single-quantum. As a result, the quantum efficiency of luminescence in silicon is too small to get it as a laser material. Numerous proposals to overcome this problem are aimed at increasing the rate of radiative recombination. We suggest enhancing the quantum efficiency of luminescence in silicon by stimulating the photon part of the two-quantum transitions by light from an appropriate external laser source. This allows us to obtain initially an external-source-assisted lasing in silicon and then a true photon-phonon lasing without any external source of radiation. Performed analysis revealed a number of requirements to the silicon laser medium (temperature, purity and perfection of crystals) and to the intensity of stimulating radiation. We discuss different mechanisms that may hinder the implementation of photon-phonon lasing in silicon.
Polaron action for multimode dispersive phonon systems
Kornilovitch, Pavel
2005-01-01
Path-integral approach to the tight-binding polaron is extended to multiple optical phonon modes of arbitrary dispersion and polarization. The non-linear lattice effects are neglected. Only one electron band is considered. The electron-phonon interaction is of the density-displacement type, but can be of arbitrary spatial range and shape. Feynman's analytical integration of ion trajectories is performed by transforming the electron-ion forces to the basis in which the phonon dynamical matrix ...
Nonequilibrium phonon effects in midinfrared quantum cascade lasers
Shi, Y. B., E-mail: yshi9@wisc.edu; Knezevic, I., E-mail: knezevic@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1691 (United States)
2014-09-28
We investigate the effects of nonequilibrium phonon dynamics on the operation of a GaAs-based midinfrared quantum cascade laser over a range of temperatures (77–300 K) via a coupled ensemble Monte Carlo simulation of electron and optical-phonon systems. Nonequilibrium phonon effects are shown to be important below 200 K. At low temperatures, nonequilibrium phonons enhance injection selectivity and efficiency by drastically increasing the rate of interstage electron scattering from the lowest injector state to the next-stage upper lasing level via optical-phonon absorption. As a result, the current density and modal gain at a given field are higher and the threshold current density lower and considerably closer to experiment than results obtained with thermal phonons. By amplifying phonon absorption, nonequilibrium phonons also hinder electron energy relaxation and lead to elevated electronic temperatures.
Low energy electron-phonon effective action from symmetry analysis
Cabra, D C; Silva, G A; Sturla, M B
2013-01-01
Based on a detailed symmetry analysis, we state the general rules to build up the effective low energy field theory describing a system of electrons weakly interacting with the lattice degrees of freedom. The basic elements in our construction are what we call the "memory tensors", that keep track of the microscopic discrete symmetries into the coarse-grained action. The present approach can be applied to lattice systems in arbitrary dimensions and in a systematic way to any desired order in derivatives. We apply the method to the honeycomb lattice and re-obtain the by now well-known effective action of Dirac fermions coupled to fictitious gauge fields. As a second example, we derive the effective action for electrons in the kagom\\'e lattice, where our approach allows to obtain in a simple way the low energy electron-phonon coupling terms.
Dynamics of a vertical cavity quantum cascade phonon laser structure
Maryam, W.; Akimov, A. V.; Campion, R. P.; Kent, Anthony
2013-01-01
Driven primarily by scientific curiosity, but also by the potential applications of intense sources of coherent sound, researchers have targeted the phonon laser (saser) since the invention of the optical laser over 50 years ago. Here we fabricate a vertical cavity structure designed to operate as a saser oscillator device at a frequency of 325 GHz. It is based on a semiconductor superlattice gain medium, inside a multimode cavity between two acoustic Bragg reflectors. We measure the acoustic...
Mode competition and anomalous cooling in a multimode phonon laser
Kemiktarak, Utku; Durand, Mathieu; Metcalfe, Michael; Lawall, John
2014-01-01
We study mode competition in a multimode "phonon laser" comprised of an optical cavity employing a highly reflective membrane as the output coupler. Mechanical gain is provided by the intracavity radiation pressure, to which many mechanical modes are coupled. We calculate the gain, and find that strong oscillation in one mode suppresses the gain in other modes. For sufficiently strong oscillation, the gain of the other modes actually switches sign and becomes damping, a process we call "anoma...
Dynamics of a vertical cavity quantum cascade phonon laser structure
Maryam, W.; Akimov, A. V.; Campion, R. P.; Kent, A. J.
2013-01-01
Driven primarily by scientific curiosity, but also by the potential applications of intense sources of coherent sound, researchers have targeted the phonon laser (saser) since the invention of the optical laser over 50 years ago. Here we fabricate a vertical cavity structure designed to operate as a saser oscillator device at a frequency of 325 GHz. It is based on a semiconductor superlattice gain medium, inside a multimode cavity between two acoustic Bragg reflectors. We measure the acoustic output of the device as a function of time after applying electrical pumping. The emission builds in intensity reaching a steady state on a timescale of order 0.1 μs. We show that the results are consistent with a model of the dynamics of a saser cavity exactly analogous to the models used for describing laser dynamics. We also obtain estimates for the gain coefficient, steady-state acoustic power output and efficiency of the device. PMID:23884078
Khurgin, Jacob B
2014-01-01
Laser cooling of semiconductors has been an elusive goal for many years, and while attempts to cool the narrow gap semiconductors such as GaAs are yet to succeed, recently, net cooling has been attained in a wider gap CdS. This raises the question of whether wider gap semiconductors with higher phonon energies and stronger electron-phonon coupling are better suitable for laser cooling. In this work we develop a straightforward theory of phonon-assisted absorption and photoluminescence of semiconductors that involves more than one phonon and use to examine wide gap materials, such as GaN and CdS and compare them with GaAs. The results indicate that while strong electron-phonon coupling in both GaN and CdS definitely improves the prospects of laser cooling, large phonon energy in GaN may be a limitation, which makes CdS a better prospect for laser cooling.
Laser cooling of semiconductors has been an elusive goal for many years, and while attempts to cool the narrow gap semiconductors such as GaAs are yet to succeed, recently, net cooling has been attained in a wider gap CdS. This raises the question of whether wider gap semiconductors with higher phonon energies and stronger electron-phonon coupling are better suitable for laser cooling. In this work, we develop a straightforward theory of phonon-assisted absorption and photoluminescence of semiconductors that involves more than one phonon and use to examine wide gap materials, such as GaN and CdS and compare them with GaAs. The results indicate that while strong electron-phonon coupling in both GaN and CdS definitely improves the prospects of laser cooling, large phonon energy in GaN may be a limitation, which makes CdS a better prospect for laser cooling.
Laser structuring for control of coupling between THz light and phonon modes
Wang, X W; Balcytis, A; Kasalynas, I; Jakstas, V; Janonis, V; Venckevicius, R; Buividas, R; Appadoo, D; Valusis, G; Juodkazis, S
2016-01-01
Modification of surface and volume of sapphire is shown to affect reflected and transmitted light at THz spectral range. Structural modifications were made using ultra-short 230 fs laser pulses at 1030 nm and 257.5 nm wavelengths forming surface ripples of ~250 nm and 60 nm period, respectively. Softening of the transverse optical phonon TO1 mode due to disorder was the most pronounced in reflection from laser ablated surface. It is shown that sub-surface periodic patterns of laser damage sites have also modified reflection spectrum due to coupling of THz radiation with phonons. Application potential of laser structuring and disordering for phononic engineering is discussed.
Doping dependence of LO-phonon depletion scheme THz quantum-cascade lasers
The effect of doping on terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (QCL) utilizing the longitudinal-optical (LO)-phonon depletion scheme of the lower laser state is investigated. Five identical 2.8 THz samples were grown with 2D equivalent doping ranging from 4.3 x 109 to 3.9 x 1010 cm-2. A linear dependence on doping is observed for both the threshold current density Jth and maximum current density Jmax. Only the sample doped to 3.9 x 1010 cm-2 shows the effects of free-carrier absorption with a nonlinear increase in Jth, while the Jmax remained linear. Since the applied field determines when the lasing action takes place, linearity is expected when the losses are independent of doping. All samples showed a similar Tmax of 140 K and T0 of 30 K
Electron-phonon coupling effects on Yb3+ spectra in several laser crystals
The complex absorption spectra of Yb3+ in YAG, LiNbO3 and YLF, three important laser crystals, are analysed in terms of electron-phonon coupling effects. The local symmetry for Yb3+ in these crystals is noncentrosymmetric allowing the coexistence of several electron-phonon coupling mechanisms in the formation of vibronic spectra. The shape of several Yb3+ absorption lines is interpreted in terms of the near resonant electron-phonon coupling theory. The computer modelling, by taking into account more phonons in the resonance region enables the assignment of crystal-field levels of the Yb3+2F5/2 multiplet and an estimation of electron-phonon coupling strengths. The phonons involved in the near resonance processes were observed in Raman spectra too. For YAG the modelling with a phonon density with four peaks in the near resonant region is made and it gives a good description of the complex experimental pattern. In the case of Yb3+ in LiNbO3 and YLF the use of polarization data evidences also the symmetry characteristics of the electron-phonon coupling. (author)
Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy of Phonon-Depopulation Based Quantum Cascade Lasers
A 3.1 THz phonon depopulation-based quantum-cascade-laser is investigated using terahertz time domain spectroscopy. A gain of 25 cm-1 and absorption features due to the lower laser level being populated from a parasitic electronic channel are highlighted.
Hung, Nguyen Quoc; Nhan, Nguyen Vu; Bau, Nguyen Quang
2002-01-01
Based on the quantum transport equation for the electron-phonon system, the absorption coefficient of sound (acoustic phonons) by absorption of laser radiation in cylindrical quantum wires is calculated for the case of monophoton absorption process and the case of multiphoton absorption process. Analytical expressions and conditions for the absorption of sound are obtained. Differences between the two cases of monophoton absorption and of multiphoton absorption are discussed; numerical comput...
Inter-Landau level scattering and LO-phonon emission in Terahertz quantum cascade laser
Péré-Laperne, Nicolas; De Vaulchier, Louis-Anne; Guldner, Yves; Bastard, Gérald; Scalari, Giacomo; Giovannini, Marcella; Faist, Jérôme; Vasanelli, Angela; Dhillon, Sukhdeep; Sirtori, Carlo
2007-01-01
A Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser (THz QCL) structure based on a bound to continuum and LO-phonon extraction stage is studied under a strong magnetic field. Two series of power oscillations as a function of magnetic field are observed. Comprehensive simulations of the lifetimes allow the first series to be assigned to interface roughness (elastic) and the second to LO phonon scattering (inelastic) of hot carriers in an excited Landau level, previously unobserved in terahertz QCL. We demonstra...
Low phonon energy Nd:LaF3 channel waveguide lasers fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy
Bhutta, T.; Chardon, A.M.; Shepherd, D.P.; E. Daran; Serrano, C.; Munoz-Yague, A.
2001-01-01
We report the first fabrication and laser operation of channel waveguides based on LaF3 planar thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. To our knowledge, this is the lowest phonon energy dielectric material to have shown guided-wave laser operation to date. A full characterization, in terms of spectroscopy, laser results, and propagation losses, is given for the planar thin films upon which the channel waveguides are based. Two channel-fabrication methods are then described, the first invo...
Phonon-mediated back-action of a charge readout on a double quantum dot.
Gasser, U; Gustavsson, S; Kng, B; Ensslin, K; Ihn, T
2010-07-01
Quantum point contacts are in use as an on-chip capacitative readout for the charge state of quantum dot systems. Here we investigate experimentally the back-action of quantum point contacts (QPCs) on a nearby double quantum dot (DQD). Driving current through a QPC influences the DQD state and leads to a measurable current flow in the DQD circuit with no bias voltage applied. The responsible mechanism is an indirect back-action process due to ohmic heating of the phonon bath. The system behaves like a thermoelectric engine, where a temperature gradient between the phonon bath and the electronic bath generates work observable as a measurable current flowing through the DQD. PMID:20571190
Li, H.; Cao, J. C.; Luo, H.; Laframboise, S. R.; Wasilewski, Z. R.; Liu, H. C.
2009-06-01
The authors present a simulation and experimental study on the effect of phonon extraction level separation on the performance of GaAs-based three-well resonant-phonon terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs). The phonon extraction level separation is varied from 30 to 42 meV. Because of the efficient longitudinal-optical phonon scattering, the 36 meV QCL shows the largest gain, the best temperature performance and the highest output power. As for the lower (30 meV) or higher (42 meV) energy separation QCLs, the electron-longitudinal-optical phonon interaction still works by involving a transfer of in-plane momentum. The measured lasing characteristics are in qualitative agreement with simulation.
The authors present a simulation and experimental study on the effect of phonon extraction level separation on the performance of GaAs-based three-well resonant-phonon terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs). The phonon extraction level separation is varied from 30 to 42 meV. Because of the efficient longitudinal-optical phonon scattering, the 36 meV QCL shows the largest gain, the best temperature performance and the highest output power. As for the lower (30 meV) or higher (42 meV) energy separation QCLs, the electron–longitudinal-optical phonon interaction still works by involving a transfer of in-plane momentum. The measured lasing characteristics are in qualitative agreement with simulation
Ultrafast electron diffraction from non-equilibrium phonons in femtosecond laser heated Au films
Chase, T. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA; Trigo, M. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Reid, A. H. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Li, R. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Vecchione, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Shen, X. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Weathersby, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Coffee, R. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Hartmann, N. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Reis, D. A. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA; PULSE Institute, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Wang, X. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Dürr, H. A. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA
2016-01-25
We use ultrafast electron diffraction to detect the temporal evolution of non-equilibrium phonons in femtosecond laser-excited ultrathin single-crystalline gold films. From the time-dependence of the Debye-Waller factor, we extract a 4.7 ps time-constant for the increase in mean-square atomic displacements. The observed increase in the diffuse scattering intensity demonstrates that the energy transfer from laser-heated electrons to phonon modes near the X and K points in the Au fcc Brillouin zone proceeds with timescales of 2.3 and 2.9 ps, respectively, faster than the Debye-Waller average mean-square displacement.
Ultrafast electron diffraction from non-equilibrium phonons in femtosecond laser heated Au films
We use ultrafast electron diffraction to detect the temporal evolution of non-equilibrium phonons in femtosecond laser-excited ultrathin single-crystalline gold films. From the time-dependence of the Debye-Waller factor, we extract a 4.7 ps time-constant for the increase in mean-square atomic displacements. The observed increase in the diffuse scattering intensity demonstrates that the energy transfer from laser-heated electrons to phonon modes near the X and K points in the Au fcc Brillouin zone proceeds with timescales of 2.3 and 2.9 ps, respectively, faster than the Debye-Waller average mean-square displacement
It is experimentally shown for the first time that by the effect of the feed-up laser pulse of 100 fs duration on the silicon target the consecutive structural transitions of the substance into the new crystalline and liquid metallic phase occur both during the laser pulse feed-up and after 0.1-103 ps, depending on the material excitation conditions. The thresholds of the observed structural transitions are determined and the phonon nodes, responsible for therefore, are identified. The structural transitions dynamics in the silicon by the 01.-103 ps times is described within the frames of the model of the phonon modes instability, originating due to the plasma electron-hole effect and also due to the intra- and intermode phonon-phonon anharmonic interactions
Laser-Ultrasonic Investigation on Lamb Waves in Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystal Plates
Wang, Jing Shi; Cheng, Ying; Xu, Xiao Dong; Liu, Xiao Jun
2015-06-01
In this paper, laser-ultrasonic non-destructive testing is used to investigate the propagation of Lamb waves in two-dimensional phononic crystal plates. The bandgaps are experimentally observed for low-order Lamb wave modes. The influence of crucial parameters such as the periodical arrangement of scatterers on bandgaps is discussed in detail. The finite element simulations further agree well with the results of the laser-ultrasonic investigation.
A theoretical description of laser-induced acoustic phonons in poly(p-phenylenevinylene) uniaxially stretched films considering the dependence of the acoustic wave on the polarization, propogation direction, and laser pulse width yields the complete elastic modulus tenor including both the longitudinal and shear components. The theoretical description in this paper also provides an explanation for a novel mode-jump behavior. 25 refs., 3 figs
Saiki, Taku; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Imasaki, Kazuo
2010-08-01
We constructed a theory to explain the mechanism of laser generation with a high optical-optical conversion efficiency for Nd3+- and Cr3+-doped yttrium aluminum ceramics when sunlight or lamplight sources are used for pumping. As a result, a unique mechanism of laser action was found where the solar or lamp-light power could be converted to laser power with a high efficiency close to 80%, which has not previously been observed. The high conversion efficiency was not only considered to be based on one-to-one photon conversion but on two-photon excitation by a single photon with phonon assistance. Thus, the mechanism of lasing action should include a process where thermal energy is converted to photon energy. The theoretical results we obtained were consistent with those of the experiments.
A phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction based terahertz quantum cascade laser
Dupont, E; Fathololoumi, S; Wasilewski, Z. R.; Aers, G.; Laframboise, S. R.; Lindskog, M; Wacker, A.; Ban, D.; Liu, H. C.
2012-01-01
A novel lasing scheme for terahertz quantum cascade lasers, based on consecutive phonon-photon-phonon emissions per module, is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The charge transport of the proposed structure is modeled using a rate equation formalism. An optimization code based on a genetic algorithm was developed to find a four-well design in the $\\mathrm{GaAs/Al_{0.25}Ga_{0.75}As}$ material system that maximizes the product of population inversion and oscillator strength at 150 K. T...
Rapid phase change induced by double picosecond laser pulses and the dynamics of acoustic phonons
For a given phase change material and composition, the double laser pulses better than a single pulse for the crystallization process. We investigated the crystallization process in Si15Sb85 thin films induced by double picosecond pulses with constant fluence and variable intervals. The crystallization degree is a function of the intervals of double pump laser pulses. The crystallization time decreased with the increasing of the intervals of the pump pulses. We believe that acoustic phonons play a key role in the crystallization process. - Highlights: The double pulse crystallization is easier than the single pulse crystallization. The crystallization is a function of the intervals of double pump laser pulses. The crystallization time decreases with the increase of the pump pulse intervals. Acoustic phonons play a key role in the crystallization process
Experimental Study of Photon-Phonon Interactions in an Explosive by Laser Probe Mass Spectrography
Eloy, J.; Delpuech, A.
1995-01-01
We have shown in a series of previous papers the part of the molecular electronic structure played in the decomposition process of an explosive submitted to a shock wave. This part is important especially as regards energy transfer properties. This work is intented to investigate the process of these transfers by the study of photon-phonon interactions in this type of material. The experimental technique used for this purpose is laser probe mass spectrography. The first tested explosives are ...
A phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction based terahertz quantum cascade laser
Dupont, E.; Fathololoumi, S.; Wasilewski, Z. R.; Aers, G.; Laframboise, S. R.; Lindskog, M.; Razavipour, S. G.; Wacker, A.; Ban, D.; Liu, H. C.
2012-04-01
A lasing scheme for terahertz quantum cascade lasers, based on consecutive phonon-photon-phonon emissions per module, is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The charge transport of the proposed structure is modeled using a rate equation formalism. An optimization code based on a genetic algorithm was developed to find a four-well design in the GaAs/Al0.25Ga0.75As material system that maximizes the product of population inversion and oscillator strength at 150 K. The fabricated devices using Au double-metal waveguides show lasing at 3.2 THz up to 138 K. The electrical characteristics display no sign of differential resistance drop at lasing threshold, which, in conjunction with the low optical power of the device, suggest—thanks to the rate equation model—a slow depopulation rate of the lower lasing state, a hypothesis confirmed by non-equilibrium Green's function calculations.
Tsatsoulis, T.; Illg, C.; Haag, M.; Mueller, B. Y.; Zhang, L.; Fähnle, M.
2016-04-01
During ultrafast demagnetization after the excitation of ferromagnetic films with femtosecond laser pulses, the angular momentum of the electronic system is transferred to the lattice via electron-phonon scatterings. The actual amount of transfer is calculated for Ni and Fe by considering spin-phonon eigenmodes, which have a sharp angular momentum. Because the considered Hamiltonian is not isotropic, the total angular momentum is not conserved.
Hung, Nguyen Quoc; Vuong, Dinh Quoc; Bau, Nguyen Quang
2002-01-01
Based on the quantum transport equation for the electron-phonon system, the absorption coefficient of sound (acoustic phonons) by absorption of a laser radiation in quantum wires with parabolic potential is calculated for the case of monophoton absorption and the case of multiphoton absorption. Analytical expressions and conditions for the absorption coefficient of sound are obtained. Differences between the two cases of monophoton absorption and of multiphoton absorption are discussed; numer...
Temperature performance of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with resonant-phonon active-regions
Significant progress has recently been made toward improving the power output, beam quality and spectral characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). However, the maximum operating temperature of the best-performing devices has become relatively stagnant and is in the range of 150–200 K for QCLs designed to emit in the frequency range of 2–4 THz. Such QCLs are primarily designed with resonant-phonon depopulation schemes. The requirement to cryogenically cool terahertz QCLs leads to stringent limitations on their use for various applications. Although significant advances have been made to model quantum transport in quantum cascade superlattices, the relative role of various electron transport mechanisms as a function of temperature is not clear. This article discusses temperature behavior of resonant-phonon terahertz QCLs with respect to a variety of active-region design schemes, and argues that precise understanding of high-temperature transport remains elusive for terahertz QCLs. The role of electron–phonon scattering, collisional-broadening, thermal leakage, and interface-roughness scattering towards the degradation of intersubband optical gain at higher temperatures is discussed for the popular terahertz QCL designs. (special issue article)
Influence of screening on longitudinal-optical phonon scattering in quantum cascade lasers
We theoretically investigate the influence of screening on electron-longitudinal optical phonon scattering in quantum cascade lasers. By employing ensemble Monte Carlo simulations, an advanced screening model based on the random-phase approximation is compared to the more elementary Thomas-Fermi and Debye models. For mid-infrared structures, and to a lesser extent also for terahertz designs, the inclusion of screening is shown to affect the simulated current and optical output power. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that by using the electron temperature rather than the lattice temperature, the Debye model can be significantly improved
Influence of screening on longitudinal-optical phonon scattering in quantum cascade lasers
Ezhov, Ivan; Jirauschek, Christian
2016-01-01
We theoretically investigate the influence of screening on electron-longitudinal optical phonon scattering in quantum cascade lasers. By employing ensemble Monte Carlo simulations, an advanced screening model based on the random-phase approximation is compared to the more elementary Thomas-Fermi and Debye models. For mid-infrared structures, and to a lesser extent also for terahertz designs, the inclusion of screening is shown to affect the simulated current and optical output power. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that by using the electron temperature rather than the lattice temperature, the Debye model can be significantly improved.
We irradiate a ZnTe single crystal with 10-fs laser pulses at a repetition rate of 80?MHz and investigate its resulting gradual modification by means of coherent-phonon spectroscopy. We observe the emergence of a phonon mode at about 3.6?THz whose amplitude and lifetime grow monotonously with irradiation time. The speed of this process depends sensitively on the pump-pulse duration. Our observations strongly indicate that the emerging phonon mode arises from a Te phase induced by multiphoton absorption of incident laser pulses. A potential application of our findings is laser-machining of microstructures in the bulk of a ZnTe crystal, a highly relevant electrooptic material.
Shimada, Toru [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Hirosaki University, 1 Bunkyo-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8152 (Japan); Kamaraju, N., E-mail: nkamaraju@lanl.gov [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Frischkorn, Christian [Department of Physics, Free University of Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wolf, Martin; Kampfrath, Tobias [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany)
2014-09-15
We irradiate a ZnTe single crystal with 10-fs laser pulses at a repetition rate of 80 MHz and investigate its resulting gradual modification by means of coherent-phonon spectroscopy. We observe the emergence of a phonon mode at about 3.6 THz whose amplitude and lifetime grow monotonously with irradiation time. The speed of this process depends sensitively on the pump-pulse duration. Our observations strongly indicate that the emerging phonon mode arises from a Te phase induced by multiphoton absorption of incident laser pulses. A potential application of our findings is laser-machining of microstructures in the bulk of a ZnTe crystal, a highly relevant electrooptic material.
Cr:ZnSe single crystal laser by pumping into the zero phonon line for efficiency enhancement
We demonstrate a Cr:ZnSe single crystal laser pumped by a continuous-wave (CW) Tm:YAP laser into the zero phonon line at 2000?nm for the first time. In the case of the transmission of the output mirror T = 10%, compared to the results obtained for the pump with a Tm:YLF laser at 1918?nm, the optical-to-optical slope efficiency was approximately doubled and the maximum output power was increased by 29%. (letter)
Hu, Qing (Inventor); Williams, Benjamin S. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
The present invention provides quantum cascade lasers and amplifier that operate in a frequency range of about 1 Terahertz to about 10 Terahertz. In one aspect, a quantum cascade laser of the invention includes a semiconductor heterostructure that provides a plurality of lasing modules connected in series. Each lasing module includes a plurality of quantum well structure that collectively generate at least an upper lasing state, a lower lasing state, and a relaxation state such that the upper and the lower lasing states are separated by an energy corresponding to an optical frequency in a range of about 1 to about 10 Terahertz. The lower lasing state is selectively depopulated via resonant LO-phonon scattering of electrons into the relaxation state.
Grigoryan, Naira
2015-01-01
Intensive, ultrakurze Laserpulse regen Festkörper in einen Zustand an, in dem die Elektronen hohe Temperaturen erlangen, während das Gitter kalt bleibt. Die heißen Elektronen beeinflussen das sog. Laser-angeregte interatomare Potential bzw. die Potentialenergiefläche, auf der die Ionen sich bewegen. Dieses kann neben anderen ultrakurzen Prozessen zu Änderungen der Phononfrequenzen (phonon softening oder phonon hardening) führen. Viele ultrakurze strukturelle Phänomene in Festkörpern hängen be...
Takeya, K.; Takemoto, Y.; Kawayama, I.; Murakami, H.; Matsukawa, T.; Yoshimura, M.; Mori, Y.; Tonouchi, M.
2010-07-01
We have investigated terahertz (THz) emission from lithium ternary chalcopyrite crystals LiInSe2, LiGaSe2, LiInS2, and LiGaS2 that were illuminated by 1560 nm femtosecond pump laser pulses. Monocyclic THz emission caused by nonlinear optical effects was initially observed in all the illuminated crystals. Narrow-band THz emission from the coherent phonons were observed in LiInSe2 (2.87 THz) and LiGaSe2 (2.60 and 3.45 THz). These phonon modes were most likely caused by impulsive stimulated Raman scattering.
Time-Resolved X-Ray Diffraction from Coherent Phonons during a Laser-Induced Phase Transition
Time-resolved x-ray diffraction with picosecond temporal resolution is used to observe scattering from impulsively generated coherent acoustic phonons in laser-excited InSb crystals. The observed frequencies and damping rates are in agreement with a model based on dynamical diffraction theory coupled to analytic solutions for the laser-induced strain profile. The results are consistent with a 12 ps thermal electron-acoustic phonon coupling time together with an instantaneous component from the deformation-potential interaction. Above a critical laser fluence, we show that the first step in the transition to a disordered state is the excitation of large amplitude, coherent atomic motion. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society
A robust opto-electronic device simulation tool is extended to model the phonon bottleneck in edge-emitting 1.3μm InGaAsN double quantum well (QW) laser diodes. Both the steady state operation and the transient response of the phonon bottleneck are examined as a function of injection current and heatsink temperature. It is found that the hot phonon population can raise the electron and hole temperatures in the QW active region by up to 7K above the equilibrium lattice temperature at moderate injection currents. At high injection currents, it is found that the phonon bottleneck can significantly decrease the optical power
Colombier, J. P.; Garrelie, F.; Faure, N.; Reynaud, S.; Bounhalli, M.; Audouard, E.; Stoian, R.; Pigeon, F. [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, UMR 5516 CNRS, Universite Jean Monnet, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France)
2012-01-15
Metals exposed to ultrafast laser irradiation close to ablative regimes show often a submicron-scale (near 0.5 {mu}m) periodic organization of the surface as ripples. Using two classes of metallic materials (transition and noble), we have determined that the ripples amplitude is strongly correlated to the material transport properties, namely electron-phonon relaxation strength, electronic diffusion, and to the energy band characteristics of the electronic laser excitation. This particularly depends on the topology of the electronic structure, including d-band effects on electronic excitation. Comparing the effects of electron-phonon nonequilibrium lifetimes for the different metals under similar irradiation conditions, we indicate how the electron-phonon coupling strength affects the electronic thermal diffusion, the speed of phase transformation and impacts on the ripples contrast. The highest contrast is observed for ruthenium, where the electron-phonon coupling is the strongest, followed by tungsten, nickel, and copper, the latter with the least visible contrast. The dependence of surface patterns contrast with fluence is linked to the dependence of the relaxation characteristics with the electronic temperature.
Makovetskii, D N
2011-01-01
This is a part of an overview of my early studies on nonlinear spin-phonon dynamics in solid state optical-wavelength phonon lasers (phasers) started in 1984. The main goal of this work is a short description and a qualitative analysis of experimental data on low-frequency nonlinear resonances revealed in a nonautonomous ruby phaser. Under phaser pumping modulation near these resonances, an unusual kind of self-organized motions in the ruby spin-phonon system was observed by me in 1984 for the first time. The original technique of optical-wavelength microwave-frequency acoustic stimulated emission (SE) detection and microwave-frequency power spectra (MFPS) analysis was used in these experiments (description of the technique see: D.N.Makovetskii, Cand. Sci. Diss., Kharkov, 1983). The real time evolution of MFPS was studied using this technique at scales up to several hours. The phenomenon of the self-organized periodic alternation of SE phonon modes was experimentally revealed at hyperlow frequencies from abou...
Coherent phonon dynamics in single-walled carbon nanotubes with several chiralities is investigated by 7.1-fs pump–probe experiments. Vibrational wave-packets corresponding to the radial breathing mode (RBM) and G mode can be detected for four chiral systems, (6,4), (6,5), (7,5) and (8,3). Coherent phonon generation of RBMs is in-depth studied by analyzing the probe photon energy dependent amplitude profiles, which indicates that the real and imaginary parts of the third-order susceptibility can both contribute to the modulation of the probed difference absorbance. - Highlights: ► We investigated coherent phonon dynamics in single-walled carbon nanotubes by 7.1-fs laser. ► Vibrational wave-packets corresponding to the RBM and G mode can be detected. ► Resonance conditions and mode frequencies lead to exact chirality assignments. ► Both real and imaginary parts of the third order susceptibility contribute to the result.
Random laser action from flexible biocellulose-based device
dos Santos, Molíria V.; Dominguez, Christian T.; Schiavon, João V.; Barud, Hernane S.; de Melo, Luciana S. A.; Ribeiro, Sidney J. L.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; de Araújo, Cid B.
2014-02-01
We demonstrate random lasing action in flexible bacterial cellulose (BC) membrane containing a laser-dye and either dielectric or metallic nanoparticles (NPs). The novel random laser system consists of BC nanofibers attached with Rhodamine 6G molecules and having incorporated either silica or silver NPs. The laser action was obtained by excitation of the samples with a 6 ns pulsed laser at 532 nm. Minimum laser threshold of ≈0.7 mJ/pulse was measured for the samples with silica NPs, whereas a laser threshold of 2.5 mJ/pulse for a system based on silver NPs was obtained. In both cases a linewidth narrowing from ≈50 to ≈4 nm was observed. Potential applications in biophotonics and life sciences are discussed for this proof-of-concept device.
Phonon engineering for nanostructures
Understanding the physics of phonon transport at small length scales is increasingly important for basic research in nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, nanomechanics, and thermoelectrics. We conducted several studies to develop an understanding of phonon behavior in very small structures. This report describes the modeling, experimental, and fabrication activities used to explore phonon transport across and along material interfaces and through nanopatterned structures. Toward the understanding of phonon transport across interfaces, we computed the Kapitza conductance for Σ29(001) and Σ3(111) interfaces in silicon, fabricated the interfaces in single-crystal silicon substrates, and used picosecond laser pulses to image the thermal waves crossing the interfaces. Toward the understanding of phonon transport along interfaces, we designed and fabricated a unique differential test structure that can measure the proportion of specular to diffuse thermal phonon scattering from silicon surfaces. Phonon-scale simulation of the test ligaments, as well as continuum scale modeling of the complete experiment, confirmed its sensitivity to surface scattering. To further our understanding of phonon transport through nanostructures, we fabricated microscale-patterned structures in diamond thin films.
Phonon engineering for nanostructures.
Aubry, Sylvie (Stanford University); Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Sullivan, John Patrick; Peebles, Diane Elaine; Hurley, David H. (Idaho National Laboratory); Shinde, Subhash L.; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Emerson, John Allen
2010-01-01
Understanding the physics of phonon transport at small length scales is increasingly important for basic research in nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, nanomechanics, and thermoelectrics. We conducted several studies to develop an understanding of phonon behavior in very small structures. This report describes the modeling, experimental, and fabrication activities used to explore phonon transport across and along material interfaces and through nanopatterned structures. Toward the understanding of phonon transport across interfaces, we computed the Kapitza conductance for {Sigma}29(001) and {Sigma}3(111) interfaces in silicon, fabricated the interfaces in single-crystal silicon substrates, and used picosecond laser pulses to image the thermal waves crossing the interfaces. Toward the understanding of phonon transport along interfaces, we designed and fabricated a unique differential test structure that can measure the proportion of specular to diffuse thermal phonon scattering from silicon surfaces. Phonon-scale simulation of the test ligaments, as well as continuum scale modeling of the complete experiment, confirmed its sensitivity to surface scattering. To further our understanding of phonon transport through nanostructures, we fabricated microscale-patterned structures in diamond thin films.
Laser Incident Lessons Learned and Action List
Yarotski, Dmitry Anatolievitch [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-02-29
On Thursday November 19, 2015, LANL postdoc received an eye injury from a reflected, nonvisible laser beam (Class 4, pulsed, wavelength 800 nanometer). The setup is configured to split the laser output into two work areas in which qualified operators conduct research experiments. During this incident, the laser output beam was being projected to both experimental work areas, although only one experimental area was actively being used. The second laser beam directed to the second work area was blocked by an inappropriate device (Plexiglas, reflective, non-normal incidence) that reflected substantial portion of the beam toward the first setup. In preparation for the measurements, worker stepped on the stepstool and decided to remove the laser goggles to better see the micrometer readings which were difficult to see due to insufficient lighting. Immediately, he noticed a flash of light in his eye. The operator quickly replaced the laser eye-wear and then, using an infrared viewer, located a stray laser beam being reflected from the plexiglas beam block. The operator did not think he had sustained any injury and continued working. Later that day, however, he noticed a blurry spot in the vision of his left eye. He notified his supervisor on Friday morning, November 20, 2015, and was taken by CINT management to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) medical facility for evaluation. SNL Medical did not find any abnormalities, but referred the operator to a local ophthalmologist for further evaluation. Further evaluations by the ophthalmologist on November 21 and November 23 identified a small spot of inflammation near the fovea on the retina in his left eye. The ophthalmologist stated that this spot would most likely heal on its own and that the blurry spot on the operator's vision would go away. A follow-up visit was scheduled. The employee was released back to work without restrictions.
Ultrafast dynamics and laser action of organic semiconductors
Vardeny, Zeev Valy
2009-01-01
Spurred on by extensive research in recent years, organic semiconductors are now used in an array of areas, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaics, and other optoelectronics. In all of these novel applications, the photoexcitations in organic semiconductors play a vital role. Exploring the early stages of photoexcitations that follow photon absorption, Ultrafast Dynamics and Laser Action of Organic Semiconductors presents the latest research investigations on photoexcitation ultrafast dynamics and laser action in pi-conjugated polymer films, solutions, and microcavities.In the first few chapters, the book examines the interplay of charge (polarons) and neutral (excitons) photoexcitations in pi-conjugated polymers, oligomers, and molecular crystals in the time domain of 100 fs-2 ns. Summarizing the state of the art in lasing, the final chapters introduce the phenomenon of laser action in organics and cover the latest optoelectronic applications that use lasing based on a variety of caviti...
Fathololoumi, S.; Dupont, E.; Wasilewski, Z. R.; Chan, C. W. I.; Razavipour, S. G.; Laframboise, S. R.; Huang, Shengxi; Hu, Q.; Ban, D.; Liu, H. C.
2013-03-01
We experimentally investigated the effect of oscillator strength (radiative transition diagonality) on the performance of resonant phonon-based terahertz quantum cascade lasers that have been optimized using a simplified density matrix formalism. Our results show that the maximum lasing temperature (Tmax) is roughly independent of laser transition diagonality within the lasing frequency range of the devices under test (3.2-3.7 THz) when cavity loss is kept low. Furthermore, the threshold current can be lowered by employing more diagonal transition designs, which can effectively suppress parasitic leakage caused by intermediate resonance between the injection and the downstream extraction levels. Nevertheless, the current carrying capacity through the designed lasing channel in more diagonal designs may sacrifice even more, leading to electrical instability and, potentially, complete inhibition of the device's lasing operation. We propose a hypothesis based on electric-field domain formation and competition/switching of different current-carrying channels to explain observed electrical instability in devices with lower oscillator strengths. The study indicates that not only should designers maximize Tmax during device optimization but also they should always consider the risk of electrical instability in device operation.
A terahertz quantum cascade laser design that combines a wide gain bandwidth, large photon-driven transport and good high-temperature characteristics is presented. It relies on a diagonal transition between a bound state and doublet of states tunnel coupled to the upper state of a phonon extraction stage. The high optical efficiency of this design enables the observation of photon-driven transport over a wide current density range. The relative tolerance of the design to small variations in the barrier thicknesses made it suitable for testing different growth techniques and materials. In particular, we compared the performances of devices grown using molecular-beam epitaxy with those achieved using organometallic chemical vapor deposition. The low-threshold current density and the high slope efficiency makes this device an attractive active region for the development of single-mode quantum cascade lasers based on third-order-distributed feedback structures. Single-mode, high power was achieved with good continuous and pulsed wave operation.
Amanti, Maria I; Scalari, Giacomo; Terazzi, Romain; Fischer, Milan; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jerome [Institute of Quantum Electronics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Rudra, Alok; Gallo, Pascal; Kapon, Eli [Laboratory of Physics of Nanostructures, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) (Switzerland)], E-mail: jerome.faist@phys.ethz.ch
2009-12-15
A terahertz quantum cascade laser design that combines a wide gain bandwidth, large photon-driven transport and good high-temperature characteristics is presented. It relies on a diagonal transition between a bound state and doublet of states tunnel coupled to the upper state of a phonon extraction stage. The high optical efficiency of this design enables the observation of photon-driven transport over a wide current density range. The relative tolerance of the design to small variations in the barrier thicknesses made it suitable for testing different growth techniques and materials. In particular, we compared the performances of devices grown using molecular-beam epitaxy with those achieved using organometallic chemical vapor deposition. The low-threshold current density and the high slope efficiency makes this device an attractive active region for the development of single-mode quantum cascade lasers based on third-order-distributed feedback structures. Single-mode, high power was achieved with good continuous and pulsed wave operation.
Li Simian [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technology, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Hebei Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information and Geo-detection Technology Shijiazhuang University of Economics, Shijiazhuang 050031 (China); Huang Huan; Wang Yang; Wu Yiqun; Gan Fuxi [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhu Weiling; Wang Wenfang; Chen Ke; Yao Daoxin; Lai Tianshu [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technology, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)
2011-09-01
A femtosecond laser-irradiated crystallizing technique is tried to convert amorphous Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} film into crystalline film. Sensitive coherent phonon spectroscopy (CPS) is used to monitor the crystallization of amorphous Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} film at the original irradiation site. The CPS reveals that the vibration strength of two phonon modes that correspond to the characteristic phonon modes (A{sub 1g}{sup 1} and E{sub g}) of crystalline Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} enhances with increasing laser irradiation fluence (LIF), showing the rise of the degree of crystallization with LIF and that femtosecond laser irradiation is a good post-treatment technique. Time-resolved circularly polarized pump-probe spectroscopy is used to investigate electron spin relaxation dynamics of the laser-induced crystallized Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} film. Spin relaxation process indeed is observed, confirming the theoretical predictions on the validity of spin-dependent optical transition selection rule and the feasibility of transient spin-grating-based optical detection scheme of spin-plasmon collective modes in Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}-like topological insulators.
Enhanced laser action of Perylene-Red doped polymeric materials
Garcia-Moreno, I.; Costela, A.; Pintado-Sierra, Mercedes; Martin, Virginia; Sastre, Roberto
2009-01-01
The laser action of Perylene-Red doped in linear, crosslinked, fluorinated and sililated polymeric materials is reported. The purity of dye was found to be a key factor to enhance its solid-state laser behaviour. The samples were transversely pumped at 532 nm, with 5.5 mJ/pulse and 10 Hz repetition rate. Perylene-Red doped copolymers of methyl methacrylate with a 10 vol% proportion of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl-methacrylate exhibited a lasing efficiency of 26% with a high photosta...
Wette, Frederik
1991-01-01
In recent years substantial progress has been made in the detection of surface phonons owing to considerable improvements in inelastic rare gas scattering tech niques and electron energy loss spectroscopy. With these methods it has become possible to measure surface vibrations in a wide energy range for all wave vectors in the two-dimensional Brillouin zone and thus to deduce the complete surface phonon dispersion curves. Inelastic atomic beam scattering and electron energy loss spectroscopy have started to play a role in the study of surface phonons similar to the one played by inelastic neutron scattering in the investigation of bulk phonons in the last thirty years. Detailed comparison between experimen tal results and theoretical studies of inelastic surface scattering and of surface phonons has now become feasible. It is therefore possible to test and to improve the details of interaction models which have been worked out theoretically in the last few decades. At this point we felt that a concise, co...
Textural Properties of Silicon Materials Produced by Laser Action
Dřínek, Vladislav; Fajgar, Radek; Schneider, Petr; Šnajdaufová, Hana; Šolcová, Olga
Marseille : MADIREL, 2005. s.50. [International Symposium on the Characterisation of Porous Solids COPS VII /7./. 25.05.2005-28.05.2005, Aix-en-Provence] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/04/0963; GA ČR(CZ) GD203/03/H140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : textural properties * laser action * experiments Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry
Lee, Sooheyong; Williams, G. Jackson; Campana, Maria I.; Walko, Donald A.; Landahl, Eric C.
2016-01-01
Using a strain-rosette, we demonstrate the existence of transverse strain using time-resolved x-ray diffraction from multiple Bragg reflections in laser-excited bulk gallium arsenide. We find that anisotropic strain is responsible for a considerable fraction of the total lattice motion at early times before thermal equilibrium is achieved. Our measurements are described by a new model where the Poisson ratio drives transverse motion, resulting in the creation of shear waves without the need for an indirect process such as mode conversion at an interface. Using the same excitation geometry with the narrow-gap semiconductor indium antimonide, we detected coherent transverse acoustic oscillations at frequencies of several GHz. PMID:26751616
Lee, Sooheyong; Williams, G. Jackson; Campana, Maria I.; Walko, Donald A.; Landahl, Eric C.
2016-01-01
Using a strain-rosette, we demonstrate the existence of transverse strain using time-resolved x-ray diffraction from multiple Bragg reflections in laser-excited bulk gallium arsenide. We find that anisotropic strain is responsible for a considerable fraction of the total lattice motion at early times before thermal equilibrium is achieved. Our measurements are described by a new model where the Poisson ratio drives transverse motion, resulting in the creation of shear waves without the need for an indirect process such as mode conversion at an interface. Using the same excitation geometry with the narrow-gap semiconductor indium antimonide, we detected coherent transverse acoustic oscillations at frequencies of several GHz.
Lee, Sooheyong; Williams, G Jackson; Campana, Maria I; Walko, Donald A; Landahl, Eric C
2016-01-01
Using a strain-rosette, we demonstrate the existence of transverse strain using time-resolved x-ray diffraction from multiple Bragg reflections in laser-excited bulk gallium arsenide. We find that anisotropic strain is responsible for a considerable fraction of the total lattice motion at early times before thermal equilibrium is achieved. Our measurements are described by a new model where the Poisson ratio drives transverse motion, resulting in the creation of shear waves without the need for an indirect process such as mode conversion at an interface. Using the same excitation geometry with the narrow-gap semiconductor indium antimonide, we detected coherent transverse acoustic oscillations at frequencies of several GHz. PMID:26751616
Phonon-phonon interactions in photoexcited graphite studied by ultrafast electron diffraction
Harb, M.; Enquist, H.; Jurgilaitis, A.; Tuyakova, F. T.; Obraztsov, A. N.; Larsson, J.
2016-03-01
We investigated phonon-phonon interactions in photoexcited single-crystalline graphite by ultrafast electron diffraction. Transient electron diffraction profiles from a 35 nm graphite film were observed following laser excitation. Changes in intensities of diffraction spots revealed a two-exponential relaxation process with decay of strongly coupled optical phonons, and the slow relaxation process to redistribution of phonon energy to the equilibrium thermal distribution.
Stimulated emission of phonons in an acoustic cavity
Tilstra, Lieuwe Gijsbert
2001-01-01
This thesis will present experiments on stimulated emission of phonons in dilute ruby following complete population inversion of the Zeeman-split E(2E) Kramers doublet by selective pulsed optical pumping into its upper component. The resulting phonon avalanches are detected by use of the R1 luminescence emanating from the inverted zone, located near the end face where the laser beam enters the crystal. The phonons appear to team up into a highly directional phonon beam. The phonon frequency i...
Bévillon, E.; Colombier, J. P.; Recoules, V.; Stoian, R.
2014-03-01
The electronic behavior of various solid metals (Al, Ni, Cu, Au, Ti, and W) under ultrashort laser irradiation is investigated by means of density functional theory. Successive stages of extreme nonequilibrium on picosecond time scale impact the excited material properties in terms of optical coupling and transport characteristics. As these are generally modelled based on the free-electron classical theory, the free-electron number is a key parameter. However, this parameter remains unclearly defined and dependencies on the electronic temperature are not considered. Here, from first-principles calculations, density of states are obtained with respect to electronic temperatures varying from 10-2 to 105 K within a cold lattice. Based on the concept of localized or delocalized electronic states, temperature dependent free-electron numbers are evaluated for a series of metals covering a large range of electronic configurations. With the increase of the electronic temperature we observe strong adjustments of the electronic structures of transition metals. These are related to variations of electronic occupation in localized d bands, via change in electronic screening and electron-ion effective potential. The electronic temperature dependence of nonequilibrium density of states has consequences on electronic chemical potentials, free-electron numbers, electronic heat capacities, and electronic pressures. Thus electronic thermodynamic properties are computed and discussed, serving as a base to derive energetic and transport properties allowing the description of excitation and relaxation phenomena caused by rapid laser action.
Phonons with orbital angular momentum
Ayub, M. K. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics, Shahdra Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ali, S. [National Centre for Physics, Shahdra Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mendonca, J. T. [IPFN, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2011-10-15
Ion accoustic waves or phonon modes are studied with orbital angular momentum (OAM) in an unmagnetized collissionless uniform plasma, whose constituents are the Boltzmann electrons and inertial ions. For this purpose, we have employed the fluid equations to obtain a paraxial equation in terms of ion density perturbations and discussed its Gaussian beam and Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam solutions. Furthermore, an approximate solution for the electrostatic potential problem is presented, allowing to express the components of the electric field in terms of LG potential perturbations. The energy flux due to phonons is also calculated and the corresponding OAM is derived. Numerically, it is shown that the parameters such as azimuthal angle, radial and angular mode numbers, and beam waist, strongly modify the profiles of the phonon LG potential. The present results should be helpful in understanding the phonon mode excitations produced by Brillouin backscattering of laser beams in a uniform plasma.
Phonons with orbital angular momentum
Ion accoustic waves or phonon modes are studied with orbital angular momentum (OAM) in an unmagnetized collissionless uniform plasma, whose constituents are the Boltzmann electrons and inertial ions. For this purpose, we have employed the fluid equations to obtain a paraxial equation in terms of ion density perturbations and discussed its Gaussian beam and Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam solutions. Furthermore, an approximate solution for the electrostatic potential problem is presented, allowing to express the components of the electric field in terms of LG potential perturbations. The energy flux due to phonons is also calculated and the corresponding OAM is derived. Numerically, it is shown that the parameters such as azimuthal angle, radial and angular mode numbers, and beam waist, strongly modify the profiles of the phonon LG potential. The present results should be helpful in understanding the phonon mode excitations produced by Brillouin backscattering of laser beams in a uniform plasma.
Random laser action in dye doped nanoporous polymeric film
L, Jiantao; Fan, Ting; Chen, Guojie
2015-12-01
We report on the demonstration of random lasing action in dye doped nanoporous polymer films fabricated by spin-coating method. Through the photoluminescence experiment we found that the multimode lasing occurs due to the multiple light scattering processes, while the holes distributed randomly in the samples play the role of scattering centers. Above the lasing threshold, some discrete peaks with a linewidth less than 0.4 nm emerge upon the broad spontaneous band and the system shows the linear input-output characteristics. The lasing threshold and slope efficiency show a dependence on the diameter of the holes. Our work enriches the field of organic random lasers and brings out a new type of active disordered medium.
"Social Laser": Action Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Social Energy
Khrennikov, Andrei
2015-01-01
The problem of the "explanation" of recent social explosions, especially in the Middle East, but also in Southern Europe and the USA, have been debated actively in the social and political literature. We can mention the contributions of P. Mason, F. Fukuyama, E. Schmidt and J. Cohen, I. Krastev to this debate. We point out that the diversity of opinions and conclusions is really amazing. At the moment, there is no consistent and commonly acceptable theory of these phenomena. We present a model of social explosions based on a novel approach for the description of social processes, namely, the quantum-like approach. Here quantum theory is treated simply as an operational formalism - without any direct relation to physics. We explore the quantum-like laser model to describe the possibility of Action Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Social Energy (ASE).
'Social Laser': action amplification by stimulated emission of social energy.
Khrennikov, Andrei
2016-01-13
The problem of the 'explanation' of recent social explosions, especially in the Middle East, but also in Southern Europe and the USA, has been debated actively in the social and political literature. We can mention the contributions of P. Mason, F. Fukuyama, E. Schmidt, J. Cohen and I. Krastev to this debate. We point out that the diversity of opinions and conclusions is really amazing. At the moment, there is no consistent and commonly acceptable theory of these phenomena. We present a model of social explosions based on a novel approach for the description of social processes, namely the quantum-like approach. Here quantum theory is treated simply as an operational formalism-without any direct relation to physics. We explore the quantum-like laser model to describe the possibility of action amplification by stimulated emission of social energy. PMID:26621987
Rivera-López, F.; Babu, P.; Basavapoornima, Ch.; Jayasankar, C. K.; Lavín, V.
2011-06-01
Efficient Nd3+→Yb3+ resonant and phonon-assisted energy transfer processes have been observed in phosphate glasses and have been studied using steady-state and time-resolved optical spectroscopies. Results indicate that the energy transfer occurs via nonradiative electric dipole-dipole processes and is enhanced with the concentration of Yb3+ acceptor ions, having an efficiency higher than 75% for the glass doped with 1 mol% of Nd2O3 and 4 mol% of Yb2O3. The luminescence decay curves show a nonexponential character and the energy transfer microscopic parameter calculated with the Inokuti-Hirayama model gives a value of 240 × 10-40 cm6 s-1, being one of the highest reported in the literature for Nd3+-Yb3+ co-doped matrices. From the steady-state experimental absorption and emission cross-sections, a general expression for estimating the microscopic energy transfer parameter is proposed based upon the theoretical methods developed by Miyakawa and Dexter and Tarelho et al. This expression takes into account all the resonant mechanisms involved in an energy transfer processes together with other phonon-assisted nonvanishing overlaps. The value of the Nd3+→Yb3+ energy transfer microscopic parameter has been calculated to be 200 × 10-40 cm6 s-1, which is in good agreement with that obtained from the Inokuti-Hirayama fitting. These results show the importance of the nonresonant phonon-assisted Nd3+→Yb3+ energy transfer processes and the great potential of these glasses as active matrices in the development of multiple-pump-channel Yb3+ lasers.
Phonon manipulation with phononic crystals.
Kim Bongsang; Hopkins, Patrick Edward; Leseman, Zayd C.; Goettler, Drew F.; Su, Mehmet F. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); El-Kady, Ihab Fathy; Reinke, Charles M.; Olsson, Roy H., III
2012-01-01
In this work, we demonstrated engineered modification of propagation of thermal phonons, i.e. at THz frequencies, using phononic crystals. This work combined theoretical work at Sandia National Laboratories, the University of New Mexico, the University of Colorado Boulder, and Carnegie Mellon University; the MESA fabrication facilities at Sandia; and the microfabrication facilities at UNM to produce world-leading control of phonon propagation in silicon at frequencies up to 3 THz. These efforts culminated in a dramatic reduction in the thermal conductivity of silicon using phononic crystals by a factor of almost 30 as compared with the bulk value, and about 6 as compared with an unpatterned slab of the same thickness. This work represents a revolutionary advance in the engineering of thermoelectric materials for optimal, high-ZT performance. We have demonstrated the significant reduction of the thermal conductivity of silicon using phononic crystal structuring using MEMS-compatible fabrication techniques and in a planar platform that is amenable to integration with typical microelectronic systems. The measured reduction in thermal conductivity as compared to bulk silicon was about a factor of 20 in the cross-plane direction [26], and a factor of 6 in the in-plane direction. Since the electrical conductivity was only reduced by a corresponding factor of about 3 due to the removal of conductive material (i.e., porosity), and the Seebeck coefficient should remain constant as an intrinsic material property, this corresponds to an effective enhancement in ZT by a factor of 2. Given the number of papers in literature devoted to only a small, incremental change in ZT, the ability to boost the ZT of a material by a factor of 2 simply by reducing thermal conductivity is groundbreaking. The results in this work were obtained using silicon, a material that has benefitted from enormous interest in the microelectronics industry and that has a fairly large thermoelectric power factor. In addition, the techniques and scientific understanding developed in the research can be applied to a wide range of materials, with the caveat that the thermal conductivity of such a material be dominated by phonon, rather than electron, transport. In particular, this includes several thermoelectric materials with attractive properties at elevated temperatures (i.e., greater than room temperature), such as silicon germanium and silicon carbide. It is reasonable that phononic crystal patterning could be used for high-temperature thermoelectric devices using such materials, with applications in energy scavenging via waste-heat recovery and thermoelectric cooling for high-performance microelectronic circuits. The only part of the ZT picture missing in this work was the experimental measurement of the Seebeck coefficient of our phononic crystal devices. While a first-order approximation indicates that the Seebeck coefficient should not change significantly from that of bulk silicon, we were not able to actually verify this assumption within the timeframe of the project. Additionally, with regards to future high-temperature applications of this technology, we plan to measure the thermal conductivity reduction factor of our phononic crystals as elevated temperatures to confirm that it does not diminish, given that the nominal thermal conductivity of most semiconductors, including silicon, decreases with temperature above room temperature. We hope to have the opportunity to address these concerns and further advance the state-of-the-art of thermoelectric materials in future projects.
Shedding light: laser physics and mechanism of action.
De Felice, E
2010-02-01
Lasers have affected health care in many ways. Clinical applications have been found in a number of medical and surgical specialities. In particular, applications of laser technology in phlebology has made it essential for vein physicians to obtain a fundamental knowledge of laser physics, laser operation and also to be well versed in laser safety procedures. This article reviews recommended text books and current literature to detail the basics of laser physics and its application to venous disease. Laser safety and laser side effects are also discussed. PMID:20118342
El-Kady, Ihab F. (Albuquerque, NM); Olsson, Roy H. (Albuquerque, NM)
2012-01-10
Phononic crystals that have the ability to modify and control the thermal black body phonon distribution and the phonon component of heat transport in a solid. In particular, the thermal conductivity and heat capacity can be modified by altering the phonon density of states in a phononic crystal. The present invention is directed to phononic crystal devices and materials such as radio frequency (RF) tags powered from ambient heat, dielectrics with extremely low thermal conductivity, thermoelectric materials with a higher ratio of electrical-to-thermal conductivity, materials with phononically engineered heat capacity, phononic crystal waveguides that enable accelerated cooling, and a variety of low temperature application devices.
Laser action generated within a light pipe: A concept
Elachi, C.; Evans, G. A.; Yeh, Y. C. M.
1975-01-01
Laser light could be generated within light pipe itself, thereby eliminating coupling losses. Theoretical calculations have shown feasibility of light-pipe laser propagating in circularly-polarized TE mode. It is predicted that fiber-optic distributed-feedback laser would have gain on order of 25 dB.
Studies of Phonon Anharmonicity in Solids
Lan, Tian
Today our understanding of the vibrational thermodynamics of materials at low temperatures is emerging nicely, based on the harmonic model in which phonons are independent. At high temperatures, however, this understanding must accommodate how phonons interact with other phonons or with other excitations. We shall see that the phonon-phonon interactions give rise to interesting coupling problems, and essentially modify the equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of materials, e.g., thermodynamic stability, heat capacity, optical properties and thermal transport of materials. Despite its great importance, to date the anharmonic lattice dynamics is poorly understood and most studies on lattice dynamics still rely on the harmonic or quasiharmonic models. There have been very few studies on the pure phonon anharmonicity and phonon-phonon interactions. The work presented in this thesis is devoted to the development of experimental and computational methods on this subject. Modern inelastic scattering techniques with neutrons or photons are ideal for sorting out the anharmonic contribution. Analysis of the experimental data can generate vibrational spectra of the materials, i.e., their phonon densities of states or phonon dispersion relations. We obtained high quality data from laser Raman spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and inelastic neutron spectrometer. With accurate phonon spectra data, we obtained the energy shifts and lifetime broadenings of the interacting phonons, and the vibrational entropies of different materials. The understanding of them then relies on the development of the fundamental theories and the computational methods. We developed an efficient post-processor for analyzing the anharmonic vibrations from the molecular dynamics (MD) calculations. Currently, most first principles methods are not capable of dealing with strong anharmonicity, because the interactions of phonons are ignored at finite temperatures. Our method adopts the Fourier transformed velocity autocorrelation method to handle the big data of time-dependent atomic velocities from MD calculations, and efficiently reconstructs the phonon DOS and phonon dispersion relations. Our calculations can reproduce the phonon frequency shifts and lifetime broadenings very well at various temperatures. To understand non-harmonic interactions in a microscopic way, we have developed a numerical fitting method to analyze the decay channels of phonon-phonon interactions. Based on the quantum perturbation theory of many-body interactions, this method is used to calculate the three-phonon and four-phonon kinematics subject to the conservation of energy and momentum, taking into account the weight of phonon couplings. We can assess the strengths of phonon-phonon interactions of different channels and anharmonic orders with the calculated two-phonon DOS. This method, with high computational efficiency, is a promising direction to advance our understandings of non-harmonic lattice dynamics and thermal transport properties. These experimental techniques and theoretical methods have been successfully performed in the study of anharmonic behaviors of metal oxides, including rutile and cuprite stuctures, and will be discussed in detail in Chapters 4 to 6. For example, for rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2), we found that the anomalous anharmonic behavior of the B1g mode can be explained by the volume effects on quasiharmonic force constants, and by the explicit cubic and quartic anharmonicity. For rutile tin dioxide (SnO2), the broadening of the B2 g mode with temperature showed an unusual concave downwards curvature. This curvature was caused by a change with temperature in the number of down-conversion decay channels, originating with the wide band gap in the phonon dispersions. For silver oxide (Ag2O), strong anharmonic effects were found for both phonons and for the negative thermal expansion.
Analgesic action of laser therapy (LLLT) in an animal model
Daniel Pozza; Patricia Fregapani; João Weber; Marília Gerhardt de Oliveira; Marcos André de Oliveira; Nelson Ribeiro Neto; João Macedo Sobrinho
2008-01-01
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the analgesic effect of laser therapy on healthy tissue of mice.STUDY DESIGN: Forty-five animals were divided in three groups of 15: A--infrared laser irradiation (830 nm, Kondortech, São Carlos, SP, Brazil); B--red laser irradiation (660 nm, Kondortech, São Carlos, SP, Brazil); C-- ham irradiation with laser unit off. After laser application, the mice remained immobilized for the injection of 30 microl of 2% formalin in the plantar pad of the irradiated hind paw. The ...
Line-coincidence schemes for producing laser action at soft-x-ray wavelengths
Line-coincidence schemes for producing laser action in the wavelength regime 100-30A are reviewed. Schemes involving pumping of 2→4 transitions in neon-like ions are singled out as particularly attractive
Laser therapy of infectious diseases: results and mechanism of therapeutic action
Ovsiannikov, Victor; Sologub, T.; Pustashova, N.; Kuznetsov, N.; Masterova, O.; Rakhmanova, A.; Sizova, N.; Karpushina, I. A.
2001-10-01
We used laser therapies for viral hepatitis since 1993 and for HIV-patients since 1995. For these purposes we developed the special infrared laser and proposed some schemes of laser action on organism. Our laser works in pulse-periodical regime on the wavelength 890 nm with an average power of laser radiation (10 divided by 60) mW. All laser action was produced transcutaneous only. We did not observe any side effects or negative results from laser therapy with our laser. The treatment of viral hepatitis was produced by means of irradiation a blood in cubital veins, liver and thymus (breast bone area). Laser therapy was produced both on the usual base and disintoxical therapies. More than 300 viral hepatitis patients had received the laser treatment and for the most of them it gave a positive results. The treatment of HIV-patients was produced by means of irradiation six areas of their organism, which are responsible for immune system work. All our HIV-patients (25 men) who received laser treatment live up to now.
Phonon-Assisted Anti-Stokes Lasing in ZnTe Nanoribbons.
Zhang, Qing; Liu, Xinfeng; Utama, M Iqbal Bakti; Xing, Guichuan; Sum, Tze Chien; Xiong, Qihua
2016-01-01
Phonon-assisted anti-Stokes emission and its stimulated emission in polar semiconductor ZnTe are demonstrated via the annihilation of phonons as a result of strong exciton-phonon coupling. The findings are not only important for developing high-power radiation-balanced lasers, but are also promising for manufacturing ultraefficient solid-state laser coolers. PMID:26573758
The wavelength-dependent threshold and power performance of an injectorless quantum cascade laser design using four alloys and the two-phonon-resonance depletion scheme were investigated. A 7 µm design, which reached threshold current densities as low as 0.45 kA cm−2 at 300 K and overall efficiencies above 2%, was taken as a reference. Variations in layer thickness and composition were applied to study the effects of coupling energy and transition time, increasing the output efficiency up to 5.7%. With regard to the transmission windows from 3 to 5 µm and 8 to 12 µm, the design scheme of the reference was also modified to emission wavelengths between 5 and 9 µm. All devices yield threshold current densities below 1.5 kA cm−2 at 300 K, and at least 550 mW of output power. The characteristic temperatures vary indirectly proportional to the emission wavelength from 100 K at 5 µm to 300 K at 9 µm
Epidermal laser stimulation of action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve
Jindra, Nichole M.; Goddard, Douglas; Imholte, Michelle; Thomas, Robert J.
2010-01-01
Measurements of laser-stimulated action potentials in the sciatic nerve of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) are made using two infrared lasers. The dorsal sides of the frog's hind limbs are exposed to short-pulsed 1540- and 1064-nm wavelengths at three separate spot sizes: 2, 3, and 4 mm. Energy density thresholds are determined for eliciting an action potential at each experimental condition. Results from these exposures show similar evoked potential thresholds for both wavelengths. The 2-mm-diam spot sizes yield action potentials at radiant exposure levels almost double that seen with larger beam sizes.
Manipulation of Phonons with Phononic Crystals
Leseman, Zayd Chad [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-07-09
There were three research goals associated with this project. First, was to experimentally demonstrate phonon spectrum control at THz frequencies using Phononic Crystals (PnCs), i.e. demonstrate coherent phonon scattering with PnCs. Second, was to experimentally demonstrate analog PnC circuitry components at GHz frequencies. The final research goal was to gain a fundamental understanding of phonon interaction using computational methods. As a result of this work, 7 journal papers have been published, 1 patent awarded, 14 conference presentations given, 4 conference publications, and 2 poster presentations given.
Plasma formation on a metal surface under combined action of laser and microwave radiation
By means of numerical modelling of the combined effect of laser (1.06 mm) and microwave (1010 1013 s-1) radiation on the aluminium surface in vacuum it is shown that the additional action of microwave radiation with the frequency 1012 s-1 provides complete ionisation of the metal vapour (for the values of laser radiation duration and intensity used in the calculations), while in the absence of microwave radiation the vapour remains weakly ionised. The mathematical model used accounts for the processes, occurring in the condensed phase (heat conduction, melting), the evaporation and the kinetic processes in the resulting vapour. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)
Plasma and Shock Generation by Indirect Laser Pulse Action
In the paper the results of our experiment with flyer disks, accelerated to high velocities by the PALS iodine laser and subsequently creating craters when hitting massive targets , are presented. We have carried out experiments with the double targets consisted of a disk placed in front of a massive target part at distances of either 200 or 500 μm. Both elements of the targets were made of Al. The following disk irradiation conditions were used: laser energy of 130 J, laser wavelength of 1.315 μm, pulse duration of 0.4 ns, and laser spot diameter of 250 μm. To measure some plasma parameters and accelerated disk velocity a three frame interferometric system was used. Efficiency of crater creation by a disk impact was determined from the crater parameters, which were obtained by means of a crater replica technique. The experimental results concern two main stages: (a) ablative plasma generation and disk acceleration and (b) disk impact and crater creation. Spatial density distributions at different moments of plasma generation and expansion are shown. Discussion of the experimental results on the basis of a 2-D theoretical model of the laser -- solid target interaction is carried out
Synthesis of nanoporous structures in metallic materials under laser action
Kazanskiy, N. L.; Murzin, S. P.; Osetrov, Ye. L.; Tregub, V. I.
2011-11-01
We defined conditions of the laser-aided formation of nanoporous structures with nanopores ranging in size from 40 to 50 nm using laser pulses of 10.6 μm wavelength at a pulse-repetition rate of up to (4-5)×10 3 Hz for a model metallic material (a two-component alloy "brass of 62%"). It has been established that the exposure to a uniform laser light at depths of up to 25-30 μm results in the formation of nanopores with a relatively uniform distribution across the surface. The resulting pattern contains both solitary pores and ramified porous channels. The nanopores are uniformly distributed within a subgrain, being fairly stable in size and shape. The nanopore size and shape feature larger non-uniformity on the subgrain boundary. The resulting metallic structures show promise for use as catalysts and ultrafiltration membranes.
Denis L. Nika; Balandin, Alexander A.
2012-01-01
Properties of phonons - quanta of the crystal lattice vibrations - in graphene have attracted strong attention of the physics and engineering communities. Acoustic phonons are the main heat carriers in graphene near room temperature while optical phonons are used for counting the number of atomic planes in Raman experiments with few-layer graphene. It was shown both theoretically and experimentally that transport properties of phonons, i.e. energy dispersion and scattering rates, are substant...
Study on modes of energy action in laser-induction hybrid cladding
The shape and microstructure in laser-induction hybrid cladding were investigated, in which the cladding material was provided by means of three different methods including the powder feeding, cold pre-placed coating (CPPC) and thermal pre-placed coating (TPPC). Moreover, the modes of energy action in laser-induction hybrid cladding were also studied. The results indicate that the cladding material supplying method has an important influence on the shape and microstructure of coating. The influence is decided by the mode of energy action in laser-induction hybrid cladding. During the TPPC hybrid cladding of Ni-based alloy, the laser and induction heating are mainly performed on coating. During the CPPC hybrid cladding of Ni-based alloy, the laser and induction heating are mainly performed on coating and substrate surface, respectively. In powder feeding hybrid cladding, a part of laser is absorbed by the powder particles directly, while the other part of laser penetrating powder cloud radiates on the molten pool. Meanwhile, the induction heating is entirely performed on the substrate. In addition, the wetting property on the interface is improved and the metallurgical bond between the coating and substrate is much easier to form. Therefore, the powder feeding laser-induction hybrid cladding has the highest cladding efficiency and the best bond property among three hybrid cladding methods.
Frequency stabilization of the zero-phonon line of a quantum dot via phonon-assisted active feedback
Hansom, Jack; Schulte, Carsten H. H.; Matthiesen, Clemens; Stanley, Megan J.; Atatre, Mete [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)
2014-10-27
We report on the feedback stabilization of the zero-phonon emission frequency of a single InAs quantum dot. The spectral separation of the phonon-assisted component of the resonance fluorescence provides a probe of the detuning between the zero-phonon transition and the resonant driving laser. Using this probe in combination with active feedback, we stabilize the zero-phonon transition frequency against environmental fluctuations. This protocol reduces the zero-phonon fluorescence intensity noise by a factor of 22 by correcting for environmental noise with a bandwidth of 191?Hz, limited by the experimental collection efficiency. The associated sub-Hz fluctuations in the zero-phonon central frequency are reduced by a factor of 7. This technique provides a means of stabilizing the quantum dot emission frequency without requiring access to the zero-phonon emission.
Frequency stabilization of the zero-phonon line of a quantum dot via phonon-assisted active feedback
We report on the feedback stabilization of the zero-phonon emission frequency of a single InAs quantum dot. The spectral separation of the phonon-assisted component of the resonance fluorescence provides a probe of the detuning between the zero-phonon transition and the resonant driving laser. Using this probe in combination with active feedback, we stabilize the zero-phonon transition frequency against environmental fluctuations. This protocol reduces the zero-phonon fluorescence intensity noise by a factor of 22 by correcting for environmental noise with a bandwidth of 191?Hz, limited by the experimental collection efficiency. The associated sub-Hz fluctuations in the zero-phonon central frequency are reduced by a factor of 7. This technique provides a means of stabilizing the quantum dot emission frequency without requiring access to the zero-phonon emission.
Cautionary note concerning the CuSO4 X-ray laser. [alternative to lasing action
Billman, K. W.; Mark, H.
1973-01-01
For the so far unconfirmed lasing action claimed by Kepros et al. (1972) to have been obtained by focusing a 1.06-micron radiation of a q-switched Nd(3+) glass laser to a small cylindrical volume inside a CuSO4-doped gelatin medium supported between two glass plates, an alternate explanation is proposed that does not depend on the assumption of laser action in copper. The proposed explanation shows how collimated X-ray beams might be created under the experimental conditions described by Kepros et al.
Experimental aspects concerning the laser action on the living tissue
Ciuchita, Tavi; Antipa, Ciprian; Stanescu, Constantin S.; Anghel, Sorin; Calugareanu, Mircea
2001-06-01
The paper presents some experimental methods of the treatment and investigation aspects and results concerning the interaction of the low energy laser (LEL) with living tissue in the treatment of some skin diseases: lichen ruber planus (LP) and infectious finger pulpits (IFP), scalp alopecia (SA) and crural ulcers (CU). We concluded that LEL therapy is a useful complementary method in the treatments of these skin diseases .
Stimulated emission of phonons in an acoustic cavity
Tilstra, Lieuwe Gijsbert
2001-10-01
This thesis will present experiments on stimulated emission of phonons in dilute ruby following complete population inversion of the Zeeman-split E(2E) Kramers doublet by selective pulsed optical pumping into its upper component. The resulting phonon avalanches are detected by use of the R1 luminescence emanating from the inverted zone, located near the end face where the laser beam enters the crystal. The phonons appear to team up into a highly directional phonon beam. The phonon frequency is tunable from, say, 10-100 GHz via the magnetic field splitting of the doublet. Remarkably, the population of the lower doublet component, which is a measure of the number of phonons generated, evolves with a sequence of distinct steps. The time interval in between these steps equals 2L/v, corresponding to the time the phonons need to return to the inverted zone by reflection at the opposite end face at a distance L. The end faces of the ruby crystal thus form an acoustic cavity. The phonon beam passes the inverted zone repeatedly to be amplified further, in a manner similar to light in an optical laser. In other words, the basic ingredients for a phonon laser have been established.
Length-scale dependent phonon interactions
Srivastava, Gyaneshwar
2014-01-01
This book presents a comprehensive description of phonons and their interactions in systems with different dimensions and length scales. Internationally-recognized leaders describe theories and measurements of phonon interactions in relation to the design of materials with exotic properties such as metamaterials, nano-mechanical systems, next-generation electronic, photonic, and acoustic devices, energy harvesting, optical information storage, and applications of phonon lasers in a variety of fields. The emergence of techniques for control of semiconductor properties and geometry has enabled engineers to design structures in which functionality is derived from controlling electron behavior. As manufacturing techniques have greatly expanded the list of available materials and the range of attainable length scales, similar opportunities now exist for designing devices whose functionality is derived from controlling phonon behavior. However, progress in this area is hampered by gaps in our knowledge of phono...
Forming of Rydberg wave packet under the action of the pulse of Ti:sapphire laser
Derbov, V. L.; Teper, N. I.
2009-10-01
We present the results of numerical modelling of population dynamics in a hydrogen atom under the action of laser pulses of various duration, intensity and frequency. The possibility of formation of wave packets, including the states with high values of orbital and magnetic quantum numbers, via multiple transitions between the states of discrete and continuous spectrum under the action of the laser field is studied. The model is based on the expansion of the electron wave function over a large basis of hydrogen eigenstates of discrete and continuous spectrum. Ionization losses are taken into account by using a realistic model of the continuum. Partial localization of electron density in radial and angular variables is demonstrated. Most suitable conditions for wave packet formation are discussed for attainable lasers parameters.
Phonon counting and intensity interferometry of a nanomechanical resonator
Cohen, Justin D; MacCabe, Gregory S; Groblacher, Simon; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D; Painter, Oskar
2014-01-01
Using an optical probe along with single photon detection we have performed effective phonon counting measurements of the acoustic emission and absorption processes in a nanomechanical resonator. Applying these measurements in a Hanbury Brown and Twiss set-up, phonon correlations of the nanomechanical resonator are explored from below to above threshold of a parametric instability leading to self-oscillation of the resonator. Discussion of the results in terms of a "phonon laser", and analysis of the sensitivity of the phonon counting technique are presented.
Control of generation regimes of ring chip laser under the action of the stationary magnetic field
Aulova, T V; Kravtsov, Nikolai V; Lariontsev, E G; Chekina, S N; Firsov, V V [D.V. Skobel' tsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2013-05-31
We consider realisation of different generation regimes in an autonomous ring chip laser, which is a rather complicated problem. We offer and demonstrate a simple and effective method for controlling the radiation dynamics of a ring Nd:YAG chip laser when it is subjected to a stationary magnetic field producing both frequency and substantial amplitude nonreciprocities. The amplitude and frequency nonreciprocities of a ring cavity, arising under the action of this magnetic field, change when the magnet is moved with respect to the active element of the chip laser. Some self-modulation and stationary generation regimes as well as the regime of beatings and dynamic chaos regime are experimentally realised. Temporal and spectral characteristics of radiation are studied and conditions for the appearance of the generation regime are found. (control of laser radiation parameters)
Andrianov, S.N.; Samartsev, V.V.; Sheibut, Y.E. [Zavoiskii Physicotechnical Institute, Tatarstan (Russian Federation)
1995-09-01
The theory of photon-phonon superradiation in extended samples of impurity molecular crystals was developed within the framework of the nonequilibrium statistical operator method. Optical superradiation on indirect transitions of anisotropic impurity molecules involving resonant phonons under conditions of their hermodynamic equilibrium was studied. Two-quantum superradiation on a Stokes indirect transition accompanied by emission of coherent photons and phonons with nonequilibrium initial phonon subsystem was also examined. Prerequisites to the effect were analyzed and its main properties were described. 16 refs., 3 figs.
Phonon - mediated particle detection
When an incident particle collides with an electron or nucleus in an insulating crystal, the recoil kinetic energy is converted rapidly into a burst of low-energy phonons. If the crystal is very pure and free of defects, and if it is very cold, (T--0.1K), the phonons will propagate ballistically for distances of several centimeters. The authors report on experiments with two types of superconducting phonon sensors being considered for use on a new kind of particle detector, called a Silicon Crystal Acoustic Detector (SiCAD), which reads out phonons generated by particle scattering events
Heterogeneous Quantum Phonon Pumping in Plasmon-Enhanced Raman Scattering
Yang, Tian
2016-01-01
Ultrahigh enhancement of Stokes Raman scattering in plasmonic hotspots can create a considerable number of molecular vibration phonons at low laser powers. We show that this effect results in and is manifested by a heterogeneous dependence of plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering intensity on laser power. By quantization of the molecular vibration coherent state into phonon number states, and by incorporating different Raman activities for different Stokes transitions, we theoretically predict a heterogeneous multi-stage phonon pumping phenomenon for resonant Raman molecules, which includes a saturation stage and a stimulated phonon emission stage. Experimental results are presented to prove the theory, by measuring gold nanosphere-plane antennas under radially polarized excitation, with a monolayer of malachite green isothiocyanate molecules in the junction gap. The theory and experiment on heterogeneous quantum phonon pumping are fundamental to the understanding of plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering and its phot...
Phonon-induced polariton superlattices
de Lima, Jr., M. M.; Poel, Mike van der; Santos, P. V.; Hvam, Jrn Mrcher
2006-01-01
We show that the coherent interaction between microcavity polaritons and externally stimulated acoustic phonons forms a tunable polariton superlattice with a folded energy dispersion determined by the phonon population and wavelength. Under high phonon concentration, the strong confinement of the...
Vertical cavity surface emitting laser action of an all monolithic ZnO-based microcavity
Kalusniak, S; Halm, S; Henneberger, F
2010-01-01
We report on room temperature laser action of an all monolithic ZnO-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) under optical pumping. The VCSEL structure consists of a 2{\\lambda} microcavity containing 8 ZnO/Zn(0.92)Mg(0.08)O quantum wells embedded in epitaxially grown Zn(0.92)Mg(0.08)O/Zn(0.65)Mg(0.35)O distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs). As a prerequisite, design and growth of high reflectivity DBRs based on ZnO and (Zn,Mg)O for optical devices operating in the ultraviolet and blue-green spectral range are discussed.
Self-consistent phonon scheme given by S. Takeno and M. Goda involving multiple scattering and phonon eigen frequencies which are expressed in terms of many body correlation function of atoms as well as of interatomic potential in the solids, has been employed for calculating the collective modes in liquid rubidium. Simplified numerical calculations of the eigen frequencies of longitudinal and transverse phonons in this liquid metal are made within the framework of 'quasi-crystalline approximation'. The model potential used in these calculations is the potential of D.L. Price for liquid rubidium. An attempt has also been made to estimate the phonon damping (phonon lifetime) in terms of a cut-off parameter q0 in this liquid metal. (author)
New easy melted laser garnet crystals : structural defects, spectroscopic and laser action study
The paper is devoted to the problem of creation of new laser materials with the garnet structure doped with Nd3+. The melting point of the series of calcium-gallium-niobium garnets (CNGG) doped with Nd3+ is below 1500degC. These garnets can be grown from melt by Czochralski method from platinum crucibles. The method of studying the structural defects in CNGG crystals by Raman spectroscopy is described. A connection of peculiarities of the structure of CNGG single crystals with laser performances of these materials is discussed. (author). 14 refs., 6 figs
Phonon-Phonon Interaction In Carbon Nanotube Assemblies.
Aliev, Ali; Zhang, Mei; Zakhidov, Anvar; Baughman, Ray
2007-03-01
We present the comparative study of the anisotropic 1D thermal conductivity and the thermal diffusivity of assemblies of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) comprising an increasing number of aligned free standing carbon nanotubes (SWNT and MWNT) using two techniques: laser flash and self-heating 3? methods. The concept of mode quenching is considered for alignment of few individual CNTs. The length dependence of thermal conductivity is studied for CNT with different number of intrinsic defects (HiPCO, Laser ablation, Arc-Charge). The extremely high surface area of CNT assemblies like highly aligned MWNT sheet [1] leads to the excessive radial radiation of the heat and dose not allow to transfer the heat energy by means of phonons to distances more than 2 mm. [1]. M. Zhang, S. Fang, A. A. Zakhidov, S. B. Lee, A. E. Aliev, C. D. Williams, K. R. Atkinson, R. H. Baughman, Science 309, 1215 (2005).
Microscopic model of a phononic refrigerator
Arrachea, Liliana; Chamon, Claudio; Capaz, Rodrigo
2012-01-01
We analyze a simple microscopic model to pump heat from a cold to a hot reservoir in a nanomechanical system. The model consists of a one-dimensional chain of masses and springs coupled to a back gate through which a time-dependent perturbation is applied. The action of the gate is to modulate the coupling of the masses to a substrate via additional springs that introduce a moving phononic barrier. We solve the problem numerically using non-equilibrium Green function techniques. For low driving frequencies and for sharp traveling barriers, we show that this microscopic model realizes a phonon refrigerator.
Microscopic model of a phononic refrigerator
Arrachea, Liliana; Mucciolo, Eduardo R.; Chamon, Claudio; Capaz, Rodrigo B.
2012-09-01
We analyze a simple microscopic model to pump heat from a cold to a hot reservoir in a nanomechanical system. The model consists of a one-dimensional chain of masses and springs coupled to a back gate through which a time-dependent perturbation is applied. The action of the gate creates a moving phononic barrier by locally pinning a mass. We solve the problem numerically using a nonequilibrium Green's function technique. For low driving frequencies and for sharp traveling barriers, we show that this microscopic model realizes a phonon refrigerator.
Birefringent phononic structures
I. E. Psarobas
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Within the framework of elastic anisotropy, caused in a phononic crystal due to low crystallographic symmetry, we adopt a model structure, already introduced in the case of photonic metamaterials, and by analogy, we study the effect of birefringence and acoustical activity in a phononic crystal. In particular, we investigate its low-frequency behavior and comment on the factors which determine chirality by reference to this model.
Birefringent phononic structures
Psarobas, I. E., E-mail: ipsarob@phys.uoa.gr; Exarchos, D. A.; Matikas, T. E. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 451 10 Ioannina (Greece)
2014-12-15
Within the framework of elastic anisotropy, caused in a phononic crystal due to low crystallographic symmetry, we adopt a model structure, already introduced in the case of photonic metamaterials, and by analogy, we study the effect of birefringence and acoustical activity in a phononic crystal. In particular, we investigate its low-frequency behavior and comment on the factors which determine chirality by reference to this model.
The pattern of deformation of the density profile of an inhomogeneous laser plasma flow due to the action of a ponderomotive force is identified. The dynamic pattern of generation of non-linear potential fields in the plasma, including caviton-trapped fields, is demonstrated. By isolating the dissipative mechanisms, it was possible to determine the proportion of the energy dissipated in the plasma as a result of the Cherenkov mechanism of interaction between the potential fields and electrons, and thus, the energy which results in the generation of hot electrons. It was shown that a comparatively low plasma flow rate qualitatively alters the pattern of interaction between laser radiation and a plasma. In particular, the formation of cavitons is impeded, the generation of short-wavelength longitudinal fields is suppressed, and the proportion of electromagnetic radiation energy absorbed as a result of the Cherenkov interaction is reduced, i.e., the energy transferred to the fast electrons is reduced. (author)
Dejneka, S. Y.
1997-12-01
The study of a possible cytotoxic effect of different doses of low-insensitive laser radiation and protective action of low-intensive laser radiation relative to the toxic effect of metals was carried out by means of the alternative method of investigation in vitro on cell cultura Hela. It was established that the investigated doses of low-intensive laser radiation had not produced any toxic effect on cell culture Hela, so the mentioned doses were not cytotoxic. It was revealed that laser radiation reduced the level of the cytotoxic effect of the studied metal salts on the cell culture, and possessed the protective action against the toxic effect of metals. This action has a clear-cut dose- related character.
Luminescence of crystals under the action of subnanosecond electron beam and laser radiation
Lipatov, E. I.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Orlovskii, V. M.; Alekseev, S. B.
2006-02-01
The studies of luminescence of synthetic ruby, natural spodumene and natural IIa type diamond under the action of laser radiation at 222 nm and subnanosecond avalanche electron beam (SAEB) were carried out. It was demonstrated that SAEB parameters allow obtaining high-intensity luminescence of various crystals in the normal conditions without any vacuum equipment used. At the both types of excitation, ruby emission spectra were similar demonstrating luminescence of chrome only. It was shown that photoluminescence spectra of the spodumene and diamond samples contained some bands being absent in SAEB-initiated cathodoluminescence spectra.
Dispersive effect on dual-color laser action from one-dimensional scattering gain media
The dual-color laser action from the Rh6G solution with TiO2 scattering particles is investigated by solving Maxwell’s equations and rate equations of electronic population simultaneously. A one-dimensional (1D) dispersive model is proposed to explain the experiment results. The results indicate that, although the dispersion in optical domain is relatively small, the dispersion for both gain materials and scattering particles has significant influence on modes of random lasing, which lead to more lasing modes and lower spectral intensity. (paper)
Phonon wave propagation in ballistic-diffusive regime
Tang, Dao-Sheng; Hua, Yu-Chao; Nie, Ben-Dian; Cao, Bing-Yang
2016-03-01
Wide applications of ultra-short pulse laser technique in micromachining and thermophysical properties' measurements make the study on ultrafast transient thermal transport necessarily essential. When the characteristic time is comparable to the phonon relaxation time, phonons propagate in ballistic-diffusive regime and thermal wave occurs. Here, ultrafast transient phonon transport is systematically investigated based on the Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, the Cattaneo-Vernotte (C-V) model, and the phonon Boltzmann transport equation (BTE). It is found that remarkable differences exist between the C-V model and the MC simulations when describing the evolution of the thermal wave excited by the ultra-short heat pulse. The C-V model predicts a non-dispersive dissipative thermal wave, while the MC simulation with Lambert emission predicts a dispersive dissipative thermal wave. Besides, different phonon emissions can significantly influence the evolution of the thermal wave in the MC simulations. A modified C-V model with a time- and position-dependent effective thermal conductivity is derived based on the phonon BTE to characterize the evolution of the transport regime from ballistic to diffusive. The integrations on moments of the distribution function cause the loss of the information of the phonon distribution in wave vector space, making the macroscopic quantities incomplete when describing the ballistic transport processes and corresponding boundary conditions. Possible boundary conditions for the phonon BTE in practice are also discussed on different heating methods.
Acoustic wave characterization of silicon phononic crystal plate
Feng, Duan; Jiang, Wanli; Xu, Dehui; Xiong, Bin; Wang, Yuelin
2015-08-01
In this paper, characterization of megahertz Lamb waves in a silicon phononic crystal based asymmetry filter by laser Doppler vibrometer is demonstrated. The acoustic power from a piezoelectric substrate was transmitted into the silicon superstrate by fluid coupling method, and measured results show that the displacement amplitude of the acoustic wave in the superstrate was approximately one fifth of that in the piezoelectric substrate. Effect of the phononic bandgap on the propagation of Lamb wave in the silicon superstrate is also measured, and the result shows that the phononic crystal structure could reflect part of the acoustic waves back.
Complete text of publication follows. Phonon dispersion curves in Vanadium metal are investigated by neutron inelastic scattering using three-axis spectrometers. Due to extremely low coherent scattering amplitude of neutrons in natural isotope mixture of vanadium the phonon frequencies could be determined in the energy range below about 15 meV. Several phonon groups were measured with the polarised neutron scattering set-up. It is demonstrated that the intensity of coherent inelastic scattering observed in the non-spin-flip channel vanishes in the spin-flip channel. The phonon density of states is measured on a single crystal keeping the momentum transfer equal to a vector of reciprocal lattice where the coherent inelastic scattering is suppressed. Phonon dispersion curves in vanadium, as measured by neutron and earlier by X-ray scattering, are described in frames of a charge-fluctuation model involving monopolar and dipolar degrees of freedom. The model parameters are compared for different transition metals with body-centred cubic-structure. (author)
Pacherie, Elisabeth
2012-01-01
In recent years, the integration of philosophical with scientific theorizing has started to yield new insights. This chapter surveys some recent philosophical and empirical work on the nature and structure of action, on conscious agency, and on our knowledge of actions.
Stankov, S; Chumakov, A I; Rueffer, R; Zajac, M [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Sladecek, M; Sepiol, B; Vogl, G [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Slezak, T; Korecki, J [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Lazewski, J; Parlinski, K [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland); Roehlsberger, R [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Spiridis, N; Slezak, M, E-mail: svetoslav.stankov@iss.fzk.d [Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland)
2010-03-01
The systematic investigation of the lattice dynamics from bulk to a single atomic layer of material was a great experimental challenge until now. Recently, nuclear inelastic scattering has been introduced as a unique technique capable of determining the density of phonon states of nanoscale materials in-situ with a depth resolution of one atomic layer. This became possible by setting up a dedicated ultrahigh vacuum system for samples growth and characterization directly at the nuclear resonance beamline ID18 of the ESRF. The new instrument allowed for systematic investigation of the evolution of the density of phonon states of iron from the bulk to a single atomic layer. The isotopic selectivity of the nuclear resonance absorption was employed to experimentally determine the atomic vibrations at and near the Fe(110) surface with a monolayer sensitivity. The experimental achievements stimulated a rapid progress of the ab-initio calculations of surface phonons.
Perrin, Bernard
2007-06-01
The conference PHONONS 2007 was held 15-20 July 2007 in the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (CNAM) Paris, France. CNAM is a college of higher technology for training students in the application of science to industry, founded by Henri Grégoire in 1794. This was the 12th International Conference on Phonon Scattering in Condensed Matter. This international conference series, held every 3 years, started in France at Sainte-Maxime in 1972. It was then followed by meetings at Nottingham (1975), Providence (1979), Stuttgart (1983), Urbana-Champaign (1986), Heidelberg (1989), Ithaca (1992), Sapporo (1995), Lancaster (1998), Dartmouth (2001) and St Petersburg (2004). PHONONS 2007 was attended by 346 delegates from 37 different countries as follows: France 120, Japan 45, Germany 25, USA 25, Russia 21, Italy 13, Poland 9, UK 9, Canada 7, The Netherlands 7, Finland 6, Spain 6, Taiwan 6, Greece 4, India 4, Israel 4, Ukraine 4, Serbia 3, South Africa 3, Argentina 2, Belgium 2, China 2, Iran 2, Korea 2, Romania 2, Switzerland 2, and one each from Belarus, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Egypt, Estonia, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Turkey. There were 5 plenary lectures, 14 invited talks and 84 oral contributions; 225 posters were presented during three poster sessions. The first plenary lecture was given by H J Maris who presented fascinating movies featuring the motion of a single electron in liquid helium. Robert Blick gave us a review on the new possibilities afforded by nanotechnology to design nano-electomechanical systems (NEMS) and the way to use them to study elementary and fundamental processes. The growing interest for phonon transport studies in nanostructured materials was demonstrated by Arun Majumdar. Andrey Akimov described how ultrafast acoustic solitons can monitor the optical properties of quantum wells. Finally, Maurice Chapellier told us how phonons can help tracking dark matter. These 328 presentations gave rise to 185 articles published in the present proceedings. The traditional topics of this conference series (phonons in superconductors and new materials, lattice dynamics, phonons in glasses and disordered materials, phase transitions, light, neutrons and x-ray inelastic scattering) were still very important in the scientific program but an increasing number of contributions occurred in the fields of coherent phonon generation, phonons in nanoscaled structures and nano/micro thermal phonon transport, expressing the growing involvement of condensed matter physicists in nanosciences. Areas like acoustic solitons and phononic crystals are now well established. Two noteworthy contributions have been brought in the long term quest for an operational SASER : one by Harold De Wijn's group from Utrecht in the classical ruby system and another one by Anthony Kent's group from Nottingham, who used semiconductor nanodevices to realize both an amplifying medium and a cavity. With these semiconductor devices the possibility for engineering, generation and detection of THz acoustic phonons are now imminent. By tradition, a prize is awarded every three years at the International Conference on Phonon Scattering in Condensed Matter to honour a scientist for his outstanding contributions to the field of phonon physics. For this twelfth edition, Humphrey Maris has been honoured for his numerous breakthroughs in the physics of phonons and quantum fluids. According to the words of James Wolfe 'Humphrey Maris has delighted and innovated the members of our phonon community with an entertaining style and challenging wit'. Prizes were also awarded for the best presentations during the poster sessions. The two winners were Peter van Capel from Utrecht, Netherlands, ('Simulations of acoustic soliton-induced chirping of exciton resonances') and Patrick Emery from Lille, France, ('Acoustic attenuation in silica in the 100-250 GHz range using coloured picosecond ultrasonics). Both prizes were offered by C'Nano IdF (Centre de Compétence NanoSciences Ile-de-France/Paris District Competence Center in Nanosciences). I want also to point out the strong support given by three institutions: CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique), INSP (Institut des NanoSciences de Paris) and SFA (Socitété Française d'Acoustique). Finally, I would like to thank the members of the different committees who helped for the organization of this conference. I am particularly indebted to Bernard Bonello, Arnaud Devos, Jean-Yves Duquesne, Jean-Yves Prieur and Clément Rossignol for their invaluable help. I appreciated the kindness and efficiency of Armelle Guilloux ('Ellipse & Co'). I want also to express my thanks to close collaborators: Catherine Dematteis, Agnès Huynh and Emmanuel Péronne. During the conference, I appreciated the valuable assistance of Sandrine Guit, Béatrice Desoudin and of the student team. The edition of these proceedings could not have been possible without the tremendous amount of work performed by Jean-Yves Duquesne and the valuable help of Jean-Yves Prieur. I hope that the delegates of PHONONS 2007 enjoyed the program and will be willing to attend the 13th conference which will be chaired by Professor Chi Kuang Sun in Taiwan in 2010. Bernard Perrin, Chairman of PHONONS 2007 Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, Paris, November 2007 Copyright: CNRS Photo - Nicole TIGET. The PDF contains the lists of committee members, sponsors and participants.
Temperature Dependence of Brillouin Light Scattering Spectra of Acoustic Phonons in Silicon
Somerville, Kevin; Klimovich, Nikita; An, Kyongmo; Sullivan, Sean; Weathers, Annie; Shi, Li; Li, Xiaoqin
2015-03-01
Thermal management represents an outstanding challenge in many areas of technology. Electrons, optical phonons, and acoustic phonons are often driven out of local equilibrium in electronic devices or during laser-material interaction processes. Interest in non-equilibrium transport processes has motivated the development of Raman spectroscopy as a local temperature sensor of optical phonons and intermediate frequency acoustic phonons, whereas Brillouin light scattering (BLS) has recently been explored as a temperature sensor of low-frequency acoustic phonons. Here, we report temperature dependent BLS spectra of silicon, with Raman spectra taken simultaneously for comparison. The origins of the observed temperature dependence of the BLS peak position, linewidth, and intensity are examined in order to evaluate their potential use as temperature sensors for acoustic phonons. We determine that the integrated BLS intensity can be used measure the temperature of specific acoustic phonon modes. This work is supported by National Science Foundation (NSF) Thermal Transport Processes Program under Grant CBET-1336968.
Theoretical study on ultrafast dynamics of coherent acoustic phonons in semiconductor nanocrystals
Huang, Tongyun; Han, Peng; Wang, Xinke; Feng, Shengfei; Sun, Wenfeng; Ye, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yan
2016-05-01
We present a theoretical study on the ultrafast dynamics of coherent acoustic phonons in semiconductor quantum dots using continuum model calculations. The excitonic states and the coherent acoustic vibrational modes of semiconductor quantum dots are calculated using the effective mass approximation and continuum elastic medium model, respectively. By solving the Liouville–von Neumann equation and the equation of motion, we obtain the oscillation of coherent acoustic phonon amplitude excited by a pump pulse laser. Owing to the ultrafast excitation of coherent phonons, both the amplitude and the phase of the coherent phonon oscillation are constant with time. This coherent phonon oscillation results in conservation of the coherence of the exciton state, which cannot exist in a system interacting with incoherent phonons. We further study the amplitude and the period of coherent acoustic phonon oscillation as a function of pump pulse energy detuning, quantum dot size, and material.
Coherent phonon-induced optical modulation in semiconductors at terahertz frequencies
The coherent modulation of electronic and vibrational nonlinearities in atoms and molecular gases by intense few-cycle pulses has been used for high-harmonic generation in the soft x-ray and attosecond regime, as well as for Raman frequency combs that span multiple octaves from the terahertz to petahertz frequency regions. In principle, similar high-order nonlinear processes can be excited efficiently in solids and liquids on account of their high nonlinear polarizability densities. In this paper, we demonstrate the phononic modulation of the optical index of Si and GaAs for excitation and probing near their direct band gaps, respectively at ∼3.4 and ∼3.0 eV. The large amplitude coherent longitudinal optical (LO) polarization due to the excitation of LO phonons of Si (001) and LO phonon–plasmon coupled modes in GaAs (001) excited by 10 fs laser pulses induces effective amplitude and phase modulation of the reflected probe light. The combined action of the amplitude and phase modulation in Si and GaAs generates phonon frequency combs with more than 100 and 60 THz bandwidth, respectively. (paper)
Phonon-Assisted Incoherent Excitation of a Quantum Dot and its Emission Properties
Weiler, S; Roy, C; Ulrich, S M; Richter, D; Jetter, M; Hughes, S; Michler, P
2012-01-01
We present a detailed study of a phonon-assisted incoherent excitation mechanism of single quantum dots. A spectrally-detuned laser couples to a quantum dot transition by mediation of acoustic phonons, whereby excitation efficiencies up to 20 % with respect to strictly resonant excitation can be achieved at T = 9 K. Laser frequency-dependent analysis of the quantum dot intensity distinctly maps the underlying acoustic phonon bath and shows good agreement with our polaron master equation theory. An analytical solution for the photoluminescence is introduced which predicts a broadband incoherent coupling process when electron-phonon scattering is in the strong phonon coupling (polaronic) regime. Additionally, we investigate the coherence properties of the emitted light and study the impact of the relevant pump and phonon bath parameters.
PHONONS IN INTRINSIC JOSEPHSON SYSTEMS
Subgap structures in the I-V curves of layered superconductors are explained by the excitation of phonons by Josephson oscillations. In the presence of a magnetic field applied parallel to the layers additional structures due to fluxon motion appear. Their coupling with phonons is investigated theoretically and a shift of the phonon resonances in strong magnetic fields is predicted
This book gives as systematic application of the methods of physical kinetics to phonon systems. The results presented are of direct relevance to materials whose transport and other properties are dominated by phonons. This class of materials includes most common dielectrics as well as such unusual substances as He-II, glasses and some semiconductors. The theory is presented in its rigorous mathematical formulation, and qualitative physical reasoning is given only to elucidate some of the results thus obtained. An introductory chapter, containing the derivation of phonon spectra in the harmonic approximation and the perturbative treatment of anharmonicity as well as the fundamentals of physical kinetics, makes the text accessible for those who enter this field as beginners. Subsequent chapters deal with heat transport, second sound, dielectric losses, sound attenuation, etc. The basic equations of phonon hydrodynamics and the superdiffusion equation are derived and solved for specific cases. The application of sophisticated field-theoretical methods (Kubo formula, Feynman diagrams) is limited and delegated to an appendix, because they only exceptionally go beyond what ordinary quantum-mechanical perturbation theory or the Boltzmann equation provide for the systems under consideration. Th0191thor's preference for the less formal approach gives the reader a grip of the physical significance of the assumptions involved and thus of the limits of validity of the theory. (Auth.)
Neutron scattering has been important in the measurement and interpretation of phonon dispersion relations. As these measurements are extended to higher energies they may yield new types of information or information about different types of systems. Several examples are discussed including: dispersion in high frequency internal modes, application to molecular crystals and the use of vibrational modes of hydrogen as a structural probe
Continuous mode cooling and phonon routers for phononic quantum networks
We study the implementation of quantum state transfer protocols in phonon networks, where, in analogy to optical networks, quantum information is transmitted through propagating phonons in extended mechanical resonator arrays or phonon waveguides. We describe how the problem of a non-vanishing thermal occupation of the phononic quantum channel can be overcome by implementing optomechanical multi- and continuous mode cooling schemes to create a cold frequency window for transmitting quantum states. In addition, we discuss the implementation of phonon circulators and switchable phonon routers, which rely only on strong coherent optomechanical interactions and do not require strong magnetic fields or specific materials. Both techniques can be applied and adapted to various physical implementations, where phonons coupled to spin- or charge-based qubits are used for on-chip networking applications. (paper)
Resonant squeezing and the anharmonic decay of coherent phonons
Fahy, Stephen; Murray, Éamonn D.; Reis, David A.
2016-04-01
We show that the anharmonic decay of large-amplitude coherent phonons in a solid generates strongly enhanced squeezing of the phonon modes near points of the Brillouin zone where energy conservation in the three-phonon decay process is satisfied. The squeezing process leads to temporal oscillations of the mean-square displacement of target modes in resonance with the coherent phonon, which are characteristic of coherent phonon decay and do not occur in the decay of a phonon in a well-defined number state. For realistic material parameters of optically excited group-V semimetals, we predict that this squeezing results in strongly enhanced oscillations of the x-ray diffuse scattering intensity at sharply defined values of the x-ray momentum transfer. Numerical simulations of the phonon dynamics and the x-ray diffuse scattering in optically excited bismuth, using harmonic and anharmonic force parameters calculated with constrained density functional theory, demonstrate oscillations of the diffuse scattering intensity of magnitude 10%-20% of the thermal background at points of the Brillouin zone, where resonance occurs. Such oscillations should be observable using time-resolved optical-pump and x-ray-probe facilities available at current x-ray free-electron laser sources.
Osychenko, A. A.; Zalesskii, A. D.; Krivokharchenko, A. S.; Zhakhbazyan, A. K.; Ryabova, A. V.; Nadtochenko, V. A.
2015-05-01
Using the method of femtosecond laser surgery we study the fusion of two-cell mouse embryos under the action of tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation with the fusion efficiency reaching 60%. The detailed statistical analysis of the efficiency of blastomere fusion and development of the embryo up to the blastocyst stage after exposure of the embryos from different mice to a femtosecond pulse is presented. It is shown that the efficiency of blastocyst formation essentially depends on the biological characteristics of the embryo, namely, the strain and age of the donor mouse. The possibility of obtaining hexaploid embryonal cells using the methods of femtosecond laser surgery is demonstrated.
Phononic crystals fundamentals and applications
Adibi, Ali
2016-01-01
This book provides an in-depth analysis as well as an overview of phononic crystals. This book discusses numerous techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals and covers, among other material, sonic and ultrasonic structures, hypersonic planar structures and their characterization, and novel applications of phononic crystals. This is an ideal book for those working with micro and nanotechnology, MEMS (microelectromechanical systems), and acoustic devices. This book also: Presents an introduction to the fundamentals and properties of phononic crystals Covers simulation techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals Discusses sonic and ultrasonic, hypersonic and planar, and three-dimensional phononic crystal structures Illustrates how phononic crystal structures are being deployed in communication systems and sensing systems.
Min'ko, L. Ya; Chumakou, A. N.; Bosak, N. A.
1990-11-01
A study was made of the interaction of a series of periodic laser (? = 1.06 ?m) pulses with a number of materials (aluminum, copper, graphite, ebonite) in air at laser radiation power densities q = 107-109 W/cm2 and repetition frequencies fradiation was concentrated in spots of ~ 10 - 2 cm2 area. Efficient formation of plasma as a result of laser erosion (q > 2 108 W/cm2, f>=5 kHz) was observed. A screening layer of an air plasma created by the first pulse of the series was expelled from the interaction zone and this was followed by erosion plasma formation under conditions of slight screening of the target during the action of the subsequent laser pulses.
Tunable topological phononic crystals
Chen, Ze-Guo
2015-01-01
Topological insulators, first observed in electronic systems, have inspired many analogues in photonic and phononic crystals in which remarkable one-way propagation edge states are supported by topologically nontrivial bandgaps. Such bandgaps can be achieved by breaking the time-reversal symmetry to lift the degeneracy associated with Dirac cones at the corners of the Brillouin zone. Here, we report on our construction of a phononic crystal exhibiting a Dirac-like cone in the Brillouin zone center. We demonstrate that simultaneously breaking the time-reversal symmetry and altering the geometric size of the unit cell result in a topological transition that is verified by the Chern number calculation and edge mode analysis. The topology of the bandgap is tunable by varying both the velocity field and the geometric size; such tunability may dramatically enrich the design and use of acoustic topological insulators.
Absence of phase-dependent noise in time-domain reflectivity studies of impulsively excited phonons
Hussain, A.
2010-06-17
There have been several reports of phase-dependent noise in time-domain reflectivity studies of optical phonons excited by femtosecond laser pulses in semiconductors, semimetals, and superconductors. It was suggested that such behavior is associated with the creation of squeezed phonon states although there is no theoretical model that directly supports such a proposal. We have experimentally re-examined the studies of phonons in bismuth and gallium arsenide, and find no evidence of any phase-dependent noise signature associated with the phonons. We place an upper limit on any such noise at least 40–50 dB lower than previously reported.
Temperature dependence of Brillouin light scattering spectra of acoustic phonons in silicon
Electrons, optical phonons, and acoustic phonons are often driven out of local equilibrium in electronic devices or during laser-material interaction processes. The need for a better understanding of such non-equilibrium transport processes has motivated the development of Raman spectroscopy as a local temperature sensor of optical phonons and intermediate frequency acoustic phonons, whereas Brillouin light scattering (BLS) has recently been explored as a temperature sensor of low-frequency acoustic phonons. Here, we report the measured BLS spectra of silicon at different temperatures. The origins of the observed temperature dependence of the BLS peak position, linewidth, and intensity are examined in order to evaluate their potential use as temperature sensors for acoustic phonons
Temperature dependence of Brillouin light scattering spectra of acoustic phonons in silicon
Olsson, Kevin S.; Klimovich, Nikita; An, Kyongmo [Department of Physics, Center of Complex Quantum Systems, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Sullivan, Sean [Materials Science and Engineering Program, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Weathers, Annie [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Shi, Li, E-mail: lishi@mail.utexas.edu, E-mail: elaineli@physics.utexas.edu [Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Li, Xiaoqin, E-mail: lishi@mail.utexas.edu, E-mail: elaineli@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics, Center of Complex Quantum Systems, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)
2015-02-02
Electrons, optical phonons, and acoustic phonons are often driven out of local equilibrium in electronic devices or during laser-material interaction processes. The need for a better understanding of such non-equilibrium transport processes has motivated the development of Raman spectroscopy as a local temperature sensor of optical phonons and intermediate frequency acoustic phonons, whereas Brillouin light scattering (BLS) has recently been explored as a temperature sensor of low-frequency acoustic phonons. Here, we report the measured BLS spectra of silicon at different temperatures. The origins of the observed temperature dependence of the BLS peak position, linewidth, and intensity are examined in order to evaluate their potential use as temperature sensors for acoustic phonons.
Electron-phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites.
Wright, Adam D; Verdi, Carla; Milot, Rebecca L; Eperon, Giles E; Pérez-Osorio, Miguel A; Snaith, Henry J; Giustino, Feliciano; Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M
2016-01-01
Phonon scattering limits charge-carrier mobilities and governs emission line broadening in hybrid metal halide perovskites. Establishing how charge carriers interact with phonons in these materials is therefore essential for the development of high-efficiency perovskite photovoltaics and low-cost lasers. Here we investigate the temperature dependence of emission line broadening in the four commonly studied formamidinium and methylammonium perovskites, HC(NH2)2PbI3, HC(NH2)2PbBr3, CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3, and discover that scattering from longitudinal optical phonons via the Fröhlich interaction is the dominant source of electron-phonon coupling near room temperature, with scattering off acoustic phonons negligible. We determine energies for the interacting longitudinal optical phonon modes to be 11.5 and 15.3 meV, and Fröhlich coupling constants of ∼40 and 60 meV for the lead iodide and bromide perovskites, respectively. Our findings correlate well with first-principles calculations based on many-body perturbation theory, which underlines the suitability of an electronic band-structure picture for describing charge carriers in hybrid perovskites. PMID:27225329
Electron - phonon interaction in strongly correlated systems. Acoustical phonon case
We investigate the interaction of strongly correlated electrons with acoustical phonons in the frame of Hubbard-Holstein model. The electron-phonon interaction and on-site Coulomb repulsion are considered to be strong. By using the Lang-Firsov canonical transformation this problem has been transformed to the problem of mobile polarons. A new diagram technique is used in order to handle the strong Coulomb repulsion of the electrons and the existence of phonon clouds surrounding the electrons. The generalized Wick theorems for chronological products of electron and phonon-clouds operators have been formulated. We have found the collective mode of phonon clouds that surround electrons and discussed the physics of the emission and absorption of this mode by the polarons. We have also discussed the difference in the behaviour of optical and acoustical phonon-clouds surrounding polarons during their movement through the crystal lattice. The aim of the present paper is to gain further insight into the mutual influence of strong on-site Coulomb repulsion and strong electron-phonon interaction using the single band Hubbard-Holstein model and a recently developed diagram approach. We consider now the most interesting case as regards superconductivity of coupling of correlated electrons with dispersion acoustical phonons. (authors)
Uglov, A. A.; Smurov, I. Yu; Gus'kov, A. G.; Aksenov, L. V.
1990-08-01
A theoretical study is reported of melting and thermocapillary convection under the action of laser radiation with a nonmonotonic spatial distribution of the power density. An analysis is made of changes in the geometry of the molten bath with time. The transition from a nonmonotonic boundary of a melt, corresponding to the spatial distribution of the radiation, to a monotonic one occurs in a time of the order of 1 ms when the power density of laser radiation is 105 W/cm2. The vortex structure of the flow in the molten bath is governed by the spatial distribution of the laser radiation in such a way that each local power density maximum corresponds to two vortices with oppositely directed velocity components.
Phonon-cavity electromechanics
Mahboob, I.; Nishiguchi, K.; Okamoto, H.; Yamaguchi, H.
2012-05-01
Photonic cavities have emerged as an indispensable tool to control and manipulate harmonic motion in opto/electromechanical systems. Invariably, in these systems a high-quality-factor photonic mode is parametrically coupled to a high-quality-factor mechanical oscillation mode. This entails the demanding challenges of either combining two physically distinct systems, or else optimizing the same nanostructure for both mechanical and optical properties. In contrast to these approaches, here we show that the cavity can be realized by the second oscillation mode of the same mechanical oscillator. A piezoelectric pump generates strain-induced parametric coupling between the first and the second mode at a rate that can exceed their intrinsic relaxation rate. This leads to a mechanically induced transparency in the second mode which plays the role of the phonon cavity, the emergence of parametric normal-mode splitting and the ability to cool the first mode. Thus, the mechanical oscillator can now be completely manipulated by a phonon cavity.
Wu, Tsung-Tsong; Hsu, Jin-Chen; Sun, Jia-Hong
2011-10-01
In the past two decades, phononic crystals (PCs) which consist of periodically arranged media have attracted considerable interest because of the existence of complete frequency band gaps and maneuverable band structures. Recently, Lamb waves in thin plates with PC structures have started to receive increasing attention for their potential applications in filters, resonators, and waveguides. This paper presents a review of recent works related to phononic plate waves which have recently been published by the authors and coworkers. Theoretical and experimental studies of Lamb waves in 2-D PC plate structures are covered. On the theoretical side, analyses of Lamb waves in 2-D PC plates using the plane wave expansion (PWE) method, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, and finite-element (FE) method are addressed. These methods were applied to study the complete band gaps of Lamb waves, characteristics of the propagating and localized wave modes, and behavior of anomalous refraction, called negative refraction, in the PC plates. The theoretical analyses demonstrated the effects of PC-based negative refraction, lens, waveguides, and resonant cavities. We also discuss the influences of geometrical parameters on the guiding and resonance efficiency and on the frequencies of waveguide and cavity modes. On the experimental side, the design and fabrication of a silicon-based Lamb wave resonator which utilizes PC plates as reflective gratings to form the resonant cavity are discussed. The measured results showed significant improvement of the insertion losses and quality factors of the resonators when the PCs were applied. PMID:21989878
Acoustic Metamaterials and Phononic Crystals
2013-01-01
This comprehensive book presents all aspects of acoustic metamaterials and phononic crystals. The emphasis is on acoustic wave propagation phenomena at interfaces such as refraction, especially unusual refractive properties and negative refraction. A thorough discussion of the mechanisms leading to such refractive phenomena includes local resonances in metamaterials and scattering in phononic crystals.
Photon control of phonons in mixed crystal quantum dots
Coherent phonon oscillations in solids can be excited impulsively by a single femtosecond laser pulse whose duration is shorter than a phonon period. In the impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) experiment, scattering of probe is monitored as a function of time with respect to pump to generate time domain spectra of coherent phonons. In this paper, we present one such study of CdSe0.68Te0.32 (d∼80 A) quantum dots in glass matrix, i.e semiconductor-doped glass (SDG) RG780 from Schott, USA and the experiment was performed at Prof. Merlin's laboratory at the University of Michigan, USA. Here, we present first report of selectively driving only CdSe-like modes in these mixed crystal quantum dots using photon control with two pump beams
Photon control of phonons in mixed crystal quantum dots
Ingale, Alka
2003-12-15
Coherent phonon oscillations in solids can be excited impulsively by a single femtosecond laser pulse whose duration is shorter than a phonon period. In the impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) experiment, scattering of probe is monitored as a function of time with respect to pump to generate time domain spectra of coherent phonons. In this paper, we present one such study of CdSe{sub 0.68}Te{sub 0.32} (d{approx}80 A) quantum dots in glass matrix, i.e semiconductor-doped glass (SDG) RG780 from Schott, USA and the experiment was performed at Prof. Merlin's laboratory at the University of Michigan, USA. Here, we present first report of selectively driving only CdSe-like modes in these mixed crystal quantum dots using photon control with two pump beams.
Phonon dispersion relation in zircon
The silicate mineral zircon is one of the major constituents of the earth's crust. The low thermal expansion, structural and chemical stability of zircon ZrSiO4 (space group I41/amd; Z=2) enable it as a host material for radioactive elements uranium and thorium in the earth's crust. Phonon spectrum is needed to understand the thermodynamic behaviour of this mineral. Lattice dynamical calculations of the phonon dispersion relation have been carried out and some acoustic phonons of zircon have also been measured
Increased laser action in commercial dyes from fluorination regardless of their skeleton
The direct and simple fluorination of representative organic laser dyes with emission covering the entire visible spectrum, from blue to red, including Coumarin 460, Pyrromethene 546, Rhodamine 6G and Perylene Red, enhances laser efficiencies by a factor up to 1.8 with respect to the corresponding non-fluorinated parent dyes. More importantly, fluorination also significantly enhances the photostability of the dyes, even under drastic laser pumping conditions. (letter)
Xie, Hongqiang; chu, Wei; Zeng, Bin; Yao, Jinping; Jing, Chenrui; Li, Ziting; Cheng, Ya
2015-01-01
We experimentally investigate generation of backward 357 nm N2 laser in a gas mixture of N2/Ar using 800-nm femtosecond laser pulses, and examine the involved gain dynamics based on pump-probe measurements. Our findings show that a minimum lifetime of population inversion in the excited N2 molecules is required for generating intense backward nitrogen lasers, which is ~0.8 ns under our experimental conditions. The results shed new light on the mechanism for generating intense backward lasers from ambient air, which are highly in demand for high sensitivity remote atmospheric sensing application.
Beller Lectureship: Surface Plasmon Laser Action Near the Surface Plasmon Frequency
Oulton, Rupert F.
2013-03-01
Lasers have recently been scaled in size beyond the diffraction limit of light by using electromagnetic surface excitations of metals. In this talk, I will discuss our approach to constructing surface plasmon (SP) lasers using semiconductor materials and outline potential applications that exploit the strong interaction of nanoscale light with matter. I will also present recent results on room temperature SPs lasers operating near the SP frequency by utilizing Zinc Oxide as a gain material combined with a Silver substrate. Surface plasmon lasers could be the most efficient and compact method of delivering optical energy to the nanoscale. There are two benefits: firstly, the efficiently generated (focused) coherent laser field can be extremely intense; and secondly, vacuum fluctuations within the laser cavity are considerably stronger than in free space. Consequently, SP lasers have the unique ability to drastically enhance both coherent and incoherent light-matter interactions bringing fundamentally new capabilities to bio-sensing, data storage, photolithography and optical communications. While there is a great deal of research to do on SP laser systems, this talk highlights the feasibility of nano-scale light sources and the potential of laser science at the nanoscale.
Tooth bleaching using three laser systems, halogen-light unit, and chemical action agents
Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Housova, Devana; Sulc, Jan; Nemec, Michal; Koranda, Petr; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji
2004-09-01
μThe study describes the preclinical experience with laser-activated bleaching agent for discolored teeth. Extracted human upper central incisors were selected, and in the bleaching experiment 35% hydrogen peroxide was used. Three various laser systems and halogen-light unit for activation of the bleaching agent were applied. They were Alexandrite laser (wavelength 750 nm and 375 nm - SHG), Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 1.064 m), and Er:YAG laser (wavelength 2.94 μm). The halogen-light unit was used in a standard regime. The enamel surface was analyzed in the scanning electron microscope. The method of chemical oxidation results in a 2-3 shade change in one treatment. The halogen-light units produced the same effect with shorter time of bleaching process (from 630 s to 300 s). The Alexandrite laser (750 nm) and bleaching agent helped to reach the desired color shade after a shorter time (400 s). Alexandrite laser (375 nm) and Nd:YAG laser had no effect on the longevity of the process of bleaching. Overheating of the chemical bleaching agent was visible after Er:YAG laser activation (195 s). Slight surface modification after bleaching process was detected in SEM.
Vallabhaneni, Ajit K.; Singh, Dhruv; Bao, Hua; Murthy, Jayathi; Ruan, Xiulin
2016-03-01
Raman spectroscopy has been widely used to measure thermal conductivity (κ ) of two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene. This method is based on a well-accepted assumption that different phonon polarizations are in near thermal equilibrium. However, in this paper, we show that, in laser-irradiated single-layer graphene, different phonon polarizations are in strong nonequilibrium, using predictive simulations based on first principles density functional perturbation theory and a multitemperature model. We first calculate the electron cooling rate due to phonon scattering as a function of the electron and phonon temperatures, and the results clearly illustrate that optical phonons dominate the hot electron relaxation process. We then use these results in conjunction with the phonon scattering rates computed using perturbation theory to develop a multitemperature model and resolve the spatial temperature distributions of the energy carriers in graphene under steady-state laser irradiation. Our results show that electrons, optical phonons, and acoustic phonons are in strong nonequilibrium, with the flexural acoustic (ZA) phonons showing the largest nonequilibrium to other phonon modes, mainly due to their weak coupling to other carriers in suspended graphene. Since ZA phonons are the main heat carriers in graphene, we estimate that neglecting this nonequilibrium leads to underestimation of thermal conductivity in experiments at room temperature by a factor of 1.35 to 2.6, depending on experimental conditions and assumptions used. Underestimation is also expected in Raman measurements of other 2D materials when the optical-acoustic phonon coupling is weak.
Laser action in Rhodamine 6G doped titania-containing ormosils
Hu, Lili; Jiang, Zhonghong
1998-03-01
A new titania-containing ormosil xerogel derived from 80 mol% glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and 20 mol% titanum alkoxide (Ti(OBu) 4) modified by methyl methacrylate (MMA) was synthesized via the sol-gel method as dye laser host. Two kinds of matrices, one without initiator for the polymerization of MMA and another with benzoyl peroxide initiator, were prepared. Their optical properties, microstructure characteristics and surface laser damage thresholds are reported. Laser oscillation was easily achieved in all hand-polished Rhodamine 6G doped titania-containing ormosil xerogels. The effects of dye concentration and dye-matrix combination on the fluorescent emission, slope efficiency, photostability and tunable bandwidth were examined. Benzoyl peroxide is confirmed to be effective in improving the matrix density, but it is harmful to the laser behavior of Rhodamine 6G dye. A laser efficiency of 13% and photostability of 12 GJ/mol were obtained in a 2×10 -4 M Rhodamine 6G doped dye laser. A brief comparison of laser performance and matrix properties of Rhodamine 6G doped dye lasers based on the present matrix and PMMA, ormosil and sol-gel silica glass is made.
Phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials
Ming-Hui Lu; Liang Feng; Yan-Feng Chen
2009-01-01
Phononic crystals have been proposed about two decades ago and some important characteristics such as acoustic band structure and negative refraction have stimulated fundamental and practical studies in acoustic materials and devices since then. To carefully engineer a phononic crystal in an acoustic “atom” scale, acoustic metamaterials with their inherent deep subwavelength nature have triggered more exciting investigations on negative bulk modulus and/or negative mass density. Acoustic surf...
Phonon spectra in quantum wires
Ilić Dušan; Raković Dejan; Šetrajčić Jovan
2007-01-01
Green's function method, adjusted to bound crystalline structures, was applied to obtain the phonon dispersion law in quantum wires. The condition of the existence of small mechanical atom movements defining phonon spectra can be found by solving the secular equation. This problem was presented graphically for different boundary parameters. The presence of boundaries, as well as the change of boundary parameters, leads to the appearance of new properties of the layered structure. The most imp...
Optical investigations of powerful laser actions on massive and flyer targets
In this paper we present experimental, theoretical, and computer simulation studies of craters formation produced by high power lasers in single and double layer targets. The experimental investigation was carried out using the PALS (Prague Asterix Laser System) facility working with two different laser beam wavelengths: λ1 = 1.315 μm and λ3 0.438 μm. Two types of targets made of Al were used: single massive targets and double targets consisting of a foil or disk (6 μm and 11 μm thick for both cases) placed in front of the massive target at the distance of 200-500 μm. Experiments with single massive targets were performed at laser intensities in the range of 1013-1015 W/cm2 by varying the laser beam diameter on the target surface from 70 μm up to 1200 μm (moving the target away from the focus). The double targets were illuminated by laser energies EL = 100-500 J always focused on diameter of 250 μm. In all experiments performed the laser pulse duration was equal to 400 ps. The 3-frame interferometry was employed to investigate the plasma dynamics by means of the electron density distribution time development as well as the disks and foil fragments velocity measurements. Dimensions and shapes of craters were obtained by crater replica technology and microscopy measurement. Experimental results were complemented by two-dimensional analytical theory and computer simulations to help their interpretation. This way the values of laser energy absorption coefficient, ablation loading efficiency and efficiency of energy transfer as well as two-dimensional shock wave generation at the laser-driven macro-particle impact were obtained from measured craters' parameters for both wavelengths of laser radiation. (author)
Maung, S. M.; Katayama, S.
2005-06-01
A theory of Raman laser gain due to coupled intersubband (ISB) plasmon-optical phonon modes in asymmetric coupled double quantum wells (ACDQWs) is presented. Based on the charge-density-excitations (CDE) mechanism, we take into account the electron-electron and electron-phonon (confined LO phonon and interface (IF) phonons) interactions in the scattering cross-section. For Al0.35Ga0.65As/GaAs ACDQWs the calculated coupled mode energies which are responsible for the lasing Stokes emission are well consistent with recent experiments.
Anomalous effect of phonon wind on lateral migration of excitons in ultrathin quantum CdTe/ZnTe well
The effect of the acoustic phonons nonequilibrium flux on the photoluminescence of the CdTe/ZnTe thin quantum well, excited quasi-resonantly by the He-Ne-laser is studied. It is established that the phonon flux leads to the change in the form of the quantum well luminescence band even by low generation capacities. It is assumed that the nonequilibrium phonons flux stimulates the excitons migration in the quantum well plane, conditioned by the tunnel transitions between the potential local minima, which are accompanied by the phonons induced emission
Landry, A
2016-01-01
We consider the possibility of creating a graviton laser. The lasing medium would be a system of contained, ultra cold neutrons. Ultra cold neutrons are a quantum mechanical system that interacts with gravitational fields and with the phonons of the container walls. It is possible to create a population inversion by pumping the system using the phonons. We compute the rate of spontaneous emission of gravitons and the rate of the subsequent stimulated emission of gravitons. The gain obtainable is directly proportional to the density of the lasing medium and the fraction of the population inversion. The applications of a graviton laser would be interesting.
Controlled removal of overpainting and painting layers under the action of UV laser radiation
Apostol, I.; Damian, V.; Garoi, F.; Iordache, I.; Bojan, M.; Apostol, D.; Armaselu, A.; Morais, P. J.; Postolache, D.; Darida, I.
2011-08-01
Laser material removal applied to selective overpaintings and subsequent painting layers detachment was studied in order to select the best cleaning practice of painted artworks. The ablation depth as a function of incident laser fluence/intensity and irradiation pulse number was considered as a reference parameter. We have measured the ablation depth with both a contact microprofilometer and a white light interferometer as a function of laser irradiation parameters. The measurements have evidenced that the ablation depth in our experiments varied between 2 and 100 ?m making possible selective removal of painting.
Nysteen, Anders; Nielsen, Per Kær; Mørk, Jesper
2012-01-01
proper matching between the electronic wavefuntion and the phonon-induced energy shift of valence and conduction band may be exploited to change the decoherence and decay properties of the QD by suppressing the phonon-induced processes. This effect may be addressed in a photoluminescence experiment......, where a CW laser excites a two-level QD which interacts with a non-Markovian reservoir of acoustical phonons, see Fig. 1a. We assume a simple harmonic confinement of the electronic carriers, resulting in Gaussian wavefunctions, (r) / exp[−r2/(2W2 )], withWe (Wg) being the width of the electron (hole......) wavefunction. In Fig. 1b we plot the stationary QD population vs. the laser frequency. We observe that for non-equal electron and hole wavefunction, the phonon-induced effect on the population surprisingly is fully suppressed at specific detunings. In a coupled QD–cavity system [2, 3], see Fig. 2a, this effect...
Phonons and electron-phonon coupling in A15's
A short summary is given on the phonon results obtained by inelastic neutron scattering on polycrystalline samples. Detailed results are reported for recent measurements on single crystals of Nb3Sb (Tsub(c)=0.2 K), which is the first A15 compound for which a complete determination of the phonon dispersion curves has been achieved. The results for Nb3Sb are compared to data taken on Nbsub(3.2)Gesub(0.8) (Tsub(c)=6 K) and Nbsub(3.1)Gasub(0.9) (Tsub(c)=12 K), as well to the limited data available for Nb3Sn. It is found, that in high Tsub(c) A15's the average phonon frequency is somewhat lower than in low Tsub(c) reference compounds. In particular those modes which involve a buckling of the chains are strongly depressed. On the other hand it turned out that the softening on cooling of the shear mode TA110 and of the GAMMA12 mode, as observed in Nb3Sb and V3Si is not a general phenomenon. A brief survey is given on the results of current theoretical investigations of phonons in the A15's. These calculations look promising to explain the observed differences of the phonon spectra in the A15 family. (orig.)
Phonon Josephson junction with nanomechanical resonators
Barzanjeh, Shabir; Vitali, David
2016-03-01
We study coherent phonon oscillations and tunneling between two coupled nonlinear nanomechanical resonators. We show that the coupling between two nanomechanical resonators creates an effective phonon Josephson junction, which exhibits two different dynamical behaviors: Josephson oscillation (phonon-Rabi oscillation) and macroscopic self-trapping (phonon blockade). Self-trapping originates from mechanical nonlinearities, meaning that when the nonlinearity exceeds its critical value, the energy exchange between the two resonators is suppressed, and phonon Josephson oscillations between them are completely blocked. An effective classical Hamiltonian for the phonon Josephson junction is derived and its mean-field dynamics is studied in phase space. Finally, we study the phonon-phonon coherence quantified by the mean fringe visibility, and show that the interaction between the two resonators may lead to the loss of coherence in the phononic junction.
Ultrafast dynamics of carrier LO phonon system in high electric field in polar semiconductors
Iida, M.; Katayama, S.
2001-03-01
The dynamics of carriers excited by an ultrashort laser pulse is simulated numerically in the presence of a strong electric field. The carrier density matrices (DMs) are treated within the equation of motion method by taking interaction with longitudinal optical (LO) phonons into account. It is shown that the temporal evolution of an electron DM exhibits a strong modification owing to LO phonon emissions in addition to interferences between the interband polarization and the optical pulse field in the external strong electric field.
Coherent Longitudinal Acoustic Phonon Approaching THz Frequency in Multilayer Molybdenum Disulphide
Shaofeng Ge; Xuefeng Liu; Xiaofen Qiao; Qinsheng Wang; Zhen Xu; Jun Qiu; Ping-Heng Tan; Jimin Zhao; Dong Sun
2014-01-01
Coherent longitudinal acoustic phonon is generated and detected in multilayer Molybdenum Disulphide (MoS2) with number of layers ranging from 10 to over 1300 by femtosecond laser pulse. For thin MoS2, the excited phonon frequency exhibits a standing wave nature and shows linear dependence on the sample thickness. The frequency varies from 40?GHz to 0.2?THz (10 layers), which promises possible application in THz frequency mechanical resonators. This linear thickness dependence gradually disapp...
Scattering of phonons by dislocations
By 1950, an explicit effort had been launched to use lattice thermal conductivity measurements in the investigation of defect structures in solids. This technique has been highly successful, especially when combined with the measurements of other properties such as optical absorption. One exception has been the study of dislocations. Although dislocations have a profound effect on the phonon thermal conductivity, the mechanisms of the phonon-dislocation interaction are poorly understood. The most basic questions are still debated in the literature. It therefore is pointless to attempt a quantitative comparison between an extensive accumulation of experimental data on the one hand, and the numerous theoretical models on the other. Instead, this chapter will attempt to glean a few qualitative conclusions from the existing experimental data. These results will then be compared with two general models which incorporate, in a qualitative manner, most of the proposed theories of the phonon-dislocation interaction. Until very recently, measurement of thermal conductivity was the only means available to probe the interaction between phonons and defects at phonon frequencies above the standard ultrasonic range of approx. = 109 Hz. The introductory paragraphs provide a brief review of the thermal-conductivity technique and the problems which are encountered in practice. There is also a brief presentation of the theoretical models and the complications that may occur in more realistic situations
Analysis of the stress raising action of flaws in laser clad deposits
Highlights: ► Laser clad defects are 0D-pores/inclusions, 1D-clad waviness or 2D-planar defects. ► Surface pore of laser clad bar initiates fatigue cracks. ► Side edge surface pores are more critical than in-clad surface pores. ► Smaller notch radius and angle of as-laser clad surface raises stress significantly. ► Planar inner defects grow faster towards surface. - Abstract: Fatigue cracking of laser clad cylindrical and square section bars depends upon a variety of factors. This paper presents Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the different macro stress fields generated as well as stress raisers created by laser cladding defects for four different fatigue load conditions. As important as the defect types are their locations and orientations, categorized into zero-, one- and two-dimensional defects. Pores and inclusions become critical close to surfaces. The performance of as-clad surfaces can be governed by the sharpness of surface notches and planar defects like hot cracks or lack-of-fusion (LOF) are most critical if oriented vertically, transverse to the bar axis. The combination of the macro stress field with the defect type and its position and orientation determines whether it is the most critical stress raiser. Based on calculated cases, quantitative and qualitative charts were developed as guidelines to visualize the trends of different combinations
Bacterial action of carbon dioxide laser radiation in experimental dental root canals
The ability of a carbon dioxide laser to sterilize the root canal of human teeth has been investigated. Three oral bacteria, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus, and three other bacteria, Bacillus cereus, Staphyloccus aureus, and Pseudomonoas aeruginosa were used as experimental organisms. Exposure of cells on glass slides to laser radiation showed there was little difference in the exposure required to kill these six organisms. Complete recovery of bacteria from the root canal was initially a problem and was only achieved when bacterial manipulations and removal were carried out in rapid succession, within 5 min of inoculation. However, the geometry of the instrumented canal and the laser alignment were major factors in achieving consistent cell death of oral bacteria in the root canals. Using sets of 10 teeth, four repeated exposures of 10 W for 1 s was found to sterilize 4 or more of the teeth
Full text: This paper presents results of researches of optical hardness of γ -irradiated with doze 104- 109 rad alkali-silicate (K, GLS, LGS) and quartz (KU, KV, KSG) glasses against influence of radiation neodymium laser with intensity q = 0,1-1000 GWt/cm2. It is observed, that the laser produces damage of surface and volume of investigated glasses before and after γ-irradiation. This damage has threshold character and is always accompanied by a bright luminescence of plasma. Definition of threshold values of intensity superficial qs and volumetric qd laser produced damage was made by the complex method - fixing the moment of damage of transparent dielectric by simultaneous registration of the laser impulse which has passed through plasma of breakdown, mass-charge spectrum of ions of plasma and measuring the energy falling on the glass, and of penetrated and mirror-image radiations; and by optical microscopy. This method of research of influence γ-induced in transparent dielectric radiating defects on its optical stability against influence of laser radiation allows not only to define values qs and qd in the investigated interval of dozes, but also to investigate in details physical phenomena taking place in this process of interaction. On the basis of the received data quantitative characteristics of optical durability of the investigated glasses on wave length of λ1,06 microns depending on dozes of γ-irradiation and intensity of laser radiation are made. Doze dependences of charge and power spectra and quantitative characteristics of ions of plasma of breakdown were investigated at q≥ qs. In the investigated interval of dozes of γ- irradiation and intensity of laser radiation by a method of optical microscopy the morphology of occurring laser damage as surfaces, and volume of glass is also studied. It is found, that γ -induced defects in investigated glasses strongly effect on thresholds of damage qs and qd and on characteristics of ions of plasma. Significant growth of total number of ions of all frequency rates of charge NΣ reduction of maximal energy Emax and frequency rates of a charge Zmax ions are observed. Correlation between parameters of superficial damage - threshold qs and the size of damage d and characteristics of ion plasma - NΣ, Zmax and Emax are also observed. Damages, as microscopic researches have shown, looked like the micro crater representing the fused layer with a flat bottom and melted edges. Such structure of craters is consequences of the thermal action accompanying damages by plasma. With growth of a doze γ -irradiations of investigated glasses the sizes of damage grow considerably with the increase in diameter d of formed the craters received at the same values q. It is shown that the increase in intensity of a laser radiation up to 1000 GWt/cm2 leads to the catastrophic damage of the surface leading to breaking of glass. Results of microscopic researches show that the damage of surface and volume of the investigated non- irradiated glasses begins locally in the separate from each other small size parts where the congestion of the absorbing defects breaking the structure of glass was formed. Those are initially present in structure of glass alien impurity inclusions, dislocations and vacancies, bubbles and pores and others of heterogeneity. Concentration of absorbing defects in glass considerably increases due to formation of the radiating defects caused by γ - irradiation. This leads to an additional power consumption of a laser radiation on heating and evaporation of substance of a target, and consequently to reduction of a part of laser radiation, too, which is spent for heating and ionization of plasma. This seems to be a reason for reduction Z max and Emax of emitted ion by plasma and strong growth of output of ions from plasma of γ - irradiated glass connected with recombined processes taking place in plasma. (author)
Low intensity red laser action on Escherichia coli cultures submitted to stress conditions
Clinical applications of low intensity lasers are based on the biostimulation effect and considered to occur mainly at cells under stressful conditions. Also, although the cytochrome is a chromophore to red and near infrared radiations, there are doubts whether indirect effects of these radiations could occur on the DNA molecule by oxidative mechanisms. Thus, this work evaluated the survival, filamentation and morphology of Escherichia coli cultures proficient and deficient in oxidative DNA damage repair exposed to low intensity red laser under stress conditions. Wild type and endonuclease III deficient E. coli cells were exposed to laser (658 nm, 1 and 8 J cm−2) under hyposmotic stress and bacterial survival, filamentation and cell morphology were evaluated. Laser exposure: (i) does not alter the bacterial survival in 0.9% NaCl, but increases the survival of wild type and decreases the survival of endonuclease III deficient cells under hyposmotic stress; (ii) increases filamentation in 0.9% NaCl but decreases in wild type and increases in endonuclease III deficient cells under hyposmotic stress; (iii) decreases the area and perimeter of wild type, does not alter these parameters in endonuclease III deficient cells under hyposmotic stress but increases the area of these in 0.9% NaCl. Low intensity red laser exposure has different effects on survival, filamentation phenotype and morphology of wild type and endonuclease III deficient cells under hyposmotic stress. Thus, our results suggest that therapies based on low intensity red lasers could take into account physiologic conditions and genetic characteristics of cells. (paper)
Action of a 904-nm diode laser in orthopedics and traumatology: a clinical study on 447 cases
Tam, Giuseppe
2001-10-01
Objective: The evidence in medical literature is that a beneficial analgesic effect can only be obtained by employing laser radiation of relatively low power density and wavelengths which are able to penetrate tissue. For this reason the semiconductor, or laser diode (GaAs, 904 nm), is the most appropriate choice in pain-reduction therapy. Summary Background Data: Low power laser (or LLL) acts on the Prostaglandins synthesis, increases the endorphins synthesis in the Rolando gelatinous substance and in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The L-Arginine, which is the classic substrate of nitric oxide, carries on vasodilatory and anti- inflammatory action. Methods: Treatment was carried out on 447 cases and 435 patients (250 women and 185 men) between 20th May 1987 and 31st December 1999. The patients, whose age ranged from 25 to 70, were suffering from rheumatic, degenerative and traumatic pathologies as well as cutaneous ulcers. The majority of patients had been seen by orthopaedists and rheumatologists and had undergone x-ray, ultrasound scan, etc. All patients had previously received drug-based treatment and/or physiotherapy, with poor results. Two thirds were experiencing acute symptomatic pain, while the others presented a chronic pathology with recurrent crises. We used a pulsed IR diode laser, GaAs emitting at 904 nm. Frequency of treatment: 1 application per day for 5 consecutive days, followed by a 2-day interval. The percentage reduction in symptoms or improvement in functional status were determined on the basis of objective analysis as it happens in the Legal and Insurance Medicine field. Results: Very good results were achieved especially with cases of symptomatic osteoarthritis of the cervical vertebrae, with sport-related injuries, epicondylitis, osteoarthritis of the knee, periarthritis and with cutaneous ulcers. The beneficial action of the LLLT in the latter pathology is linked to the increase in collagen and to fibroblast proliferation. The total relief of the pain was achieved in 80% of acute and 65% of chronic cases. Conclusions: Treatment with 904 nm IR diode laser has substantially reduced the symptoms as well as improved the quality of life of the patient, thus postponing the need for surgery.
Laser-assisted drug delivery: mode of action and use in daily clinical practice.
Braun, Stephan Alexander; Schrumpf, Holger; Buhren, Bettina Alexandra; Homey, Bernhard; Gerber, Peter Arne
2016-05-01
Topical application of pharmaceutical agents is a basic principle of dermatological therapy. However, the effective barrier function of the skin significantly impairs the bioavailability of most topical drugs. Fractional ablative lasers represent an innovative strategy to overcome the epidermal barrier in a standardized, contact-free manner. The bioavailability of topical agents can be significantly enhanced using laser-assisted drug delivery (LADD). In recent years, the principle of LADD has become well established for various dermatological indications. Herein, we review the current literature on LADD and present potential future applications. PMID:27119468
A new approach is proposed for correcting the eye refraction by controlled variation of the mechanical properties of the sclera and cornea upon nondestructive laser heating. Experimental ex vivo studies of rabbit and pig eyes show that laser-induced local denaturation of the sclera changes the refraction of the cornea by 3 diopters on the average, and the subsequent nondestructive irradiation of the cornea increases its plasticity, which leads to a further increase in its radius of curvature and a decrease in refraction down to 7 diopters.
Random laser action in stoichiometric Nd3Ga5O12 garnet crystal powder
Iparraguirre, I.; Azkargorta, J.; Kamada, K.; Yoshikawa, A.; Rodríguez-Mendoza, U. R.; Lavín, V.; Barredo-Zuriarrain, M.; Balda, R.; Fernández, J.
2016-03-01
This work explores the room temperature infrared random laser (RL) performance of Nd3+ ions in a new stoichiometric Nd3Ga5O12 crystal powder. The time-resolved measurements show that the RL pulse is able to follow the subnanosecond oscillations of the pump pulse profile. The pump threshold energy and the absolute stimulated emission energy have been measured using a method developed by the authors. The laser slope efficiency is the highest compared to other Nd3+ stoichiometric RL crystals.
Phonon Mapping in Flowing Equilibrium
Ruff, J. P. C.
2015-03-01
When a material conducts heat, a modification of the phonon population occurs. The equilibrium Bose-Einstein distribution is perturbed towards flowing-equilibrium, for which the distribution function is not analytically known. Here I argue that the altered phonon population can be efficiently mapped over broad regions of reciprocal space, via diffuse x-ray scattering or time-of-flight neutron scattering, while a thermal gradient is applied across a single crystal sample. When compared to traditional transport measurements, this technique offers a superior, information-rich new perspective on lattice thermal conductivity, wherein the band and momentum dependences of the phonon thermal current are directly resolved. The proposed method is benchmarked using x-ray thermal diffuse scattering measurements of single crystal diamond under transport conditions. CHESS is supported by the NSF & NIH/NIGMS via NSF Award DMR-1332208.
Phonon thermal conductivity of graphene
Ja?imovski, Stevo K.; Bukurov, Maa; etraj?i?, Jovan P.; Rakovi?, Dejan I.
2015-12-01
The study of graphene thermal conductivity is of great importance, as its anomalous thermal and electrical conductivities (the largest among the all known materials so far) provide very good perspectives for graphene-based nanoelectronics devices. Thermal conductivity of graphene is phonon-based, since its electronic-based thermal conductivity represents less than 1% of the total thermal conductivity at room temperature. For the consideration of the thermal conductivity of graphene the Boltzmann equation in the approximation of relaxation time is used. The relaxation time is determined, with three mechanisms of phonon scattering accounted simultaneously: at defects, at borders, and on phonons. Temperature dependence of thermal conductivity is determined numerically in the range from 15K to 400K. The results obtained are in accordance with some other available results found in literature, obtained either experimentally or by numerical calculations.
Phonon spectra in quantum wires
Ilić Dušan
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Green's function method, adjusted to bound crystalline structures, was applied to obtain the phonon dispersion law in quantum wires. The condition of the existence of small mechanical atom movements defining phonon spectra can be found by solving the secular equation. This problem was presented graphically for different boundary parameters. The presence of boundaries, as well as the change of boundary parameters, leads to the appearance of new properties of the layered structure. The most important feature is that, beside the allowed energy zones (which are continuous as in the bulk structure, zones of forbidden states appear. Different values of the boundary parameters lead to the appearance of lower and upper energy gaps, or dispersion branches spreading out of the bulk energy zone. The spectra of phonons in corresponding unbound structures were correlated to those in bound structures.
Phonon creation by gravitational waves
We show that gravitational waves create phonons in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). A traveling spacetime distortion produces particle creation resonances that correspond to the dynamical Casimir effect in a BEC phononic field contained in a cavity-type trap. We propose to use this effect to detect gravitational waves. The amplitude of the wave can be estimated applying recently developed relativistic quantum metrology techniques. We provide the optimal precision bound on the estimation of the wave's amplitude. Finally, we show that the parameter regime required to detect gravitational waves with this technique could be, in principle, within experimental reach in a medium-term timescale. (paper)
Phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials
Ming-Hui Lu
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Phononic crystals have been proposed about two decades ago and some important characteristics such as acoustic band structure and negative refraction have stimulated fundamental and practical studies in acoustic materials and devices since then. To carefully engineer a phononic crystal in an acoustic “atom” scale, acoustic metamaterials with their inherent deep subwavelength nature have triggered more exciting investigations on negative bulk modulus and/or negative mass density. Acoustic surface evanescent waves have also been recognized to play key roles to reach acoustic subwavelength imaging and enhanced transmission.
Introduction to phonons and electrons
Lou, Liang-fu
2003-01-01
This book focuses on phonons and electrons, which the student needs to learn first in solid state physics. The required quantum theory and statistical physics are derived from scratch. Systematic in structure and tutorial in style, the treatment is filled with detailed mathematical steps and physical interpretations. This approach ensures a self-sufficient content for easier teaching and learning. The objective is to introduce the concepts of phonons and electrons in a more rigorous and yet clearer way, so that the student does not need to relearn them in more advanced courses. Examples are th
A wrinkly phononic crystal slab
Bayat, Alireza; Gordaninejad, Faramarz
2015-03-01
The buckling induced surface instability is employed to propose a tunable phononic crystal slab composed of a stiff thin film bonded on a soft elastomer. Wrinkles formation is used to generate one-dimensional periodic scatterers at the surface of a finitely thick slab. Wrinkles' pattern change and corresponding stress is employed to control wave propagation triggered by a compressive strain. Simulation results show that the periodic wrinkly structure can be used as a transformative phononic crystal which can switch band diagram of the structure in a reversible behavior. Results of this study provide opportunities for the smart design of tunable switch and elastic wave filters at ultrasonic and hypersonic frequency ranges.
Molecular mechanism of therapeutic action of low-intensity visible laser radiation
The presented data testify to possibility of reversible modification of a spatial structure and biocatalytic activity of enzyme (lactate dehydrogenase) under visible laser radiation effect on buffer solutions of enzyme and enzyme-substrate with long-wave maxima of absorption spectrum, located in UV-region
Polaron with disordered electron-phonon interaction
Yavidov, Bakhrom
2014-01-01
A single electron in one dimensional lattice is considered within the framework of extended Holstein model at strong-coupling limit. Disordered density-displacement type electron-phonon interaction is proposed. Basic parameters of small polaron formed due to disordered electron-phonon interaction are calculated. It is shown that disordered electron-phonon interaction substantially influences all properties of the polaron. Depending on disordered electron-phonon interaction polaronic effect mi...
Phonon-thermoelectric transistors and rectifiers
Jiang, Jian-Hua; Kulkarni, Manas; Segal, Dvira; Imry, Yoseph
2015-01-01
We describe nonlinear phonon-thermoelectric devices where charge current and electronic and phononic heat currents are coupled, driven by voltage and temperature biases, when phonon-assisted inelastic processes dominate the transport. Our thermoelectric transistors and rectifiers can be realized in a gate-tunable double quantum-dot system embedded in a nanowire which is realizable within current technology. The inelastic electron-phonon scattering processes are found to induce pronounced char...
Selective coherent phonon mode generation in single wall carbon nanotubes
Nugraha, Ahmad R T; Saito, Riichiro
2016-01-01
The ultrafast pulse-train technique is theoretically investigated to enhance a specific coherent phonon mode while suppressing the other phonon modes generated in single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). In particular, we focus on the selectivity of the radial breathing mode (RBM) and the G-band for a given SWNT. We find that if the repetition period matches with integer multiple of the RBM phonon period, the RBM amplitude could be enhanced while the amplitudes of the other modes are suppressed. As for the G-band, when we apply a repetition rate of half-integer multiple of the RBM period, the RBM could be suppressed because of destructive interference, while the G-band still survives. It is also possible to keep the G-band and suppress the RBM by applying a repetition rate that matches with integer multiple of the G-band phonon period. However, in this case we have to use a large number of laser pulses.
Structure of the phonon vacuum state
Mishev, S
2012-01-01
The action of the long-range residual force on the the expectation value of observables in the nuclear ground-states is evaluated by finding optimal values for the coefficients of the canonical transformation which connects the phonon vacuum state with the (quasi-)particle ground-state. After estimating the improvements over the predictions of the independent particle approximation we compare the ground-state wave functions obtained using the presented approach with those obtained using the conventional random phase approximation (RPA) and its extended version. The problem with overbinding of the nuclear ground state calculated using the RPA is shown to be removed if one sticks to the prescriptions of the present approach. The reason being that the latter conforms to the original variational formulation. Calculations are performed within the two-level Lipkin model in which we present results for the binding energies.
Phonon avalanches in an acoustic cavity
Tilstra, L. G.; Arts, A. F. M.; de Wijn, H. W.
2002-05-01
We have observed stimulated emission of resonant acoustic phonons by Zeeman-split Ē( 2E) doublets in dilute ruby following local population inversion by selective optical pumping. The phonons generated reverberate in the crystal acting as an acoustic cavity, the phonon beam being amplified upon each passage through the active zone. The frequency spread of the avalanche is found to be 55 MHz.
Spectral Singularities and CPA-Laser Action in a Weakly Nonlinear PT-Symmetric Bilayer Slab
Mostafazadeh, Ali
2014-01-01
We study optical spectral singularities of a weakly nonlinear PT-symmetric bilinear planar slab of optically active material. In particular, we derive the lasing threshold condition and calculate the laser output intensity. These reveal the following unexpected features of the system: 1. For the case that the real part of the refractive index $\\eta$ of the layers are equal to unity, the presence of the lossy layer decreases the threshold gain; 2. For the more commonly encountered situations when $\\eta-1$ is much larger than the magnitude of the imaginary part of the refractive index, the threshold gain coefficient is a function of $\\eta$ that has a local minimum. The latter is in sharp contrast to the threshold gain coefficient of a homogeneous slab of gain material which is a decreasing function of $\\eta$. We use these results to comment on the effect of nonlinearity on the prospects of using this system as a CPA-laser.
Cluster formation through the action of a single picosecond laser pulse
We demonstrate experimentally and describe theoretically the formation of carbon nanoclusters created by single picosecond laser pulses. We show that the average size of a nanocluster is determined exclusively by single laser pulse parameters and is independent of the gas fill (He, Ar, Kr, Xe) and pressure in a range from 20mTorr to 200 Torr. Simple kinetic theory allows estimates to be made of the cluster size, which are in qualitative agreement with the experimental data. We conclude that the role of the buffer gas is to induce a transition between thin solid film formation on the substrate and foam formation by diffusing the clusters through the gas, with no significant effect upon the average cluster size
Nemtsev, I Z; Luzhnikov, E A; Lapshin, V P; Gol'dfarb, Iu S; Badalian, A V
1997-01-01
Extracorporeal exposure to LG-79 He-Ne laser of 12 mWt power was used in 57 patients hospitalized at the intoxication reanimation department with acute poisonings with psychotropic drugs. The clinical result was a decrease of the incidence of pneumonia in the patients with x-ray signs of venous congestion from 52% among those administered to physiochemotherapy to 24% after this treatment modality. Laser hemotherapy brought about a temporary normalization of the erythrocyte membrane permeability, which was changed biophysically by means of a diffractometer. Red cell aggregation was approximating the norm, decreasing by 20%, and platelet aggregation decreased by 17%. Analysis of the results brought as to a conclusion that He-Ne laser exposure is an effective source of singlet stimulation of molecular O2 evenly dissolved in the blood, which causes resonance oscillations of water difields. This leads to membrane depolarization, which is probably responsible for purification of polarized membranes from toxic agents fixed by them. PMID:9382223
EMRS Spring Meeting 2014 Symposium D: Phonons and fluctuations in low dimensional structures
2014-11-01
The E-MRS 2014 Spring meeting, held from 26-30th May 2014 in Lille included the Symposium D entitled ''Phonons and Fluctuations in Low Dimensional Structures'', the first edition of its kind. The symposium was organised in response to the increasing interest in the study of phonons in the context of advances in condensed matter physics, electronics, experimental methods and theory and, in particular, the transfer of energy across atomic interfaces and the propagation of energy in the nm-scale. Steering heat by light or vice versa and examining nano-scale energy conversion (as in thermoelectricity and harvesting e.g. in biological systems) are two aspects that share the underlying science of energy processes across atomic interfaces and energy propagation in the nanoscale and or in confined systems. The nanometer scale defies several of the bulk relationships as confinement of electrons and phonons, locality and non-equilibrium become increasingly important. The propagation of phonons as energy carriers impacts not only heat transfer, but also the very concept and handling of temperature in non-equilibrium and highly localised conditions. Much of the needed progress depends on the materials studied and this symposium targeted the interface material aspects as well as the emerging concepts to advance in this field. The symposium had its origins in a series of meetings and seminars including: (1) the first Phonon Engineering Workshop, funded by Catalan Institute for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), the then MICINN, the CNRS, VTT, and several EU projects, held in Saint Feliu de Guixols (Girona, Spain) from 24th to 27th of May 2010 with 65 participants from Europe, the USA and Japan; (2) the first Phonons and Fluctuations workshop, held in Paris on 8th and 9th November 2010, supported by French, Spanish and Finnish national projects and EU projects, attended by about 50 researchers; (3) the second Phonon and Fluctuations workshop, held in Paris on 8th and 9th September 2011, attended by 55 researchers and (4) the 3rd Workshop on Phonons & Fluctuations, held in Saint Feliux de Guixols (Girona, Spain) during 21 to 24th May 2012 attended by 65 participants from Europe and the USA. These papers in this proceeding are examples of the work presented at the symposium. They represent the tip of the iceberg, as the symposium attracted over 100 abstracts. The meeting room was usually full with an audience varying between 40 and 100 participants. The plenary presentation was given by Prof. Gang Chen (MIT) on ''Ballistic and Coherent Phonon Heat Conduction in Bulk Materials and Nanostructures'', which was warmly welcome by an eager and highly motivated audience. The invited speakers were: Prof. Thomas Dehoux (U. Bordeaux), Dr S. Chung (U. New South Wales, Australia), Prof. A. Goni (CSIC-ICMAB), Prof. Giuliano Benenti (U. Insubria), Dr. Davide Donadio (Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz), Prof. George Fytas (University of Crete), Prof. Dr. Tobias Kippenberg (EPFL, Switzerland), Prof. Bernard Perrin (INSP, Paris), Prof. Gyaneshwar P. Srivastava, U. Exeter) and Prof. Dr. Achim Kittel (U. Oldenburg). The organisers are very grateful to them for supporting the symposium and sharing their latest research results with the symposium participants. The symposium organisers recognised the participation of students and awarded prizes to the two Best Student Presentations, which went to Valeria Lacatena (IEMN, Lille) with an invited presentation entitled ''Efficient reduction of thermal conductivity in silicon using phononic-engineered membranes'' and to Yan Qing Liu (Institute Neel, Grenoble) who presented the talk entitled ''Sensitive 3-omega measurements of epitaxial thermoelectric thin films''. The poster session had about fifty posters and the four best poster prizes went to: Konstanze Hahn et al. (U. Cagliari) poster title ''Determination of Thermal conductivity in (nanostructured) SiGe materials'', Florian Doehring et al. (U. Goettingen) poster title ''Phonon blocking in Multilayers produced by Pulsed Laser Deposition'', Jordi Gomis-Bresco et al. (ICN2) poster '' A 1D PhoXonic Crystal'', Barcelona and Benjamin J Robinson et al. (U. Lancaster) poster ''Scanning Thermal microscopy studies of 2D materials''. The symposium organisers are grateful to the Scientific Committee members, Prof. Bahram Djafari-Rouhani (France), Prof. Dr. Thomas Dekorsy (Germany), Prof. Anthony Kent (UK), Prof. Fabio Marchesoni (Italy), Dr. Natalio Mingo (France), Prof. Pascal Ruello, (France) and Prof. Javier Viejo-Rodriguez (Spain), for their help with all aspects of evaluation of the scientific level of the presentations in the symposium. The symposium was sponsored by the FP7 ICT FET Open Coordination Action EUPHONON (GA. 612086) and by the CNRS GDR ''Thermal Nanosciences and NanoEngineering''. The symposium organisers express their sincere thanks to the staff of the E-MRS for continuous support and timely advice in all organisational aspects. We are indebted to Dr. Erwan Guillotel (ICN2) for his assistance with the organisation of the symposium.
Makarona, E.; Daly, B.; Im, J.-S.; Maris, H.; Nurmikko, A.; Han, Jung
2002-10-01
Ultrashort pulse laser techniques have been used to observe and characterize the generation of coherent phonons by rapid screening of strain-induced piezoelectric polarization fields in AlGaN/GaN multilayers. The results are compared with those where coherent phonons are launched by optical techniques without the carrier injections process to show consistency with the anticipated longitudinal phonon dispersion in the nitride semiconductor samples.
Magnon-phonon interconversion in a dynamically reconfigurable magnetic material
Guerreiro, Sergio C.; Rezende, Sergio M.
2015-12-01
The ferrimagnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG) is an important material in the field of magnon spintronics, mainly because of its low magnetic losses. YIG also has very low acoustic losses, and for this reason the conversion of a state of magnetic excitation (magnons) into a state of lattice vibration (phonons), or vice versa, broadens its possible applications in spintronics. Since the magnetic parameters can be varied by some external action, the magnon-phonon interconversion can be tuned to perform a desired function. We present a quantum theory of the interaction between magnons and phonons in a ferromagnetic material subject to a dynamic variation of the applied magnetic field. It is shown that when the field gradient at the magnetoelastic crossover region is much smaller than a critical value, an initial elastic excitation can be completely converted into a magnetic excitation, or vice versa. This occurs with conservation of linear momentum and spin angular momentum, implying that phonons created by the conversion of magnons have spin angular momentum and carry spin current. It is shown further that if the system is initially in a quantum coherent state, its coherence properties are maintained regardless of the time dependence of the field.
Sound and heat revolutions in phononics.
Maldovan, Martin
2013-11-14
The phonon is the physical particle representing mechanical vibration and is responsible for the transmission of everyday sound and heat. Understanding and controlling the phononic properties of materials provides opportunities to thermally insulate buildings, reduce environmental noise, transform waste heat into electricity and develop earthquake protection. Here I review recent progress and the development of new ideas and devices that make use of phononic properties to control both sound and heat. Advances in sonic and thermal diodes, optomechanical crystals, acoustic and thermal cloaking, hypersonic phononic crystals, thermoelectrics, and thermocrystals herald the next technological revolution in phononics. PMID:24226887
Jet formation in spallation of metal film from substrate under action of femtosecond laser pulse
Inogamov, N. A., E-mail: nailinogamov@googlemail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation); Zhakhovskii, V. V. [Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics (Russian Federation); Khokhlov, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation)
2015-01-15
It is well known that during ablation by an ultrashort laser pulse, the main contribution to ablation of the substance is determined not by evaporation, but by the thermomechanical spallation of the substance. For identical metals and pulse parameters, the type of spallation is determined by film thickness d{sub f}. An important gauge is metal heating depth d{sub T} at the two-temperature stage, at which electron temperature is higher than ion temperature. We compare cases with d{sub f} < d{sub T} (thin film) and d{sub f} ≫ d{sub T} (bulk target). Radius R{sub L} of the spot of heating by an optical laser is the next (after d{sub f}) important geometrical parameter. The morphology of film bulging in cases where d{sub f} < d{sub T} on the substrate (blistering) changes upon a change in radius R{sub L} in the range from diffraction limit R{sub L} ∼ λ to high values of R{sub L} ≫ λ, where λ ∼ 1 μm is the wavelength of optical laser radiation. When d{sub f} < d{sub T}, R{sub L} ∼ λ, and F{sub abs} > F{sub m}, gold film deposited on the glass target acquires a cupola-shaped blister with a miniature frozen nanojet in the form of a tip on the circular top of the cupola (F{sub abs} and F{sub m} are the absorbed energy and the melting threshold of the film per unit surface area of the film). A new physical mechanism leading to the formation of the nanojet is proposed.
Kinetic processes in the overdense plasma under the action of ultra-intense laser pulses
The results of numerical and analytical investigation of the ultra-intense laser pulse's interaction with overdense plasma are presented. The mechanisms of the wave field energy transformation into the overdense plasma energy are discussed. The effects of radiation propagation deep into plasma as well as long-living vortex formation, plasma boundary instability, and the surface structures formation are obtained. The basic mechanisms for the absorption of incident radiation and the role played by polarization of the radiation are studied. Nonlinear theory of plasma surface instability in the field of the strong electromagnetic wave is developed. (author)
Ab initio calculations of phonon dispersion and lattice dynamics in TlGaTe{sub 2}
Jafarova, Vusala; Orudzhev, Guseyn; Alekperov, Oktay; Mamedov, Nazim; Abdullayev, Nadir; Najafov, Arzu [Institute of Physics (Innovation Sector), 33 H. Javid ave, Baku 1143 (Azerbaijan); Paucar, Raul [Institute of Physics (Innovation Sector), 33 H. Javid ave, Baku 1143 (Azerbaijan); Chiba Institute of Technology, 2-17-1 Tsudanuma, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016 (Japan); Shim, YongGu [Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Wakita, Kazuki [Chiba Institute of Technology, 2-17-1 Tsudanuma, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016 (Japan)
2015-06-15
This work reports the results of DFT-based calculations of phonon spectra of TlGaTe{sub 2}. The dispersion of phonon bands was calculated along the directions of Brillouin zone (BZ) that include symmetry points. The calculated phonon frequencies at the centre of BZ were compared with those obtained by Raman spectroscopy with the aid of a confocal laser microscopy system. A fairly good agreement between the calculated and experimental data was found. Complimentary, molar heat capacity at constant volume and Debye temperature were calculated in the range 5/500 K on the base of the obtained phonon density of states. The obtained temperature dependencies were compared with available experimental data.The results of comparison were satisfactory. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Ab initio calculations of phonon dispersion and lattice dynamics in TlGaTe2
This work reports the results of DFT-based calculations of phonon spectra of TlGaTe2. The dispersion of phonon bands was calculated along the directions of Brillouin zone (BZ) that include symmetry points. The calculated phonon frequencies at the centre of BZ were compared with those obtained by Raman spectroscopy with the aid of a confocal laser microscopy system. A fairly good agreement between the calculated and experimental data was found. Complimentary, molar heat capacity at constant volume and Debye temperature were calculated in the range 5/500 K on the base of the obtained phonon density of states. The obtained temperature dependencies were compared with available experimental data.The results of comparison were satisfactory. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Coherent Longitudinal Acoustic Phonon Approaching THz Frequency in Multilayer Molybdenum Disulphide
Ge, Shaofeng; Liu, Xuefeng; Qiao, Xiaofen; Wang, Qinsheng; Xu, Zhen; Qiu, Jun; Tan, Ping-Heng; Zhao, Jimin; Sun, Dong
2014-07-01
Coherent longitudinal acoustic phonon is generated and detected in multilayer Molybdenum Disulphide (MoS2) with number of layers ranging from 10 to over 1300 by femtosecond laser pulse. For thin MoS2, the excited phonon frequency exhibits a standing wave nature and shows linear dependence on the sample thickness. The frequency varies from 40 GHz to 0.2 THz (10 layers), which promises possible application in THz frequency mechanical resonators. This linear thickness dependence gradually disappears in thicker samples above about 150 layers, and the oscillation period shows linear dependence on the probe wavelength. From both the oscillation period of the coherent phonon and the delay time of acoustic echo, we can deduce a consistent sound velocity of 7.11*103 m/s in MoS2. The generation mechanisms of the coherent acoustic phonon are also discussed through pump power dependent measurement.
Phonon-phonon interaction in gadolinium-gallium garnet crystals
Propagation velocity and temperature dependence of the sound wave attenuation coefficient in gadolinium-gallium garnet crystals are measured. The measurements are carried out in the frequency range 0.4 to 2.0 GHz and temperature range 77 to 293 K. On the basis of the measurements Debye temperature, specific heat of crystal as a function of temperature, and the temperature dependence of thermal phonon lifetime are determined. For calculation it is assumed that the examined material is isotropic. (author)
Optimization of phonon dynamics protocols in ion traps
Dutta, T.; Mukherjee, M.; Sengupta, K.
2016-03-01
We develop a theory to address the non equilibrium dynamics of phonons in a one-dimensional finite size trapped ion system for non linear ramp and periodic protocols. Our analysis, which is based on our earlier proposal of dynamics-induced cooling and entanglement generation between phonons in these systems when subjected to a linear ramp protocol [1], identifies the optimal protocol within the above-mentioned classes, which minimizes both the cooling and entanglement generation time. We also introduce single-/two-site addressing to achieve cooling/entanglement, which is expected to lead to simpler implementation of these protocols. Finally, we discuss the effect of noise due to the fluctuation of the intensity of the laser used to generate the trap on entanglement generation. We also discuss realistic experimental setups that may serve as test beds for our theory.
Theory of phonon effects on photoemission spectra
Fujikawa, Takashi [Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)], E-mail: tfujikawa@faculty.chiba-u.jp; Arai, Hiroko [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)
2009-08-15
Some important phonon effects observed in core and valence level photoemission spectra are discussed on the basis of nonequilibrium Green's function theory. This theoretical framework allows us to incorporate phonon effects, such as Debye-Waller (DW) factors, Franck-Condon (FC) factors and electron-phonon interactions in a natural way. For the description of the electron-phonon interaction the phonon part of the screened Coulomb propagator plays a crucial role. We separately discuss those effects on photoemission spectra from localized core and extended valence levels. In case of core level excitation, taking into account the core-hole effects on phonon spectra, we can relate the Franck-Condon factors to the electron-phonon interaction, which are interpreted as the intrinsic phonon losses. Phonon losses during propagation in solids can be described by loss Keldysh diagrams similar to those for the plasmon losses, which are closely related to extrinsic losses. In case of extended valence excitation we show that the phonon effects destroy the interference between photoelectron waves in high-energy region, which enhances specific features in the X-ray photoelectron diffraction as observed before. In contrast the DW factors play a very minor role in low energy (UPS) region, and we can obtain detailed information on band structures by the use of angle-resolved measurements.
A phonon study of semiconductor tunnelling devices
This thesis presents phonon pulse measurements of the electron-phonon interaction in semiconductor tunnelling structures. The devices used for the work presented in this thesis were a double barrier resonant tunnelling diode (DBRTD), a triple barrier resonant tunnelling diode (TBRTD) and a superlattice (SL) all formed using consecutive layers of GaAs and AlGaAs. Ballistic pulses of non-equilibrium acoustic phonons were generated by a thin film metal heater fabricated on the opposite face of the GaAs substrate to the tunnelling structure. The phonon pulse incident on the tunnelling structure caused a transient change in the tunnel current, ΔI, which was measured as a function of applied bias (ΔI(V)), magnetic field and characteristic phonon temperature Th. For the DBRTD and TBRTD structures a number of clearly defined peaks occur in ΔI(V) and are attributed to tunnelling via acoustic phonon absorption and stimulated emission. The position of these peaks is insensitive to the dominant frequency of the incident phonon pulse and this can be explained in terms of a cutoff occurring in the square of the electron-phonon matrix element. For the superlattice sample the phonon induced increase of the tunnel current as a function of applied bias, ΔI(V), has a maximum at a voltage which varies with the characteristic phonon temperature in both zero and applied magnetic field. The behaviour is consistent with phonon assisted tunnelling by stimulated phonon emission. The system is shown to act as a spectrometer of acoustic phonons in the ≤ 1 THz frequency region. (author)
New Mid-IR Lasers Based on Rare-Earth-Doped Sulfide and Chloride Materials
Nostrand, M
2000-09-01
Applications in remote-sensing and military countermeasures have driven a need for compact, solid-state mid-IR lasers. Due to multi-phonon quenching, non-traditional hosts are needed to extend current solid-state, room-temperature lasing capabilities beyond {approx} 4 {micro}m. Traditional oxide and fluoride hosts have effective phonon energies in the neighborhood of 1000 cm{sup -1} and 500 cm{sup -1}, respectively. These phonons can effectively quench radiation above 2 and 4 {micro}m, respectively. Materials with lower effective phonon energies such as sulfides and chlorides are the logical candidates for mid-IR (4-10 {micro}m) operation. In this report, laser action is demonstrated in two such hosts, CaGa{sub 2}S{sub 4} and KPb{sub 2}Cl{sub 5}. The CaGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+} laser operating at 4.3 {micro}m represents the first sulfide laser operating beyond 2 {micro}m. The KPb{sub 2}Cl{sub 5}:Dy{sup 3+} laser operating at 2.4 {micro}m represents the first operation of a chloride-host laser in ambient conditions. Laser action is also reported for CaGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+} at 2.4 {micro}m, CaGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+} at 1.4 {micro}m, and KPb{sub 2}Cl{sub 5}:Nd{sup 3+} at 1.06 {micro}m. Both host materials have been fully characterized, including lifetimes, absorption and emission cross sections, radiative branching ratios, and radiative quantum efficiencies. Radiative branching ratios and radiative quantum efficiencies have been determined both by the Judd-Ofelt method (which is based on absorption measurements), and by a novel method described herein which is based on emission measurements. Modeling has been performed to predict laser performance, and a new method to determine emission cross section from slope efficiency and threshold data is developed. With the introduction and laser demonstration of rare-earth-doped CaGa{sub 2}S{sub 4} and KPb{sub 2}Cl{sub 5}, direct generation of mid-IR laser radiation in a solid-state host has been demonstrated. In KPb{sub 2}Cl{sub 5}, predictions indicate that laser operation to 9 {micro}m may be possible, a wavelength previously considered unreachable in a room-temperature, solid-state host.
Topologically protected elastic waves in phononic metamaterials
Mousavi, S. Hossein; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Wang, Zheng
2015-11-01
Surface waves in topological states of quantum matter exhibit unique protection from backscattering induced by disorders, making them ideal carriers for both classical and quantum information. Topological matters for electrons and photons are largely limited by the range of bulk properties, and the associated performance trade-offs. In contrast, phononic metamaterials provide access to a much wider range of material properties. Here we demonstrate numerically a phononic topological metamaterial in an elastic-wave analogue of the quantum spin Hall effect. A dual-scale phononic crystal slab is used to support two effective spins for phonons over a broad bandwidth, and strong spin-orbit coupling is realized by breaking spatial mirror symmetry. By preserving the spin polarization with an external load or spatial symmetry, phononic edge states are shown to be robust against scattering from discrete defects as well as disorders in the continuum, demonstrating topological protection for phonons in both static and time-dependent regimes.
Phonon lineshapes in atom-surface scattering
MartInez-Casado, R [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Sanz, A S; Miret-Artes, S [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)
2010-08-04
Phonon lineshapes in atom-surface scattering are obtained from a simple stochastic model based on the so-called Caldeira-Leggett Hamiltonian. In this single-bath model, the excited phonon resulting from a creation or annihilation event is coupled to a thermal bath consisting of an infinite number of harmonic oscillators, namely the bath phonons. The diagonalization of the corresponding Hamiltonian leads to a renormalization of the phonon frequencies in terms of the phonon friction or damping coefficient. Moreover, when there are adsorbates on the surface, this single-bath model can be extended to a two-bath model accounting for the effect induced by the adsorbates on the phonon lineshapes as well as their corresponding lineshapes.
Phonon lineshapes in atom-surface scattering
Phonon lineshapes in atom-surface scattering are obtained from a simple stochastic model based on the so-called Caldeira-Leggett Hamiltonian. In this single-bath model, the excited phonon resulting from a creation or annihilation event is coupled to a thermal bath consisting of an infinite number of harmonic oscillators, namely the bath phonons. The diagonalization of the corresponding Hamiltonian leads to a renormalization of the phonon frequencies in terms of the phonon friction or damping coefficient. Moreover, when there are adsorbates on the surface, this single-bath model can be extended to a two-bath model accounting for the effect induced by the adsorbates on the phonon lineshapes as well as their corresponding lineshapes.
Nonlinear phononics using atomically thin membranes
Midtvedt, Daniel; Isacsson, Andreas; Croy, Alexander
2014-01-01
Phononic crystals and acoustic meta-materials are used to tailor phonon and sound propagation properties by facilitating artificial, periodic structures. Analogous to photonic crystals, phononic band gaps can be created, which influence wave propagation and, more generally, allow engineering of the acoustic properties of a system. Beyond that, nonlinear phenomena in periodic structures have been extensively studied in photonic crystals and atomic Bose-Einstein Condensates in optical lattices....
Multiple magneto-phonon resonances in graphene
Basko, D. M.; Leszczynski, P.; Faugeras, C.; Binder, J.; Nicolet, A. A. L.; Kossacki, P.; Orlita, M.; Potemski, M.
2015-01-01
Our low-temperature magneto-Raman scattering measurements performed on graphene-like locations on the surface of bulk graphite reveal a new series of magneto-phonon resonances involving both K-point and Gamma-point phonons. In particular, we observe for the first time the resonant splitting of three crossing excitation branches. We give a detailed theoretical analysis of these new resonances. Our results highlight the role of combined excitations and the importance of multi-phonon processes (...
Electron-phonon coupling in one dimension
The Ward identity is derived for the electron-phonon coupling in one dimension and the spectrum of elementary excitations is calculated by assuming that the Fermi distribution is not strongly distorted by interaction. The electron-phonon vertex is renormalized in the case of the forward scattering and Migdal's theorem is discussed. A model is proposed for the giant Kohn anomaly. The dip in the phonon spectrum is obtained and found to be in agreement with the experimental data for KCP. (author)
Phonon-phonon interaction in CdGa{sub 2}Se{sub 2} single crystals
Kerimova, T.G.; Abdullayev, N.A.; Kengerlinski, L.Y.; Mamedova, I.A.; Ibragimov, N.I. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, H. Javid ave. 131, Baku-1143 (Azerbaijan)
2015-06-15
Raman scattering spectra of CdGa{sub 2}Se{sub 4} single crystals were measured in temperature range 8-300 K. From the temperature dependence of optical phonons of B (196 cm{sup -1}) and E (246 cm{sup -1}) symmetry type, the lattice deformation and phonon-phonon interaction contributions to the temperature coefficient of phonon shift were calculated. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Electromagnetic decay of two-phonon states
The electromagnetic decay of two-phonon states corresponding to the multi-excitation of giant resonances is studied. The calculations are performed within a boson expansion approach and the elementary modes are constructed in random phase approximation (RPA). The rates for direct transition of two-phonon states to the ground state turn out to be not negligibly smaller than those from the (single) giant resonances. The former transitions are accompanied by a ?-ray whose energy is equal to the sum of the two phonon energies. Thus the detection of such high energy ?-rays could provide a signature of the excitation of two-phonon states. (author) 9 refs., 3 tabs
Ballistic phonon transport in holey silicon.
Lee, Jaeho; Lim, Jongwoo; Yang, Peidong
2015-05-13
When the size of semiconductors is smaller than the phonon mean free path, phonons can carry heat with no internal scattering. Ballistic phonon transport has received attention for both theoretical and practical aspects because Fourier's law of heat conduction breaks down and the heat dissipation in nanoscale transistors becomes unpredictable in the ballistic regime. While recent experiments demonstrate room-temperature evidence of ballistic phonon transport in various nanomaterials, the thermal conductivity data for silicon in the length scale of 10-100 nm is still not available due to experimental challenges. Here we show ballistic phonon transport prevails in the cross-plane direction of holey silicon from 35 to 200 nm. The thermal conductivity scales linearly with the length (thickness) even though the lateral dimension (neck) is as narrow as 20 nm. We assess the impact of long-wavelength phonons and predict a transition from ballistic to diffusive regime using scaling models. Our results support strong persistence of long-wavelength phonons in nanostructures and are useful for controlling phonon transport for thermoelectrics and potential phononic applications. PMID:25861026
Phonon-assisted transient electroluminescence in Si
Cheng, Tzu-Huan, E-mail: f94943139@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chu-Su, Yu [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan and Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chien-Sheng [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chii-Wann [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Institute of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)
2014-06-30
The phonon-replica infrared emission is observed at room temperature from indirect band gap Si light-emitting diode under forward bias. With increasing injection current density, the broadened electroluminescence spectrum and band gap reduction are observed due to joule heating. The spectral-resolved temporal response of electroluminescence reveals the competitiveness between single (TO) and dual (TO + TA) phonon-assisted indirect band gap transitions. As compared to infrared emission with TO phonon-replica, the retarder of radiative recombination at long wavelength region (∼1.2 μm) indicates lower transition probability of dual phonon-replica before thermal equivalent.
Watching surface waves in phononic crystals.
Wright, Oliver B; Matsuda, Osamu
2015-08-28
In this paper, we review results obtained by ultrafast imaging of gigahertz surface acoustic waves in surface phononic crystals with one- and two-dimensional periodicities. By use of quasi-point-source optical excitation, we show how, from a series of images that form a movie of the travelling waves, the dispersion relation of the acoustic modes, their corresponding mode patterns and the position and widths of phonon stop bands can be obtained by temporal and spatio-temporal Fourier analysis. We further demonstrate how one can follow the temporal evolution of phononic eigenstates in k-space using data from phononic-crystal waveguides as an example. PMID:26217053
Influence of the electron-phonon iinteraction on phonon heat conduction in a molecular nanowire
Galovi? Slobodanka P.
2006-01-01
Full Text Available A model for phonon heat conduction in a molecular nanowire is developed. The calculation takes into account modification of the acoustic phonon dispersion relation due to the electron-phonon interaction. The results obtained are compared with models based upon a simpler, Callaway formula.
Dephasing times in quantum dots due to elastic LO phonon-carrier collisions
Uskov, A. V.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Tromborg, Bjarne; Mørk, Jesper; Lang, R.
2000-01-01
Interpretation of experiments on quantum dot (QD) lasers presents a challenge: the phonon bottleneck, which should strongly suppress relaxation and dephasing of the discrete energy states, often seems to be inoperative. We suggest and develop a theory for an intrinsic mechanism for dephasing in Q...
Dudetskiy, V Yu; Lariontsev, E G; Chekina, S N [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation)
2014-09-30
The effect of pump noise on the synchronisation of selfmodulation oscillations in a solid-state ring laser with periodic pump modulation is studied numerically and experimentally. It is found that, in contrast to desynchronisation that usually occurs under action of noise in the case of 1/1 synchronisation of self-oscillations by a periodic signal, the effect of noise on 1/2 synchronisation may be positive, namely, at a sufficiently low intensity, pump noise is favourable for synchronisation of self-oscillations, for narrowing of their spectrum, and for increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. (lasers)
The effect of pump noise on the synchronisation of selfmodulation oscillations in a solid-state ring laser with periodic pump modulation is studied numerically and experimentally. It is found that, in contrast to desynchronisation that usually occurs under action of noise in the case of 1/1 synchronisation of self-oscillations by a periodic signal, the effect of noise on 1/2 synchronisation may be positive, namely, at a sufficiently low intensity, pump noise is favourable for synchronisation of self-oscillations, for narrowing of their spectrum, and for increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. (lasers)
Wang, Cih-Su; Liau, Chi-Shung; Sun, Tzu-Ming; Chen, Yu-Chia; Lin, Tai-Yuan; Chen, Yang-Fang
2015-03-01
A new approach is proposed to light up band-edge stimulated emission arising from a semiconductor with dipole-forbidden band-gap transition. To illustrate our working principle, here we demonstrate the feasibility on the composite of SnO2 nanowires (NWs) and chicken albumen. SnO2 NWs, which merely emit visible defect emission, are observed to generate a strong ultraviolet fluorescence centered at 387 nm assisted by chicken albumen at room temperature. In addition, a stunning laser action is further discovered in the albumen/SnO2 NWs composite system. The underlying mechanism is interpreted in terms of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the chicken albumen protein to SnO2 NWs. More importantly, the giant oscillator strength of shallow defect states, which is served orders of magnitude larger than that of the free exciton, plays a decisive role. Our approach therefore shows that bio-materials exhibit a great potential in applications for novel light emitters, which may open up a new avenue for the development of bio-inspired optoelectronic devices.
Phonon counting and intensity interferometry of a nanomechanical resonator.
Cohen, Justin D; Meenehan, Seán M; MacCabe, Gregory S; Gröblacher, Simon; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D; Painter, Oskar
2015-04-23
In optics, the ability to measure individual quanta of light (photons) enables a great many applications, ranging from dynamic imaging within living organisms to secure quantum communication. Pioneering photon counting experiments, such as the intensity interferometry performed by Hanbury Brown and Twiss to measure the angular width of visible stars, have played a critical role in our understanding of the full quantum nature of light. As with matter at the atomic scale, the laws of quantum mechanics also govern the properties of macroscopic mechanical objects, providing fundamental quantum limits to the sensitivity of mechanical sensors and transducers. Current research in cavity optomechanics seeks to use light to explore the quantum properties of mechanical systems ranging in size from kilogram-mass mirrors to nanoscale membranes, as well as to develop technologies for precision sensing and quantum information processing. Here we use an optical probe and single-photon detection to study the acoustic emission and absorption processes in a silicon nanomechanical resonator, and perform a measurement similar to that used by Hanbury Brown and Twiss to measure correlations in the emitted phonons as the resonator undergoes a parametric instability formally equivalent to that of a laser. Owing to the cavity-enhanced coupling of light with mechanical motion, this effective phonon counting technique has a noise equivalent phonon sensitivity of 0.89 ± 0.05. With straightforward improvements to this method, a variety of quantum state engineering tasks using mesoscopic mechanical resonators would be enabled, including the generation and heralding of single-phonon Fock states and the quantum entanglement of remote mechanical elements. PMID:25903632
Phonon Bandgap Engineering of Strained Monolayer MoS2
Jiang, Jin-Wu
2014-01-01
The phonon band structure of monolayer MoS2 is characteristic for a large energy gap between acoustic and optical branches, which protects the vibration of acoustic modes from being scattered by optical phonon modes. Therefore, the phonon bandgap engineering is of practical significance for the manipulation of phonon-related mechanical or thermal properties in monolayer MoS2. We perform both phonon analysis and molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the tension effect on the phonon ban...
Phonon interference effects in molecular junctions
Markussen, Troels
2013-01-01
We study coherent phonon transport through organic, p-conjugated molecules. Using first principles calculations and Green's function methods, we find that the phonon transmission function in cross-conjugated molecules, like meta-connected benzene, exhibits destructive quantum interference features...
Phonon dispersion relation of liquid metals
P B Thakor; P N Gajjar; A R Jani
2009-06-01
The phonon dispersion curves of some liquid metals, viz. Na ( = 1), Mg ( = 2), Al ( = 3) and Pb ( = 4), have been computed using our model potential. The charged hard sphere (CHS) reference system is applied to describe the structural information. Our model potential along with CHS reference system is capable of explaining the phonon dispersion relation for monovalent, divalent, trivalent and tetravalent liquid metals.
Splash, pop, sizzle: Information processing with phononic computing
Phonons, the quanta of mechanical vibration, are important to the transport of heat and sound in solid materials. Recent advances in the fundamental control of phonons (phononics) have brought into prominence the potential role of phonons in information processing. In this review, the many directions of realizing phononic computing and information processing are examined. Given the relative similarity of vibrational transport at different length scales, the related fields of acoustic, phononic, and thermal information processing are all included, as are quantum and classical computer implementations. Connections are made between the fundamental questions in phonon transport and phononic control and the device level approach to diodes, transistors, memory, and logic.
Splash, pop, sizzle: Information processing with phononic computing
Sklan, Sophia R.
2015-05-01
Phonons, the quanta of mechanical vibration, are important to the transport of heat and sound in solid materials. Recent advances in the fundamental control of phonons (phononics) have brought into prominence the potential role of phonons in information processing. In this review, the many directions of realizing phononic computing and information processing are examined. Given the relative similarity of vibrational transport at different length scales, the related fields of acoustic, phononic, and thermal information processing are all included, as are quantum and classical computer implementations. Connections are made between the fundamental questions in phonon transport and phononic control and the device level approach to diodes, transistors, memory, and logic.
Splash, pop, sizzle: Information processing with phononic computing
Sophia R. Sklan
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Phonons, the quanta of mechanical vibration, are important to the transport of heat and sound in solid materials. Recent advances in the fundamental control of phonons (phononics have brought into prominence the potential role of phonons in information processing. In this review, the many directions of realizing phononic computing and information processing are examined. Given the relative similarity of vibrational transport at different length scales, the related fields of acoustic, phononic, and thermal information processing are all included, as are quantum and classical computer implementations. Connections are made between the fundamental questions in phonon transport and phononic control and the device level approach to diodes, transistors, memory, and logic.
Within the framework of the macroscopic dielectric continuum model the longitudinal (LO) phonon model are derived for a cylindrical semiconductor quantum wire made of semiconductor 1 (well material) embedded in another finite semiconductor 2 (barrier material). The phonon states of models are given by solving the generalized Born-Huang equation. It is shown that there may exist four types of longitudinal optical phonon model according to the concrete materials forming the wire. The dispersion equations for phonon frequencies with wave-vector components parallel to the wire are obtained. After having quantized the phonon field we derive the Frohlich Hamiltonian describing the electron-LO-phonon interaction. The influence of the thickness of the barrier layer as well as the thin metallic shell on the phonon frequencies and their interaction with electrons is studied. (author)
Enhanced electron-phonon coupling for a semiconductor charge qubit in a surface phonon cavity
Chen, J. C. H.; Sato, Y.; Kosaka, R.; Hashisaka, M.; Muraki, K.; Fujisawa, T.
2015-10-01
Electron-phonon coupling is a major decoherence mechanism, which often causes scattering and energy dissipation in semiconductor electronic systems. However, this electron-phonon coupling may be used in a positive way for reaching the strong or ultra-strong coupling regime in an acoustic version of the cavity quantum electrodynamic system. Here we propose and demonstrate a phonon cavity for surface acoustic waves, which is made of periodic metal fingers that constitute Bragg reflectors on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. Phonon band gap and cavity phonon modes are identified by frequency, time and spatially resolved measurements of the piezoelectric potential. Tunneling spectroscopy on a double quantum dot indicates the enhancement of phonon assisted transitions in a charge qubit. This encourages studying of acoustic cavity quantum electrodynamics with surface phonons.
Phononic crystals and elastodynamics: Some relevant points
In the present paper we review briefly some of the first works on wave propagation in phononic crystals emphasizing the conditions for the creation of acoustic band-gaps and the role of resonances to the band-gap creation. We show that useful conclusions in the analysis of phononic band gap structures can be drawn by considering the mathematical similarities of the basic classical wave equation (Helmholtz equation) with Schrödinger equation and by employing basic solid state physics concepts and conclusions regarding electronic waves. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate the potential of phononic systems to be used as elastic metamaterials. This is done by demonstrating negative refraction in phononic crystals and subwavelength waveguiding in a linear chain of elastic inclusions, and by proposing a novel structure with close to pentamode behavior. Finally the potential of phononic structures to be used in liquid sensor applications is discussed and demonstrated
Characterization of phononic heterostructures by infrared thermography
Exarchos, D. A.; Tragazikis, I.; Psarobas, I.; Matikas, T. E.
2015-06-01
This work deals with the development of a new class of metamaterials based on phononic composite structures that can offer vibration protection in a wide range of applications. Such phononic heterostructures is a class of phononic crystals that exhibit spectral gaps with lattice constants of a few orders of magnitude smaller than the relevant acoustic wavelength. The design of a phononic composite metamaterial is based on the formation of omnidirectional frequency gaps. This is very much relevant to the dimensionality of a finite slab of the crystal. In this respect, two dimensional structures are used to cut off acoustic waves. In this study, different infrared thermography techniques were used in order to assess the phononic structure's geometry, as well as to determine the thermal properties of the metamaterial.
Phononic crystals and elastodynamics: Some relevant points
Aravantinos-Zafiris, N. [Dept. of Materials Science, University of Patras, Patras 26504 (Greece); Department of Sound and Musical Instruments Technology, Ionian Islands Technological Educational Institute, Lixouri, 28200 (Greece); Sigalas, M. M. [Dept. of Materials Science, University of Patras, Patras 26504 (Greece); Kafesaki, M. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (FORTH), P.O. Box 1387, 70013 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Dept. of Materials Science and Technology, Univ. of Crete (Greece); Economou, E. N. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (FORTH), P.O. Box 1387, 70013 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Crete (Greece)
2014-12-15
In the present paper we review briefly some of the first works on wave propagation in phononic crystals emphasizing the conditions for the creation of acoustic band-gaps and the role of resonances to the band-gap creation. We show that useful conclusions in the analysis of phononic band gap structures can be drawn by considering the mathematical similarities of the basic classical wave equation (Helmholtz equation) with Schrödinger equation and by employing basic solid state physics concepts and conclusions regarding electronic waves. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate the potential of phononic systems to be used as elastic metamaterials. This is done by demonstrating negative refraction in phononic crystals and subwavelength waveguiding in a linear chain of elastic inclusions, and by proposing a novel structure with close to pentamode behavior. Finally the potential of phononic structures to be used in liquid sensor applications is discussed and demonstrated.
Phononic crystals and elastodynamics: Some relevant points
N. Aravantinos-Zafiris
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In the present paper we review briefly some of the first works on wave propagation in phononic crystals emphasizing the conditions for the creation of acoustic band-gaps and the role of resonances to the band-gap creation. We show that useful conclusions in the analysis of phononic band gap structures can be drawn by considering the mathematical similarities of the basic classical wave equation (Helmholtz equation with Schrödinger equation and by employing basic solid state physics concepts and conclusions regarding electronic waves. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate the potential of phononic systems to be used as elastic metamaterials. This is done by demonstrating negative refraction in phononic crystals and subwavelength waveguiding in a linear chain of elastic inclusions, and by proposing a novel structure with close to pentamode behavior. Finally the potential of phononic structures to be used in liquid sensor applications is discussed and demonstrated.
Nonlinear phononics using atomically thin membranes.
Midtvedt, Daniel; Isacsson, Andreas; Croy, Alexander
2014-01-01
Phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials are used to tailor phonon and sound propagation properties by utilizing artificial, periodic structures. Analogous to photonic crystals, phononic band gaps can be created, which influence wave propagation and, more generally, allow engineering of the acoustic properties of a system. Beyond that, nonlinear phenomena in periodic structures have been extensively studied in photonic crystals and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices. However, creating nonlinear phononic crystals or nonlinear acoustic metamaterials remains challenging and only few examples have been demonstrated. Here, we show that atomically thin and periodically pinned membranes support coupled localized modes with nonlinear dynamics. The proposed system provides a platform for investigating nonlinear phononics. PMID:25204322
Multiple magneto-phonon resonances in graphene
Basko, D. M.; Leszczynski, P.; Faugeras, C.; Binder, J.; Nicolet, A. A. L.; Kossacki, P.; Orlita, M.; Potemski, M.
2016-03-01
Our low-temperature magneto-Raman scattering measurements performed on graphene-like locations on the surface of bulk graphite, carries the energyite reveal a new series of magneto-phonon resonances involving both K point and Γ point phonons. These are resonances between a purely electronic excitation, an electronic excitation accompanied by one phonon, and a two-phonon excitation. In particular, we observe the resonant splitting of three crossing excitation branches. We give a detailed theoretical analysis of these multi-excitation resonances. Our results highlight the role of combined excitations and the importance of multi-phonon processes (from both K and Γ points) for the relaxation of hot carriers in graphene.
Sound-Particles and Phonons with Spin 1
Samoilov V.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We present a new model for solids which is based on the stimulated vibration of independent neutral Fermi-atoms, representing independent harmonic oscillators with natural frequencies, which are excited by actions of the longitudinal and transverse elastic waves. Due to application of the principle of elastic wave-particle duality, we predict that the lattice of a solid consists of two type Sound Boson-Particles with spin 1 with finite masses. Namely, these lattice Boson-Particles excite the longitudinal and transverse phonons with spin 1. In this letter, we estimate the masses of Sound Boson-Particles which are around 500 times smaller than the atom mass.
FS spectroscopy of phonon emission and absorption for a cold plasma in gallium arsenide
Agnesi, A.; Cavalleri, A.; Malvezzi, A.M.; Reali, G.C. [Univ. di Pavia (Italy). Dept. di Elettronica
1996-12-31
Degenerate pump and probe measurements on bulk GaAs <100> surfaces with sub-100 fs near infrared laser pulses have been performed in the 0.8--3 {times} 10{sup 17} carriers cm{sup {minus}3} excitation range at room temperature. Transient reflectivity data reveal the progressive extinction of the LO-phonon emission channel when the excess excitation energy is decreased. At these wavelengths and for low excitation levels, acoustic phonon absorption from conduction band minimum is observed. Surface recombination rates are deduced from the picosecond evolution of the reflectivity.
Polar phonons in some compressively stressed epitaxial and polycrystalline SrTiO3 thin films
Nuzhnyy, D.; Petzelt, J.; Kamba, S.; Yamada, T.; M. Tyunina; Tagantsev, A. K.; Levoska, J.; Setter, N.
2009-01-01
Several SrTiO3 (STO) thin films without electrodes processed by pulsed laser deposition, of thicknesses down to 40 nm, were studied using infrared transmission and reflection spectroscopy. The complex dielectric responses of polar phonon modes, particularly ferroelectric soft mode, in the films were determined quantitatively. The compressed epitaxial STO films on (100) La0.18Sr0.82Al0.59-Ta0.41O3 substrates (strain 0.9%) show strongly stiffened phonon responses, whereas the soft mode in polyc...
Phonon-induced fluorescence changes have been obtained in the shape of the spectra of selectively laser-excited dye molecules in noncrystalline organic solids, e.g. perylene molecules in Langmuir films of Cd arachidate. The changes in the zero-phonon lines and in the sidebands are observed after heat pulse irradiation (phonon memory), and by realtime phonon detection. The results are explained by electron-phonon interaction and by the model of matrix-shift variations caused by phonon-induced transitions in two-level systems in amorphous solids. (orig.)
Li, Chen; Delaire, Olivier; Chen, Xin; Singh, David; May, Andrew; Ma, Jie; McGuire, Michael; Ehlers, Georg; Christianson, Andrew; Huq, Ashfia
2013-03-01
Thermoelectric materials can convert waste heat into electrical energy, and have attracted much attention in recent years for power generation. IV-VI compounds in rock salt structure include some of the most efficient thermoelectric materials and giant phonon anharmonicity is believed to contribute to the low thermal conductivity. In this work, phonon dispersions and linewidths in single-crystalline SnTe were measured at a series of temperatures using time-of-flight and triple-axis neutron spectrometers to study the temperature dependence of the phonon dynamics and phonon anharmonicity. Phonon calculations and molecular dynamics simulations with first-principles methods were used to identify the anomalies in phonon modes and the results were compared to the measurements. Because the phonons involved have an important contribution to the lattice thermal conductivity in this system, the anharmonic coupling is likely to provide a key insight in understanding the surprisingly low thermal conductivity of the rocksalt tellurides in general. Funding from the US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering Division, and from the S3TEC Energy Frontier Research Center, DOE DE-SC0001299.
Mode-selective excitation of coherent surface phonons on alkali-covered metal surfaces.
Watanabe, Kazuya; Takagi, Noriaki; Matsumoto, Yoshiyasu
2005-07-21
We demonstrate the mode-selective excitation of coherent phonons at Pt(111) surfaces covered with submonolayer caesium atoms. A burst of 150 fs laser pulses with the repetition rate of 2.0-2.9 THz was synthesized by using a spatial-light modulator, and used for the coherent surface phonon excitation. The coherent nuclear motion was monitored by time-resolved second harmonic generation. By tuning the repetition rate, we succeeded in controlling the relative amplitude of the vibrational coherence of the Cs-Pt stretching mode (2.3-2.4 THz) to that of the Pt surface Rayleigh phonon mode (2.6 or 2.9 THz, depending on the Cs coverage). PMID:16189581
Theory for ultrafast dynamics in cuprates: role of electron-phonon coupling
We present a theory for ultrafast nonequilibrium dynamics in cuprate superconductors. In a typical time-resolved spectroscopy experiment, the sample is exited with an intense laser pulse, creating nonequilibrium quasiparticles which subsequently can relax via various scattering processes, restoring the superconducting state. We use the method of density matrix theory to study the optical excitation and relaxation dynamics in cuprates from a microscopical viewpoint. In particular, we consider scattering with optical phonons, looking at the interplay between relaxation of the excited quasiparticles and the creation of nonequilibrium phonon distributions; the superconducting state is restored on a 10 picosecond timescale, while the phonons have longer relaxation times. Time-resolved pump-probe spectra are calculated and compared both to quasi-equilibrium models and experimental results. (orig.)
Ab initio phonon coupling and optical response of hot electrons in plasmonic metals
Brown, Ana M; Narang, Prineha; Goddard, William A; Atwater, Harry A
2016-01-01
Ultrafast laser measurements probe the non-equilibrium dynamics of excited electrons in metals with increasing temporal resolution. Electronic structure calculations can provide a detailed microscopic understanding of hot electron dynamics, but a parameter-free description of pump-probe measurements has not yet been possible, despite intensive research, because of the phenomenological treatment of electron-phonon interactions. We present ab initio predictions of the electron-temperature dependent heat capacities and electron-phonon coupling coefficients of plasmonic metals. We find substantial differences from free-electron and semi-empirical estimates, especially in noble metals above transient electron temperatures of 2000 K, because of the previously-neglected strong dependence of electron-phonon matrix elements on electron energy. We also present first-principles calculations of the electron-temperature dependent dielectric response of hot electrons in plasmonic metals, including direct interband and phon...
Acoustic superfocusing by solid phononic crystals
Zhou, Xiaoming [CNRS, Institut Jean Lamour, Vandoeuvre-ls-Nancy F-54506 (France); Institut Jean Lamour, University of Lorraine, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP 70239, Vandoeuvre-ls-Nancy 54506 (France); Key Laboratory of Dynamics and Control of Flight Vehicle, Ministry of Education and School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Assouar, M. Badreddine, E-mail: Badreddine.Assouar@univ-lorraine.fr; Oudich, Mourad [CNRS, Institut Jean Lamour, Vandoeuvre-ls-Nancy F-54506 (France); Institut Jean Lamour, University of Lorraine, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP 70239, Vandoeuvre-ls-Nancy 54506 (France)
2014-12-08
We propose a solid phononic crystal lens capable of acoustic superfocusing beyond the diffraction limit. The unit cell of the crystal is formed by four rigid cylinders in a hosting material with a cavity arranged in the center. Theoretical studies reveal that the solid lens produces both negative refraction to focus propagating waves and surface states to amplify evanescent waves. Numerical analyses of the superfocusing effect of the considered solid phononic lens are presented with a separated source excitation to the lens. In this case, acoustic superfocusing beyond the diffraction limit is evidenced. Compared to the fluid phononic lenses, the solid lens is more suitable for ultrasonic imaging applications.
One-dimensional hypersonic phononic crystals.
Gomopoulos, N; Maschke, D; Koh, C Y; Thomas, E L; Tremel, W; Butt, H-J; Fytas, G
2010-03-10
We report experimental observation of a normal incidence phononic band gap in one-dimensional periodic (SiO(2)/poly(methyl methacrylate)) multilayer film at gigahertz frequencies using Brillouin spectroscopy. The band gap to midgap ratio of 0.30 occurs for elastic wave propagation along the periodicity direction, whereas for inplane propagation the system displays an effective medium behavior. The phononic properties are well captured by numerical simulations. The porosity in the silica layers presents a structural scaffold for the introduction of secondary active media for potential coupling between phonons and other excitations, such as photons and electrons. PMID:20141118
Harvesting vibrations via 3D phononic isolators
Psarobas, Ioannis E.; Yannopapas, Vassilios; Matikas, Theodore E.
2016-05-01
We report on the existence of unidirectional phononic band gaps that may span over extended regions of the Brillouin zone and can find application in trapping elastic (acoustic) waves in properly designed multilayered 3D structures. Phononic isolators operate as a result of asymmetrical wave transmission through a slab of a crystallographic phononic structure with broken mirror symmetry. Due to the use of lossless materials in the crystal, the absorption rate is dramatically enhanced when the proposed isolator is placed next to a vibrational harvesting cell. xml:lang="fr"
Single-photon indistinguishability: influence of phonons
Nielsen, Per Kær; Lodahl, Peter; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Mørk, Jesper
2012-01-01
Recent years have demonstrated that the interaction with phonons plays an important role in semiconductor based cavity QED systems [2], consisting of a quantum dot (QD) coupled to a single cavity mode [Fig. 1(a)], where the phonon interaction is the main decoherence mechanism. Avoiding decoherence...... photons emitted from a solid-state cavity QED system. Our model rigorously describes non-Markovian effects to all orders in the phonon coupling constant, being based on an exact diagonalization procedure accounting for the time evoluiton of one-time and two-time photon correlation funcitons. We compare to...
Phonon anharmonicities in graphite and graphene
Bonini, Nicola; Lazzeri, Michele; Marzari, Nicola; Mauri, Francesco
2007-01-01
We determine from first-principles the finite-temperature properties--linewidths, line shifts, and lifetimes--of the key vibrational modes that dominate inelastic losses in graphitic materials. In graphite, the phonon linewidth of the Raman-active E2g mode is found to decrease with temperature; such anomalous behavior is driven entirely by electron-phonon interactions, and does not appear in the nearly-degenerate infrared-active E1u mode. In graphene, the phonon anharmonic lifetimes and decay...
Electronphonon superconductivity in YIn3
First-principles calculations of the electronphonon coupling were performed on the cubic intermetallic compound YIn3. The electronphonon coupling constant was found to be ?ep = 0.42. Using the AllenDynes formula with a Coulomb pseudopotential of ?* = 0.10, a Tc of approximately 0.77 K is obtained which is reasonably consistent with the experimentally observed temperature (between 0.8 and 1.1 K). The results indicate that conventional electronphonon coupling is capable of producing the superconductivity in this compound. (paper)
Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Koranda, Pavel; Nemec, Michal; Sulc, Jan; Housova, Devana; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Kokta, Milan R.
2003-06-01
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of various laser techniques for bleaching teeth in office vital whitening. Hydrogen peroxide (30% concentration) and carbamide peroxide (10% solution) were used for chemical activation of bleaching process. Extracted non-carcious upper central incisors were exposed to laser radiation. Four different laser systems (Nd:YAG laser SHG, wavelength 0.53 μm, CTE:YAG laser, wavelength 2.7 μm, Nd:YAG laser, wavelength 1.06 μm, and alexandrite laser, wavelength 0.75 μm) were applied to accelerate the speed of the process. The end of chemical exposition was verified by the change of bleaching agent color. The color change was determined by stereomicroscope (Nikon SMZ 2T, Japan), the quality of surface structure was checked by scanning electron microscope Joel, Japan). The speed of bleaching rnaged from 630 s (chemical methods only) to 250-340 s (chemicals + alexandrite laser radiation). The Alexandrite laser application was considered an elective process to decrease the time of bleaching without modifying the surface.
Effects of phonon-phonon coupling on properties of pygmy resonance in 124-132Sn
Voronov V. V.
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Starting from an effective Skyrme interaction we study effects of phonon-phonon coupling on the low-energy electric dipole response in 124-132Sn. The QRPA calculations are performed within a finite rank separable approximation. The inclusion of two-phonon configurations gives a considerable contribution to low-lying strength. Comparison with available experimental data shows a reasonable agreement for the low-energy E1 strength distribution.
Coherent gigahertz phonons in Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change materials
Hase, Muneaki; Fons, Paul; Kolobov, Alexander V.; Tominaga, Junji
2015-12-01
Using ≈ 40 fs ultrashort laser pulses, we investigate the picosecond acoustic response from a prototypical phase change material, thin Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) films with various thicknesses. After excitation with a 1.53 eV-energy pulse with a fluence of ≈ 5 mJ cm-2, the time-resolved reflectivity change exhibits transient electronic response, followed by a combination of exponential-like strain and coherent acoustic phonons in the gigahertz (GHz) frequency range. The time-domain shape of the coherent acoustic pulse is well reproduced by the use of the strain model by Thomsen et al 1986 (Phys. Rev. B 34 4129). We found that the decay rate (the inverse of the relaxation time) of the acoustic phonon both in the amorphous and in the crystalline phases decreases as the film thickness increases. The thickness dependence of the acoustic phonon decay is well modeled based on both phonon-defect scattering and acoustic phonon attenuation at the GST/Si interface, and it is revealed that those scattering and attenuation are larger in crystalline GST films than those in amorphous GST films.
Coherent phonon manipulation in coupled mechanical resonators
Okamoto, Hajime; Gourgout, Adrien; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Onomitsu, Koji; Mahboob, Imran; Chang, Edward Yi; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi
2013-08-01
Coupled nanomechanical resonators have recently attracted great attention for both practical applications and fundamental studies owing to their sensitive sympathetic oscillation dynamics. A challenge to the further development of this architecture is the coherent manipulation of the coupled oscillations. Here, we demonstrate strong dynamic coupling between two GaAs-based mechanical resonators by periodically modulating (pumping) the stress using a piezoelectric transducer. This strong coupling enables coherent transfer of phonon populations between the resonators, namely phonon Rabi oscillations. The nature of the dynamic coupling can also be tuned from a linear first-order interaction to a nonlinear higher-order process in which more than one pump phonon mediates the coherent oscillations (that is, multi-pump phonon mixing). This coherent manipulation is not only useful for controlling classical oscillations but can also be extended to the quantum regime, opening up the prospect of entangling two distinct macroscopic mechanical objects.
Toward stimulated interaction of surface phonon polaritons
Kong, B. D.; Trew, R. J.; Kim, K. W., E-mail: kwk@ncsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7911 (United States)
2013-12-21
Thermal emission spectra mediated by surface phonon polariton are examined by using a theoretical model that accounts for generation processes. Specifically, the acoustic phonon fusion mechanism is introduced to remedy theoretical deficiencies of the near thermal equilibrium treatments. The model clarifies the thermal excitation mechanism of surface phonon polaritons and the energy transfer path under non-zero energy flow. When applied to GaAs and SiC semi-infinite surfaces, the nonequilibrium model predicts that the temperature dependence of the quasi-monochromatic peak can exhibit distinctly different characteristics of either sharp increase or slow saturation depending on the materials, which is in direct contrast with the estimate made by the near-equilibrium model. The proposed theoretical tool can accurately analyze the nonequilibrium steady states, potentially paving a pathway to demonstrate stimulated interaction/emission of thermally excited surface phonon polaritons.
Characterizing phonon dynamics using stochastic sampling
Kunal, K.; Aluru, N. R.
2016-03-01
Predicting phonon relaxation time from molecular dynamics (MD) requires a long simulation time to compute the mode energy auto-correlation function. Here, we present an alternative approach to infer the phonon life-time from an approximate form of the energy auto-correlation function. The method requires as an input a set of sampled equilibrium configurations. A stochastic sampling method is used to generate the equilibrium configurations. We consider a truncated Taylor series expansion of the phonon energy auto-correlation function. The different terms in the truncated correlation function are obtained using the stochastic sampling approach. The expansion terms, thus, obtained are in good agreement with the corresponding values obtained using MD. We then use the approximate function to compute the phonon relaxation time. The relaxation time computed using this method is compared with that obtained from the exact correlation function. The two values are in agreement with each other.
Desorption of 4He atoms by phonons
In some recent experiments it has been shown that the reflectivity of a crystal surface, for phonons incident on it from within the crystal, is sensitive to very thin layers of helium on the crystal surface. The direct test of whether atoms can be desorbed by phonons is to repeat the reflection experiment with an additional bolometer in the vapor on the reflection side of the crystal. It is now clear that the loss in energy of phonons reflecting off a crystal-helium film interface is due to the desorption of helium atoms. It is not unlikely that the same mechanism occurs at interfaces of solids and bulk 4He and the excited atoms rapidly decay into phonons with a broad angular distribution. (Auth.)
Phononic crystals: Entering an acoustic phase
Barreiro, Julio T.
2015-03-01
Electrons moving in a one-dimensional crystal can acquire a geometrical phase. Sound waves in phononic crystals are now shown to display the same effect -- underlining the similarity between conventional solids and acoustic metamaterials.
Influence of phonons on semiconductor quantum emission
Feldtmann, Thomas
2009-07-06
A microscopic theory of interacting charge carriers, lattice vibrations, and light modes in semiconductor systems is presented. The theory is applied to study quantum dots and phonon-assisted luminescence in bulk semiconductors and heterostructures. (orig.)
Toward engineered quantum many-body phonon systems
Soykal, Ö. O.; Tahan, Charles
2013-01-01
Arrays of coupled phonon cavities each including an impurity qubit in silicon are considered. We study experimentally feasible architectures that can exhibit quantum many-body phase transitions of phonons, e.g. Mott insulator and superfluid states, due to a strong phonon-phonon interaction (which is mediated by the impurity qubit-cavity phonon coupling). We investigate closed equilibrium systems as well as driven dissipative non-equilibrium systems at zero and non-zero temperatures. Our resul...
Symmetry-Adapted Phonon Analysis of Nanotubes
Aghaei, Amin; Dayal, Kaushik; Elliott, Ryan S.
2012-01-01
The characteristics of phonons, i.e. linearized normal modes of vibration, provide important insights into many aspects of crystals, e.g. stability and thermodynamics. In this paper, we use the Objective Structures framework to make concrete analogies between crystalline phonons and normal modes of vibration in non-crystalline but highly symmetric nanostructures. Our strategy is to use an intermediate linear transformation from real-space to an intermediate space in which the Hessian matrix o...
Spectroscopic investigations of phonons in epitaxial graphene
Politano, Antonio
2016-01-01
The interaction of graphene with metallic substrates reveals phenomena and properties of great relevance for applications in nanotechnology. In this review, the vibrational characterization by means of various inelastic scattering spectroscopies are surveyed for graphene epitaxially grown on metals and transition carbides. In particular, the manifestations of electron-phonon interaction, such as Kohn anomalies, the evaluation of elastic properties and the nanoscale control of phonon modes are...
Phonon Cooling by an Optomechanical Heat Pump
Dong, Ying; Bariani, F.; Meystre, P.
2015-11-01
We propose and analyze theoretically a cavity optomechanical analog of a heat pump that uses a polariton fluid to cool mechanical modes coupled to a single precooled phonon mode via external modulation of the substrate of the mechanical resonator. This approach permits us to cool phonon modes of arbitrary frequencies not limited by the cavity-optical field detuning deep into the quantum regime from room temperature.
We report on the theoretical and the experimental investigations of the coherent phonon dynamics in sapphire crystal using the femtosecond time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs-CARS) technique. The temporal chirped white-light continuum (WLC) is used for the Stokes pulse, therefore we can perform the selective excitation of the phonon modes without using a complicated laser system. The expected quantum beat phenomenon is clearly observed. The theoretical formulas consist very well with the experimental results. The dephasing times of the excited phonon modes, the wavenumber difference, and the phase shift between the simultaneously excited modes are obtained and discussed. This work opens up a way to study directly high-frequency coherent phonon dynamics in bulk crystals on a femtosecond time scale and is especially helpful for understanding the nature of coherent phonons. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)
Waveguiding in supported phononic crystal plates
We investigate, with the help of the finite element method, the existence of absolute band gaps in the band structure of a free-standing phononic crystal plate and of a phononic crystal slab deposited on a substrate. The two-dimensional phononic crystal is constituted by a square array of holes drilled in an active piezoelectric (PZT5A or AlN) matrix. For both matrix materials, an absolute band gap occurs in the band structure of the free-standing plate provided the thickness of the plate is on the order of magnitude of the lattice parameter. When the plate is deposited on a Si substrate, the absolute band gap still remains when the matrix of the phononic crystal is made of PZT5A. The AlN phononic crystal plate losses its gap when supported by the Si substrate. In the case of the PZT5A matrix, we also study the possibility of localized modes associated with a linear defect created by removing one row of air holes in the deposited phononic crystal plate
Toward quantitative modeling of silicon phononic thermocrystals
Lacatena, V.; Haras, M.; Robillard, J.-F.; Monfray, S.; Skotnicki, T.; Dubois, E.
2015-03-01
The wealth of technological patterning technologies of deca-nanometer resolution brings opportunities to artificially modulate thermal transport properties. A promising example is given by the recent concepts of "thermocrystals" or "nanophononic crystals" that introduce regular nano-scale inclusions using a pitch scale in between the thermal phonons mean free path and the electron mean free path. In such structures, the lattice thermal conductivity is reduced down to two orders of magnitude with respect to its bulk value. Beyond the promise held by these materials to overcome the well-known "electron crystal-phonon glass" dilemma faced in thermoelectrics, the quantitative prediction of their thermal conductivity poses a challenge. This work paves the way toward understanding and designing silicon nanophononic membranes by means of molecular dynamics simulation. Several systems are studied in order to distinguish the shape contribution from bulk, ultra-thin membranes (8 to 15 nm), 2D phononic crystals, and finally 2D phononic membranes. After having discussed the equilibrium properties of these structures from 300 K to 400 K, the Green-Kubo methodology is used to quantify the thermal conductivity. The results account for several experimental trends and models. It is confirmed that the thin-film geometry as well as the phononic structure act towards a reduction of the thermal conductivity. The further decrease in the phononic engineered membrane clearly demonstrates that both phenomena are cumulative. Finally, limitations of the model and further perspectives are discussed.
The analysis of the local heating role in the processes of the degradation of the antireflection coatings of the nonlinear crystals when they have been used in the CW and quasi-CW YAG lasers was carried out. The broad sample range of the oxide, nitride and fluoride films deposited on the LiNbO3, BaNaNbO5, LiIO3 KTP and BBO crystals was considered. Investigation of these samples was carried out under the intense heating of their surfaces by the action of the CO2 laser pulses. The analysis of the obtained results with account for the chemical reaction thermodynamics, thermotension and other factors is presented
Sensitivity of the system of cytochrome P-450 of poultry liver to the action of red laser light
It is detected that irradiation of poultry embryos by red laser light (λ = 633 nm) at a doze of 1 - 6 mJ can influence a level of the cytochrome P-450 oxidized form in poultry liver. It is supposed that this level is changed due to variations in the content of lipid peroxide compounds in tissue under low-level red laser radiation and is one of the factors of regulation of the intensity of peroxide processes in tissues
Continuous-wave laser operation is demonstrated at room temperature with a new disordered Yb:CLNGG crystal. A maximum output power of 5.05 W is generated with 7.8 W of pump power absorbed in the crystal, resulting in an optical-to-optical efficiency of 65%, whereas the slope efficiency is determined to be 92%, approaching the limit imposed by the quantum defect in the laser emission process. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))
As predicted by harmonic theory the coherent inelastic spectrums of neutrons, scattered by a single, non-conducting crystal, for a particular angle of scattering consists of a number of delta-function peaks superposed on a continuous background. The peaks correspond to one-phonon processes in which one phonon is absorbed or emitted by the neutron; the background arises from multi-phonon processes. When anharmonic forces (phonon-phonon interactions) are present, the delta-function peaks are broadened into finite peaks, while their central frequencies are shifted with respect to the harmonic values. In the case of a metal there is in addition to phonon-phonon interactions an interaction between phonons and conduction electrons, which also gives a contribution to the displacement and broadening oftheone-phononpeaks. Continuing earlier work of Van Hove (sho considered the relatively simple case of a non-conductin crystal in its ground state (T = 0oK) ), we have studied the shifts and widths of the scattering peaks as a 'result of the above-mentioned interactions by means of many particle perturbation theory, making extensive use of diagram techniques. Prerequisite to the entire discussion is the assumption that, independent of the strength of the interactions, the width of each peak is small compared to the value of the frequency at its centre; only then the peaks can be considered as being well defined with respect to the background to higher order in the interactions. This condition is expected to be fulfilled for temperatures which are not too high and values of the phonon wave vector which are not too large. Our procedure yields closed formulae for the partial scattering function describing the peaks, which can be evaluated to arbitrarily high accuracy. In particular an expansion for calculating the line shift and line width in powers of u/d and in terms of simple connected diagrams is obtained (u is an average atomic or ionic displacement, d is the smallest interatomic or interionic distance in the crystal). Approximate calculations are performed to give some insight into the orders of magnitude of the effects under study. (author)
We present the results of a kinetic analysis of nonequilibrium dynamics of the electron–phonon system of a crystal in a strong electric field based on the proposed method of numerically solving a set of Boltzmann equations for electron and phonon distribution functions without expanding the electron distribution function into a series in the phonon energy. It is shown that the electric field action excites the electron subsystem, which by transferring energy to the phonon subsystem creates a large amount of short-wave phonons that effectively influence the lattice defects (point, lines, boundaries of different phases), which results in a redistribution of and decrease in the lattice defect density, in damage healing, in a decrease in the local peak stress, and a decrease in the degradation level of the construction material properties
Electron-phonon contribution to the phonon and excited electron (hole) linewidths in bulk Pd
We present an ab initio study of the electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling and its contribution to the phonon linewidths and to the lifetime broadening of excited electron and hole states in bulk Pd. The calculations, based on density-functional theory, were carried out using a linear-response approach in the plane-wave pseudopotential representation. The obtained results for the Eliashberg spectral function α2F(ω), e-ph coupling constant λ, and the contribution to the lifetime broadening, Γe-ph, show strong dependence on both the energy and momentum of an electron (hole) state. The calculation of phonon linewidths gives, in agreement with experimental observations, an anomalously large broadening for the transverse phonon mode T1 in the Σ direction. In addition, this mode is found to contribute most strongly to the electron-phonon scattering processes on the Fermi surface
Nianbei Li
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Heat transport in low-dimensional systems has attracted enormous attention from both theoretical and experimental aspects due to its significance to the perception of fundamental energy transport theory and its potential applications in the emerging field of phononics: manipulating heat flow with electronic anologs. We consider the heat conduction of one-dimensional nonlinear lattice models. The energy carriers responsible for the heat transport have been identified as the renormalized phonons. Within the framework of renormalized phonons, a phenomenological theory, effective phonon theory, has been developed to explain the heat transport in general one-dimensional nonlinear lattices. With the help of numerical simulations, it has been verified that this effective phonon theory is able to predict the scaling exponents of temperature-dependent thermal conductivities quantitatively and consistently.
Alaie, Seyedhamidreza; Goettler, Drew F.; Su, Mehmet; Leseman, Zayd C.; Reinke, Charles M.; El-Kady, Ihab
2015-06-01
Large reductions in the thermal conductivity of thin silicon membranes have been demonstrated in various porous structures. However, the role of coherent boundary scattering in such structures has become a matter of some debate. Here we report on the first experimental observation of coherent phonon boundary scattering at room temperature in 2D phononic crystals formed by the introduction of air holes in a silicon matrix with minimum feature sizes >100 nm. To delaminate incoherent from coherent boundary scattering, phononic crystals with a fixed minimum feature size, differing only in unit cell geometry, were fabricated. A suspended island technique was used to measure the thermal conductivity. We introduce a hybrid thermal conductivity model that accounts for partially coherent and partially incoherent phonon boundary scattering. We observe excellent agreement between this model and experimental data, and the results suggest that significant room temperature coherent phonon boundary scattering occurs.
Electron and phonon interactions a novel semiclassical approach
Rose, A
1989-01-01
This monograph is a radical departure from the conventional quantum mechanical approach to electron-phonon interactions. It translates the customary quantum mechanical analysis of the electron-phonon interactions carried out in Fourier space into a predominantly classical analysis carried out in real space. Various electron-phonon interactions such as the polar and nonpolar optical phonons, acoustic phonons that interact via deformation potential and via the piezoelectric effect and phonons in metals, are treated in this monograph by a single, relatively simple "classical" model. This model is
Symmetry-adapted phonon analysis of nanotubes
Aghaei, Amin; Dayal, Kaushik; Elliott, Ryan S.
2013-02-01
The characteristics of phonons, i.e. linearized normal modes of vibration, provide important insights into many aspects of crystals, e.g. stability and thermodynamics. In this paper, we use the Objective Structures framework to make concrete analogies between crystalline phonons and normal modes of vibration in non-crystalline but highly symmetric nanostructures. Our strategy is to use an intermediate linear transformation from real-space to an intermediate space in which the Hessian matrix of second derivatives is block-circulant. The block-circulant nature of the Hessian enables us to then follow the procedure to obtain phonons in crystals: namely, we use the Discrete Fourier Transform from this intermediate space to obtain a block-diagonal matrix that is readily diagonalizable. We formulate this for general Objective Structures and then apply it to study carbon nanotubes of various chiralities that are subjected to axial elongation and torsional deformation. We compare the phonon spectra computed in the Objective Framework with spectra computed for armchair and zigzag nanotubes. We also demonstrate the approach by computing the Density of States. In addition to the computational efficiency afforded by Objective Structures in providing the transformations to almost-diagonalize the Hessian, the framework provides an important conceptual simplification to interpret the phonon curves. Our findings include that, first, not all non-optic long-wavelength modes are zero energy and conversely not all zero energy modes are long-wavelength; second, the phonon curves accurately predict both the onset as well as the soft modes for instabilities such as torsional buckling; and third, unlike crystals where phonon stability does not provide information on stability with respect to non-rank-one deformation modes, phonon stability in nanotubes is sufficient to guarantee stability with respect to all perturbations that do not involve structural modes. Our finding of characteristic oscillations in the phonon curves motivates a simple one-dimensional geometric nonlocal model of energy transport in generic Objective Structures. The model shows the interesting interplay between energy transport along axial and helical directions.
Heating of nonequilibrium electrons by laser radiation in solid transparent dielectrics
Nikiforov, A. M., E-mail: NikaHV@yandex.ru; Epifanov, A. S. [Bauman Moscow State Technical University (Russian Federation); Garnov, S. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov Institute of General Physics (Russian Federation)
2011-01-15
A computer simulation of the heating of nonequilibrium electrons by an intense high-frequency electromagnetic field leading to the bulk damage of solid transparent dielectrics under single irradiation has been carried out. The dependences of the avalanche ionization rate on threshold field strength have been derived. Using the Fokker-Planck equation with a flux-doubling boundary condition is shown to lead to noticeable errors even at a ratio of the photon energy to the band gap {approx}0.1. The series of dependences of the critical fields on pulse duration have been constructed for various initial lattice temperatures and laser wavelengths, which allow the electron avalanche to be identified as a limiting breakdown mechanism. The ratio of the energy stored in the electron subsystem to the excess (with respect to the equilibrium state) energy of the phonon subsystem by the end of laser pulse action has been calculated both with and without allowance for phonon heating. The influence of phonon heating on the impact avalanche ionization rate is analyzed.
Phonon dynamics of graphene on metals.
Al Taleb, Amjad; Faras, Daniel
2016-03-16
The study of surface phonon dispersion curves is motivated by the quest for a detailed understanding of the forces between the atoms at the surface and in the bulk. In the case of graphene, additional motivation comes from the fact that thermal conductivity is dominated by contributions from acoustic phonons, while optical phonon properties are essential to understand Raman spectra. In this article, we review recent progress made in the experimental determination of phonon dispersion curves of graphene grown on several single-crystal metal surfaces. The two main experimental techniques usually employed are high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and inelastic helium atom scattering (HAS). The different dispersion branches provide a detailed insight into the graphene-substrate interaction. Softening of optical modes and signatures of the substrate's Rayleigh wave are observed for strong graphene-substrate interactions, while acoustic phonon modes resemble those of free-standing graphene for weakly interacting systems. The latter allows determining the bending rigidity and the graphene-substrate coupling strength. A comparison between theory and experiment is discussed for several illustrative examples. Perspectives for future experiments are discussed. PMID:26886508
Phonon dynamics of graphene on metals
Taleb, Amjad Al; Farías, Daniel
2016-03-01
The study of surface phonon dispersion curves is motivated by the quest for a detailed understanding of the forces between the atoms at the surface and in the bulk. In the case of graphene, additional motivation comes from the fact that thermal conductivity is dominated by contributions from acoustic phonons, while optical phonon properties are essential to understand Raman spectra. In this article, we review recent progress made in the experimental determination of phonon dispersion curves of graphene grown on several single-crystal metal surfaces. The two main experimental techniques usually employed are high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and inelastic helium atom scattering (HAS). The different dispersion branches provide a detailed insight into the graphene-substrate interaction. Softening of optical modes and signatures of the substrate‧s Rayleigh wave are observed for strong graphene-substrate interactions, while acoustic phonon modes resemble those of free-standing graphene for weakly interacting systems. The latter allows determining the bending rigidity and the graphene-substrate coupling strength. A comparison between theory and experiment is discussed for several illustrative examples. Perspectives for future experiments are discussed.
Ionizing particle detection based on phononic crystals
Aly, Arafa H.; Mehaney, Ahmed; Eissa, Mostafa F.
2015-08-01
Most conventional radiation detectors are based on electronic or photon collections. In this work, we introduce a new and novel type of ionizing particle detector based on phonon collection. Helium ion radiation treats tumors with better precision. There are nine known isotopes of helium, but only helium-3 and helium-4 are stable. Helium-4 is formed in fusion reactor technology and in enormous quantities during Big Bang nucleo-synthesis. In this study, we introduce a technique for helium-4 ion detection (sensing) based on the innovative properties of the new composite materials known as phononic crystals (PnCs). PnCs can provide an easy and cheap technique for ion detection compared with conventional methods. PnC structures commonly consist of a periodic array of two or more materials with different elastic properties. The two materials are polymethyl-methacrylate and polyethylene polymers. The calculations showed that the energies lost to target phonons are maximized at 1 keV helium-4 ion energy. There is a correlation between the total phonon energies and the transmittance of PnC structures. The maximum transmission for phonons due to the passage of helium-4 ions was found in the case of making polyethylene as a first layer in the PnC structure. Therefore, the concept of ion detection based on PnC structure is achievable.
A step closer to visualizing the electron___phonon interplay
Chen, Y.L.; Lee, W.S.; Shen, Z.X.; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC, PULSE
2011-01-04
The origin of the very high superconducting transition temperature (Tc) in ceramic copper oxide superconductors is one of the greatest mysteries in modern physics. In the superconducting state, electrons form pairs (known as Cooper pairs) and condense into the superfluid state to conduct electric current with zero resistance. For conventional superconductors, it is well established that the 2 electrons in a Cooper pair are 'bonded' by lattice vibrations (phonons), whereas in high-Tc superconductors, the 'glue' for the Cooper pairs is still under intense discussion. Although the high transition temperature and the unconventional pairing symmetry (d-wave symmetry) have led many researchers to believe that the pairing mechanism results from electron-electron interaction, increasing evidence shows that electron-phonon coupling also significantly influences the low-energy electronic structures and hence may also play an important role in high-Tc superconductivity. In a recent issue of PNAS, Carbone et al. use ultrafast electron diffraction, a recently developed experimental technique, to attack this problem from a new angle, the dynamics of the electronic relaxation process involving phonons. Their results provide fresh evidence for the strong interplay between electronic and atomic degrees of freedom in high-Tc superconductivity. In general, ultrafast spectroscopy makes use of the pump-probe method to study the dynamic process in material. In such experiments, one first shoots an ultrafast (typically 10-100 fs) 'pumping' pulse at the sample to drive its electronic system out of the equilibrium state. Then after a brief time delay ({Delta}t) of typically tens of femtoseconds to tens of picoseconds, a 'probing' pulse of either photons or electrons is sent in to probe the sample's transient state. By varying {Delta}t, one can study the process by which the system relaxes back to the equilibrium state, thus acquiring the related dynamic information. This pump-probe experiment is reminiscent of the standard method used by bell makers for hundreds of years to judge the quality of their products (hitting a bell then listening to how the sound would fade away), albeit the relevant time scale here is way beyond tens of femtoseconds. Traditionally, ultrafast spectroscopy was carried out to study gas-phase reactions, but it has also been applied to study condensed phase systems since the development of reliable solid-state ultrafast lasers approximately a decade ago. In addition, the ability to control pulse width, wavelength, and amplification of the output of Ti:Sapphire lasers has further increased the capability of this experimental method. During the past decade, many ultrafast pump-probe experiments have been carried out in various fields by using different probing methods, such as photo-resistivity, fluorescence yield, and photoemission, and they have revealed much new information complementary to the equilibrium spectroscopy methods used before. Carbone et al. used the photon-pump, electron (diffraction)-probe method. The pumping photon pulse first drives the electrons in the sample into an oscillating mode along its polarization direction. Then during the delay time, these excited electrons can transfer excess energy to the adjacent nuclei and cause crystal lattice vibration on their way back to the equilibrium state. An ultrashort electron pulse is shot at the sample at various time delays {Delta}t and the diffraction pattern is collected. Because the electron diffraction pattern is directly related to the crystal lattice structure and its motion, this technique provides a natural way to study the electron-phonon coupling problem. Furthermore, by adjusting the pump pulse's relative polarization with respect to the Cu-O bond direction, Carbone et al. were able to acquire the electron-phonon coupling strength along different directions. Focusing on the lattice dynamic along the c axis, Carbone et al. found that the c-axis phonons in the optimally-doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} (Bi2212) are coupled to the electrons with different strength along different directions within the CuO{sub 2} plane. The coupling strength reaches its largest value along the 2 Cu-O bond directions and becomes the weakest along the bisector of the angle formed by the 2 Cu-O bonds. As pointed out by Carbone et al., these observations agree well with the calculated coupling strength between electrons and the buckling phonons. Furthermore, their observation of this anisotropic electron-phonon coupling also agrees with results from angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES), which measures the equilibrium-state properties of materials. In ARPES measurements, electron-phonon coupling manifests itself as a kink anomaly in the band dispersion and a corresponding sudden broadening in the spectral width.
The analytical theory for the directivity patterns of ultrasounds emitted from laser-irradiated interface between two isotropic solids is developed. It is valid for arbitrary combinations of transparent and opaque materials. The directivity patterns are derived both in two-dimensional and in three-dimensional geometries, by accounting for the specific features of the sound generation by the photo-induced mechanical stresses distributed in the volume, essential in the laser ultrasonics. In particular, the theory accounts for the contribution to the emitted propagating acoustic fields from the converted by the interface evanescent photo-generated compression-dilatation waves. The precise analytical solutions for the profiles of longitudinal and shear acoustic pulses emitted in different directions are proposed. The developed theory can be applied for dimensional scaling, optimization, and interpretation of the high-pressure laser ultrasonics experiments in diamond anvil cell
Phonon Assisted Gain in a Semiconductor Double Quantum Dot Maser
Gullans, Michael
2015-05-01
Lasers provide fundamental insights into the interaction between light and matter. Those operating in the few-emitter limit probe this interaction at the level where quantum effects are crucial for understanding the device operation. We develop a microscopic model for the recently demonstrated double quantum dot (DQD) maser. In characterizing the gain of this device we find that, in addition to the direct stimulated emission of photons, there is a large contribution from transitions that involve the simultaneous emission of a photon and a phonon. These theoretical results are compared to experiment and good agreement is found. Due to the sharp threshold behavior of the lasing transition, this work indicates that the maser can serve as an extremely sensitive probe of the mesoscopic environment of the DQD and provides insight into the prospects for long-distance entanglement between two cavity coupled DQDs.
Fabrcio Borges, Oliveira; Valria Martins Dias, Pereira; Ana Paula Nassif Tondato da, Trindade; Antnio Carlos, Shimano; Ronaldo Eugnio Calada Dias, Gabriel; Ana Paula Oliveira, Borges.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ao precoce do laser teraputico e do ultrassom no processo de regenerao de uma leso experimental em ratos. MTODO: Utilizou-se 24 ratos. Dezoito foram submetidos ao procedimento cirrgico de leso do nervo citico por compresso, atravs de uma pina hemosttica acima da fos [...] sa popltea. Os animais foram divididos em trs grupos com seis animais em cada. Grupo controle normal. GI: controle lesado sem interveno teraputica. GII: interveno teraputica do laser ArGaAl. GIII: interveno teraputica do ultrassom Pulsado. Iniciamos as intervenes teraputicas 24 horas aps a leso, com aplicaes dirias, por um perodo de quatorze dias consecutivos. RESULTADOS: Ao avaliar a perimetria dos msculos da coxa direita obteve-se os seguintes valores mdios de diminuio (mm), para cada grupo GI: 0,45; GII: 0,42; GIII: 0,40. Quanto ao tempo de deslocamento tanto o GII e GIII apresentaram diferena significativa, quando comparados ao GI. Na avaliao final do IFC o GII sobressaiu ao GIII. Quanto a cicatrizao observou-se grande melhora no GII e GIII. CONCLUSO: Os resultados evidenciaram que a recuperao nervosa foi maior com a aplicao do laser. Nvel de evidncia II, Estudos teraputicos - Investigao dos resultados do tratamento Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of early therapeutic laser and ultrasound in the regeneration process of an injury in rats. METHODS: We used 24 rats. Eighteen underwent surgery for sciatic nerve compression by a hemostat above the popliteal fossa. The animals were divided into three groups of six [...] animals each. Normal control group. GI: Injured control without therapeutic intervention. GII: laser ArGaAl therapeutic intervention. GIII: therapeutic intervention of Pulsed Ultrasound. We begin therapeutic interventions 24 hours after injury, with daily applications for a period of fourteen consecutive days. RESULTS: In assessing the girth of the muscles of the right they, the following average decrease (in mm) for each GI: 0.45, GII: 0.42, GIII: 0.40 In relation to travel time, both GII and GIII presented significant difference when compared to GI. In the final evaluation of the IFC, GII excelled in the GIII. As for the healing observed, a major great improvement was observed in GII and GIII. CONCLUSION: The results showed that nerve recovery was higher with the laser application. Level of evidence II, Therapeutic Studies - Investigation of the results of treatment.
Tuchina, E S; Petrov, P O; Kozina, K V; Tuchin, V V [N.G. Chernyshevsky Saratov State University, Saratov (Russian Federation); Ratto, F; Pini, R [Institute of Applied Physics ' Nello Carrara' , National Research Council, via Madonna del Piano 10 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Centi, S [University of Florence, Dept. Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, viale Morgagni 50, 50134 Firenze (Italy)
2014-07-31
The effect of NIR laser radiation (808 nm) and gold nanorods on the cells of two strains of Staphylococcus aureus, one of them being methicillin-sensitive and the other being methicillinresistant, is studied. Nanorods having the dimensions 10 × 44 nm with the absorption maximum in the NIR spectral region, functionalised with human immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, are synthesised. It is shown that the use of nanoparticles in combination with NIR irradiation leads to killing up to 97% of the population of microorganisms. (laser biophotonics)
The effect of NIR laser radiation (808 nm) and gold nanorods on the cells of two strains of Staphylococcus aureus, one of them being methicillin-sensitive and the other being methicillinresistant, is studied. Nanorods having the dimensions 10 × 44 nm with the absorption maximum in the NIR spectral region, functionalised with human immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, are synthesised. It is shown that the use of nanoparticles in combination with NIR irradiation leads to killing up to 97% of the population of microorganisms. (laser biophotonics)
A Correlation Function for Phonon Eigenvectors
It was shown by van Hove that the Fourier transform of the neutron scattering intensity is a space-time correlation function of the scattering density. In the special case of a single crystal as the scattering system, the coefficients of a Fourier series can be derived from the one-phonon scattering cross-sections corresponding to a phonon of a particular frequency. Evaluation of the Fourier series gives a space correlation function involving the eigenvectors of the mode of vibration being considered. The function is a special case of the van Hove function, closely related to the Patterson function which is used in X-ray crystallography. In the special case of a phonon of wave vector zero (q = 0) the function has a sufficiently simple interpretation that it may be of practical value. (author)
Phonon wave interference and thermal bandgap materials
Maldovan, Martin
2015-07-01
Wave interference modifies phonon velocities and density of states, and in doing so creates forbidden energy bandgaps for thermal phonons. Materials that exhibit wave interference effects allow the flow of thermal energy to be manipulated by controlling the material's thermal conductivity or using heat mirrors to reflect thermal vibrations. The technological potential of these materials, such as enhanced thermoelectric energy conversion and improved thermal insulation, has fuelled the search for highly efficient phonon wave interference and thermal bandgap materials. In this Progress Article, we discuss recent developments in the understanding and manipulation of heat transport. We show that the rational design and fabrication of nanostructures provides unprecedented opportunities for creating wave-like behaviour of heat, leading to a fundamentally new approach for manipulating the transfer of thermal energy.
Phonon tunneling through a double barrier system
Villegas, Diosdado [Departamento de Física, Universidad Central “Marta Abreu” de Las Villas, CP 54830, Santa Clara, Villa Clara (Cuba); Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 18 Sur y San Claudio, Edif. 110A, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico); León-Pérez, Fernando de [Centro Universitario de la Defensa de Zaragoza, Ctra. de Huesca s/n, E-50090 Zaragoza (Spain); Pérez-Álvarez, R. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca (Mexico); Arriaga, J., E-mail: arriaga@ifuap.buap.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 18 Sur y San Claudio, Edif. 110A, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico)
2015-04-15
The tunneling of optical and acoustic phonons at normal incidence on a double-barrier is studied in this paper. Transmission coefficients and resonance conditions are derived theoretically under the assumption that the long-wavelength approximation is valid. It is shown that the behavior of the transmission coefficients for the symmetric double barrier has a Lorentzian form close to resonant frequencies and that Breit–Wigner's formula have a general validity in one-dimensional phonon tunneling. Authors also study the so-called generalized Hartman effect in the tunneling of long-wavelength phonons and show that this effect is a numerical artifact resulting from taking the opaque limit before exploring the variation with a finite barrier width. This study could be useful for the design of acoustic devices.
Phonon heat transport in gallium arsenide
Richa Saini; Vinod Ashokan; B D Indu; R Kumar
2012-03-01
The lifetimes of quantum excitations are directly related to the electron and phonon energy linewidths of a particular scattering event. Using the versatile double time thermodynamic Green’s function approach based on many-body theory, an ab-initio formulation of relaxation times of various contributing processes has been investigated with newer understanding in terms of the linewidths of electrons and phonons. The energy linewidth is found to be an extremely sensitive quantity in the transport phenomena of crystalline solids as a collection of large number of scattering processes, namely, boundary scattering, impurity scattering, multiphonon scattering, interference scattering, electron–phonon processes and resonance scattering. The lattice thermal conductivities of three samples of GaAs have been analysed on the basis of modiﬁed Callaway model and a fairly good agreement between theory and experimental observations has been reported.
Electron and Phonon Transport in Molecular Junctions
Li, Qian
in the compressed junction mainly stems from a large suppression of the transmission coefficients of the longitudinal and the in-plane transverse channels of the leads. Finally, we return and investigate phonon transport through π-stacked molecules connected to graphene leads including all modes of......Molecular electronics provide the possibility to investigate electron and phonon transport at the smallest imaginable scale, where quantum effects can be investigated and exploited directly in the design. In this thesis, we study both electron transport and phonon transport in molecular junctions....... The system we are interested in here are π-stacked molecules connected with two semi-infinite leads. π-stacked aromatic rings, connected via π-π electronic coupling, provides a rather soft mechanical bridge while maintaining high electronic conductivity. We investigate electron transport and the...
Subwavelength waveguiding of surface phonons in pillars-based phononic crystal
Mahmoud Addouche
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this study, we theoretically analyze the guiding of surface phonons through locally resonant defects in pillars-based phononic crystal. Using finite element method, we simulate the propagation of surface phonons through a periodic array of cylindrical pillars deposited on a semi-infinite substrate. This structure displays several band gaps, some of which are due to local resonances of the pillar. By introducing pillar defects inside the phononic structure, we show the possibility to perform a waveguiding of surface phonons based on two mechanisms that spatially confine the elastic energy in very small waveguide apertures. A careful choice of the height of the defect pillars, allows to shift the frequency position of the defect modes inside or outside the locally resonant band gaps and create two subwavelenght waveguiding mechanisms. The first is a classical mechanism that corresponds to the presence of the defect modes inside the locally resonant band gap. The seconde is due to the hybridation between the phonon resonances of defect modes and the surface phonons of the semi-infinite homogenous medium. We discuss the nature and the difference between both waveguiding phenomena.
Toward quantitative modeling of silicon phononic thermocrystals
Lacatena, V. [STMicroelectronics, 850, rue Jean Monnet, F-38926 Crolles (France); IEMN UMR CNRS 8520, Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie, Avenue Poincaré, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Haras, M.; Robillard, J.-F., E-mail: jean-francois.robillard@isen.iemn.univ-lille1.fr; Dubois, E. [IEMN UMR CNRS 8520, Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie, Avenue Poincaré, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Monfray, S.; Skotnicki, T. [STMicroelectronics, 850, rue Jean Monnet, F-38926 Crolles (France)
2015-03-16
The wealth of technological patterning technologies of deca-nanometer resolution brings opportunities to artificially modulate thermal transport properties. A promising example is given by the recent concepts of 'thermocrystals' or 'nanophononic crystals' that introduce regular nano-scale inclusions using a pitch scale in between the thermal phonons mean free path and the electron mean free path. In such structures, the lattice thermal conductivity is reduced down to two orders of magnitude with respect to its bulk value. Beyond the promise held by these materials to overcome the well-known “electron crystal-phonon glass” dilemma faced in thermoelectrics, the quantitative prediction of their thermal conductivity poses a challenge. This work paves the way toward understanding and designing silicon nanophononic membranes by means of molecular dynamics simulation. Several systems are studied in order to distinguish the shape contribution from bulk, ultra-thin membranes (8 to 15 nm), 2D phononic crystals, and finally 2D phononic membranes. After having discussed the equilibrium properties of these structures from 300 K to 400 K, the Green-Kubo methodology is used to quantify the thermal conductivity. The results account for several experimental trends and models. It is confirmed that the thin-film geometry as well as the phononic structure act towards a reduction of the thermal conductivity. The further decrease in the phononic engineered membrane clearly demonstrates that both phenomena are cumulative. Finally, limitations of the model and further perspectives are discussed.
Cryogenic phonon-mediated particle detectors for dark matter searches and neutrino physics
This work describes the development of cryogenic phonon-mediated particle detectors for dark matter searches and neutrino detection. The detectors described in this work employ transition-edge sensors, which consist of a meander pattern of thin-film superconductor on a silicon substrate. When phonons from a particle interaction in the crystal impinge on the sensor in sufficient density, sections of the line are driven normal and provide a measurable resistance. A large fraction of the thesis describes work to fully characterize the phonon flux from particle interactions. In one set of experiments, ∼25% of the phonon energy from 59.54 keV gamma-ray events was found to propagate open-quotes ballisticallyclose quotes (i.e., with little or no scattering) across a 300 μm thick crystal of silicon. Gamma-rays produce electron recoils in silicon whereas with dark matter and neutrino experiments nuclear recoils are also of interest. Two experiments were done to measure the ballistic component that arises from neutron events, which interact via nuclear recoil. Measurements indicate that the fraction of energy that is ballistic is ∼50% greater for nuclear recoils than for electron recoils. Two novel detectors were fabricated and tested in an attempt to improve the sensitivity of the detectors. In the first detector, relatively large Al pads were linked by 2 μm wide Ti lines in a meander pattern. Phonons impinging on the Al pads create quasiparticles which diffuse in the Al pad until they are trapped in the lower gap Tl links. The sensitivity of the detector was found to be increased by this open-quotes funnelingclose quotes action. A second detector was built that incorporates 0.25 μm wide lines defined by direct electron-beam exposure of the photoresist. If the superconducting line is sufficiently narrow, single phonons are capable of driving sections normal which should improve the sensitivity and linearity of the detector
A theoretical model is developed for the calculation of the temperature fields and determination of the size of a zone with structural changes in the cartilaginous tissue. The model is based on a simultaneous analysis of the heat and mass transfer processes and it takes into account the bulk absorption of laser radiation by the tissue, surface evaporation of water, and temperature dependences of the diffusion coefficients. It is assumed that under the influence of a phase transition between free and bound water, caused by heating of the cartilage to 700C, the proteoglycans of the cartilage matrix become mobile and, as a result of such mass transfer, structural changes are induced in the cartilaginous tissue causing relaxation of stresses or denaturation. It is shown that the maximum temperature is then reached not on the irradiated surface but at some distance from it, and that the size of the zones of structural changes (denaturation depth) depends strongly on the energy density of the laser radiation and its wavelength, on the duration of the irradiation, and on the cartilage thickness. This model makes it possible to calculate the temperature fields and the depth of structural changes in laser-induced relaxation of stresses and changes in the shape of the cartilaginous tissue. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)
The electron machines's development and improvement go through the discovery of new electron sources of high brightness. After reminding the interests in studying silicon cathodes with array of tips as electron sources, I describe, in the three steps model, the main phenomenological features related to photoemission and photoemission and photo-field-emission from a semi-conductor. the experimental set-ups used for the measurements reported in chapter four, five and six are described in chapter three. In chapter three. In chapter four several aspects of photo-field-emission in continuous and nanosecond regimes, studied on the Clermont-Ferrand's test bench are tackled. We have measured quantum efficacies of 0.4 percent in the red (1.96 eV). Temporal responses in the nanoseconds range (10 ns) were observed with the Nd: YLF laser. With the laser impinging at an oblique angle we obtained ratios of photocurrent to dark current of the order of twenty. The issue of the high energy extracted photocurrent saturation is addressed and I give a preliminary explanation. In collaboration with the L.A.L. (Laboratoire de l'Accelerateur Lineaire) some tests with shortened pulsed laser beam (Nd: YAG laser 35 ps) were performed. Satisfactory response times have been obtained within the limitation of the scope (400 ps). (authors). 101 refs. 93 figs., 27 tabs., 3 photos., 1 append
Phonon polariton modes in semiconductor superlattices
Phonon polariton modes in semiconductor superlattices are studied. Polariton electric fields and the dispersion relation are derived by electromagnetic theory, and due to periodicity in the direction normal to the superlattice layers, Bloch's theorem is applied. Polariton modes are found to exist between the TO and LO phonon frequencies, and approach the surface polariton frequency in the limit of large tangential wave vectors. The frequencies are also strongly dependent on the ratio of the layer thicknesses. Results are illustrated by a GaAs-GaP superlattice. (author)
Quantized phonon-enhanced spin fluctuations
Koo, Je Huan, E-mail: koo@kw.ac.kr
2015-01-15
We investigate the phonon-enhanced spin flipping of f-electrons via s–f exchange interactions, as previously discussed by ourselves [Phys. Rev. B 61, 4289]. The electron–electron interaction U{sub sf} is an order of magnitude stronger than that of Kondo-type bare spin-flipping. Using the similar configuration of Hydrogen, we calculate the quantized energy eigenvalues of this spin fluctuation. We also compare our energy levels with experimental data obtained from inelastic neutron scatterings in which the data below 40 meV may be attributed to phonon modes.
Scattering of phonons in eutectic alloys
Thermal conductivity (x) was investigated in eutectic alloys of InSb-YbSb and InSb-Yb5Sb3 systems, where YbSb and Yb5Sb5 metal phases at directed crystallization in InSb matrix are formed respectively in the form of oriented plates and parallel needles. Good compliance of experimental data xparallel with calculated ones x0 indicates, that in ?Tparallelx direction second phase inclusions are of no importance for phonon scattering, and in ?Tperpendicularx direction at low temperatures phonons are scattered strongly at the second phase inclusion boundaries. Thermal conductivity anisotropy occurs due to this phenomenon
Phonon dispersion curves of CsCN
N K Gaur; Preeti Singh; E G Rini; Jyotsna Galgale; R K Singh
2004-08-01
The motivation for the present work was gained from the recent publication on phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) of CsCN from the neutron scattering technique. We have applied the extended three-body force shell model (ETSM) by incorporating the effect of coupling between the translation modes and the orientation of cyanide molecules for the description of phonon dispersion curves of CsCN between the temperatures 195 and 295 K. Our results on PDCs in symmetric direction are in good agreement with the experimental data measured with inelastic neutron scattering technique.
LEAP, Scattering Law for Continuous Phonon Spectra
1 - Nature of physical problem solved: The scattering law S(alpha,beta) for an input continuous or piece-wise continuous phonon frequency function rho(beta) is calculated. 2 - Method of solution: The phonon expansion and steepest descents methods described in AERE R 3803 (UKAEA report) are used. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The arrays can easily be increased in size to incorporate larger problems. Currently the output S(alpha,beta) can be described using a 90 x 90 alpha/beta mesh
Phonon analogue of topological nodal semimetals
Po, Hoi Chun; Bahri, Yasaman; Vishwanath, Ashvin
2015-03-01
Recently, Kane and Lubensky proposed a mapping between bosonic phonon problems on isostatic lattices to chiral fermion systems based on factorization of the dynamical matrix [Nat. Phys. 10, 39 (2014)]. The existence of topologically protected zero modes in such mechanical problems is related to their presence in the fermionic system and is dictated by a local index theorem. Here we adopt the proposed mapping to construct a two-dimensional mechanical analogue of a fermionic topological nodal semimetal that hosts a robust bulk node in its linearized phonon spectrum. Such topologically protected soft modes with tunable wavevector may be useful in designing mechanical structures with fault-tolerant properties.
Phonon dispersion curves for CsCN
The motivation for the present work was gained from the recent publication on phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) of CsCN from the neutron scattering technique. We have applied the extended three-body force shell model (ETSM) by incorporating the effect of coupling between the translation modes and the orientation of cyanide molecules for the description of phonon dispersion curves of CsCN between the temperatures 195 and 295 K. Our results on PDCs in symmetric direction are in good agreement with the experimental data measured with inelastic neutron scattering technique. (author)
Phonon thermal conductivity in single layered manganites
We present measurements of the thermal transport in single crystals of single-layered manganites La1-xSr1+xMnO4 with 0=ph upon hole-doping. The suppression of ?ph originates from scattering of phonons by polaronic holes. The suppression is particularly strong when charge and orbital degrees of freedom are disordered and rather weak in the case of long-range charge and orbital ordering. Moreover, slight anomalies are found in the vicinity of antiferromagnetic phase transitions, probably due to scattering of phonons by magnetic fluctuations
This work was achieved in vivo and in vitro to evaluate the efficiency of Er:YAG laser in the cervical dentinal hypersensitivity treatment (HSDC). The Clinical study was achieved in patients with HSDC. The treatment was realized in five sessions: the first for selection, the second for exams (clinic and X-Ray) and trying to remove the etiologic factors that could cause the HSDC. The third and fourth sessions were subjected to the radiation with that protocol: 60 mJ energy ,2 Hz frequency, 6 mm out of focus, under air cooling, 20 seconds each application which the same was repeated four times with one minute breaks, which scanning movements and without using anaesthetics. The fifth was evaluation. The patients were evaluated and registered in a subject scale of pain 0 to 3, in the beginning and end of each session of irradiation, and one month after the last session. The results showed that for the irradiated group occurs significant differences in the beginning of each session and between. For the control group did not occur significant differences in the beginning and after each session, but did show a difference between the sessions. As the control group as the irradiated group, had reduction of sensibility between the session. For the morphologic study nine teeth were selected, 7 molars and 2 pre-molars from operative dentistry discipline. Half of the surface was irradiated with Er:YAG laser, the same protocol used in vivo, and the other half was used as a control without receiving any laser irradiation. Subsequently, specimens were prepared for SEM examinations. The results showed that laser treated surfaces showed a reduction of dentine tubular diameter with partial or total closure of the dentine tubules. For the control group, it was observed bigger amounts smear layer and open dentine tubular. The results obtained indicated that the Er:YAG laser can contribute to the HSDC treatment. (author)
In this research, it was analyzed the acceleration of the healing process of cutaneous lesions in mice, using a diode laser emitting in 830 nm. The 64 selected animals in this study were randomically divided into four groups of 16 animals each (G1, G2, G3 and G4). Biometric and histological comparisons were accomplished in the following periods: 3, 7 and 14 days after the surgery and laser application. Three laser irradiation configurations were used: a punctual contact (G2) and two non-contact and uniform (G3 and G4). For group G2, the laser intensity was 428 mW/cm2 , and for groups G3 and G4 it was 53 mW/cm2. The total doses were D = 3 J/cm2 for groups G2 and G4, and D = 1,3 J/cm2 for G3. The first group, G1, was considered control and thus not submitted to any treatment after the surgery. All irradiated lesions presented acceleration of the healing process with regard to the control group. However, our results clearly indicate that the smaller laser intensity (uniform irradiation) leaded to the best results. On the other hand, the smaller used dose also leaded to the more significant and expressive results. The combination of the intensity value of 53 mW/cm2 and the dose of 1,3 J/cm2 leaded to optimal results, regarding the Biometric and histological analysis, presenting faster lesion contraction, quicker neoformation of epithelial and conjunctive tissue (with more collagen fibers ). (author)
The angular spreading of phonon beams in liquid 4He: upward phonon dispersion
Measurements have been made of the angular spreading of initially well defined beams of phonons of energies h/2??/ksub(B) 4He at pressures between SVP and 24 bar. For bath temperatures T 3He. The spreading increases with increasing source temperature and decreases with pressure, becoming undetectable (0) at P >= 17 bar. The decay lengths of the processes giving rise to this spreading are found to be approximately 1 mm. Various scattering mechanisms are considered and it is concluded that the results are consistent with a spontaneous three-phonon decay process allowed when the phonon dispersion curve initially deviates upward from its asymptotic linear form. (author)
Electronic structure, phonon spectra, and anisotropy of electron-phonon interaction in scandium
Sichkar, S.M. [Institute of Metal Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 36 Vernadsky Str., 03142 Kiev (Ukraine); Antonov, V.N. [Institute of Metal Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 36 Vernadsky Str., 03142 Kiev (Ukraine); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)
2012-11-15
The anisotropy of transport function, electronic structure, Fermi surface, phonon spectra, electron-phonon spectral function, orbital dependence of the cyclotron masses, and extremal cross sections of the Fermi surface of Sc were investigated from first principles using the full potential linear muffin-tin orbital method. The calculations of the dynamic matrix were carried out within the framework of the linear response theory. A good agreement with experimental data of phonon spectra, electrical resistivity, cyclotron masses, and extremal cross sections of the Fermi surface in high symmetry directions was achieved. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Soft surfaces of nanomaterials enable strong phonon interactions
Bozyigit, Deniz; Yazdani, Nuri; Yarema, Maksym; Yarema, Olesya; Lin, Weyde Matteo Mario; Volk, Sebastian; Vuttivorakulchai, Kantawong; Luisier, Mathieu; Juranyi, Fanni; Wood, Vanessa
2016-03-01
Phonons and their interactions with other phonons, electrons or photons drive energy gain, loss and transport in materials. Although the phonon density of states has been measured and calculated in bulk crystalline semiconductors, phonons remain poorly understood in nanomaterials, despite the increasing prevalence of bottom-up fabrication of semiconductors from nanomaterials and the integration of nanometre-sized components into devices. Here we quantify the phononic properties of bottom-up fabricated semiconductors as a function of crystallite size using inelastic neutron scattering measurements and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We show that, unlike in microcrystalline semiconductors, the phonon modes of semiconductors with nanocrystalline domains exhibit both reduced symmetry and low energy owing to mechanical softness at the surface of those domains. These properties become important when phonons couple to electrons in semiconductor devices. Although it was initially believed that the coupling between electrons and phonons is suppressed in nanocrystalline materials owing to the scarcity of electronic states and their large energy separation, it has since been shown that the electron–phonon coupling is large and allows high energy-dissipation rates exceeding one electronvolt per picosecond (refs 10, 11, 12, 13). Despite detailed investigations into the role of phonons in exciton dynamics, leading to a variety of suggestions as to the origins of these fast transition rates and including attempts to numerically calculate them, fundamental questions surrounding electron–phonon interactions in nanomaterials remain unresolved. By combining the microscopic and thermodynamic theories of phonons and our findings on the phononic properties of nanomaterials, we are able to explain and then experimentally confirm the strong electron–phonon coupling and fast multi-phonon transition rates of charge carriers to trap states. This improved understanding of phonon processes permits the rational selection of nanomaterials, their surface treatments, and the design of devices incorporating them.
Honeycomb phononic crystals with self-similar hierarchy
Mousanezhad, Davood; Babaee, Sahab; Ghosh, Ranajay; Mahdi, Elsadig; Bertoldi, Katia; Vaziri, Ashkan
2015-09-01
We highlight the effect of structural hierarchy and deformation on band structure and wave-propagation behavior of two-dimensional phononic crystals. Our results show that the topological hierarchical architecture and instability-induced pattern transformations of the structure under compression can be effectively used to tune the band gaps and directionality of phononic crystals. The work provides insights into the role of structural organization and hierarchy in regulating the dynamic behavior of phononic crystals, and opportunities for developing tunable phononic devices.
Existence of an Independent Phonon Bath in a Quantum Device
Pascal, Laetitia; Fay, Aurelien; Winkelmann, Clemens; Courtois, Herv
2013-01-01
At low temperatures, the thermal wavelength of acoustic phonons in a metallic thin film on a substrate can widely exceed the film thickness. It is thus generally believed that a mesoscopic device operating at low temperature does not carry an individual phonon population. In this work, we provide direct experimental evidence for the thermal decoupling of phonons in a mesoscopic quantum device from its substrate phonon heat bath at a sub-Kelvin temperature. A simple heat balance model assuming...
Soft surfaces of nanomaterials enable strong phonon interactions.
Bozyigit, Deniz; Yazdani, Nuri; Yarema, Maksym; Yarema, Olesya; Lin, Weyde Matteo Mario; Volk, Sebastian; Vuttivorakulchai, Kantawong; Luisier, Mathieu; Juranyi, Fanni; Wood, Vanessa
2016-03-31
Phonons and their interactions with other phonons, electrons or photons drive energy gain, loss and transport in materials. Although the phonon density of states has been measured and calculated in bulk crystalline semiconductors, phonons remain poorly understood in nanomaterials, despite the increasing prevalence of bottom-up fabrication of semiconductors from nanomaterials and the integration of nanometre-sized components into devices. Here we quantify the phononic properties of bottom-up fabricated semiconductors as a function of crystallite size using inelastic neutron scattering measurements and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We show that, unlike in microcrystalline semiconductors, the phonon modes of semiconductors with nanocrystalline domains exhibit both reduced symmetry and low energy owing to mechanical softness at the surface of those domains. These properties become important when phonons couple to electrons in semiconductor devices. Although it was initially believed that the coupling between electrons and phonons is suppressed in nanocrystalline materials owing to the scarcity of electronic states and their large energy separation, it has since been shown that the electron-phonon coupling is large and allows high energy-dissipation rates exceeding one electronvolt per picosecond (refs 10-13). Despite detailed investigations into the role of phonons in exciton dynamics, leading to a variety of suggestions as to the origins of these fast transition rates and including attempts to numerically calculate them, fundamental questions surrounding electron-phonon interactions in nanomaterials remain unresolved. By combining the microscopic and thermodynamic theories of phonons and our findings on the phononic properties of nanomaterials, we are able to explain and then experimentally confirm the strong electron-phonon coupling and fast multi-phonon transition rates of charge carriers to trap states. This improved understanding of phonon processes permits the rational selection of nanomaterials, their surface treatments, and the design of devices incorporating them. PMID:26958836
Vinokhodov, A. Yu; Koshelev, K. N.; Krivtsun, V. M.; Krivokorytov, M. S.; Sidelnikov, Yu V.; Medvedev, V. V.; Kompanets, V. O.; Melnikov, A. A.; Chekalin, S. V.
2016-01-01
We report the results of studying the dynamics of deformation and fragmentation of liquid-metal droplets under the action of ultrashort laser pulses. The experiments have been performed to optimise the shape of the droplet target used in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation sources based on the laser-produced plasma using the pre-pulse technology. The pre-pulse is generated by a system incorporating a master Ti : sapphire oscillator and a regenerative amplifier, allowing one to vary the pulse duration from 50 fs to 50 ps. The power density of laser radiation at the droplet target, averaged over the pulse duration and spatial coordinates, has reached 3 1015 W cm-2. The production of liquid-metal droplets has been implemented by means of a droplet generator based on a nozzle with a ring piezoceramic actuator. The droplet material is the eutectic indium tin alloy. The droplet generator could operate in the droplet and jet regime with a maximal rate of stable operation 5 and 150 kHz, respectively. The spatial stability of droplet position ? = 1% 2% of its diameter is achieved. The size of the droplets varied within 30 70 ?m, their velocity was 2 8 m s-1 depending on the operation regime.
Space dispersion and damping of plasmon-phonon vibrations in semiconductors
The spectra of the Raman scattering of light by plasmon-phonon oscillations were determined for n-type GaAs and n-type InP crystals. The scattering was observed in the reflection configuration using helium-neon laser radiation (6328 A). The transferred momentum was Q approximately 106cm-1. The frequencies of the Raman peaks differed considerably from the plasmon-phonon oscillation frequencies deduced for the same samples from the infrared reflection spectra (q approximately 103cm-1). This difference was attributed to the spatial dispersion of the plasmon-phonon modes. The results of calculations were derived allowing for the spatial dispersion and they gave longitudinal mode frequencies close to those found in the Raman spectra. An additional broadening of the Raman bands was attributed to the Landau damping and was close to the dispersion correction to the frequency. Allowance for the frequency dependence of the phonon contribution to the scattering cross sections explained the observed shifts of the Raman band maxima for different polarizations of the scattered light. The conditions for the observation of surface oscillations in the Raman spectra were considered. (author)
The Extended Hybrid Model For Optical Phonon Confinement
Bennett, C R; RIDLEY, B.K.; ZAKHLENIUK, N. A.; Babiker, M.
1999-01-01
The theory of optical phonons and their confinement in heterostructures is reviewed with analogies made to the theory of acoustic phonons. The dielectric continuum (DC) model is obtained when bulk dispersion is ignored and the hybrid model is found when dispersion is included. The issue of boundary conditions is investigated and the solutions are shown with comparisons made using electron-phonon scattering.
Optical pumping of hot phonons in GaAs
Optical pumping of hot LO phonons in GaAs has been studied as a function of the excitation photon frequency. The experimental results are in good agreement with a model calculation which includes both inter- and intra-valley electron-phonon scatterings. The GAMMA-L and GAMMA-X intervalley electron-phonon interactions in GaAs have been estimated
Electron phonon interaction effect on the thermoelectric properties of superlattices
Time of electrons radiation on acoustic phonons, electric conductivity factors and thermal emf of phonon entrainment of semiconductor superlattice with quasi-two-dimensional quantum well have been calculated. Rigidity of charge carriers scattering has been made allowance for. It is shown that thermal emf of a superlattice phonon entrainment can be an order higher than the relevant thermal emf of a massive semiconductor
Electron-ion collisions in plasma in a strong electromagnetic field are considered in the ultrarelativistic limit (in which the vector potential A is such that a = eA/mc2 >> 1). Expressions relating the electron drift coordinates and momentum to those in the laboratory frame are obtained using exact canonical transformations with allowance for adiabatic effects. The appearance of ultrafast particles with a maximum energy proportional to the third power of the laser pulse vector potential is predicted. Expressions for the energy (and number) distribution function of such high-energy (hot) electrons appearing as a result of electron-ion collisions are obtained. These distribution functions obey a power law, which agrees with the results recently obtained by Mangles et al. in experiments with a petawatt laser
Cherepetskaya, E. B.; Karabutov, A. A.; Kaptilniy, A. G.; Ksenofontov, D. M.; Makarov, V. A.; Podymova, N. B.
2015-12-01
This paper is a report on the novel experimental method of the study of the thermodynamic parameters of thin aluminum films in the critical point region. The controlled supercritical state of aluminum is achieved for the first time as a result of the heating of these films by the absorption of the powerful nanosecond pulse of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at the fundamental wavelength. The possibility is demonstrated to find simultaneously the temporal dependencies of the temperature, of the pressure and of the density of aluminum during the experiment with the thin aluminum films confined at both sides by the quartz glass substrates. These dependencies are obtained taking into account the nonlinear dependence on the incident laser intensity of the light reflection coefficient from the irradiated surface of aluminum. For the first time the thermodynamic cooling cycle of aluminum after its heating by the powerful nanosecond laser pulse is plotted in the space of variables temperaturepressure and temperaturedensity that get into the supercritical region.
Phonon scattering in graphene over substrate steps
Sevincli, Haldun; Brandbyge, Mads
2014-01-01
We calculate the effect on phonon transport of substrate-induced bends in graphene. We consider bending induced by an abrupt kink in the substrate, and provide results for different step-heights and substrate interaction strengths. We find that individual substrate steps reduce thermal conductance...
Thermal memory: a storage of phononic information
Wang, Lei; Li, Baowen
2008-01-01
Memory is an indispensable element for computer besides logic gates. In this Letter we report a model of thermal memory. We demonstrate via numerical simulation that thermal (phononic) information stored in the memory can be retained for a long time without being lost and more importantly can be read out without being destroyed. The possibility of experimental realization is also discussed.
Phonon affected transport through molecular quantum
Loos, Jan; Koch, T.; Alvermann, A.; Bishop, A. R.; Fehske, H.
2009-01-01
Roč. 21, č. 39 (2009), 395601/1-395601/18. ISSN 0953-8984 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : quantum dots * electron - phonon interaction * polarons Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.964, year: 2009
Phononic fluidics: acoustically activated droplet manipulations
Reboud, Julien; Wilson, Rab; Bourquin, Yannyk; Zhang, Yi; Neale, Steven L.; Cooper, Jonathan M.
2011-02-01
Microfluidic systems have faced challenges in handling real samples and the chip interconnection to other instruments. Here we present a simple interface, where surface acoustic waves (SAWs) from a piezoelectric device are coupled into a disposable acoustically responsive microfluidic chip. By manipulating droplets, SAW technologies have already shown their potential in microfluidics, but it has been limited by the need to rely upon mixed signal generation at multiple interdigitated electrode transducers (IDTs) and the problematic resulting reflections, to allow complex fluid operations. Here, a silicon chip was patterned with phononic structures, engineering the acoustic field by using a full band-gap. It was simply coupled to a piezoelectric LiNbO3 wafer, propagating the SAW, via a thin film of water. Contrary to the use of unstructured superstrates, phononic metamaterials allowed precise spatial control of the acoustic energy and hence its interaction with the liquids placed on the surface of the chip, as demonstrated by simulations. We further show that the acoustic frequency influences the interaction between the SAW and the phononic lattice, providing a route to programme complex fluidic manipulation onto the disposable chip. The centrifugation of cells from a blood sample is presented as a more practical demonstration of the potential of phononic crystals to realize diagnostic systems.
Temperature dependent phonon renormalization in metallic nanotubes
Scardaci, V.; Piscanec, S.; Lazzeri, Michele; Krupke, R.; Mauri, Francesco; Ferrari, A. C.
2007-01-01
We measure the temperature dependence of the Raman spectra of metallic and semiconducting nanotubes. We show that the different trend in metallic tubes is due to phonon re-normalization induced by the variation in electronic temperature, which is modeled including non-adiabatic contributions to account for the dynamic, time dependent nature
Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals
El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Hopkins, Patrick; Reinke, Charles; Kim, Bongsang
2013-08-13
Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals can simultaneously have a large Seebeck coefficient, high electrical conductivity, and low thermal conductivity. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials can enable improved thermoelectric devices, such as thermoelectric generators and coolers, with improved performance. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials and devices can be fabricated using techniques that are compatible with standard microelectronics.
Long range optical phonons in liquid water
Elton, Daniel C
2015-01-01
In this work we show that on subpicosecond time scales optical phonon modes can propagate through the H-bond network of water over relatively long distances (2-4 nm). Using molecular dynamics simulation we find propagating optical phonons in the librational and OH stretching bands. The OH stretching phonon only appears when a polarizable model (TTM3-F) is employed. Both of these phonon modes exhibit LO-TO splitting at $k = 0$, indicating long range dipole-dipole interactions in the system. We study the LO-TO splitting as a function of temperature, finding that the splitting increases for the librational mode at higher temperatures but decreases for the stretching mode. Since LO-TO splitting is intimately connected to structure, this analysis opens the door for new insights into how the local structure of water changes with temperature. Our results also explain a previously unnoticed discrepancy one encounters when comparing the librational peaks found in Raman and IR/dielectric spectra. Previously the three R...
Electron-phonon interactions in correlated systems
There exist attempts to describe the superconducting mechanism operating in HTS as based on antiferromagnetic fluctuations. It is not our intention to dwell on the superconducting mechanism, even though this is very a important issue. The main aim is to discuss the problem of interplay between electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in correlated systems. We believe such analysis can be of importance for various materials and not only HTS'S. We shall however mainly refer to experiments on this last class of superconductors. Severe complications are to be expected by studying the problem. As is well known electron correlations are very important in narrow band systems, where the relevant electronic scale EF is quite small. In those circumstances, the phonon energy scale ωD is of comparable magnitude, with the ratio ωD/EF of order 1 signalling a possible break down of the Migdal - Eliashberg description of the electron-phonon interaction in metals. Here we shall assume the validity of the Migdal-Eliashberg approximation and concentrate on the mutual influence of electron and phonon subsystems. In the next section we shall discuss experimental motivation for and theoretical work related to the present problem. Section 3 contains a brief discussion of our theory. It is a self-consistent theory a la Migdal with strong correlations treated with an auxiliary boson technique. We conclude with results and their discussion. (orig.)
Hyperbolic phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitride
Dai, Siyuan
2015-03-01
Uniaxial materials whose axial and tangential permittivities have opposite signs are referred to as indefinite or hyperbolic media. While hyperbolic responses are normally achieved with metamaterials, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) naturally possesses this property due to the anisotropic phonons in the mid-infrared. Using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy, we studied polaritonic phenomena in hBN. We performed infrared nano-imaging of highly confined and low-loss hyperbolic phonon polaritons in hBN. The polariton wavelength was shown to be governed by the hBN thickness according to a linear law persisting down to few atomic layers [Science, 343, 1125-1129 (2014)]. Additionally, we carried out the modification of hyperbolic response in heterostructures comprised of a mononlayer graphene deposited on hBN. Electrostatic gating of the top graphene layer allows for the modification of wavelength and intensity of hyperbolic phonon polaritons in bulk hBN. The physics of the modification originates from the plasmon-phonon coupling in the hyperbolic medium. Furthermore, we demonstrated the ``hyperlens'' for subdiffractional imaging and focusing using a slab of hBN.
Generalized Kinetic Theory of Electrons and Phonons
A. Rossani
2002-01-01
A Generalized Kinetic Theory was proposed in order to have the possibility to treat particles which obey a very general statistics. By adopting the same approach, we generalize here the Kinetic Theory of electrons and phonons. Equilibrium solutions and their stability are investigated.
Laser performance at 1064 nm in Nd3+ doped oxi-tellurite glasses
Bell, Maria Jose; Anjos, Virgílio; Moreira, Lyane; Falci, Rodrigo; Kassab, Luciana; Silva, D.; Doualan, Jean Louis; Camy, Patrice; Moncorge, Richard
2015-03-01
The search for Nd3+ doped new solid-state laser hosts having specific thermo-mechanical and optical properties is very active. Among tellurites, the TeO2-ZnO glass combines good mechanical stability, chemical durability, high linear and nonlinear refractive indices, low phonon energies (~750 cm-1) and a wide transmission window (0.4-6 μm). Their high nonlinear optical properties can be used for the development of Kerr-lens mode-locked subpicosecond lasers. The present work concentrates on the luminescence properties and the laser performance of a TeO2-ZnO tellurite glasses doped with Nd3+. True continuous-wave laser action is achieved by pumping the sample with a CW Ti:Sapphire laser inside a standard two-mirror laser cavity. A low laser threshold of 8 mW and a laser slope efficiency of 21% could be obtained for an output coupler transmission of 2.7%, which is an encouraging improvement compared to what was reported in the past with other Nd-doped tellurite bulk glasses. Authors acknowledge the support of agencies CAPES, FAPEMIG National Institute of Photonics (INCT Project/CNPQ) and COFECUB.
Electron-phonon coupling strength of specific phonons from first principles LAPW calculations
Electron-phonon matrix elements, phonon linewidths and mode coupling strengths are being calculated for La2-xMxCuO4 (M=divalent cation, for paramagnetic x = 0.0 and for x = 0.15 in a rigid band picture) from first principles local density calculations. The change in potential due to a particular phonon mode is calculated from the difference of self-consistent one-electron potentials, and appropriate Fermi surface averages are carried out for selected modes, allowing us to obtain the phonon linewidth due to the electron-phonon interaction, and the corresponding coupling strength ?. The authors establish the numerical accuracy within the dual representation of the potential used in the linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) method. Evaluations of phonon linewidths and mode coupling strengths are presented for Al and Nb and compared with previous information on these modes. The authors present preliminary results for the full matrix elements and coupling of the LA2CuO4 oxygen planar X-point breathing mode, and compare with a simpler approximation
A generalization of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model (QPNM) for describing the interaction with (2p-2h) configurations at finite temperature is presented. By taking exactly into account the occupation numbers of one-phonon energy levels a closed system of approximate equations for Green functions with one- to two-phonon transition, phonon-ground state correlation and phonon scattering propagators in even-even spherical nuclei is explicitly derived. A one-to-one correspondence between this system and the system of QPNM equations of the coefficients of the excited state wave function is established. It is shown that in the zero temperature limit one obtains the standard basic equations employed so far within the QPNM. The numerical evaluation of the phonon scattering effects has shown that for temperatures T<1 MeV the zero temperature limit of the QPNM is a quite good approximation. The equivalence between the QPNM diagrams and the diagrams of the nuclear field theory and the theory of finite Fermi-systems is discussed
Chalcogenide glass microsphere laser
Elliott, Gregor R.; Murugan, G.Senthil; Wilkinson, James S.; Zervas, Michalis N.; Hewak, Daniel W.
2010-01-01
Laser action has been demonstrated in chalcogenide glass microsphere. A sub millimeter neodymium-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass sphere was pumped at 808 nm with a laser diode and single and multimode laser action demonstrated at wavelengths between 1075 and 1086 nm. The gallium lanthanum sulphide family of glass offer higher thermal stability compared to other chalcogenide glasses, and this, along with an optimized Q-factor for the microcavity allowed laser action to be achieved. When...
R K Khanna; R C Chouhan
2003-10-01
A somewhat more general analysis for solving spatial propagation characteristics of intense Gaussian beam is presented and applied to the laser beam propagation in step-index proﬁle as well as parabolic proﬁle dielectric ﬁbers with Kerr non-linearity. Considering self-action due to saturating and non-saturating non-linearity in the refractive index, a general theory has been developed without any kind of power series expansion for the dielectric constant as is usually done in other theories that make use of paraxial approximation. Result of the steady state self-focusing analysis indicates that the Kerr non-linearity acts as a perturbation on the radial inhomogeneity due to ﬁber geometry. Analysis indicates that the paraxial rays and peripheral rays focus at different points, indicating aberration effect. Calculated critical power matches with the experimentally reported result.
Recently, it was reported that a plasma-jet could be efficiently applied for the antisepsis of wounds. In this case, the discharge in an argon gas stream was used to produce a so-called ''cold plasma'' on the skin surface. The thermal action of the plasma on the skin was investigated in the present study by means of laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and by histological analysis. Consequently, the plasma beam was moved with a definite velocity at an optimal distance over the skin surface. The structural changes of the tissue were analyzed. It was found by LSM that a thermal damage could be detected only in the upper cell layers of the stratum corneum (SC) at moving velocities of the plasma beam, usually applied in clinical practice. Deeper parts of the SC were not damaged. The structural changes were so superficial that they could be detected only by LSM but not by analysis of the histological sections
Sesin, P.; Soubelet, P.; Villafañe, V.; Bruchhausen, A. E.; Jusserand, B.; LemaÃ®tre, A.; Lanzillotti-Kimura, N. D.; Fainstein, A.
2015-08-01
We present a detailed time-resolved differential reflectivity study of the electronic and the coherent phonon generation response of a GaAs optical microcavity after resonant picosecond laser pulse excitation. A complex behavior is observed as a function of laser-cavity-mode detuning and incident power. The observed response is explained in terms of the large dynamical variations of the optical cavity-mode frequency induced by the ultrafast laser excitation, related to the optical modulation of the GaAs-spacer index of refraction due to photoexcited carriers. It is demonstrated that this effect leads to a strong optical dynamical tuning of the coherent phonon detection sensitivity of the device.
The phonon and thermal properties of a ladder nanostructure
M Mardaani
2011-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study the phonon thermal properties of a ladder nanostructure in harmonic approximation. We present a model consisting of two infinite chains with different masses. Then, we investigate the effect of different masses on the phonon spectrum. Moreover, as a specific case, in the absence of the second neighbor interaction, we calculate the phonon density of states/modes. Finally, we consider the thermal conductivity of the system. The results show that the phonon spectrum shifts down to the lower frequencies by increasing the masses. Furthermore, a frequency gap appears in the phonon spectrum. By increasing the springs constants, the thermal conductance decreases.
Lattice parameters and Raman-active phonon modes of ?-(AlxGa1?x)2O3
We present X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy investigations of a (100)-oriented (AlxGa1x)2O3 thin film on MgO (100) and bulk-like ceramics in dependence on their composition. The thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition has a continuous lateral composition spread allowing to determine precisely the dependence of the phonon mode properties and lattice parameters on the chemical composition. For x?phonon energies depend linearly on the composition. We determined the slopes of these dependencies for the individual lattice parameters and for nine Raman lines, respectively. While the lattice parameters of the ceramics follow Vegard's rule, deviations are observed for the thin film. This deviation has only a small effect on the phonon energies, which show a reasonably good agreement between thin film and ceramics
Hu, Huayu
2015-01-01
Nonperturbative calculation of QED processes participated by a strong electromagnetic field, especially provided by strong laser facilities at present and in the near future, generally resorts to the Furry picture with the usage of analytical solutions of the particle dynamical equation, such as the Klein-Gordon equation and Dirac equation. However only for limited field configurations such as a plane-wave field could the equations be solved analytically. Studies have shown significant interests in QED processes in a strong field composed of two counter-propagating laser waves, but the exact solutions in such a field is out of reach. In this paper, inspired by the observation of the structure of the solutions in a plane-wave field, we develop a new method and obtain the analytical solution for the Klein-Gordon equation and equivalently the action function of the solution for the Dirac equation in this field, under a largest dynamical parameter condition that there exists an inertial frame in which the particl...
Phonon density of states in nanocrystalline 57Fe
Ranber Singh; S Prakash; R Meyer; P Entel
2003-03-01
The Born–von Karman model is used to calculate phonon density of states (DOS) of nanocrystalline bcc Fe. It is found that there is an anisotropic stiffening in the interatomic force constants and hence there is shrinking in the nearest-neighbour distances in the nanophase. This leads to additional vibrational modes above the bulk phonons near the bottom of the phonon band. It is found that the high energy phonon modes of nanophase Fe are the surface modes. The calculated phonon DOS closely agree with the experimental data except a peak at 37 meV. The calculated phonon dispersion relations are also compared with those of the bulk phonons and anomalous behaviour is discussed in detail. The speciﬁc heat in nanophase enhances as compared to bulk phase at low temperatures and the calculated Debye temperature agrees with the experimental results. It is predicted that the nanocrystalline Fe may consist of about 14 GPa pressure.
Acoustic response to the action of nanosecond laser pulses on an In/CdTe thin-film heterostructure
Vlasenko, A. I.; Veleshchuk, V. P.; Gnatyuk, V. A.; Levitskii, S. N.; Vlasenko, Z. K.; Ivlev, G. D.; Gatskevich, E. I.
2015-06-01
The photothermoacoustic method has been used for diagnostics of thermobarodynamic processes in the metal In(400 nm)/semiconductor (CdTe) thin-film system under nanosecond laser irradiation (7 ns, λ = 532 nm) in natural conditions (in air) and in a liquid medium (water). From the analysis of the data obtained, the dependence of the pressure induced in the energy-release region on the irradiation energy density has been established and the melting threshold of In film has been determined. Under irradiation of In/CdTe in water, the pressure is higher than in air: 17 times higher at the melting threshold of In film and 30 times higher at twice the temperature. It has been found that the laser pulse treatment of In/CdTe/Au samples in water makes it possible to obtain diode structures with better parameters: smaller leak currents and a steeper current-voltage characteristic under the forward bias of the p- n junction.
Anufriev, Roman; Nomura, Masahiro
2016-01-01
The impact of lattice type, period, porosity, and thickness of two-dimensional silicon phononic crystals on the reduction of thermal conductance by coherent modification of phonon dispersion is investigated using the theory of elasticity and the finite element method. Increases in the period and porosity of the phononic crystal affect the group velocity and phonon density of states and, as a consequence, reduce the in-plane thermal conductance of the structure as compared to the unpatterned membrane. This reduction does not depend significantly on the lattice type and thickness of phononic crystals. Moreover, the reduction is strongly temperature dependent and strengthens as the temperature is increased.
Meiser, Dominic; Sawyer, Brian C.; Britton, Joesph W.; Bollinger, John J.
2013-10-01
Ultra-cold ions in Penning traps are a powerful platform for research in strongly correlated plasmas, quantum information, quantum metrology, and simulation of complex many-body problems of condensed matter theory. Thermal excitations of the ion crystals play a central role in these experiments. On the one hand, the motion associated with them is a limiting factor for the performance of current experiments. Better cooling of the ions could pave the way to new experiments. On the other hand, phonons are instrumental in some of the quantum simulation experiments because they allow one to engineer specific effective interactions between the spins of different ions. To better understand the phonons and thermal excitations in ultra-cold ion crystals we have carried out first principles molecular dynamics simulations. These simulations include a microscopic model for the laser cooling in addition to the cyclotron motion, trapping potentials, and Coulomb interactions between pairs of ions. We present results from these simulations on the stationary properties of planar ion crystals, phonon spectra and phonon mode structures, temperature of the phonon modes, and the dynamics of rearrangements of ions in the crystal.
Ab initio determination of effective electron-phonon coupling factor in copper
Ji, Pengfei; Zhang, Yuwen
2016-04-01
The electron temperature Te dependent electron density of states g (ε), Fermi-Dirac distribution f (ε), and electron-phonon spectral function α2 F (Ω) are computed as prerequisites before achieving effective electron-phonon coupling factor Ge-ph. The obtained Ge-ph is implemented into a molecular dynamics (MD) and two-temperature model (TTM) coupled simulation of femtosecond laser heating. By monitoring temperature evolutions of electron and lattice subsystems, the result utilizing Ge-ph from ab initio calculation shows a faster decrease of Te and increase of Tl than those using Ge-ph from phenomenological treatment. The approach of calculating Ge-ph and its implementation into MD-TTM simulation is applicable to other metals.
The influence of phonon bath on the control of single photon
Zhang, Wei; Lu, Hai-Tao
2015-06-01
The influence of vacuum fluctuation and phonon bath on the probability of single photon emission are both considered in the two-level system model theoretically; by using the master equations and generating function method we get the analytical expression of the second-order fluorescence correlation function, probability of single photon emission, and Mandel’s Q parameter. The results manifest that the coupling between the phonon bath and single photon source destroys the superposition state induced by the square laser pulse, the Rabi oscillation damped rapidly with the increasing of temperature. Theoretically, when the structure parameter of arsenide quantum dots α scaled to 0.1 times of the sample, the critical coherence-temperature will rise up to hundreds of Kelvin, which means a step forward to the realization of coherent control of single photon source at room temperature. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Central South University, China (Grant No. 2014zzts145).
Ab initio determination of effective electron-phonon coupling factor in copper
Ji, Pengfei
2016-01-01
The electron temperature T_e dependent electron density of states g({\\epsilon}), Fermi-Dirac distribution f({\\epsilon}), and electron-phonon spectral function {\\alpha}^2 F({\\Omega}) are computed as prerequisites before achieving effective electron-phonon coupling factor. The obtained is implemented into a molecular dynamics (MD) and two-temperature model (TTM) coupled simulation of femtosecond laser heating. By monitoring temperature evolutions of electron and lattice subsystems, the result utilizing G_(e-ph) from ab initio calculation, shows a faster decrease of T_e and increase of T_l than those using G_(e-ph) from phenomenological treatment. The approach of calculating G_(e-ph) and its implementation into MD-TTM simulation is applicable to other metals.
Ultrafast spectroscopy of coherent phonon in carbon nanotubes using sub-5-fs visible pulses
Kobayashi, Takayoshi
2016-02-01
In the last two decades, nano materials are attracting many scientists' interest for both basic and application viewpoints. In order to understand the properties of nano systems it is needed to understand the dynamic properties which control the specific properties of the systems. All the primary processes in nano systems are taking place in femtosecond regime. Our group has been able to stably generate visible to near-infrared sub-5-fs laser pulses using a noncollinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) by the combination of various novel techniques including non-collinear optical parametric amplifier, pulse compression by a prism pair and grating pair. We apply the sub-5-fs pulses to study real-time coherent phonon in a one-dimensional system of carbon nanotubes. We determine exciton-phonon coupling mechanisms by observing the breathing mode in semiconducting carbon nanotubes and show the effect of electronic transition affected by the vibrational mode.
Electron-phonon coupling at metal surfaces
Chemical reactions at metal surfaces are influenced by inherent dissipative processes which involve energy transfer between the conduction electrons and the nuclear motion. We shall discuss how it is possible to model this electron-phonon coupling in order to estimate its importance. A relevant quantity for this investigation is the lifetime of surface-localized electron states. A surface state, quantum well state or surface image state is located in a surface-projected bandgap and becomes relatively sharp in energy. This makes a comparison between calculations and experimental data most attractive, with a possibility of resolving the origin of the lifetime broadening of electron states. To achieve more than an order of magnitude estimate we point out the importance of taking into account the phonon spectrum, electron surface state wavefunctions and screening of the electron-ion potential. (author)
Phonon spectroscopy with superconducting tunnel junctions
Superconducting tunnel junctions can be used as generators and detectors of monochromatic phonons of frequency larger than 80 GHz, as was first devised by Eisenmenger and Dayem (1967) and Kinder (1972a, 1973). In this report, we intend to give a general outline of this type of spectroscopy and to present the results obtained so far. The basic physics underlying phonon generation and detection are described in chapter I, a wider approach being given in the references therein. In chapter II, the different types of junctions are considered with respect to their use. Chapter III deals with the evaporation technique for the superconducting junctions. The last part of this report is devoted to the results that we have obtained on γ-irradiated LiF, pure Si and Phosphorous implanted Si. In these chapters, the limitations of the spectrometer are brought out and suggestions for further work are given
Coherence of phonon avalanches in ruby
Tilstra, L. G.; Arts, A. F.; de Wijn, H. W.
2003-10-01
Phonon avalanches resonant with the optically inverted Zeeman-split E¯(2E) doublet of Cr3+ have been measured and analyzed in a single crystal of 500-at. ppm ruby (Al2O3:Cr3+) with a geometry adapted to the study of coherence. A set of coherent Bloch equations governing the interacting acoustic wave and spin polarizations is found to provide an excellent description of the results, and to be far superior to incoherent rate equations for the phonon and level populations. The dephasing time conforms with the width of the inhomogeneously broadened transition connecting the E¯(2E) states, which indicates that dephasing primarily occurs by the spread in frequencies.
Phonon-tunneling dissipation in mechanical resonators
Full text: Micro- and nanoscale mechanical resonators have emerged as ubiquitous devices for application in a wide range of technical disciplines including communications, sensing, metrology, and fundamental scientific endeavors. In many instances, the performance of these devices is limited by the deleterious effects of mechanical damping. To further compound this limitation, the quantitative understanding of many damping mechanisms remains elusive. Here, we report a significant advancement towards predicting and controlling support-induced losses, a key dissipation mechanism in high quality- factor mechanical resonators. We have developed an efficient finite-element-enabled numerical solver, employing the recently introduced 'phonon tunneling' approach. Exploiting this solver we demonstrate the ability to predict the design-limited damping of generic mechanical resonators, yielding excellent agreement with experimental measurements on custom-fabricated monocrystalline resonators. Thus, our phonon-tunneling solver represents a major step towards accurate prediction of the mechanical quality factor in micro- and nanomechanical resonators. (author)
Surface waves in granular phononic crystals
Pichard, Helene; Groby, Jean-Philippe; Tournat, Vincent; Zheng, Li-Yang; Gusev, Vitali
2015-01-01
The existence of surface elastic waves at a mechanically free surface of granular phononic crystals is studied. The granular phononic crystals are made of spherical particles distributed periodically on a simple cubic lattice. It is assumed that the particles are interacting by means of normal, shear and bending contact rigidities. First, Rayleigh-type surface acoustic waves, where the displacement of the particles takes place in the sagittal plane while the particles possess one rotational and two translational degrees of freedom, are analyzed. Second, shear-horizontal-type waves, where the displacement of the particles is normal to the sagittal plane while the particles possess one translational and two rotational degrees of freedom are studied. The existence of zero-group velocity surface acoustic waves of Rayleigh-type is theoretically predicted and interpreted. A comparison with surface waves predicted by the Cosserat theory is performed, and its limitations are established.
Surface waves in granular phononic crystals
Pichard, H.; Duclos, A.; Groby, J.-P.; Tournat, V.; Zheng, L.; Gusev, V. E.
2016-02-01
The existence of surface elastic waves at a mechanically free surface of granular phononic crystals is studied. The granular phononic crystals are made of spherical particles distributed periodically on a simple cubic lattice. It is assumed that the particles are interacting by means of normal, shear, and bending contact rigidities. First, Rayleigh-type surface acoustic waves, where the displacement of the particles takes place in the sagittal plane while the particles possess one rotational and two translational degrees of freedom, are analyzed. Second, shear-horizontal-type waves, where the displacement of the particles is normal to the sagittal plane while the particles possess one translational and two rotational degrees of freedom are studied. The existence of zero-group-velocity surface acoustic waves of Rayleigh type is theoretically predicted and interpreted. A comparison with surface waves predicted by the reduced Cosserat theory is performed, and some limitations of the latter are established.
Phonons as building blocks in nuclear structure
The structure of a nuclear system in terms of eigenmodes (phonons) of subsystems is investigated in three different approaches. In the frame of nuclear field theory the three identical particle system is analysed and the elimination of spurious states due to the violation of the Pauli principle is emphasized. In terms of weak coupling, a new approach of the shell model is proposed which is shown to be rapidly convergent with the number of basis vectors. Applications of three particle systems in the lead region are made. Lastly, a microscopic multiphonon theorie of collective K=0 states in deformed nuclei based on a Tamm Dancoff phonon is developed. The role of the Pauli principle as well as comparisons with boson expansion methods are deeply analysed
Phonon heat transport through periodically stubbed waveguides
Li, Wenxia; Chen, Keqiu
2006-09-01
We investigate the acoustic phonon band structure, transmission spectrum and thermal conductance in a periodically stubbed waveguide structure by use of the transfer matrix method and the scattering matrix method. We find that the existence of stop-frequencies or dips in the transmission spectrum, which corresponds to the stop bands or gaps in the acoustic band structure. The dependence of the stop band width and the dip width on the stub height is also demonstrated. We also find that the universal quantum thermal conductance can be clearly observed and the thermal conductance increases monotonically with increasing temperature. Our results show that the acoustic phonon band structure, transmission spectrum and thermal conductance can be artificially controlled by adjusting the height of the stub.
Phonon heat transport through periodically stubbed waveguides
We investigate the acoustic phonon band structure, transmission spectrum and thermal conductance in a periodically stubbed waveguide structure by use of the transfer matrix method and the scattering matrix method. We find that the existence of stop-frequencies or dips in the transmission spectrum, which corresponds to the stop bands or gaps in the acoustic band structure. The dependence of the stop band width and the dip width on the stub height is also demonstrated. We also find that the universal quantum thermal conductance can be clearly observed and the thermal conductance increases monotonically with increasing temperature. Our results show that the acoustic phonon band structure, transmission spectrum and thermal conductance can be artificially controlled by adjusting the height of the stub
Phonon heat transport through periodically stubbed waveguides
Li Wenxia [Department of Applied Physics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)]. E-mail: liwenxia@tju.edu.cn; Chen Keqiu [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Hunan 410082 (China)
2006-09-18
We investigate the acoustic phonon band structure, transmission spectrum and thermal conductance in a periodically stubbed waveguide structure by use of the transfer matrix method and the scattering matrix method. We find that the existence of stop-frequencies or dips in the transmission spectrum, which corresponds to the stop bands or gaps in the acoustic band structure. The dependence of the stop band width and the dip width on the stub height is also demonstrated. We also find that the universal quantum thermal conductance can be clearly observed and the thermal conductance increases monotonically with increasing temperature. Our results show that the acoustic phonon band structure, transmission spectrum and thermal conductance can be artificially controlled by adjusting the height of the stub.
From Planck's quanta to phonon in solids
Planck's 1900 published results on the black body radiation had the first application in the quantification of radiation. This quantum hypothesis explained several noteworthy light- matter interaction effects in 1905. These were the electron emission, Stokes law and gas ionization. As soon as two years later, A. Einstein derived an expression for the specific heat of solids, applying the quantum hypothesis to the mechanical oscillation of the atoms. In the present work, the main ideas which led to the concept of phonon are discussed. From an historical point of view, the developments due to Einstein, Born, Debye, among others are analyzed and most important properties of the phonons are presented. Finally, the importance of this entity in the theory of solids is explained, in particular regarding the thermal and optical properties as well as the electrical conductivity
Phonon arithmetic in a trapped ion system
Um, Mark; Zhang, Junhua; Lv, Dingshun; Lu, Yao; An, Shuoming; Zhang, Jing-Ning; Nha, Hyunchul; Kim, M. S.; Kim, Kihwan
2016-04-01
Single-quantum level operations are important tools to manipulate a quantum state. Annihilation or creation of single particles translates a quantum state to another by adding or subtracting a particle, depending on how many are already in the given state. The operations are probabilistic and the success rate has yet been low in their experimental realization. Here we experimentally demonstrate (near) deterministic addition and subtraction of a bosonic particle, in particular a phonon of ionic motion in a harmonic potential. We realize the operations by coupling phonons to an auxiliary two-level system and applying transitionless adiabatic passage. We show handy repetition of the operations on various initial states and demonstrate by the reconstruction of the density matrices that the operations preserve coherences. We observe the transformation of a classical state to a highly non-classical one and a Gaussian state to a non-Gaussian one by applying a sequence of operations deterministically.
Tunable magneto-granular phononic crystals
Allein, F.; Tournat, V.; Gusev, V. E.; Theocharis, G.
2016-04-01
This paper reports on the study of the dynamics of 1D magneto-granular phononic crystals composed of a chain of spherical steel beads inside a properly designed magnetic field. This field is induced by an array of permanent magnets, located in a holder at a given distance from the chain. The theoretical and experimental results of the band gap structure are displayed, including all six degrees of freedom for the beads, i.e., three translations and three rotations. Experimental evidence of transverse-rotational modes of propagation is presented; moreover, by changing the strength of the magnetic field, the dynamic response of the granular chain is tuned. The combination of non-contact tunability with the potentially strong nonlinear behavior of granular systems ensures the suitability of magneto-granular phononic crystals as nonlinear, tunable mechanical metamaterials for use in controlling elastic wave propagation.
Structural Properties and Phonon dispertion of NACl
R. Khoda-Bakhsh
2001-06-01
Full Text Available Although many phenomena in condensed matter Physics can be understood on the basis of a model, there are also considerable number of physical properties of solid which can not be explained except in the framework of lattice dynamics. We have calculated the phonon frequencies of Na Cl, using an approach which is a combination of frozen phonon and force constants methods in the framework of density functional pseudopotential theory. The dispersion relation curves, were calculated along symmetry direction Δ, Σ and Ù. We also calculated Grunesein parameters for all modes at X and L points in Brillion zone. The calcutions are made in the framework of density functional and pseudopotential theory, using super cell method, with the valence orbitals expanded in plane waves.
Comments on polaron-phonon scattering theory
Tulub, A. V.
2015-10-01
We use the polaron state function described in terms of coupled classical and quantum fields to calculate the cross section of phonon scattering on a polaron. The value of the resonance momentum is determined by asymptotic values of several integrals. Calculating them with crystal parameters taken into account leads to bounds on the maximum value of the coupling constant. We confirm that the applicability domain of the strong-coupling approximation is near zero.
On the quantization of strongly interacting phonons
Dzhunushaliev, V D
1997-01-01
The assumption is considered that the strong interaction between phonons makes a certain contribution to the formation of Cooper pairs. Heisenberg's old idea about the quantization of strong nonlinear fields using the Tamm-Dankoff method is discussed. The approximate solution method of infinite Tamm-Dankoff equations system is suggested. This allows us to obtain an equation for the fixed deformation of the lattice between two Cooper electrons. Such deformations can introduce a significant contribution to the energy of Cooper pairs.
Phonon studies of intercalated conductive polymers
Prassides, K.; Bell, C.J. (School of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom)); Dianoux, A.J. (Inst. Laue-Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France)); Wu Chunguey; Kanatzidis, M.G. (Dept. of Chemistry, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))
1992-06-01
The phonon density-of-states of FeOCl, the conductive form of polyaniline and the intercalation compound (polyaniline)[sub 0.20]FeOCl(I) have been measured by the neutron time-of-flight technique. The results are discussed in the light of the conducting and structural properties of the materials. Compound I is oxidised by standing in air and the neutron measurements reveal substantial changes in the inorganic host skeleton. (orig.).
Quantum mode phonon forces between chainmolecules
Bohr, Jakob
2001-01-01
A phenomenological description of the contributions of phonons to molecular force is developed. It uses an approximation to consider macromolecules as solid continua. The molecular modes of a molecule can then be characterized by a Debye-like description of the partition function. The resulting b....... For the later case, a significant change in zero-point energy is found. This may be the underlying cause for cold denaturation of proteins. (C) 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc....
Discoveries in Phononic Crystals and Acoustic Metamaterials
Wang, Pai
2015-01-01
Phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials are heterogeneous materials that enable manipulation of elastic waves. An important characteristic of these heterogeneous systems is their ability to tailor the propagation of elastic waves due to the existence of band gaps -- frequency ranges of strong wave attenuation. In this Thesis, I report discoveries of three new types of band gaps: i) Band gaps induced by geometric frustration in periodic acoustic channel networks; ii) Band gap induced by h...
Symmetry constraints on phonon dispersion in graphene
Falkovsky, L. A.
2008-01-01
Taking into account the constraints imposed by the lattice symmetry, we calculate the phonon dispersion for graphene with interactions between the first, second, and third nearest neighbors in the framework of the Born--von Karman model. Analytical expressions obtained for the dispersion of the out-of-plane (bending) modes give the nonzero sound velocity. The dispersion of four in-plane modes is determined by coupled equations. Values of the force constants are found in fitting with frequenci...
Anharmonic phonon excitations in subbarrier fusion reactions
Hagino, K.; Takigawa, N.; Kuyucak, S
1997-01-01
Recently measured high precision data of fusion excitation function have enabled a detailed study on the effects of nuclear collective excitations on fusion reactions. Using such highly accurate data of the $^{16}$O + $^{144,148}$Sm reactions, we discuss the anharmonic properties of collective phonon excitations in $^{144,148}$Sm nuclei. It is shown that subbarrier fusion reactions are strongly affected by the anharmonic effects and thus offer an alternative method to extract the static quadr...
Electron-phonon interaction and scattering in Si and Ge: Implications for phonon engineering
We report ab-initio results for electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling and display the existence of a large variation in the coupling parameter as a function of electron and phonon dispersion. This variation is observed for all phonon modes in Si and Ge, and we show this for representative cases where the initial electron states are at the band gap edges. Using these e-ph matrix elements, which include all possible phonon modes and electron bands within a relevant energy range, we evaluate the imaginary part of the electron self-energy in order to obtain the associated scattering rates. The temperature dependence is seen through calculations of the scattering rates at 0 K and 300 K. The results provide a basis for understanding the impacts of phonon scattering vs. orientation and geometry in the design of devices, and in analysis of transport phenomena. This provides an additional tool for engineering the transfer of energy from carriers to the lattice
Zeng, Lingping; Collins, Kimberlee C.; Hu, Yongjie; Luckyanova, Maria N.; Maznev, Alexei A.; Huberman, Samuel; Chiloyan, Vazrik; Zhou, Jiawei; Huang, Xiaopeng; Nelson, Keith A.; Chen, Gang
2015-11-01
Heat conduction in semiconductors and dielectrics depends upon their phonon mean free paths that describe the average travelling distance between two consecutive phonon scattering events. Nondiffusive phonon transport is being exploited to extract phonon mean free path distributions. Here, we describe an implementation of a nanoscale thermal conductivity spectroscopy technique that allows for the study of mean free path distributions in optically absorbing materials with relatively simple fabrication and a straightforward analysis scheme. We pattern 1D metallic grating of various line widths but fixed gap size on sample surfaces. The metal lines serve as both heaters and thermometers in time-domain thermoreflectance measurements and simultaneously act as wire-grid polarizers that protect the underlying substrate from direct optical excitation and heating. We demonstrate the viability of this technique by studying length-dependent thermal conductivities of silicon at various temperatures. The thermal conductivities measured with different metal line widths are analyzed using suppression functions calculated from the Boltzmann transport equation to extract the phonon mean free path distributions with no calibration required. This table-top ultrafast thermal transport spectroscopy technique enables the study of mean free path spectra in a wide range of technologically important materials.
L Pintschovius; F Weber; W Reichardt; A Kreyssig; R Heid; D Reznik; O Stockert; K Hradil
2008-10-01
Phonons in a metal interact with conduction electrons which give rise to a finite linewidth. In the normal state, this leads to a Lorentzian shape of the phonon line. Density functional theory is able to predict the phonon linewidths as a function of wave vector for each branch of the phonon dispersion. An experimental verification of such predictions is feasible only for compounds with very strong electron–phonon coupling. YN2B2C was chosen as a test example because it is a conventional superconductor with a fairly high c (15.2 K). Inelastic neutron scattering experiments did largely confirm the theoretical predictions. Moreover, they revealed a strong temperature dependence of the linewidths of some phonons with particularly strong electron–phonon coupling which can as yet only qualitatively be accounted for by theory. For such phonons, marked changes of the phonon frequencies and linewidths were observed from room temperature down to 15 K. Further changes were observed on entering into the superconducting state. These changes can, however, not be described simply by a change of the phonon linewidth.
The electronic transport properties of metals with weak electron-phonon coupling can be influenced by non-thermal electrons. Relaxation processes involving non-thermal electrons competing with the thermalized electron system have led to inconsistencies in the understanding of how electrons scatter and relax with the less energetic lattice. Recent theoretical and computational works have shown that the rate of energy relaxation with the metallic lattice will change depending on the thermalization state of the electrons. Even though 20 years of experimental works have focused on understanding and isolating these electronic relaxation mechanisms with short pulsed irradiation, discrepancies between these existing works have not clearly answered the fundamental question of the competing effects between non-thermal and thermal electrons losing energy to the lattice. In this work, we demonstrate the ability to measure the electron relaxation for varying degrees of both electron-electron and electron-phonon thermalization. This series of measurements of electronic relaxation over a predicted effective electron temperature range up to ∼3500 K and minimum lattice temperatures of 77 K validate recent computational and theoretical works that theorize how a nonequilibrium distribution of electrons transfers energy to the lattice. Utilizing this wide temperature range during pump-probe measurements of electron-phonon relaxation, we explain discrepancies in the past two decades of literature of electronic relaxation rates. We experimentally demonstrate that the electron-phonon coupling factor in gold increases with increasing lattice temperature and laser fluences. Specifically, we show that at low laser fluences corresponding to small electron perturbations, energy relaxation between electrons and phonons is mainly governed by non-thermal electrons, while at higher laser fluences, non-thermal electron scattering with the lattice is less influential on the energy relaxation mechanisms
Universal exchange-driven phonon splitting
Deisenhofer, Joachim; Kant, Christian; Schmidt, Michael; Wang, Zhe; Mayr, Franz; Tsurkan, Vladimir; Loidl, Alois
2012-02-01
We report on a linear dependence of the phonon splitting on the non-dominant exchange coupling Jnd in the antiferromagnetic monoxides MnO, Fe0.92O, CoO and NiO, and in the highly frustrated antiferromagnetic spinels CdCr2O4, MgCr2O4 and ZnCr2O4. For the monoxides our results directly confirm the theoretical prediction of a predominantly exchange induced splitting of the zone-centre optical phonon [1,2]. We find the linear relation δφ= βJndS^2 with slope β = 3.7. This relation also holds for a very different class of systems, namely the highly frustrated chromium spinels. Our finding suggests a universal dependence of the exchange-induced phonon splitting at the antiferromagnetic transition on the non-dominant exchange coupling [3].[4pt] [1] S. Massidda et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 430 (1999).[0pt] [2] W. Luo et al., Solid State Commun. 142, 504 (2007).[0pt] [3] Ch. Kant et al., arxiv:1109.4809.
Optimization of phononic filters via genetic algorithms
A phononic crystal is commonly characterized by its dispersive frequency spectrum. With appropriate spatial distribution of the constituent material phases, spectral stop bands could be generated. Moreover, it is possible to control the number, the width, and the location of these bands within a frequency range of interest. This study aims at exploring the relationship between unit cell configuration and frequency spectrum characteristics. Focusing on 1D layered phononic crystals, and longitudinal wave propagation in the direction normal to the layering, the unit cell features of interest are the number of layers and the material phase and relative thickness of each layer. An evolutionary search for binary- and ternary-phase cell designs exhibiting a series of stop bands at predetermined frequencies is conducted. A specially formulated representation and set of genetic operators that break the symmetries in the problem are developed for this purpose. An array of optimal designs for a range of ratios in Young's modulus and density are obtained and the corresponding objective values (the degrees to which the resulting bands match the predetermined targets) are examined as a function of these ratios. It is shown that a rather complex filtering objective could be met with a high degree of success. Structures composed of the designed phononic crystals are excellent candidates for use in a wide range of applications including sound and vibration filtering
Phonon energy inversion in graphene during transient thermal transport
This work reports on the phonon energy inversion in graphene nanoribbons: after initial localized thermal excitation, the energy of initial cold phonons (flexural mode: FM) becomes higher than that of local hot phonons (longitudinal and transverse modes: LM/TM). Such energy inversion holds for about 50 picoseconds. Two physical factors combine together to give rise of this phenomenon: one is the much faster heat conduction by FM phonons than that by LM/TM phonons, and the other factor is the strongly temperature-dependent energy exchange rate between FM and LM/TM phonons: 3.71010 s?1 at 84 K to 20.31010 s?1 at around 510 K.
Low energy Q-phonon excitations in nuclei
One-, two-, and multi-Q-phonon excitations in heavy nuclei are discussed. We describe the Q-phonon scheme for low-lying, isoscalar, positive parity states in γ-soft nuclei and compare the predictions of the Q-phonon scheme to new data on the nucleus 132Ce. We report on the experimental proof for the quadrupole-octupole coupled two-phonon nature of the lowest-lying 1- state in the semi-magic N=82 nuclei 142Nd and 144Sm. Finally, low-lying proton-neutron asymmetric mixed-symmetry states are discussed in terms of the Q-phonon scheme. We report on recent lifetime measurements of the mixed-symmetry one-Q-phonon excitation, the 2ms+ state, in the nuclei 125,128Xe, 136Ba, and 144Nd. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics
Low energy Q-phonon excitations in nuclei
One-, two-, and multi-Q-phonon excitations in heavy nuclei are discussed. We describe the Q-phonon scheme for low-lying, isoscalar, positive parity states in γ-soft nuclei and compare the predictions of the Q-phonon scheme to new data on the nucleus 132Ce. We report on the experimental proof for the quadrupole-octupole coupled two-phonon nature of the lowest-lying 1- state in the semi-magic N=82 nuclei 142Nd and 144Sm. Finally, low-lying proton-neutron asymmetric mixed-symmetry states are discussed in terms of the Q-phonon scheme. We report on recent lifetime measurements of the mixed-symmetry one-Q-phonon excitation, the 2ms+ state, in the nuclei 125,128Xe, 136Ba, and 144Nd
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Nonequilibrium Phonon Dynamics
1985-01-01
Phonons are always present in the solid state even at an absolute temperature of 0 K where zero point vibrations still abound. Moreover, phonons interact with all other excitations of the solid state and, thereby, influence most of its properties. Historically experimental information on phonon transport came from measurements of thermal conductivity. Over the past two decades much more, and much more detailed, information on phonon transport and on many of the inherent phonon interaction processes have come to light from experiments which use nonequilibrium phonons to study their dynamics. The resultant research field has most recently blossomed with the development of ever more sophisticated experimental and theoretical methods which can be applied to it. In fact, the field is moving so rapidly that new members of the research community have difficulties in keeping up to date. This NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) was organized with the objective of overcoming the information barrier between those expert...
Reduction of thermal conductivity by nanoscale 3D phononic crystal.
Yang, Lina; Yang, Nuo; Li, Baowen
2013-01-01
We studied how the period length and the mass ratio affect the thermal conductivity of isotopic nanoscale three-dimensional (3D) phononic crystal of Si. Simulation results by equilibrium molecular dynamics show isotopic nanoscale 3D phononic crystals can significantly reduce the thermal conductivity of bulk Si at high temperature (1000 K), which leads to a larger ZT than unity. The thermal conductivity decreases as the period length and mass ratio increases. The phonon dispersion curves show an obvious decrease of group velocities in 3D phononic crystals. The phonon's localization and band gap is also clearly observed in spectra of normalized inverse participation ratio in nanoscale 3D phononic crystal. PMID:23378898
Interface Phonons and Polaron Effect in Quantum Wires
2010-01-01
The theory of large radius polaron in the quantum wire is developed. The interaction of charge particles with interface optical phonons as well as with optical phonons localized in the quantum wire is taken into account. The interface phonon contribution is shown to be dominant for narrow quantum wires. The wave functions and polaron binding energy are found. It is determined that polaron binding energy depends on the electron mass inside the wire and on the polarization properties of the bar...
Interface Phonons and Polaron Effect in Quantum Wires
Maslov A; Proshina OV
2010-01-01
Abstract The theory of large radius polaron in the quantum wire is developed. The interaction of charge particles with interface optical phonons as well as with optical phonons localized in the quantum wire is taken into account. The interface phonon contribution is shown to be dominant for narrow quantum wires. The wave functions and polaron binding energy are found. It is determined that polaron binding energy depends on the electron mass inside the wire and on the polarization properties o...
Nanophotonic cavity optomechanics with propagating phonons in microwave Ku band
Li, Huan; Liu, Qiyu; Li, Mo
2015-01-01
Sideband-resolved coupling between multiple photonic nanocavities and propagating mechanical waves in microwave Ku-band is demonstrated. Coherent and strong photon-phonon interaction is manifested with optomechanically induced transparency and absorption, and phase-coherent interaction in multiple cavities. Inside an echo chamber it is shown that a phonon pulse can interact with an embedded nanocavity for multiple times. Our device provides a scalable platform to optomechanically couple phonons and photons for microwave photonics and quantum photonics.
Towards a microscopic understanding of phonon heat conduction
Minnich, Austin J.
2014-01-01
Heat conduction by phonons is a ubiquitous process that incorporates a wide range of physics and plays an essential role in applications ranging from space power generation to LED lighting. Heat conduction has been studied for over two hundred years, yet many microscopic aspects of heat conduction have remained unclear in most crystalline solids, including which phonons carry heat and how natural and artificial structures scatter specific phonons. Fortunately, recent advances in both computat...
Influence of pulse width and detuning on coherent phonon generation
Kazutaka G. Nakamura; Shikano, Yutaka; Kayanuma, Yosuke
2015-01-01
We investigated the coherent phonon generation mechanism by irradiation of an ultrashort pulse with a simple two-level model. Our derived formulation shows that both impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) and impulsive absorption (IA) simultaneously occur, and phonon wave packets are generated in the electronic ground and excited states by ISRS and IA, respectively. We identify the dominant process from the amplitude of the phonon oscillation. For short pulse widths, ISRS is very small ...
Observation of two-dimensional exciton-phonon quasibound states
Pelekanos, N. T.; Haas, H.; Magnea, N.; Belitsky, V. I.; Cantarero, A.
1997-10-01
We demonstrate the existence of robust exciton-phonon quasibound states (EPQBS) in a two-dimensional semiconductor system, resulting from the binding of the e1h1 and e1h2 heavy-hole quantum-well excitons with an LO phonon. We show that increasing quantum confinement drastically weakens these two-dimensional EPQBS. A theoretical model including phonon confinement accounts qualitatively for our results.
Methods for solving analytically and numerically the problem of multiscale modelling of the laser hyperthermia processes in a medium with nanoparticles are developed with regard to composite spherical nanoparticles (nanoshells). The features of the laser radiation field localisation on nanoscale inhomogeneities are investigated. Issues related to the control of the tissue hyperthermia processes by choosing the parameters of spatiotemporal localisation of the laser beam and of the absorbing nanoparticles are discussed. (application of lasers and laser-optical methods in life sciences)
Lifetime of the phonons in the PLT ceramic
Barba-Ortega, J., E-mail: jjbarba@unal.edu.co; Joya, M. R., E-mail: mrinconj@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, carrera 30 # 45-03, Bogotá 1149 (Colombia); Londoño, F. A., E-mail: flondono@fisica.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 67 #53-108 Of.6-105, Medellin (Colombia)
2014-11-05
The lifetimes at higher temperatures on lanthanum-modified lead titanate (PLT) are mainly due to the anharmonic decay of optical phonons into low-energy phonons. The temperature-independent contributions from inherent crystal defects and from boundary scattering become comparable to the phonon scattering contribution at lower temperatures. The thermal interaction is large at higher temperatures which decreases the phonon mean free path, and so the decay lifetime decreases as the temperature of the system is increased. This leads to the increased line width at higher temperatures. We made an estimate of the lifetimes for different concentrations and temperatures in PLT.
SU(6) limit of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model
Quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model is considered. It is shown that the Hamiltonian of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model has the SU(6) limit. Under some conditions this Hamiltonian can be represented as a rotational invariant which is constructed of the generators of the SU(6) algebra. The collective quadrupole random phase approximation phonon operators and their commutators form a closed algebra. The microscopic expressions for the parameters of the quadrupole phonon model are derived. The calculation of maximal numbers of bosons and the test of the conditions giving the SU(6) limit for some Zn isotopes have been performed
Control of Dephasing and Phonon Emission in Coupled Quantum Dots
Debald, S; Krmer, B
2002-01-01
We predict that phonon subband quantization can be detected in the non-linear electron current through double quantum dot qubits embedded into nano-size semiconductor slabs, acting as phonon cavities. For particular values of the dot level splitting $\\Delta$, piezo-electric or deformation potential scattering is either drastically reduced as compared to the bulk case, or strongly enhanced due to phonon van Hove singularities. By tuning $\\Delta$ via gate voltages, one can either control dephasing, or strongly increase emission into phonon modes with characteristic angular distributions.
Proposal for an Optomechanical Traveling Wave Phonon-Photon Translator
Safavi-Naeini, Amir H
2010-01-01
In this article we describe a general optomechanical system for converting photons to phonons in an efficient, and reversible manner. We analyze classically and quantum mechanically the conversion process and proceed to a more concrete description of a phonon-photon translator formed from coupled photonic and phononic crystal planar circuits. Applications of the phonon-photon translator to RF-microwave photonics and circuit QED, including proposals utilizing this system for optical wavelength conversion, long-lived quantum memory and state transfer from optical to superconducting qubits are considered.
Twofold decoherence brought on by the phonon bath in a quantum-dot two-state system
Chen, Zhi-De
2015-10-01
Because of the inherent coupling, the influence from the phonon bath on the coherent energy exchange between a quantum-dot (QD) two-state system (TSS) and a resonant optical mode is a twofold action. One action is the influence on the construction of the coherence, and the other is on the constructed coherence. The latter has been extensively studied by the master-equation approach, whereas the former has been ignored so far. In the present paper, the influence from the phonon bath on the construction of the coherence is studied by using the small-polaron theory. It is found that in the presence of phonon coupling, the construction of the coherence depends on the state evolution of the phonon bath during the energy exchange. The coherence construction probability is calculated and found to be a decreasing function of both temperature and coupling strength. The spectrum including the twofold decoherence effect is calculated and the obtained result can help one to understand some peculiar observations in the photoluminescence spectrum of a QD TSS system, including the additional cavity line in the strong-coupling regime and the additional coherent scattering in the case of the Mollow triplet.
We review new developments with a new laser host material, YCa4O(BO3)3 or YCOB. Lasers based on this host material will open new opportunities for the development of compact, high-power, frequency-agile visible and near IR laser sources, as well as sources for ultrashort pulses. Efficient diode-pumped laser action with both Nd-doped and Yb-doped YCOB has already been demonstrated. Moreover, since these materials are biaxial, and have high nonlinear optical coefficients, they have become the first laser materials available as efficient self-frequency-doubled lasers, capable of providing tunable laser emission in several regions of the visible spectrum. Self-frequency doubling eliminates the need for inclusion of a nonlinear optical element within or external to the laser resonator. These laser materials possess excellent thermal and optical properties, have high laser-damage thresholds, and can be grown to large sizes. In addition they are non-hygroscopic. They therefore possess all the characteristics necessary for laser materials required in rugged, compact systems. Here we summarize the rapid progress made in the development of this new class of lasers, and review their potential for a number of applications. (author)
Rabi oscillations in a quantum dot-cavity system coupled to a non-zero temperature phonon bath
Larson, Jonas; Moya-Cessa, Hector
2007-01-01
We study a quantum dot strongly coupled to a single high-finesse optical microcavity mode. We use a rotating wave approximation method, commonly used in ion-laser interactions, tegether with the Lamb-Dicke approximation to obtain an analytic solution of this problem. The decay of Rabi oscillations because of the electron-phonon coupling are studied at arbitrary temperature and analytical expressions for the collapse and revival times are presented. Analyses without the rotating wave approxima...
Spectroscopy of the two Lowest Exciton Zero-Phonon Lines in Single CdSe/ZnS Nanocrystals
Louyer, Y; Biadala, L; Tamarat, Ph; Lounis, B, E-mail: y.louyer@cpmoh.u-bordeaux1.f [Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, University of Bordeaux and CNRS, 351 cours de la Liberation, Talence, F-33405 (France)
2010-09-01
We study the optical properties of the lowest-energy exciton states in highly photostable individual CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals at low temperatures. We observe two sharp zero-phonon lines which we attribute to the radiative recombination from the two lowest-energy levels of the band-edge exciton fine structure. By using resonant laser excitation on these two lines we measure a spectral broadening of 10 {mu}eV over integration times of 100 ms.
The mean free path (MFP) for electron–phonon interactions in pure silicon is an important characteristic needed both for low energy electron transport calculations using Boltzmann transport equation, and for Monte Carlo simulations. Full band calculations present a basic (though complicated) approach to the solution of the problem. Simpler approaches based on analytical presentation of the scattering rates have also been used; however they are valid for a restricted range of electron energies, below 2 eV. In this paper we introduce a hybrid method that utilizes the density of energy states calculated from the full band calculations for electron energies larger than 2 eV, allowing to extend the analytical approach for energies up to 5 eV, where the impact ionization becomes the dominant mechanism of electron interactions within bulk silicon. The resulting MFPs as function of electron energy and lattice temperature, together with the integral probability distribution for given energy losses by phonon emission (or energy gain by absorption of phonons) form the database for Monte Carlo calculations. Using this method, we calculate the electron diffusivity and mobility as function of the electron and lattice temperatures. These parameters are important for solution of the two temperature model, used for calculations of the track structure created by swift ions and nanosecond laser beams
Excitons are the fundamental optical excitations of semiconductors, determining their optoelectronic properties important for present devices such as light emitting diodes and semiconductor lasers. The coherent dynamics of the excitonic excitation is dominated by coupling to phonons and photons. The three-dimensional confinement in quantum dots (QDs) creates a finite excitation volume, yielding a discrete excitonic spectrum and phonon-assisted transitions which are enhanced with decreasing volume. The zero-phonon transition dynamics can be dominated by radiative coupling at low temperatures [10.1103/PhysRevB.70.033301], and inserting the QDs into an optical cavity the quantum strong coupling regime of CQED can be reached [10.1038/NMAT2717]. Spatially separated excitons can be coupled via an optical cavity [arXiv1206.0592], or for weakly confined excitons via a two-dimensional continuum [10.1038/NPHOTON.2010.284]. I present measurements on QD ensembles and individual QDs using nonlinear optical spectroscopy[10.1393/ncr/i2010-10054-1], including using heterodyne detected photon echo and two-dimensional spectroscopy using heterodyne spectral interferometry [10.1364/OL.31.001151].
Acoustic phonon dynamics in thin-films of the topological insulator Bi2Se3
Transient reflectivity traces measured for nanometer-sized films (6–40 nm) of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 revealed GHz-range oscillations driven within the relaxation of hot carriers photoexcited with ultrashort (∼100 fs) laser pulses of 1.51 eV photon energy. These oscillations have been suggested to result from acoustic phonon dynamics, including coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons in the form of standing acoustic waves. An increase of oscillation frequency from ∼35 to ∼70 GHz with decreasing film thickness from 40 to 15 nm was attributed to the interplay between two different regimes employing traveling-acoustic-waves for films thicker than 40 nm and the film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAWR) modes for films thinner than 40 nm. The amplitude of oscillations decays rapidly for films below 15 nm thick when the indirect intersurface coupling in Bi2Se3 films switches the FBAWR regime to that of the Lamb wave excitation. The frequency range of coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons is in good agreement with elastic properties of Bi2Se3
Advances in semiconductor lasers and applications to optoelectronics
Dutta, Mitra
2000-01-01
This volume includes highlights of the theories underlying the essential phenomena occurring in novel semiconductor lasers as well as the principles of operation of selected heterostructure lasers. To understand scattering processes in heterostructure lasers and related optoelectronic devices, it is essential to consider the role of dimensional confinement of charge carriers as well as acoustical and optical phonons in quantum structures. Indeed, it is important to consider the confinement of both phonons and carriers in the design and modeling of novel semiconductor lasers such as the tunnel
Rabi oscillations in a quantum dot-cavity system coupled to a nonzero temperature phonon bath
Larson, Jonas [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, E-08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Moya-Cessa, Hector [INAOE, Coordinacion de Optica, Apdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla, Pue (Mexico)], E-mail: jolarson@kth.se
2008-06-15
We study a quantum dot strongly coupled to a single high-finesse optical microcavity mode. We use a rotating wave approximation (RWA) method, commonly used in ion-laser interactions, together with the Lamb-Dicke approximation to obtain an analytic solution of this problem. The decay of Rabi oscillations because of the electron-phonon coupling is studied at arbitrary temperature and analytical expressions for the collapse and revival times are presented. Analyses without the RWA are presented as means of investigating the energy spectrum.
Picosecond ultrasonic investigations of phonons in 2D nano-scaled lattices
We time-resolved the acoustical response of lattices of aluminum nano-dots with a step of a few hundreds nanometers using tunable femtosecond laser pulses in a pump and probe scheme. We detected two kinds of modes, the first being the individual modes of the dots. The other modes are shown to be both dependent on the dot size and on the lattice and are thus interpreted as collective modes. Using several step sizes we show that we can plot the phonon dispersion relation. A simple analytical model very well reproduces the data from which we can describe completely the dependence of the lattice modes on the sample parameters
Band gaps and waveguiding of Lamb waves in stubbed phononic plates
Wu, Tsung-Tsong; Wu, Tzung-Chen; Hsu, Jin-Chen
2009-02-01
Lamb wave propagation in a surface-stubbed phononic-crystal plate is investigated numerically and experimentally. Results show that the complete band gaps and flat bands of elastic waves exist in the structure. By using laser ultrasonic techniques, the experimental measurements demonstrate the evidence of the band gaps and resonances at the band-edge frequencies. In addition, a frequency range associated with the deaf bands is found. Based on the verified band gaps and deaf bands, waveguiding effects in the structure with a line defect are characterized. Furthermore, a sharply bent waveguide is then designed and fabricated to experimentally demonstrate frequency selection for broadband Lamb waves.
Quantum statistical properties of photon and phonon fields in degenerate hyper-Raman scattering
In this paper the complete normal quantum characteristic function is calculated in the short-time approximation for degenerate hyper-Raman scattering from which fluctuations in separate modes and correlations among these are deduced. The results are discussed from the view-point of anticorrelation or antibunching assuming that (i) the phonon mode is initially chaotic whereas all photon modes are initially coherent, and (ii) the laser mode is initially coherent and all other modes are initially chaotic. A comparison with non-degenerate hyper-Raman scattering and Raman scattering is made. (author)
Controlled exciton transfer between quantum dots with acoustic phonons taken into account
A system of excitons in two quantum dots coupled by the dipole–dipole interaction is investigated. The excitation transfer process controlled by the optical Stark effect at nonresonant frequencies is considered and the effect of the interaction between excitons and acoustic phonons in a medium on this process is taken into account. The system evolution is described using quantum Heisenberg equations. A truncated set of equations is obtained and the transfer dynamics is numerically simulated. High-efficiency picosecond switching of the excitation transfer by a laser pulse with a rectangular envelope is demonstrated. The dependence of picosecond switching on the quantum-dot parameters and optical-pulse length is presented
Controlled exciton transfer between quantum dots with acoustic phonons taken into account
Golovinski, P. A., E-mail: golovinski@bk.ru [Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Laboratory of Physical Research (Russian Federation)
2015-09-15
A system of excitons in two quantum dots coupled by the dipole–dipole interaction is investigated. The excitation transfer process controlled by the optical Stark effect at nonresonant frequencies is considered and the effect of the interaction between excitons and acoustic phonons in a medium on this process is taken into account. The system evolution is described using quantum Heisenberg equations. A truncated set of equations is obtained and the transfer dynamics is numerically simulated. High-efficiency picosecond switching of the excitation transfer by a laser pulse with a rectangular envelope is demonstrated. The dependence of picosecond switching on the quantum-dot parameters and optical-pulse length is presented.
Single-exciton optical gain in semiconductor nanocrystals: Positive role of electron-phonon coupling
Geiregat, Pieter; Allan, Guy; Hens, Zeger; Delerue, Christophe
2016-03-01
The possibility of obtaining optical gain in an ensemble of semiconductor nanocrystals without involvement of multiexcitons is very attractive for low-threshold laser applications. Here, we reexamine theoretically the conditions required to reach this single-exciton gain regime in nanocrystals. We show that the electron-phonon interaction can play a very positive role, in addition to the exciton-exciton interaction. In presence of both interactions, the optical gain regime can be reached even when the population of nanocrystals containing single excitons is below 10%. For these reasons, we suggest that ultrasmall nanocrystals, or nanocrystals with deep defects at their surface, could be promising materials for light amplification.
Conductivity of strongly pumped superconductors. An electron-phonon system far from equilibrium
The study of nonequilibrium physics is of great interest, because one can capture novel phenomena and properties which are hidden at equilibrium, e.g., one can study relaxation processes. A common way to study the nonequilibrium dynamics of a sample is a pump-probe experiment. In a pump probe experiment an intense laser pulse, the so called pump pulse, excites the sample and takes it out of equilibrium. After a certain delay time a second pulse, the probe pulse, measures the actual state of the sample. In this thesis, we theoretically study the pump-probe response of superconductors. On the one hand we are interest in the effect of a pump pulse and on the other hand we want to provide the pump-probe response, such that experimental measurement can be easily interpreted. In order to do this, we use the density matrix formalism to compute the pump-probe response of the system. In the density matrix formalism equations of motion are set up for expectation values of interest. In order to study the dynamics induced by a pump pulse, we compute the temporal evolution of the quasiparticle densities and the mean phonon amplitude. We find that the induced dynamics of the system depends on characteristics of the pump pulse. For short pulses, the system is pushed into the nonadiabatic regime. In this regime, the order parameter is lowered during the pump pulse and shows a 1/(√(t))-decaying oscillation afterwards. In addition, coherent phonons are generated, which is resonantly enhanced if the frequency of the order parameter oscillation is equal to the phonon frequency. For long pulses, the system is pushed into the adiabatic regime. In this regime, the order parameter is lowered during the pulse and remains almost constant afterwards. Further, there is almost no generation of coherent phonons. For the pump-probe response we compute the conductivity induced by the probe pulse. The conductivity is a typical observable in real pump-probe experiments. Hence, it is possible to compare the theoretical conductivity with a measured one. We find that the dynamics of the superconductor is reflected in oscillation of the conductivity as function of delay time between pump and probe pulse. This oscillation provides information of the frequency and decay time of the algebraically decaying order-parameter oscillations. Further, the dynamics of the coherent phonons is reflected by an oscillation of conductivity as function of delay time at the phonon frequency.
Conductivity of strongly pumped superconductors. An electron-phonon system far from equilibrium
Krull, Holger
2015-01-29
The study of nonequilibrium physics is of great interest, because one can capture novel phenomena and properties which are hidden at equilibrium, e.g., one can study relaxation processes. A common way to study the nonequilibrium dynamics of a sample is a pump-probe experiment. In a pump probe experiment an intense laser pulse, the so called pump pulse, excites the sample and takes it out of equilibrium. After a certain delay time a second pulse, the probe pulse, measures the actual state of the sample. In this thesis, we theoretically study the pump-probe response of superconductors. On the one hand we are interest in the effect of a pump pulse and on the other hand we want to provide the pump-probe response, such that experimental measurement can be easily interpreted. In order to do this, we use the density matrix formalism to compute the pump-probe response of the system. In the density matrix formalism equations of motion are set up for expectation values of interest. In order to study the dynamics induced by a pump pulse, we compute the temporal evolution of the quasiparticle densities and the mean phonon amplitude. We find that the induced dynamics of the system depends on characteristics of the pump pulse. For short pulses, the system is pushed into the nonadiabatic regime. In this regime, the order parameter is lowered during the pump pulse and shows a 1/(√(t))-decaying oscillation afterwards. In addition, coherent phonons are generated, which is resonantly enhanced if the frequency of the order parameter oscillation is equal to the phonon frequency. For long pulses, the system is pushed into the adiabatic regime. In this regime, the order parameter is lowered during the pulse and remains almost constant afterwards. Further, there is almost no generation of coherent phonons. For the pump-probe response we compute the conductivity induced by the probe pulse. The conductivity is a typical observable in real pump-probe experiments. Hence, it is possible to compare the theoretical conductivity with a measured one. We find that the dynamics of the superconductor is reflected in oscillation of the conductivity as function of delay time between pump and probe pulse. This oscillation provides information of the frequency and decay time of the algebraically decaying order-parameter oscillations. Further, the dynamics of the coherent phonons is reflected by an oscillation of conductivity as function of delay time at the phonon frequency.
In this paper, we introduce an improvement of the Debye model for the phonon spectrum in a quantum box at low temperatures. This improvement is a direct consequence of the consideration of the discrete phonon spectrum in some special quantum boxes, names in this paper, quantum cubic cells (QCC in which the highest significant level, qT, is smaller than 100). We show that a discrete Planck spectrum may occur in nanometric QCC around the temperature 1K. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the total energy density and the heat capacity become functions of the product of cell size by temperature Pq, which are clear and measurable quantum effects in solid QCC. The limits of this quantum regime of the cubic cell are set as Pq is an element of [0.1, 1] and a reciprocity rule for the cell size and temperature is given. The thermodynamic functions for the phonon gas in QCC are recalculated taking into account their dependency on Pq. The calculation of the phonon average velocity, which plays a key role in the Debye model, is also reconsidered and simplified for quasi-isotropic cubic crystals. Finally, the theoretical formula of the Debye temperature for quasi-isotropic cubic solids is corrected (at low temperatures) and put in a form which depends on a single elastic constant. We show that this correction reduces the errors between the calculated and experimental Debye temperatures of some elements which crystallize in the cubic system. (author)
Iyer, Srikanth S.; Candler, Robert N.
2016-03-01
In this work, we determine the intrinsic mechanical energy dissipation limit for single-crystal resonators due to anharmonic phonon-phonon scattering in the Akhiezer (Ω τ ≪1 ) regime. The energy loss is derived using perturbation theory and the linearized Boltzmann transport equation for phonons, and includes the direction- and polarization-dependent mode-Grüneisen parameters in order to capture the strain-induced anharmonicity among phonon branches. This expression reveals the fundamental differences among the internal friction limits for different types of bulk-mode elastic waves. For cubic crystals, 2D-extensional modes have increased dissipation compared to width-extensional modes because the biaxial deformation opposes the natural Poisson contraction of the solid. Additionally, we show that shear-mode vibrations, which preserve volume, have significantly reduced energy loss because dissipative phonon-phonon scattering is restricted to pure-shear phonon branches, indicating that Lamé- or wineglass-mode resonators will have the highest upper limit on mechanical efficiency. Finally, we employ key simplifications to evaluate the quality factor limits for common mode shapes in single-crystal silicon devices, explicitly including the correct effective elastic storage moduli for different vibration modes and crystal orientations. Our expression satisfies the pressing need for a reliable analytical model that can predict the phonon-phonon dissipation limits for modern resonant microelectromechanical systems, where precise manufacturing techniques and accurate finite-element methods can be used to select particular vibrational mode shapes and crystal orientations.
Phonon dispersion and electron-phonon interaction for YBa2Cu3O7 from first-principles calculations
We present a first-principles investigation of the lattice dynamics and electron-phonon coupling of the high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O7 within the framework of density functional perturbation theory using a mixed-basis pseudopotential method. The calculated phonon dispersion curves are in excellent agreement with Raman, infrared and neutron data. Calculation of the Eliashberg function ?2F leads to a small electron-phonon coupling ? = 0.27 in disagreement with earlier approximate treatments. Our calculations strongly support the view that conventional electron-phonon coupling is not an important contribution to superconductivity in high-Tc materials. (authors)
Bohnen, K P; Krauss, M
2002-01-01
We present a first principles investigation of the lattice dynamics and electron-phonon coupling of the high-T_c superconductor YBa_2Cu_3O_7 within the framework of density functional perturbation theory using a mixed-basis pseudopotential method. The calculated phonon dispersion curves are in excellent agreement with Raman, infrared and neutron data. Calculation of the Eliashberg function alpha^2F leads to a small electron-phonon coupling lambda=0.27 in disagreement with earlier approximate treatments. Our calculations strongly support the view that conventional electron-phonon coupling is not an important contribution to superconductivity in high-T_c materials.
Quantifying electron-phonon coupling in CdTe1?xSex nanocrystals via coherent phonon manipulation
We employ ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy with temporal pulse shaping to manipulate coherent phonon excitation and quantify the strength of electron-phonon coupling in CdTe1?xSex nanocrystals (NCs). Raman active CdSe and CdTe longitudinal optical phonon (LO) modes are excited and probed in the time domain. By temporally controlling pump pulse pairs to coherently excite and cancel coherent phonons in the CdTe1?xSex NCs, we estimate the relative amount of optical energy that is coupled to the coherent CdSe LO mode.
Electron-Acoustic Phonon Interaction in Graphene
Mo?ulkoc, Aybey
2014-01-01
zet. Bu al??mada, elektronlar?n akustik fononlar ile etkile?mesinden kaynaklanan kiral polaron olu?umu incelenmi?tir. Elektron-fonon sistemlerinin taban durumunu hesaplayabilmek iin Lee-Low-Pines teorisi erevesinde analitik bir metot geli?tirilmi?tir. Grafenin dejenere band yap?s?n?n kiral polaron olu?umunu destekledi?i tespit edilmi?tirAbstract. In this study, chiral polaron formation due to interactions of the electrons with acoustic phonon was investigated. In order to calculate froun...
Low temperature phonon anomalies in cuprates
The inelastic neutron scattering measurement on La1.85Sr.15CuO4 single crystals shows that the in-plane LO phonon dispersion at low temperature is incompatible with the current view on the dynamic charge stripes, which for this composition should have the periodicity of 4a. Instead the results are consistent with the dynamic stripes with the periodicity of 2a, half of what is expected and a quarter of the magnetic periodicity. Calculations with the two-band t-t'-J model suggest that such 2a stripe charge ordering may help hole pairing
Phonon scattering in graphene over substrate steps
We calculate the effect on phonon transport of substrate-induced bends in graphene. We consider bending induced by an abrupt kink in the substrate, and provide results for different step-heights and substrate interaction strengths. We find that individual substrate steps reduce thermal conductance in the range between 5% and 47%. We also consider the transmission across linear kinks formed by adsorption of atomic hydrogen at the bends and find that individual kinks suppress thermal conduction substantially, especially at high temperatures. Our analysis show that substrate irregularities can be detrimental for thermal conduction even for small step heights.
Spectroscopy of nonequilibrium electrons and phonons
Shank, CV
1992-01-01
The physics of nonequilibrium electrons and phonons in semiconductors is an important branch of fundamental physics that has many practical applications, especially in the development of ultrafast and ultrasmall semiconductor devices. This volume is devoted to different trends in the field which are presently at the forefront of research. Special attention is paid to the ultrafast relaxation processes in bulk semiconductors and two-dimensional semiconductor structures, and to their study by different spectroscopic methods, both pulsed and steady-state. The evolution of energy and space distrib
Phonon propagation in liquid 4He
A system is described which has been successfully used to study the propagation of high-frequency phonons in liquid 4He at T = 0.1 K and pressures up to 24 bar. The properties of superconducting tunnel junction detectors are discussed in some detail and the various contributions to the received signal shape are considered. The paper describes a reliable and accurate method of linearly translating specimens in 3He- 4He refrigerators which does not give an excessive heat load. Examples of received signals are presented which show the difference between the frequency-selective tunnel junction detectors and the broad band graphite bolometers. (author)
Light scattering by surface phonons in crystals
Theory of inelastic light scattering by surface acoustic phonons homogeneous crystals is presented. The Green functions are determined by the use of a classical linear response method and used to evaluate the Brillouin cross section. The acoustic modes are found from solutions to the acoustical-wave equation and boundary conditions appropriated. Two light-scattering mechanisms, amely the surface corrugation and bulk elasto-optic effect are analyzed by deriving optical fields which satisfy both the acousto-optically driven wave equation and the electromagnetic boundary conditions. No restrictions are imposed concerning the angle of incidence of the light. Some representative computed Brillouin ineshapes are also presented and their features discussed. (author)
Phonon scattering in graphene over substrate steps
Sevinçli, H., E-mail: haldunsevincli@iyte.edu.tr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Gülbahçe Kampüsü, 35430 Urla, Izmir (Turkey); Department of Micro- and Nano-technology (DTU Nanotech), Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Brandbyge, M., E-mail: mads.brandbyge@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nano-technology (DTU Nanotech), Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Center for Nanostructured Graphene(CNG), Department of Micro- and Nano-technology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)
2014-10-13
We calculate the effect on phonon transport of substrate-induced bends in graphene. We consider bending induced by an abrupt kink in the substrate, and provide results for different step-heights and substrate interaction strengths. We find that individual substrate steps reduce thermal conductance in the range between 5% and 47%. We also consider the transmission across linear kinks formed by adsorption of atomic hydrogen at the bends and find that individual kinks suppress thermal conduction substantially, especially at high temperatures. Our analysis show that substrate irregularities can be detrimental for thermal conduction even for small step heights.
A thermal diode using phonon rectification
A diode is an element blocking flow in one direction, but letting it pass in the other. The most prominent realization of a diode is an electrical rectifier. In this paper, we demonstrate a thermal diode based on standard silicon processing technology using rectification of phonon transport. We use a recently developed detection method to directly visualize the heat flow through such a device fabricated in a thin silicon membrane. The diode consists of an array of differently shaped holes milled into the membrane by focused ion beam processing. In our experiment, we achieve a rectification ratio of the heat current of 1.7 at a temperature of 150 K. (paper)
Semi-Dirac points in phononic crystals
Zhang, Xiujuan
2014-01-01
A semi-Dirac cone refers to a peculiar type of dispersion relation that is linear along the symmetry line but quadratic in the perpendicular direction. It was originally discovered in electron systems, in which the associated quasi-particles are massless along one direction, like those in graphene, but effective-mass-like along the other. It was reported that a semi-Dirac point is associated with the topological phase transition between a semi-metallic phase and a band insulator. Very recently, the classical analogy of a semi-Dirac cone has been reported in an electromagnetic system. Here, we demonstrate that, by accidental degeneracy, two-dimensional phononic crystals consisting of square arrays of elliptical cylinders embedded in water are also able to produce the particular dispersion relation of a semi-Dirac cone in the center of the Brillouin zone. A perturbation method is used to evaluate the linear slope and to affirm that the dispersion relation is a semi-Dirac type. If the scatterers are made of rubber, in which the acoustic wave velocity is lower than that in water, the semi-Dirac dispersion can be characterized by an effective medium theory. The effective medium parameters link the semi-Dirac point to a topological transition in the iso-frequency surface of the phononic crystal, in which an open hyperbola is changed into a closed ellipse. This topological transition results in drastic change in wave manipulation. On the other hand, the theory also reveals that the phononic crystal is a double-zero-index material along the x-direction and photonic-band-edge material along the perpendicular direction (y-direction). If the scatterers are made of steel, in which the acoustic wave velocity is higher than that in water, the effective medium description fails, even though the semi-Dirac dispersion relation looks similar to that in the previous case. Therefore different wave transport behavior is expected. The semi-Dirac points in phononic crystals described in this work would offer new ways to manipulate acoustic waves with simple periodic structures. Copyright © 2014 by ASME.
Phonon frequency spectrum in random binary alloys
Starting from the augmented space formalism (Mookerjee 1973 a,b), a cluster CPA calculation for the phonon density of states is presented for linear chains as well as three-dimensional lattices. Off-diagonal disorder has been taken into account, and a self-consistent medium has been generated. Unlike earlier work, the Green function does not suffer from analytical difficulties in any concentration range. At the same time, the self-consistent medium gives a superior estimate of the band edges and the structures near them. (author)
Enhancement of charge ordering by dynamic electron-phonon interaction
Singer, Andrej; Fullerton, Eric; Shpyrko, Oleg
Symmetry breaking and emergence of order is one of the most fascinating phenomena in condensed matter physics and leads to a plethora of intriguing ground states such as in antiferromagnets, Mott insulators, superconductors, and density-wave systems. Exploiting non-equilibrium dynamics of matter following ultrafast external excitation can provide even more striking routes to symmetry-lowered, ordered states, for instance, by accessing hidden equilibrium states in the free-energy landscape or dynamic stabilization of non-equilibrium states. This is remarkable because ultrafast excitation typically creates disorder, reduces the order parameter, and raises the symmetry. Here, we demonstrate for the case of antiferromagnetic chromium that moderate photo-excitation can transiently enhance the charge-density-wave (CDW) order by up to 30% above its equilibrium value, while strong excitation leads to an oscillating, large-amplitude CDW state that persists above the equilibrium transition temperature. Both effects result from dynamic electron-phonon interaction, which provides an efficient mechanism to selectively transform a broad excitation of the electronic order into a well defined, long-lived coherent lattice vibration. This mechanism may be exploited to transiently enhance the order parameter in other systems with coupled electronic and lattice orders. The data was collected at the x-ray free electron laser LCLS at SLAC.
Phonon hydrodynamics and its applications in nanoscale heat transport
Guo, Yangyu; Wang, Moran
2015-09-01
Phonon hydrodynamics is an effective macroscopic method to study heat transport in dielectric solid and semiconductor. It has a clear and intuitive physical picture, transforming the abstract and ambiguous heat transport process into a concrete and evident process of phonon gas flow. Furthermore, with the aid of the abundant models and methods developed in classical hydrodynamics, phonon hydrodynamics becomes much easier to implement in comparison to the current popular approaches based on the first-principle method and kinetic theories involving complicated computations. Therefore, it is a promising tool for studying micro- and nanoscale heat transport in rapidly developing micro and nano science and technology. However, there still lacks a comprehensive account of the theoretical foundations, development and implementation of this approach. This work represents such an attempt in providing a full landscape, from physical fundamental and kinetic theory of phonons to phonon hydrodynamics in view of descriptions of phonon systems at microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic levels. Thus a systematical kinetic framework, summing up so far scattered theoretical models and methods in phonon hydrodynamics as individual cases, is established through a frame of a Chapman-Enskog solution to phonon Boltzmann equation. Then the basic tenets and procedures in implementing phonon hydrodynamics in nanoscale heat transport are presented through a review of its recent wide applications in modeling thermal transport properties of nanostructures. Finally, we discuss some pending questions and perspectives highlighted by a novel concept of generalized phonon hydrodynamics and possible applications in micro/nano phononics, which will shed more light on more profound understanding and credible applications of this new approach in micro- and nanoscale heat transport science.
Phonon dynamics and Urbach energy studies of MgZnO alloys
Huso, Jesse, E-mail: jhuso@vandals.uidaho.edu; Che, Hui; Thapa, Dinesh; Canul, Amrah; Bergman, Leah [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844-0903 (United States); McCluskey, M. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 (United States)
2015-03-28
The Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O alloy system is emerging as an environmentally friendly choice in ultraviolet lighting and sensor technologies. Knowledge of defects which impact their optical and material properties is a key issue for utilization of these alloys in various technologies. The impact of phase segregation, structural imperfections, and alloy inhomogeneities on the phonon dynamics and electronic states of Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O thin films were studied via selective resonant Raman scattering (SRRS) and Urbach analyses, respectively. A series of samples with Mg composition from 068% were grown using a sputtering technique, and the optical gaps were found to span a wide UV range of 3.25.8?eV. The extent of the inherent phase segregation was determined via SRRS using two UV-laser lines to achieve resonance with the differing optical gaps of the embedded cubic and wurtzite structural domains. The occurrence of Raman scattering from cubic structures is discussed in terms of relaxation of the selection rules due to symmetry breaking by atomic substitutions. The Raman linewidth and Urbach energy behavior indicate the phase segregation region occurs in the range of 4766% Mg. Below the phase segregation, the longitudinal optical phonons are found to follow the model of one-mode behavior. The phonon decay model of Balkanski et al. indicates that the major contributor to Raman linewidth arises from the temperature-independent term attributed to structural defects and alloy inhomogeneity, while the contribution from anharmonic decay is relatively small. Moreover, a good correlation between Urbach energy and Raman linewidth was found, implying that the underlying crystal dynamics affecting the phonons also affect the electronic states. Furthermore, for alloys with low Mg composition structural defects are dominant in determining the alloy properties, while at higher compositions alloy inhomogeneity cannot be neglected.
Phonon dynamics and Urbach energy studies of MgZnO alloys
The MgxZn1?xO alloy system is emerging as an environmentally friendly choice in ultraviolet lighting and sensor technologies. Knowledge of defects which impact their optical and material properties is a key issue for utilization of these alloys in various technologies. The impact of phase segregation, structural imperfections, and alloy inhomogeneities on the phonon dynamics and electronic states of MgxZn1?xO thin films were studied via selective resonant Raman scattering (SRRS) and Urbach analyses, respectively. A series of samples with Mg composition from 068% were grown using a sputtering technique, and the optical gaps were found to span a wide UV range of 3.25.8?eV. The extent of the inherent phase segregation was determined via SRRS using two UV-laser lines to achieve resonance with the differing optical gaps of the embedded cubic and wurtzite structural domains. The occurrence of Raman scattering from cubic structures is discussed in terms of relaxation of the selection rules due to symmetry breaking by atomic substitutions. The Raman linewidth and Urbach energy behavior indicate the phase segregation region occurs in the range of 4766% Mg. Below the phase segregation, the longitudinal optical phonons are found to follow the model of one-mode behavior. The phonon decay model of Balkanski et al. indicates that the major contributor to Raman linewidth arises from the temperature-independent term attributed to structural defects and alloy inhomogeneity, while the contribution from anharmonic decay is relatively small. Moreover, a good correlation between Urbach energy and Raman linewidth was found, implying that the underlying crystal dynamics affecting the phonons also affect the electronic states. Furthermore, for alloys with low Mg composition structural defects are dominant in determining the alloy properties, while at higher compositions alloy inhomogeneity cannot be neglected
Modelling exciton–phonon interactions in optically driven quantum dots
Nazir, Ahsan; McCutcheon, Dara
2016-01-01
We provide a self-contained review of master equation approaches to modelling phonon effects in optically driven self-assembled quantum dots. Coupling of the (quasi) two-level excitonic system to phonons leads to dissipation and dephasing, the rates of which depend on the excitation conditions...
Phonons and charge-transfer excitations in HTS superconductors
Some of the experimental and theoretical evidence implicating phonons and charge-transfer excitations in HTS superconductors is reviewed. It is suggested that superconductivity may be driven by a synergistic interplay of (anharmonic) phonons and electronic degrees of freedom (e.g., charge fluctuations, excitons). 47 refs., 5 figs
Quasiparticle-phonon coupling in inelastic proton scattering
Multistep-processes in inelastic proton scattering from 89Y are analyzed by using CCBA and DWBA on a quasiparticle phonon nuclear structure model. Indirect excitations caused by quasiparticle phonon coupling effects are found to be very important for the transition strengths and the shape of angular distributions. Core excitations are dominant for the higher order steps of the reaction. (author)
One- and two-phonon capture processes in quantum dots
Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Uskov, Alexander; Bischoff, Svend; Tromborg, Bjarne; Mørk, Jesper
2002-01-01
Multiphonon capture processes are investigated theoretically and found to contribute efficiently to the carrier injection into quantum dots. It is shown that two-phonon capture contributes where single-phonon capture is energetically inhibited and can lead to electron capture times of a few...
Phonon thermal transport through tilt grain boundaries in strontium titanate
In this work, we perform nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to study phonon scattering at two tilt grain boundaries (GBs) in SrTiO3. Mode-wise energy transmission coefficients are obtained based on phonon wave-packet dynamics simulations. The Kapitza conductance is then quantified using a lattice dynamics approach. The obtained results of the Kapitza conductance of both GBs compare well with those obtained by the direct method, except for the temperature dependence. Contrary to common belief, the results of this work show that the optical modes in SrTiO3 contribute significantly to phonon thermal transport, accounting for over 50% of the Kapitza conductance. To understand the effect of the GB structural disorder on phonon transport, we compare the local phonon density of states of the atoms in the GB region with that in the single crystalline grain region. Our results show that the excess vibrational modes introduced by the structural disorder do not have a significant effect on phonon scattering at the GBs, but the absence of certain modes in the GB region appears to be responsible for phonon reflections at GBs. This work has also demonstrated phonon mode conversion and simultaneous generation of new modes. Some of the new modes have the same frequency as the initial wave packet, while some have the same wave vector but lower frequencies
Coherent Acoustic Phonons in Colloidal Semiconductor Nanocrystal Superlattices.
Poyser, Caroline L; Czerniuk, Thomas; Akimov, Andrey; Diroll, Benjamin T; Gaulding, E Ashley; Salasyuk, Alexey S; Kent, Anthony J; Yakovlev, Dmitri R; Bayer, Manfred; Murray, Christopher B
2016-01-26
The phonon properties of films fabricated from colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals play a major role in thermal conductance and electron scattering, which govern the principles for building colloidal-based electronics and optics including thermoelectric devices with a high ZT factor. The key point in understanding the phonon properties is to obtain the strength of the elastic bonds formed by organic ligands connecting the individual nanocrystallites. In the case of very weak bonding, the ligands become the bottleneck for phonon transport between infinitively rigid nanocrystals. In the opposite case of strong bonding, the colloids cannot be considered as infinitively rigid beads and the distortion of the superlattice caused by phonons includes the distortion of the colloids themselves. We use the picosecond acoustics technique to study the acoustic coherent phonons in superlattices of nanometer crystalline CdSe colloids. We observe the quantization of phonons with frequencies up to 30 GHz. The frequencies of quantized phonons depend on the thickness of the colloidal films and possess linear phonon dispersion. The measured speed of sound and corresponding wave modulus in the colloidal films point on the strong elastic coupling provided by organic ligands between colloidal nanocrystals. PMID:26696021
Anharmonic mixing between two phonons in red mercury iodide
Anedda, A.; Bongiovanni, G.
1988-12-01
With use of Raman spectroscopy we have investigated the anharmonic mixing between two optical phonons of Eg symmetry in red mercury iodide. By taking into account the presence of several decay channels contributing to phonon lifetime, the experimental line-shape anomalies due to mode coupling have been reproduced with good accuracy. The temperature behavior of the anharmonic interaction is in agreement with theory.
Carrier dynamics and coherent acoustic phonons in nitride heterostructures
Sanders, G D
2006-01-01
We model generation and propagation of coherent acoustic phonons in piezoelectric InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells embedded in a \\textit{pin} diode structure and compute the time resolved reflectivity signal in simulated pump-probe experiments. Carriers are created in the InGaN wells by ultrafast pumping below the GaN band gap and the dynamics of the photoexcited carriers is treated in a Boltzmann equation framework. Coherent acoustic phonons are generated in the quantum well via both deformation potential electron-phonon and piezoelectric electron-phonon interaction with photogenerated carriers, with the latter mechanism being the dominant one. Coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons propagate into the structure at the sound speed modifying the optical properties and giving rise to a giant oscillatory differential reflectivity signal. We demonstrate that coherent optical control of the differential reflectivity can be achieved using a delayed control pulse.
Phonons and the electronic gap in FeSi
Parshin, P. P.; Alekseev, P. A.; Nemkovskii, K. S.; Peron, J.; Chumakov, A. I.; Rffer, R.
2014-02-01
The partial phonon densities of states of iron atoms in the intermetallic compound FeSi have been measured in the temperature range 46-297 K using nuclear resonant inelastic scattering of synchrotron radiation. A significant phonon softening with increasing temperature has been established. The greatest phonon softening for iron atoms is shown to occur in the region of long-wavelength acoustic phonons, for the acoustic branches near the boundary of the Brillouin zone, and for the low-lying weakly dispersive optical branches. The results obtained are analyzed in terms of the views that relate the change in the phonon density of states of iron atoms to the temperature evolution of the electronic density of state for the compound.
Controlling elastic waves with small phononic crystals containing rigid inclusions
Peng, Pai
2014-05-01
We show that a two-dimensional elastic phononic crystal comprising rigid cylinders in a solid matrix possesses a large complete band gap below a cut-off frequency. A mechanical model reveals that the band gap is induced by negative effective mass density, which is affirmed by an effective medium theory based on field averaging. We demonstrate, by two examples, that such elastic phononic crystals can be utilized to design small devices to control low-frequency elastic waves. One example is a waveguide made of a two-layer anisotropic elastic phononic crystal, which can guide and bend elastic waves with wavelengths much larger than the size of the waveguide. The other example is the enhanced elastic transmission of a single-layer elastic phononic crystal loaded with solid inclusions. The effective mass density and reciprocal of the modulus of the single-layer elastic phononic crystal are simultaneously near zero. © CopyrightEPLA, 2014.
Low Frequency Thermal Conductivity in Micro Phononic Crystals
Anjos, Virgilio; Arantes, Alison
2015-03-01
We study theoretically the cumulative thermal conductivity of a micro phononic crystal at low temperature regime. The phononic crystal considered presents carbon microtubes inclusions arranged periodically in a two-dimensional square lattice embebed in soft elastic matrix. Moderate and high impedance mismatch are considered concerning the material composition. The low frequency phonon spectra (up to tens of GHz) are obtained solving the generalized wave equation for inhomogeneous media within the Plane Wave Expansion method. We consider low temperatures in order to increase the participation of GHz thermal phonons. We observed suppression in the cumulative thermal conductivity at the band gap region and thus a reduction of thermal conductivity of the phononic crystal when compared with the bulk matrix. The authors would like to thank the Brazilian agencies, National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq), Foundation for Research Support of Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG) and CAPES for their support.
Modelling exciton–phonon interactions in optically driven quantum dots
Nazir, Ahsan; McCutcheon, Dara P. S.
2016-03-01
We provide a self-contained review of master equation approaches to modelling phonon effects in optically driven self-assembled quantum dots. Coupling of the (quasi) two-level excitonic system to phonons leads to dissipation and dephasing, the rates of which depend on the excitation conditions, intrinsic properties of the QD sample, and its temperature. We describe several techniques, which include weak-coupling master equations that are perturbative in the exciton–phonon coupling, as well as those based on the polaron transformation that can remain valid for strong phonon interactions. We additionally consider the role of phonons in altering the optical emission characteristics of quantum dot devices, outlining how we must modify standard quantum optics treatments to account for the presence of the solid-state environment.
Modelling exciton-phonon interactions in optically driven quantum dots.
Nazir, Ahsan; McCutcheon, Dara P S
2016-03-16
We provide a self-contained review of master equation approaches to modelling phonon effects in optically driven self-assembled quantum dots. Coupling of the (quasi) two-level excitonic system to phonons leads to dissipation and dephasing, the rates of which depend on the excitation conditions, intrinsic properties of the QD sample, and its temperature. We describe several techniques, which include weak-coupling master equations that are perturbative in the exciton-phonon coupling, as well as those based on the polaron transformation that can remain valid for strong phonon interactions. We additionally consider the role of phonons in altering the optical emission characteristics of quantum dot devices, outlining how we must modify standard quantum optics treatments to account for the presence of the solid-state environment. PMID:26882465
Mechanisms governing phonon scattering by topological defects in graphene nanoribbons
Zhu, Ziming; Yang, Xiaolong; Huang, Mingyuan; He, Qingfeng; Yang, Guang; Wang, Zhao
2016-02-01
Understanding phonon scattering by topological defects in graphene is of particular interest for thermal management in graphene-based devices. We present a study that quantifies the roles of the different mechanisms governing defect phonon scattering by comparing the effects of ten different defect structures using molecular dynamics. Our results show that phonon scattering is mainly influenced by mass density difference, with general trends governed by the defect formation energy and typical softening behaviors in the phonon density of state. The phonon scattering cross-section is found to be far larger than that geometrically occupied by the defects. We also show that the lattice thermal conductivity can be reduced by a factor of up to ~30 in the presence of the grain boundaries formed by these defects.
Heterobarrier for converting hot-phonon energy to electric potential
Shin, Seungha; Melnick, Corey; Kaviany, Massoud
2013-02-01
We show that hot phonons emitted in energy conversion or resistive processes can be converted to electric potential in heterobarrier structures. Using phonon and electron interaction kinetics and self-consistent ensemble Monte Carlo, we find the favorable conditions for unassisted absorption of hot phonons and design graded heterobarriers for their direct conversion into electric energy. Tandem barriers with nearly optical-phonon height allow for substantial potential gain without current loss. We find that 19% of hot phonons can be harvested with an optimized GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs barrier structure over a range of current and electron densities, thus enhancing the overall energy conversion efficiency and reducing waste heat.
Finite element analysis of surface modes in phononic crystal waveguides
Guo, Yuning; Schubert, Martin; Dekorsy, Thomas
2016-03-01
The study of surface modes in phononic crystal waveguides in the hypersonic regime is a burgeoning field with a large number of possible applications. By using the finite element method, the band structure and the corresponding transmission spectrum of surface acoustic waves in phononic crystal waveguides generated by line defects in a silicon pillar-substrate system were calculated and investigated. The bandgaps are caused by the hybridization effect of band branches induced by local resonances and propagating modes in the substrate. By changing the sizes of selected pillars in the phononic crystal waveguides, the corresponding bands shift and localized modes emerge due to the local resonance effect induced by the pillars. This effect offers further possibilities for tailoring the propagation and filtering of elastic waves. The presented results have implications for the engineering of phonon dynamics in phononic nanostructures.
Motivated by significant interest in metal-semiconductor and metal-insulator interfaces and superlattices for energy conversion applications, we developed a molecular dynamics-based model that captures the thermal transport role of conduction electrons in metals and heat transport across these types of interface. Key features of our model, denoted eleDID (electronic version of dynamics with implicit degrees of freedom), are the natural description of interfaces and free surfaces and the ability to control the spatial extent of electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling. Non-local e-ph coupling enables the energy of conduction electrons to be transferred directly to the semiconductor/insulator phonons (as opposed to having to first couple to the phonons in the metal). We characterize the effect of the spatial e-ph coupling range on interface resistance by simulating heat transport through a metal-semiconductor interface to mimic the conditions of ultrafast laser heating experiments. Direct energy transfer from the conduction electrons to the semiconductor phonons not only decreases interfacial resistance but also increases the ballistic transport behavior in the semiconductor layer. These results provide new insight for experiments designed to characterize e-ph coupling and thermal transport at the metal-semiconductor/insulator interfaces
The electron-phonon and vibronic couplings governing the spectral properties have been studied in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a)-protein complex at 4.5 K using a spectrally selective difference fluorescence line-narrowing technique. The complex is a part of the light-harvesting system of green photosynthetic bacteria. Its lowest-energy absorption band, peaking at 826 nm and responsible for the fluorescence, is believed to be due to Qy transitions of largely isolated molecules. One of the main merits of the used method compared with the more common fluorescence line narrowing is that the zero-phonon lines (ZPL) resonant with the excitation laser can be accurately measured, allowing precise determination of the Huang-Rhys (HR) factors, the main characteristics of the linear electron-phonon and vibronic coupling strengths. Over 60 individual vibrational modes of intra- and intermolecular origin have been resolved in the energy range of 45-1600 cm-1. The small HR factors for these modes, ranging between 0.001 and 0.018, add up to a value of S vib=0.38±0.07. The effective HR factor for the phonons, S ph, was found clearly wavelength-dependent, varying from ∼0.7 at short wavelengths to ∼0.3 at the long-wavelength tail of the absorption spectrum. Coupling between the BChl a molecules is likely responsible for this wavelength dependence
Search for the 3-phonon state of 40Ca
We study collective vibrational states of the nucleus: giant resonances and multiphonon states. It has been shown that multiphonon states, which are built with several superimposed giant resonances, can be excited in inelastic heavy ion scattering near the grazing angle. No three photon states have been observed until now. An experiment has been performed at GANIL, aiming at the observation of the 3-phonon state built with the giant quadrupole resonance (GQR) in 40Ca, with the reaction 40Ca + 40Ca at 50 A.Me.V. The ejectile was identified in the SPEG spectrometer. Light charged particles were detected in 240 CsI scintillators of the INDRA 4π array. The analysis confirms the previous results about the GQR and the 2-phonon state in 40Ca. For the first time, we have measured an important direct decay branch of the GQR by alpha particles. Applying the so-called 'missing energy method' to events containing three protons measured in coincidence with the ejectile, we observe a direct decay branch revealing the presence of a 3-phonon state in the excitation energy region expected for the triple GQR. Dynamical processes are also studied in the inelastic channel, emphasizing a recently discovered mechanism named towing-mode. We observe for the first time the towing-mode of alpha particles. The energies of multiphonon states in 40Ca and 208Pb have been computed microscopically including some anharmonicities via boson mapping methods. The basis of the calculation has been extended to the 3-phonon states. Our results show large anharmonicities (several MeV), due to the coupling of 3-phonon states to 2-phonon states. The extension of the basis to 4-phonon states has been performed for the first time. The inclusion of the 4 phonon states in the calculation did not affect the previous observations concerning the 2-phonon states. Preliminary results on the anharmonicities of the 3-phonon states are presented. (author)
A full quantum microscopic theory is developed to analyze a biexciton radiative cascade coupled to bulk acoustic phonons in a quantum dot. By considering the phonon sub-system in coherent state representation a new approach is proposed for investigating the phonon effects. Via this approach it is possible to obtain an exact analytical result for the phonon kernel in this system. This approach is introduced in the context of an example: the process of generating polarization-entangled photon pairs from the biexciton cascade in a quantum dot. We calculate the exact density matrix (using quantum state tomography) of photons and their concurrence. We show that the exchange interaction and temperature have remarkable effects on the degree of entanglement of the emitted photons. The approach introduced provides an exact analytical result for finite discrete electron states interacting with phonons. (paper)
Light scattering by surface phonons in crystals
A theory of inelastic light scattering by surface acoustic phonons in homogeneous crystals is presented. The Green functions are determined by the use of a classical linear response method and used to evaluate the Brillouin cross section. The acoustic modes are found from solutions to the acoustical-wave equation and boundary conditions appropriated. Two light-scattering mechanisms, namely the surface corrugation and bulk elasto-optic effect are analyzed by deriving optical fields which satisfy both the acousto-optically driven wave equation and the electromagnetic boundary conditions. No restrictions are imposed concerning the angle of incidence of the light. Some representative computed Brillouin lineshapes are also presented and their features discussed. (Author)
Double Dirac cones in phononic crystals
Li, Yan
2014-07-07
A double Dirac cone is realized at the center of the Brillouin zone of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) consisting of a triangular array of core-shell-structure cylinders in water. The double Dirac cone is induced by the accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate Bloch states. Using a perturbation method, we demonstrate that the double Dirac cone is composed of two identical and overlapping Dirac cones whose linear slopes can also be accurately predicted from the method. Because the double Dirac cone occurs at a relatively low frequency, a slab of the PC can be mapped onto a slab of zero refractive index material by using a standard retrieval method. Total transmission without phase change and energy tunneling at the double Dirac point frequency are unambiguously demonstrated by two examples. Potential applications can be expected in diverse fields such as acoustic wave manipulations and energy flow control.
Controlling Mechanical Dissipation through Phononic Bandgap Substrates
Chang, Laura; Chakram, Srivatsan; Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Vengalattore, Mukund
2015-05-01
One of the fundamental challenges for the quantum control of mechanical systems is the realization of resonators with exceptionally low dissipation, through appropriate material choice and resonator and substrate design. Stoichiometric silicon nitride membrane resonators have in recent years emerged as an ultralow loss mechanical platform. In such resonators, we have demonstrated mechanical quality factors as high as 50 106 and f Q products of 1 1014 Hz, with radiation loss to the the supporting substrate being the dominant loss process. We demonstrate the suppression of radiation loss by creating resonators on substrates with a phononic bandgap. We characterize the mechanical properties of these resonators for various substrate parameters and discuss prospects for the observation of quantum optomechanical effects at room temperature. This work was supported by the DARPA QuASAR program through a grant from the ARO and an NSF INSPIRE award.
Self-consistent phonons in disordered systems
The time is now ripe for the development of a microscopic theory of the disordered systems in the context of phonons. The adiabatic approximation has helped to separate the electronic motion from that of the ions. In the microscopic dielectric formulation we have been able to obtain the interatomic forces for ordered systems by incorporating the effect of the electronic motion. The nature of the electronic states in disordered systems is now better understood with realistic coherent potential approximation calculations. Therefore, it will not be too ambitious to construct an average dielectric function for a disordered system. Then we can obtain a properly screened pair potential in terms of this dielectric function. In view of the availability of super fast computers, the development of the microscopic theories are expected to get a new direction. (author). 36 refs
Phonon hydrodynamics in two-dimensional materials
Cepellotti, Andrea; Fugallo, Giorgia; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Michele; Mauri, Francesco; Marzari, Nicola
2015-03-01
The conduction of heat in two dimensions displays a wealth of fascinating phenomena of key relevance to the scientific understanding and technological applications of graphene and related materials. Here, we use density-functional perturbation theory and an exact, variational solution of the Boltzmann transport equation to study fully from first-principles phonon transport and heat conductivity in graphene, boron nitride, molybdenum disulphide and the functionalized derivatives graphane and fluorographene. In all these materials, and at variance with typical three-dimensional solids, normal processes keep dominating over Umklapp scattering well-above cryogenic conditions, extending to room temperature and more. As a result, novel regimes emerge, with Poiseuille and Ziman hydrodynamics, hitherto typically confined to ultra-low temperatures, characterizing transport at ordinary conditions. Most remarkably, several of these two-dimensional materials admit wave-like heat diffusion, with second sound present at room temperature and above in graphene, boron nitride and graphane.
Acoustic phonon emission by two dimensional plasmons
Acoustic wave emission of the two dimensional plasmons in a semiconductor or superconductor microstructure is investigated by using the phenomenological deformation potential within the jellium model. The plasmons are excited by the external electromagnetic (e.m.) field. The power conversion coefficient of e.m. energy into acoustic wave energy is also estimated. It is shown, the coherent transformation has a sharp resonance at the plasmon frequency of the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The incoherent transformation of the e.m. energy is generated by ohmic dissipation of 2DEG. The method proposed for coherent phonon beam generation can be very effective for high mobility 2DEG and for thin superconducting layers if the plasmon frequency ω is smaller than the superconducting gap 2Δ. (author). 21 refs, 1 fig
Filamentation in conventional double heterostructure and quantum well semiconductor lasers
A wave-optical model is used to investigate filamentation of the optical field is conventional double heterostructure and quantum well semiconductor lasers. The field is propagated by the Crank-Nicholson method, and the gain is based on a semiclassical laser theory that contains the effects of cross relaxation due to electron-electron and electron-phonon collisions. The authors' model predicts that for broad-area devices, quantum well lasers are less affected by filamentation than conventional double heterostructure lasers
Variable-Range Hopping through Marginally Localized Phonons
Banerjee, Sumilan; Altman, Ehud
2016-03-01
We investigate the effect of coupling Anderson localized particles in one dimension to a system of marginally localized phonons having a symmetry protected delocalized mode at zero frequency. This situation is naturally realized for electrons coupled to phonons in a disordered nanowire as well as for ultracold fermions coupled to phonons of a superfluid in a one-dimensional disordered trap. To determine if the coupled system can be many-body localized we analyze the phonon-mediated hopping transport for both the weak and strong coupling regimes. We show that the usual variable-range hopping mechanism involving a low-order phonon process is ineffective at low temperature due to discreteness of the bath at the required energy. Instead, the system thermalizes through a many-body process involving exchange of a diverging number n ∝-log T of phonons in the low temperature limit. This effect leads to a highly singular prefactor to Mott's well-known formula and strongly suppresses the variable range hopping rate. Finally, we comment on possible implications of this physics in higher dimensional electron-phonon coupled systems.
Geometrical tuning of thermal phonon spectrum in nanoribbons
Ramiere, Aymeric; Volz, Sebastian; Amrit, Jay
2016-03-01
Phonon spectral energy transmission in silicon nanoribbons is investigated using Monte-Carlo simulations in the boundary scattering regime by changing the length and width geometrical parameters. We show that the transition frequency from specular scattering to diffuse scattering is inversely proportional to the edge roughness σ with a geometry independent factor of proportionality. The increase of the length over width ratio \\zeta leads to a decrease of the energy transmission in the diffuse scattering regime which evolves as {{≤ft(1+{{\\zeta}0.59}\\right)}-1} . This trend is explained by developing a model of phonon energy transmission in the fully diffuse scattering regime which takes into account the probability for a diffusively scattered phonon to be directly transmitted from any position on the edge of the nanoribbon. This model establishes the importance of the solid angles in the energy transmission evolution with \\zeta . The transition from unity energy transmission in the specular scattering regime to reduced transmission in the diffuse scattering regime constitutes a low-pass frequency filter for phonons. Our simulations show an energy rejection rate better than 90% for high \\zeta , which paves the way for potential high performance filters. Filtering out high frequency phonons is of significant interest for phononic crystal applications, which use band engineering of phonons in the wave regime with low frequencies.
Experimental studies of electron-phonon interactions in gallium nitride
This thesis presents an experimental investigation of the electron-phonon interaction in GaN. Bulk epilayers, grown by MBE, and AIGaN/GaN heterostructure grown by MOCVD, have been studied. The energy relaxation rate for hot electrons has been measured over a wide range of temperatures, allowing both acoustic and optic phonon emission to be studied in GaN epilayers. Direct phonon measurements, both studying the emission and absorption processes, have been performed. Detection of phonons emitted when hot electrons relax their excess energy complements the measurements of relaxation rates. Absorption of acoustic phonons by the epilayers, using both fixed and extended metal film phonon sources, allowed investigation into the effectiveness of the 2kF cutoff in the low mobility layers. The experimental findings are compared with the predictions of theory. AIGaN/GaN heterostructures were characterised and measurements of the energy relaxation rate in the temperature range 4K-40K obtained. Excellent agreement with theory is observed. A preliminary study of phonon absorption by the 2DEG system is presented, which allowed experimental determination of the 'thickness' of the 2DEG and demonstrated the applicability of the technique in the study of low dimensional systems. (author)
Cross-plane phonon transport properties of molybdenum disulphide
Wei, Zhiyong; Liu, Biao; Liu, Chenhan; Bi, Kedong; Yang, Juekuan; Chen, Yunfei
2015-11-01
The cross-plane thermal conductivity of a molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) film is calculated from the nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that, unlike graphite which has a slow convergent speed, the thermal conductivity of MoS2 tends to a convergent value when the film thickness is beyond about 40?nm. We also construct the cross-plane thermal conductivity of bulk MoS2 as an accumulation function of the phonon mean free path (MFP). It is found that phonons with MFPs below 40?nm contribute ~90% of the MoS2 cross-plane thermal conductivity at room temperature. This critical size of the phonon MFP is about two orders of magnitude smaller than that of graphite. Further calculations show that the shorter cross-plane phonon MFPs in bulk MoS2 may result from the lower phonon cut-off frequency and the mismatch of phonon density of state between Mo and S due to the mass difference. The phonon transport properties obtained would be helpful in the design and optimization of MoS2-based devices.
Phonon self-energy in superconductors: Effect of vibrating impurities
Sergeev, A.; Preis, Ch.; Keller, J.
2000-09-01
The phonon self-energy due to the interaction with electrons is studied for superconductors with s- and d-wave pairing. Addition of impurities not only changes the electronic states, but it also generates a channel of the electron-phonon interaction due to electron scattering from vibrating impurities. Impurity-induced electron-phonon coupling results in significant modifications of the phonon self-energy. For a d-wave superconductor the phonon attenuation coefficient (the imaginary part of the phonon self-energy) has been calculated in the Born approximation and in the unitary limit for electron-impurity scattering. In the case of weak electron-impurity potential, the attenuation decreases if temperature reduces below Tc, while an increase of the attenuation in the superconducting state has been found in the unitary limit. The theory shows a good agreement with measured disorder-dependent coupling of the B1g phonon mode to superconducting electrons in high-Tc samples: the Born approximation well describes temperature dependence of the attenuation in YBaCuO single crystals, the unitary limit corresponds to polycrystals and twinned crystals.
Self-consistent description of a system of interacting phonons
Poluektov, Yu. M.
2015-11-01
A proposal for a method of self-consistent description of phonon systems. This method generalizes the Debye model to account for phonon-phonon interaction. The idea of "self-consistent" phonons is introduced; their speed depends on the temperature and is determined by solving a non-linear equation. The Debye energy is also a function of the temperature within the framework of the proposed approach. The thermodynamics of "self-consistent" phonon gas are built. It is shown that at low temperatures the cubic law temperature dependence of specific heat acquires an additional term that is proportional to the seventh power of the temperature. This seems to explain the reason why the cubic law for specific heat is observed only at relatively low temperatures. At high temperatures, the theory predicts a linear deviation with respect to temperature from the Dulong-Petit law, which is observed experimentally. A modification to the melting criteria is considered, to account for the phonon-phonon interaction.
Ab initio calculation of the thermodynamic properties of InSb under intense laser irradiation
In this paper, phonon spectra of InSb at different electronic temperatures are presented. Based on the phonon dispersion relationship, we further perform a theoretical investigation of the thermodynamic properties of InSb under intense laser irradiation. The phonon entropy, phonon heat capacity, and phonon contribution to Helmholtz free energy and internal energy of InSb are calculated as functions of temperature at different electronic temperatures. The abrupt change in the phonon entropy- temperature curve from Te = 0.75 to 1.0 eV provides an indication of InSb undergoing a phase transition from solid to liquid. It can be considered as a collateral evidence of non-thermal melting for InSb under intense electronic excitation effect
Ab initio calculation of the thermodynamic properties of InSb under intense laser irradiation
Feng, ShiQuan; Cheng, XinLu [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Zhao, JianLing [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhang, Hong [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)
2013-07-28
In this paper, phonon spectra of InSb at different electronic temperatures are presented. Based on the phonon dispersion relationship, we further perform a theoretical investigation of the thermodynamic properties of InSb under intense laser irradiation. The phonon entropy, phonon heat capacity, and phonon contribution to Helmholtz free energy and internal energy of InSb are calculated as functions of temperature at different electronic temperatures. The abrupt change in the phonon entropy- temperature curve from T{sub e} = 0.75 to 1.0 eV provides an indication of InSb undergoing a phase transition from solid to liquid. It can be considered as a collateral evidence of non-thermal melting for InSb under intense electronic excitation effect.
On the electron-phonon interactions in graphene
Full text: In the continuum limit, the electron-phonon interactions in pristine graphene are studied analytically by considering chiral nature of the band structure. In this talk, we only take into account the influence of electron-in-plane degenerate optical phonon phonon modes [1-4] near the zone center . We also consider the electron-optical phonons of A1g symmetry near the zone boundary K ( K' ) points [5]. Interactions of electrons with out of plane phonon modes are not considered. We investigate that, within the framework of Lee-Low-Pines theory, coupling of electrons to A1g phonon induces a gap without breaking chiral symmetry, while the coupling of electrons to doubly degenerate E2g phonons modifies the Fermi velocity. Our results are agree with the relevant literature especially, with recent findings in Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) spectra [6] on graphene. The method we developed in this work can easily be generalized to the calculation of phonon induced electron-hole, electron-electron interactions, and to the interactions of electrons with out of plane phonon modes of graphene. (authors) References: [1] D. M. Basko, Phys. Rev. B 78, 125418 (2008) [2] M. Lazzeri, C. Attaccalite, L. Wirtz, and F. Mauri, Phys. Rev. B 78, 081406 (R) (2008) [3] Tsuneya Ando, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 75, 084713 (2006) [4] Kohta Ishikawa and Tsuneya Ando, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 75, 14701 (2006) [5] Hidekatsu Suzuura and Tsuneya Ando, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77, 044703 (2008) [6] Matteo Calandra and Francesco Mauri, Phys. Rev. B 76, 205411 (2007)
The spectrum of laser-generated acoustic phonons in indium antimonide coated with a thin nickel film has been studied using time-resolved x-ray diffraction. Strain pulses that can be considered to be built up from coherent phonons were generated in the nickel film by absorption of short laser pulses. Acoustic reflections at the Ni–InSb interface leads to interference that strongly modifies the resulting phonon spectrum. The study was performed with high momentum transfer resolution together with high time resolution. This was achieved by using a third-generation synchrotron radiation source that provided a high-brightness beam and an ultrafast x-ray streak camera to obtain a temporal resolution of 10 ps. We also carried out simulations, using commercial finite element software packages and on-line dynamic diffraction tools. Using these tools, it is possible to calculate the time-resolved x-ray reflectivity from these complicated strain shapes. The acoustic pulses have a peak strain amplitude close to 1%, and we investigated the possibility to use this device as an x-ray switch. At a bright source optimized for hard x-ray generation, the low reflectivity may be an acceptable trade-off to obtain a pulse duration that is more than an order of magnitude shorter
Persson, A. I. H.; Enquist, H.; Jurgilaitis, A.; Andreasson, B. P.; Larsson, J.
2015-11-01
The spectrum of laser-generated acoustic phonons in indium antimonide coated with a thin nickel film has been studied using time-resolved x-ray diffraction. Strain pulses that can be considered to be built up from coherent phonons were generated in the nickel film by absorption of short laser pulses. Acoustic reflections at the Ni-InSb interface leads to interference that strongly modifies the resulting phonon spectrum. The study was performed with high momentum transfer resolution together with high time resolution. This was achieved by using a third-generation synchrotron radiation source that provided a high-brightness beam and an ultrafast x-ray streak camera to obtain a temporal resolution of 10 ps. We also carried out simulations, using commercial finite element software packages and on-line dynamic diffraction tools. Using these tools, it is possible to calculate the time-resolved x-ray reflectivity from these complicated strain shapes. The acoustic pulses have a peak strain amplitude close to 1%, and we investigated the possibility to use this device as an x-ray switch. At a bright source optimized for hard x-ray generation, the low reflectivity may be an acceptable trade-off to obtain a pulse duration that is more than an order of magnitude shorter.
Hofmeister, Anne M.; Dong, Jianjun; Branlund, Joy M.
2014-04-01
We show that laser-flash analysis measurements of the temperature (T) dependence of thermal diffusivity (D) for diverse non-metallic (e.g., silicates) single-crystals is consistently represented by D(T) = FT-G + HT above 298 K, with G ranging from 0.3 to 2, depending on structure, and H being 10-4 K-1 for 51 single-crystals, 3 polycrystals, and two glasses unaffected by disorder or reconstructive phase transitions. Materials exhibiting this behavior include complex silicates with variable amounts of cation disorder, perovskite structured materials, and graphite. The high-temperature term HT becomes important by 1300 K, above which temperature its contribution to D(T) exceeds that of the FT-G term. The combination of the FT-G and HT terms produces the nearly temperature independent high-temperature region of D previously interpreted as the minimal phonon mean free path being limited by the finite interatomic spacing. Based on the simplicity of the fit and large number of materials it represents, this finding has repercussions for high-temperature models of heat transport. One explanation is that the two terms describing D(T) are associated with two distinct microscopic mechanisms; here, we explore the possibility that the thermal diffusivity of an electrical insulator could include both a contribution of lattice phonons (the FT-G term) and a contribution of diffusive bulk phonon-polaritons (BPP) at infrared (IR) frequencies (the HT term). The proposed BPP diffusion exists over length scales smaller than the laboratory sample sizes, and transfers mixed light and vibrational energy at a speed significantly smaller than the speed of light. Our diffusive IR-BPP hypothesis is consistent with other experimental observations such as polarization behavior, dependence of D on the number of IR peaks, and H = 0 for Ge and Si, which lack IR fundamentals. A simple quasi-particle thermal diffusion model is presented to begin understanding the contribution from bulk phonon-polaritons to overall heat conduction.
Isotopic effects on the phonon modes in boron carbide.
Werheit, H; Kuhlmann, U; Rotter, H W; Shalamberidze, S O
2010-10-01
The effect of isotopes ((10)B-(11)B; (12)C-(13)C) on the infrared- and Raman-active phonons of boron carbide has been investigated. For B isotopes, the contributions of the virtual crystal approximation, polarization vector and isotopical disorder are separated. Boron and carbon isotope effects are largely opposite to one another and indicate the share of the particular atoms in the atomic assemblies vibrating in specific phonon modes. Some infrared-active phonons behave as expected for monatomic boron crystals. PMID:21403227
Interface Phonons and Polaron Effect in Quantum Wires
Maslov A
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract The theory of large radius polaron in the quantum wire is developed. The interaction of charge particles with interface optical phonons as well as with optical phonons localized in the quantum wire is taken into account. The interface phonon contribution is shown to be dominant for narrow quantum wires. The wave functions and polaron binding energy are found. It is determined that polaron binding energy depends on the electron mass inside the wire and on the polarization properties of the barrier material.
Phonons and solid-state qubits for quantum technology
Soykal, Ö. O.; Ruskov, Rusko; Tahan, Charles
2011-03-01
Phonons in the context of quantum information processing are traditionally negatives. They induce relaxation or decoherence of or between qubit states. Learning to control phonons for positive purposes, both as supporting technology for quantum information processing, and for other quantum devices is of great possible interest. Already, acoustic waves are used as a supporting technology in microelectronics and optoelectronics (e.g. their slow speed can be useful in certain contexts). Here we consider some methods for making phonons useful and describe the physics of such systems in several potential solid-state systems including silicon. Our results may also be of interest to the optomechanics community.
Charge order and phonon renormalizations: Possible implications for cobaltates
Bejas, M.; Greco, A.; Foussats, A.
2006-01-01
Several experimental and theoretical studies in cobaltates suggest the proximity of the system to charge ordering (CO). We show, qualitatively, in the frame of a $t-V$ model coupled to phonons that optical phonon modes at the $K$ and $M$ points of the Brillouin zone, which involves only $O$-ions displacement around a $Co$-ion, are good candidates to display anomalies due to the CO proximity. If by increasing of $H_2O$ content the system is pushed closer to CO, the mentioned phonon modes shoul...
Non-equilibrium phonon generation and detection in microstructure devices
Hertzberg, J. B.
2011-01-01
We demonstrate a method to excite locally a controllable, non-thermal distribution of acoustic phonon modes ranging from 0 to ∼200 GHz in a silicon microstructure, by decay of excited quasiparticle states in an attached superconducting tunnel junction (STJ). The phonons transiting the structure ballistically are detected by a second STJ, allowing comparison of direct with indirect transport pathways. This method may be applied to study how different phonon modes contribute to the thermal conductivity of nanostructures. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
Deterministic Single-Phonon Source Triggered by a Single Photon
Söllner, Immo; Lodahl, Peter
2016-01-01
We propose a scheme that enables the deterministic generation of single phonons at GHz frequencies triggered by single photons in the near infrared. This process is mediated by a quantum dot embedded on-chip in an opto-mechanical circuit, which allows for the simultaneous control of the relevant photonic and phononic frequencies. We devise new opto-mechanical circuit elements that constitute the necessary building blocks for the proposed scheme and are readily implementable within the current state-of-the-art of nano-fabrication. This will open new avenues for implementing quantum functionalities based on phonons as an on-chip quantum bus.
Confined and interface phonons in combined cylindrical nanoheterosystem
O.M.Makhanets
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The spectra of all types of phonons existing in a complicated combined nanoheterosystem consisting of three cylindrical quantum dots embedded into the cylindrical quantum wire placed into vacuum are studied within the dielectric continuum model. It is shown that there are confined optical (LO and interface phonons of two types: top surface optical (TSO and side surface optical (SSO modes of vibration in such a nanosystem. The dependences of phonon energies on the quasiwave numbers and geometrical parameters of quantum dots are investigated and analysed.
Effect of Anharmonicity on the Phonon Spectrum near its Discontinuity
The method based on Green's function is used in investigating the effect of anharmonicity on the phonon spectrum near its discontinuity. In contrast to the usual case, the effect that phonon branches, which are independent in the harmonic approximation, have on one another requires the solution of the Dyson system of equations. The authors consider cases of significant and irregular discontinuity and show that for irregular discontinuity the excitations which arise can have a widely varying lifetime and frequency renormalization with respect to both value and temperature dependence. In particular, the one-phonon coherent neutron scattering cross section near the spectrum discontinuity is analysed. (author)
The lower branch of plasmon-phonon coupled modes
Fischler, W.; Bratschitsch, R.; Höpfel, R. A.; Zandler, G.; Strasser, G.; Unterrainer, K.
2000-08-01
Coherent plasmon-phonon coupled modes in intrinsic bulk GaAs are investigated for excitation energies around the band gap. The frequencies of the coherent terahertz plasmons lie on the lower branch of the plasmon-phonon coupled modes. Their damping times show a strong increase for high excitation densities. Taking advantage of strong absorption saturation during the excitation process, one can adjust the degree of coupling between coherent LO phonons and plasmons by tuning the excitation energy by a few millielectronvolts. Ensemble Monte Carlo simulations confirm the existence of an oscillatory built-in electric field after optical excitation of electron-hole pairs.
Phonons: the second type of quantum excitations discovered
After the discovery of the quantum nature of the electromagnetic radiation by Planck in 1900, the concept of photons was introduced by Einstein in 1905. In 1907 Einstein also introduced quantized lattice vibrations (today called phonons) in order to explain the temperature dependence of the specific heat of crystals. In recent years, the availability of isotopically pure elements has facilitated the growth of crystals with variable isotopic concentration. With these crystals, several quantum effects concerning the zero-point vibrational amplitudes of phonons have been investigated. Among them we discuss here the anharmonic renormalization of phonon lineshapes. (orig.)
Heat Transfer by Phonons in Landauer-Datta-Lundstrom Approach
Kruglyak Yu.A.
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The Landauer-Datta-Lundstrom generalized transport model is applied to heat transfer by phonons. In both cases of electrons and phonons the Landauer approach generalized and extended by Datta and Lundstom gives correct quantitative description of transport processes for resistors of any dimension and size in ballistic, quasi-ballistic, and diffusive linear response regimes when there are differences in both voltage and temperature across the device. It is shown that the lattice thermal conductivity can be written in a form that is very similar to the electrical conductivity. Important differences between electrons and phonons are discussed.
Influence of pulse width and detuning on coherent phonon generation
Nakamura, Kazutaka G.; Shikano, Yutaka; Kayanuma, Yosuke
2015-10-01
We investigated the coherent phonon generation mechanism by irradiation of an ultrashort pulse with a simple two-level model. Our derived formulation shows that both impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) and impulsive absorption (IA) simultaneously occur, and phonon wave packets are generated in the electronic ground and excited states by ISRS and IA, respectively. We identify the dominant process from the amplitude of the phonon oscillation. For short pulse widths, ISRS is very small and becomes larger as the pulse width increases. We also show that the initial phase is dependent on the pulse width and the detuning.
Decoherence in semiconductor cavity QED systems due to phonon couplings
Nielsen, Per Kær; Mørk, Jesper
2014-01-01
We investigate the effect of electron-phonon interactions on the coherence properties of single photons emitted from a semiconductor cavity QED (quantum electrodynamics) system, i.e., a quantum dot embedded in an optical cavity. The degree of indistinguishability, governing the quantum mechanical...... interference between two single photons, is calculated as a function of important parameters describing the cavity QED system and the phonon reservoir, e.g., cavity quality factor, light-matter coupling strength, temperature, and phonon lifetime. We show that non-Markovian effects play an important role in...
Proposal for an optomechanical traveling wave phonon-photon translator
Safavi-Naeini, Amir H.; Painter, Oskar
2011-01-01
In this paper, we describe a general optomechanical system for converting photons to phonons in an efficient and reversible manner. We analyze classically and quantum mechanically the conversion process and proceed to a more concrete description of a phonon-photon translator (PPT) formed from coupled photonic and phononic crystal planar circuits. The application of the PPT to RF-microwave photonics and circuit QED, including proposals utilizing this system for optical wavelength conversion, long-lived quantum memory and state transfer from optical to superconducting qubits, is considered.
Proposal for an optomechanical traveling wave phonon-photon translator
In this paper, we describe a general optomechanical system for converting photons to phonons in an efficient and reversible manner. We analyze classically and quantum mechanically the conversion process and proceed to a more concrete description of a phonon-photon translator (PPT) formed from coupled photonic and phononic crystal planar circuits. The application of the PPT to RF-microwave photonics and circuit QED, including proposals utilizing this system for optical wavelength conversion, long-lived quantum memory and state transfer from optical to superconducting qubits, is considered.
Phonon-polaritons by two-photon absorption in solids
A semiclassical theory of the two-photon absorption to phonon polaritons in solids is developed. A 4-band model has been introduced for the phonon-assisted two-photon electronic transitions to polariton states. A numerical calculation is performed for GaP. The results show three different absorption peaks. The first peak, at low energy, corresponds to the phonon polariton band due to transitions through the indirect gap. The other two peaks are associated with transitions across the two lowest gaps of GaP. (author)
The effects of electron-phonon interactions on bandgaps
Hague, J P, E-mail: J.P.Hague@open.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)
2011-03-01
I compute the spectral functions of a 1D Holstein polaron moving in a modulated potential, to examine the effects of electron-phonon interactions on band gaps. The imaginary time Green function is computed using diagrammatic quantum Monte Carlo, which exactly sums the diagrammatic series. From the imaginary time Green function, spectral functions are computed. The electron-phonon interaction flattens the electronic dispersion and leads to an increase in the gap at momentum k = {pi}/2. At strong coupling, polaron sidebands form in the gap. These results demonstrate the strong effect that electron-phonon interactions can have on band gaps.
Electron-phonon heat exchange in layered nano-systems
Anghel, Dragos-Victor; Cojocaru, Sergiu
2015-01-01
We analyze the heat power $P$ between electrons and phonons in thin metallic films deposited on free-standing dielectric membranes in a temperature range in which the phonon gas has a quasi two-dimensional distribution. The quantization of the electrons wavenumbers in the direction perpendicular to the film surfaces lead to the formation of quasi two-dimensional electronic sub-bands. The electron-phonon coupling is treated in the deformation potential model and, if we denote by $T_e$ the elec...
The effects of electron-phonon interactions on bandgaps
I compute the spectral functions of a 1D Holstein polaron moving in a modulated potential, to examine the effects of electron-phonon interactions on band gaps. The imaginary time Green function is computed using diagrammatic quantum Monte Carlo, which exactly sums the diagrammatic series. From the imaginary time Green function, spectral functions are computed. The electron-phonon interaction flattens the electronic dispersion and leads to an increase in the gap at momentum k = π/2. At strong coupling, polaron sidebands form in the gap. These results demonstrate the strong effect that electron-phonon interactions can have on band gaps.
Phonon dynamics of orientationally disordered material - RbCN
An extended three-body force shell model (ETSM) has been developed for the prediction of phonon dynamics of orientatioanally disordered material - RbCN by incorporating the effects of the coupling of translational modes and orientations of cyanide molecules in the framework of TSM. ETSM, has been applied for the first time, for a successful description of the phonon dispersion curves of RbCN along the symmetry directions. The agreement between experimental and present theoretical results is resonably good. This ETSM has a promise to reveal the phonon dynamics and associated properties of other orientationally disordered materials. (author). 18 refs
Atomic resolution imaging using electron energy-loss phonon spectroscopy
Lugg, N. R.; Forbes, B. D.; Findlay, S. D.; Allen, L. J.
2015-04-01
Recent developments have improved the attainable energy resolution in electron energy-loss spectroscopy in aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy to the order of 10 meV. In principle, this allows spectroscopy and imaging of crystals using the phonon sector of the energy-loss spectrum at atomic resolution, a supposition supported by recent simulations for molecules. Here we show that the "quantum excitation of phonons" model encapsulates the physics necessary to simulate the atomic resolution imaging of crystals based on phonon excitation and we explore the predictions of such simulations.
Phonon Quasidiffusion in Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Large Germanium Detectors
Leman, S W; McCarthy, K A; Pyle, M; Resch, R; Sadoulet, B; Sundqvist, K M; Brink, P L; Cherry, M; Silva, E Do Couto E; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Mirabolfathi, N; Serfass, B; Tomada, A
2011-01-01
We present results on quasidiffusion studies in large, 3 inch diameter, 1 inch thick [100] high purity germanium crystals, cooled to 50 mK in the vacuum of a dilution refrigerator, and exposed with 59.5 keV gamma-rays from an Am-241 calibration source. We compare data obtained in two different detector types, with different phonon sensor area coverage, with results from a Monte Carlo. The Monte Carlo includes phonon quasidiffusion and the generation of phonons created by charge carriers as they are drifted across the detector by ionization readout channels.
Magnetic-Field-Assisted Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Operating up to 225 K
Wade, A.; Fedorov, G.; Smirnov, D.; Kumar, S.; Williams, B. S.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J. L.
2008-01-01
Advances in semiconductor bandgap engineering have resulted in the recent development of the terahertz quantum cascade laser1. These compact optoelectronic devices now operate in the frequency range 1.2-5 THz, although cryogenic cooling is still required2.3. Further progress towards the realization of devices operating at higher temperatures and emitting at longer wavelengths (sub-terahertz quantum cascade lasers) is difficult because it requires maintaining a population inversion between closely spaced electronic sub-bands (1 THz approx. equals 4 meV). Here, we demonstrate a magnetic-field-assisted quantum cascade laser based on the resonant-phonon design. By applying appropriate electrical bias and strong magnetic fields above 16 T, it is possible to achieve laser emission from a single device over a wide range of frequencies (0.68-3.33 THz). Owing to the suppression of inter-landau-level non-radiative scattering, the device shows magnetic field assisted laser action at 1 THz at temperatures up to 215 K, and 3 THz lasing up to 225 K.
Active-region designs in quantum cascade lasers
This paper analyses the development of active-region designs in quantum cascade lasers. Active-region designs have been demonstrated to date that employ various radiative transitions (vertical, diagonal, interminiband and interband). The lower laser level is depopulated through nonradiative transitions, such as one- or two-phonon (and even three-phonon) relaxation or bound state → continuum transitions. Advances in active-region designs and energy diagram optimisation in the past few years have led to significant improvements in important characteristics of quantum cascade lasers, such as their output power, emission bandwidth, characteristic temperature and efficiency. (invited paper)
Kiyanitsa, Sergey N.; Bezrodny, Yury E.; Kononov, Sergey B.; Ivanova, Vita V.
2000-02-01
Laser equipment for the perforation of documents and securities is presented. This laser perforator (LP) differs by extended precision of perforation, high processing velocity, perfected automatic control. LP's operation is based on the preliminary theoretical and experimental research of laser irradiation and paper or/and organic tissue interaction. The results of CO2-laser irradiation action upon different materials and samples of documents allowed to determine system requirements to LP. Developed LP is destined for perforation of paper documents with jackets with total thickness from 0.5 to 4 mm. Processing document, LP makes more than 100 conical perforation holes that improve protection rate of document. LP guarantees perforation time less than 3 sec, document's blank positioning precision plus or minus 0.2 mm, laser beam positioning precision plus or minus 0.01 mm. Due to the system parameters optimization it became possible to eliminate a singeing of hole edge, that improved perforation quality. Developed LP consists of laser-module, technological module, laser cooling module and automatic control system. Laser module includes continuous Q-switched CO2-laser, scanner, power supply, controller, chopper. Technological module has X- Y-table, conveyer for blanks of documents, pneumatic block. Automatic control system, which includes two video cameras, illuminators, controller, PC, gives a possibility to control holes disposition in a matrix and to identify perforated number.
Quasiparticle--phonon model of the nucleus. V. Odd spherical nuclei
Vdovin, A.I.; Voronov, V.V.; Solov' ev, V.G.; Stoyanov, C.
1985-03-01
The formalism of the quasiparticle--phonon model of the nucleus for odd spherical nuclei is presented. The exact commutation relations of the quasiparticle and phonon operators together with the anharmonic corrections for the phonon excitations are taken into account in the derivation of equations for the energies and structure coefficients of the wave functions of excited states, which include quasiparticle--phonon and quasiparticle--two-phonon components. The influence of various physical effects and of the dimension of the phonon basis on the fragmentation of the single-quasiparticle and quasiparticle-phonon states is investigated.
Chiral Phonons at High-Symmetry Points in Monolayer Hexagonal Lattices
Zhang, Lifa; Niu, Qian
2015-09-01
In monolayer hexagonal lattices, the intravalley and intervalley scattering of electrons can involve chiral phonons at Brillouin-zone center and corners, respectively. At these high-symmetry points, there is a threefold rotational symmetry endowing phonon eigenmodes with a quantized pseudoangular momentum, which includes orbital and spin parts. Conservation of pseudoangular momentum yields selection rules for intravalley and intervalley scattering of electrons by phonons. Concrete predictions of helicity-resolved optical phenomena are made on monolayer molybdenum disulfide. The chiral phonons at Brillouin-zone corners excited by polarized photons can be detected by a valley phonon Hall effect. The chiral phonons, together with phonon circular polarization, phonon pseudoangular momentum, selection rules, and valley phonon Hall effect will extend the basis for valley-based electronics and phononics applications in the future.
B Ojha; P Nayak; S N Behera
2000-02-01
The electron–phonon interaction in the periodic Anderson model (PAM) is considered. The PAM incorporates the effect of onsite Coulomb interaction () between -electrons. The inﬂuence of Coulomb correlation on the phonon response of the system is studied by evaluating the phonon spectral function for various parameters of the model. The numerical evaluation of the spectral function is carried out in the long wavelength limit at ﬁnite temperatures keeping only linear terms in . The observed behaviour is found to agree well with the general features obtained experimentally for some heavy fermion (HF) systems.
Phonon Dynamics and Inelastic Neutron Scattering of Sodium Niobate
Mishra, S K; Mittal, R; Zbiri, M; Rols, S; Schober, H; Chaplot, S L
2013-01-01
Sodium niobate (NaNbO3) exhibits most complex sequence of structural phase transitions in perovskite family and therefore provides as excellent model system for understanding the mechanism of structural phase transitions. We report temperature dependence of inelastic neutron scattering measurements of phonon densities of states in sodium niobate. The measurements are carried out in various crystallographic phases of this material at various temperatures from 300 K to 1048 K. The phonon spectra exhibit peaks centered around 19, 37, 51, 70 and 105 meV. Interestingly, the peak around 70 meV shifts significantly towards lower energy with increasing temperature, while the other peaks do not exhibit an appreciable change. The phonon spectra at 783 K show prominent change and become more diffusive as compared to those at 303 K. In order to better analyze these features, we have performed first principles lattice dynamics calculations based on the density functional theory. The computed phonon density of states is fo...
Phonon effect on two coupled quantum dots at finite temperature
The quantum oscillations of population in an asymmetric double quantum dots system coupled to a phonon bath are investigated theoretically. It is shown how the environmental temperature has effect on the system
Influence of mass contrast in alloy phonon scattering
Shiga, Takuma; Shiomi, Junichiro
2015-01-01
We have investigated the effect of mass contrast on alloy phonon scattering in mass-substituted Lennard-Jones crystals. By calculating the mass-difference phonon scattering rate using a modal analysis method based on molecular dynamics, we have identified the applicability and limits of the widely-used mass-difference perturbation model in terms of magnitude and sign of the mass difference. The result of a phonon -mode-dependent analysis reveals that the critical phonon frequency, above which the mass-difference perturbation theory fails, decreases with the magnitude of the mass difference independently of its sign. This gives rise to a critical mass contrast, above which the mass-difference perturbation model noticeably underestimates the lattice thermal conductivity.
Phonon transport in single-layer Boron nanoribbons
Zhang, Zhongwei; Peng, Qing; Chen, Yuanping
2016-01-01
Inspired by the successful synthesis of several allotropes, boron sheets have been one of the hottest spot areas of focus in various fields. Here, we study phonon transport in three types of boron nanoribbons with zigzag and armchair edges by using a non-equilibrium Green's function combined with first principles methods. Diverse transport properties are found in the nanoribbons. At the room temperature, their highest thermal conductance can be comparable with that of graphene, while the lowest thermal conductance is less than half of graphene's. The three boron sheets exhibit different anisotropic transport characteristics. Two of these sheets have stronger phonon transport abilities along the zigzag edges than the armchair edges, while in the case of the third, the results are reversed. With the analysis of phonon dispersion, bonding charge density, and simplified models of atomic chains, the mechanisms of the diverse phonon properties are discussed. Because all boron allotropes consists of hexagonal and tr...
Effect of pressure on the phonon properties of europium chalcogenides
U K Sakalle; P K Jha; S P Sanyal
2000-06-01
Lattice vibrational properties of europium chalcogenides have been investigated at high pressure by using a simple lattice dynamical model theory viz. the three-body force rigid ion model (TRIM) which includes long range three-body interaction arising due to charge transfer effects. The dispersion curves for the four Eu-chalcogenides agree reasonably well with the available experimental data. Variation of LO, TO, LA and TA phonons with pressure have also been studied at the symmetry points of the brillouin zone (BZ) for Euchalcogenides for the first time by using a lattice dynamical model theory. We have also calculated the one phonon density of states and compared them with the first order Raman scattering results. The calculation of one phonon density of states for Eu-chalcogenides has also been extended up to the phase transition pressure. We observed a pronounced shift in phonon spectrum as pressure is increased.
Effect of pressure on the phonon properties of europium chalcogenides
Lattice vibrational properties of europium chalcogenides have been investigated at high pressure by using a simple lattice dynamical model theory viz. the three-body force rigid ion model (TRIM) which includes long range three-body interaction arising due to charge transfer effects. The dispersion curves for the four Eu-chalcogenides agree reasonably well with the available experimental data. Variation of LO, TO, LA and TA phonons with pressure have also been studied at the symmetry points of the Brillouin zone (BZ) for Eu-chalcogenides for the first time by using a lattice dynamical model theory. We have also calculated the one phonon density of states and compared them with the first order Raman scattering results. The calculation of one phonon density of states for Eu-chalcogenides has also been extended up to the phase transition pressure. We observed a pronounced shift in phonon spectrum as pressure is increased. (author)
Moire-induced replica of graphene phonons on Ir(111)
The phonon dispersion of singly oriented graphene on Ir(111) has been determined by angle-resolved inelastic electron scattering. Replica of graphene phonon bands are induced by the moire superstructure. Calculations for a linear chain of C atoms attached to an infinitely heavy substrate reveal that imposing a superstructure by periodically varying the C-C interaction and the C-substrate coupling induces replicated phonons at wave vectors reflecting the supercell periodicity. Deviations between the phonon dispersion of graphene on Ir(111) and of pristine graphene are analyzed and rationalized in terms of the weak graphene-Ir(111) interaction. (copyright 2014 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Moire-induced replica of graphene phonons on Ir(111)
Endlich, Michael; Kroeger, Joerg [Institut fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau (Germany); Miranda, Henrique P.C.; Molina-Sanchez, Alejandro [Physics and Materials Science Research Unit, University of Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Wirtz, Ludger [Physics and Materials Science Research Unit, University of Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Institute for Electronics, Microelectronics, and Nanotechnology (IEMN), CNRS UMR 8520, Dept. ISEN, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)
2014-10-15
The phonon dispersion of singly oriented graphene on Ir(111) has been determined by angle-resolved inelastic electron scattering. Replica of graphene phonon bands are induced by the moire superstructure. Calculations for a linear chain of C atoms attached to an infinitely heavy substrate reveal that imposing a superstructure by periodically varying the C-C interaction and the C-substrate coupling induces replicated phonons at wave vectors reflecting the supercell periodicity. Deviations between the phonon dispersion of graphene on Ir(111) and of pristine graphene are analyzed and rationalized in terms of the weak graphene-Ir(111) interaction. (copyright 2014 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Electron-phonon coupling in layered FeSe compounds
Bazhirov, Timur; Cohen, Marvin L.
2012-02-01
Iron-chalcogenide superconductors, showing many characteristic physical properties, can serve as a model materials to study the electron-pairing mechanism for all iron-based superconductivity. Layered iron-chalcogenide systems including single layer FeSe, bulk FeSe, K-intercalated FeSe, were studied using first principle pseudopotential density functional based approach. Electronic structure, vibrational properties and electron-phonon coupling strength were studied for the cases with and without iron magnetic moment ordering. The latter is incorporated using local spin density approximation. Our results show significant changes to electronic structure resulting in much higher electron-phonon coupling for spin-resolved configurations. Electron-phonon matrix elements for particular phonon mode of A1g symmetry are showing dramatic increase. Superconducting transition temperature estimates based on McMillan's equation are showing values significantly higher then previously reported, but still not high enough to account for the experimental results.
Understanding phonon transport in thermoelectric materials using ab initio approaches
Broido, David
Good thermoelectric materials have low phonon thermal conductivity, kph. Accurate theories to describe kph are important components in developing predictive models of thermoelectric efficiency that can help guide synthesis and measurement efforts. We have developed ab initio approaches to calculate kph, in which phonon modes and phonon scattering rates are computed using interatomic force constants determined from density functional theory, and a full solution of the Boltzmann transport equation for phonons is implemented. A recent approach to calculate interatomic force constants using ab initio molecular dynamics has yielded a good description of the thermal properties of Bi2Te3. But, the complexity of new promising candidate thermoelectric materials introduces computational challenges in assessing their thermal properties. An example is germanane, a germanium based hydrogen-terminated layered semiconductor, which we will discuss in this talk.
Controlling electron-phonon scattering with metamaterial plasmonic structures
Kempa, Krzysztof; Wu, Xueyuan; Kong, Jiantao; Broido, David
Electron-plasmon scattering can be faster than electron-phonon scattering. While in metals plasmons occur in the UV range, phonons dominate behavior at much lower frequencies (far IR range), and this typically decouples these phenomena. In metamaterial plasmonic structures, however, plasma effects can be tuned down to the far IR range, allowing for their interference with phonons. It was recently shown, that such interference can protect hot electron energy induced in a solar cell, from dissipation into heat. In this work we explore the possibility of using such an effect to control the electron-phonon interaction and transport in semiconductors. We demonstrate, that this could lead to a novel path to enhancing the electrical and thermal conductivities and the thermoelectric figure of merit.